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Chapter 6: HVAC Systems

ENERGY SOURCES

Natural Gas
• Of all fossil fuels, most efficient, clean burning, low cost
• Heat value of 1050 BTU/ft3
• Propane: used in remote areas where natural. gas not available.
- Delivered in pressurized tanks
- Heating value of 2500BTU/ft3

Oil
• Cost and availability depend on world market
• Stored in or near building
• Equipment subject to more maintenance
• Produced in six grades:
- No. 1, No2, No3, No4, No5 (light, No5(heavy) and No6.
- Lower the number , the more refined and more expensive
- No2 = residential & light commercial boilers
- Heat value for No2: from 137,000 BTU/gal to 141,000BTU/gal
- Heat value for No5: from 146,800 BTU/gal to 152,000BTU/gal

Electricity
• Ideal for radiant heating in ceiling or panels, baseboard units or to operate electric furnaces for
forced air
• Heating Value of 3413 BTU/kW
• Advantages:
- easy to install
- low installation cost
- simple operation
- flexible in zoning
- Does not require storage facilities, exhaust flues or supply air
• Disadvantage:
- Cost

Steam
• Not considered a basic fuel as are gas and oil, but in many urban locations it is available from a
central plant or as by-product of the generation of electricity.
• Not used directly for heating but to heat water for water or air heating systems & drive absorption-
type water chillers for ACs

Heat Pumps
• Heat pump is a device that can either heat in winter or cool in summer. It works by transferring heat
from one place to another, using principles of refrigeration.
• Summer: heat pump acts as standard AC, pumping refrigerant to condenser where it loses heat and
then to evaporator indoors that absorbs heat
• Efficiency for heating decreases as outdoor air temp decreases. Below 40°F it is not competitive
with or gas
• Effective in mild climates
• To extend efficiency a heat pump can be connected to a solar energy system, which provides heat
when outdoor temp is between 47°F & 65°F. Below 47°F pump automatically turns on and provides
heat until temp becomes too cold for efficient use. Then both systems are used:
- The heat pump to preheat air
- Solar system to raise temp high enough for space heating
Natural Energy Sources
• Solar (passive & active) the only one developed extensively and is readily available and efficient
• Photovoltaic: Available but expensive. General use is limited
• Geothermal
• Wind
• Tidal

Selection of fuel Sources


• Degree Days: Approx. average yearly temp difference between outside and inside in a particular
location. Found by difference between indoor temp of 65°F and average outside temp for a 24hour
period.
- Example: if average is 36°F then number of degree-days is 65° – 36° = 29°.
• Values for each day of the year are added to get total number of degree-days for year.
• Used to calculate:
- Annual fuel consumption
- To size some passive solar energy systems
- Factor into other heating computations

ENERGY CONSERVATION
For fuel to be converted into useful form for distribution, additional energy such as electricity to operate fans,
motors. This applies to conventional fuels as well as natural energy sources such as solar.

Heat Generation Equipment


• Furnaces: burn gas or oil to heat air. Burns fuel inside combustion chamber around which air is
circulated by fan. Cool air from return air duct passes over combustion chamber and is heated for
distribution. Hot exhaust gases pass through flue vented to outside.
- Forced air furnaces
- Upflow furnace: return air is supplied at bottom of unit and heated air is delivered to
bonnet above the furnace where it is distributed thru ductwork
- Downflow furnace: operates in exactly opposite way where duct is located in
basement or crawl space and furnace is located on first floor
- Horizontal furnace: used where headroom is limited such as crawl space
• Boilers: burn gas or oil to heat water, some instances using steam and electricity as fuel. They
convert fuel to hot water or steam.
- Tubes containing water to be heated are situated in combustion chamber where heat exchange
takes place.
- Gases and other products of combustion are carried away thru breeching into the flue or
chimney
- No need for exhaust if electric

Principles of Refrigeration Cycle


• Refrigeration cycle or Compressive refrigeration: Transfer of heat during liquefaction and
evaporation of a refrigerant. As refrigerant in gaseous form is compressed it liquefies and releases
latent heat as it changes state. As the same liquid expands and vaporizes back to a gas it absorbs
latent heat from surrounding into the gas
- Evaporator: a heat exchanger that transfers heat to liquid freon causing it to evaporate into
gas
- Compressor: causes gas to increase in temp and to exit as a hot gas
- Condenser: (another heat exchanger) sheds heat to the outside and causes Freon to return
into a liquid state
- Expansion valve: relieves pressure produced by compressor and lowers temp of liquid so
Freon can absorb heat again when returns to evaporator
- Historically, Freon was used in compressive refrigeration. However, contains
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that contribute to depletion of ozone. New hydrofluorocarbons
(HFCs) are now used.
- Three basic components of compressive refrigeration:
- Compressor: takes refrigerant in a gaseous form and compresses it to a liquid that
then passes thru a…
- Condenser: where latent heat is released. Hottest part of refrigeration cycle. This
component is typically on outside of building where heat is released to outside air or
water. The refrigerant flows into the…
- Evaporator: where it expands. As it expands it vaporizes back into a gas. Vaporizing it
absorbs heat from surroundings and enters compressor as it is cycled thru again….
- Small cooling units the air is forced over the evaporator coils with a fan. Cool air is circulated
thru space.
- HOWEVER water is a more efficient medium to carry heat than air.
- Large units in large buildings water is pumped over evaporator coils to produce chilled water,
then pumped to remote cooing units where air is circulated over chilled water pipes.
- On condenser side water is used to extract heat from condenser pipes and carry it to
remote cooling towers.
- Heat pump is a result of reversing the cycle
• Refrigeration by absorption: produces chilled water by the loss of heat when water evaporates.
- Evaporation is produced in a closed system by a salt solution that draws water vapor from the
evaporator.
- As salt solution absorbs water it dilutes and must be regenerated by boiling off the water and
returning the strong salt solution to the absorber. This is done with steam but can be done
with high-temp water produced by solar collectors. The water boiled off in the generator is
returned to a liquid state in the condenser and then returned to the evaporator
- Both the condenser and absorber require condensing water, wiich removes the waste heat and
carries it to cooling towers.
- Absorption systems are less efficient than compressive systems and are

• Evaporative cooling: water is dropped over pads or fin tubes through which outdoor air or water is
circulated. As free water is evaporated heat is drawn from the air then distributed to the indoor
spaces.
- Uses latent heat of evaporation to transfer heat
- Only works in hot-arid climates
- More economical than refrigeration
- Only one motor instead of three
- Simpler in construction
- No refrigerant line
• Ton of refrigeration: capacity of a refrigeration system.
- Cooling effect obtained when 1 ton of 32°F ice melts at 32°F in 24 hours.
- Equivalent to 12,000BTU/hr
- Req’d capacity of a refrigeration machine can be determined by dividing the total heat gain in
BTU/hr by 12,000
- Example: heat gain for building is 108,000BTU/hr What size compressive refrigeration
machine should be specified?
- 108,000 ÷ 12,000 = 9 tons
• Coefficient of Performance (COP): ratio of energy delivered to energy used (sim to efficiency)
• Heating or cooling load: the rate at which heating or cooling needs to be removed or added into a
space to maintain a comfortable room temp

HVAC SYSTEMS

Direct Expansion (DX)


• Also known as incremental unit
• Self-contained unit that passes nonducted air over evaporator and back into room.
• Condenser used outdoor air directly
• Place in an exterior wall
• Smaller units with 1/3-ton too 2-ton capacities are adequate for individual rooms.
• Larger units greater than 2 ton capacity can serve several rooms in single zone
- Ventilation directly from outside.
- Can be through wall units, roof mounted or packaged

All-Air Systems: Residential & Small Commercial


• Cool or heat spaces by conditioned air alone.
• Heat is transported to space with supply and return air ducts.
• Constant volume single-duct system most basic type
- Residential and small commercial
- Air is heated (and cooled) in a central furnace and distributed throughout in ductwork at a
constant volume until it reaches thermostatic setting
- One centrally located thermostat controls operation
- Return air ducts collect cooler air and return it to furnace for heating
- Advantages:
- Simple and easy to operate
- Disadvantages:
- Cannot be zoned
- Only controlled at dampers but able to vary temperature for that space
All-Air Systems: Large Buildings
• Variable air volume system (VAV): where temp regulation required, humidity control is needed and
energy conservation is a concern.
- Air heated/cooled in central plant and distrib to the bldg at constant temp through a single duct.
- Thermostat controls damper at each zone controlling volume of conditioned air.
- Dampers on return airside allow fresh air to be introduced for ventilation and for cooling when
outdoor conditions make is unnecessary to mechanically condition air.
- Advantages: Efficient means of conditioning large internal load dominant buildings
- Disadvantages: Limited ability to compensate for extremes in simultaneous heating & cooling

• Dual-duct (high-velocity) system: provides two parallel ducts, one with hot air and one with cool
air. Two streams are joined in a mixing box in proportions to suit requirements of the conditioned
space via thermostat for each space, which controls pneumatic valves in the mixing box to create
proper mixture.
- Can respond to varying requirements.
- Example: cold day on North side with high percentage of glazing, heating may be
required while South side, combo of solar heat gain, lighting and occupancy may create
a need for cooling.
- Air travels at high velocity: 3000ft/min  duct can be smaller which saves spaces in high-rises
- Disadvantages:
- Inherently inefficient b/c hot and cool air has to be supplied winter or summer.
Previously cooled air may need to be heated or previously heated air may need to be
cooled.
- High velocity requires larger more powerful fans which require more energy
- Noise problems in ductwork
- Initial cost is high b/c of quantity of ductwork
• Reheat (constant-volume) system: takes return air and fresh outdoor air and cools & dehumidifies
the mixture which is then distributed in a constant volume at low temp.
- At or near the spaces to be conditioned the air is reheated as required by the cooling load of
the spaces
- Thermal reheat system: When the reheating equipment is located near the conditioned space.
- Zone reheat system: when reheating coils are located in ductwork to serve an entire zone.
- Economizer cycle: allows outdoor air to be used for cooling when temps are low enough
- Works by adjusting dampers on return air ducts and fresh air intakes
- Advantages:
- Humidity & temp carefully controlled
- Low supply temp equates to smaller duct sizes and lower fan horsepower
- Disadvantages:
- Use more energy b/c primary air volume must be cooled most of the time then reheated
• Multizone system: supplies air to a central mixing unit where separate heating and cooling coils
produce hot and cold air streams.
- Mixed with dampers and controlled by zone thermostats with resulting tempered air is delivered
- Used for medium sized buildings or where a central mixing unit is located on ea floor
- Advantage:
- Simultaneous cooling and heating of different zones
- Disadvantages:
- Duct space increases as more zones are added.

All-Water Systems
• Uses a fan coil in each conditioned space. Fan coils are connected to one or two water circuits.
Ventilation openings through the wall where fan coil unit is located.
- One pipe system: single supply and return pipe
- Hot water is circulated thru register & back to that pipe  next radiator is slightly cooler
- NOT a parallel system
- Two pipe system: separate supply and return
- Used water not mixed back into supply  all radiators in series are of equal temp
- Parallel system
- Three pipe system: mixes hot and cold in a common return pipe
- Advantages: saves on pipe costs
- Disadvantages: expensive to operate b/c all water must be heated or cooled from a
medium temp
- Parallel system
- Four pipe system: when heating & cooling desired which is a separate two-pipe system for ea
- one circuit is provided for chilled water and one for hot water.
- Two supply pipes and two return pipes.
- Parallel system
- Advantages:
- Efficient way to transfer heat
- Easily controlled with thermostat in each room regulating amount of water flow thru coils
- Disadvantage
- Humidity control is not possible
Air-Water System
• Rely on central air system for humidity control and ventilation.
• Majority of heating and cooling is provided by fan coil units in ea space.
• Used where return air cannot be recirculated such as hospitals and laboratories
• 100% outside air is supplied and return air is completely exhausted to exterior.
• Induction system
- High pressure and velocity to each induction unit where the velocity and noise are attenuated
before the air passes over the coils
- Water supply may be a two or four-pipe system
- Thermostatic control regulates the amount of water flowing through coils

- Another type of air-water system uses a fan-coiled unit for primary heating and cooling but has
separate air supply to provide humidity control and ventilation

Electric/Unitary Systems
• Most often a grid of wires in the ceiling of a room to provide radiant heating–electric baseboards
• Advantages:
- Provides uniform, clean inconspicuous form of heat
- Easily controlled with separate thermostats
- Used when needed for separate utility bills
- No space needed for piping
• Disadvantages:
- Not economical except where inexpensive.
- Often, electrical heat used for supplemental heating in localized radiant panels

Heat Pump System


• Water circulated throughout building (heat sink), each zone has own heat pump, fan & sort duct runs
• Either removes heat from water and adds it to the air blown into a zone OR
• Removes heat from zone air and adding it to the water
• Certain time of year when outside and inside air temp are equal, water just needs to be circulated
• Advantage: very efficient
• Disadvantage: high initial cost
Selection of Systems
• Depends on several interrelated variables:
- Profile of building
- Building scale
- Control requirements
- Fuel variables
- Climatic zone
- Integration with building structure and systems
- Flexibility
- Required
- Economics/capital and life-cycle costs
• Anticipated use and occupancy of building
- Office buildings or retail stores need flexible systems to account for changes during its life,
different requirements for multiple tenants
- Multiple uses subject to simultaneous variations in heating or cooling loads may require dual-
duct system or multi-zone system
- Hospital and laboratories – induction or fan coils with supplementary air so that all air is 100%
fresh with complete exhaust to ext.
• Size of building: Helps determine to use central system or individual units
- If load is under 25tons, direct expansion units or heat pumps used, rooftop mounted or
through-wall
- Larger cooling needs – a central station is more economical and provides flexibility
• Kind of control
- Hotels, motels, apartments and some office bldgs need ability for individual room or area
thermostatic control vs. theatres which need less
• Fuel variables:
- Select HVAC system according to most readily and economically available
- Steam adjacent to site then absorption chillers are more appropriate than refrigeration
• Climatic zone:
- Hot-arid: dehumidification need is low  all-water system
- Diurnal locations: dual-duct or four-pipe system to provide flexibility and quick response
• Integration with other building systems
- Must work with structure
- Location of equipment room, piping and duct runs and appearance of terminal units such as fan
coils or induction boxes, choice of return air (duct or plenum)means of air supply and
appearance of intakes or exhaust on exterior
- Integration with fire protection and smoke control in high-rises.
- Fan room on each floor: air supply on fire floor can be switched off and all return air
exhausted to exterior
- At the same time, dampers on floors above and below fire floor can be switched for full
pressurization preventing spread of smoke
• Flexibility: due to change of needs over time or that will be added onto
- All-water system or Air-Water system
- Expansion is a matter of extending the pipe runs from central heating and cooling plants
• Economics: a life cycle cost analysis
- Initial cost
- Long term maintenance
- Operating cost
- Owner more concerned with long term energy efficiency including cost of fuel
- LCA of several alts is required to make informed decision
SYSTEM SIZING
To determine required capacity of heating and cooling equipment, size of mechanical spaces to house system,
and figuring the space needs and layout of distribution system of pipes and ducts

System Capacity
• Primary determinants in sizing are heat gains and losses to environment in most extreme conditions
• Equipment is used to offset gains or loses
- Cooling may be undersized to lower initial costs with knowledge of occasional minor extremes

Mechanical Room Space Requirements


• Preliminary sizing for medium to large sized buildings using all-air or air–water systems
- Allow 3% - 9% of the gross bldg area (includes space for boilers, chillers, fans and related
pumps and piping)
- All-water systems will require 1% - 3%
• Boilers and chillers require rooms long enough to allow for removal of tubes  slightly larger than
twice the length of the equipment & 12’ – 18’ tall

Ductwork Distribution and Sizing


• Supply duct for All-air and Air-water systems run from AHU to ea terminal unit or supply diffuser
• Logical, simple and direct rout must be used.
- Coordinate with other building systems
- Round ducts = more efficient & least amount of pressure loss
- Rectangular make better use of available space
- Trunk ducts can follow path of circulation b/c must serve every space just as hallways do
- Loss of pressure due to friction
- Static pressure: pressure required to overcome friction loss. Measured in inches of water. As
pressure increases, larger ducts and fans are required resulting in higher cost
• Preliminary sizing of low-pressure duct space = 3ft2 of 6ft2 for every 1000ft2 of floor space served for
vertical and horizontal duct runs. Includes supply and return
• Damper types:
- Balancing: regulates flow of conditioned air
- Motorized control: remote system that vary airflow within an automated control system
- Splitter dampers and turning vanes: prevent flow resistance due to corners in the duct work
- Fire dampers: stops air flow automatically in case of fire

ENERGY CONSERVATION

Mechanical Systems Components


• 40% - 60% of the overall energy consumption
• National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987
- Established minimum efficiency standards for small and large heating and cooling equipment
- Performance is rated on:
- annual fuel utilization efficiency
- coefficient of performance
- energy efficiency ration
- integrated part load value
- seasonal efficiency ratio
Economizer Cycle
• Uses outdoor air when it is cool enough to mix with recirculated indoor air.
• Reduced energy used for refrigeration
• A mechanical substitute for open window with advantages of filtered air, fresh air, even distribution
• Significant savings in large commercial buildings where internal loads and heat gain require cooling
even in winter months
Dual-Condenser Chillers
• For refrigeration equipment, two condensers are used instead of one.
• Heading is not needed since a heat rejection condenser sends heat to the cooling towers
• When heat is needed, a separate heat recovery condenser sends excess heat to fan coil units or
other devices.
• Automated system controls based on exterior temp and needs of building
• Alternate option: multiple chillers with units of varying size instead of one large chiller. Allows for
use of best size chiller for the current loading.

Gas-fired Absorption-Based Chillers


• Do not rely on ozone-depleting refrigerants.
• Typically powered by natural gas = lower cost than electricity
• Steam or high-temp water when available is cheaper than gas
• Disadvantages: (however more efficient for large buildings)
- Not as efficient as electrically driven chillers
- High initial cost
- Reject heat to cooling towers

Solar-Powered Absorption Cooling


• Absorption chillers more efficient and sustainable if powered by hot water from solar collectors
• Standard flat-plate collectors: water = 175° to 195°
• Less expensive than compressive-type chillers with electricity even though efficiency is low
• Efficiency can be increased by using parabolic concentration solar collectors to provide higher temp
water
Direct-Contact Water Heaters
• Heats water by passing hot gases thru water. Natural gas is burned to provide flue gases that
transfer sensible and latent heat to water
• For further efficiency, heat exchanger on combustion chamber reclaims any heat loss from chamber
• These types of heaters are 99% efficient when inlet water temp is below 59°
• Low emissions of carbon monoxide and nitrous oxides
• Since high cost, best used where constant need for hot water: food processing, laundries and
industrial purposes

Recuperative Gas Boilers/Boiler Fuel Economizers


• Recovers sensible and latent heat from high heat of exhaust flue gases.
• Recuperative gas boilers are designed to cool flue gas temperatures enough to achieve
condensation.
• Reclaimed heat is used to preheat cold water entering boiler or to preheat combustion air
• Installation easier since emitted flue gases are cool, plastic pipe vents can be used

Displacement Ventilation
• Air distribution system which supply air originates at floor level and rises to return air grilles in ceiling
• Air does not need to be cooled as much since delivery is close to users = energy savings
• Good system for removing heat generated by ceiling level lights
• High percentage of outdoor air
• Personal temperature control and under floor wiring
• Access flooring to provide space for under floor ducting & for re arrangement of supply grilles

Water-Loop heat Pumps


• Heating and cooling system that uses a series of heat pumps for different zones which are all
connected to same piping system of circulating water
• Loop is maintained between 60° and 90°
• When some zones are cooling and dumping heat into the loop and other zones are heating and
extracting heat from the loop, no additional energy has to be added or removed.
• Only when units are in same mode does water in loop have to be cooled or heated with cooling
tower or boiler.
• Very efficient where simultaneous need for heating and cooling indifferent areas.
• Not appropriate where cooling loads are small.
Thermal Energy Storage
• Uses water, ice or rock beds to store excess heat or coolness for later use.
• Manage energy needs over climatic temp swings.
• Allows the use of less expensive off-peak energy costs to cool
- Example: Summer: chillers can cool water at night when utility rates are lower and cooling
need of building is not as great. During next day, stored coolness can be used to minimize
energy required for cooling.
• Ice has advantage of storing sensible heat as well as latent heat.
- Ice occupies 8x less space than water

Heat transfer
• Historically, initial efforts to increase energy conservation resulted in tightly sealed buildings with
reduced infiltration of fresh air and reuse of conditioned air = sick building syndrome.
• Desire for energy conservation is not always compatible with need for IAQ
• To alleviate IAQ problems, introduce more outdoor air through ventilation systems while exhausting
used conditioned air.
• However, heating and cooling incoming air requires energy

Energy Recovery Ventilators


• Also called air-to-air heat exchangers
• Reclaim waste energy from exhaust air stream and use it to condition incoming air
• Efficient in cold, hot or humid climates if temp differential between indoor and outdoor air is high
• Most efficient in buildings with continuous occupancy such as hotels, hospitals
• Three devices used for air-to-air heat exchange:
- Flat plate heat recovery units:
- two separate ducts of various design (incoming air and exhaust) separated by a thin wall
that facilitates heat transfer.
- Only transfer sensible heat
- No humidity control
- Energy transfer wheels
- Heat pipes
• Conditions to be met when using:
- Air intake must be kept as far away from exhaust outlet as possible
- Exhaust air that contains excessive moisture, grease or other contaminants should be
separated from the heat exchanger air
- Cold winter conditions, a defroster in device may be needed to prevent condensation in
exhaust from freezing

Energy Transfer Wheel


• Also called enthalpy heat exchangers (enthalpy: total heat in a substance including latent &
sensible heat))
• Transfers heat between two air streams through heat exchanger wheel consisting of small openings
thru which air passes.
• Wheel impregnated with lithium-chloride or proprietary substances
• Typically used in commercial buildings
• Advantages:
- Can transfer latent heat (humidity) and sensible heat.
- In winter, warm, humidified exhaust air is transferred to cool, dry incoming air.
- In summer, cool exhaust air removes some of heat from hot incoming air and humidity in hot
incoming is transferred to exhaust
- Conserve energy
- Reduce cooling load
- Minimize need to humidify
- Transfer efficiency of 80%
Heat Pipes
• Self contained device that transfers sensible heat energy from hot exhaust air to cool outdoor air.
• As hot air passes over heat pipe, it vaporizes a refrigerant inside the pipe that passes to the area of
cool incoming air. As refrigerant condensed, it fives off heat to the incoming air warming it.
Refrigerant then passes back to hot sode by capillary action through a wick material in the heat pipe.
• For heat pipes to work, incoming and outgoing air streams must be adjacent

Water-to-Water Heat Exchangers


• Also called runaround coils
• Use water or other liquid transfer medium to exchange heat
• Advantage:
- Incoming and exhaust air streams do not have to be adjacent.
- In winter: pumps a heat-transfer fluid from coils over which the hot exhaust air passes to coils
over which the cool incoming air passes
- In summer: flow uses the cooled indoor air to reduce temp of hot incoming air
- Eliminate possibility that incoming air could be contaminated with exhaust
• Commonly used in large buildings
• Efficiency ranges from 50% - 70%

Extract-Air windows
• Double-paned insulated glass unit over which another pane of glass is placed on the inside of
building. Air is drawn up between panes and is extracted into return air system
• Warming glass in winter and cooling in summer to maintain comfortable radiant temp
• Eliminates need for separate perimeter heating system

Ground-Coupled heat Exchangers


• Heat or cool outside air by circulating it through pipes buried in ground
- In summer: air can be used directly if outdoor air is higher than ground temp
- In winter: can preheat air for energy recovery ventilator (to prevent frosting) or for standard fan-
coil heating unit
• Typically only suitable for low-rise buildings
• Disadvantages:
- Long run of pipes for efficient operation
- B/c air is forced through pipes, energy saved must outweigh energy to run fans

Building Automation System (BAS)


• Computer based integrated system that monitors and controls building systems.
- Systems included will vary depending on complexity of building, needs of owner
• Typically include
- HVAC
- Energy management
- Lighting control
- Life safety
- Security
• Others that it may include
- Vertical transportation
- Communications
- Material handling
- Landscape irrigation
• Reduces cost thru:
- Better system management
- Monitoring of large complex buildings’
- Reduces personnel
- Improves occupant comfort
- Provides detailed documentation of subsystems
• Energy Management System (EMS):
- Detects conditions inside and outside building
- Status of equipment (temp, humidity, flow rates)
- Optimizes control

Building Commissioning
• Process of inspecting, testing, starting up, and adjusting building systems and then verifying and
documenting that they are operating as intended and meet design criteria of contract documents
• Is an expansion of traditional Testing, Adjusting and Balancing (TAB) but much broader scope
• Begins during design phase with determination of which systems will be commissioned, criteria for
acceptance and preparation of specs for precisely outline requirements for subsequent phases.
• Most important during construction when systems are started and tested.
- Adjustments, corrections or repairs as required
- Operation and maintenance are demonstrated through training.
- Report is prepared summarizing results of construction-phase commissioning
- Provide detailed operation and maintenance manuals for ea system.
• Post occupancy report: one year after occupancy to verify systems
• Building systems that require commissioning:
- Mechanical systems: AHU, distribution systems, pumps, sensors, dampers, cooling towers
- Electrical systems: switch gear, controls, emergency generators, fire management
- Plumbing systems: tanks, pumps, water heaters, compressors, fixtures
- Sprinkler systems: standpipes, alarms, hose cabinets
- Fire-management and life-safety systems: alarms, detectors, air handling equip, smoke
dampers, building communications
- Vertical transportation: elevator and escalator controls
- Telecommunication and computer networks
• Who should participate:
- Architect, MEP engineers, GC, applicable subs, Owner or rep, maintenance personnel, code
officials & construction manage
DEFINITIONS

Actuator: device that controls systems that receives commands from a controller and activates piece of
equipment
Annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE): ratio of annual fuel output energy to annual input energy. Includes
non-seasonal pilot lights losses
Coefficient of performance (COP): fating of efficiency of heating/cooling equipment. Derived by dividing
steady-state rate of energy output by the steady-state rate of energy input
Controller: measures, analyzes and initiates action in a building control system
Deadband: range of temp neither heating r cooling is called for
Energy efficiency ration (EER): net cooling capacity in BTU/hr to the total rate of electrical input under
designated operating conditions
Emergency management system (EMS): computer based system used to monitor and control facility energy
use. Typically part of a BAS
Ground-coupled cooling: method of cooling thru direct contact with earth or by circulating air underground
Heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF): measure of performance of a heat pump operating in the
heating cycle (see also Seasonal energy efficiency ratio)
Home energy rating system (HERS): system for rating efficiency of residential buildings using the HERS
Council Guidelines and the Mortgage Industry numeric value bet. 1-100
Integrated part load value (IPLV): A single number figure of merit based on part load EER or COP
Relative solar heat gain (RSHG): ratio of solar heat gain through a window, corrected for external shading to
the incident solar radiation. This heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation
Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ration (SEER): total cooling output of a central air conditioning system or heat
pump in the cooling mode. Measured in BTU/hr. cooling divided by total electrical input in watt-hours