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I

Module 6 — Condition input


<
data for Seismic well tie

Q
To get a good seismic to well tie, it is important to load the checkshot
data properly and run quality control on it (or a time/depth relationship)
and edit logs.
In this module, you learn how to load and quality control checkshot
data. You also learn how to prepare logs to use them as input to the
seismic well tie workflow.

Learning objectives
After completing this module, you will know how to:
m
• load and quality control checkshot data
• work with the Seismic Reference Datum (SRD) and Checkshot
Reference Datum (CRD) for SWT
• define time-depth relationships
• use the Log conditioning Tool Palette

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •327
I
9 Lesson 1 — Checkshot data loading
Loading checkshot data is an important step towards generating a
synthetic seismogram. A seismogram provides the time-depth
< relationship required in Sonic log calibration. It is useful to invest some >
time in reviewing the checkshot data file before importing it into
Petrel.
The checkshot data in Petrel is imported similar to well tops, point well
data, and points with attributes. You use the same dialog box with a
Q.
few modifications.
3
You can import individual well checkshots simultaneously as well as
multiple checkshot data. The dialog box is divided into three sections.
At the top of the dialog box is a small template spreadsheet that
describes the order and type of data found in the file. Edit the
spreadsheet to ensure that data is imported correctly.
The central section holds all of the settings required for the import. At
the bottom of the dialog box is a text window that displays the first few
lines of the file. This window helps you to select the attributes correctly
in the top section of the dialog box.
To make sure that checkshot data is loaded correctly, it is good practice
to take the time to study the attribute selection and understand the
purpose of each attribute.
Click on an Attribute or Unit entry in the spreadsheet part of the dialog
box. A list appears from which you can select attributes.
The depth and time datum references can be changed to match the
available input datum using these acronyms:
MSL Mean sea level. In the file shown, TVDSS refers to TVD
subsurface (MSL)
KB Kelly bushing elevated from MSL
SRD Seismic reference datum
CRD Checkshots reference datum
The shaded fields in the Depth and Time sections are entered in the
Templates pane during project setup. Refer to the Petrel Help for
further details.

328 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
I
Even if time and depth values below MSL are displayed as negative
numbers, the spreadsheet numbers (MD, TVD, and TWT) for checkshots
are positive.

< If the values are not positive, checkshots must be reloaded. Be sure to >
select the Negate time values check box in the import dialog box
when time and depth values are positive.

Q.
Load Z-values
3 Make sure that the ASCII file contains negative Z-values. If the Z-values
are positive, select the Negate Z values check box.
Load TVD or MD values
ASCII data must be positive.
Load TWT values
Make sure that the ASCII file contains negative TWT-values. If the
TWT-values are positive, select the Negate Z values check box.

Possible errors: Quality check


As a quality control step for imported checkshot data, it is important to
make sure that the time values are negative (Figure 1 ). Negative values
are meaningful because all values below mean sea level are treated as
negative.
If the imported checkshot shows positive values, it means that the data
has not been imported properly.

X-Coord Y-Coord Z TWT MD


1599743.87 -172747.82 0.00 0.00 95.00
1599743.09 -172748.18 -100.00 39.71 195.01
1599743.02 -172748.21 -105.00 41.70 200.01
1599738.12 -172747.07 -304.90 119.30 399.98
1599732.30 -172747.23 -704.80 268.00 799.9
etc

Figure 1 TWT must be negative, in this example we can observe a loading error
that must be corrected before moving forward

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •329
In Figure 2, the checkshot data (left) is imported incorrectly. The input
file contains positive time values and the Negate time values check
box is not selected when loading checkshot data.
Column # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Column # 1 2 3 4 5 6
< Attribute X Y Z TV/T MD Well Attribute X Y Z TV/T MD Well >
Attribute name X Y Z TV/T MD Well Attribute name X Y Z TV/T MD Well
Attribute type Continuous Continuous Conbnuou Continuous Conbnuou Text Attribute type Continuous Continuous Conbnuou Continuous Conbnuou Text
Unit File CRS unit File CRS unit feet millisecond feet Unit File CRS unit File CRS unit feet millisecond feet

Connect to trace Diamond-14 Connect to trace Diamond-14

© Well name AJICheckShots cs Undefined value (8) WeS name ABCheck Shots cs Undefined value:

Depth

Time
Depth datum:

Negate Z values
MSL
O Zfrom MSL:
Depth
Depth datum:

0 Negate Z values
Time
MSL
9 Zfrom MSL:

Time datum I SRD Zfrom MSL: Time datum: J. SRD Zfrom MSL:
Negate time valuesÿ TWT from SRD QZ Negate time valuesÿ TWT from SRD:

330 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
Procedure — Load checkshot data
1. Right-click the Wells folder and select Import (on selection)
to open the Import file dialog box.
Ill
: ““Input

D >
< T ? X

* AA □ivgii [@ If multiple files are


' *, □ e
Settings
y# selected, Petrel prompts you
®S' ÍZJ Subscribe to merge them. Click Yes to
leiq (If. Import (on selection)... merge all data into one
5□ checkshot object or No to
Rn [Z
\=k Export object load each file into separate
RS C A Delete ... objects.

G A Delete content . ..
Si PL§ Calculator
AtC E53 Well manager
Y L
R[, QH Log attributes

iZ Insert new folder =


RD e > • Collapse (recursive)
->c A
\ Expand (recursive)
Fra Z
Rxo L 2 1 Sort by names

Pc Sort by property templates


Rn L Sort by property templates/name
*n [ Auto color all
Rn IZ
)Q¡ <5 pbc| Auto name all

III. S A New well


Á ¿S' 0 M ftp Move wells inside boundary
(US' 12 Create intersection
m: H
¡Jÿ Export all wells in folder
Su 5
> A □D Export all logs in folder

> A □A Convert to polygons


> A □A XZ Show trajectory providers
> ADA Reconnect missing files
> A □ A| g Well path report
t> A □B
> A□B Risk manager
> I □B Well annotations spreadsheet...
> ! □ B Cy Guru
i> i n r.
2. Set Files of type to Checkshot format (ASCII) (*.*).

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •331
3. Select one or more files to import and click Open.
fv] Import file 1ÿ1
book in: Check Shots @ t f El-
Name Date modified Type Size

Recent Places
I'D AIICheckShots.es 31/07/2005 23:10 VSTA.cs.8.0 89 KB
f | Apatite_E13.cs 30/01/2007 12:27 VSTA.cs.8.0 1KB
Pi Copper_6.cs 30/01/2007 12:27 VSTA.cs.8.0 2 KB
f 1 Diamond_14.cs 30/01/2007 12:28 VSTA.cs.8.0 1 KB
Desktop _ Dolomite_Bl.cs 30/01/2007 12:28 VSTA.cs.80 1 KB
>1

2
Libraries

K,
0
Computer

Rle name: AIICheckShots.cs Open


Network
Rles of type: Checkshots format (ASCII) (V) Cancel

□Open as read-only
Rle example/description:

tt Petrel checkshots format


tt Not all attributes are necessary.
tt i.e. X. Y. and Z can be left out. as they are derived from md and the well □
tt The attributes can also have a different order than described here
tt Lines starting with tt ate comments
VERSION 1
4

4. From the header info in the lower section of the dialog box,
insert the parameters into the spreadsheet at the top of the
The input
parameters can be dialog box.
modified, depending on 5. If the Well name is not included in the input checkshot file,
information available in
the input file. Columns can
assign and verify Connect to trace to the correct well.
be added or removed in If the Well attribute is selected, the Connect to trace option
the Import checkshots is grayed out.
dialog box using Append
or Delete a column in 6. Select time and depth datum.
the table buttons. 7. If time values are positive in the input file, select the Negate
time values checkbox.
8. Click OK to complete the checkshot data loading.

332 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
D
R] Import checkshots: AIICheckShots.cs

Bid i
If a column in the
Column # 1 2 43 5 6
Attribute Y
X Z TWT MD Well
import checkshot file is
Attribute name X Y Z TWT MD wai defined as well name, the
< Attribute type Continuous Continuous Continuous Continuous Continuous Text option to link a checkshot >
Unit File CRS u FileCRS un feet millisecond feet
to a well is grayed out in
4 the import window. Petrel
Connect to trace Diamond-14
© assigns the checkshot to
the well with an identical
(5) Well name AllCheckShots cs Undefined value -999
name in the project.

l
Depth
Depth datum: MSL Zfrom MSL: 0 ft

Q Negate Z values
E; Time

%
Time datum: :r SRD Zfrom MSL: 0
Negate time values TWT from SRD: 0
©
ms

I I Replac ft/s
Date
® Default
¡tom date format a
29/12/1977
a
Time Zone: (UTC+0100) Brussels. Copenhagen, Madrid. Pans 0 DST a
Header info (first 30 lines):

Line 1: # Petrel ChecIcShots format


Line 2: VERSION 1
Line 3: BEGIN HEADER
Line 4: X
Line 5: Y
Line Z 6:
Line 7: TWT Picked
Line 8: MD
Line 9: Well
Line 10: END HEADER
Line 11: 1599743.87 -172747.82 0.00 0.00 95.00 "Agate-H6"
Line 12: 1599743.09 -172748.18 -100.00 -39.71 195.01 "Agate-H6"
4

✓ OKforaU |V OK A Cancel

(Si

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •333
Procedure — Quality check checkshots
It always Is important to quality control the loaded data. In this
example, negative time and velocity values reflect errors in the
checkshot loading.
< >
1 . Right-click checkshots in the Global well logs folder to open
the Checkshot spreadsheet.
I *- Input
•* 0 Wells
■* i- 0 Ooba/we/fogs
E> <ps' Log attributes
ISlD CAU
5 □ CILD
1 R„□ CILM
Rs □ CSFL
¡a <0 □ DPHI
P □ DRHO
At □ DT
Y □ GR
RD □ ILD
Rm □ ILM
*S □ NPHI
□ PHIT
P □ RHOB
Rp □ RT
R«o □ SFLU
Rn □ SN
□ SP
Fra □ \CL
> csjgESflSJ1
[@ Settings

ü Import (on selection) .. .


[§* Export object
Edit global color table
A Delete . . .
Spreadsheet

1ÿ) Copy as derived log or log template

" Collapse (recursive)


*\ Expand (recursive)

f Synchronize MD s

f Synchronize XYZ's
Insert new attribute
!§£ Convert to interpretation
Guru

334 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
2. Check for negative velocities and TWT.
Checkshot spreadsheet for 'AIICheckShots.es' <=> lfalBa
DU Well: & All wells Sonic log: At DT *1 0
<
TVDSS Time in: TWT
- 0 1*6 *i @
>
Sonic Int.
TVDSS TWT Average velocity Interval velocity Sonic time
Vel

1 0.00 0.00 -5036.70
2 100.0C -39.71 -5036.69 -5024.45 11.89 0.00

m
3 105 0C -41.70 -5036.10 -5152.10 12.49 8407.16
4 304.9C -119.30 -5111.56 15 36.27 8405.41
5 504 8C -194.60 -5188.051 .59 60.05 8405.06

E;
9
10
11
6
7
8
704 8C
9038C
1101.91
1298.44
1492.04
1687.12
me\
Vi
-268.00
-339.10

9C
ai
-5476.32
-5550.75
-5624.66
-5597.94
-5750.44
-5937.42
-6107.47
-6262.40
-6392.81
83.84
107.63
131.42
155.20
178.98
202.77
8406.60
8366 95
8328.10
8263.58
8139.92
8200.78
12 1881.14 -660.60 -5695.24 -6552.38 226 56 8156.95
% 13 2075.74 -720.00 -5765.95 -6700.89 250.34 8181.91
14 2273.75 -779.10 -5836.88 -6847.33 274.13 8325.51
15 2473.01 -837.30 -5907.11 -6984.90 297.91 8378.31
~.c~- -TO *»*»1 -rn OOO*T co
4 III

V Apply ✓ OK A Cancel

Correctly loaded checkshot survey parameters (TWT, TVDSS,


and velocities) are positive numbers.
Checkshot spreadsheet for 'AIICheckShots.es' | o l|
(Sffi] Well i All wells Some log At DT

;-il3)ESB Dep*h,n TVDSS Time in: TWT -a a ss s


Sonic Int.
TVDSS TWT Average velocity Interval velocity Sonic time

1 0.00 000 5036 70


Vel

2 100 00 39.71 5036 69 5024 45 11.89 0.00
3 105.00 41.70 5036.10 5152.10 12.49 8407.16
4 304.90 119.30 5111.56 5309.25 36.27 8405.41
5 504 80 194.60 5188 05 544959 60.05 8405.06
6 704.80 268.00 5259 68 5597 94 83 84 8406.60
7 &:2 2: 339.10 5330.61 5750.44 107.63 8366.95
8 1101.91 408.00 5401.50 5937.42 13142 8328.10
9 1298.44 474.20 5476.32 6107.47 155 20 8263.59
10 1492.04 537.60 5550.75 6262.40 178.98 8139.91
11 1687.12 599.90 5624 66 6392.81 202.77 8200.78
12 1881.14 660.60 5695 24 6552.38 226 56 8156%
13 2075.74 720.00 5765.95 6700 89 250.34 8181.90
14 2273.75 779.10 5836 88 6847.33 274 13 8325.51
4 III r

✓ Apply ✓ OK 7< Cancel

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •335
I
Checkshots editing
Checkshot data represents hard facts. You must have good reasons for
editing or deleting checkshot data points because they are in situ
measured travel times through the sediments.
< >
By editing one data point, the calculated interval velocity from the point
above to the point below is recalculated. An outlier that is removed can
give an outlier between the two neighboring points.

Q.
Procedure — Edit checkshot data

jo
EH 1 . In a Function window, display the Interval velocity attribute of
the checkshots against Z (or TWT). Use the well filter to
display individual checkshot surveys.
* 0 AIICheckShots.cs
Á mg' M Attributes
IZlBz I
tl □ TWTpicked
H»I □ MD
S Wei
V*. | | A vef3ce ve/oct/
I :» X Interval ve/odvi

* 0 WeStiter
4 0 Agate-H6
4 0 Touimaline-5
4 0 Talc-A1
4 0 Quartz-A2
4 0 Mica-A3


336 Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
2. Use one of the filter tools from the Window toolbar and select
the outliers.
|jil Select using 2D rectangle

EISH3- T I
5200 5600 6000 8000 8400 8800 9200 9600 10000 10400 10800 11200
I |CD Select using freehand draw

< Iff Select using ID range on X axis >


Iftfa Select using ID range on Y axis

L
I
[•1

m
NT
0
0
*7 Í

T I
I 5200 5600 6000 6400 6800 7200 7600 8000 8400 8800 9200 9600 10000 10400 10800 11200
§

Interval velocity, [ft/s]


Symbol legend
Interval velocity vs Z (AllCheckShots cs)

The automatically created filter is stored in the Filters folder


in the Input pane.
Á
GF 0 Alters folder
A S’ 0 User

T 0 Interval velocity vs. Elevation depth 1


S 0 System

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •337
The filtered points are highlighted in the Checkshot
spreadsheet
‘i£¡ Checkshot spreadsheet for 'AIICheckShots.es’ SOIDSS
(S® Well: ¿ All wells w Sonic log: At DT T & n g
<
£1EDEl[|a;
MD
Depth in:

TWT
MD

Average velocity Interval velocity


Time in:

Sonic time
TWT
Sonic Int.
Drift
-
Well
9 EM @ >

Vel
641 7399.94 2056.20 7022.50 8840.93 849.00 9193.32 179.10 Emerald-A9
642 7599 96 2098.90 7059.49 8876.32 870.20 8901.97 179.25 Emerald-A9
643 7799.89 2141.70 7095.80 8941.88 890.54 9338 86 180.31
644 7999 93 2184 30 7131.80 9034.63 911.53 9075.71 180.62
645 8199.88 2226 30 7167.70 9114.24 932.66 8977.52 180.49 Emerald-A9
646 8399.94 2268.00 7203.49 9174.91 953.22 9243.56 180.78 Emerald-A9 □
647 8599.93 2309.10 7238.58 9229.78 973.31 9384.57 181.24
648 8799.92 2349.70 7272.99 9705.54 994.53 8830.98 180.32 Emerald-A9
1 649 8946 45 237800 7301.93 1009 82 8980 02 17918
650 65.00 0.00 5055.43 0.00 000 Dolomite-B1
¡a 651 199.98 53.40 5055.43 5194.29 16.03 8418.72 -10.67 Dolomite-B1
652 399 96 130.40 5137.42 5376.08 39.79 8418.72 -25.41 Dolomite-B1
653 599.95 204.80 5224.12 5516.69 63.54 8418.72 -38.86 Dolomite-B1
654 799.93 277.30 5300.61 5681.25 87.30 8418.72 -51.35 Dolomite-B1
r.-i
— u.
_J | OK A Cancel

3. Click the Select using freehand draw button and paint a


closed area in the Function window.
Deleting the data in
the spreadsheet does not Make sure that the filter polygon contains some bad points.
necessarily correct the 4. In the Checkshots spreadsheet, click the Delete selected
checkshot data because the row(s) in the table button to remove the rows. Click Apply to
interval velocity Is calculated
between two points. By change the checkshot data.
removing a time-depth pair, a 5. Check the other wells for outliers.
new interval velocity is
calculated down to the point
below. This can result in a
new outlier that must be
handled, and so on.
Checkshots are hard data
points, you must have a good
reason to delete this data.

338 •Condition Input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
1
Time-depth relationships
By doing a thorough quality control, the input sources for the time-depth
relationship increase your confidence in the velocity extraction when
building velocity models. They also generate good synthetic.
< >
This also is true for any correction that you make to well tops later or in
other velocity models.
The Time tab in the Wells folder Settings dialog box (Figure 3)
Q.
contains a list of available sources for the time-depth relationship for
all wells.
a If more than one object is selected, the list is used in a hierarchical
ft order.

A4 Settings for 'Wells'


Make logs Simulation settings Quality attributes Lateral
4f Style A Info Statistics I|1 Time Thickness I Report

0 Create new
(# Ed» existing OwT One-way time 1

□ Apply to alwels □ Lock calculated logs


© From shared TDR: I

© From shared checkshot: |tÿ| | |


# From velocity function fÿj |■/ '¿V (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration'Calibrated TOR
¡==1[HSl DT
vl | Atp (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibratiorvVisual/Calibrated sonic
FI Atp (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic Calibration/Calibrated sonic
□ AIICheckShots.cs

□ Manual adjustment: ffl[


E Insert extra point at SRD if not coveted a
( •/ Run

R Apply ■/ OK | | A Cancel

Figure 3 Setup for the Global time-depth relationship

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •339
I
9 Lesson 2 — Log conditioning
The Log conditioning Tool Palette provides tools for editing existing
log data to increase the quality and remove deficiencies. The tools are
< used interactively in the Well section window to modify and condition >
the log data.
The Log conditioning Tool Palette was designed to supplement the
Log editor in geophysical workflows. Edited logs can be saved in the
data tree. Interactive editing includes the ability to operate on multiple
Q.
log zones in depth or time.
3
Log editing must be done properly. Poor editing results in an
inconsistent time-depth relationship and artificial responses in the
synthetic, which makes accurate correlation impossible.

Log conditioning: Toolbar access


You access the Log conditioning Tool Palette in one of these ways:
• On the Seismic Interpretation tab, in the Seismic-well
calibration group, click Log conditioning.
Seismic Interpretation Petri

t
a
Seismic
[Ijfll
Wavelet toolbox
Log conditioning

* well tie Well tie editing


Seismic-well calibration

• On the Stratigraphy tab, in the Manual logs group, click Log


conditioning.
I Stratigraphy Seismic Interpretation Petroleum Systems Decision Support Structural Modeling Property M

Iter
J
a 0
X -section New well
EH la S’
New stratigraphic Chart
New folder

New chart I New


i Log
nanagers editing section window chart window editing New column discrete log comment log conditioning
Cross-section n Stratigraphic charts Manual logs

340 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
• In Select/Pick mode [P] right-click on a curve in the
[Ejg
Well section window and click Log conditioning from
the mini toolbar.
< >
a® SSTVD - [ly Well section tem I I,D Undef -a
uamona-i4 vuj
SSTVD| CALI RHOB DT GR
1:1826 [-0.10 in 2.44|- 4SSC 2 662: |i4.90 usm 303.80|5.66 gAPI 207,75

> Mil
4524 2

4600
F 31 & T T &•>im t
i r i
- Q RHOB (Continuous well log

F
l 4700
Show the selected item in tree

?] ■
Send to Studio

4800 Retrieve from Studio


Edit global color table

A Delete .. .
4900 - |=] Copy as derived log

|]=) Copy continuous well log (data only)


Add to global template
5000 Add to local template
Log set

'-y Guru
vm- ———
I I I S I I I PM — T

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •341
I
Figure 4 shows the options that you can select in the Log conditioning
Tool Palette.

<
E Tool Palette

Selection operation
Log conditioning
®— ®— ®-@ ®_@JL
5 >

Q.
H S* II t
xinir®-®-®
ai R <> n ■? ST tt *ÿ
' U1
3
Figure 4 Selection options in the Log conditioning Tool Palette

1 Selection 10 Log extension


2 Co-blocking 11 Trend
3 Draw 12 Frequency filter
4 Clip 13 Blocking
5 Eliminate Spikes 14 Undo
6 Depth Shift 15 Redo
7 Interpolate 16 Save modified logs
8 Value Smooth 17 Clear
9 Stretch/Squeeze

These algorithms are available for the Seismic well tie process:
Co-blocking Use the blocking on one curve to guide
the blocking on another curve.
Draw Replaces log values with values
R interpolated between the start value
and stop depth.
c,ip Clip unwanted or unrealistic log values
Ft* within a selected zone, above or below
certain values.
Eliminate spikes Identify and remove spikes from the log.

342 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
I
Depth shift Vertically shift a log. Applied only for
ll the entire log.
Interpolate Replace the values of a log in a selected
< zone by the linear interpolation of the >
first and last values.
Value smooth Apply a general smoothing algorithm to
? log values.
Q. Stretch/squeeze Interactively reposition log depth values
| inside a segment, preserving or
3
deforming the log outside the selection.
Log extension Vertically extend, with a predefined fill
value, the top of the log to a shallower
depth or the bottom of the log to a
deeper depth.
Trend Identify, compute, and remove trends
<? created by compaction, thermal, or
other depth-related phenomena.
Frequency filter Analyze and filter the frequency
ST spectrum of the log. Additionally the
spectrum of a seismic trace at the well
position can be displayed as guidance.
This filter can be applied only to a single
log at a time. This operation is available
only if the well contains a defined
Time-Depth Relation (TDR).
Blocking Automatically block well logs. This can
be useful for reducing the resolution of
the log to a coarser seismic resolution,
prior to generating synthetic
seismograms.
Clear The Clear option removes all operations
and selections executed on the logs in
log conditioning.
Edited logs can be saved to the Petrel data tree.

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •343
I
Log conditioning Tool Palette: Despiking
Despiking is important, especially when performing the seismic well tie
process using sonic logs. The frequency content of the sonic is much
higher than the frequency of the seismic.
< >
Removing high frequency variations from the sonic to better match the
seismic resolution aids their comparison and avoids error accumulation.
The spike value errors accumulate down through the well when
integrating the sonic values.
Q.
The original and edited logs can appear simultaneously in a track of a
Well section window. By default, the horizontal scale is different,
ranging from the minimum to the maximum values of each log.
jo
As a result, it can be necessary to adjust the scales so that they are the
camo fnr hnth Innc Thic aHmctmont ic rlnno in the Wall Sartinn
Procedure — Despike a Sonic log
1. Display a Sonic log in the Well section window. (You also can
display other logs to help you better select the section of the
log for despiking.)
m
< >
2. In Select/Pick mode[P] , right-click the Sonic log curve
and click Log conditioning sift in the mini toolbar.
| &[£)l SSTVD - |jf Well section term - § ft |
$ÿ> Copper-6 [SSTVD]
z v: Sonic CALI
1:850 100.58 us/ft 129.38 0.42 in

4336 2

1
0
4400

l [© 7 '
"<-> @ ffl t
r i i
4450 : iQ Sonic (Continuous well log)
Show the selected item in tree

4500 U 4 Send to Studio


4ft Retrieve from Studio
»1» Edit global color table

4550 -

4600
s
__
-1
C
A
|{=1
(j=)
(jj1
1ÿ
Delete . . .

Copy as derived log


Copy continuous well log (data only)
Make log(s) dynamic

Add to global template


y~ Add to local template

Log set

4650 - Guru
CTH n i i i-

3. To select a zone of interest in the log, click Selection H


When you open the Log conditioning Tool Palette, it already
is enabled by default.
Tool Palette ES3
E: Selection »
▼ Log condit'oning x

[T R ft Sx II ,> n r •? ST H ' um

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •345
4. Click the log track and drag. Depth limits are displayed as well
as the log and well names. Double-click to select the whole
track.
Co; ' I
. ■

: Sonic CALI
< 1850 100.58 us/ft 129 38 0 42 in >
. -t

P
4336 2

4400 -

[•]
4450

4500 T
0 > >

4550 c
Selection Domain Start End Log Well Enable Delete

* Log condit oning


SSTVD (ft) 4418.12 4569.41 Sonic Copper-6 @1 @

3« R ft. 5* II # -i S* •? ¥H - U 0
I
5
4700
-
f
5
4750 -

4801 1.
Q c
1

346 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
5. In the Log conditioning Tool Palette, click the Eliminate
spikes button.
6. Select parameters and click the Eliminate spikes button.

< 1 496
>
4390 I ilCALl 3 5T
4400

4420

4440

[•]
4460

-
4520

4540

4560 ■

7
; Spike detection options: a
* Eliminate spikes umber of standard deviation: 1 46
▼ Log condit oning

\ I? t ? i - ■? S* - UÓ
Spike analysis window:

Replacement method: Interpolate


162


-G
[[Eliminate spikes|
samples

4640

4661 1

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •347
7. Click Save modified logs and click Apply. Now, you can
modify the name of new log.
Copper-6 [SSTVDf
SSTVD Sonic CALI
'l 00 58
(

1 495 us/ft 129.38 0 42 in

< 4390 ifeonc


>
4400

4420

4440
[•]

4460

i
0 I
4500
J %
s
< 4520 >
4540

4560

4580


Tod Palette

J Save modified logs


Log condit oning
% x
Save modified logs:

Output for Sonic on Copper-6:


a
/? >x ll t ? 4 r -¡> ST H - U in
0 Sonic (new)

1
| Save all checked logs
4640 ■;

4661.2;

348 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
I
The new log appears in the Global well logs folder in the
Input pane.
““ Input X
*
• ▼

< @ Wells >


' t @ Qobai weSbgs
* [>
®S' Log attributes
BI0 CALI
5 □ CILD
Q.
Rn □ CILM
Rs □ CSFL
O □ DPHI
Jo P □ DRHO
At 0 Sonic
Y □ GR
Rp □ ILD
Rn □ ILM
•n □ NPHI
□ PHIT
P □ RHOB
Rp □ RT
Rxo □ SFLU
7>+ □ SP
Fra □ VCL
Rn □ SN

Petrel Geophysics Condition Input data for Seismic well tie •349
I
Exercises — Condition input data for seismic well
tie
In these exercises, you learn to import and quality check the checkshot
data and condition the well data to prepare it for Sonic calibration
which will be later used for synthetic generation.

Exercise workflow
Q. 1. Import checkshots.
3 2. Make a well section.
3. Quality control and edit well logs.

0 Exercise 1 — Import checkshot data for a single well


1. Right-click the Wells folder in the Input pane and select

n You can find the


Import (on selection).
2. Find the input file in Data import\Well input data\

.
input files in Data import\ Checkshots. Remember to set the Files of type to
Well input data\
Checkshots.
Checkshots format (ASCII) (*.*).
3. Select the Diamond_ 14.cs file (do not select the
AIICheckShots.cs file) and click Open.

Columns can be
added or removed in the
Import checkshots dialog
box using the Append or
Delete a column in the
table buttons.
Each file must be attached to
the correct well trace (done
automatically here). It is
possible to set different
depth and time datums,
depending on the input.

350 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
4. Match the parameter settings with the header information
section in the lower part of the window.
Make sure that Number of header lines is set to 2 and the
Negate time values check box is selected.
< [\] Import checkshots: Diamond_14.cs 1ÿ1
>
sida
Column # 1 2
Attribute TVD TWT
Attribute name TVD TWT
Attribute type Continuous Continuous
>1 Unit feet millisecond

Connect to trace: A Diamor>d-14 ▼ Number of header lines: 2

% © Well name: Diamond_14cs Undefined value: -999


a
Depth
a
Depth datum: T MSL ▼ Zfrom MSL: [° ft
< Negate Z vak >
Time
Time datum: "£ SRD Zfrom MSL: (Ó ft
[7] Negate time values TWT from SRD: ms yj
□ Replai ft/s
Date
(§) Default
© Custom date format a
3DE
29/12/1977
E a
Time Zone (UTC+01:00) Brussels. Copenhagen, Madrid. Paris ▼ |7] DST enabled

Header info ffirst 30 lines):

Line 1: Diamond-14 Checkshots A

Line 2: TVDSS feet TWT ms □


Line 3: 0.0000 0.00
Line 4: 81.990 32.60

V OKforaB ] [ V OK | Cancel

5. When satisfied with the parameter selection, click OK.


6. Click OK in the Input data dialog box that appears.

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •351
7. In the Global well logs folder, locate the newly imported
Diamond_14.cs object.
8. Right-click the object and select Spreadsheet.
• Input w Q X
< * 0 Wdls >
- t □ Gbba/wefbgs
Log attributes
IS □ CALI
t □ CILD
R« □ CILM
R$ □ CSFL
[m <I> □ DPHI
P □ DRHO
At □ DT
Y □ GR
RD □ ILD
R« □ ILM
% *n □ NPHI
<%«□ PHIT
P □ RHOB
RDD RT
< R*o □ SFLU >
7* □ SP
Fra □ VCL
R« □ SN
Diamond_14.i
Settings

Import (on selection) .. .


Export object

Efl.it global color table

A Delete ...
Spreadsheet 1
|=) Copy as derived log or log template
l>
" Collapse (recursive)
é
• Expand (recursive)

f Synchronize MD s

f Synchronize XYTs
Insert new attribute

Convert to interpretation
Ly Guru

352 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
9. Change the Depth in field to 7VDSS from the Depth in list at
the top of the spreadsheet.
The first two columns
In the Checkshots spreadsheet dialog box, all grayed out can be edited if necessary.
columns are calculated. Average velocity and Interval velocity
< values are derived from the input time-depth pairs. Sonic time >
and Sonic Int. Vel come from the input sonic log.
Drift is the difference between the two data sources. All
checkshot data in Petrel is referenced to TVDSS (that is,
referenced to MSL).
Checkshot spreadsheet for 'Diamond_14.cs‘ | CD ||
M) Well: ¿ All wells w Sonic log At DT

%
ED El El® TVDSS Time in: TWT - B s® a
Sonic Int.
TVDSS TWT Average vek>city Interval velocity Sonic time Drift Well
Vel
2 81.99 32.60 5030 06 5147.23 10.82 7574.47 -5.48 Diamond-14
3 281% 110.30 5112.60 5333.07 37.23 7574.48 -17.92 Diamond-14
4 481.95 185.30 5201.83 5486.69 63.63 7574.48 -29.02 Diamond-14 =
5 681.94 258.20 5282 26 5641.47 90.03 7574.48 -39.07 Diamond-14
6 881.93 329.10 5359.65 5813.37 116.43 7574.47 -48.12 Diamond-14
7 1081.91 397.90 5438 10 5934.42 142.84 7574.47 -56.11 Diamond-14
8 1281.90 465.30 5509 99 6106.87 169.24 7574.48 -6341 Diamond-14
9 1481.90 530.80 5583.65 6269.28 195.65 7573.90 -69.75 Diamond-14
10 1681.89 594.60 5657.21 6389.78 222.05 7574.30 -75.25 Diamond-14
11 1881.89 657.20 5726.99 6522 35 248.46 7574.20 -80.14 Diamond-14
12 2081.80 718.50 5794.85 6655.57 274.85 7574.27 -84.40 Diamond-14
13 2281.80 778.60 5861 29 6791.17 301.25 7574.31 -88.05 Diamond-14
14 2481.80 837.50 5926 69 6908 46 327.66 7574.31 -91.09 Diamond-14
15 2681.80 895.40 5990.17 7042.25 354.06 7574.39 -93.64 Diamond-14
16 2881.80 952.20 6052 93 7168.46 380.47 7574.05 -95 63 Diamond-14
17 3081.80 1008.00 6114.68 7246.38 406.87 7574.12 -97.13 Diamond-14
18 3281.80 1063.20 6173.44 7295.62 433.28 7574.38 -98.32 Diamond-14
19 3481.70 1118.00 6228 44 7220.22 459.67 7573.65 -99 33 Diamond-14
V Apply ✓ OK 7< Cancel

Deleting data in the spreadsheet does not necessarily correct


the checkshot data because the interval velocity is calculated
between two points. By removing a time-depth pair, a new
interval velocity is calculated down to the point below, which
can result in a new outlier.
Checkshots are hard data points; you must have good reasons
for deleting any data.
10. Scroll down the spreadsheet and observe the available data.
11. Save your project.

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •353
I
0 Exercise 2 — Import and quality check checkshot data for
multiple wells
When the quality check and edit is finalized, the checkshots can be
< used to calibrate sonic logs. You also can use them to establish >
time-depth relationships directly in wells.
1. Right-click the Wells folder in the Input pane and select
Import (on selection).
Q. 2. Find the input files in the Data import\Well input data\
Checkshots folder. Remember to set the Files of type to
Checkshots format (ASCII) (*.*).
jo 3. Select the file AIICheckShots.cs and click Open.
4. Check the parameters in the upper part of the Import
checkshots dialog box against the first 30 lines of the header


354 Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
R] Import checkshots: AllCheckShots.cs 1ÿ1

si a a
Column # 1 2 3 4 5 6
Attribute X Y z TWT MD Well
Attribute name X Y Z TWT MD Well
< Attribute type
Unit
Continuous
File CRS unit
Continuous
File CRS unit
Continuous Continuous Continuous
feet millisecond feet
Text
>

Connect to trace: Diamond-14

® Well name MCheckShots.es Undefined value: -999


a
Depth
a
Depth datum: MSL Zfrom MSL: 0 ft
PH Negate Z values

Time
E:
Time datum: “£ SRD Zfrom MSL 0 ft

% Negate time values TWT from SRD: 0 ms a


□ Replacement velocty ft/s
Date
(3) Defauft
© Custom date format a
29/12/1977
a
Time Zone (UTC+OTOO) Brussels. Copenhagen. Madrid. Paris a DST enabled
Header info first 30 lines):
Line
Line
1: *
Petrel CheckShots format
2: VERSION 1
Line 3: BEGIN HEADER
Line 4: X
Line 5: Y
Line 6: Z
Line 7: TWT Picked
Line 8: MD
Line 9 Well
Line 10 END HEADER
Line 11 1599743.87 -172747.82 0.00 0.00 95.00 "Agate-H6"
Line 12 1599743.09 -172748.18 -100.00 -39.71 195.01 "Agate-H6"
4

V OK for all ✓ OK | A Cancel

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •355
5. Click O/Cto import the checkshot data file.
6. Click OK for All on the appearing Input data dialog box.
7. In the Global well logs folder, find the AIICheckShots.cs
object.
< 8. Right-click AHCheckShots.es onú select Spreadsheet. >
9. On the Home tab, in the Insert group, click Window, then
click Function windowto insert a new function window.
File Home Stratigraphy Seismic Interpretation Petroleum Systems Decision Support Structural M

G&G
✓ai
Perspective
¡a
Tool
<5 B t ai
Inspector Players Visual Window
a ii n
Full Panes Reset Window
a
Object
~
Folder
a
r
Peti
palette filters layout» screen » layout
View
ETfl 2D window
%
[1
[ja]
3D window
Function window
Hjstogram window

HD Interpretation window
[jjg] Intersection window
¡I Map window

1551 Plot window


|5j?| Stereo net window
[ÿ1 Tectonic stress window

fl Charting window

Well section window

lornado plot window


El QI crossplot window
[¡51 Stratigraphic chart window

Geotime window

1 0. Crossplot the Interval velocity vs. Z attributes for


AIICheckShots.cs by selecting them in the Attributes
subfolder. The display can be changed on the Style tab in the
Settings dialog box for the data.

356 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
11 . Expand the Well filter and use it to display checkshot data only
for the Albite-F1 well.
m-V.-'gL-*.*. <PQB-a.-g- B-dHTig-EB-
5000 5200 5400 5600 5800 6000 6200 6400 6600 6800 7000 7200 7400 7600 7800 8000 8200 8400 8600 8800 MOO 9200 9400 9600 9800

< >
I- ■
1' •i
i- ■i
* 'ÿ$ 13 AJICheckShols.es
SI • 0 Attributes i
N Z\®z
ti D TWTpickcd
□ MD
HI>I
1 0 Wd
Xn O Average velocity ■
0 tv ® Interval velocity
!ÿ
a AA Welder
□ Agate-HG ■
4 0 Abile-Fl
< i- a! D Amethyst -3 ■ >
5000 5200 5400 5600 5800 6000 6200 6400 6600 6800 7000 7200 7400 7600 7800 8000 8200 8400 8600 8800 9000 9200 9400 9600 9800
Interval velocity, [ft/s]
Symbol legend
Interval velocity vs Z (AllCheckShots cs)

12. Use the Select using freehand drawtoo\ and paint a closed
area in the Function window. Make sure that the filter
polygon contains some bad points (outliers).
lab diBHZ QB• H'du-iT1 D'EH- - Bi-a- A |
4400 4800 5200 5600
lift Select using 2D rectangle
7200 7600 8000 8400 8800 9200 9600 10000
]-
f Iftft
Select using freehand draw
Select using ID range on X axis
Select using ID range on Y axis

I- É

N*“ §

4400 6000 6400 6800 7200 7600 8000 9200 10000


Interval velocity, [ft/s]
Symbol legend
Interval velocity vs Z (AllCheckShots cs)

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •357
13. In the Checkshot spreadsheet, click Delete selected
row(s) in the table to remove the row and click Apply to
change the checkshot data.
14. Check the other wells for outliers.
< >
Checkshot spreadsheet for 'AIICheckShots.es' l CD [I B~||w£3w|

m Well: ¿ All wells Sonic log: At DT

□MB
MD
Depth in:

TWT
MD

Average velocity
Time in:

Interval velocity
TWT

Sonic time
Sonic Int.
- di ss s
Drift Well
Vel
1370 6619.90 1896.50 6885.59 8573.66 783.99 8612.32 -164.26 Albite-F1
1371 6819.90 1943.10 6926.07 8614.93 805.64 9228 09 -165.91 Albite-FI
1372 7019.90 1989.50 6965.46 8691.77 827.74 9043 39 -167.01 Albite-FI
1373 7219.88 2035.50 7004.48 8771.52 849.50 9187.30 -168.25 Albite-FI
E! 1374 7419.90 2081.10 7043.19 8849.59 871.57 9061 92 -168.98 Albite-FI
1375 7619.91 2126.30 7081.59 8906.10 893.71 9032 33 -169.44 Albite-F1
ft 1376 7819.86 2171.20 7119.32 8986.87 915.90 9011.47 -169.70 Albite-FI
1377 8019.83 2215.70 7156.83 9070.43 937.71 9165.25 -170.14 Albite-FI
1378 8219.84 2259.80 7194.18 9132.65 959.58 9147.18 -170.32 Albite-FI
1379 8419.85 2303.60 7231.03 9760.85 981.02 9328.77 -170.78 Albite-FI
1380 8734.18 2368.00 7299.83 1015.83 9027.72 -168.17 Albite-FI
1381 49.00 0.00 5058.29 0.00 0.00 Turquoise-2
1382 199.99 59.70 5058.29 5201.04 17.00 8882.53 -12.85 Turquoise-2
1383 399.97 136.60 5138.65 5354.48 39.51 8882.53 -28.79 Turquoise-2
1384 599.96 211.30 5214.96 5516.69 60.98 9315.09 -44.67 Turquoise-2
1385 799.94 283.80 5292.04 5665.44 82.20 9423 42 -59.70 Turquoise-2
1386 999.93 354.40 5366.42 5805.22 103.32 9470.61 -73.88 Turquoise-2 □
1387 1199 92 423.30 5437.85 5942.94 12445 9464 33 -87.20 Turquoise-2

✓ Apply ✓ OK A Cancel

15. Save your project.

358 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
Exercise 3 — Condition logs
The Log conditioning toolbox provides a number of tools for editing 0
existing log data to increase quality and remove deficiencies. The tools
are used interactively in the Well section window to modify and
< >
condition the log data. These tools also allow you to save the edited log
in the data tree.
1. On the Home tab, in the Insert group, click Window, then
click Well section window to insert a new well section
>1 window.
Home Stratigraphy Seismic Interpretation Petroleum Systems Decision Support Structural Modeling Property Model

% ive *«
Tool Inspector
E ir ffi
Players Visual Window
n 11rm u c
Full Panes Reset Window Object Folder Petrel Studio
§i
Studio Impor
palette filters layout» screen » layout file
View Search Mana
, 03 2D window
ETH ID window
] Function window

[j|i] Hjstogram window
(ID Interpretation window
[*£l Intersection window

I MaP window
[tjg] Plot window
[jfe] Stereonet window
(ÿ) Tectonic stress window
@ Charting window

[ÉH Well section window


[y| Tornado plot window
[jÿ| QI crossplot window
[51 Stratigraphic chart window
[|¿5 Geotime window

2. Click OK in the Select new well section window settings


dialog box.
R] Select new well section window settings tÿ-1
n X-section

.j '• Create new x-section: X-section 1 a


s a
0 Template

ü '• Create new template ¡Elet section ti l-itl


a
© Use existing template: Well section template 1 a
/‘ppiy to all new well section windows a
Show template settings

[V OK ] [ÿCancel

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •359
3. Display the well Diamond-1 4 found from the Wells folder.
4. Open the Global well logs folder and display GR, CALI,
RHOB, and DT.
i*ÿ Input x ft S5 Well section tern - E, l~t f
'
9

-
■ SSTVD *
< M Vj Wells >
)iamond-14 [bblVUJ
i|-0 Ghbahvelhgt Hz-; :-=ÿ RHOB I:'
I* ¿51 Log attrfoutes 1 286915 66 gAPI 207.751ÿ010 m 2ÁA\ 1 4380 »cm3 2 6620 |'l 4 90 us/ft 303.8C
I8I0 CALI
& □ CILD
R„□ CILM
4131.8;
4200 -j- 1 1
Rs □ CSFL
[•] <P □ DPHI
P □ DRHO
At 0 DT
Y a
GR
Rp □ ILD
Rn □ ILM =
4300 -i

4400

4500
t
c t
0 *ii □ NPHI J
<%, □ PHIT
p a RHOB
4600
>
RD □ RT
R«o □ SFLU
4700 -j

\ I V
P
t>
£+ □ SP
Fra □ VCL
Rn □ SN
Diatnond_14.cs
AJICheckSh0t3.cs
4800

4900 - r ? ; .

5. On the Well Section tab, in the Cross-section group, click


if-t
a
Well
Well correlation correlation
. The Tool Palette opens.
File

Well section tern *

Template settings

New template
Stratigraphy

ism
correlation!
Seismic Interpretation

v* 1
snow vertical
tracks
____
Petroleum Systems

|
Show cell
boundary
Decision Support

Set production
chart mode
Domain;

-
|H
-r’
Structural Modeling

SSTVD

Window settings
'

5
Property Modeling

_4®. ¡¡¡¡¡
Scaling
|l|J
view all

Equalize scales

View entire well


Fracture Modeling

4*-
Production

ww
Sync
rolling
Sync
j scaling
Well Design

Relative
50000
[a| Insert
(2 Show
¡§ Mane
Templates n Cross section Visualization Vertical scaling Horizontal scaling

6. Color fill logs by clicking Curve fill in the Well


correlation Tool Palette.

360 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
0 Diamond-14 SSTVD]
SSTVD GR CALI RHOB DT
1:2869 5.66 gAPI 207,75 -0.10 in 2.44 '~ 43.S0 3.cm3 2.6620 14.90 usffl 303.80
ima rav Caliper lensitv Sonic
4131.8:

4200 4 l
4300

4400 4

>1
4500 T

4600
0 IT
4700
_¿j Q 3D grid
4800 _ Completions design
Edit fault properties
4900 ■: Facies
'Á Fault model <M[•,;T= 1 oo4 Palette
33

__
5000 -i @ Geobody interpretation Select »
•fjjj Z] Geomechanics tools Wel correlation X

5100 c ¿ Geopolygon editing


ipffeas”!
__ Log conditioning

5200 c Mesh editing ¥ [' -s


Microseismic

5300 Pad editing


Point editing

5400 c Polygon editing


Prestack seismic

5500 QI tools
Í [2
i Seismic interpretation

5600 c Seismic well tie

__
Z} Stratigraphic chart editing

5700 ~ -IB{ n Surface editing_


!S 3 Well correlation
5800 - Well design
IjS X-section editing

5900

6000 F
6128.8a I
Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •361
7. With Select/Pick mode [P] switched on, click on a curve
in Well section window and then click Adjust color table
in the Quick Access toolbar to refresh the color fill of the
< curve. >

Siy D □•[!]« 1SI =


8. From the Well section Window toolbar, click Template
1=1
settings . From here, you can adjust the template and
curves for suitable display.
|Q fe SSTVD • Well section ten - I,D Undef •
fif®* !
M- Retake . 50000 ■

B-B* Q - HE'S H t
0
9. Set the log curve values of GR and DT to 0-200 and 30-300,
respectively, to display the logs better in the Well section
window.
[ÿ] Settings for 'Well section template 3' S3
0 Info”! [{§}
_
Well section template

Template objects Objects settings a


ns | Vertical tracks (5)
@ (] Index track 0 Info Qg} Definition )[ÿ] Limits! V Style
B -

r@Y -

- 0 Min value 0 a
m B i3HTro
toÿCALI
m Max value:
Direction:
200
Normal
El RHOB
L-gjp RHOB □ Wrap |_Both
É 0j£. DT
Hi @flt DT
Borehole markers
E) Background
Deviated tracks (0)
la-

Template objects ¿ Objects settings a


U-

fa
n■@0 ¿ÿÿVIA GR
Vertical tracks (5)
Index track O Into [ÿ¡ Definition| fTf Umitsj Style

0Y GR 0 Min value: 30 d
E 0¿CALI @j Max value: 300
0gjCAU Direction Normal
RHOB
@P RHOB | Both
1] . E Wrap:
- wjua
TSatMl —
-
Ü. Borehole markers
D= Background
Deviated tracks (0)
Co

*/ /tpply ] ■/ OK A Cancel |

362 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
10. In Select/Pick mode [P] , click on a curve in Well section
window and click Log conditioning IsS in the mini toolbar to
open the Log conditioning Tool Palette.
< >
k SSTVD ▼ Well section tern ÍT]

+>Diamond-14 [SSTVD]
SSTVD GR _ _ CAU
200.00|-Vl0
RHOB _ I’ (
1:2869 OOP gAPI iñ Z44 V4380*cm3 2.6620 *30.00 us/ft 300.00
liper •ensitv Sonic
4131.8 =
4200

1 4300
¡a
4400 -i

4500 -

4600
m»r ni a
4700
CALI (Continuous well log)
*I I—&*1m ti
T I '

4800 Show the selected item in tree


M

4900 I* Send to Studio

rifll Retrieve from Studio


& Edit global color table
5000
. ..
5100
{ |=]ft Delete

Copy as derived log

1 ({=) Copy continuous well log (data only)

5200 IJJ Add to global template

5300 \* 1ÿ Add to local template


Log set
Guru
5400

5500

5600

C7(W

11 . Identify the zones with spikes on the sonic log.


12. In the Log conditioning Tool Palette, click Selection

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •363
13. Click and drag the mouse to select an area around spiky
sections in the DT track. If you double-click the track, the entire
log is selected.

< SSTVD ( GR
1:2437 0.00 gAPI 200.00-0.10
C-LI
in
__
_® Diamond-14
2.44
SSTVD]
RHOB
'30 00
DT
us/ft 300 00
>
mma rav BÿBcaiioer BÿB"Densrty Sonic
3773.3: 1:-= :: : :: |*HC= : |DT 133.01

3900 -j
)

4000

4100
0
4200 -!

Tool Palette
l
4300

=

Selptfíion
* stag condit oning
W x
Domain
SSTVD (ft)
Start
3864.84
End
9126.80
Log
DT
Well
Diamond-1
Enable
0 0
Delete
Ü1
— I»...
R ?k Sx ll t
4500 ■
? r •? ST h «-
*ui
4600 -j
J
4700 r
14. In the Log conditioning toolbox, click Eliminate
spike P* .

364 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
Note how the selected area of study can be affected by
changing the parameters (Number of standard deviation, Spike
analysis window, and Replacement method).
15. Continue until you are satisfied with the level of removed
< >
spikes.
16. Click Eliminate spikes £liminatc I to remove the spikes.
($> Diamond-14 SSTVD]
SSTVD GR _
CAU RHOB DT
200.001 -0.10
(

1:1706 0.00 gAPI in 2.44"'.4380 3.'cm3 1.6623 30.00 us.m 000.00


imma rav 1 Caliper |ÿH""DeñsitY I Sonic
3335 -

0
3900 \

4000

4100
F
Tool Palette

Eliminate spikes
Log conditioning
Si X
Spike detection options:
'Number of standard deviation:
Spike ana ysis window:
1.73

1000
i
samples
tf R Ri|2|K
*<> n r •? ST H *- Replacement method: Interpolate I Eliminate spikes
‘U 1
4400 - I
4500 -

K
17. After reviewing the complete sonic log section in line with key
logs and despiking where necessary, click
Save modified logs E3 in the Log conditioning Tool
Palette.
Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •365
1
22. Select the Min value and Max value check boxes and enter
30 and 300.
[BJ Settings for ’Well section template 3'

0 Info Well section template I


Template objects - Lj| Objects settings a
m Vertical tracks (6)
0|] Indextrack
Info 1
[~@ Definition 1~[ Limits | 4/ Style
£ - 0AGR |y] Min value: 30 a
s -
uY GR
0&CAU
0® CALI
® Max value: 300
Direction: Normal
- a&RROB
Q. 0P RHOB □ Wrap: Both
B 0ADT
m - 0ÿ
0At DT
Sonic Despked
a E l2)At
Borehole markers
ft © Background
Deviated tracks (0)

23. On the Style tab, choose Selected from the list next to the
color section.
24. Choose a different color for Sonic Despiked and click Apply.
25. Highlight the Sonic Despiked log from the object list on the left
side of the dialog box. Move it under the track that contains DT
by using the blue arrow.

Petrel Geophysics Condition input data for Seismic well tie •367
I
26. Remove the empty track, click Apply, and click OK.
|S I» - |tj* Well section tem VI I'» B-B- Q IE
' Unde! •

1 B3 Llj Settings for Wril section template 3'

< Olnto R >


-a
0 Info [7,j Definition H L*'™15 ♦' Style

m
it- m Show Color
a

i-ii - Sold
Q. m
3 E kiA Track
□ Show *ÿ•1 Btest
a
ft Deviatedtracks (0) H
'

•i
foa* 3
il -a
.

“» 03 “»i 03
¡¡ü™ |
031«.... -I nc*r mi*- -i

27. Save your project.

*
Review questions
• What are the main quality control steps for importing
checkshot data?
• Name five major functionalities in the Log conditioning tool?

Summary
In this module, you learned about:
• loading and quality controlling checkshot data
• defining time-depth relationships
• using the Log conditioning Tool Palette

368 •Condition input data for Seismic well tie Petrel Geophysics
I
Module 7 — Sonic
calibration
<

In this module, you learn how to use sonic log and checkshot data to
Q. create a consistent time-depth relationship. In addition, you are
presented with some theoretical background about sonic calibration.

jo
Learning objectives
After completing this module, you will know how to:
m
< • calibrate a sonic log
• select input data and parameters
• define knee points and outputs

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •369


I
flf Lesson 1 — Sonic log calibration
Calibrating the sonic log corrects the log velocities to time-depth data
(typically checkshots) and accurately hangs the sonic log in time. A
< time-depth relationship can be generated from the calibrated sonic log. >
It is used as the preferred time-depth relationship for the well of study.
You perform calibration by increasing or decreasing the sonic slowness
values slightly over sections of the log until the integrated sonic log
travel times match the times derived from the checkshot survey. The
Q.
mechanism used to control this process is termed Drift Curve
3
(Figure 1).
Drift can be computed at every depth level and is defined as:
Drift = checkshot time - integrated sonic time (Tcheckshot- Tlog)

<
93 33 usmt
_ L
Dolomite-BI [SSTVD]

133.0*1-29.40
Checkshottime
ms
>
fÜTMH Sometime
1796 5:

i
4000

6000 ©
7000
m ©
8000
o 21 \

. 8729
£
Figure 1 Sonic times corrected to match checkshot times to obtain Drift curve

1 DT
2 Sonic TD curve
3 Checkshots
4 Drift: Sonic T - checkshots

370 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


I
If the drift curve is positive, the checkshot travel time is longer than the
integrated sonic travel time, meaning that the sonic log is too fast. If
the drift curve is negative, the sonic log is too slow.
< Use calibration to define a drift curve that goes through the checkshot >
data that corrects the sonic log to the known travel time values that are
derived from the checkshot data. The result is a calibrated sonic log
(Figure 2).
There are two ways to apply the necessary corrections:
Q.
• The differential correction method uses multiplication to
shift the sonic log to higher velocities. The correction is
applied as a velocity-dependent percentage, so that larger
jo corrections are applied to the lowest velocity sections.
This correction is based on the assumption that low velocity
sections of the log are prevalent in poor borehole conditions
and contribute heavily to transit time errors.
• The linear correction method uses simple addition to shift
the sonic log to lower velocities.
This correction is based on the assumption that high velocity
sections of the log are in better borehole conditions and make
up only a small part of the transit time errors overall.

In Figure 2, the updated TD is converted to the calibrated sonic log


DT_Calib.

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •371


Dolomite-B1 ÍSSTVDl
1 11450

< >

g

z

Figure 2 Drift curve is added to the sonic TD curve; Sonic log + Drift curve =
DT_Calib

Procedure — Calibrate a Sonic log using the SWT dialog


box
1. On the Seismic interpretation tab, in the Seismic-well
calibration group, click Seismic well tie.
File Home Stratigraphy Seismic Interpretation Petroleum Systems Decisionÿ

Managers
3
'99
Seismic (default)
<
>
Seismic
•yjy.
§§
Wavelet toolbox

Log conditioning if E
Insert Seismic
Houston_Restorat »
QQ well tie Well tie editing » interpretation

D
Setup Seismic-well calibration 2D/3D interpretation ft

As a minimum for the The Seismic well tie dialog box opens.
sonic calibration, a sonic
curve must exist in the well.
If one or more objects
related to time-depth
information (such as
checkshots) are associated
with the well under study,
they are available from a list
in the dialog box.


372 Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics
B
2. In the Seismic well tie dialog box, select Sonic calibration as
study type and select the well to use.
3. Select the default sonic calibration template.
O If no checkshots
exist for the well, a
4. Select the parameters on the various tabs in the dialog box. checkshot object can be
(These tabs are discussed in the next section.) dropped in from another
well. In this situation, you
5. When you are satisfied with the parameters, click OK. also can use a sonic or
velocity log as TDR.

■pll Seismic well tie El


Q.
Seismic well tie Hints

9 Create study: (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration


□I
£ O Edit study:
jo
Type of study: Sonic calibration <D
Well: _| sfr | ¿ Diamond-14
TÜ Copy template: Sonic calibration default template
© - T2
Input Output | Datuming | Time-depth | Options | Statistics ~ra-k marage- |
Parameters:
© a
At Sonic log: c£> At Sonic Despiked
$ TDR: c£>~] V) Diamond-14/AIICheckShots cs » O Drop from other well

A Well section window opens where you can calibrate your


sonic log (discussed later in this lesson).

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •373


I
Input tab
The Input tab (Figure 3) in the Sonic calibration study controls the input
of sonic logs, checkshots, and the time-depth relationship (TDR).
< Checkshots are the most common TDR used; however, if this data is not >
available, integration of either the sonic and velocity logs is supported.
The input options are available according to the selected well.
Input [ Output | Datuming | Time-depth | Options | Statistics | Track manager
Q. Parameters: a
At Sonic log: I I At Sonic Despiked ▼

TDR: [ÿ] Diamon<i-14yAIICheckShots.cs » □ Drop from other well


Jo
Figure 3 Input tab in the Seismic well tie process dialog box

1 Sonic log: Input sonic log that is calibrated. Velocity logs


also are accepted.
2 TDR: Name of the TDR (usually a checkshot) that is used
to calibrate the sonic log. If no checkshot is available for
the well, you can drop in a different one from another
well.

374 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


1
Output tab

<
On the Output tab (Figure 4), you can control the output logs from the
sonic calibration study. The Output tab has these options:
• Calibrated sonic
n The Auto save
option automatically saves
any changes made to the >
• Time-depth relationship (TDR) output during the process.
• Integrated sonic
• Drift curve/TcmTI
• Knee points
Q. • Knee curve
• Residual drift
a Input | Output | Datuming I Time-depth I Options I Statistics Track manager
A ) Calibrated sonic

Calibrated sonic: Calibrated sonic A □


O Auto save
® Time depth relationship (TDR)
TDR name: Calibrated TDR
4IB
Sample interval: 16 40 ; ft □ All samples
I’/; Autosave |
|Set as active TDR|
(v) Integrated sonic

® TcmTl
(v) Knee points
v i Knee curve

© Residual drift
Figure 4 Output tab in the Seismic well tie dialog box

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •375


I
The time-depth relationship (TDR) derived from the calibrated sonic can
be used to convert the wells in time. In the Settings dialog box for the
Wells folder, on the Time tab (Figure 5), there is a priority list for
sources to establish TDRs. All possible velocity data sources that can
< be used to establish a TDR in the project are listed there. >

For any given well, the TDR is established from the top of the list using
only the selected objects (with a check mark). If the data object does
not exist for the well, the process goes to the next object down.
Q.
To rearrange the priority list, click the item that you want to move and
3
use the up and down arrows to reposition it. Select the check box next
to the objects to include them as a possible TDR source (blue check
mark).
AA Settings for 'Wells'

* ® Info Statistics Itl I Thickness Report ¡ Make logs Simulation settings Quality attributes Lateral

0 Create new

O E<* existing |ouT Oneway time -


□ Apply to al wells D Lock calculated logs a
C From shared TDR:
®[
$ From velocity function ffr] V (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sorec calibfation'Calibrated TDR

(5) h/tt Some Despiked


tip -
(Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibratior'/isual Calibrated sonic log (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration
□ Diamond_14.cs
AIICheckShots.cs

□ Manual adjustment ®[

_aJ
® Insert extra point at SRD If not covered

lag, ft»

| VAH» J I. V OK | K I

Figure 5 Time tab in the Settings dialog box

The From shared checkshot option uses data from one well to
establish time-depth relationships in other selected wells. Activate the
option, choose a well from the Well filter of the available checkshot
item, and insert “v* it into the dialog box.
The Manual adjustment option allows you to adjust the TDR manually
based on Well tops.
376 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics
I
When you click on Set as active TDR in the Seismic well tie dialog
box, the output TDR derived from the calibrated sonic log is selected
automatically on the Time tab only for the well of study.

< It is not applied to the other wells. It overrides the global settings for >
this well only.

Sample interval
Q. When saving or autosaving the time-depth relationship (that is, saving
with continuous generation), there are options to set the sample
interval of the time-depth relationship.
jo

Datumingtab
Datuming is of key importance. By default, the Seismic well tie
process picks up the project datum and kelly bushing of the currently
used well. The kelly bushing (distance from Mean Sea Level) is returned
as Elevation of sonic log depth datum. These options are used only if
the project datum and Seismic Reference Datum do not coincide with
Mean Sea Level.
Figure 6 shows the marine datum options on the Datuming tab. Figure
7 shows the land datum options on the Datuming tab.

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •377


Input I I
Output Datummg | Time-depth | Options | Statistics ¡ Track manager

0 Land datum U
9 Marine datum
Checkshot Log depth datum (KB)
depth cfetvm
< >
v
Vw
W Tme datvm (SRD)
B *•: _
Vb %
ITIf
Seabed

Datum elevation
Checkshot time-zero (b):
a
0 00 ft @| Use SRD

1 Output time (TWT) (c): 0.00 ft □ Use SRD


0 Above mean sea level:
Elevation of sonic log (a): 118 00 ft
a
Replacement velocity (Vr): 4862 20 ft/’s
Water layer a
Elevation of water surface (d): 0.00 ft
Velocity (Vw): 4862 20 ft's

Below seabed
Depth of seabed (from MSL) (e):
a
0 00 ft
Velocity (Vb): 4862 20 ft's

Figure 6 Options for Marine datums on the Datuming tab

378 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


I
Input | Output) Datuming | Time-depth | Options | Statistics ) Track manager

| © Land datum | a
Marine datum
Cheefcjhot ,log depth datvn (KB)
depth datum
< >
,Trrw datum (SRDI
Vr

Q.
-jLllilfcjfcj
3
Datum elevation a
Checkshot time-zero (b): OOP ft g]UseSRD
Output time (TWT) (c): 0 00 ft □ UseSRD
ii Above ground surface a
Elevation of sonic log (a): 118.00 ft

Replacement velocity (Vr): 486220 ft/s


< >
Weathering: -

Elevation of ground surface (d):


a
118 00 ft
Velocity (Vw): 7874.02 ft/s

Below weathering: a
Elevation of the base of the weathering (e): 118 00 ft
Velocity (Vb): 7874 02 ft/s

Figure 7 Options for Land datums on the Datuming tab

Datums and replacement velocities


The process of bringing sonic log velocities into agreement with seismic
velocities does not, by itself, guarantee a correct depth-time
relationship. The logs also must be placed in the correct position
relative to the seismic data before integration using datums and
replacement velocities.
In the context of sonic log calibration and well-seismic tie, a datum is
defined as the elevation at which a property is set (typically) to 0.0, in
either the depth or time domain. The location of the datum is coaxial
with, or directly above, the wellbore trajectory.
In most cases, a datum consists of a single scalar value. However, in
some cases, a datum is derived from a surface with either a constant or
variable elevation, which can be important when dealing with deviated
wells (such as ground surface or water bottom elevation).
Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •379
I
Replacement velocities, when used, cause static (vertical) shifts to
seismic and other time domain data (checkshots, VSPs). These
velocities bring a specific point in time (or some time domain surface)
into alignment with some common elevation feature. This feature can
< be real (ground level) or arbitrary (3,000 m above MSL). These velocities >
can be constant (air-ground surface replacement velocity) or space-
variant (ground surface-based weathering layer replacement velocity).
Datum errors are a common cause of confusion when working with well
Q. and seismic data. A clear understanding of the datums is required to
3 ensure that all necessary shifts are applied and that all data objects are
properly aligned.
Alignment errors can result in mis-ties or erroneous phase estimations,
which is true particularly when working with VSP data on land. The VSP
acquisition and processing reports are crucial to understanding mis-ties
and inconsistencies.
As described in more detail in the next section, many vertical shifts and
artificial datums are used when processing seismic and VSP data. If the
data is not put back in the right place, a residual (and often difficult to
identify) shift is embedded in the data.

Seismic reference datum


Initial seismic acquisition and processing occur in the time domain,
along with many post-processing analytical activities such as wavelet-
based inversion. A convention in the seismic industry is that processed
seismic records begin at a time of 0.0 sec. This 0.0 time reference point
must be associated with an elevation reference point, which is known
as the Seismic Reference Datum (SRD).
In almost all marine and many land cases, SRD is set at a constant
value - a flat surface. However, there are cases where SRD is a non-flat
surface with different values at each seismic trace.
For this case, you can define the depth at which the checkshot passes
through time zero. This option is available when you clear the check box
Use SRD.

380 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


I
Marine seismic
In the marine seismic case, 0.0 time typically is adjusted to mean sea
level (MSL) and SRD most often is set at 0.0 feet/meters above MSL.
During processing, however, data often is realigned (static shifts are
applied) to alternative datums, such as water bottom or gun depth.
If marine data appears to be 25 feet shallower than expected, ask the
processors if they remembered to move back to MSL after processing at
gun depth. If they did not, the data can be zero datumed at 25 feet
Q. below MSL.
3
Similarly, data acquired in land-marine transition areas or very shallow
water can be processed using datums related to tidal fluctuations
during acquisition.
There are three common datum-related causes of alignment ambiguity
between seismic and well data for marine cases:
• Use of a constant (or linear trend) water column velocity. (This
velocity is not valid in deepwater Gulf of Mexico, proximal
offshore Brazil, and other areas where salinity changes affect
water column velocity.)
• Inconsistencies between log and seismic shallow velocity
profiles. Often, no logs are available for a significant distance
below the mudline. Linear trends frequently are substituted
and often are incorrect and typically too fast.
• Assumption that water velocity represents the lowest possible
velocity. For example, the presence of biogenic gas in near¬
shore shallow deltaic or marsh sediments can result in
velocities that are significantly lower than water velocity.

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •381


I
On the Datuming tab (Figure 8), the graphic display changes according
to the parameters. By default, the Seismic well tie process picks up the
project datum, but you can change the parameters on this tab.

<
V,,.* 1480 m1%
>

Mb * 2000 mJs

a V, =2100 m/s
OOO ft O UMSRD 7 -CtlKttHOt 1000m
Output fcm«(TWT)(c): 000 ft ElheSRO
Q. a
11800 ft
V2= 2200 ml%
3
V-CMOM
a p
-
V] 2400 m/s
ii -a 7 -ClwtaM

Figure 8 Marine datum and its parameters selection in the Seismic well tie
process dialog box

Land seismic (and VSPs)


The land seismic case can be more complex because of surface
topography and near-surface phenomena that are not present in the
marine case. It also can be more severe in the land case.
In many areas, the irregular thickness and rapid lateral variation of
near-surface layers, water table anomalies, and karsting cause velocity
anomalies that cannot be characterized adequately in the seismic
velocity model.
As a result, time shifts (static shifts) often are present from one trace to
the next, causing timing perturbations that affect deep reflectors. It is
common practice to try to align the traces by making minor up/down
shifts so that a reflector that appears continuous and smooth takes on
this appearance. This situation shifts some traces in a way that moves
them above the 0.0 time point into negative time.
Similarly, larger shifts occur when data is shot beneath a water body
(lake, river) or other feature with velocities that depart significantly from
the seismic velocity model.
Some geophysicists (and some software systems) do not like the idea
382 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics
I
of negative time. The solution is to move SRD far above the point that
any trace is reasonably expected to be shifted. Often, this solution puts
SRD somewhere up in the sky, especially in mountainous areas where
surveys are shot over large changes in elevation.
< >
In West Texas, SRD often is set at 3,000 ft MSL, although ground level
often is closer to 2,300 ft MSL.
In this case, the thickness of the air gap between the SRD and the
ground surface is used to compute a replacement velocity so that the
Q.
first live sample on the seismic trace is located at the surface. Any
3
subsequent static shifts are small enough that data remains in positive
time.
A similar situation occurs with what is known as the weathering
layer. This layer is the region between the ground surface and the
portion of the seismic that the geophysicist can understand. The time
thickness of weathering layer velocity anomalies is estimated and
weathering statics are applied that compensate for the associated
timing shifts. These weathering static shifts must be taken into account
when trying to align land seismic data with VSP traces that typically DO
NOT have weathering statics applied.
In most cases, land VSP and checkshot data are datumed (0.0 time set)
at the ground surface. In areas with elevations relatively close to sea
level, the data can be datumed beneath the ground surface at MSL.
With third-party contractor data libraries, checkshot data is datumed at
some arbitrary subsurface elevation. For example, in West Texas, this
elevation is 1,000 ft MSL.
This means that 0.0 time for VSPs and checkshots often are at a
different elevation than 0.0 time for the seismic data. In cases where
this datum elevation is below ground level, a VSP/checkshot
replacement velocity often is computed and applied so that 0.0 time is
shifted to ground elevation even though the data remains positioned
correctly in the subsurface.
Figure 9 shows Land datum and its parameters selection in the
Seismic well tie dialog box.

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •383


• Land datum a Above surface replacement Va = 340 fTl/S A
Marine datum
KB ■ 20m above ground
Chackshot ,100 depth datum (KBI
depth i Ground! ■ 1000m
Otcund
Sietsce r Time datum ISRM
Vr
Weathering layer Vw = 1800 fTl/S
< Ba*e of >
..ill! kliL -3RD «-400m
Datum elevation a
Chcckshot time- zero (b) 000 ft □ Ute SRD -Choctohot -200m
Output tona (TWT) (c): 0 00 ft □UaoSRD Below Weathering layer Vw = 2100 ITl/S
a v -CftKttfiet
,
Aboveground surface T(JP M3L ■ Om
Elevation of sonic log (a): 11800 ft
Replacement velocity (Vr) 1115 00 ft/s

a Vi = 2300 m/s
[•1
Elevation of ground surface (d)
Velocity (Vw)

Below weathering
3280 00 ft

5905 00 ft/s

a
I
1 V, = 2500 m/s
V -Chackabot 900m

m Elevation at the base of the weathering (e) 1312 00 <1


V -Choetahot
Velocity (Vb) 5890 00 ft/s

0
Figure 9 Land datum and its parameters selection in the Seismic well tie
process dialog box

384 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


B
Seabed : Water velocity
With the seabed and the water velocity options (Figure 10), you can
include a new data point (time-depth pair) into the checkshot survey.
:
< >

Q.

a
jo '1

.
=
-
*
«
-4 — .

r
Water layer
* Elevation o? water surface (d) 0 00 II

: Velocity (Vw)
Bekr* seabed
4862 20 ft's

Depth of seabed (from MSL) (e): 60000 II


Velocity (Vb) 486220 Its

Figure 10 Seabed not taken into account (left) and seabed taken into account
(right)

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •385


Time-depth tab
The Time-depth tab tab (Figure 1 1 ) is divided into three main sections:
• Checkshots and interpolation above TOL
< • Top of log time >
• Below of log time.
This tab works with the Datuming tab to control how checkshots are
used above the top of the log (TOL). It allows you to control how time
values are derived and which interpolation method is used.
[•]
Input Output Datuming Time-depth I Options | Statistics Track manager

All depths in this tab are measured from KB in TVD

0 Checkshots and interpolation above TOL a


Checkshots threshold depth Just above shallowest checkshot ; ■

Interpolation type (time) Linear

Velocity to use at start of interpolation: Calculate automatically

Interpolation velocity at top of log. Calculate automatically

Top of log time


a
© TVTc ■ 0 at the first checkshot sample after the top of the sonic log (TOL)

o Interpolate between the two closest checkshot samples at TOL for Tl-Tc = 0

© Two-way time at the top of sonic log: 122349

Below of log time


Maximum TVD of output time/depth
a
0 00] +1500ft
Below sonic replacement velocity: 0 00 m Default

Figure 1 1 The Time-depth tab in the Seismic well tie dialog box

386 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


I
Checkshots and interpolation above TOL
This section gives you control when working with checkshots above the
top of the log, that is, above the first measured sample of the log.
< These options establish how far above the top of the log (first sample of >
the log) the checkshots are used to define the shallow interval velocity
trend.
Checkshots threshold depth
Q. This field can be set to one of several predefined values or entered
3 manually if you select User from the list. This field controls the
boundary between the values calculated on the Datuming tab and the
values calculated from the checkshots.
Above this depth, the output time-depth is calculated from the
Datuming tab. Between the Checkshot threshold depth and the Top of
< >
sonic log (TOL), the checkshots are used. Depending on the value
selected, the settings on the Datuming tab are not used.
You can select one of these predefined values for the Checkshots
threshold depth field:
• Only use checkshots: The interval velocity trend comes entirely
from the checkshot.
• Just above shallowest checkshot: The interval velocity trend
comes from the Datuming tab down to a point just above the
shallowest checkshot point. From that point downward until
the top of the sonic log, checkshot velocities are used.
• Up to sea surface (for marine)/Up to ground surface (for Land):
The interval velocity trend comes from checkshots up to sea
surface in the marine case, then the values specified on the
Datuming tab are used.
• to sea bed (for marine)/Up to base of weathering (for Land):
Up
The interval velocity trend comes from checkshots up to sea
bed in marine case, then the values specified on the Datuming
tab are used.
• Do not use checkshots above TOL: The interval velocity values
specified on the Datuming tab are used regardless of the
checkshots.
• User: User-defined threshold depth value to start using the
values specified on the Datuming tab.

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •387


I
Interpolation type (time)
The interpolation type between the lowest datum layer and the first
checkshot sample or top of log can be set to Linear, Quadratic, or Cubic
spline.
< >
The fields Velocity to use at start of interpolation and Interpolation
velocity at top of log are available only for the Cubic Spline method. For
these fields, you can select Use datuming velocity or Calculate
automatically.
Q.
3
Top of Log time
This section controls how the time for the top of the sonic log is
calculated. It has these options:
• Tl-Tc = 0 at the first checkshot after the top of the sonic log
(TOL): This calculation is the time of the first checkshot sample
below the TOL minus the time integrated up the sonic log from
this depth to the top of the log.
• Interpolate between the two closest checkshots at TOL for
Ti-Tc = 0: The time at the top of the sonic log is calculated by
interpolating linearly the two closest checkshot samples to get
the corresponding sample at the same depth at the top of
sonic log.
• Two-way time at the top of sonic log: When checkshots are not
available, this field can be used to set the two-way time to the
top of the sonic log. The time is measured from the Output
TWT Datum. You can use this option when checkshots are
available to set this time manually.

388 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


I
Below of Log time
This section controls how the time/depth curve is calculated below the
bottom of the log. It has these options:
< • Maximum TVD of output time/depth: The maximum TVD to use >
for the output time-depth. The time-depth is extrapolated using
the Below sonic replacement velocity.
• Use the maximum depth of the sonic log or time-depth.
+0:
• +500 m (+1500 ft): Add 500 m (1500 ft) to the maximum depth
Q. of the sonic log or time-depth.
3 • 000 m (+3000 ft): Add 1000 m (3000 ft) to the maximum
+1
depth of the sonic log or time-depth.
• User: Enter a maximum depth.
• Below sonic replacement velocity: The velocity to use when
extrapolating the output time-depth below the sonic log. You
also can select the option Default (by default, set the
replacement velocity to the velocity at the bottom of the sonic
log).
In Figure 12, Figure 13, and Figure 14, you can see the effect of the
various interpolation options above TOL.
D;ar-ond-14 [SST\'D]
B

/o».
-a
4862ft/s V** ffl
a I la—lawal
- T|

6000H/S

0 J

Drift DT V-CS V

Velocity (Vw): 486220 ft/s


Below seabed -

Depth of seabed (from MSL) (e): 60000 ft


Velocity (Vb): 6000.00 ft/s

Figure 12 Cubic Spline interpolation method above TOL (time of first log datum)
Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •389
In Figure 13, the Quadratic interpolation method is used above TOL
(time of first log datum). For this dataset, the Quadratic interpolation
method is not flexible.
Diamond-14 [SSTVD]
< ’ -155
Calibrated sonc
ms 14 20 5000 osffi 250 00 4
Interval velo cty
500 00 1b> 9 000 00
V Cahb

: a«aw
>
TcmTl >>ai veioct.
a i CNwaar (54<dr 7) Oomand-U Sane cWtwMw

4862ft/s / • Eat Mr iSkdvUDÿonJ USOKI

d
HC
a TfTenMe S (Sfady 1) Damond-14 Sane < ■

m
I 6000ft/s kVU | OutBU| Swot > Owon*|¿ ** i rucfc
'
•ooe I kan KB TVO

I TOL a
■*K

Vetoed* lo WM ■ ooort <4 <


H
m
M0C
T«a«n«aM a
O TWTc •0 « *># «nt i i o4or *<•»09 of tm I : to9 (TOO
IMTatotTVTc-0
aoe -o ■> b

)
Too —y Oma otto lop oft :to« 177349
© B— n. odogm a
o HMwTVOriMill •isoc* .
o J Mu*

©
o Drift DT V-CS V
o I

R Velocity (Vw):
Below seabed
4862 20 ft's

Depth of seabed (from MSL) (e) 600 00 ft


Velocity (Vb) 6000 00 ft*
| V 499» II V OK ][* CandJ

Figure 13 Quadratic interpolation method above TOL

390 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


B
In Figure 14, the Linear interpolation method is used above TOL (time of
first log datum). The Linear interpolation method CANNOT take into
account the velocity below the seabed (6000 ft/s).
Diamond-14 [SSTVOf *<
< >
Mr1)IWUStK<

4862ft/s T„.otMr Q
lDm~+U
I TfTiwpMi gB>idr1)DwwM i
t* »u«*<
•a
6000ft/s

Q. a

0
Tecrftoa«m* id
jo .«-cwaou
■ MTOIIMTVTC.O

!»•
o a
o
< ❖ >
O

« Drift DT V-CS

Velocity (Vw): 4862 20 ft/s


Below seabed
Depth of seabed (from MSI) (e): 600 00 ft
Velocity (Vb) 6000 00 ft/s I* «ÿ» II < <*
*

Figure 14 Linear interpolation method above TOL

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •391


I
Options tab
The Options tab (Figure 1 5) allows you to define how knee points and
residual drift curves are interpolated.
< Input | Output | Damning | Time-depfh | Options [ Statistics| Track manage» | >
Automatic adjustments a
Knees:

Cubic
Polym
a
Residual drift Linear Interpolations
Q.
Residual drift I Linear
3
[Cubic

ii
Figure 15 Options tab in the Seismic well tie process dialog box

The tab has these fields.


Knees Set the type of function that is used to interpolate the
knee points. The interpolation function can be set to
Linear or Cubic.
The Polynomial fit function is recommended when the
checkshots are used to calibrate sonic that is noisy.
This correction smooths the differences between
checkshot (time-depth) pairs and the integrated sonic
log, estimating a polynomial drift curve to honor the
knee points without fitting the noise.
Residual Set the type of function that is used to interpolate the
drift residual drift. The interpolation function can be set to
Linear or Cubic.
Refer to Figure 16, Figure 17, and Figure 18 for examples of the various
interpolation options.

392 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


B
fl SMIAK wHI tw hamood-14 Sonic calibration [TVD]

rÿOmÿUSoici

(SMv 1) OmmcntU Sene ctfknfton

Ttvarfi J

<
Tfj *4>nfM*
. a >
*9* 1 Owl P«— ITM im* ; a
B

Q.
a
-• c
V
/
in mu:
0 ■ NH
jo .. i. /IUJ

m
m
- , ?UK

ni

y *» it' (
Figure 17 Interpolation in knee and residual points using the Cubic function
Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •393

i
J

:
1
T|1 IISUMIC ’S)

a
Ei 3
a / < >
V
/
,

'-i'-:

in

{
'ÜSMMCMII* «amond-14 Some calibration (TVD]

O C<nai>
(Si* i> OMMM-14 SOW «HéNMH

a
V* J,0Hman*M Uu 5000

EE
T|T«n*l. ■(SMyt)Dn.
, ton1 Punt iPanaw iTaitna i la—mlTwn—

2
— I

m
a
a
-
••» > MOO

MOO

■M..MOO

\
”«• 0200

• 0000

111* 2000-

bmo 2000-

pi± SOL

r* ™
r-

Figure 18 The Polynomial fit estimates a polynomial drift curve to honor the
knee points without fitting the noisy checkshots

lint Vallfl Int Vel b D~i! lini ni M ini ii»i Drift RMMMI [iñtVeil Int.Vef
[function drift I input [I output function drm br_ I input | I output function drift DT l input I output

!
/

)
3

Cub,,
4p polynomial 1

Figure 19 Comparison of different methods for modeling the drift curve

394 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics

H Petrel Geophysics Aa ©
I
Statistics tab
On the Statistics tab (Figure 20), the depth and time of the first sample
of the log is known as Top of the log (TOL). This tab has these fields:
< • Depth reference (DREF): Displays the MD and TVD values of >
the top of the sonic log.
• Time reference (TREF): Displays the two-way time calculated
for the top of the sonic log. How this value is calculated is
defined on the Time-depth tab.
Q. Click Save to save this information as a log.
3
Input | Output | Datuming | Time-depth | Options I Statistics I Track manager
Top of the sonic log (TOL)
Ü
Depth reference (DREF) : 3983 00 MD
3982 84 TVD
Time reference (TREF): 1223.49 TWT
TREF @

Figure 20 Statistics tab in the Seismic well tie dialog box

Sonic calibration study template


After defining the inputs and datums correctly, click Apply in the
Seismic well tie dialog box. Automatically, some output data is
created virtually (but it is not stored yet in the Input pane). Also, a
Well Section window opens with a default template, showing the
tracks described in Figure 21.

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •395


1
TVD • g (Study 1) Diamo * H, ft VtI I"> Undef

0 Diamond-14 [TVD]
dnfl , Average v#k>c*y 0
T.'. T p eked ,

1 14733 •185 ~U20 ' j 4>j 4 T 147 00 u«/fl 24 00 1.369.95 ft/a 28.150 73 14.606 66 ft/'* 9W 50 1800 02 ft/s 7 560 54 •244 27 me 2,686 97 1
9574 30184;
< o o
>

12282- -4000- 2
o
o
o
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o o
o o
r
o
Q. o o
1492 1 5000 4 o
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a
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O
3
o
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ft 1741 7 - -6000
© o
o
o


o o
5 : o o
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o o
1979 4 :-7000: o o
o o
o o
o o
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2208 3 •-8000; o o
o 0
o o
r o o
o o
o o
o o
2427 4 9000; o o
(2503 6) I,,»,,:
III

Figure 21 Well section window showing these tracks:

1 Checkshot
2 Initial knee point (Blue)
3 Drift (Red)
4 Residual drift
5 Original Sonic (Red) / Calibrated Sonic (Blue)
6 Output interval velocity (RED)/ Input interval velocity (Blue)
7 Two way time of TDR used as input
8 Interval velocity of the TDR used as input
9 Average velocity of the TDR used as input

396 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


I
Checkshot, drift, and knees
By default, this track contains checkshots and a proposed drift curve.
The red line is made as a 2-point straight line from the start to the end
of the well data.
< >
To edit the drift curve, you can insert knee points interactively.
The drift curve is derived by integrating time values from the calibrated
sonic log. In other words, the drift curve times quantify how much the
Q.
sonic log is corrected.
3 The drift curve is used to adjust the overall time-depth relationship of
the sonic log to the checkshot data, while retaining the high-frequency
data from the sonic log data. Because the drift curve represents a
relationship between the checkshot values and the sonic log, any edits
to the checkshot also update the drift curve.
The reverse, however, is not true. If you edit or change the drift curve,
the checkshot is not updated or changed.
The horizontal axis is the difference between Tc (Time from Checkshot)
and Tl (Time from sonic log integration).
Residual drift
The difference in time between the checkshot and drift curve is the
residual drift (curve). The closer it is to zero, the more accurately the
sonic matches the checkshot.
If the residual drift curve does not deviate from the zero line, it means
that the log times are fully consistent with the checkshot times and the
drift curve coincides with the checkshot points.
Two-way time and input velocities
This data is derived from the input checkshots.

Knee points
The Petrel Sonic Calibration workflow includes the ability to edit a
knee curve interactively based on checkshots. The knees can be added
at specific locations (using well tops, for example). You can view the
calibrated sonic log while editing the knees. It also is possible to
redefine the datum in the process and specify the outputs after
calibration.

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •397


Procedure — Use the Seismic well tie Tool Palette
1 . On the Seismic interpretation tab, in the Seismic-well
calibration group, click Well tie editing to
launch the Seismic well tie Tool Palette.
< >
File Home Stratigraphy Seismic Interpretation Petn

m
Managers
] Seismic (default)

sa m
Seismic
Wavelet toolbox
Log conditioning

Houston.Restorat QQ well tie Well tie editing


Setup Seismic-well calibration

2. From the Seismic well tie Tool Palette, you can access a set
1
of tools to manipulate the knees.
¡a
3D grid
Completions design
_] Edit fault properties
>2 Facies
'2 Fault model <3 TodPaMt* ¡33
¿2 Geobody interpretation Edit mode
?ii Geomechanics tools * Seismic weH tie
fH Geopolygon editing
::
tog conditioning
Mesh editing 3s if 2 3 T: rl
Microseismic
Pad editing
> 4- $ £ E
Point editing
¿2 Polygon editing
£2 Prestack seismic
hfi Q1 tools
Seismic interpretation
i W\ Seismic well tie
Stratigraphic chart editing
& Surface editing
12 Well correlation
Well design
12 X-section editing

398 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


I
This figure shows the tools that you can use to edit knees.

Select »

© Seismic well tie


■3 *1 /E3 'E3

© Ss s4" 3 ¡3 @
j¡4- i Is 31
Q.
©
1 Edit mode
jo
2 Knees at checkshot
3 Knees at markers
4 Delete knee point
5 Delete all knees

3. Edit the drift curve by interactively inserting, moving, or


deleting knee points. Click Edit mode in the Seismic well tie
Tool Palette and use the left mouse button to edit the drift
curve.
You can create knee points at checkshots or at well tops
(markers). In the figure, the positions of the well tops have
been used to create knee points.

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •399


Before you can use well tops, they must be displayed in the
Well section window.
|& k TVD * ¡jf (Study 1) Diamo * & 1*1 V 8 I10 Undef M » M>tw(

TWT TVt)

1 Man
TgfTl-X;

.1 90 ms
jUiCt.wwwi 1 Residual dnt
14X1-3 34 üs 602 147 00 us/n 24 00
. intefvalverocly LtAvefaoev><oc4y<-,LTWTp>clc«4-,
4,607 ft/s 9 688M 7» M«f» 7 340 59 »M r

:
939 6 ?999 3 rimn 1 314
|*n—
I" : - «ÿ
Sonic
— TJ
r * ■
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o o
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o 9
HOUSTON
o o HOUSTON BASE
tr»* - - rooo ■
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o o ■0KOBE
*J Tool Palette o o
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o
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* X
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¥] > Ü >ÿ & P 5? 0
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PARIS
PARIS BASE
o o
2*3I - - *000 -
»+ $ a■ o o

400 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics

Petrel Geophysics Aa © ITg


%
I
Customize the template display settings
The display settings (Figure 22) can be changed in the well section
template Settings dialog box for all data: sonic, calibrated sonic,
residual drift points and curve, checkshots, knee points, and the drift
curve.
Settings for '(Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration'

O Info [ [® Well Mctwn template

Template objects L3 Objects settings -a


Q. (Ü 3 l Vertical tracks (a)
[Jj Definition
SSTVt
Info Limits V Style
& I
-
@Q Index track
TcmTl (SWT)
Line a
TcmTl (SWT) El Show Color Selected
© IT8
± Some Deepiked/Catbrat
ffl Sonic Despiked
Une type - Sold
I! lOjitp Calibrated some log Block type:

0
- 0AInput rterval vekxdty
y* input rterval vstoat

Porta a
y* Output rterval vekx ® Show
laj a
ivifl
Hetval vdodty (AtIChec
Port sue 5
EIÿHenral vetoed (AK
E 0 A
Average velocity (AKhe
O Orele
0v*H
Average velocity (AH
VIA TWT picked (AtOieckS
TWT picked (AK>e Bade a
© Automatic
Background
Specified
Deviated tracks (0)

□ • Bto - O* Bta

□• N lOv No.

| /Aw» | [ v' OK ] IÿCencet |

Figure 22 Display settings can be changed in the Well section template

You can change the minimum and maximum values, the colors and sizes
of the curves/points, and the type of line (dashed, solid). It also is
possible to use additional logs or modify the order of tracks. The Well
section window template settings (Figure 22) control the order of tracks.
The overall display, with auxiliary logs, can provide the interpreter with
many pieces of additional information. In addition to the residual drift,
you can identify lithologic changes from the gamma log, washout from
the caliper, and velocity abnormalities from the interval velocity log.
Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •401

Aa
I
When the time-depth relationship is output, you can display the interval
velocity derived from the calibrated sonic and quality check the output.
See Figure 23.
4' i M4 [TVD1
< >
ICO

:
Q.

I
3 ;«

m
«0ÿ

L

: e :>
<
t>- :
w
\ t>r &Z-
m
IIr v

í-

Figure 23 Use additional logs or modify the order of the tracks

402 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


I
Lesson 2 — Sonic calibration through the Global
well logs folder
The approach available in the sonic calibration workflow of Seismic
SI
< well tie allows you to work with only one well at the time. You can use >
the method described here to calibrate multiple wells simultaneously.

Q.
Procedure — Calibrate multiple sonic logs under Global
well logs
1. Right-click the Global well logs folder in the Wells folder
m
and select Create corrected sonic log.
jo 2. Click on the Settings tab and select the uncorrected sonic log
from the list.
3. Insert the required checkshot data.
4. Define the correction curve using Least squares polynomial
(orange curve in Figure 24) or Cubic spline (blue curve in
Figure 24).

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •403


““ Input
i *A0 Weis
-I- □ Gkobahve!ha
& Log aorta & *«in®s __
0ÜCAU §¡¿| Subscribe
£ □ OLD H Delete content
< R« □ CUM
§ Calculator At Settings for Corrected sonic 1' >
R$ □ CSFL
<B □ DPHI 55 Log attributes

P □ DRHO [aj Export multiple Items ... 1 Statistics Histogram

At □ DT Style © Info C© Settings


T □ GR
Insert new folder
<*»»»*«>*»«
* Lock
□ calculated logs
«»ÿ10
Rn □ ILM *\ Expand (recursive)
Uncomected sonic log: At DT
*n Q NPHI $[ Sort by names
□ PHIT y*| sort by property templates Use checkshots: «V> AJICheckShots cs
P
r I I RH08 A i
51 Sort by property templates/name
RDDRT ‘SortOyZ-v'ÿ Correction curve
R»QSFLU z-
E: □ SP y£ Auto color all (recursive)
é Least squares polynomial 3 Order: 9
Fra □ VCl
«i RM U SN
[¿x] Auto name all (recursive)
0 Cubic spline 3
:Í7 Q OamondJ ./< Delete empty global well logs

> Q “
IP
Insert 0lobal (cont>

Insert 0,obal 20 w<11 *°Q (cont)


At j Sorsc Desi
Bi D
OwT I
(Study 1)C
I One-wav
Insert global time senes log (cont)
Insert global well log (disc)
4
Insert global time senes log (disc)
(=) Insert global comment log

£ Insert global combined log

At -reate corrected son»c log

Al Create acoustic impedance


Insert estimated global log . ..
(?) Make log(s) static
Make log(s) dynamic
Insert new time folder

BP Insert new derived continuous log


✓ Apply ✓ OK A Caned
BP Insert new derived discrete log

& Insert new derived seismic log


*{& Insert global raster log
Guru

404 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


I
Well calibration
The sonic calibration aligns the derived sonic times to the time values
from the checkshot data. This alignment removes drift in the sonic log
by adjusting the correction curve to the data points. The Least square
< >
polynomial correction curve option fits a smooth curve to the data
without matching the points exactly, which results in a residual error.
The Cubic spline option matches the checkshot points exactly (marked
as green horizontal lines in the well section in Figure 24). There is the
Q. risk of creating artificial reflectors in a final synthetic trace if the trace
3 is generated.
!'!ri

Least squares
polynomial

Cubic

-~ 1 spline

1
* B
m
=
\m _

Figure 24 Drift curves and adjusted velocity logs

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •405


I
m Procedure — Quality check the Sonic log calibration
The correction curve used to fit the drift points can be modified for
individual wells. Often, some wells require a different fitting algorithm
to approximate the drift points properly.
< >
1. In the Input pane, navigate to the Well logs folder of an
individual well and open the Settings dialog box for the
Corrected sonic log.
2. Open the Settings tab.
Q. 3. Select the Override global settings check box.
3 4. Select a polynomial function of a different order or a cubic
spline function.
5. Check the result in the Well section window.
Input

* zta |-
SI Diamond-14
Wetbgs
lei CALI At Settings for 'Corrected sonic 1'
4 CILD
<t> DPHI hi. Histcc-e- People

P DRHO « |A '"«o [5 Settings Statistics


at OT I B Lock calculated logs
Y GR Uncorrected sonic log: At Sonic Despiked
RD ILD
Rn ILM Use checkshots: [HFI Hi AJICheckShots cs
*n NPHI Correction curve
PHIT
a Least squares polynomial [V] Order 9
P RHOB
Rp RT © Cubic spline
R»O sau
7»* SP
Fra VCL The above settngs are local to wel Otomond-14.
At
K
Sonic Despiked
(Sudy 1) Diamond-14 Some calibration
3 Ovemde global settings m
0i¿ Oneway time 1[active]
At Corrected sonic 1

| V AH» II ✓OK I [* Caned |

406 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


I
In this figure, the drift curve (black) and the fit curve (red) are
shown together in the fit curves track with the calibrated sonic
log (second track).
"
•14 ÍSSTVD] ': 1

3000

Q.
3 e- - -0 0-

ii 4
0-
0-
I ut'E
■0 0" "
■0 ®-
3X J B2 "
-0

(+>
1 jfff -0 0>
i
Exercises — Sonic log calibration
Generally, sonic logs are preferred for building velocity models because,
unlike checkshot data, they are more densely sampled. However, using
the original sonic logs directly delivers incorrect velocities for seismic
data conversion because they typically lack data in the upper part of the
well.
Sonic logs are measured in a different frequency range than the seismic
data (dispersion). They can contain cycle skipping or extreme spikes
that accumulate as incorrect integrated time values through the well
length. As a result, they must be calibrated with checkshots before
velocity modeling.

406 * Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •407


1
0 Exercise 1 — Calibrate a Sonic log using the Seismic well
tie process and establishing a time-depth relationship
Sonic logs that are calibrated with checkshots as part of the synthetic
< generation process give a more accurate time-depth relationship. This >
data can be saved and used later in the time-to-depth conversion. In
this exercise, you use the Seismic well tie process to calibrate a sonic
log and establish a time-depth relationship.
1. On the Seismic interpretation tab, in the Seismic-well
Q.
IB
Seismic
calibration group, click Seismic well tie well tie .
□I
Seismic Interpretation Petroleum Systems Decision Support Structural Modeling Property Modeli

<
Seismic
jfr Wavelet toolbox
IS Log conditioning ®í Ü
Insert Seismic
4
Mesh
m
Volume
:! QH]
Mixer
Surface attributes

Calculator
>
3 well tie Well tie editing
* interpretation editing | attributes , 5** Neural net
Seismic-well calibration 2D/3D interpretation ■ Mesh r,| Attributes

2. In the Seismic well tie dialog box, click Create study.

n
3. In the Type of study field, choose Sonic calibration.
4. In the Well list, select the well Diamond-14.
The name of the 5. In the Input tab, make these selections from the lists, as
study is updated based on shown in the figure:
the name of the well that
you select. You can change • Sonic Despiked for Sonic log
the name of the study. • Diamond-14/Diamond_14.cs for TDR.
I I» Seismic well tie
Seismic well be [~H¡ñis1
# Create study: (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration

O Edit study
| Type of study: | Sonic calibration

ffl A Diamond-14

TQ Copy template: Sonic calibration default template - TB


Input |Output | Datuming | Time-depth j Options | Statistics ) Track manager
Parameters: a
Sonic log: [ifr At Sonic Despiked
TDR: c£>] Diamond- 14/Diamond_14 cs □ Orop from other well

408 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


1
6. On the Output tab, observe the different output options. Select
Auto save to save all changes in the Input pane automatically
and update the output in real time.
If you use this option, you do not have to save the study every
< time you adjust the parameters. >
7. For the Time-depth relationship (TDR), select the Auto save
check box and click Set as active TDR.
' |i Seismic well tie a
Q. !'
Seismic well tie Hints1

•Create study: (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration


□I O Edit study
Type of study Sonic calibration

\ Wed: Q A Diamond-14
< TB Copy template: Sonic caibration default template
- Tl
Input | Cutput [ Datuming ] Time-depth | Options | Statistics Track manager

@ Calibrated sonic
Calibrated sonic: Calibrated sonic

□ Autosave
( <y Time depth relationship (TDR)
TDR name: Calibrated TDR ¿ a
Sample interval: 16.40 ~ ft □All samples
17 Auto save
[Set aa active TDR||

© Integrated sonic
© TcmTI
( v Knee points

© Knee curve
v Residual drift

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •409


8. On the Datuming tab, the entries are filled in automatically
from the project and well settings. Using the Seismic reference
datum (SRD), the Seismic well tie process in Petrel
automatically assumes offshore data for SRD=0 (Marine) and
< onshore data for other SRD values (Land). Datuming is key >
here. All settings are correct. Do not change the parameter
values; keep the default parameters as they are for now.
rJI Seismic well tie
Seismic well tie Hints

9 Create study: (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration

1 f C Edit study:

¡a
Type of study: Sonic calibration 1
4k iÿJ
Wei:

TU Copy template: * Diamond-14

Sonic calibration default template


- TS
Input j Output Datuming ¡ Options j Statistics Track manager

0 Land datum a
9 Marine datum
Checkshot Log depth datum (KB)
depth daturnÿ
Time datum (SRD)
Vr ,b ■!
MSL
Vw ii
Vb Seabed

Datum elevation
ira a
Checkshot time-zero (b): OÓÓ| ft g] Use SRD r

Output time (TWT) (c): 0 00 ft □ Use SRD


Above mean sea level:
Elevation of sonic log (a): 118.00 ft
a
Replacement velocity (Vr): 4862 20 ft/s

Water layer —

Elevation of water surface (d):


a
0 00 ft
Velocity (Vw): 4862.20 ft/s

Below seabed:
Depth of seabed (from MSL) (e):
a
0.00 ft

|V ||
✓ Apply OK
* Cancel |

410 «Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


9. Open the Time/depth tab.
On this tab, you control how checkshots are interpolated above
the Top of the log (TOL). These options define how far above
the top of the log (first sample of the log) the checkshots are
< used to define the shallow interval velocity trend. >
It is possible to extend the time-depth output below the log by
using a sonic replacement velocity.
For this exercise, use the default parameters.
PJI Seismic well tie 1ÿ1
Seismic well tie Hints
O Create study: (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration
1
¡a J O Edit study.
Type of study: Sonic calibration a
4ÿ Well: |ÿ| ¿ Diamond-14 ▼

< T&j Copy template :


Input I Output I Datuming]
Sonic calibration default template

Time-depth Options I Statistics Track manager


- TS >
All depths in this tab are measured from KB in TVD

Checkshots and interpolation above TOL a


Checkshots threshold depth: 0.00 I Just above shallowest checkshot

Interpolation type (time): Linear

Velocity to use at start of interpolation: Calculate automatically

Interpolation velocity at top of log Calculate automatically

Top of log time


a
O Tl-Tc = 0 at the first checkshot sample after the top of the sonic log (TOL)
# Interpolate between the two closest checkshot samples at TOL for Tl-Tc = 0
© Two-way time at the top of sonic log 1223.49

Below of log time


Maximum TVD of output time/depth
a
0.00 j +1500ft
Below sonic replacement velocity: [ 0 CD V. Default

✓ Apply ~| ✓ OK A Cancel

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration »411


1 0. On the Options tab, keep the Knees and Residual drift fields
set to Linear.

rJI Seismic well tie Iÿl


< Seismic well tie | Hints >
o Create study: (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration

f © Edit study:
Type of study: Sonic calibration

4k Well: c£> ¿ Diamond-14


TÍ] Copy template: Sonic calibration default template

0 Input Output Oatj-ning "ime-depth Options Statistics - Pin-

¡3 Automatic adjustments a
Knees: Linear

<
Interpolations
a >
Residual drift: Linear

11. Click Apply to create the Sonic calibration study.


A new Well section window opens with a default template.


412 Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics
1
This figure shows the default tracks of the Sonic calibration
template.
| & no • g1 (Study 1) Oi "o n V. 1 t'°

(jlUiamor 14 [IVD]
< \ÿ\ZrZ~~x\ÿF¿Fm 147.00 us/tt Interval veloaty UAv erage v el oc rty0 0 1TWT pick
>
24,00 4.028 11 ft/s
Sonic Desoiked 14.037aj4.606 66 fcs 9.687 50 4,800 02 ft/s 7 560 54 -2441.27 ms 2.6

1061 6+3394:

© © © ;© 5 ©
Q.

a : s 2

"if 6000

::«00 ■;

-i:7000:

"7500:

Track 1 TcmTI and Drift and Knees: The black points represent
the TcmTI (Time of checkshots - Time of log).
In the vertical scale, these black points are at the
checkshot depths. A red curve represents the drift and
blue dots represent the knee points.
Track 2 Residual drift: Shows the difference between the
checkshot time and the integrated calibrated sonic log.
This curve is updated based on the knee manipulations
on the Drift and Knees track.

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •413


I
Track 3 Sonic: Shows the original and calibrated sonic log.
The last curve is updated based on the knee
manipulations on the Drift and Knees track.
Track 4 Output and Input interval velocity: Shows both interval
velocities (input and output) in the same track for quality
control purposes.
Track 5 Interval velocity: Shows the interval velocity of the TDR
Q. used as input (checkshots).
3 Track 6 Average velocity: Shows the average velocity of the TDR
used as input (checkshots).
Track 7 TWT picked: Shows two-way time of the TDR used as
input (checkshots).

12. On Seismic interpretation tab, in the Seismic-well


calibration group, click Well tie editing to open the Tool
Palette.
Home Stratigraphy Seismic Interpretation Petroleum Systems Decision Support Structural
-
a a aj } *jjjg if UWavelet toolbox

B Seismic (detault) •
-.
Seismic |
Log conditioning
Insert Seismic Mesh Volume
Houston.Restorat *
O© well tie pfl Well tie editing ] » interpretation editing attributes
Setup Seismic-well calibration 2D/3D interpretation r- Mesh -
13. Click Edit mode ‘¿I in the Tool Palette.
1 4. Interactively edit the drift curve using the options available on
the Seismic well tie editing Tool Palette.
E Tool Palette EQ
*7$ Edit mode
▼ Se:srric well tie x

El > il >« 5a P P.
$13ÿ3 I*, rl
> 4* $ 91 31

414 «Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


I
15. Edit automatically by clicking Knees at checkshots Sor
Knees at markers "1(these tools work only if some well
tops are displayed in the Well section window).
< The initial straight red drift curve adopts the checkshot data >
(black dots) as knee points at all positions or only at the well
tops positions.
l»»HVO • IShdyPftmo • an V j I'° o** ? M* I»»1” •a '»-0»»— •
an VI i» ** •frOW+SH’»1—

Q.

Jo

pis tt ::
1

>+ . »ÿ_

ill fill

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •415


1 6. Insert single knee points by clicking directly along the drift
curve at a specific location.

------------- -
- [Tg (Study 1) Diamo -
| & tfr I TVD £ ! I'D Unde* ' Q Sf »[f <$ M * ***** • !

< TWT
vM0;tt.87 ms 14 36 -1.73 ms
——
i interval velocty LAvcrage veloc<ynL TWT picked

5 05 147 00 US/lt 2400 Vo2SMÿs U0372S|4fr3666fM566rKÍ4aX) 02ft» 7 W&4


0
1-244
27 ms 2 680 9t
>
Sonic DesDiked h --— *H
1061 6+3394; |Tcmf 3 i'T lnr.» =
s :i: -r r .. [TWT p<»K • 5?: 4:
o o
O O

1=81 400) ■[ O o

i»; ~ 4500-1
. o
-o-
o
-o — — ©DALIAS
o o
o o
1491 A -/:K0Q- . 0 o
o

0
T
fe
T
K :
» .— -a...
o
------ a...

o
a o
1T88 - I- 6000 - • ! O

4 O O

o o
i®62 1 "6W0-;
O o
-j- HOUSTON
+ ■jJ Edit mode © o HOUSTON_BAS
1900 S TOOO- ▼ Se srrlc well tie O o

[31 > 3 >. > 5? o o

-•w- 5í S í? I=S ri !‘a 3 * o


o
■ KOBE
>+ % S 31 O c
zzri • goo: * o o
o c
a o
=189 S5-X :
o o
• c
©PARIS
;ü8í ::9000:
V o
o
o
o
o
o
PARIS_BASE

17. Move any knee along the TD relationship using these methods.
• To move a knee, click it and drag it to a new position.
• To delete a knee, click Delete knee point H on the
Tool Palette and click the knee.

416 •Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


I
18. Observe that the original and the calibrated sonic log curves
are different. When you move a knee point, the curves are
updated, as shown in the figure (third track, red, and blue
curves). The result of the calibration creates a new more
accurate time-depth relationship for the well.

HI
1:
»593 540C
i?
$
Q.
I-
nrr
3 1692

il 1741.8-J-6000-

19. Open the Output tab of the Seismic well tie dialog box.
20. Rename Calibrated sonic log as Calibrated sonic_l
and click Save.
ill Seismic well tie
Seiafr*cwellÿll&ftJ
O Create study: (Study 2) Diainond-14 Sonic calibration

S # Edit study: (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration

Type of study: Sonic calibration

4k Wei: ¿ Diamond-14
Tj] Template: ¡5 (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration
Input Output L Datumwg | Time-depth | Options | Statistics | Track manager
A Calibrated sonic
Calibrated sonic: Calibrated sonic_1
IFI Autosave
0a
21. For the Time-depth relationship (TDR) field, make sure that the
Auto save option is selected and click on Set as active TDR
button.

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •417


I
This time-depth relationship is used for the time conversion of
the well Diamond_14. The relationship is selected
automatically on the Time tab of the Settings dialog box for
Diamond_14. These options override the options in the Global
settings dialog box.
T Settings for 'Diamond-14'
Flow correlatior Quality attributes People

Q.
O lnf°
© Create new
] Settings Statistics
s Time
J Report Make logs

33
3 • Edit easing
0£ Oneway tine 1
SI Ovenide global settings Q Lock calculated log a
ii © From shared TOR:
0 From shared checkshot:
# From velocity function fÿ.] [/ (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibratiorv'Calibrated TDR

□ Manual a$ustment: (ÿ] [


IVL fta 3
|y /ppfr | I V OK I |,*CMMI |

22. Adjust the knees if necessary and observe the effect on the
Interval velocity output. Verify that you are satisfied with its
shape.
23. On the Home tab, in the Transfer group, click Reference
project tool to open Reference project tool dialog box.

418 «Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


I
24. Find Cloudspin_SecondaryProject.petFT\n the Secondary
projects folder and open it. (If the Petrel message log
appears, view the content and close it.) All available data in
the selected reference project is listed on the right side of the
< Reference project tool dialog box. >
25. Select the check box for the Wavelets folder and use the blue
left arrow to copy this folder from background project into your
working project. You will use this folder in later modules.
Q.
26. Save your project.

jo

Petrel Geophysics Sonic calibration •419


I
Review questions
9 • Why do you calibrate a sonic log with the checkshot data?
• What would you do if checkshot data is not available for a
well?
< >

Summary
In this module, you learned about:
o. • calibrating a sonic log
• selecting input data and parameters
• defining knee points and outputs
jo

420 «Sonic calibration Petrel Geophysics


I
Module 8 — Synthetic
seismogram generation

In this module, you learn about synthetic generation, reflection


Q. coefficient calculation, interactive bulk shift or continuous alignments,
and the correlation tool and track.

jo Learning objectives
After completing this module, you will know how to:
m
• use the synthetic generation process and input data
• calculate the reflectivity coefficient
• Use of interactive bulk shift or continuous alignments to adjust
the time shifts between synthetic and seismic
• use correlation tools and track
• model the reflection coefficient (RC)
• quality check Interval velocity

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •421

!ÿ V Muchachos, Sé que
-I
estamo*
I
9 Lesson 1 — Synthetic seismogram generation
workflow
Synthetic seismograms are the bridges between geological information
< (well data in depth) and geophysical information (seismic in time). >
Synthetic generation involves these steps:
1. Time convert the wells with checkshot data or a sonic log to
establish a time-depth relationship.
Q. 2. Calculate acoustic impedance and reflection coefficients from
3
different logs (usually density and sonic logs).
3. Generate or extract a wavelet.
4. Generate synthetic seismograms from density logs, sonic logs,
and a seismic wavelet by calculating acoustic impedance and
reflection coefficients. These calculations then are convolved
using a wavelet.
The Synthetic generation workflow used in the Seismic well tie
process includes the ability to tie a synthetic seismic trace with seismic
data.

m Procedure — Generate a synthetic seismogram


1. On the Seismic interpretation tab, in the Seismic-well
calibration group, click Seismic well tie.
Petroleum Systems Decision Support Structural Modeling Property Modeling
e <
» jjjfjj
Wavelet toolbox

Log conditioning *&£ ■ 4 11ffi Surface attributes

Calculator
Seismic Insert Seismic Mesh Volume Mixer
well tie <2 Well tie editing
Seismic-well calibration
- interpretation
2D/3D interpretation 'ÿ
editing
Mesh r,
attributes , Neural net
Attributes

2. Create a new study.


3. Select Synthetic generation as the Type of study.
4. Select the well.

422 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


1
ill Seismic well tie
Seismic well tie | Hints"]
# Create study; (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation
< O Edit study: (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration >
Type of study: Synthetic generation

4ÿ Well: lÿl ¿ Diamond-14 0)


TÜ Copy template: Synthetic generation default template • TS
Q.
5. Select the time depth relationship i.e. TDR.
a Input | Output | Time shift Correlation Track manager | Style
ft
ty> JJf Calibrated TDR © 0
6. Drop in an existing wavelet or open the wavelet toolbox to
create a new wavelet. If you do not have a wavelet available,

create new wavelet by clicking Launch wavelet toolbox w


in the Seismic well tie dialog box.
I Input I Output I Time shift Correlation I Track manager | StyleJ
|efr| -Jj Calibrated TDR o
# Wavelet: )Av Analytical Wavelet (6ÿ I] 0
7. Drop in seismic data.
8. Specify the seismic display position.
Seismic display

Seismic: | E£> | [Realized] 1

9 Inline O Xline
["I Allow wells outside survey

Position: @(®|® ©
Inline: 622

Xline: 570
Xline window:
™ :

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •423


I
9. Choose a Reflectivity coefficient calculation method and
associated input data.
.
RC calculation method: Sonic velocity and density
< Sonic or velocity: | | Alp Calibrated sonic log - (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration
>
Density: |s>| PRHOB

10. Click Apply in the Seismic well tie dialog box.


A Well section window opens, showing the output result.
Q.

ii t
lay™ ■nVi

t !
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“nr* •

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u I"
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I - IIIH— jffiimillIBB
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1 Input logs track: Logs used for the Reflectivity series calculation.
2 Reflectivity track: Reflectivity series calculated based on the
method selected on the Input tab.
3 Wavelet track: Wavelet, power spectrum, and phase spectrum
of the wavelet used for the synthetic generated.
4 Seismic track: Seismic section used as a reference to compare
the seismic-synthetic track. The extension/orientation of this
section is controlled from the Input tab.
The red line on the Seismic track represents the Well trajectory.
The display is controlled in the Well section template
Settings dialog box.
Additional seismic tracks in the Well section window can be
added where attributes can be displayed. Well trajectory, logs,
and synthetic seismograms can be displayed.
424 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics
I
5 Synthetic track: Synthetic seismogram created convolving the
reflectivity series and the wavelet. If any of the input data is
modified, this track is updated instantly.
6 Correlation track: A tool that helps increase the confidence in
matching synthetic seismogram to seismic data. Each trace in
the Correlation track represents the degree of correlation
between the synthetic and each of the traces contained in the
Seismic track as the synthetic is shifted vertically relative to the
Q. seismic.
3
The information from this correlation track is used to determine
the correct time shift to be applied to the synthetic or seismic
with the goal of achieving an optimal match.
7 Interval Velocity track: The output interval velocity and also the
place where the Interval velocity manipulations take place.
8 Input/Output Interval Velocity track: The input and output
interval velocities in the same track for quality control.
The input interval velocity is active in the well (from the active
TDR); the output interval velocity is the result after the time
shifts (bulk and stretch/squeeze) are applied in the synthetic.
The default template for the synthetic generation study presents
simultaneous display of the time and depth index tracks in Well
section window.
9 Drift track: The time shift (in ms) applied in the synthetic to tie
with the seismic. This shift comes from the bulk and stretch/
squeeze.
10 Well trajectory

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •425


I
Seismic well tie dialog box tabs
In this section, you get a more detailed look on the options available on
the different tabs of Seismic well tie dialog box.
< >
Input tab
The Input tab (Figure 1 ) in the Synthetic generation study is used to
control the input of logs, time/depth relationship, wavelet, and
Q. reference seismic to generate synthetic trace.

Selecting TDR input


jo
The Seismic to well tie process needs to be, in many cases, very
interactive, and different kinds of TDRs must be selected as input in the
study. In Petrel 2015.1, any TDR, sonic log, or velocity log contained by
the well can be selected as TDR input for the synthetics generation
study.
For those cases where the sonic log or velocity log are selected, the
synthetics seismogram will be posted from 0 TWT. Therefore, it will be
out of place and the Bulk shift is a required step in the Seismic to well
tie process.

426 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


m Seismic well tie
Seismic well tie Hints |

O Create study: (Study 3) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

J ® Edit study: (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

Type of study: Synthetic generation


a
4ÿ Well ® * Diamond-14

Tj| Template 5¡ (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation


Input Output I Time shift ¡ Correlation iTrack manager I Style

TDR:
s Calibrated TDR

a
o Wavelet:
Active from well
iji TDR - (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation
Calibrated TDR
w
© Time varying wavelet ¿w AIICheckShots.cs
- v Diamond_14 cs
i
Seismic display
_ Atp Calibrated sonic log - (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration
Seismic: rv | Atp Calibrated sonicjl
“ÿ¡a
\/ Input interval velocity - (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration
y* Input interval velocity - (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation
y* Output interval velocity - (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration
Position y* Output interval velocity - (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation
At Sonic Despiked
Inline

Xline
0 570
Xline window 10 :
Reflectivity coefficient

RC calculation method Sonic velocity and density

Sonic or velocity: Atp Calibrated sonic_1


Density: |=>| PRHOB
v Advanced settings

✓ Apply ✓ OK A Cancel

Figure 1 Input tab

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •427


Wavelet
In the Wavelet box, insert the wavelet to be convolved with the
reflectivity series to create a synthetic seismogram. If no wavelet is
available in the project, open the wavelet toolbox to create a new one
by clicking Launch wavelet toolbox . See Figure 2.
pjf Seismic well tie
Setsmic well be Hints j
C: © Create study [ (Study 3) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation
f 9 Edit study (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

Type of study: Synthetic generation


a
%yut ¿ Diamond-14
¡a
| lrPut
Tj]Template
| Output | Time shift j
{ÿ) (Study 2) Diamond- 14 Synthetic generation
Correlation Track manager I Style
- \TI\
|=>| Calibrated TDR
9 Wavelet |ÿ| (Av Analytical Wavelet
© Time varying wavelet ft
Seismic display

Seismic 1ÿ1 £53 mig (Realized] 1


9 Inline © XUne
[r] Allow wells outside survey
Position
lid®
Inline 622

Xline
ft 570
Xline window 10 z
Reflectivity coefficient

RC calculation method Sonic velocity and density

Sonic or velocity: | | Atp Calibrated sonic log - (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration
Density 1ÿ1 PRHOB
Advanced settings

RC resampling
ms
a
Sample interval: 1

Gardner's parameters a
[Q Use Gardner's equation
Constant: [023 imperial

Exponent 1 0.25
Filtenng opb<
fyl Use anti-alias filter
a

|✓ Apply || ✓ OK | A Cancel

Figure 2 Input tab in the Synthetic generation study

428 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Seismic display
In the Seismic display section, you drop in the seismic that is used as
a reference to compare the seismic-synthetic tie. Both 2D and 3D
seismic surveys are allowed, so you can use a 3D cube or a 2D line.
< >
There are three seismic display positioning methodologies for the
Seismic well tie process: Well head location, Deviated well location,
and Selected Wavelet:

Q.
Well head location
a This method sets the Inline, crossline to the location of the wellhead,
as shown in Figure 3.
*
íílílllfílííl
, m \
1
\

mm ; II I I
n® m
ism
■■

mm)

it,
Figure 3 The well is displayed in the seismic track according to the position
obtained in the wellhead (XY location)

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •429


I
Deviated well location
This method sets the inline-crossline to the location of the well track at
the center of the analysis window, as shown in Figure 4. The figure
shows how the deviated well is displayed in the seismic track. This
< >
method considers the entire trajectory as the display position window,
calculating the position point (XY location) as the center of the
extraction window.

Q.
3
S -T
m 5 \ V [e|®l$

: : : : i:
il

»111 PIP
r- pr P- PÿP* ft ft

K;; mnl fn> f


Extraction window
"V
ail
nnÿn\:“»n\»nn

Figure 4 How the deviated well is displayed in the seismic track

The Xline window represents the number of crosslines to be used for


seismic reference on either side of the well location. These crosslines
are counted from the crossline position that you define.
For example, if you enter 4 in the Xline window, five crosslines are
displayed: one that corresponds to the crossline 570 (well position) and
four other crosslines after your reference, which is the number that you
entered.

430 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Selected wavelet
This method sets the Inline-xline to the location of the currently
selected wavelet, as shown in Figure 5. The figure shows how the well
is displayed in the seismic track according to the position obtained
< >
through the wavelet selected on the Predictability map.

j
e ®f¥|

Q.

íiímüír Í :Hililiiiii
t
Jo rrfrrrrrf;! r?rr;rrrr;rr;;
Illlljtiíí}
i::*::::;!:
< >
::: r r r
t t t

■rrrrrrrrr r • * *
rit
am.
Si
»>

Figure 5 How the well is displayed in the seismic track

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •431


Reflectivity coefficient calculation
There are several methods for generating reflectivity coefficients,
depending on the availability of data (Figure 6):
< • Acoustic Impedance >
• Sonic and Density logs
• Shear
• Porosity
• Aki and Richard PP
• Aki and Richard PS
• Any log
1 $1Seismic well tie B
Seismic well tie Hints
¡a
© Create study (Study 3) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

S Edit study. (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

Type of study: Synthetic generation


a
< V** fa Diamond-14 >
Tfi Template: (5 (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation
Input Output | Time shift ¡ Correlation ¡ Track manager | Style
Calibrated TDR

Wavelet: I I Analytical Wavelet |4-


© Time varying wavelet:
Seismic display
m
Seismic: iy* fjjmig [Realized] 1
© Xline
[T] Allow wells outside survey
Position
HID®
Inline 622

Xline: 570
Xline window io :
Reflectivity coefficient

RC calculation method Sonic velocity and density

Sonic or velocity: g> At DT


Density: |ÿ| PRHOB
Advanced settings
RC resampling
ms
a
Sample interval 1
Gardner's parameters a
O Use Gardner's equation
Constant: 0.23 imperial

Exponent 0.25 ]
Filtenng options a
® Use anti-alias filter

[V Apply || OK || A Cancel

Figure 6 Reflectivity coefficient options in the Seismic well tie dialog box
432 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics
I
Here are some examples of how to calculate the reflectivity coefficient
using different types of data:
• Use sonic and density curves to generate the Al curve as the
n The original sonic log
(or a despiked version of the
original input sonic) is used
< ratio between the density and the sonic logs. In turn, the RC in this calculation. The >
curve is generated from the Al curve. The Seismic well tie calibrated sonic log is likely
process generates this curve on-the-fly. to contain abrupt shifts (at
knee point positions) as a
• Choose an Acoustic Impedance. It this case, a sonic and result of this calibration.
Using the calibrated sonic as
density need not be present. The Seismic well tie process input to this process results
Q.
calculates a reflection coefficient curve. in the same abrupt shifts in
3 the acoustic impedance log.
• Use any log curve as a pseudo-Acoustic Impedance curve for Because the reflection
apparent reflectivity computation. Gamma logs often work well coefficients are calculated
from the acoustic impedance
in this circumstance. Sonic logs also work well, but the polarity log, the result again
typically is reversed from the log derived from true acoustic introduces reflection
coefficients and artificial
impedance. events in the synthetic trace.

Gardner's patching: Auto-complete reflection coefficient


inputs
Petrel can automatically complete missing sections of Density or Sonic
logs using Gardner's equation. This option fills the gaps where one of
the input logs (Sonic or density) is missing. For examples, refer to Figure
7 and Figure 8.
One of the logs must exist to compute the other one:

P = aZnpb
In this equation,
• a = The Constant unit (imperial/metric). It is shown next to the
Constant box. For the Exponent parameter, the default value is
0.25. You can change values for these two fields and them as
parameters for Gardner's equation.
• = Exponent.
b
If the project is in the Imperial system, the default value is 0.23 for the
Constant parameter. If the project is in the metric system, it converts
the default imperial value to metric using this equation:
a (in metric) = a (in imperial) * (1000/(0.3048 A exponent ))

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •433


B
Gardner's equation usually works fine for sedimentary rocks with

---
velocities that are betweenl 500 m/s to 6000 m/s and densities from
2x103 Kg/m3 to 2.8x103 Kg/m3.

< - ta,
<lme 381 -ring

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Figure 7 Patch shows missing section of Sonic log for which RC and Synthetic
are not calculated

434 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


B
I ;Ji Seismic wel tie m
• *"i ; : W1
CmmMf (Study 3) [>amond-14 Syntax generador

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Figure 8 Patch shows that RC and Synthetic can be calculated for missing
section of the Sonic log by using Gardner's equation option

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •435


Output tab
Use the Output tab (Figure 9) in the Synthetic generation study to
control the output results from the workflow. You can change the name
of any output and save it in the Input pane by clicking Save r J.
f.|! Seismic well tie IÿI
Seismic well be Hints
: (£ I Create study | (Study 3) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation
J $) Edit study: (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

[•] Type of study Synthetic generation


a
*wdt ¿ Diamond-14

Inputj
TÍ Template
| Time shift
¡3 (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation -g
'ÿbtpu-
J Correlation j Track manager | Style [

0 Seismogram Diamond-14_mig [Realized] 1_synthetic 1

|r| Auto save


aa
Reflectivity RC @a
[rj Auto save

* Computed seismogram (depth)


Name Seismogram Depth @a
[T] Autosave

(X) Time depth relationship (TDR)


TDR Name TDR @a
Sample interval 16 40 C ft O Al samples
|r] Auto save

Set as active TDR|

Computed acoustic impedance

Name Al @a
[T] Auto save

A Resampled acoustic impedance

Name Resampled Al @a
[T] Auto save

* Partial seismogram from RC modeling


Name: Partial synthetic iA J
|f~| Auto save

Seismic trace used in the single trace correlation

Name Verticalized seismic trace (3 a


(F] Auto save

| •/ |[ V OK ||
Apply
* Cancel

Figure 9 Output tab in the Seismic well tie dialog box

436 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
These output types are available from Output tab. All output is saved in
the Input pane:

<
• Seismogram: Saved as a seismic log in the Global well
logs folder and the well used in the study.
• Reflectivity: Saved in the Global well logs folder and the
n You can
automatically save all of the
outputs, so that after they
>
are saved the first time, any
well used in the study. manipulation overwrites the
• Computed seismogram (depth)/ Synthetic in depth: The output. If the name of the
output is already in the Input
synthetics used to be a time domain object. In Petrel 2015.1, pane, a pop-up warning asks
you to confirm your decision
Q. the synthetics that is generated can be saved with depth as to overwrite it.

3
the vertical index.
Computed seismogram (depth)

Name: Seismogram Depth


Da
[ÿAutosave

• Time depth relationship (TDR): The curve modified by the


time shift alignments in Synthetic Generation. It is saved as a
TDR only in the Global well logs folder. The specified depth
sample interval is used.
The TDR generated in the synthetic generation or integrated
seismic well tie studies can be directly assigned to the well
from the Output tab of the study itself.
(A) Time depth relationship (TDR)
TDR Name: TDR @3
Sample interval: 16.40 |-J-j ft □ All samples
[ÿAutosave

[Set as active TDR]

• Computed acoustic impedance: Saved in the Global well


logs folder and the well used in the study.
• Resampled acoustic impedance: Saved in the Global well
logs folder and the well used in the study.
• Partial seismogram from RC modeling: Saved in the
Global well logs folder and the well used in the study.
• Seismic trace used in the single trace correlation: The
average or composite seismic trace extracted based on a
radius that you define. This option is available only if you
choose the option Single trace on the Correlation tab. The
seismic trace is saved as a seismic log in the Global well
logs folder and the well used in the study.

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •437


I
Synthetic generation template
After all of the input data/parameters are selected in the Seismic
well tie dialog box and the synthetic is generated, the template shown
in Figure 10 opens. It displays the different input data and resultant
< >
synthetic seismogram.
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Figure 10 Default template for the Synthetic generation study.

The Synthetic generation template consists of these tracks, but you can
modify them as required.
1 Input logs track: Logs used for the Reflectivity series calculation.
2 Reflectivity track: Reflectivity series calculated based on the
method selected on the Input tab.
3 Wavelet track: Wavelet, power spectrum, and phase spectrum
of the wavelet used for the synthetic generated.

438 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
4 Seismic track: Seismic section used as a reference to compare
the seismic-synthetic track. The extension/orientation of this
section is controlled from the Input tab.
< The red line on the Seismic track represents the Well trajectory. >
The display is controlled in the Well section template Settings
dialog box.
Additional seismic tracks in the Well section window can be
Q.
added where attributes can be displayed. Well trajectory, logs,
3
and synthetic seismogram can be displayed.
5 Synthetic track: Synthetic seismogram created by convolving the
reflectivity series and the wavelet. If any of the input data is
modified, this track is updated instantly.
6 Correlation track: A tool that helps increase the confidence in
matching the synthetic seismogram to seismic data. Each trace
in the Correlation track represents the degree of correlation
between the synthetic and each of the traces contained in the
Seismic track as the synthetic is shifted vertically relative to the
seismic.
The information from this correlation track is used to determine
the correct time shift to be applied to the synthetic or seismic
with the goal of achieving an optimal match.
7 Interval velocity track: The output interval velocity. Also the
place where the Interval velocity manipulations take place.
8 Input/Output interval velocity track: The input and output interval
velocities in the same track for a quality control.
The input interval velocity is active in the well (from the active
TDR). The output interval velocity is the result after the time
shifts (bulk and stretch/squeeze) are applied in the synthetic.
Simultaneous display of the time and depth tracks: The default
template for the synthetic generation study shows simultaneous
display of the time and depth index tracks in Well section
window.
9 Drift track: The time shift (in ms) applied in the synthetic to tie
with the seismic. This shift comes from the bulk and stretch/
squeeze.
10 Well trajectory
Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •439
m Procedure — Change settings for the template and tracks
You can edit or change the settings of the Synthetic template and
tracks.
< 1. Click Template settings L- on the Window toolbar. >
2. From the Well section template tab in the Settings dialog
box, change or modify the settings for different tracks in the
template.
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0 "
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Lj Objects settings Ü
á- -

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la
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9

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i; 0ÿ n»g [Realted] 1
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J Density HI

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I 1 «.
E
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S I*|A Nenral velocity (TDR
Nerval velocity f
Trace color f*
Nerpolated

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- ■ -«0

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|*jA bpi Nerval velocity
(vjy* nput Nerval velo
Trace sett ngs
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(*j Output Nerval ve Wiggle antiataang: SB Trace repeal court
0 90 3
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too

440 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


Seismic track
The seismic display on the Synthetic template can be customized,
depending on the display requirements.
< • Interpretations (horizon and faults) display >
• No restriction to inline orientation
• Multiple orientation/attributes
• Well trajectory, synthetic, and two logs

m
[•]
Procedure — Display synthetic along a well trajectory in
a seismic track
0 1. Click Template settings [T] -~J in the Well section Window
toolbar during synthetic generation study.
(§ fe I 1WT - Ilf (Study 2) Diamo -|¡H|n VjM]1 t,D Undef ' !i'!l EM’Relative :
2. Add a new track from Setting dialog box.
j] Index track OL Settings for '(Study 2) Diamond-14 Sy
£ Track 0 Info Well section template

\
(=J
Tadpole track
Comment track
Template objects a
1 Summation track H Vertical tracks (13
TVD
(vj [j Index track
jÍQl Polar frequency plot track
£ Completion track ■o-
- (3. a. DT/RHOB
¿jAt DT
0 I VJ p RHOB

Production charts
lv>| A RC • (Study 2) Diamor
¿jJ. RC • (Study 2) Dia
!

© -
ivift Analytical Wavelet
m Analytical Wavele
mg [Realized] 1
□ (30 mg [Realized] 1
IÿJA. Synthetic (Study 2) C

E (V|0 Synthetic - (Study


I VI A mg [Realzed] 1/mig [
(30 mo [Realized] 1
¡30 mg [Realized] 1
- |ÿ|A Correlation (SWT)

i igf? Correlation (SWT)

(3£ Interval vdoaty (TDR


[vrjly Interval velocity C
- (3£ Input rterval vdoaty
|ÿjy* Input interval velo
(3"V* Output rterval ve
Dnft (SWT)
0AÍ Drtt(SWT)
♦1 Borehole markers
¡T4 Background
Deviated tracks (0)

. m

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •441


3. Right-click the new inserted track under Template objects in
the Settings dialog box and select Seismic.
¡TJ Sittings for '(Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation E3
Index track
0 Info 'fa Well section template
< £ Track Template obtecte - j Objects settmgs a >
Tadpole track it»] S; A Verticaltracks (13)
O Info Style Curve filling
[=) Comment track ““
&
0Q
a
TVD
RRRMI
O Summation track w DT/RHOB
Width a
f©i * £jAt DT
(*)P RHOB Í ! Specified: 25 mm Lock

1
Polar frequency plot track . ó !ÿ! A RC - (Study 2) Diamor
Q Completion track
A
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Gndbnes
a
® Production charts s f\
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rn»g [Reafczed] 1
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m
I y*i
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L°g Synthetic - (Study 2) [
£j§ Property (a Synthetic - (Study
iv>lA [Realized] 1/mig [ [?] Draw honzontal major Ines
0 <PS' Points attribute rreg [Realized] 1
PI Draw honzontal minor lines
H»9 [Realized] 1
Seismic log - i*lA Correlation (SWT) Color
i Correlation (SWT)
1
QT 2D log Interval velocty (TDR

5® Bitmap log
lÿjly Interval velocty f Background
a
gp Time series log
- iÿl A Incut rterval velocity
¿jy* Input nterval velo
y* Output rterval ve
Color

Transparency
[
None
]
-
É Dr* (SWT)
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/-N.
miáfflca
|V) At Drft (SWT) Value label a
«OP"Backgrourd
'-' -=*** ® Show value leadouta
|1 Prestack gather collection
Deviated tracks (0)
Risk
& BHA

|ÿ|
Simulation grid results
Simulation log
-
Ky Apply ✓ OK | 24 Cancel

442 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


4. On the Definition tab in the Settings dialog box, insert ‘V a
seismic attribute cube of your choice from the Input pane.
i_Bj Settings for '(Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation'
< >
Info C© Well section template

Template objects ¿ Objects settings a


Q- ¿ Vertical tracks (13)
_ Interpretation
00 ™D
; (0 [j Index track Definition ||j5j£ Style Verticalization ¿ Well Related
é sA DT/RHOB Seismic display
WAtDT
0P
RHOB Seismic: |c¡> Q mig [Realized] 1
- 0ÿ
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RC- (Study 2) Die 0 Inline £ Xline
1 -
0ÿ Analytical Wavelet
Seismic position 4
0 B 0lL Analytical Wavele
É 0Á m'g [Realizedl 1 a Well her
ED 0ÿ
mig [Realized] 1
Synthetic - (Study 2) [
m
(±)
© User
lÿj¿P Synthetic - (Study
(=] 0ÿ mig [Realized] 1/mig [
' 500 (
It'll mig [Realized] 1
mig [Realized] 1 me: 1 360 [
-
0£ Correlation (SWT) Nuwber of tracer
|_)£ÿ Correlation (SWT]
(±) 0ÿ Interval velocity (TDR
0|y Interval velocity f
Traces before 5 :
0 (v|¿ Input interval velocity Traces after 5 :
0y* Input interval vela
0"y* Output interval Á
é A 0 M (SWT) /
- 0A1 .Drift tSWjy
B 0ÿ Seismic f
Borehole markers
8 Background
Deviated tracks (0)

[V Apply | | VOK A Cancel

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •443


5. On the Well related tab, select the relevant template and
drop in synthetic or log of your choice from the Global well
logs folder. Click Apply.
(ÿ] Settings for '(Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation'
< >
0 Info Well section template

Template objects Objects settings a


-) i Vertical tracks (13) r Interpretation
IZJ g TVD
Sa ; Index track Definition | Style | Verticalization |A Wdl Rdated
É DT/RHOB
Well trajectory display a
*± B
i
WA
0At DT
p RHOB
a RC - (Study 2) Diamond-' 0 Show Color

11 aEP RC - (Study 2) Diamo Line width — 2 ▼

1 I
-
0A Analytical Wavelet
QlJU Analytical Wavelet
Logs display
a
É 0ÿ rng [Realized] 1 Option Styfe
0 0 0ÿ m,9 [Realized] 1
Synthetic - (Study 2) Diar
0 Left log
(?) Fiber template

m B 0
0ÿ Synthetic - (Study 2)
B 0ÿ mig [Realized] 1/mig [Re.
0
0
Seismogram
Right log templates ]J Seismic (default)
0 mig [Realized] 1
< 0 mig [Realized] 1 é Log
Synthetic - (Study 2) Diamond-14 SynthetK >
I B klA Correlation (SWT)
¡ \f$ Correlation (SWT)
\h
i B 0A Interval velocity (TDR - (! ■u
0 jy Interval velocity (TDF
| ¿ |7|A kput interval velodty - (S
0 y* Input interval velodty
0 y* Output interval vdoc
- 0£ Drift (SWT)
(SWT>
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... ]
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mig [Realized]!
♦A Borehole markers
p± Background
1 f Deviated tracks (0)

< l— W-J

ll V Apply || V OK ||
* Caned

444 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


The figure shows extracted attributes displayed on the Synthetic
generation template.

1 3247 13247 |Se5~50~ "57500


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3897 1200

4266 4 •i 1300

4644 1 : 1400

[•] 5031
if 1500
5425 9
if 1600
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u 1700

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Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •445


I
Interpretation display on seismic track
There are many references to be used as a guide during the seismic to
well tie process. Usually, the main reference will be markers and
horizons; while, in some other cases, it could be faults or other types of
identified interfaces. In Petrel 2015.1, horizon interpretations and fault
interpretations can be posted in the seismic track, which helps to use
them as reference during the tie process.

Q.

jo
a Procedure — Interpretation display on seismic track

1. Click Template setting [T] in the Well section Window


toolbar during the Synthetic generation study.

ja» TWT •
Z (*udy2H>»"0 -rjlrt V K > U"** - ? -J tff T »fl- Mu»» • SOOOO • e-«- Q

TVDITWTI
| 1 324
RHOB .
lllCD 4>ii

oitki reoIMP 00 570 001 187000

Apahtical Wavelet I
«2*0 V 1»0*

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! . i i
1 1
I

e \ <»

446 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


2. Add a track from the Settings for <study> Synthetic
generation dialog box.
[i] Settings for '(Study 2) Dwmond-14 Synthetic generaron' Sai
< 0 Into |[a Well wctwn tempi»»
>
Template oCiectt j Cttjectt Mtngt

© Indo track
Track
Tadpole track
(?) Comment track
FI Summation track
Polar frequency plot track
£ Completion track
Production charts
-i (*]£ Syrthebc • (Study 2) [¡
& Synth** • (Study
-J (*} A ™g [Rea*rod] 1

"•* [ReafciedJ 1
(kiA Corrdabon (SWT)
Correlation (SWT
- [*>1 A hterval vdooly (TDR
hterval veloaty f
5 (Vj A knpuiInput
rterv#l veloaty
¿iy* rtetval velo
yjy* Output rtervd ve
DrfMSWT)
¿J At Orft (SWT)

**
Borehole master*
Background
Deviated trade» lO)

IK

r~7 ir / n* ir

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •447


3. Right-click to add a seismic.
0 Settings for '(Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation' ESI
(ÿ) irf: ¡ 1
*/dl section template

Template objects Á Objects settings a


< m Vertical tracks (12)
0Q SSTVD
Info Style Curve filling >
B Q
r 0 |r*dex track
B 0ÿ Calibrated sonic_1/RI Width a
*
5
0Atp Calibrated sonic_
L0P RHOB
$ 0 A RC - (Study 2) Diamor
□ Specified: [25 □ Lock
0|--' RC- (Study 2) Die
!ÿ! A Analytical Wavelet
Gridlines
a
a - 0
0li. Analytical Wavele
A.
mtg [Realized] 1
Automatic

0] 0ÿ rrag [Realized] 1
Synthetic - (Study 2) [
0 Draw vertical lines
0A
m É

-
0¿P Synthetic - (Study
0A ™g [Reaiized] 1 0 Draw horizontal major Ines
0¿P mig [Realized] 1 O Draw honzontal minor lines
% B Correlation (SWT)
Color:
i 0g# Correlation (SWT]
É 0 A Interval velocity (TDR Width: 1
0|y Interval velocity f
B 0 A Input nterval velocity
0"y* Input interval velo
Background
a
< 0~y* Output nterval ve
0A Drift (SWT)
Color:

Transparency: None
]
- >
/C\ 0 At Drift (SWT)
lo) 0& Tr?oiÿ
Borehole ma Index track
a
Background outs
Deviated tra
A Track
Tadpole track
(EJ Comment track
O Summation track
iOl Polar frequency plot track
4 1 »" l
i@( Completion track
Production charts
IV Apply j| ✓ OK l | * Cancel |
IP Log
Property
¿S' Points attribute
Seismic log
|jf 2D log
5® Bitmap log
IP Time series log
-5- Raster loq
$ Seismic
Prestack gather collection
Risk
it BHA
jfjj Simulation grid results

\f\ Simulation log

448 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


4. Select this seismic object on the Interpretation tab, which
contains the tools to add the interpretation (horizons and
faults) in the track.

<
5. Insert Horizons or Faults from the Input pane to add the >
interpretation.
6. The format can be edited at bottom of the Interpretation tab.
|¥j Settings for '(Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation'

O Info [© Well section template

Template objects □ Objects settings

Q- ¿ Vertical tracks (13)


yjS ¿
SSTVD
Definition Style $ Verticalizatior Well Rel ated
j
| v¡ y Index track ft Interpretation
0 E iV A Calibrated sonic_1/RI Horizon | Fault ©
:m
i @Mp Calibrated sonic
|VjP RHOB Name Status
i e ,v>.A RC- (Study 2) [2 Seismic horizon A V
0|P RC - (Study 2) Die [y] & Seismic horizon B V

II
E fÿl A Analytical Wavelet
0UU Analytical Wavele
¿ v.A mig [Realized] 1
El [y] Seismic honzon C ✓
[3 & Seismic horizon D ✓
E] mig [Realized] 1
|1/| A Synthetic - (9udy 2) [

B | É /A
(yj¡ÿl
Synthetic - (Study
mig [Realized] 1
mig [Realized] 1
i É . .A Correlation (SWT)
y Correlation (SWT)
! É IVlft Interval velocity (TDR
0|y Interval velocity f
i-

6-MA Input interval velocity


i Input interval velo
[J y* Output interval ve y Display all
i Q Drift (SWT)
: Drift (SWT) Annotation IJ
i É Ir/lA Seismic |Q Name Font: 10

« borehole markers
Background
Deviated tracks (0)
Interpretation
Position Left

©
O Lines Line type: Solid
Width:
9 Points Size 4
< I-»' -I

| </ Apply ✓ OK | | A Cancel )

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •449


[ij Sittings for '{Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation'

0 Info [a Well section template

Template otyecJs ¿ Objects setlngs a


St s" i Vertical tracks (12)
< B Q SSTVD
Deimbon Style & Verbcaliiabon Well Related
>
(uj[j Indextrack fJ |Interpretation)
B ir.A Castrated sorac 1/RI Honton | Tain
♦ (/jitp Calbrated sonc_ tf #
BP a
*
RHOB Name Status

*
1
tí RC- (Study 2) Darner
Bl" RC (Study 2) Da
■ P,
@1
0
Fault interpretation 1
Fault interpretation 2


¡3
B-irifi Analytical Wavelet
@li. Analytical Wavele 0 SB Fault interpretation 3 ✓
B viA mg [Realitedl 1 SB Fault interpretation 4 ✓
(3 y mg IReefaed] 1
0 & Fault interpretation 5 ✓
Vlÿ, Synthetic (9udy 2) [
m

Bÿ Synthetic • (Study
a viA mg |Reabed) 1
n>5 |Reabed| 1
0 V, A ConeWwn (SWT)

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V A Interval velocity (TOR
BCy Irterval vetocty f
< Vi A Irixx
rterval veiooty >
By* Input nerval veto
¡Vj'y* Output nerral ve
-
¿|£Mt(SWT)
Bit Ddt (SWT) H Display al
H-PIA Seamc
l5T.j8e.5~. |
Annotation
E] Name Font 10
a
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interpretation

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| V Apply I V OK A Cancel

450 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
7. Seismic cube display and style settings can be changed.
8. Click Apply.
• Setting* for (Study 2) Dnmond-l*Synttr*titgtnet*tion

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Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •451
I
Correlation track
The Correlation tool provides information for a better seismic
synthetic match. This tool calculates the cross-correlation between
synthetic and seismic, which is achieved by calculating the time shift to
< >
be applied to the synthetic.
Although the correlation display looks like seismic data and uses similar
display mechanisms, it is NOT seismic. Do not look for correlations
between this display and the seismic track. Each trace in the
Q. Correlation track represents the degree of correlation between the
3 synthetic and seismic, because the synthetic is shifted vertically
relative to the seismic.
This calculation is repeated every time, according to the seismic sample
rate, and for every seismic trace. Remember that each value represents
how well the synthetic matches the seismic trace at a particular point
in time over the entire interval that you specified. The result of these
calculations is a series of numbers for each seismic trace.
These values are normalized to ±1 and displayed as curves in the
Correlation track. These values correspond to the same positions as the
seismic traces.
When you place the cursor over the Correlation track, you can read the
Inline and Xline positions, the correlation value corresponding with the
mouse position (Current position), and the Max correlation from the box
labeled in the upper right side of the track (see Figure 11 and Figure 12).
Irlme 622 & X -e 565
Current posean (-0 116. -30Sms. Odeg)
Max correlator (0.504 -Sms. Odeg)
Max after rotate (O 4S6 Oms 63deg)
Max after rotate and shift (0.513, -4ms. 26degj

Figure 11 A box in the upper right side of correlation track showing correlation
values, lag value, and phase rotation

Inside the parenthesis, these values are displayed:


• Correlation value
• Time value that corresponds to the suggested time to shift (lag
value)
• Degrees

452 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
If the Compute phase mistie option (Figure 1 5) is active on the
Correlation tab, a new line of information (number 4) is displayed. This
information shows the phase rotation to be applied to the wavelet to
improve the tie. The time lag for this option is zero, meaning the
< synthetic was not shifted. >

If the phase mistie option is active on the Correlation tab, a new line
of information (number 5) is displayed. This information shows the
phase rotation to be applied to the wavelet to improve the tie.
Q.
You can see that the time lag for this option is different from zero,
3
meaning that the synthetic was shifted. With this result, the interpreter
knows what time shift or what phase applies to get the best
correlation.

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Figure 12 Correlation track with current cursor position and max correlation
values

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •453


I
Correlation lag
The lag value at any point in the Correlation track is the time shift
applied to the synthetic to move it into the position where it was when
the correlation values were calculated.
< >
For example, the correlation values at a lag of 0.2 seconds are the
result of the correlation calculation made when the synthetic is shifted
down 0.2 sec (or 200 ms).

Q.
The correlation values at lag zero represent the synthetic/seismic
relationship as it appears currently. The correlation values reflect a
3
current correlation is not high. In this case, the visual match between
the synthetic and seismic is not good.
The largest correlation value on each trace is marked with a symbol. A
red diamond marks the trace posted on the Correlation track with the
point of highest correlation (Figure 13). This symbol represents the best
mathematical match found between synthetic and seismic (in the Time
lag window). The lag value at this symbol is the amount of bulk shift
that you would need to apply to move the synthetic into this best match
position.
An asterisk marks the optimum point of correlation for the entire series
of traces used in the correlation generation operation. This symbol is
the global optimum correlation value of the best match among all of the
traces.

¿SIN

V Time lag window

>200 ■L/

Figure 13 The point of highest correlation

454 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
The Time lag window is defined on the Correlation tab in the
Window section of the Seismic well tie dialog box (Figure 14). The
Correlation tab in a Synthetic generation study is used to define the
Time lag window for the Correlation track. For example, if you define a
Start time of 1800 ms and an End time of 2200 ms, the time lag window
is 400 ms. The Correlation track displays 200 ms below and 200 ms
above.
■J! Seismic wefl tie

Q.

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Figure 14 The Correlation tab in the Synthetic generation study

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •455


Correlation tab
This tab controls the display parameters of the Correlation track. It is
divided into these three main sections (Figure 1 5):
< • Window >
• Trace
• Phase mistie
:|i Seismic well tie
Seismic well tie Herts

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£ Create stud/ (Study 3) Diamond 14 Synthetic generation

J # Edit study (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

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Input | Output j Tsne shift 1 Corretoboñ~| Track manager j Style
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End tome 2200 ms

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© Match setsmic traces
© User defined
Start trace 10
End trace ;
10

# Single trace
Radius 15
Phase misbe a
Wl Compile phase mistie

|✓ Apply | V OK |j A Cancel

Figure 15 Three main sections of Correlation tab

456 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Depending on the options that you select, the correlation between the
seismic traces and the synthetic are updated.
You can specify your preferences, such as Start time and End time. You
< also can specify visualization of the trace, or compute the phase mis-tie >
in the wavelet phase to improve the synthetic/seismic tie.

Window section
Q. To specify a start time (ms) and end time (ms) for the vertical correlation
interval, use the Window section on the Correlation tab. You can
establish the limits of interest or choose the Automatic set limits
option (default). This option takes the complete time window defined by
jo
the synthetic.
Every time that you make corrections in time, seismic, and other
parameters (such as stretch and squeeze, and bulk shift), the correlation
panel is updated.

Trace section
There are three options to select the number of traces to calculate the
correlation: Match seismic traces, User defined, or Single trace.

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •457


I
Match seismic traces option
By selecting this option, you can visualize the generated correlation
traces using the entire range of the reference seismic defined in the
< Seismic display section of the Seismic well tie dialog box. >
For example, if the number in the Xline window field (Figure 1 6) to be
used for reference seismic on either side of the well location is four,
five crosslines appear in each track of the seismic: one that corresponds
to the Xline 381 (well position in this example) and four other crosslines
Q.
after your reference (the number that you entered).
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458 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
However, the Xline 381 that corresponds to the well location is
duplicated because it is shown in both seismic tracks. It has eight
seismic traces to correlate with one trace in the synthetic.

< This means that the correlation track displays nine correlation traces, >
which correspond to eight seismic traces plus the one that is related to
the well position. Each trace displayed in the correlation track is a
cross-correlation between the trace in the seismic track and the
synthetic.
Q.
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Figure 17 Correlation track with an additional correlation trace

User defined
By selecting this option, you specify the range of traces to be used to
generate the correlation (Figure 17).
If Start trace is 0, the first seismic trace to be used in the cross¬
correlation is the first one defined in the Seismic track. Following the
previous example, this trace is 377.

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •459


I
Single trace
With this option, a single trace is calculated (Figure 18) following the
well trajectory. The traces used in the calculation for this single trace
(average trace) are the traces contained within a radius that you
determine (Figure 19).
Radius=2 traces
Radius=l trace
x x x x x
X x X
Q.
x x x x x
3
X X X X X X

X X X X X
X X X
X X X X X

Figure 18 Calculation of single trace

In this figure,
• ® represents the Well trajectory at time i
• X represents the traces around the Well trajectory.

Radius 1 trace lRadius=5 traces j Radius=10 traces Radius=15 tracesC


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Figure 19 Single trace (average trace) correlation.


460 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics
I
Figure 20 shows Trace options on the Correlation tab in the Seismic
well tie dialog box for trace-by-trace correlation and single trace
(average based on a radius) correlation.

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Figure 20 Trace options on the Correlation tab

1 Trace-by-trace correlation
2 Single trace (average based on a radius) correlation

Phase mistie
The previous correlation options consider the time shifts to be applied
in the synthetic to improve the synthetic/seismic tie. This functionality
calculates the correlation between the synthetic/seismic while
considering the phase of the wavelet. See Figure 21.
A scan is performed at 360 degrees with a one-degree step. This scan
generates the correlation between the synthetic and the seismic for
each of the 360 samples. The output of this process is a suggested
phase rotation value. You can apply this value at the active wavelet to
improve the tie between seismic and the synthetic.

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •461


1
Because this option is computationally costly, it is not enabled by
default.
■;.|1 Seismic well tie
Seismic wd tie | Hwte |
< >
Cl 0 Create study (Study 5) Copper-6 Synthetic generation

Edit study (Study 4) Copper-6 Synthetic generation

Type of study Synthetic generation

%We«: A Copper-6
Q. TS Template 13 (Study 4) Copper-6 Synthetic generation *(3
Input | Output | Time shift | Correlation ~[ Track manager | Style

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ft Start time: [o"~
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* Cancel
Figure 21 Compute phase mistie on the Correlation tab

Time shift: Interactive bulk shift or continuous alignment


The alignment of the well data to the seismic data can be adjusted to
improve the tie between the seismic and well data. It also can be used
to improve the estimated wavelet. You can apply interactive bulk shift
or continuous alignments as discussed in the following sections.

462 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Interactive bulk shift
After generating the first version of the synthetic seismogram using
logs and a wavelet, traditionally, the next step in seismic well tie
process is to perform a bulk shift in the synthetic to get a closer match
< >
between the synthetics and the seismic.
If the quality of the tie between the synthetic and the seismic is good
enough, a stretch and squeeze will not be necessary and is not
recommended as the first approach.
Q.

a
3
Procedure — Use interactive bulk shift
1. On the Seismic Interpretation tab, in the Seismic-well
calibration group, click Well tie editing to open the Tool
Palette
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2. Cl ick Edit mode EM


and then Add bulk shift line Sin
the Seismic well tie Tool Palette.
E Tool Palette 33
Edit mode
▼ Se'smic well tie

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Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •463


I
3. Click the position where to add the alignment point (in the
seismic track or the synthetic track). Because it is a bulk shift
of the entire synthetic seismogram, the position of the Bulk
shift line is irrelevant and is used only as a visual reference.
< 4. Move the line up or down to the corresponding event (in the >
seismic track or the synthetic track).
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464 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
5. On the Seismic well tie Tool Palette, click Apply bulk shift
H. You can edit interactively the bulk shift alignment points
<
when Apply bulk shift SI is switched on. >
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Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •465


The interactive bulk shift synchronizes with the Time shift tab
in the study; any change made graphically updates the bulk
shift box on the fly.
MI Seismic well tie 1ÿ1
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m Input | Output Time shift Correlation Track manager Style

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/] Align bulk shift
Bulk shift: 6 68 * ms

466 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


6. You can modify the format of the bulk shift line from the Style
tab of the SWT in the study.
r.|I Seismic well tie 1ÿ1
Seismic well tie Hints
< >
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Type of study: Synthetic generation


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Input Output Time shift j Correlation j Track manager | Style |
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TIP: Best practice is to perform the bulk shift before the


stretch and squeeze. Any change in the bulk shift is added to
the alignment points but no change to the alignment will affect
the bulk shift.
7. Another operation available in the Tool Palette for the bulk
shift is Delete bulk shift , which resets all the values.

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •467


I
Continuous alignment
In the seismic to well tie process, sometimes small adjustments have to
be made to match the synthetics with the seismic after the bulk shift is
implemented. To perform these adjustments, we use the alignment
< >
functionality and this process is interactive.

Q.
3
m Procedure — Use Continuous alignment
The basic alignment workflow steps (time domain) are:
1. On the Seismic Interpretation tab, in the Seismic-well
calibration group, click Well tie editing to open the Tool
Palette.
Seismic Interpretation Petrd
5
m
Seismic
Wavelet toolbox
Log conditioning

3 well tie | Well tie editing |


Seismic-well calibration

2. Click Edit mode a.


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Edit mode
Se'srric well tie

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468 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
3. Click the position where the alignment point needs to be
added (in the seismic track or the synthetic track).
4. Drag and drop the line to the corresponding event (in the
seismic track or the synthetic track).
< >

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Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •469


1
5. In step 4, the synthetics is not yet aligned with the analogous
event in the seismic. To apply the alignment, Align points
a from the Seismic well tie Tool Palette must be active
and the alignment points can be edited when the Align points
< >
H state is switched on.
E Tool Palette 33
Edit mode
Q. ▼ Seismic well tie X

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Q NOTE: You can add as many alignment points as required.


The default for Edit mode L_ÿ“I ¡S to add new alignment
points. To perform any edits on the alignment points, the Edit
mode EMI must be switched on.

470 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
6. Use Delete alignment point [Ü3 during a study if an
alignment point needs to be deleted. If it is switched on, the
alignments points can be deleted by clicking the alignment
< point line. >
In the case where the study needs to be reset, you can use the
tool Delete all alignments points . However, it must be
used very carefully because this option will delete all the
Q. selected alignments points instantly.
E Tool Palette 33
Edit mode
jo ▼ Seismic well tie

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NOTE: The continuous alignment in the depth domain works
the same for the Tool Palette, except that the tool to add new
alignment points is not available. The alignment points are tied
0
to an existing well top in the Well Tops folder selected in the
study. The depth for the markers are considered real, so the
drag-and-drop functionality must be performed only in the
seismic tracks.

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •471


7. The values of the alignments are reported through the
alignment line. You also can modify the format of the
alignment line on the Style tab of the study.
¿11 Seismic well tie
Seismic wel be ["Hints ]
Create study (Study 3) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

f 0 Edit study (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

Type of study Synthetic generation


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Tfi Template (*) (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation • @


Input | Output | Time shift i Correlation _
| Track manager | Style |
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Line type Solid
Line width
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a
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Font size 8
-
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Line type Solid

Line width

[ •/ Apply j|V OK A Cancel

472 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Quality check interval velocity
The Synthetic generation process has two tracks for quality checking.
The first track displays the Input Interval Velocity vs. Output Interval
Velocity. The second track displays the Drift curve in time for the shifts
< >
applied (Figure 22).
When time shift is applied to tie the synthetic with the seismic, this
tool gives the information about the resultant interval velocity and the
time shift applied to the alignment points. These tracks act as guides
Q. for the synthetic generation process and velocity editing.
3
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Figure 22 Synthetic generation process tracks for quality checking

1 Input Interval Velocity vs. Output Interval


2 Drift curve in time for the shifts applied

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •473


I
Interval velocity manipulation
Editing/manipulating the interval velocity can be done on-the-fly to
check the impact on your data.
< You can edit the velocity values visually in a Well section window. >
Use the Seismic well tie Tool Palette to manipulate and delete
velocity points. You also can lock the velocity manipulation into vertical
and horizontal directions. Figure 23 shows the Seismic well tie Tool
Palette where you can click different tools to perform these functions:
Q.
3
Tool Palette 33
Edit mode
▼ Seismic well tie

El iS >. P s
< $ss>" n>
+ * Si 31
Figure 23 Seismic well tie Tool Palette

| )i; | Manipulate interval velocity

Delete interval velocity knee

rl Vertical interval velocity manipulation

> Horizontal interval velocity manipulation

[4Ü Edit mode

474 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Figure 24 illustrates the Interval velocity track. In the Interval velocity
profile, you can manipulate the points when the Edit mode and
Manipulate interval velocity tools are switched on in the Seismic
well tie Tool Palette.
< >

Q.
1
jo

rt
Figure 24 Interval velocity manipulation in the velocity track.

The sampling of the interval velocity can be set on the Output tab of
the Seismic well tie dialog box in the Time/depth relationship
(TDR) section (Figure 25).
Remember that the interval velocity is an attribute of the checkshot.

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •475


1

;J1 Seismic well tie


wel tie Hints

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J• Edit study (Study 3) Copper-6 Synthetic generation

< Type of study: Synthetic generation


fl >
V/eM A Copper-6

T$1 Template [§} (Study 3) Copper-6 Synthetic generation - (TB)


Input | Output Time shift | Correlation [ Track manager | Style

Seismogram Copper-6_rmg [Realized] 1_synthetic 1

[m □ Autosave
Reflectivity RC @0
□Autosave
v Computed seismogram (depth)
%
Time depth relationship (TDR)
TDR Name TDR

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aa
Sample interval 150 00 ft □ Al samples
□ Autosave
Set as active TDR |

v Computed acoustic mpedanee

v Resampled acoustic impedance

v Partial seismogram from RC modeling

v Seismic trace used in the single trace correlation

Apply ✓ OK Cancel
*

Figure 25 Sample interval option in the Seismic well tie dialog box

476 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
The interactive manipulation feature can be an important tool for
quality control purposes, especially if you have information about the
lithology (from the driller or geologist, for example) because you know
what range of velocity to expect (Figure 26).
< >
For the top of the logs, this tool can be a good option for creating a
more realistic (geologically speaking) velocity trend.
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Figure 26 Interactive manipulation of interval velocities

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •477


I
Reflection coefficient (RC) modeling
The Reflection Coefficient (RC) modeling tool is used for studying
tuning effects. This tool can help you better understand the correlation
between depth logs and seismic data.
< >
You can access this tool during the Synthetic generation process.
Accessing it in this way allows you to select/clear RC areas or
individual coefficients and see the results as a partial synthetic.

Q.
This process helps you better understand how these coefficients can
impact the synthetic response and allows you to filter problematic areas
3
from your synthetic.
Figure 27 shows buttons available for Reflection Coefficient (RC)
modeling on the Seismic well tie Tool Palette.
B Tool Palette 33
<¿2 Edit mode
▼ Seismic wen tie

D > « >B 'E3 PP


aaaaEl*. a >
S$ ü ai
Figure 27 Buttons available for Reflection Coefficient (RC) modeling on the
Seismic well tie Tool Palette

[ÿ1 Activate RC modeling

Invert the RC selection

Ü Delete single RC selection


Delete all RC selections
By using the RC modeling process, you can select/deselect reflection
coefficients and see the impact in the new synthetic created through RC
modeling (Figure 28).

478 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


ggaasam
Al RC Negative Positive
Partial

✓ l " AV

iw
>
component component
I Synthetic
V

•i
<

Figure 28 Schematic representation of RC modeling workflow

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •479


I
The result appears in the Well section window in the tracks shown in
Figure 29.
The Save options of Partial Synthetic can be accessed on the Output

------
tab in the Seismic well tie dialog box.
'+ÿ Diamond- U [T.'.r
• ~ Positive synthetic Negative synthetic
~o3o| f-o.io o.oé 1:

II
Q.
3
©

A
1 Partial Synthetic (represents the final synthetic from your
selected RC values).
2 Positive Synthetic (positive component of your selected RC
values).
3 Negative Synthetic (negative component of your selected RC
values).
4 RC track

480 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Procedure — Perform Reflection coefficient (RC) modeling
1. Click Activate RC modeling
Palette.
5 in the Seismic well tie Tool

Three more tracks appear in the Synthetic display of the Well


m
< >
section window (WSW).
The first track is the Partial Synthetic, the second track is
Positive component, and the third track is Negative component.

Q.
2. When the Activate RC modeling ® tool is switched on, go
to your RC series track and select/clear areas of your log to
3
see the impact on your Synthetic. Click to select the positive
reflectivity.
You see a component in the positive track and the resulting
synthetic (that is, in the partial synthetic track). You can select
multiple areas (positive reflectivity as well as negative
reflectivity) in the RC series track for your synthetic.

030 ------
® Díamond-14 [TWT]
'
Positive synthetic Neg¡stive synthetic
-0.10

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •481


3. Save your partial synthetic. On the Output tab of the Seismic
well tie dialog box, click Save or select the Auto save check
box, as shown in the figure.
;JI Seismic well tie S3

Seismic well tie j Hints


Create study (Study 3) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

J O Edit study: (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

Type of study Synthetic generation

[•] %Wefl: ¿ Diamond-14


TÍTemplate (3 (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation
Input | Output | Time shift ] Correlation ] Track manager Style

0
Seismogram Diamond-14_m»g [Realized] 1_synthetic 1 @0
n Auto save
Reflectivity RC ia
0 Auto save
v Computed seismogram (depth)

v Time depth relationship (TDR)

v Computed acoustic impedance

v Resampled acoustic impedance

* Partial seismogram from RC modeling


Partial synthetic A
Name A
@1 Auto save

v Seismic trace used in the single trace correlation

■J Apply ■/ OK A Cancel

482 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Track manager
The Track manager tab provides a shortcut to help you manage the
tracks that you want to display within the study.
< When you generate a study, the default tracks are checked; however, if >
you consider the visualization of some of them to be unnecessary and
want a cleaner window, this operation can help you. Clear the tracks
that should not be displayed.

Q.
You access the Track manager tab in the Seismic well tie dialog
box (Figure 30).
3
bH Seismic well tie

Create study

Edit study (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

Type of study:
a
V/e« 4 Diamond-14
¡3 (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation
Input | Output | Time shift | Correlation | Track manageT~| Style
Synthetic generation tracks display
gllnptflog
a
URCIog
@] Wavelet
[21 Left seismic reference
@] Synthetic seismogram
2! Right seismic reference
2 Correlation
□Interval velocity
2 QC interval velodtyS drift

Figure 30 Track manager tab

The tracks can be hidden/posted by selecting the check box. The Well
section window template controls the positioning of each track.

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •483


Lesson 2 — Integrated seismic well tie
9 The Integrated seismic well tie study (Figure 31 ) is an integrated
process in which Sonic calibration and Synthetic generation are done
< simultaneously using the same Well section window canvas. >
The sonic calibration and synthetic generation parameters are defined
together to run an integrated seismic well tie study.
IS Seismic well tie B
SeiimicwBtee ~l HinU |
o Create study (Study 3) Diamond-14 Integrated seismic well tie

o Edit study (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

Type of study Integrated seismic well tie


* J
0 4fcWet s£> i Diamofid-14

Inpi*
T|j Copy template Integrated seismic wdlbe default template

Output Timeshr. Datummg Time-depth Options | Statistics | Córrele vn ] Track rra Style
-H
Parameters a
At Sonic log 1 4* At Some Despiked
y¡ TDR: -'}j Diamond-14/AICheckShots cs » Drop from other weJ

•Wavelet | JA»Analytical Wavelet * 6


© Time varying wavelet n
Seismic display

Seismic
< CpTig [Reaped] 1
§ Inline ©Xkie
Q Alow webs outside survey
Position ®|_® $
Inline 622
XSne 570
Xbne window io ;
Reflectivity coefficient

RC calculation method Sonic velocity and density


Some or velocity At Some Despiked
Density ($J P RHOB
v Advanced settings

ly Apply || y OK A Cancel

Figure 31 Integrated seismic well tie

484 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Integrated seismic well tie study template
Both processes are fully integrated under the same canvas (Figure 32).
Operations such as zoom and well top correlations are consistent
across the window.
< >
Similar to the Sonic calibration and Synthetic generation, you can select
a template for the study or use the default template.
SONIC CALIBRATION Synthetic Generatior

Q.
3
© ©I© ©© ■
10
11
13
E) 3) ©
©i }
1
:4- mm
> t ,

x
\ 1

-
Figure 32 Integrated seismic well tie

Select the default template to display this information:


1 Knees and drift curve 9 Wavelet
2 Residual drift 10 Original seismic
3 Input logs used in sonic 11 Synthetic seismogram
calibration
4 Interval velocity 12 Original seismic
5 Average velocity 13 Correlation
6 TWT Picked 14 Interval velocity
7 Density and Sonic logs for 15 Input/output interval
synthetic velocity
8 Reflectivity coefficient 16 Drift curve

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •485


I
The default template Is an integration of the default templates used by
Sonic calibration and Synthetic generation studies. The first section is
related to the Sonic calibration and the second section is related to the
Synthetic generation.
< >

Synthetic seismogram in the Interpretation window


The Seismic to well tie process is a stand-alone process; however, all
Q.
outputs from the process can be integrated with other processes and
3
displayed in different windows.
In an Interpretation window, you can display the wellbore trajectory
with the synthetic seismogram to identify the seismic reflectors that
represent the geological well tops (markers) before starting horizon
interpretation.
Display the seismic intersection in the Interpretation window. In the
Global well logs folder, choose the Synthetic seismogram.
In Figure 33, a Synthetic seismogram appears along the well trajectory
to identify the seismic reflectors that represent the geological well tops
(markers).
l&bÿjgiTWT Sffl-B’ T *T
i. a TP m «“jr a

Figure 33 Synthetic seismogram along the well trajectory


486 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics
I
Synthetic seismogram in a 3D window
When the time-depth relationship is established, display the inline and
crossline at the well position with the synthetic seismogram in a 3D
window (Figure 34) in time domain (TWT).
< >
Displaying this data in a 3D window provides a visual way to quality
control the match between the synthetic seismogram and the real
seismic data.
L
Q.
3 ¿fe?-»-
ii :
r,_
SPRIg: - ' >5ÿ

wS
% v\
:z
Jr* mUS'
Figure 34 Seismogram and seismic data together in the time domain (TWT) in a
3D window

Obtain a synthetic match


Problems can arise when you generate a synthetic that does not match
the seismic. It is important to be aware of the issues when generating a
synthetic that can lead to such problems.
If seismic data was not processed to an optimum level, data had issues
with energy scattering due to surface terrain, or logging shows other
problems (too few runs or bad runs), the synthetic might not fit at all.
Similarly, if you do not choose the correct datum or you do not edit the
logs properly, the synthetic is unlikely to tie to the seismic.

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •487


I
There are many reasons for a poor match:
• Poorly edited log data
• Poorly defined reflectivity series
• Not enough/poor log data (the logging run is too short to be
useful for synthetic)
• Issues with data acquisition (acquisition noise, energy
scattering, diffractions from fault plane, or gas effects)
• Seismic data processing issues (noise, velocity, or multiples)
Q. • Not enough depth information
3 • Poorly defined wavelet
• Misleading datum information.
Exercises — Generate a synthetic seismogram
The result of the previous exercises has produced a calibrated time-
depth relationship, which is selected on the Time tab of the well
Diamond-14 Settings dialog box.

Exercise workflow
1. Generate a synthetic seismogram using a predefined wavelet.
2. Apply interactive bulk shift or continuous alignments to adjust
the time shifts between synthetic and seismic.
3. Set synthetic seismogram display settings.
4. Display the synthetic seismogram in an Interpretation
window.

0 Exercise 1 - Generate a synthetic seismogram using a


predefined wavelet
In this exercise, you generate a synthetic seismogram using an existing
wavelet.
1. On the Seismic Interpretation tab, in the Seismic well
calibration group, click Seismic well tie.
Petroleum Systems Decision Support Structural Modeling Property Modelmg|
m
Seismic
V|Sr Wavelet toolbox
£2 Log conditioning
,
Insert Seismic
4 W K! S*"""--
Mesh
0volume Mixer
| well tie | interpretation itb butts „ Neural net
Seismic-well alteration 2D/3D interpretation .| Attributes

488 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
2. Create a new study and select type of study as Synthetic
generation.
3. Select the well Diamond-14 from the Well list.
The study name is updated, depending on the well that you
< select. You can change the name of the study. >
4. Select Calibrated TDR in the TDR list.
5. Select Analytical Wavelet from the list next to Wavelet.
This wavelet is a simple Ricker wavelet that is stored in the
Wavelets folder in the Input pane. You also can create a new
Q.
wavelet by clicking Wavelet toolbox ln the Seismic-well
calibration group.
I Seismic Interpretation Petrd
jo
31
m
Seismic
jifl
Wavelet toolbox
Log conditioning

5 well tie "fS WeM tie «W'Hg


Seismic-well calibration

6. Select mig [Realized] 1 next to the Seismic field.


7. In the Reflectivity coefficient section, choose Sonic velocity
and the density calculation method.
8. In the Sonic and Density fields, select Sonic Despiked and
RHOB.

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •489


9. The Seismic well tie dialog box should look similar to the
figure. Click Apply to generate the synthetic seismogram.
T.|I Seismic well tie
Seismic well tie Hints
< >
• Create study (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation 2
JC 1 Edit study (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration

Type of study: Synthetic generation


i
4k Wei:
©s
TÍ) Copy template
¿ Diamond-14
Synthetic generation default template TB
Input! Output Time shift Correlation Track manager I Style

1
o Wavelet;
© |s| Calibrated TDR

JJAP. Analytical Wavelet


o
0
® Time varying wavelet
*n
Seismic display

Seismic
© ®s mig (Realized) 1

o Inline O Xlme
[r] Allow wells outside survey
Position

Inline
-ft 622
Xline
ft 570
Xline window 10 2
Reflectivity coefficient

RC calculation method

Sonic or velocity:
Sonic velocity and density

efr At Sonic Despiked


©
Density:
v Advanced settings
m>| PRHOB ©
Apply | ✓ OK A Cancel

490 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
The synthetic seismogram is generated virtually and a new
Well section window opens.
10. Zoom inside the well section:
a. In Select/Pick mode, place the cursor in the track (TWT),
< between the gray and the white area. >
b. Click and drag the cursor to stretch or squeeze the display.

ISS
• snvi i*
-- g :f »T ■a-a-'Q i°» sm-«H >|


mr
Q.

jo J :
i »

\
3*
l “
l~ •: :
mm

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •491


1
11. In the Position section of the Input tab in the Seismic well
tie dialog box, click Set display position to deviated well

< Input I Output I T«ne shift I Correlation I Track | Style | >


TOR t Calibrated TDR
o
[ÿ1 lA.Analytical Wavelet 4-
* Wavelet:

Time varying wavelet


*

Q.
Seismic: |4l B0mig [Realized] 1
# Inline Xkne

□ Alow wels outside survey


a Position

Inline 622
Xline: 570
XSne window 10 :

12. On the Output tab, click Save «i next to the Seismogram


field.
I Input I Output | Time shift | Correlation | Track manager | Style I
Seismogram: Diamond-14_mig [Realized] 1.synthetic 1
ÜM
0 Autosave

The seismogram is stored in the Input pane in the Global


wells logs folder in the (Study ...) Diamond-14 Synthetic
generation folder.
13. Similarly, save the computed acoustic impedance; you will use
it in the next lesson.
(Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation
> B Visual
□ Diamond-14_mig [Realized] 1_synthetic 1
AI U AI

492 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Exercise 2 - Make interactive bulk shift and continuous
alignments 0
After generating the first version of the synthetic seismogram using
<
logs and a wavelet, traditionally, the next step in the seismic well tie >
process is to perform a bulk shift in the synthetic to get a closer match
between the synthetics and the seismic.
If the quality of the tie between the synthetic and the seismic is good
enough, a stretch and squeeze will not be necessary and is not
Q. recommended as the first approach, and all updates are applied as soon
as they are required.
1. On the Seismic interpretation tab, in the Seismic well
jo calibration group, open the Well tie editing Tool Palette.
I Seismic Interpretation

yfa. Wavelet toolbox


[Ijfll Log conditioning
Seismic
well tie Well tie editing |
Seismic-well calibration

2. Click Edit mode SI and then Add bulk shift line ISin
the Seismic well tie Tool Palette.

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •493


I
3. Click the position where to add the alignment point (in the
seismic track or the synthetic track). Because it is a bulk shift
of the entire synthetic seismogram, the position of the Bulk
shift line is irrelevant and is used only as a visual reference.
4. Move the line up or down to the corresponding event (in the
seismic track or the synthetic track).
4- Diamond- 14 [T'.'.T

I560.00
Inline 622 - mig [Realized] 1
570.00 =4 ” ::
Inline 622 - mig [Realized] 1
580.00

Q.
3
m í fitmm
>>
ml

% s \ _h_i * — j, d'k 1 < <


1412.62 ms (9.18

/
ÜÍ l
ni-Tmm m

494 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


5. On the Seismic well tie Tool Palette, click Apply bulk shift

. You can edit interactively the bulk shift alignment


< points when Apply bulk shift
T» Diamond-14 [TvVT]
H is switched on. >

Inline 622 - mig [Realized] 1 '


Inline 622 - mig [Realized] 1
570 00 1570 00

i
%
m u-v» 569
i
i
i > >nMn

B n
r
0

S iiiiW 9.18
. 1412.62 ms
<ÿ s j i í í I l~f
ifrh 412.62 ms (9.18

1 I
> s>
nltBfnBg
> TTTTTn
f FiTTf 1 1 J
T?
11 i
>b

I
) )T
»

}
i

rm 1 1 I
m í ni
6. The interactive bulk shift synchronizes with the Time shift tab
in the study; any change made graphically updates the bulk
shift box on the fly.
m Seismic well tie lÿl
Seismic well be Hints

t. Create study; j (Study 3) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

J 9 Edit study (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

Type of study: Synthetic generation


a
Well:
® 4 Diamond-14

T{] Template: (i) (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation '0


Input | l
Output Time shift | Correlation ] Track manager Style

Bulk time shift a


® Align bulk shift
Bulk shift 918 * ms

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •495


7. You can modify the format of the bulk shift line from the Style
tab of the SWT in the study.
fill Seismic well tie

< Seismic well tie Hints ] >


( Create study (Study 3) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

® Edit study: (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

Type of study: Synthetic generation


m
4ÿ Well ¿ Diamond-14
[•1
T{] Template: ¡3 (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation
Input | Output pirne shift | Correlation [ Track manager | Styfe

0
Alignment points
a
•J Show labels

Color

Font size 8
■J Show lines

Color ]-
Line type Solid

Line width
- 4

Bulk shift alignment


ÜJ
|y] Show labels

Color

Font size 8
J Show lines

Color

Line type Solid

Line width

|✓ Apply ~| | V OK A Cancel

8. Click Delete bulk shift <1 in the Tool Palette, This resets
all the values.
Now you will perform continuous alignment in the following
steps.
In the seismic to well tie process, sometimes small
496 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics
1
adjustments must be made to match the synthetics with the
seismic after the bulk shift is implemented. To perform these
adjustments, we use the alignment functionality and this
process is interactive.
< [¿5j >
9. Make sure Edit mode is switched on in the Tool Palette
and click on the position where the alignment point needs to
be added (in the seismic track or the synthetic track).
NOTE: You can add as many alignment points as required.
Q. [¿5l
The default for Edit mode LÿJ is to add new alignment points.
To perform any edits on the alignment points, the Edit mode
a ¿51
L_“iJ must be switched on.
ft
rj? Diamond-14 [TvVT]
Inline 622 - mig [Realized] Inline 622 - mig [Realized]
>.00
_ _ . . .
"Loo d
i Sir
H
«ÿÿÿ
mmi i
SSL'S?»

U \
* ?
W4

i > >

(
m / >> / 7
I 1 \ \ \ » >ÿ » >

1 S t|(B) 1598.52 Siii IB) 1598.52 inTI

v y »-»ÿ
i » i» i s s \
(C) 1723.6 msTT 1719.01

1
.6 ms[ m
I.-''.- . / U |(D) 1772.95

wm
itffliiSI ¡t rrrTTTTTTT
1885.4 < (

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •497


I
1 0. In step 9, the synthetics is not yet aligned with the analogous
event in the seismic. To apply the alignment, Align points
H in the Seismic well tie Tool Palette must be switched
< on and the alignment points can be edited when the Align >
points IM] is switched on. Repeat Step 9 through Step 1 0 as
necessary.
11. Use Delete alignment point during a study if an
Q. alignment point needs to be deleted. If it is activated, the
alignments points can be deleted by clicking over the
alignment point line.
jo In the case where the study needs to be reset, you can use
Delete all alignments points . However, it must be used
very carefully because this option deletes all the alignments

498 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


12. The values of the alignments are reported through the
alignment line and you also can modify the format of the
alignment line from the Style tab in the study.
til Seismic well tie
Seismic well tie Hints I
n Q Create study: (Study 3) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

J o Edit study: (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

Type of study: Synthetic generation


[•1
4ÿ Well: ¿ Diamond-14
TE Template ¡2 (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation
Input | Output | Time shift [ Correlation | Track manager Style
0 Alignment points

[21 Show labels

Color I ■”
Font size 8

[21 Show lines


Color
Line type. Solid

Line width
Bulk shift alignment
— 4


2] Show labels
Color

Font size: 8

J Show lines

Color

Line type Solid

Line width

[V Apply ||V OK A Cancel

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •499


I
13. On the Output tab, change the name of the Synthetic
seismogram to Diamond-14_mig [Realized]
l_synthetic l_shifted and click Save Í .
<
| Input l Output l Time shift | Conetobon| Track manager I Style | >
Diamond-14_mig [Realized] 1_synthebe 1_shifted

□ Autosave
H 1

The edited synthetic trace now can be found in the Input pane
in the Global well logs, (Study ...) Diamond-14 Synthetic
d
generation folder.
A
M 0 (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation
C" 0 Visual
Jo ¡P Q Diamond-14_mig [Resized] 1_synthetic 1
MOM
¡P □ Diamond-14_mig [Realized] 1_syrthetic 1_shifted

0 Exercise 3 - Change the synthetic seismogram display


settings
1. Open the Template settings dialog box for the Well section
window by clicking Template settings in the Window
toolbar.
&k TWT - jfj1 (Study 2) Diamo • | I’t> Undef

500 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
2. Experiment with the parameters and observe the changes.
For example, you can clear the interpolated density and density
fill check boxes for the surrounding seismic traces and the
synthetic seismogram respectively (as shown in the figure).
< @ Sitting» for ’(Stoidy 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation- hey ± Setting» for (Study 2) Diemond-14 Synthetic generation' a >
• '*JS H

o* r.
□ 0«««. a
IffT SpT
RE
|«, Style|


Quo
Bi
an
00
™>
• Def.mt.or

'U
aai we *
Q.
*
&
aP
S RC ISU»
I *
am i|¡¡¿ "
aw»...»
HI -
a
- •
*
n**»* HI -
jo :áfe¡ !ÿ DM,»|

Í8S
< *
IP B
a

!
IP >

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •501


I
"3

i;;;;;;:;;
11 r r


> >

;
::. * ) 1
>
> > ) / ?

Sir' ...
Q.

a ' / ííffftí
* i

M FH Ms ¡
1IvM
MfflW gM
ffi
Pffffff ,
»
1

t!il! IIIl
«M|/ / / ( |(E) 1885.4 m»| / ( ( ( |E) 1886.4 n>l| \ l I \

0 Exercise 4- Display the synthetic seismogram in other


windows
1. Open a new Interpretation window and display cross line 560
from the mig Realized] 1 cube.
2. Display the well Diamond-14 in the same window with Dallas,
Houston, Kobe, and Paris well tops.

502 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
3. Select the synthetic seismogram Diamond-14_mig [Realized]
1_synthetic 1_shifted in the Global well logs folder in the
Input pane.
* Ej 0 (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation
< > C □ Visual >
¡3p Q Diamond-14_mig [Realized] 1_synthetic 1
AI □ Al

4. With the aid of the synthetic seismogram, identify the seismic


Q.
reflectors that represent the well tops.
3
i—wamgiiwf

i
£fi « « is a a"Tr s s 1 s a JUL a as a a "f
ii

< - 4
>

~
- - -_•=
_-

5. Open a 3D window and display the inline and crossline at the


well position with the synthetic seismogram to quality control
the match between the synthetic seismogram and the real
seismic data. Make sure that the domain of the window is set
toTWT.

Petrel Geophysics Synthetic seismogram generation •503


I
Review questions
9 •

List seven ways to calculate a reflectivity coefficient in Petrel.
What is meant by use of interactive bulk shift or continuous
alignments to adjust the time shifts between synthetic and
< >
seismic?
• Why do you quality check input and output interval velocities
in the Seismic well tie process?
• What is Reflection Coefficient (RC) modeling, partial, positive,
Q. and negative synthetics?
• Can you save partial synthetic seismograms? If yes, how?

jo Summary
In this module, you learned about:
< • using the synthetic generation process and input data >
• calculating the reflectivity coefficient
• interactive bulk shift or continuous alignments to adjust the
time shifts
• using correlation tools and track
• modeling the reflection coefficient (RC)

504 •Synthetic seismogram generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Module 9 — Wavelet
generation
<

Seismic-to-well tie is key at any stage of the development of a field and


Q. is an essential step of the seismic interpretation workflow, bridging the
gap between the time and depth domains. Equally, it plays a key role in
the wavelet extraction process as it is involved in seismic inversion for
jo
reservoir characterization workflows. In this module, you learn different
methods to generate a wavelet in Petrel.

Learning objectives
After completing this module, you will know how to:
m
• use the Wavelet toolbox
• use the Analytical, Statistical, Deterministic, and Wavelet
averaging methods
• Multi-well extended white wavelet extraction (MWEW)
• Time varying wavelet

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •505


I
flf Lesson 1 — Wavelet toolbox
The Wavelet toolbox (Figure 1) integrates all related processes
(Wavelet extraction. Wavelet Builder, and Wavelet viewer) in a single
canvas. The toolbox provides an interactive tool that is easy to use.
All methods and their respective algorithms and parameters are
available in the Wavelet toolbox. You also can use options in the
toolbox to visualize these objects, without creating multiple windows to
Q generate different types of wavelets.
Wavelet toolbox

| , (*] — d>
Wavelets
* j

/ [ÿ| Ricker 1
*
> Ed* «dating

& g
128 ma u
■23 "5 10
TWM» ”
□ Invert polanty

o J
180

LI
LCoBWit.toaaopliiaa,
ss=
:
Figure 1 The Wavelet toolbox window

1 Displayed Wavelet list


2 Method and algorithm
3 Parameters of extraction/generation
4 Operations
5 Visualizations

506 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


Accessing the Wavelet toolbox
You can open the Wavelet toolbox in one of these ways (Figure 2):
On the Seismic interpretation tab, in the Seismic well
< calibration group, click Wavelet toolbox (]). >

Click Wavelet toolbox in the Seismic well tie dialog \±\


box (2).
From any wavelet in the Input pane, right-click the wavelet
[•]
name and select Open in wavelet toolbox( 3).

I Seismic Interpretation Petroleum Systems Decision Support Structural Modeling Property Modelirj

<& §
m
Seismic
iff!
Wavelet toolbox
Log conditioning
J ifl ,
“V—
Insert Seismic Mesh
m a
Volume Mixer
ggl
[|j
Surface attributes

Calculator

0 well tie Well tie editing ▼ interpretation editing attributes Neural net
Seismic-well calibration 2D/3D interpretation Mesh Attributes

ill Seismic well tie


Seismic well tie Hints

• Create study (Study 3) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

J O Edit study (Study 2) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

Type of study Synthetic generation

%Wel ® * Diamond-14

Input
Tfl Copy template
Output Time shift
Synthetic generation default template

Correlation Track manager | Stÿe


- ra
Calibrated TDR o
• Wavelet:

O Time varying wavelet


|~ÿ>] Analytical Wavelet ■


n rr
Seismic display

Seismic: *>> (Realized] 1

# Inline XJine

[r| Allow wells outside survey

Position

Inline
ü 622
Xline
m~~
Xline window: io :
Input
~* X
4ÿ0 Wavelets
Reflectivity coefficient ■
kV0 Analytical Waveltj
RC calculation method Acoustic impedance B Settings

Acoustic impedance | | AI Al (1ÿ Import (on selection) .. .


(v Advanced settings [=ÿ Export object

Ed.it global color table


H Delete .. ,
[j|j) Copy wavelet (data only)

E Open in wavelet toolbox

Guru

Figure 2 Accessing the Wavelet toolbox

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •507


I
Types of wavelets
A simple 1D synthetic seismogram is computed by convolving a
reflectivity series with a wavelet. Amplitude and phase spectra in the
< frequency domain define a wavelet. >
The Wavelet toolbox offers five ways to extract wavelets:
• Analytical
• Statistical
Q • Deterministic
• Multi wavelet average
• Multi well
Analytical method
Analytical wavelets are standard model wavelets. There are five
analytical wavelet types available in Petrel: Ricker, Ormsby, Tapered
Sine, Butterworth, and Klauder (Figure 3).

508 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
©
I"
fi)—

< “C5T >
!§ÿSJ i:: J

*
Q

□9
■c:
_ 0]
:
@

* ~
— Wr
©
i"

Figure 3 Five types of wavelets available for the Analytical method

1 Ricker
2 Butterworth
3 Klauder
4 Ormsby
5 Tanered sine

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •509


1
Ricker method
I With a Ricker A Ricker filter requires only one input - the peak frequency (Figure 4).
wavelet, no side-lobes are This filter commonly is used for synthetic modeling.
seen in the amplitude vs.
time spectrum. The No bandpass filter is involved. The frequency and phase spectrums are
Butterworth, Ormsby,
Klauder, and Tapered sine
purely a function of the peak frequency input.
filters all have associated . _ Wavelet _
side-lobes. 1.0-
Q
0.8-

0.&-
a |
«L f 0.4
I
0.2
I
¿ 0.0-

-0.2

-04

-60 -50 40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60


Time (ms)

Figure 4 Ricker filter with a 40 Hz peak frequency chosen

Ormsby method
The bandpass (Figure 5) of an Ormsby filter can be described using as
many as four corner frequencies.
Wavelet
1.0-

0 8-

0.6-

| 0.4-

% 0.2-
I 0.
-0 2-

-04-

-60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 C 10 20 30 40 50 60


Time (ms)

Figure 5 Ormsby filter


510 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics
I
Figure 6 shows the four Ormsby filter frequencies in Petrel.
100

2 3
< 75 >

I-
25
Q 1 Bandpass 4
o 50 75 WO 125 150 175 200 225

Figure 6 Bandpass for an Ormsby filter

< 1 Low cut frequency, where all lower frequencies are filtered out >
and not used.
2 Low pass frequency where after this frequency, 1 00% of all higher
frequencies is used:
3 High pass frequency, where frequencies higher than this one are
linearly tapered until point 4.
4 High cut frequency, where any frequencies higher than this one
are filtered out and not used.

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •511


I
Tapered sine method
A tapered sine filter (Figure 7) is defined by a low and a high cutoff
similar to a Butterworth filter but applies no further filters.
< A Butterworth filter applies two slopes (refer to the Butterworth method >
description).
Wavelet
1.0-

Q 0 8-

06-

■§ 04~

i 0.2-
I o.
-0 2-

-0.4-

-0 6-
-60 -50 40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time (ms)

Figure 7 Tapered sine filter

512 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Butterworth method
The Butterworth bandpass consists of two cutoff frequencies taken at 3
dB down from maximum power, or approximately half power (-50% on
< the amplitude scale in Figure 8). In the example, frequencies are at 1 0 >
Hz and 50 Hz. The Butterworth filter also requires two slopes.
Wavelet
10-

Q 0.8-

| 0.6-
1 0.4-

« 0.2-

<
I o.o- >
-0.2-

-0.4-
"
-60 -50" ' 40 -30
' '
-20
' '
-10
"
'0 " '

Time (ms)

Figure 8 Butterworth filter

The slopes are defined as decibels/octave in which an octave is a


doubling in the frequency (for example, 10 Hz to 20 Hz). A decibel is a
unit of measure for acoustics defined by the formula;
dB = 20log(X/Y)
In this equation, X/Y is the ratio of amplitudes. If the ratio of X/Y is 2, it
is 6 dB; a ratio of 10 translates to 20 dB (Figure 9).

75

I- 25
1

Bandpass
2

0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225

Figure 9 Bandpass of a Butterworth filter


Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •513
I
Klauder method
An analytical approximation of the Klauder wavelet is computed
through autocorrelation of an actual vibraseis sweep signal. A Klauder
< wavelet is defined by two frequency cutoff values: a low cutoff and a >
high cutoff. Figure 10 shows these frequencies set at 10 Hz and 70 Hz.
A boxcar represents the contributing frequencies. This boxcar assigns
the same constant amplitude for all frequency components. Because of
Q sudden discontinuities in the amplitude of frequencies at the beginning
and end, the wavelet has some undesirable side-lobe oscillations.
Wavelet
5:
4:
3'
< 1 >
1
4 "
I1
8. 0:
-1“

-2:
-60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time (ms)

Figure 10 Klauder filter

514 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Wavelet phase
The most important decision that you make when using Petrel is to use
either a minimum or a zero-phase wavelet. Dynamite and airgun
< sources produce impulse (minimum phase) source signatures and the >
resultant data is not necessarily reprocessed to zero phase.
Be careful, because the convention for a zero-phase wavelet for the
USA and Europe are opposite in phase (Figure 11).
Q
A 0.4-
0.8
0 2-

0 b-
0-
0.4-
-0 2-

< 0 2-
•0.4-
>
0-
0 6-
o
o s-
-0.4- U*1
-0 05 -0 025 0 0 025 0 05 -005 0 025 0.025 0.05

Figure 1 1 USA zero-phase wavelet (left) and European zero-phase wavelet


(right)

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •515


I
Statistical method
The statistical extraction method (Figure 12) assumes that the
embedded wavelet is the same as the truncated autocorrelation of the
< seismic trace. The average autocorrelation from many traces is used to >
provide a more representative estimate.
It is possible to access statistical extraction even if no sonic log exists
for the borehole. The statistical method transforms the autocorrelation
Q of all of the input seismic traces into the frequency domain, averages
the spectra, and inversely transforms the averaged spectra into the
phase specified. Such wavelets are zero-phase by definition.
A statistical wavelet can approximate the correlated source signature
used during Vibraseis (non-minimum phase) seismic acquisition. It is
useful particularly when the quality of seismic data is high and the
< >
quality of the RC series is low.
Falca

A>“—

I::
i-
r | * " "" ”

!:
4
■ :

3-
I |

Figure 12 Statistical method of wavelet extraction. Phase and length of the


wavelet are supplied. Amplitude spectrum is predefined from the seismic trace.

516 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Principles of the Statistical method
The statistical methods can be employed as a reliable quality control
tool for the deterministic methods, a way of interpolating the wavelet
< phase between non-matching wells or act as standalone tools in the >
absence of wells.
• Given a borehole trajectory, this method extracts both
minimum and maximum values of X and Y: (Xmin,Ymin) and
Q
(Xmax.Ymax).
• The auto position (determined automatically) is calculated as
the mean between them: ([Xmin+Xmaxj/2, [Ymin+Ymax]/2)
• It defines the position of the central trace for the extraction.
• Neighborhood (1x1 , 3x3, 5x5) defines the number of traces to
be used for the average.
< Figure 13 shows how the statistical method defines the position of the >
central trace for the wavelet extraction for a given borehole trajectory.
+ Xmax]i [Kmin + V'maxjy

Y/ Neighborhood

to
>
* i .
X
i

Figure 13 Defining the position of the central trace

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •517


I
Deterministic method
Deterministic corrections commonly are applied to rectify phase
mismatches between final processed seismic data and synthetics
< created from well logs (Figure 14). For this method, a seismic volume >
and input logs of interest are required.
You can change the position of the extraction location interactively,
based on predictability, to optimize the wavelet to use.
Q
Changing the extraction location automatically updates the extracted
wavelet with its corresponding power and phase spectra, as well the
resulting synthetic trace. These corrections force the synthetics and
seismic to match by assuming that the well logs provide ground truth.
However, nearby wells often suggest different phase corrections and
well logs are not always available.
< >
There are two required parameters:
• 2D or 3D seismic data and position for wavelet extraction
• Input for reflectivity series calculation.
fa Wavelet toolbox

r»;
I
/ Edit existing [ÿ] Branded SI

Ü l"
li — dH

~ I,
□ Use SWT Study tempocwyTDR a
a
’ótó' '-lóo ’ 'ÿdo -r "so" ' 100' f i I
mm
622 Si
11 ■.
N

♦ P"HOB
n
Phase manipulation ) Taweeh*| Hannegttar | Scale facto .
J
a

1 maZEdSZc*
Hcl-
I H—Iiwl I

Figure 14 Wavelet toolbox interface for the Deterministic method of wavelet


extraction

518 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Three algorithms for Deterministic wavelet calculation are available in
Petrel:
• Extended White
< • ISIS Frequency >
• ISIS time.
Extended White
Q Conceptually, the Extended Roy White wavelet extraction method
(Figure 15) separates the well tie and wavelet extraction problem into
these two elements:
• Determination of optimal time shift between well log
reflectivity and seismic amplitude
< • Determination of dominant phase. >
Simply described, the first step is accomplished with a time windowed
sliding cross-correlation of the power envelope of the well log
reflectivity with the power envelope of the seismic amplitude (both are
phase-independent). Optimal time shift from the starting cross¬
correlation point (the optimal lag) is at the maximum cross-correlation
point.
After determining the optimal time shift, the phase of the wavelet used
to create the synthetic is rotated until the maximum cross-correlation
between the synthetic amplitude and the seismic trace amplitude (both
phase-dependent) is found. At this point, the phase rotation from zero is
the optimal dominant phase.
The method provides statistics that are useful in judging well tie
quality. Optimal is a relative term - both steps of the method are
sensitive to the limits of the analysis windows and velocity errors.

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •519


I
General tab
From Petrel 2014.3, in an active Well section window, you can use a
temporary Time Depth Relationship (TDR) to extract a deterministic
< wavelet. In previous versions, the TDR had to be assigned to the well to >
perform the deterministic extraction.
If a study Well section window is active, the temporary TDR from that
window is considered for the deterministic wavelet extraction. Any
Q change from the bulk shift or stretch and squeeze process in the study
is used by the Wavelet toolbox for the extraction. The name of the
TDR or temporary TDR used for the extraction will be reported at TDR
ft
from in the interface. See Figure 16.
X. .1 nv.1 «
■ - !’ÿ
* Q

< g]( >

mm
Edn trattng

31C1

~ li=. g)[
□ UN SWT Study tomporwy TOR
3
V-tofca*» I TDW I Extwct I Output ]

HlH
u

Figure 16 Time Depth Relationship (TDR) from an active study WSW can be
used in a wavelet tool box to extract a deterministic wavelet

On the General tab (Figure 17), the extraction position can be set at
different locations. The number of inlines and crosslines around the
center location is specified for 3D seismic data.
For 2D seismic data, the center trace and the number of traces on each
side define the position. A vertical or deviated well can incorporate this
position into the wavelet extraction algorithm.

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •521


1
General | Verticalization i Taper Extract Output

<
Wei:
Seismic:

TDR from:
1Diamond-14
A Diamond-14
mig [Realized] 1

>
□ Use SWT Study temporary TDl a
Inline
Q Allow wells outside survey
622
a
Q
Xline: 570
ii®n®ii
Inline window: 10
Xline window: 10
a
RC calculation method: Sonic velocity and density ■

Sonic or velocity: ty> Atp Calibrated sonic_1 »

Density: | p RHOB
< Advanced settings >
Gardner's parameters
a
O Use Gardner's equation
Constant: |023 imperial

10.25
Filtering options
a
[2 Use anti-alias filter

Figure 17 General tab of the Wavelet toolbox

To position the well to a new location, away from the actual wellhead,
click Set extract position to the deviated well ® . You also can
interpolate seismic data to follow the trajectory or click Set extract
position to well head .

There is an option to enable or disable the anti-alias filter (used before


a signal sampler) to restrict the bandwidth of a signal to satisfy the
sampling theorem. This filter is recommended when converting the
input logs from depth to time. If you are dealing with synthetic data, it
is best to disable this feature.

522 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Verticalization tab
The Verticalization tab (Figure 18) can merge several different traces
due to a deviated well trajectory. This option takes segments from each
< trace the trajectory crosses and projects them (and merges them) into a >
single vertical seismic trace, which can then be used for wavelet
extraction in a deviated trajectory.
General | Verticalization | Taper | Extract | Output
Q Verticalization type: No verticalization
Smoothing No verticalization
Smoothing
Smoothing level Truncated sine function

Inline radius: 1

< Xline radius: 1 >


Time smoothing window: 1
Square weights: 0

Figure 18 Verticalization tab of the Wavelet toolbox

You must use good judgment to determine when a trajectory is so


severely deviated that the resulting analysis does not make physical
sense. You can control the way seismic data is interpolated using the
options Truncated sine function (recommended) and Smoothing in the
Verticalization type list.

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •523


I
Taper tab
On the Taper tab (Figure 19), you can select the User defined check
boxes to customize the length of the taper applied to the cross¬
< correlation that is computed and used for wavelet estimation. >
You also can use this tab to define the length of the taper applied to the
cross-correlation used for the deterministic wavelet extraction.
General [ Verticalization I Taper | Extrae* [ Output
Q Parameters
Length of extraction xcor: 248
a
"WO User defined
Length of extraction xcor taper: 124
™ D User defined
White Noise a
Percentage of white noise: i.oo : %
[ Retail

Figure 19 Taper tab of the Wavelet toolbox

The default size of the taper is half of the length of xcor, but it can be
changed easily by selecting User defined.
The percentage of white noise (used to the prevent instability in the
calculation of the coherence function) that is added in the wavelet
extraction algorithm also can be defined on this tab.

524 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Extract tab
The Extract tab (Figure 20) contains options for setting the time
window for the wavelet extraction process and the button that begins
< extracting the wavelet. >
| Calculate! [i~| Auto-calculate

General ] Verticalization | Taper | Extract | Output


RC window
Q
Start (a): 1224 ms
Length (b): 1252 ms

End (c): 2476 ms


RC window scan
J
< Offset to center (d): 0 ms >
Length (e): 40 ms

Center (a+d): 1224 ms

Start: 1204 ms

End: 1244 ms
Taper

Taper: None

Length: [ To] « Percent


[Reset] OTime

Figure 20 Extract tab of the Wavelet toolbox

After defining the parameters, click Calcúlatelo start the extraction.


When the extraction is done, you can change its position interactively
by clicking the predictability plots. Changing the position can be useful
when there is some question about the true position of the well within
the seismic volume.

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •525


I
Output tab
In addition to generating wavelets, you can use the Deterministic
method to generate the Reflectivity, the Acoustic Impedance, and the
Dephase Operator as outputs (Figure 21 ). The Dephase Operator is a
special purpose wavelet used to dephase amplitude data.

__
Extended White 1

A>“« ♦ BMMM M*1

KZ

II
J
1 l
.i '
-iso
' '
-160 ' ■ o' ” '6 ' y so' ' '
'100 lío ■

J
Hi

Phase manipulation J
Time shrft Hannmg filler| Scale factor

a
i

!i
- wm
-180 0 180 TT £.« is. 1.
0 00 ; *,
a ‘ "

3£ ™
Rgyioÿopÿ

526 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Isis time/Isis frequency methods for deterministic wavelets
The Isis Time/lsis Frequency methods extract wavelets using reflectivity
and seismic data, that is, ISIS Time and Frequency. Which method you
< select depends on the degree of correlation between the seismic data >
and the reflectivity log.
Figure 22 shows the Isis Time and Frequency options in the Wavelet
toolbox
Q
□ # Create new: ISIS (time) 1

/Q Edit existing: Q ISIS (time) 1

Method: Deterministic
Algorithm: Isis Time

< m >
IsisTime

Figure 22 Isis Time/lsis Frequency method

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •527


1
Wavelet extraction displays
A PredictabilitysecWon (Figure 23) appears when you set all of the
input parameters. Any change in the inputs or in the extraction
< parameters automatically updates the Predictability. >
•4 Wavelet toolbox
JO Create new; Wavelet
- *11Maximum predictability (top view)

I
'« Edit existing ;«£> Extended White 1

Q
Method
Algorithm:
Deterministic
Extended White
W:
V Auto-calculate S:
560 580
General fvertinwiyatinn | Taper | Exbact | Output]
a A Diamond-14 * Maximum predictability (side view)
Seamy §] QJmig [Realized] 1
ft TDR from Diamond-14
□ Use SWT Study temporary TDR rJW) 100
i
i I
s:
1

□ Alow wels outside survey 8'


Inline 622 560
Xfine: 570
* Time of maximum predictability
* InEne window 10 ‘

XEne window 10

4 !
RC calculation method Sonic velocity and density
¥_rTTTw
m ¡i
8?
Sonic or velocity.
Density:
v Advanced settings
I Atp Calibrated sonic log - (Study 1) Diamond-14
PRHOB
-
I
Phase spectrum

v-
:
Phase of maximum wavelet
8

___
Operations
Phase manipulation | Tunc shift ( Hanning filter | Scale factor A Predictability information
a
*’**618
sr 572
“°6Íl
559
•20 000M
-180 0
Wa
a £S5L““* 12040«

- <i*u
Relative amplitude
Phase: o oo ¿ Power spectrum in dB scale
Phase spectrum in wrapped angles
Show envelope
VJ Standard phase convention

□ Aun» |v Apply ![ÿ/ OK 11« Cual I

Figure 23 Predictability section of the Wavelet toolbox

Predictability in the Seismic well tie process is used to determine the


optimal wavelet. The Predictability section opens automatically and
shows the calculated predictability spread in the vicinity of the set
extraction point and the wavelet shape. It also shows the corresponding
Power and Phase spectra.

528 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
The windows show these Predictability displays:
• Maximum Predictability (top view): Calculated correlation
between the RC series and the seismic around the well
< position >
• Maximum Predictability (side view): Predictability for an
inline shown as a function of crossline position and lag time
(traces for 2D lines)
Q
• Time of maximum predictability: Shows a map of the start
time for which the maximum predictability was found.
• Phase of maximum wavelet: Shows the phase of the best
interval. This option could take considerable time to be
calculated.
• Predictability information: Data sources, extraction
parameters, and predictability values.
< >
Initially, a white circle (Figure 24) shows the currently selected wavelet
at the maximum predictability of the cube of extracted wavelet. The
interpreter can move the extraction point by clicking any predictability
display.
A black X (Figure 24) shows the maximum predictability zone.
The Predictability displays are interactive. By clicking a different
location inside a display, the wavelet is updated to the wavelet
extracted at that map location and the Predictability for Inline display
moves to the selected inline.
1 Maximum predictability (top view)
2'
to I- Position of the
SL
m
currently selected
i extracted wavelet.
Id)
P ,n
!•!
I :.....
...
o>
■ Maximum
predictability zone
CO

8' o

560
a 580

Figure 24 White circle and black X show the maximum predictability zone

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •529


I
Interpret predictability results
The predictability and extracted wavelet displays are used together to
determine which of many extracted wavelets are the best to use.
< Sometimes, the optimal predictability does not occur at the exact >
location of the well.
When this scenario happens, ask these questions:
• Where is the well (truly) located?
Q
• Was the well location surveyed correctly?
• Is everyone using the same cartographic system?
• Were cartographic transforms done correctly?
• Are we near the edge of a cartographic zone, where errors are
often large?
<
• Is the well deviated? If so, where is the downhole location >
relative to the surface location?
• the well cataloged as a vertical hole, but is it slightly
Is
deviated?

Background: Note on predictability information


Predictability is calculated using this methodology: An autocorrelation
is computed of the Borehole Data and Seismic Data traces Acor1(t) and
Acor2(t), and a cross-correlation is computed between them Xcor(t). The
autocorrelations and cross-correlations are tapered from Time zero with
a cosine taper up to max-lag samples using:

Max_lag =
(£-) *0.5

In this equation:
• n is the number of input samples in the window
• k has been set from experience to be (n* SR / 100), where SR
is the sample rate of the data in milliseconds.

530 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
The global predictability value now is calculated with this equation,
based on the tapered autocorrelations and cross-correlations:
100
< Predictability >
'%y'(Acor\(t) *Acor2(t))
Predictability values range from 0 to 100, where 100 represents data
that matches perfectly.
Q
At anytime, these items appear: the maximum predictability map,
predictability for a single inline, and the time of maximum predictability
or phase of maximum wavelet. The latter two are interactively
interchangeable.
D Use the envelope
peak to work out the time
lag. Calculate the
instantaneous phase at the
The predictability maps are interactive and linked to the parameters in envelope peak. This
< the Wavelet toolbox. The wavelet for that location is shown and can calculation is the reported >
wavelet phase.
be edited. The Predictability for an inline window displays the time lag
for the position selected in the maximum predictability window. The
time of maximum predictability shows the time lag for the best
predictability in a map view.
The Phase of maximum wavelet display shows the phase rotation for a
maximum predictable wavelet for each trace. The phase is determined
by calculating the envelope of the wavelet and, from that calculation,
the peak of the envelope.

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •531


I
Predictability and correlation
Why use predictability? Predictability is a measure of the similarity of
the underlying reflectivity, so it is independent of the wavelet on the
< seismic. It also is fairly insensitive to amplitude scaling differences and >
wavelet phase uncertainty between the two time series (Figure 25).
Simple cross-correlation methods do not benefit from these features.
SXEtffi
Q
/•EtttenMng [i£j Extended WNe 1

«tato» 1 T«p« lb— a 1 OKpm

1“ ■■

' ‘ i¿¿ ‘' í¿¿ ' ' 2¿¿ " ¿lo fo


< ' >

lr~

SBM
58
560 .570 580

Predictability information
Li v:
Inline:
Xlme
Lag from RC to seismic
622
573
623
569
-12000™ -12000™
/
a*— it
¡a:
Predictability: 17 096 s 19009s
;-s tortoise: 0206 0 235
Start li on seismic 12120™ 12120™
Start time onRC: 1224 0™
1252 0™

Figure 25 Wavelet phase and predictability information

532 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Phase manipulation
The Seismic well tie process provides comprehensive tools to examine
and understand the phase characteristics of the seismic data over a
< formation of interest. >
To get correct information, it is necessary to interpret events on the
correct part of the seismic waveform. Interpreting on zero phase data is
important to assure that the Reflection Coefficients (or impedance
Q changes) from the log interpretation match a peak, trough, or zero
crossing wavelet character in the seismic. Only by knowing the phase
of the data can you reasonably expect to zero phase it correctly.
Zero-phase seismic data is essential for many geophysical analysis
techniques including Seismic Inversion. When the phase of the seismic
is understood clearly, the seismic can be reprocessed to apply the
< >
dephase operator generated from the Seismic well tie process to the
seismic. This action creates a zero phase seismic over the formation of
interest (Figure 26).
For more information, refer to the Stretch and squeeze section in the
Synthetic seismogram generation lesson.
Operations
Phase manipulation \ Time shift [ Hanning filter [ Scale factor

-180 0 180

■íh
Phase: 2.85 * deg | Rotate to zero phase |

| Convert to zero phase |

Figure 26 Phase manipulation tab in the Wavelet toolbox

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •533


I
Time shift
A bulk shift can be applied to the entire wavelet using the Time shift
feature (Figure 27).
Operations
Phase manipulation| Time shift | Hanning filter Scale factor

a
-242 0 242

Cl Modified time shift: 0.00 * ms


Original time shift: 7.512 ms

Petrel Geopf a © 1ÿ

Figure 27 Time shift tab in the Wavelet toolbox

Hanning Filter: Seismic data frequency characteristics


Low frequency is not always good. When high frequency features are
obscured because of low frequency noise or natural attenuation of
higher frequencies, evaluating well tie details can become problematic.
When evaluating a well tie, particularly when using a short extracted
wavelet or an analytical wavelet (for example, Ricker), keep in mind
that the wavelet can be band-limited relative to the seismic and not
fully represent low frequency response.
To assist with frequency evaluation, the Hanning filter subtab
(Figure 28) is available for all wavelet types in the toolbox. It is a filter
option that applies band limiting to the wavelet and to the synthetic
traces built using the wavelet.

Phase manipulation | Time shift | Hanning filter | Scale factor

Low: High:
a
Cutoff: 0 Hz 125 Hz
Stopband: 0 Hz 125 Hz

O Apply Hanning filter

Figure 28 Hanning filter parameters in the Wavelet toolbox

534 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics

A
I
You can use this feature to evaluate if a wavelet extracted in a deep
interval is still applicable in a shallow interval. This feature allows you
to filter back the lower frequencies and observe the well seismic tie at
<
a shallower interval. >
You also can use the filter facility to help determine optimal low cut
filter parameters to be applied to the seismic data in a later filtering
operation.
Q Additional insight into phase behavior is possible because selective
filtering allows band-constrained phase behavior to become visible in
the wavelet display. Allowing this behavior to become visible is
important particularly when working with data acquired with an
impulse source (minimum phase). This type of data has the potential for
residual minimum phase in lower frequencies after processing.

Scale factor
This Scale factor feature (Figure 29) scales the amplitude of the
wavelet. For the analytical and statistical normalized method of wavelet
extraction in Petrel, the amplitude range varies from -1 to 1. Normally
this range does not match the seismic volume's amplitude range.
Operations
Phase manipulation Time shift Hanning filter | Scale factor

a
Scale factor: 1

Figure 29 Scale factor tab in the Wavelet toolbox

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •535


I
9 Lesson 2 (Optional) — Multiwavelet, Multi-well
extended white wavelet extraction (MWEW), and
Time variant wavelet
< The Seismic well tie process is entirely integrated with the Petrel >
platform and supports creation of following wavelets:
• Estimation of an average wavelet calculated from a set of
wavelets existing in the project
Q
• One wavelet representing the combination of RCs and seismic
traces from all input wells
• Applying existing wavelets over different time intervals to
generate a synthetic to address the phenomenon of decreasing
frequencies and amplitudes at deeper seismic data

536 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Multivavelet
Wavelet Average calculates an average wavelet from a set of
wavelets that you select. You can define the length and sample interval
< of the average wavelet, and you can invert the polarity of the resultant >
wavelet (Figure 30).
Wavelet toolbox

Wavelet average 1

/O Edit existing j
Sy> Wavelet average 1
Q Method:

1 ill
Length Sample nterval Status
30 Hz 128 4 ✓

z
U
lÿtRidoer 20 Hz
i Ricker 13 Hz
128
128
4
4 ✓
J Average I
a .
128 ms !

Time shift | iftsrl Scale factor


a Q
-180 0
Hih Í1 Power
Phase
0 01 J deg Rotate to zero phase

| HwUNwnJ ;AU»MV« V Apply V OK | A Cancel

Figure 30 Calculation of an average wavelet from a set of selected wavelets

In the Parameters area, you select as input a list of wavelets to be


used for the average calculation.
You can use Analytical, Deterministic, and Statistical wavelets for the
average calculation. The input wavelets can have any sample interval
between 1 ms and 16 ms and lengths up to 8 seconds.
The Wavelet Average method automatically computes and plots the
result just after the first wavelet is selected as input. It is displayed in
dark blue.
When all inputs are removed, no wavelet is plotted.

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •537


I
Multi-well extended white wavelet extraction (MWEW)
In Petrel 2015.1 a multi-well deterministic wavelet extraction is
available.
< One of the key elements for the inversion process is the wavelet. You >
can extract a wavelet from the seismic volumes using different
methods. In Petrel, one of them is the deterministic method Extended
White that you can use to extract wavelets for a specific borehole. This
Q method works fine when you are interested in just one well, but in
many cases, for inversion, more than one well is available to perform
the extraction. Now you have a multi-well option.
To perform the MWEW, you need an individual deterministic wavelet
extraction for every well selected.
< MWEW involves these steps: >
1. Input: Extended white wavelets where the reflectivity and
seismic trace will be retrieved.
2. Extract all wavelets from the same seismic cube.
Reflectivity, seismic trace, and time lag used for these
wavelets become inputs in the multi-well extraction.
Input wavelet amplitudes are not used by this algorithm.
3. Output: Multi-well wavelet extracted.
The algorithm uses the extraction window for each one of the input
wavelets to get the reflection coefficient (RC) from the logs and the
seismic trace from the seismic for all wells. All these pieces from all
wells are used to generate just one RC log and one seismic trace log.
Between the pieces, a zero interval is added with a length equivalent to
the biggest wavelet length.
The pseudo log and pseudo seismic trace are used to extract a wavelet
using extended white given as result one wavelet representing the
combination of RCs and seismic traces from all input wells.
See Figure 31 for a schematic diagram for the multi-well extended
white wavelet extraction (MWEW)

538 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Extended white individual extraction Pseudo-well creation Final Wavelet
Pseudo well Final wavelet

£>
<
I >

Weill 1=
P
I
Q

S
Well 2 u
i %
< Í >

§ Connection with zero as value

If
and equivalent to the largest
IJ|
Well 3
8
7 f
Figure 31 Schematic diagram for the multi-well extended white wavelet
extraction (MWEW)

Time varying wavelet


This tool is useful to address the phenomenon of decreasing
frequencies and amplitudes at deeper seismic data. The Time varying
wavelet can be useful for applying existing wavelets over different time
intervals to generate a synthetic.
The character of seismic data varies as time increases, with deeper
data generally having lower frequencies and amplitudes. It can be
useful to use different wavelets over different time ranges (gates) to
generate a synthetic. With the Time varying wavelet option, you can
use various existing wavelets and taper types to create a time varying
wavelet.

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •539


I
This functionality can be accessed on the Input tab on the Seismic well
tie dialog box of the Synthetic generation study (Figure 32).

< >
•a
VM
•a
(eg £CaM»mdTDR o B
Q -i fcl

|ÿ| OB'"* IRsataed] 1


Xine
Hk s Status Wavelet length (ms)
128

128
Start time (ms)
1300

[TTST
End time (ms)
1750

Taper Trapezoidal

®®o □ Aulo apply [~V~ ]L¿_


-fi¬
OK
* Caned |

fi
ej P RHOB

Figure 32 Time varying wavelet in the Synthetic generation study

When the Time varying wavelet option is selected, the Open time
varying wavelet tool button is activated. To launch the Time
varying wavelet dialog box, click this button.
In the Time varying wavelet dialog box (Figure 33), you specify time
ranges or time intervals over which a series of wavelets can be used to
generate the synthetic. You can create as many as ten time ranges
represented in a dynamic table.

-Hr*
Wavelet Status Wavelet length (ms) Start time (ms) End time (ms)

¿IRieka •
✓ 128 1300 1750

| |Flicker 2 ✓ 128 p750~ ] 2300

Taper Trapezoidal Taper length (ms): 0

□ Aulo apply |V Apply || V OK || H Cancel

Figure 33 Time varying wavelet dialog box

540 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
Each time interval is defined by:

• A wavelet that you insert from the Input pane. When the
wavelet is dropped in, the Ul displays its length. The wavelet can
be Deterministic, Statistical, or Analytical.
If the wavelet is modified, the system displays a warning icon to
indicate that the selected wavelet was modified.

Q
| e¡> | Ricker 20 Hz !

• Start/end times (in ms) for each individual gate (time ranges) over
which individual wavelets generate the synthetic. The minimum
time interval is 4 ms. Gaps between time ranges are not allowed.
• A taper. The supported taper types are
• Trapezoidal
• Cosine
• Cosine squared
• Hanning
• Hamming
• Blackmann
• Papoulis
• Minimum energy moment
• Minimum amplitude moment

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •541


I
Taper length (Figure 34) is a time in milliseconds over which the gate is
gradually smoothed to its edges. This parameter is an integer value
with maximum limits of the smallest time range. The value should be a
multiple of the wavelet sample rate. If you insert a value that is not
< >
valid, it updates the Taper length value automatically to the greater
valid value. When the taper is applied, it is centered by the transition
between two time ranges with half of the Taper length on each side.
The start and end times of the RC log crop the Taper length of the first
Q and the last intervals, respectively.

0}
z
Taper length

k -Taper length
Taper

Zy
Taper

Id - Taper length

542 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
The synthetic generation is performed for each wavelet with the entire
RC log. This process results in n different synthetic seismograms
(where n is the number of time ranges). These synthetic seismograms
are cut to respect the range that you specify, plus half of the taper
length in each boundary (Figure 35).
All the wavelets are resampled to the same sample rate of the one with
the lowest sample interval. A synthetic seismogram is generated using
the highest resolution.
Q
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Figure 35 Synthetic seismogram using the highest resolution

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •543


Exercises — Extract wavelets
In these exercises, you extract a wavelet and generate a synthetic
seismogram.
< >

Exercise workflow
1 . Create a statistical wavelet.
2. Extract a wavelet.
3. Generate synthetic seismograms and compare wavelets.

0 0 Exercise 1 — Create a Statistical wavelet


1. On the Seismic interpretation domain tab, in the Seismic-
well calibration group, launch the Wavelet toolbox.
Seismic Interpretation Petroleum Systems Decision Support Structural Modeling Property Modelira

9 i
?
Seismic
•pjv Wavelet toolbox
Log conditioning
I
&Insert Seismic
<4
Mesh
m
Volume
i
Mixer
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Surface attributes

Calculator

9 well tie Well tie editing


Seismic-well calibration
- interpretation
2D/3D interpretation IS
editing
Mesh is
attributes 3**
Attributes
Neural net

544 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
2. Create a Statistical wavelet with these values:
• Length =128 ms
• Sample rate = 4 ms
< • Seismic volume = mig [Realized] 1 >
• Well = Diamond-14.
Wavelet toolbox

Um Create new
SO Edit ensbng | c{> ¡ Statistical 1 1 D

i:
128 ms

i •»
1 Hrrvg [Reaped]
A Diamond-14

'30' ' ' 40 '50 "


60'
Taper Time (ms)

m Detemvneau
"ÜT1-
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1610096-2499]
-176239.369915]
Time (ms)

í z
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a
a
■001 ; *g 1£

□ Amo»™ £ Ik OK II»

3. Try different wavelet parameter values:


• Length
• Sample rate
• Neighborhood
• Taper
• Regions (Position, Inline, Xline, Start time. End time)
• Operations (Phase manipulation).
The wavelet displayed in the dialog box updates automatically
based on any change that you make.
4. When you are satisfied, click Apply and click OK.
The wavelet is saved and stored at the bottom of the Input
pane.
Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •545
I
5. Drag this newly created Statistical 1 wavelet into the
Wavelets folder.
6. You again can view or edit the newly created wavelet. Expand
<
the Wavelets folder in the Input pane, right-click Statistical 1 >
wavelet, and select Open in wavelet toolbox.
* C Wavelets
IAv Analytical Wavelet

[@ Settings
Q
[|ÿ Import (on selection) . ..
[=1, Export object

& Edit global color table


jgerx

A Delete .. ,
H] Copy wavelet (data only)

< Open in wavelet toolbox >


Guru

The wavelet appears in the Wavelet toolbox where you can


edit it.

546 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


Exercise 2 — Use wavelets interactively for a quick
synthetic analysis 0
The interactivity of the Seismic well tie process allows quick analysis of
a synthetic by using a wavelet for initial assessment.
1. As explained in the previous exercise, create a Synthetic
generation study in the Seismic well tie dialog box.
2. Choose the newly created wavelet.
3. Open the Wavelet toolbox from the Seismic well tie dialog
box.
m U1 Seismic well tie Iÿl
I Seismic well be Hints
0
Q 1
0 Create study: (Study 3) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation

f C Edit study: (Study 1) Diamond-14 Sonic calibration

Type of study: Synthetic generation


’ A
Well: | | A Diamond-14
THCopy template Synthetic generation default template - TS
Input Output] Time shift Correlation Track manager Styfe

I c£> Í# Calibrated TDR O


© ® Wavelet: |/v- Statistical 1
3 0
© Time varying wavelet: 1
Seismic display

Seismic: | | (88 m'9 [Realized] 1


9 Inline C Xline
[H Allow wells outside survey

Position (D© ®
Inline 622
Xline 570
Xline window: io :
Reflectivity coefficient

RC calculation method Sonic velocity and density'

Sonic or velocity: | | At Sonic Despiked


Density: e>| PRHOB
v Advanced settings

|V Apply "| | V OK |I A Cancel

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •547


Statistical 1 Inline 622 - mig [Realized] 1
<+> Diamond-14 TWT] Inline 622 - mig [Realized] 1
0 00 1.00 560 00 570.00 570.00 580.00
r

<
Statistical 1
J r-* >
h

500000
-S
3

CL.
-
<
0
-
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-50 0 50
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<
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Time (ms)
Power spectrum

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- %

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-30

-40

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0 50 100

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Phase spectrum
1

OS
0.5 ■

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i' 0
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J2
CL
-0.5 -

-1

0 50 100

Frequency (Hz)

548 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
4. In the Wavelet toolbox, use the options available in the
Operations section to edit the phase and time of the wavelet.
5. Select the Autosave option to save the wavelet and
< interactively observe the updates in the synthetic when >
changes are applied.

j.,
r |?rr
* ■'*
* *

< -fl- >

r a I:
i§|~~
a

düEEI —
Exercise 3 — Extract a wavelet and generate a synthetic
seismogram
0
1. With the Wavelet toolbox open, create a new wavelet using
the Deterministic method.
2. Name the new wavelet Deterministic Wavelet
Diamond-14.
3. Select Diamond-14 from the Well list or insert “v* .
4. Select the mig [Realized] 1 seismic cube from the
corresponding field.
5. By default, the extraction position is set automatically to the
well location. Because the well has a deviated trajectory, click
Set extraction position to the deviated well .
This button sets the reference center point at the inline/
crossline location where the TWT of the trajectory matches the
Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •549
I
TWT at the midpoint of the extraction window.
6. Specify (in the number of inlines and crosslines) an area
around the defined position where it is possible to perform
<
wavelet extraction. >
The predictability between the seismic trace and the RC series
will be calculated.
7. For the RC calculation method, choose the Acoustic impedance
named Al that you created in previous exercises. It is stored in
Q the (Study ...) Diamond-14 Synthetic generation folder in
the Global well logs folder.
8. On the Extract tab, set a start time and window length to
define the area of extraction for the wavelet.
The interval of interest should be the reservoir interval. You can
keep the default value (it uses the whole interval with data).
Consider a synthetic to be a valid representation only within
the interval from which the wavelet was extracted.
After you have configured all of the necessary settings for the
extraction to take place, the wavelet is created virtually. The
Extracted wavelet display and Predictability display
windows are populated.
The Predictability display window is divided into five parts:
• Maximum predictability (top view): Color-coded
display of the maximum predictability in the various inline
and crossline positions.
• Maximum predictability (side view): Based on the
selected inline position in the maximum Predictability
display, predictability is color-coded as a function of
crossline position and time lag (between seismic and RC
series).
• Time of maximum predictability: Color-coded display of
the lag time for maximum predictability in the various
inline and crossline positions.
• Phase of maximum wavelet: Color-coded display of the
wavelet phase for maximum predictability in the various
inline and crossline positions
• Predictability information: Values for the current
selected extraction position.

550 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
4* Wavelet toolbox

/r, Edit existing g]l 1 0.

< >
a 02

o:-
1252 ms
End(c) 2476 ms

Q a '-260 '
-160' '
¿ 1Ó0 ~r2M %

End:
Taper

Taper LZÚ
GB
i;
1*
Ptieee manipulation iTanertfcl thnpwnttM I Satohdocl a
a ........... “1 "1
000 * deg Rotate to zero phase | I
V Relative ampitude
yj Power spectrum m
[ I Phase spectrun
n Show envelope
glE-lE”-
□ Autosave \v Apply ||v_0ÿÿ| [ A Cancel]

9. The default extraction location is at the maximum predictability


point calculated in the scan. Interactively change the position
for extracting the wavelet. Click somewhere in the window to
see the change in the wavelet display section.
10. When satisfied, click Apply to create the wavelet.
It is stored in the Input pane. You also can use the Auto save
option in the Wavelet toolbox to save the wavelet in the
Input pane automatically. With this option, you can see
interactively the changes in the synthetic seismogram as you
change the wavelet in the Wavelet toolbox.
11. Drag this wavelet (Deterministic Wavelet Diamond-14) into the
Wavelets folder.

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •551


I
12. In the left part of the Wavelet toolbox dialog box, open the
Wavelet list by clicking an arrow, indicated by a circle in the
figure.
< 13. In the left part of the Wavelet toolbox dialog box, insert 'v* >
the other wavelets.
1 4. Click the check boxes to select these wavelets for comparison.
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552 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
15. In the Wavelet display option section, click the Relative
Amplitude check box to compare the power, phase, and
amplitudes of the wavelets.
Wavelet
< >
1.0

0.8-
® 0.5-
Q i a. 0.4-
I
0.2-
¿
I 0<ÿ

-0.2-

-0.4-

-C £•
-250 -200 -150 -100 -50 : lo 100 150 200 250
Time (ms)

Power spectrum

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16. Create three synthetic seismograms using the three wavelets
and compare the results. Refer to the Synthetic generation
lesson exercises.
17. Use the Auto save option in the Wavelet toolbox to see
changes in the output synthetic seismogram quickly.

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •553


1
0 Exercise 4 — Create an Integrated Seismic well tie study
1 . Run a new Integrated Seismic well tie study.
a. Continue to work with Diamond-1 4.
< b. Define the parameters using the same process from the >
previous exercise and in the Sonic Calibration lesson
exercises.
c. Choose the type of wavelet.
2. On the Output tab:
Q
a. Select TDR: Calibrated sonic.
b. Select the Autosave check box.
a c. Click the Set as active TDR button.
«L f® Seismic «vdi tie 6=3

# Create study (Study 4) D»mond-14 Integrated Mtsiroc weMte

/©&**dy (Study 3) Diamond-14 Syrthefee generation

Type of study: Integrated seismic »

%Wet © 4 Diamond-14
T|] Copy template
lnpu
Integrated seam:«elbe defedttmpfaSe

_i Oetuming | Tine-deptfi \ Options J Statistics ] Track manager


-
[fl*]
TB

a]
Al Some log O At Some Despised
m <> y Diamond-14/Calijrated TDR Drop from other «HI Output 1 ün.Ail Dtounwto l TswfrdjB*» 1 Qpta»|StÉíitll C<wWMlTackmuflor 1 SMi l
k'V Analytical Wavelet E B - Calibrated sonic
Calibrated sonic Calibrated sonic
Time varying vraveiet:
«I B Auloi
A Tane depth relationship (TDR)

Xkne
From sonic Calibrated TDR A Li
□AloovMas outsidei Samóte interval: 16.40 ft ! ¡ AM samples

® Autosave
11« From study: TDR A Li
:
* 570
Sample interval:

@] Autosave
1640 % ft [ |AI samples

!™|
RC catenation method Acoustic mpedance v TcmTI
± Al-
v Residual drift
Denedy

Name Diamond- 14_mig (Realized] 1_synthetic 2


IQ
□ Autosave
v Computed setsmogram (depth)

A Reflectivity

Name RC |Q
V Apply
□ Autosave

554 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics


I
3. Click Apply.
An integrated Well section window opens where you can
perform Sonic Calibration as well as Synthetic Generation.
< ■■ >

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A
Q
4. !,
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1
i
i ;
4

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£ r

4. Calibrate the sonic. Pick individual knee points with a


checkshot update and observe the change in the synthetic
after each pick.
D Because the
time-depth relationship in
the sonic calibration and
This calibration helps you to identify which checkshot knee
synthetic generation are
points have the most influence over the final depth-time linked, any change made in
relationship. It also provides insight into which borehole the sonic calibration is
reflected automatically in
intervals are responsible for the greatest velocity updates. the synthetic.
5. Stretch and squeeze the synthetic.
You can output the new time-depth relationship (after
stretching and squeezing) and select it on the Time tab of the
well Settings dialog box to use it.
However, if you used an extracted wavelet, remember to
extract it again after the new time-depth relationship has been
changed. Perform this task after changing the time-depth
relationship, even though the synthetic window reflects these
changes.

Petrel Geophysics Wavelet generation •555


I
9 Review questions
• What is meant by Analytical, Statistical, and Deterministic
methods of wavelet creation/extraction?
< • Is it correct that Ricker, Ormsby, Tapered Sine, Butterworth, and >
Klauder are Analytical types of wavelets? Are they available in
Petrel?
• Can you create, import, or export a wavelet in Petrel? If yes,
how?
Q

Summary
In this module, you learned about:
• using the Wavelet toolbox
• creating different types of wavelets by usinq Analytical,

556 •Wavelet generation Petrel Geophysics