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Labor Requirement for Various Construction Works

The cost of construction project highly depends on the requirements of labor for various activities during
construction.

There are direct and indirect costs associated with the labor. They are the salary of labors, their accommodat
food, insurance cost etc. Thus it is essential to understand the number labors required for each activity of the
construction to estimate the final cost of project.

There are different types of labors that are required for the construction:

Skilled labors
Semi-skilled labors
Unskilled labors

All these types of labors have different skills and different salaries. Their optimum use in every work in
construction is essential to minimize the construction cost.

The table below shows the recommended labor requirement for various civil
engineering/building/construction works:

S. Recommended
Description of work Unit Labor constant in
No. days.

Excavation over
areas (hard/dense Mate 0.06
1) soil),depth up to 1.5m M3
and removal (up to Labor 0.62
one meter from edge)

Excavation in
trenches (soft/ loose
soil),for foundations
not exceeding 1.5m in
width and for shafts, Mate 0.05
wells, cesspits and the
2) M3
like, not exceeding
Labor 0.50
10m3 and on plan,
depth up to 1.5m and
removal(up to one
meter away from
edge)

Returning, filling Mate


and ramming of 0.02
excavated earth in Labor
layers not exceeding 0.25
3) M3
20 cm in depth,
watering, well
ramming and leveling, 0.02
lead up to 50m Bhisti
4) Concrete : M3 Labor 0.50

Mixing by machine Bhisti 0.10


(mixer) at banker,
cement concrete (with Mixer 0.07
20mm graded coarse operator
0.07
aggregate)
Mixer

mason
0.10
Labor
1.63

bhisti
0.70
Mixer mixed cement 3
5) M mixer
concrete
0.07
operator

0.07
mixer

0.07
vibrator

mason
0.17
Reinforced cement
Labor
concrete in situ in 2.00
foundations, footings,
bases for columns, etc bhisti
0.90
excluding form work
6) and reinforcement. M3 mixer
(The constants for 0.07
items include mixing, operator
pouring, consolidating
0.07
and curing. This does mixer
not include fair finish.)
0.07
vibrator

mason
0.24
Labor
2.50

Reinforced cement bhisti


0.90
concrete in situ in
7) suspended floors/roofs M3 mixer
excluding form work, 0.07
and reinforcement. operator

0.07
mixer

0.07
vibrator

8) Mortars: M3 Labor 0.75

Mixing by hand, Bhisti 0.07


cement mortar of any
mix/proportions
(Labor required will be
approximately same
for different mix
proportions.)

Brick work (straight


walls):

mason 0.94
Brick work in walls
exceeding one brick Labor 1.80
9) M3
thick, in cement / lime
mortar (The constants bhisti 0.20
include labor involved
in scaffolding.)

Brick work in walls,


mason 0.25
one brick thick, in
cement/lime mortar.
10) (The constants could M2 Labor 0.40
be adopted for brick
work with any mix or bhisti 0.10
mortar.)

Formwork /
Shuttering:

a) fabrication and
erection with all Carpenter 0.25
supports, struts,
braces, etc, and Labor 0.20

dressing with oil as M3


Carpenter 0.23
cleaning of formwork: 2
11) M
Labor 0.20
1) rectangular column 2
M
and walls Carpenter 0.30

2) suspended Labor 0.20


floors/roofs

3) sides and soffits of


beam

12) Reinforcement: Quintal Bar 1.00


bender
Bar reinforcement 1.00
including cutting to Labor

length, hooked ends,


cranking or bending,
hoisting and placing in
any position, binding
wire and holding firmly
so as not to be
disturbed while placing
and ramming of
concrete

Plastering and
pointing: mason 0.08

a) 15mm thick cement Labor 0.10


plaster to ceiling
including mixing of bhisti 0.10
mortar.
M2 mason 0.06
b) 15mm thick cement
13) plaster on brick walls M2 Labor 0.10

(exterior) including
M2 bhisti 0.10
mixing of mortar

mason 0.10
c) Tuck pointing to
random rubble Labor 0.15
masonry in cement
mortar including bhisti 0.10
mixing mortar.

Damping proof
course:

Mason 0.10
a) Laying damp proof
course 40mm thick Labor 0.10
14) M3
cement concrete
including form work bhisti 0.01
and fair finishing to
edges and mixing.

Note: Bhisti means water carrier.