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Chapter 14

Pressure, Vacuum, and


Cryogenic Systems
Chapter Outline
1 Overview 2
1.1 Hazards / Impacts 2
2 Scope 3
3 Standards 3
4 Definitions 5
5 Requirements 8
5.1 General 8
5.1.1 Design and Modification 8
5.1.2 Procurement 10
5.1.3 Fabrication 11
5.1.4 Pressure Vessel Registration 11
5.1.5 Installation and Inspection 11
5.1.6 Testing 12
5.1.7 Operational Approval and Safety 12
5.1.8 Use 12
5.1.9 Maintenance, Service, and Repair 12
5.1.10 Decommissioning 14
5.1.11 Roles and Responsibilities 15
5.2 Procedures and Specific Requirements 17
5.2.1 Design and Modifications 17
5.2.2 Pressure Vessel Registration 17
5.2.3 Testing 17
5.2.4 Specialized Types of Systems 18
5.3 Training 19
6 Exhibits 19

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7 References 21
8 Implementation 21
9 Ownership 22

1 Overview
SLAC is home to a wide range of systems that are pressurized, systems that are under a vacuum, and
systems that include both positive and negative pressure, such as cryogenic systems. Many of SLAC’s
pressure systems are of the conventional type, such as those that are used to deliver utilities or process gas.
Other systems are designed for unique science applications.

As of May 25, 2007 all pressure systems at SLAC are subject to Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations,
Part 851, “Worker Safety and Health Program” (10 CFR 851) 1 and must therefore be in compliance with
all applicable codes and regulations. To clarify how this relates to SLAC’s pressure systems, this chapter
includes requirements for each phase of equipment life, from design to decommissioning, and includes
requirements for legacy systems, which are systems that were in place before 10 CFR 851 came into effect.

This chapter also clarifies who carries the responsibility for keeping SLAC’s pressure systems in
compliance, laying out the roles of equipment owners, project managers, and the Hazardous Experimental
Equipment Committee (HEEC).

1.1 Hazards / Impacts


Failure to adhere to the design and operating practices described in this chapter can result in
ƒ Failure of a pressure system to function properly due to improper design or operator actions
ƒ A pressure system leak that can, depending on the system type, create hazardous atmospheric
conditions resulting in breathing hazards for employees, super-cold environments (cryogen leaks),
undesirable environmental consequences, and costly cleanup operations
ƒ Sudden release of energy into or from a pressure/vacuum system that can cause overpressure damage,
create shrapnel, injure employees, disrupt scientific or business operations or business continuity,
and/or destroy high-cost hardware

1 Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 851, “Worker Safety and Health Program” (10 CFR 851),
“Code of Federal Regulations: Main Page”, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/. Additional information on
10 CFR 851 and its implementation is available from the following site: “Worker Safety and Health
Program Final Rule - 10 CFR 851”,
http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/WSHP/rule851/851final.html

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2 Scope
The requirements of this chapter apply to all pressure, cryogenic, and vacuum systems that are located,
installed, or used at SLAC. Included are all associated pressure service components such as gauges,
regulators, fittings, piping, pumps, pressure relief devices, and any other hardware that provides a pressure
boundary. (For a full description, see pressure system in Section 4, “Definitions”.)

In addition, the requirements apply to all personnel who design, install, fabricate, repair, maintain, or use
pressure systems that are located or used at SLAC.

Legacy systems are defined and addressed in Section 5.1.1.1, “Legacy Systems”.

In addition to the general requirements that pertain to all systems, certain types of systems must be in
compliance with additional requirements particular to what the system contains. These requirements are
detailed in the exhibits referenced in Section 5.2, “Procedures and Specific Requirements”.

The requirements of this chapter do not apply to National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) compliant
fire suppression systems. SLAC requirements for Department of Transportation (DOT) specification
compressed gas cylinders are addressed in Chapter 38, “Compressed Gas Cylinders”. 2

For additional information see Chapter 36, “Cryogenic and Oxygen Deficiency Hazard Safety”, 3
Chapter 40, “Hazardous Materials”, 4 Chapter 5 “Industrial Hygiene”, 5 and Chapter 29, “Respiratory
Protection”. 6

3 Standards
The SLAC program for pressure safety is based on compliance with all regulations, codes, and standards
implicit within 10 CFR 851, which includes the requirement to apply the “strictest applicable state and
local codes.” In addition, SLAC has adopted appropriate industry standards as well as a consensus
guideline for vacuum systems for Department of Energy (DOE) accelerator laboratories.
ƒ Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, “Energy” 7
– Part 851, “Worker Safety and Health Program,” including references to 29 CFR 1910 and all
applicable building, fire, plumbing, and mechanical codes (10 CFR 851) 8

2 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 38, “Compressed
Gas Cylinders”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_substances/compressed_gases/policies.htm
3 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_substances/cryogenic/policies.htm
4 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_substances/haz_materials/policies.htm
5 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_substances/industrial_hygiene/policies.htm
6 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_substances/respirator/policies.htm
7 “Code of Federal Regulations: Main Page”, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/

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ƒ Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, “Labor”


– Part 1910, “Occupational Safety and Health Standards” (29 CFR 1910)
ƒ Title 24, California Code of Regulations, “California Building Standards Code”, Part 9, “California
Fire Code” 9
– Chapter 6, “Building Services”, Section 606, “Mechanical Refrigeration”
– Chapter 26, “Welding and Other Hot Work”
– Chapter 27, “Hazardous Materials – General Provisions”
– Chapter 30, “Compressed Gases”
– Chapter 32, “Cryogenic Fluids”
– Chapter 34, “Flammable and Combustible Liquids”
– Chapter 38, “Liquefied Petroleum Gases”
ƒ Title 24, California Code of Regulations, “California Building Standards Code”, Part 4, “California
Mechanical Code”
– Chapter 10, “Steam and Hot Water Boilers”
– Chapter 11, “Refrigeration”
– Chapter 12, “Hydronics”
– Chapter 14, “Process Piping”
ƒ Title 24, California Code of Regulations, “California Building Standards Code”, Part 5, “California
Plumbing Code”
– Chapter 5, “Water Heaters”
– Chapter 6, “Water Supply and Distribution”
– Chapter 12, “Fuel Piping”
ƒ American Association of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) 10
– ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC-2004)

Note The following ASME Standards are incorporated by reference (see 10 CFR 851.27.)
– ASME B31.3, “Process Piping” (ASME B31.3-2002)

8 Additional information on 10 CFR 851 and its implementation is available from the following site:
“Worker Safety and Health Program Final Rule - 10 CFR 851”,
http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/WSHP/rule851/851final.html
9 http://www.bsc.ca.gov/title_24/t24_2001tried.html. Note Title 24, California Code of Regulations, is
available only through depository libraries and the publishers of its various components. See the
“SLAC Research Library Community Pages”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/library/CommunityPages.asp, for available standards.
10 See the “SLAC Research Library Community Pages”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/library/CommunityPages.asp, for available standards.

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– ASME B31.5, “Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components” (ASME B31.5-2001) and
ASME B31.5a-2004, Addenda to ASME B31.5-2001
– ASME B31.8, “Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems” (ASME B31.8-2003)
– ASME B31.9, “Building Services Piping” (ASME B31.9-1996)
ƒ National Consensus Safety Standards
– Consensus standards, as adopted by 10 CFR 851. For a list of codes, regulations, and standards
applicable to systems that contain or convey specific gases or fluids, see Pressure, Vacuum, and
Cryogenic Systems: Codes, Regulations, and Standards List. 11
ƒ Supplemental Standards and Guidelines
– Vacuum Systems Consensus Guideline for Department of Energy Accelerator Laboratories 12
– ASME/American National Standards Institute (ANSI) A13.1, “Scheme for the Identification of
Piping Systems” (ASME/ANSI A13.1)

4 Definitions
Burst pressure. The pressure at which a system is expected to fail. This can be determined by an analysis of
forces that compares the established yield or tensile strengths of the materials to the forces the materials are
expected to experience.

Conventional application. A pressure, cryogenic, or vacuum system or system component that cannot be
justified as a science application (see science application). Examples of conventional applications include
ƒ Utility service delivery (electricity, gas, water)
ƒ Process gas or liquid delivery
ƒ Drains and drain systems
ƒ Cryogenic liquid delivery and conveyance
ƒ Vacuum insulation on cryogen lines and piping

Cryogen. A refrigerated liquefied gas having a boiling point colder than −90°C (−130°F or 183 K) at 14.7
pounds per square inch absolute (psia) 13

Cryogenic facility. An area where cryogenic fluids and/or materials are produced, used, or stored

Custodian. A person or department responsible for servicing, maintaining, or repairing a pressure system or
component. Custodians generally control conventional systems such as shop compressed air, building

11 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Codes, Regulations, and Standards List (SLAC-I-730-
0A21V-001), http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureListStandards.pdf
12 “Vacuum Systems Consensus Guideline”, http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/tf/vacuum/vacuum.html
13 Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, “Transportation”, Part 173, “Shippers: General Requirements
for Shipments and Packaging”, Section 115 (g), “Cryogenic Liquid” (49 CFR 173.115g), “Code of
Federal Regulations: Main Page”, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/

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facilities, and sanitary services. Custodians do not operate or control pressure systems for science
applications (see owner).

Design. The process of specifying the proper components, materials, fabrication methods as well as code,
testing, and installation requirements for a pressure system. Essential components include structural
analyses, feasibility studies, drawings, and plans. The design documentation is submitted for approval by
the appropriate pressure system safety stakeholders and is used as the basis for implementing a pressure
system.

Dewar. A specialized container for cryogens (see cryogen and vacuum-insulated vessels)

Fabrication. The process of mechanically joining pressure system parts, components, or raw materials into
a pressure system. This may include construction or manufacturing of pressure vessels from raw materials
or components. Fabrication includes processes such as welding or mechanically joining parts (bolting,
joined by threading) to form a larger assembly. The fabrication process also includes any required
inspections that serve to verify process integrity, including radiographic inspection, a non-destructive
inspection, or ultrasound.

Installation. The process of placing pressure system components into their locations of use. Installation is
associated with required inspections and testing as typified by use requirements. Examples include pressure
tests, leak tests, or pressure/vacuum leak test.

Legacy systems. Pressure, cryogenic, and vacuum systems installed before May 25, 2007

Line management. The organizational authority or authorities that have direct control of the design and
operational factors of a pressure system. Operational factors include functions needed to maintain safe
operation.

Maintenance. The process whereby a system is kept in a safe operating condition on a planned or time-
compliant basis. Maintenance includes such minor activities as corrosion repair or replacement of soft
goods or worn components.

Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP). The maximum pressure at which a vessel or system is
designed to operate safely. This is also the basis for all pressure testing and it is the pressure that is not to
be exceeded when setting relief devices on systems, components or vessels. The term MAWP is
synonymous with working pressure, rated pressure, service pressure, and design pressure.

Maximum operating pressure (MOP). The maximum pressure at which a vessel or system is normally
operated – usually 10 to 20 percent below the maximum allowable working pressure

Owner. Person or organization who exercises direct control over the operation of a pressure system. The
owner may also be responsible for servicing, maintaining or repairing a pressure system (see custodian and
user)

Piping system. Interconnected piping subject to the same set or sets of design conditions. Piping refers to
assemblies of piping components used to convey, distribute, mix, separate, discharge, meter, control, or
snub fluid flows. Piping components refers to mechanical elements suitable for joining or assembly into
pressure-tight fluid-containing piping systems. Components include pipe, tubing, fittings, flanges, gaskets,
bolting, valves, and devices such as expansion joints, flexible joints, pressure hoses, traps, strainers, in-line

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portions of instruments, and separators. Systems and components do not include any equipment excluded
from ASME B31.3 or B31.9 or ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 14

Pressure system. An assembly of tubing, piping, vessels, and/or other equipment, such as pumps and
hydraulic cylinders, containing or conveying a liquid or gas under positive or negative pressure. The major
categories are pneumatic systems, hydraulic (liquid) systems, cryogenic systems, vacuum systems, or
combinations of these. A vacuum system is considered a pressure system due to the potential for
catastrophic failure due to backfill pressurization. Associated hardware such as gauges, regulators, fittings,
and pressure relief devices are also integral parts of a pressure system.

Proof test (see testing)

Project manager. The person who carries responsibility and authority to ensure that all aspects of a
particular pressure system project follow the requirements of this chapter with regard to design, fabrication,
installation, testing, and operation. The project manager may also be assigned responsibility to ensure that
the equipment remains properly serviced, maintained, and/or repaired.

Repair. The activity whereby components of a system are restored to a safe operating condition because of
an unpredicted or unforeseen failure. In contrast, equipment service or maintenance is scheduled or
anticipated.

Science application. Includes any pressure component or system that


ƒ Has a unique use required to support science or experimental needs or unique operating uses,
extraordinary pressure service range, unique or special materials, special service uses or restrictions, or
vessel geometry and may therefore not be able to meet the applicable regulatory or code requirements
ƒ Is explicitly exempt from accepted codes and regulations because they do not apply to this application

Servicing. The process whereby a system is maintained in a safe operating condition by such minor
activities as tuning, calibration, or replenishment of consumables such as oils and filters. Servicing is often
accomplished while the system is in operation or in special operating mode (see maintenance).

Significant consequence. The release of energy that can result in serious physical harm or death to
employees or in a serious environmental impact

Testing. The application of pressure or vacuum to a system or component (usually during fabrication and/or
installation) to verify pressure and mechanical integrity. The test fluid may be a gas or liquid. Also referred
to as proof testing, pressure proof testing, or leak testing.

User, pressure system. A person or organization that uses a pressure system (see owner)

Vacuum system. Any system or subsystem designed to operate at sub-atmospheric pressure in a ambient-
pressure environment. Examples include beamline vacuum systems, vacuum furnaces, and degassing
systems. Vacuum systems are considered pressure systems due to their potential for catastrophic failure due
to backfill pressurization.

14 ASME B31.3, “Process Piping” (ASME B31.3-2002); ASME B31.9, “Building Services Piping”
(ASME B31.9-1996); ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC-2004). See the “SLAC
Research Library Community Pages”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/library/CommunityPages.asp, for available standards.

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Vacuum-insulated vessels. Many cryogenic pressure vessels are insulated by an outer vacuum vessel,
requiring adherence to two sets of codes

Vessel, pressure or vacuum. A relatively high volume pressure component that has a cross section larger
than the associated piping or tubing. A pressure vessel is used for containment of pressure, either internal or
external. This pressure may be obtained from an internal or external source, or by application of heat.

5 Requirements
5.1 General
This section contains general requirements for pressure system design and modification, fabrication,
installation, testing, inspection, operation, maintenance, service, repair, and decommissioning. Following
these requirements keeps SLAC in regulatory compliance and ensures that all work pertaining to pressure
systems is conducted in a manner that protects workers and the environment from recognized hazards.

Note The term pressure system refers to all types of systems within the scope of this chapter: pressure,
vacuum, and cryogenic systems for both conventional and science applications.

5.1.1 Design and Modification

All pressure systems and components or hardware must be designed in strict adherence to the following
safety objectives and requirements and all applicable codes and standards. The design process must be fully
documented and any design that cannot meet applicable codes and standards must undergo additional levels
of review as specified.

5.1.1.1 Legacy Systems

A legacy system is any pressure system installed before May 25, 2007. Legacy systems must only be
brought into compliance with the requirements for new systems (Section 5.1.1.2, “New Systems”) under
the following conditions.
ƒ If an addition to or modification of a legacy pressure, cryogenic, or vacuum system affects more than
10 percent of the existing system, it must be brought in compliance with 10 CFR 851. Changes that do
not affect a legacy system more than 10 percent must meet the codes, regulations, and work smart
standards, including those associated with maintenance and operation, in effect at the time that system
was installed.
ƒ 10 CFR 851 levies an overarching requirement that all workplaces be free from recognized hazards
that can cause or have the potential to cause serious physical harm to workers. This requirement
dovetails with the SLAC Integrated Safety and Environmental Management System (ISEMS). 15 In
meeting these safety objectives, any legacy pressure system that is determined to carry a serious hazard
potential for workers who use, service, maintain, or repair those systems must have the appropriate
safety controls in place. The safety controls must be consistent with the letter and intent of current

15 SLAC Integrated Safety and Environmental Management System Description (SLAC-I-720-0A00B-


001), http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/general/isems/sms.pdf

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codes, regulations, work smart standards, and laboratory safety policies as described in the following
sections.

5.1.1.2 New Systems

The design requirements applicable to all new pressure systems and any legacy systems undergoing
significant change (as described in the previous section) are the following.
ƒ Hazard analysis. Pressure systems must be designed so that no single point failure in the system will
result in a severe injury, significant environmental impact, or potential loss of a facility. The use of
process hazard analysis should be used to assess the risk and the controls that will eliminate single
point failure designs.
ƒ Design safety factor. Any design for an application that calls for a component or system that falls
outside applicable codes or standards must provide a level of protection greater than or equal to the
level of protection provided by the code. A safety factor of 4 times (4x) the design burst pressure over
the maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is a good guideline unless another safety factor is
approved by the Hazardous Experimental Equipment Committee (HEEC) in consideration of the
administrative controls, training, area of use, duration of use, functionality, materials, and science
objective of the project.
ƒ Design for safe use. Pressure systems must be designed and installed with full consideration of the end
user’s ability to operate the system safely, and, the operation of the system must not create
uncontrolled safety risks to the overall workplace environment.
ƒ Design for safe maintenance, servicing, and repair. Pressure systems must be designed (and
installed) with full consideration of the safety of the person who will perform maintenance, service,
and repair. Design considerations include proper placement of components for servicing, providing
means and methods for controlling hazardous energy, and taking into account human factors.
ƒ Design for the environment of use. If installed indoors, mechanical exhaust ventilation may be
required. If placed outdoors, the system may need additional protection from direct sunlight, corrosion,
physical impact, and/or other environmental factors.
ƒ Design for natural hazards. Pressure systems must be designed with consideration of natural hazards
such as earthquakes, wind, rain, and temperature extremes in order to ensure safety, business/science
continuity, and business recovery.
ƒ Design for safe manufacture. Hazards associated with the installation and manufacture of the system
should be identified during the design phase.

For additional detail, see Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Design Requirements. 16 For guidance
on vacuum systems, see “Vacuum Systems Consensus Guideline for Department of Energy Accelerator
Laboratories” 17 and “Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum System Requirements”. 18

16 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Design Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-047),


http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqDesign.pdf
17 “Vacuum Systems Consensus Guideline”, http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/tf/vacuum/vacuum.html
18 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum System Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-037),
http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqVacuumSafety.pdf

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5.1.1.3 Design Documentation

The design documentation for any pressure vessel or pressure system design must include the following.
ƒ The project scope and applicable codes and standards: if the project scope includes equipment that is
outside the code, best alternative engineering practices must be specifically identified.
ƒ Hazards and engineering controls: documentation must fully describe operating pressures and the size
and specifications of safety-related equipment such as relief valves and emergency shut-offs.
ƒ Construction and piping fabrication plans: plans must include all drawings – plan view, isometric, and
piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID) – and specifications for fabrication or manufacturing,
testing, installation, operation, and maintenance. The plans must also include any essential
intermediate steps (for instance, checking for vacuum leaks in a thin-walled ceramic beam pipe prior to
installing it in a kicker system).

5.1.1.4 Safety Review

The level of safety oversight for the various types of systems, based on the intended application and the
hazards presented by system specifications, are listed below.
ƒ All pressure vessels. A review and approval by the pressure vessel registration manager is mandatory
except for the following vessel types: any ASME “U” or “UM” stamped vessel, DOT-approved
cylinders, and dewars used as the pressure source. For registration details and the Mechanical
Engineering Safety Inspection (MESI) form, see Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Pressure
Vessel Registration Form (MESI). 19
ƒ Conventional applications. A safety review and oversight is mandatory for all projects and is the
responsibility of line management and the project engineer.
– All construction projects must be submitted to the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H)
Building Inspection Office 20 prior to submitting the project to the Purchasing Department.
– Conventional applications that may require HEEC review include instances in which a design
presents an unusual combination of hazards, or in instances in which the installation presents
unusual hazards. These could be due to, for example, equipment placement or location.
ƒ Science applications. A safety review and oversight by line management and the project engineer is
mandatory for all projects, and in addition, approval by the HEEC is mandatory as described in
Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: HEEC Review Requirements. 21

5.1.2 Procurement

All pressure system components must meet the applicable code requirements identified in the design phase.
Line management and project managers must ensure that all selected components are traceable to the
applicable code(s) through certifications or statements made by a manufacturer, vendor or supplier in

19 Pressure, Cryogenic, and Vacuum Systems: Pressure Vessel Registration Form (MESI) (SLAC-I-730-
0A21J-028), http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureFormMESI.pdf
20 “Resource List for Environment, Safety, and Health”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/about_esh/resource.pdf
21 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: HEEC Review Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-045),
http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqHEEC.pdf

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product catalogs, product literature or cut sheets. Documentation to verify this must be retained as part of
the design package for audit purposes.

5.1.3 Fabrication

Fabrication methods must meet applicable codes for piping systems and pressure vessels where applicable
codes exist. (See the appropriate applicable ASME standard.) Small-scale, low-pressure scientific pressure
systems must be fabricated in accordance with the best practices applicable for the specific system type.
Some low-pressure, low-hazard systems may use standard pressure fittings for such applications.

5.1.4 Pressure Vessel Registration

All pressure vessels, once approved, must be registered with the pressure vessel registration manager to be
added to a master list. (The only exception applies to vacuum vessels that qualify as “inherently safe” in
that they are classified as category I or II systems in Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum
System Requirements. 22 )

The project manager or a designated person must submit to the pressure vessel registration manager a
completed pressure vessel registration form 23 for any vessel that is new, re-used, or modified. This
requirement applies to both conventional and science applications. In addition, all relevant information
(design, fabrication, pressure test, and/or operating procedures) must be included.

5.1.5 Installation and Inspection

Line management and the project manager must ensure that all pressure systems are installed in accordance
with all applicable codes or regulations and in the manner stated in the approved design documentation.
Inspection requirements during installation include
ƒ Oversight by line management and the project manager to ensure that all requirements are being met
ƒ A verification of the installation of appropriate control of hazardous energy isolating devices or
features

5.1.5.1 Piping Systems

Piping must be labeled in accordance with ASME/ANSI A13.1 requirements, which requires that markings
ƒ Consist of the content’s name and include a direction of flow arrow
ƒ Are provided at each valve; at wall, floor or ceiling penetrations; at each change of direction; and at a
minimum of every 20 ft throughout the piping run 24

22 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum System Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-037),


http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqVacuumSafety.pdf
23 Pressure, Cryogenic, and Vacuum Systems: Pressure Vessel Registration Form (MESI) (SLAC-I-730-
0A21J-028), http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureFormMESI.pdf
24 ASME A13.1-2007, “Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems”, Section 3.1, “Legend”. See the
“SLAC Research Library Community Pages”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/library/CommunityPages.asp, for available standards.

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5.1.6 Testing

All systems must be tested for leaks and workmanship quality prior to commissioning the system as
follows. Test results must be documented and maintained. Pressure systems must be proof-tested and
pressure/vacuum leak tested in accordance with all regulatory or code requirements or as required in the
approved design documentation.

5.1.7 Operational Approval and Safety

For conventional applications, line management and/or project engineers must determine when an
installation is ready for use given that all requirements have been satisfied and the system is safe to use.

For science applications, a current operational approval from HEEC must be on record. 25

Line management, project engineers, or other persons of authority must not place any system into operation
without assuring that all persons who will operate, maintain, service or repair such systems have had the
appropriate level of training and are authorized to perform such work.

5.1.8 Use

Line management is responsible for ensuring that pressure system users have completed the appropriate
level of training commensurate with the user’s level of interaction with or responsibility for the system. For
instance, a “user only” would require different training from an equipment custodian who maintains,
services, or repairs the system.

Line management is responsible for ensuring that written procedures are in place for operating pressure,
cryogenic, or vacuum systems and line management is also responsible for determining the required level
of detail.

5.1.9 Maintenance, Service, and Repair

5.1.9.1 Maintenance

All pressure systems must have a comprehensive maintenance plan that keeps the work environment safe,
and the plan must be in place from the first day the system is placed in operation. Maintenance refers to the
performance of scheduled measures such as calibration, soft-goods replacements, refurbishment, and
corrosion protection. Maintenance must be performed on a planned or time-compliant basis by properly
trained personnel.

Maintenance Plan Elements

The equipment owner determines the elements that will constitute the maintenance program based on the
risks a particular pressure system poses. Common maintenance plan elements include:
ƒ A written maintenance plan provided by the system owner that lists
– Maintenance activities and procedures

25 “Hazardous Experimental Equipment Committee – Charter”, https://www-


internal.slac.stanford.edu/esh/committees/heec/charter.htm

14-12 SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001-R023.0 9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008)


Chapter 14: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual

– Maintenance intervals
– Maintenance personnel qualification requirements
ƒ Identification of qualified maintenance personnel. Maintenance may be performed by a qualified
person or a qualified group, such as the Facilities Department or a vendor.
– The identified maintenance group must be provided with all necessary documentation and
procedures. Note: The group may refuse to accept the (sub-) system for such deficiencies as
insufficient documentation, understaffing, or lack of required expertise.
ƒ An up-to-date log of maintenance activities
ƒ Inspections

Performing Maintenance Safely

In performing maintenance on pressure systems, the following is required:


ƒ Hazardous energy isolating devices must be available to allow affected workers to isolate the system
from hazardous energy to allow safe maintenance in accordance with Control of Hazardous Energy
program requirements.
ƒ Any maintenance that involves breaking the pressure boundary integrity requires that the system or
system section must be pressure/leak tested or vacuum/ leak tested at the MOP or MAWP to verify
workmanship. Pressure testing must be accomplished with an inert fluid if the system is designed to
handle hazardous materials.
ƒ When venting or purging a beamline vacuum system, it is imperative that the gas source is equipped
with an integrated relief device (such as a low-pressure relief valve) to avoid pressurizing the system
above a safe pressure.

5.1.9.2 Servicing

Servicing refers to activities needed to replace or replenish materials that are used up, consumed, or worn
out. Examples include the replacement of filters, hydraulic fluid, and lubricants such as compressor oil.
Generally, less extensive training is required for equipment service than for equipment maintenance.

Note Replenishment of the usual content of a vessel is not considered servicing.

The location where service work must be accomplished must be readily accessible and there must be
enough workspace available to perform the work safely.

5.1.9.3 Repair

Repairs and/or modifications to vessels, tanks, piping, and other components must be performed to the
same standards, codes, and requirements as new systems and components. Repairs to other parts of the
pressure system must be as good as the originally installed equipment or be brought up to the appropriate
safety level and be consistent with the following requirements.

Once the repair is finished and the system is reassembled, the system must be pressure tested according to
the requirements specified in the applicable codes or regulations. In the absence of specific testing
requirements, these general rules apply:

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001-R023.0 14-13


SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual Chapter 14: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems

ƒ Any pressure system or system component, including fittings or welds that have been repaired,
modified, or possibly damaged, subsequent to having been hydrostatically tested, must be retested
hydrostatically to 1.5 times the MAWP or pneumatically tested to 1.1 times the MAWP prior to reuse.
Replacement of gaskets, seals, and valve seats that do not affect the structural integrity may only
require a leak test.
ƒ After pressure testing, modified or repaired pneumatic systems must be leak tested at the system MOP
prior to placing them back in service.
ƒ After pressure testing, modified or repaired pneumatic systems must be functionally tested at the
system MOP prior to reuse.
ƒ All pneumatic system mechanical joints affected in the disconnection, connection, or replacement of
components must be leak tested at the system MOP before being placed back in service. The method of
leak testing may include pressure decay, soap bubble, or helium leak testing.

5.1.10 Decommissioning

Any pressure system or component that is removed from service must be protected from unintentional
operation and must be rendered safe, as applicable:
ƒ If the pressure vessel is registered with the pressure vessel registration manager, the change in vessel
status must be reported to the pressure vessel registration manager. 26
ƒ Any pressure system that is defective or unsafe for reuse must be labeled or rendered unusable by, for
example, dismantling or disposal.
ƒ Potential pressure hazards must be identified and mitigated.
ƒ Valves connecting the system to other systems must be closed, locked-out, and tagged, or the
decommissioned system may be completely disconnected from other systems.
ƒ The system may be disassembled.

5.1.10.1 Asset Preservation

Pressure systems intended for reuse must be protected from damage or degradation. This may include
measures such as backfilling with nitrogen to protect against corrosion.

If the vessel or system is to be stored in place, it must be clearly labeled with the following information:
ƒ Equipment owner and department or division
ƒ Current date
ƒ Last date of operation and system content
ƒ Condition (serviceable or defective, including details)
ƒ Detailed information on potential hazards (contamination, danger)

26 “Hazardous Experimental Equipment – Members”, https://www-


internal.slac.stanford.edu/esh/committees/heec/members.htm

14-14 SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001-R023.0 9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008)


Chapter 14: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual

5.1.10.2 Disposal of Assets or System Content

System components or content must be removed in coordination with the following subject matter experts
or departments:
ƒ Any system that contains or is contaminated with a hazardous material. A decommissioning plan must
be submitted to ES&H at least 60 days before decommissioning is scheduled to begin. 27
ƒ System content must be emptied in a controlled manner. This can be accomplished by a chemical
supply vendor, who may reclaim unused product, or by the equipment owner. All waste must be
properly disposed of:
– Venting of gas must be done in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements provided by
the air quality program manager. 28
– Liquid or solid content must be disposed of by coordinating with the Waste Management Group. 29
ƒ To arrange for removal of conventional systems and components, contact the Salvage Department in
Business Services. 30
ƒ For removal of contaminated systems or larger items, contact the Waste Management Group.

5.1.11 Roles and Responsibilities

5.1.11.1 Pressure Systems Program Manager

The pressure systems program manager is an ES&H subject matter expert who will
ƒ Advise line management and project managers of applicable regulations
ƒ Arrange for the review and approval of inherently hazardous systems
ƒ Be available to inspect systems
ƒ Coordinate with the Hazardous Experimental Equipment Committee (HEEC) and the pressure vessel
registration manager

5.1.11.2 Pressure Safety Committee

Pressure Safety Committee members are appointed by the laboratory director or delegate. Appointees must
possess demonstrated experience and knowledge in the design and operation of they types of systems they
are to oversee.

The Pressure Safety Committee


ƒ Advises operating organizations and the laboratory director on pressure safety issues associated with
all laboratory operations

27 “Hazardous Materials and Air Quality Group”, http://www-


group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/groups/cgs/hmaq/
28 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 30, “Air Quality”,
http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/environment/air_quality/policies.htm
29 “EP Hazardous Waste Management”, http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/groups/ep/hwm/
30 “Salvage Use and Disposal”, https://www-internal.slac.stanford.edu/bsd/pc/use_disposal.htm

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001-R023.0 14-15


SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual Chapter 14: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems

ƒ In some organizations the committee is responsible for independent review of vacuum/pressure system
design and may serve as the authority having jurisdiction for matters of vacuum/pressure safety

5.1.11.3 Pressure Vessel Registration Manager

The pressure vessel registration manager


ƒ Reviews hardware and documentation (calculations, analyses, substantiations) related to pressure
vessels that do not carry an ASME stamp or equivalent such as DOT or National Board
ƒ Provides guidance to other authorities on all matters associated with pressure vessels
ƒ Approves pressure vessel designs that meet the required level of safety
ƒ May refer projects with special requirements to the HEEC for review
ƒ Registers new approved pressure vessels and maintains the registration database
ƒ Reviews the reuse of an existing pressure vessel for a new use
ƒ Is an ex officio member of the HEEC

5.1.11.4 Hazardous and Experimental Equipment Committee

Members of the HEEC


ƒ Review, for approval, the documentation submitted for proposed science applications of pressure
hardware and components and/or systems
ƒ Specify engineering controls for new and modified pressure and vacuum vessel installations

5.1.11.5 Equipment Owner

The equipment owner


ƒ Reviews and authorizes construction and operation of pressure and vacuum systems
ƒ Assigns system responsibilities to qualified project managers
ƒ Ensures the safe operation of pressure systems
ƒ Ensures that a maintenance plan is developed and carried out
ƒ Ensures that only trained and qualified persons operate, modify, service, maintain, or repair pressure
systems

5.1.11.6 Project Manager

Every pressure system must have an identified project manager. This person is appointed by the equipment
owner (line management) to oversee all aspects of the pressure system. The project manager
ƒ Ensures that the system is designed, fabricated, tested, inspected, maintained, repaired, and operated by
trained and qualified personnel in accordance with applicable and sound engineering principles
ƒ Performs a hazard analysis on systems
ƒ Ensures that systems are compliant with applicable codes and consensus standards
ƒ Ensures that systems are inherently safe by means of design choices and engineering controls
whenever possible

14-16 SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001-R023.0 9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008)


Chapter 14: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual

ƒ Obtains necessary approvals for construction and operation of systems that require application of
administrative controls for safe operation
ƒ Identifies regulatory, code, and best practice requirements for systems
ƒ Identifies support personnel, as necessary, to aid in carrying out duties
ƒ Ensures that systems are documented to include sufficient information to assure safe construction,
testing, operation and maintenance
ƒ Is responsible for all aspects of the system from design through maintenance. The project manager may
transfer maintenance responsibility to an equipment custodian.

5.1.11.7 Equipment Custodian

Project managers may appoint a qualified equipment custodian under certain circumstances. The equipment
custodian
ƒ Accepts responsibility from the project manager for the safe operation and maintenance of the system
ƒ Follows all documented procedures and follows through on completing documentation responsibilities
ƒ If the system must be modified, the responsibility for design and implementation must be transferred to
the appropriate project manager

5.1.11.8 Users

All users must


ƒ Be qualified to operate the pressure system they will be using
ƒ Operate systems within the approved design envelope

5.2 Procedures and Specific Requirements


5.2.1 Design and Modifications

Design requirements are itemized in Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Design Requirements. 31

5.2.2 Pressure Vessel Registration

For instructions on filling out the form, see Pressure and Pressure, Cryogenic and Vacuum Systems:
Pressure Vessel Registration Form (MESI). 32

5.2.3 Testing

For inspection requirements, see Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Testing Requirements. 33

31 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Design Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-047),


http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqDesign.pdf
32 Pressure, Cryogenic, and Vacuum Systems: Pressure Vessel Registration Form (MESI) (SLAC-I-730-
0A21J-028), http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureFormMESI.pdf

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001-R023.0 14-17


SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual Chapter 14: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems

5.2.4 Specialized Types of Systems

5.2.4.1 Cryogenic Vessels and Systems

The specific codes, regulations and requirements for installation of cryogenic systems and use of cryogen
are detailed in Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Cryogen Requirements. 34

5.2.4.2 Vacuum Vessels and Systems

Every vacuum system must be measured against criteria set forth in Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic
Systems: Vacuum System Requirements 35 in order to determine if the system requires HEEC review. The
Vacuum Systems Consensus Guideline for Department of Energy Accelerator Laboratories provides
additional requirements for vacuum systems across many DOE laboratories. 36

5.2.4.3 Refrigeration, Chiller, and Heating/Cooling Systems

For requirements and codes, see Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Refrigeration, Chiller, and
Heating/Cooling System Requirements. 37

5.2.4.4 Acetylene and Alternative Fuel Gases for Welding Processes

In addition to the requirements for safe design, installation and use of pressure systems described in this
chapter for fuels in fixed locations such as a welding shop, hot work activities are also regulated under
specific codes that are listed in Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Requirements for Systems for
Acetylene and Other Gases for Hot Work. 38

For more information on requirements for fuels in compressed gas cylinders, see Chapter 38, “Compressed
Gas Cylinders”. 39

33 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Testing Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-044),


http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqTest.pdf
34 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Cryogen Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-038),
http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqCryogen.pdf
35 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum System Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-037),
http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqVacuumSafety.pdf
36 “Vacuum Systems Consensus Guideline”, http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/tf/vacuum/vacuum.html
37 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Refrigeration, Chiller, Heating / Cooling System
Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-046), http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqRefrig.pdf
38 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Requirements for Systems for Acetylene and Other Gases
for Hot Work (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-040), http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqHotWork.pdf
39 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 38, “Compressed
Gas Cylinders”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_substances/compressed_gases/policies.htm

14-18 SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001-R023.0 9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008)


Chapter 14: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual

5.2.4.5 Oxygen Systems

Required codes, regulations, and additional design safety standards for oxygen systems are listed in
Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Oxygen Requirements. 40

5.2.4.6 Hydrogen Systems

Required codes, regulations, and additional design safety standards for hydrogen use are listed in Pressure,
Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Hydrogen Requirements. 41

5.2.4.7 Systems Containing Flammable or Combustible Liquids

The required codes for these types of systems are listed in Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems:
Flammable and Combustible Liquid Requirements. 42

5.2.4.8 Systems Containing Fluids with Health or Physical Hazards

For requirements and codes, see Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Requirements for Systems
Containing Fluids with Health or Physical Hazards. 43

5.3 Training
The training requirements will be forthcoming according to the schedule in Pressure, Vacuum, and
Cryogenic Systems: Implementation Plan. 44

6 Exhibits
ƒ Hazardous Experimental Equipment Committee Charter 45
ƒ Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Implementation Plan (SLAC-I-730-0A21M-007) 46

40 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Oxygen Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-042),


http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqOxygen.pdf
41 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Hydrogen Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-041),
http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqHydrogen.pdf
42 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Flammable and Combustible Liquid Requirements
(SLAC-I-730-0A21S-039), http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqFlamCombust.pdf
43 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Requirements for Systems Containing Fluids with Health
or Physical Hazards (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-043), http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqFluidHaz.pdf
44 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Implementation Plan (SLAC-I-730-0A21M-007),
http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressurePlanImplement.pdf
45 https://www-internal.slac.stanford.edu/esh/committees/heec/charter.htm
46 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressurePlanImplement.pdf

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001-R023.0 14-19


SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual Chapter 14: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems

ƒ Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Codes, Regulations, and Standards List (SLAC-I-730-
0A21V-001) 47
ƒ Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Design Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-047) 48
ƒ Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Testing Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-044) 49
ƒ Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Pressure Vessel Registration Form (MESI) (SLAC-I-730-
0A21J-028) 50
ƒ Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Cryogen Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-038) 51
ƒ Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum System Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-
037) 52
ƒ Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Requirements for Systems for Acetylene and Other Gases
for Hot Work (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-040) 53
ƒ Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Refrigeration, Chiller, and Heating / Cooling System
Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-046) 54
ƒ Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Oxygen Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-042) 55
ƒ Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Hydrogen Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-041) 56
ƒ Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Flammable and Combustible Liquid Requirements
(SLAC-I-730-0A21S-039) 57
ƒ Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Requirements for Systems Containing Fluids with Health
or Physical Hazards (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-043) 58
ƒ Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: HEEC Review Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-045) 59
ƒ Vacuum Systems Consensus Guideline for Department of Energy Accelerator Laboratories 60

47 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureListStandards.pdf
48 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqDesign.pdf
49 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqTest.pdf
50 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureFormMESI.pdf
51 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqCryogen.pdf
52 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqVacuumSafety.pdf
53 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqHotWork.pdf
54 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqRefrig.pdf
55 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqOxygen.pdf
56 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqHydrogen.pdf
57 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqFlamCombust.pdf
58 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqFluidHaz.pdf
59 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqHEEC.pdf
60 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/tf/vacuum/vacuum.html

14-20 SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001-R023.0 9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008)


Chapter 14: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual

7 References
Management Systems
ƒ SLAC Integrated Safety and Environmental Management System Description (SLAC-I-720-0A008-
001) 61

SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001) 62


ƒ Chapter 5, “Industrial Hygiene” 63
ƒ Chapter 12, “Fire and Life Safety” 64
ƒ Chapter 17, “Hazardous Waste” 65
ƒ Chapter 19, “Personal Protective Equipment” 66
ƒ Chapter 29, “Respiratory Protection” 67
ƒ Chapter 30, “Air Quality” 68
ƒ Chapter 36, “Cryogenic and Oxygen Deficiency Hazard Safety” 69
ƒ Chapter 38, “Compressed Gas Cylinders” 70
ƒ Chapter 40, “Hazardous Materials” 71
ƒ Chapter 51, “Control of Hazardous Energy” 72

Other SLAC Documents


ƒ “Hazardous Materials and Air Quality Group” 73
ƒ “EP Hazardous Waste Management” 74

61 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/general/isems/sms.pdf
62 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/
63 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_substances/industrial_hygiene/policies.htm
64 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/general/fire_safety/policies.htm
65 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/environment/hazardous_waste/policies.htm
66 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/general/ppe/policies.htm
67 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_substances/respirator/policies.htm
68 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/environment/air_quality/policies.htm
69 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_substances/cryogenic/policies.htm
70 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_substances/compressed_gases/policies.htm
71 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_substances/haz_materials/policies.htm
72 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/lockout_tagout/
73 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/groups/cgs/hmaq/
74 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/groups/ep/hwm/

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001-R023.0 14-21


SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual Chapter 14: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems

ƒ “Salvage Use and Disposal” 75

8 Implementation
The requirements of this chapter are effective as noted in Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems:
Implementation Plan. 76

9 Ownership
Department: Chemical and General Safety

Program: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems

Owner: Program Manager

75 https://www-internal.slac.stanford.edu/bsd/pc/use_disposal.htm
76 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Implementation Plan (SLAC-I-730-0A21M-007),
http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressurePlanImplement.pdf

14-22 SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001-R023.0 9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008)


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Implementation Plan
Department: Chemical and General Safety
Program: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems
Owner: Program Manager
Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 14, Pressure and Vacuum Systems 1
Until the publication of the new Chapter 14, pressure vessel safety requirements at SLAC were in place through Work Smart
Standards (WSS). These requirements are identified below as “existing” in the status column and have been in effect since WSS were
instituted. On May 25, 2007, SLAC became subject to all provisions under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 851, “Worker
Safety and Health Program” (10 CFR 851) 2 , which imposed new requirements, in particular on vacuum systems. All Chapter 14
requirements will become effective immediately upon publication unless noted otherwise in the “effective date” column.

Section
Number Section Title Requirement Note Status Effective Date Schedule Note
5 Requirements
5.1 General
5.1.1 Design and Modification
5.1.1.1 Legacy Systems Existing Immediate
5.1.1.2 New Systems New Immediate
5.1.1.3 Design Documentation Applies to all new systems New 30 days after date of publication
5.1.1.4 Safety Review New Immediate
5.1.2 Procurement Applicable code requirements must be New 30 days after date of publication
submitted with purchase requisitions
5.1.3 Fabrication Existing Immediate
5.1.4 Pressure Vessel Registration Existing Immediate

1 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 14, “Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/pressure/policies.htm
2 “Code of Federal Regulations: Main Page”, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/

5 Sep 2008 (updated 5 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21M-007-R000 1 of 3


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Implementation Plan

Section
Number Section Title Requirement Note Status Effective Date Schedule Note
5.1.5 Installation and Inspection Existing Immediate
5.1.6 Testing Existing Immediate
5.1.7 Operational Approval and Safety Existing Immediate
5.1.8 Use Existing Immediate
5.1.9 Maintenance, Service, and Repair
5.1.9.1 Maintenance Evaluation and maintenance plan New Immediate
5.1.9.2 Servicing Existing Immediate
5.1.9.3 Repair Existing Immediate
5.1.10 Decommissioning New Immediate
5.1.10.1 Asset Preservation Systems must be labeled. Any system that New 30 days after date of publication
may be reused is now required to be
protected against damage and degradation.
5.1.10.2 Disposal of Assets or System New Immediate
Content
5.1.11 Roles and Responsibilities Defined roles for equipment owner, program
manager, and project manager
5.1.11.1 Pressure Systems Program New Immediate
Manager
5.1.11.2 Pressure Safety Committee New To be determined.
5.1.11.3 Pressure Vessel Registration Existing Immediate
Manager
5.1.11.4 Hazardous and Experimental Existing Immediate
Equipment Committee
5.1.11.5 Equipment Owner New Immediate
5.1.11.6 Project Manager New Immediate
5.1.11.7 Equipment Custodian New Immediate
5.1.11.8 Users Existing Immediate

5 Sep 2008 (updated 5 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21M-007-R000 2 of 3


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Implementation Plan

Section
Number Section Title Requirement Note Status Effective Date Schedule Note
5.2 Procedures and Specific
Requirements
5.2.1 Design and Modifications New 30 days after date of publication
5.2.2 Pressure Vessel Registration Existing Immediate
5.2.3 Testing Existing Immediate
5.2.4 Specialized Systems New 30 days after date of publication
5.2.5 Vacuum Systems Under 10 CFR 851, vacuum systems must New 30 days after date of publication
comply with pressure vessel code because
backfilling may pressurize the system.
5.3 Training Line management is responsible for ensuring Existing Immediate The ES&H training program is
that all duties are delegated to persons whose under development
competence is commensurate with
responsibility.

5 Sep 2008 (updated 5 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21M-007-R000 3 of 3


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Codes, Regulations, and Standards List
Department: Chemical and General Safety
Program: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems
Owner: Program Manager
Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 14, Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems 1
The SLAC program for pressure safety is based on compliance with all regulations, codes, and standards implicit within Title 10,
Code of Federal Regulations, Part 851, “Worker Safety and Health Program” (10 CFR 851). 2 Included in this regulation is the
requirement to conform to the “strictest applicable state and local codes”, as well as certain industry consensus standards. Many of
these standards are available through the SLAC Research Library.3
The list of codes and regulations listed in the table below is an elaboration of Section 3, “Standards” in Chapter 14. Here, the codes are
listed by system type and also cross-referenced with the applicable Chapter 14 exhibit Use the most current edition unless otherwise
indicated.. This compilation may not include all applicable local requirements.

1 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 14, “Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/pressure/policies.htm
2 “Code of Federal Regulations: Main Page”, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/
Additional information on 10 CFR 851 and its implementation is available from the following site: “Worker Safety and Health Program Final Rule - 10 CFR
851”, http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/WSHP/rule851/851final.html
3 See the “SLAC Research Library Community Pages”, http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/library/CommunityPages.asp, for available standards.

8 Sep 2008 (updated 8 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21V-001-R000 1 of 3


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Codes, Regulations, and Standards List

American Association
California Fire Code of Mechanical National Fire Protection California Mechanical Compressed Gas Additional Required
System Content or Type (chapters) Engineers (ASME) Association (NFPA) 4 Code (chapters) Association (CGA) Codes and Standards
Acetylene and hot work 5 26, 27, 30 B31.3-2002 51 – – American National
Standards Institute
(ANSI) Z49.1-2005
Cryogens 6 27, 30, 32 B31.3 2002, 55 5 and 14 P-12, P-18, P-30, –
B16 series P-35, P-56

Drains and drain systems 27, 30 – – – – California Plumbing


Code, Chapters 8 and
10
Flammable and combustible 34 B31.3-2002 30 14 – California Plumbing
liquids 7 Code, Chapter 8
Health and physical 27 B31.3-2002 55 14 – –
hazards 8
Hydrogen 9 27, 30 B31.3-2002, 55 14 G-5, G-5.3, –
B16 series G-5.4, G-5.5

Natural gas transmission 34 B31.8-2003 58 – – –

4 Use NFPA standards and publications in effect at the time the system becomes operational.
5 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Requirements for Systems for Acetylene and Other Gases for Hot Work (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-040), http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqHotWork.pdf
6 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Hydrogen Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-041), http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqHydrogen.pdf
7 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Flammable and Combustible Liquid Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-039), http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqFlamCombust.pdf
8 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Requirements for Systems Containing Fluids with Health or Physical Hazards (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-043),
http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqFluidHaz.pdf
9 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Hydrogen Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-041), http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqHydrogen.pdf

8 Sep 2008 (updated 8 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21V-001-R000 2 of 3


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Codes, Regulations, and Standards List

American Association
California Fire Code of Mechanical National Fire Protection California Mechanical Compressed Gas Additional Required
System Content or Type (chapters) Engineers (ASME) Association (NFPA) 4 Code (chapters) Association (CGA) Codes and Standards
Oxygen 10 27, 30 B31.3-2002, 51, 53, 55 14 G-4, G-4.1 ASTM International
B16 series (ASTM) G88, G93,
G128
Piping systems – A13.1-2001 – – – –
Refrigeration systems 11 6 B31.5-2001, – 11 and 12 – –
B31.9-1996
Vacuum systems 12 – – – – – –

10 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Oxygen Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-042), http://www-


group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqOxygen.pdf
11 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Refrigeration, Chiller, Heating / Cooling System Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-046), http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqRefrig.pdf
12 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum System Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-037), http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqVacuumSafety.pdf

8 Sep 2008 (updated 8 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21V-001-R000 3 of 3


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Design
Requirements
Department: Chemical and General Safety
Program: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems
Owner: Program Manager
Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 14, Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems 1
The following design requirements apply to all new SLAC pressure, vacuum, and
cryogenic systems and component or hardware. In addition, these requirements apply to
any system that was installed before May 25, 2007 (referred to as a legacy system) if the
addition or modification affects more than 10 percent of the existing system.
Note A change that does not affect a legacy system more than 10 percent must meet the
codes, regulations, and work smart standards, including those associated with
maintenance and operation, in effect at the time the system was installed.
All such pressure systems must be designed in strict adherence to the safety requirements
in this exhibit and must also be in compliance with all applicable codes and standards as
described in Chapter 14 and its other exhibits. Any design that cannot meet these
requirements and applicable codes and standards must undergo additional levels of safety
review, as specified.
Topics discussed in this exhibit are
• Hazard analysis
• Design safety factor
• Design for safe use
• Design for safe maintenance, servicing, and repair
• Design for the environment of use
• Design for natural hazards
• Design for safe manufacture
• Design documentation
• Safety review

Hazard Analysis
Pressure systems must be designed so that no single point failure in the system will result
in a severe injury, significant environmental impact, or potential loss of a facility. The
use of process hazard analysis should be used to assess the risk and the controls that will
eliminate single point failure designs.
Note In analyzing credible failure scenarios, as long as the system is designed to not
exceed the maximum allowable operating pressure of the specified tubing, piping,
and pressure vessel(s), these components need not be considered in the failure

1 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 14, “Pressure,
Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/pressure/policies.htm

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-047-R000 1 of 6


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Design Requirements

analysis. The expectation remains, however, that the components are properly
installed and protected and that the system is operated within design
specifications.

Design Safety Factor


Conventional Applications
Design safety factors are incorporated into the standards that make up the required
compliance documents for pressure vessels, pressure piping, and pressure system
components that are purchased and stamped as compliant with applicable codes.

Experimental Applications
Any design for an application that calls for a component or system that falls outside
applicable codes or standards must provide a level of protection and safety greater than or
equal to the level of protection provided by the code. To achieve this objective, a safety
factor of four times (4x) the design burst pressure over the maximum allowable working
pressure (MAWP) is required unless another appropriate safety factor is approved by the
Hazardous Experimental Equipment Committee (HEEC) 2 in consideration of the
administrative controls, training, area of use, duration of use, functionality, materials, and
science objective of the project.
In addition, the failure analysis must include design for the fault tolerance appropriate to
the potential hazards. Required hazard control measures will be evaluated by HEEC.
Potential hazard control measures include
• Devices such as relief devices, pressure controls, or other hazard controls that provide
equivalent safety protection to meet the fault tolerance criteria
• Evaluation methods such as fracture mechanics and special testing and inspection to
assure that cracks are sufficiently small. Examples include non-destructive inspection
(NDI) and radiographic inspections
• Special manufacturing and handling process to prevent damage

Design for Safe Use


Pressure systems must be designed and installed with full consideration of the end user’s
ability to operate the system safely, and, the operation of the system must not create
uncontrolled safety risks to the overall workplace environment.
Note The normal operation of a pressure system may create workplace environmental
risks such as releasing nitrogen when purging a component or helium when
checking for system leaks. Any such risks must be controlled to an acceptable
level that is consistent with the requirements of SLAC safety policies detailed in
other ES&H Manual chapters.
Design for safe use includes incorporating such features as

2 Hazardous Experimental Equipment – Members, https://www-


internal.slac.stanford.edu/esh/committees/heec/members.htm

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-047-R000 2 of 6


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Design Requirements

• Labeling of all operating controls and emergency controls properly and clearly
• Placing controls and emergency controls so they are readily accessible and operable
by any type of user
• Locating emergency controls so that a person will not be placed in a hazardous
environment during any contingency
• Locating components that require servicing or maintenance in locations that do not
put personnel at extraordinary risk
• Locating all hardware so that it will not be damaged by vehicle operation or other
traffic
• Installing safety controls that minimize extraordinary risks such as emergency shut
down devices and devices that control excess flow, such as flow restricting orifices
and excess flow shut off devices
• Installing environmental safety engineering controls in the workplace such as
dedicated mechanical exhaust ventilation systems such as a laboratory fume hood or
local exhaust ventilation system
• Installing specific hazard sensing and warning or alerting devices such as oxygen-
deficiency monitors, chemical sensors, or leak detectors such as refrigerant leak
detectors. Important: These devices are not bona fide hazard control measures and
cannot be used in lieu of engineering controls required by Title 10, Code of Federal
Regulations, Part 851, “Worker Safety and Health Program” (10 CFR 851). 3

Design for Safe Maintenance, Servicing, and Repair


Pressure systems must be designed (and installed) with full consideration of the safety of
the person who will perform maintenance, service, and repair. Design considerations
include proper placement of components for servicing, providing means and methods for
control of hazardous energy, and taking into account human factors.

Serviceable Parts Placement


Design considerations include:
• Labeling all operating controls and emergency controls properly and clearly
• Placing equipment and hardware that requires maintenance and servicing such that
they are accessible to persons using conventional work practices or work aids such as
ladders and aerial work platforms

Control of Hazardous Energy


Hazardous energy isolating devices or features must be included to allow any worker to
isolate the system from hazardous energy for safe servicing in accordance with the
requirements of the Control of Hazardous Energy (CoHE) program. Lockout / tagout
(LOTO) isolation devices must allow application of a lockout lock and tag to energy
isolation points either directly or through the use of a standard LOTO clip or adapter.

3 “Code of Federal Regulations: Main Page”, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/


Additional information on 10 CFR 851 and its implementation is available from the following site:
“Worker Safety and Health Program Final Rule - 10 CFR 851”,
http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/WSHP/rule851/851final.html

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-047-R000 3 of 6


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Design Requirements

Lockout in systems of pressurized gases and liquids require special consideration for the
unique risks involved. Standard acceptable methods for isolating flowable hazardous
energies include: a double-block-and-bleed arrangement of valves, including provisions
for inserting a blanking plate into the line at a flanged connection, or removing a section
of line upstream from the point of isolation.
Note A single valve isolation of a hazardous flowable energy is not an optimal solution
because valves have a certain inherent leakage rate even when new, and there is
no good way to verify that the energy is entirely isolated because you cannot
visually inspect the inside of the pipe in a closed system.
For additional information, see the Department of Energy (DOE) Standard “Guide To
Good Practices For Lockouts And Tagouts” (DOE-STD-1030-96). 4

Human Factors
Pressure system components must be designed, selected, and configured so that a person
cannot connect to or install a pressure system component to create an unsafe situation.
This may include adhering to Compressed Gas Association (CGA) standard
configurations for connections to gas cylinder inlets and outlets or selecting components
and hardware that cannot be installed backwards or reversed if such a configuration
would create an unsafe or non-functional situation. 5

Design for the Environment of Use


Pressure systems must be designed and installed for the environment in which they will
be placed. Factors that must be considered are:
• Emergency relief vents and normal venting must not impact habitable areas
• If installed indoors, mechanical exhaust ventilation may be required
– If there is a high potential for leakage
– If normal uses dispense a material that may pose a health or safety risk. For
instance, an oxygen deficient work environment may result from inadequate
ventilation. This could occur in the use of nitrogen for purging, the use of helium
to check for leaks, or the use of open containers for a liquid cryogen.
• If placed outdoors, environmental factors may require that the design includes
protection to prevent corrosion or damage from direct sunlight or physical impact.

Design for Natural Hazards


Pressure systems must be designed with consideration of natural hazards such as
earthquakes, wind, rain, and temperature extremes in order to ensure safety,
business/science continuity, and business recovery. Earthquakes are the predominant
natural hazard at SLAC. The minimum seismic design criteria are specified in the
applicable building, fire and mechanical codes. Additional seismic design criteria may be

4 DOE Standard “Guide To Good Practices For Lockouts And Tagouts” (DOE-STD-1030-96),
http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/standard/std1030/std1030.pdf
5 For more information, see the Compressed Gas Association Standard for Compressed Gas Cylinder
Valve Outlet and Inlet Connections (CGA Standard V-1).

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-047-R000 4 of 6


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Design Requirements

imposed on pressure system installations at the discretion of the program manager or


seismic subject matter experts.

Design for Safe Manufacture


While all pressure systems and components must be designed and manufactured in full
accordance with the requirements of this chapter, special care must be taken to stay in
compliance under such circumstances as when
• Subsystems or components are manufactured, installed, or tested separately
• Leak or performance testing is performed on partially constructed subsystems, such
as when components are leak checked between braze cycles

It is the responsibility of the project manager to anticipate and address hazards associated
with the installation and manufacture of the system.

Design Documentation
The design documentation for any pressure vessel or pressure system design must include
• The project scope and applicable codes and standards. If the project scope includes
equipment that is outside the code, best alternative engineering practices must be
specifically identified.
– Pressure vessels are required to meet the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
(per 10 CFR 851) unless the vessel is explicitly not regulated under this code
because of special geometries, special materials, or special applications. Pressure
vessel designs that are outside the purview of the ASME Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Code must be reviewed and approved by HEEC.
– Pressure system components and hardware are required to comply with ASME
B31.3 process piping or other more specifically applicable ASME code.
– Refrigeration systems and building facility systems must comply with ASME
codes specific to such systems.
– Requirements for pressure systems that contain or deliver oxygen, hydrogen,
cryogens, acetylene and other gases for hot work, flammable and combustible
liquids, and fluids with health or physical hazards are listed in the exhibits section
of this chapter.
– For a compilation of codes and regulations, see Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic
Systems: Codes, Regulations, and Standards List 6
• Hazards and engineering controls: documentation must fully describe operating
pressures and the size and specifications of safety-related equipment such as relief
valves and emergency shut-offs.
• Plans for subsequent project phases: plans must include specifications for fabrication
or manufacturing, testing, installation, operation, and maintenance. The plan must
also include any essential intermediate steps (for instance, checking for vacuum leaks
in a thin-walled ceramic beam pipe prior to installing it in a kicker system).

6 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Codes, Regulations, and Standards List (SLAC-I-730-
0A21V-001), http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureListStandards.pdf

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-047-R000 5 of 6


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Design Requirements

Safety Review
The level of safety oversight for the various system types, based on the intended
application and the hazards presented by system specifications, are listed below.
• All pressure vessels: a review and approval by the pressure vessel registration
manager is mandatory except for the following vessel types: any ASME “U” or
“UM” stamped vessel, Department of Transportation (DOT)- approved cylinders, and
dewars used as the pressure source.
• Conventional applications. A safety review and oversight by line management, the
project engineer, and the Environment Safety & Health (ES&H) Building Inspection
Office is mandatory for all projects.
• Science applications. A safety review and oversight by line management and the
project engineer is mandatory for all projects, and in addition, operational approval by
the HEEC is mandatory.

Note Systems that cannot be made inherently safe solely through design and
engineering controls must be reviewed and approved by HEEC. Examples of such
systems are beam target pressure vessels with thin beam windows or systems
where failure of a single component can result in injury to personnel or
significant damage to equipment.

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-047-R000 6 of 6


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Testing
Requirements
Department: Chemical and General Safety
Program: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems
Owner: Program Manager
Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 14, Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems 1
This exhibit summarizes testing requirements and lists regulations, codes, and standards
that are applicable to the testing of pressure, vacuum, and cryogenic systems.

Testing Requirements
All pressure and cryogenic systems must be tested to verify integrity of workmanship and
functionality prior to being put into use. Testing methods may include pneumatic or
hydraulic test media or vacuum leak testing. Leak detection methods may include visual
inspection, testing with leak solution, observation for pressure decay, or helium leak
testing (under pressure or vacuum).
Particular methods of leak testing and alternatives are specified in the listed codes or
regulations (see below). In addition:
• Pressure testing of pressure vessels must be in accordance with the applicable ASME
code documents for these vessels.
• Vacuum systems that may be connected to a pressurized system must be tested in
accordance with the information listed in Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems:
Vacuum System Requirements. 2
• Pressure testing of components that are not pressure vessels must be accomplished in
accordance with the following regulations, codes, or standards

Regulations, Codes, and Standards


Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 851, “Worker Safety and Health Program”
(10 CFR 851) 3 requires compliance with selected ASME standards in addition to federal
OSHA regulations, applicable California state and local regulations and codes, and
certain NFPA standards to all pressure systems and hardware.

1 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 14, “Pressure,
Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/pressure/policies.htm
2 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum System Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-037),
http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqVacuumSafety.pdf
3 “Code of Federal Regulations: Main Page”, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/
Additional information on 10 CFR 851 and its implementation is available from the following site:
“Worker Safety and Health Program Final Rule - 10 CFR 851”,
http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/WSHP/rule851/851final.html

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-044-R000 1 of 2


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Testing Requirements

Note Use the most current edition unless otherwise indicated. 4

ASME Standards and Publications


• ASME B31.3 “Process Piping”

California Fire Code


• Chapter 34, “Flammable and Combustible Liquids”
• Chapter 27, “Hazardous Materials – General Provisions”

California Mechanical Code


• Chapter 14, “Process Piping”

California Plumbing Code


• Chapters 7, “Sanitary Wastes”
• Chapter 8, “Indirect Wastes”

4 See the “SLAC Research Library Community Pages”, http://www-


group.slac.stanford.edu/library/CommunityPages.asp, for available standards.

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-044-R000 2 of 2


Pressure, Cryogenic, and Vacuum Systems: Pressure
Vessel Registration Form (MESI)
Department: Chemical and General Safety
Program: Pressure and Vacuum Systems
Owner: Program Manager
Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 14, Pressure and Vacuum Systems 1
All pressure vessels that do not carry a stamp that certifies that the vessel complies with
applicable codes must be approved by the pressure vessel registration manager before the
first use.
Vessels stamped by the following entities are exempt from the approval process:
• American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
• Department of Transportation (DOT)
• National Board
• Entity demonstrated to be equivalent

Registration
Any pressure vessel that does not bear a recognized stamp must be approved by the
pressure vessel registration manager based on calculations, analyses, substantiations, and
inspection.
Upon approval, the equipment owner or project engineer must submit a completed
Mechanical Engineering Safety Inspection (MESI) form to the pressure vessel
registration manager so that the vessel can be added to the pressure vessel database. The
vessel is then labeled with a MESI stamp and number.
Note Any pressure vessel with a MESI registration that is also part of a system that
requires HEEC operational approval must be evaluated as part of the HEEC
review process. 2
The completed form registers a pressure or vacuum vessel and satisfies SLAC’s
registration requirements.

Decommissioning
Any change in the status of a registered pressure vessel, including decommissioning,
must be reported to the pressure vessel registration manager. See Chapter 14 for a
complete list of decommissioning requirements.

1 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 14, “Pressure,
Cryogenic, and Vacuum Systems”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/pressure/policies.htm
2 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: HEEC Review Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-045),
http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqHEEC.pdf

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21J-028-R000 1 of 2


SLAC Mechanical Engineering Safety Inspection (MESI)
Pressure Vessel Registration Form
MESI - ________

Responsibility:___________________; ____________________Mail stop: ________ Ext:_________


SLAC group Equipment owner or custodian

Project:_________________________________ Location:___________________________________
Name and number of experiment or project location of operating vessel

Duration of use. Start date:_________________________ End date: ___________________________


Estimated start of operation estimated ending date, or Permanent

Vessel use: __________________________________________________________________________


For example: beam pipe, H2 target, Cerenkov, gas storage, vacuum reservoir

Working pressure. MAWP: __________________psi Minimum: ______________________psi


MAWP for a vacuum vessel is zero. Minimum gauge pressure: zero for vessels that are never pumped,
“Vac” for vacuum vessels or vessels pumped down for filling.

Safety valve. Location: ___________________________ID: _____________ Set to: __________psi


Not required for zero MAWP. Top of shell, flat head, inlet line (no intervening valves permitted); smallest
ID of valve and connecting pipe (ID must be larger than inlet pipe); set to 110 percent of MAWP or
lower.

Temperature range. Maximum: __________________ °F Minimum: __________________ °F


Temperatures anticipated over all stages of operation, including bakeout

Contents:______________________________________ Volume: _____________________ cu ft


Isobutane gas (includes condensate), liquid H2,(includes vapor phase), Vac; approximate volume.

Material. Shell:_____________________ Head:__________________ Head: __________________


Steel (for carbon steel); 304 (for stainless); 6061- T6 (for aluminum); fiberglass; plexiglass Kevlar/Mylar

Date: _______________________________ Completed by __________________________________

This section to be completed by the pressure vessel registration manager.

HEEC review (if required): ____________________________________________________________


HEEC case number and reason for transfer to HEEC

Pressure test:______________________________________________________ Date:_____________


Hydro- or pneumostatic, psi, time held at test pressure

Approved for operation: _________________________________ Date:________________________

Decommissioning: ___________________________________________________________________
Describe decommissioning process and final destination

Decommissioned by: ____________________________________ Date: ________________________

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21J-028-R000 2 of 2


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Cryogen
Requirements
Department: Chemical and General Safety
Program: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems
Owner: Program Manager
Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 14, Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems 1
All pressure systems must be in conformance with the requirements of Chapter 14, and
this exhibit provides the additional required information specific to cryogen systems. If
you need further clarification on the unique characteristics of this type of system or the
specific codes, regulations, and standards, please contact the program manager.

Unique Characteristics
Systems that contain or convey cryogens must incorporate the following:
• The cryogen source and all associated piping must meet the safety requirements for
pressure vessel and process piping
• The insulation method employed on such systems must meet certain design
requirements to assure that the material remains liquid until it reaches the point of use
• If the cryogenic liquid has additional hazardous characteristics such as flammability,
additional codes and regulations bear upon the installation
• The use of a cryogenic material inside a building is regulated by codes and
regulations that mandate a certain level of hazard control and/or alerting for the
potential of a material release that could result in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere. In
particular, the California state codes levied by Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations,
Part 851, “Worker Safety and Health Program” (10 CFR 851) 2 require a certain level
of mechanical ventilation in rooms to control the oxygen deficiency hazard potential
where cryogens may be used or where there is a potential for a release. Additionally,
these codes specify installing flammable gas monitors if the material is flammable.

Note Cryogen systems are subject to these regulations in consideration of the unique
characteristics and expansive properties of a gas or liquid stored at a
temperature below −90°C (−130°F or 183 K).

1 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 14, “Pressure,
Cryogenic, and Vacuum Systems”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/pressure/policies.htm
2 “Code of Federal Regulations: Main Page”, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/
Additional information on 10 CFR 851 and its implementation is available from the following site:
“Worker Safety and Health Program Final Rule - 10 CFR 851”,
http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/WSHP/rule851/851final.html

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-038-R000 1 of 3


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Cryogen Requirements

Required Regulations, Codes, and Standards


In addition to those listed in Section 3, “Standards”, of Chapter 14, the following
regulations, codes, and standards apply.
Note Use the most current edition unless otherwise indicated. 3

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Standards


• ASME B31.3-2002, “Process Piping”
• ASME B16 series, “Standards of Pipes and Fittings”

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standards


• NFPA 55, “Standard for the Storage, Use, and Handling of Compressed Gases and
Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Containers, Cylinders, and Tanks”

California Fire Code


• Chapter 30, “Compressed Gases”
• Chapter 32, “Cryogenic Fluids”
• Chapter 27, “Hazardous Materials – General Provisions”

California Mechanical Code


• Chapter 5, “Exhaust Systems”
• Chapter 14, “Process Piping”

Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Standards


• CGA P-12, “Safe Handling of Cryogenic Liquids”
• CGA P-30, “Portable Cryogenic Liquid Containers: Use, Care, and Disposal”
• CGA P-56, “Cryogenic Vaporization Systems: Prevention of Brittle Fracture of
Equipment and Piping”
• CGA P-35, “Guidelines for Unloading Tankers of Cryogenic Oxygen, Nitrogen, and
Argon”
• CGA P-56, “Cryogenic Vaporization Systems: Prevention of Brittle Fracture of
Equipment and Piping”

Related Documents
• Hazardous Materials: Cryogenic Gas Safe Handling Guideline (SLAC-I-730-0A09T-
002) 4
• SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter
36, “Cryogenic and Oxygen Deficiency Hazard Safety” 5

3 See the “SLAC Research Library Community Pages”, http://www-


group.slac.stanford.edu/library/CommunityPages.asp, for available standards.
4 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/hazmatGuideCryo.pdf
5 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_substances/cryogenic/policies.htm

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-038-R000 2 of 3


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Cryogen Requirements

• Hazardous Materials: Personal Protective Equipment Requirements (SLAC-I-730-


0A09S-017) 6
• Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Codes, Regulations, and Standards List
(SLAC-I-730-0A21V-001) 7

6 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/hazmatReqPPE.pdf
7 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureListStandards.pdf

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-038-R000 3 of 3


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum
System Requirements
Department: Chemical and General Safety
Program: Pressure and Vacuum Systems
Owner: Program Manager
Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 14, Pressure and Vacuum Systems 1

This exhibit provides SLAC-specific requirements that elaborate on a basis document


that is being developed collaboratively with experts from several Department of Energy
(DOE) accelerator laboratories. The current working title is “Vacuum Systems Consensus
Guideline for DOE Accelerator Laboratories”. 2

Introduction
The requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 851, “Worker Safety and
Health Program” (10 CFR 851) 3 extends to the many types of vacuum systems in place at
SLAC. 4 This exhibit interprets requirements for “legacy” systems, which are systems that
were installed before 10 CFR 851 came into effect, and it lays out requirements for new
systems, which are based on categories ranked by potential risk.
Many of SLAC’s vacuum systems can be considered to be inherently safe. This is
because the high performance systems in use require structurally conservative design and
manufacturing protocols: purchased components are vacuum qualified, fabricated parts
are made of vacuum-qualified material, and only vacuum-qualified welding or brazing
techniques are used. In addition, risk analysis shows that a credible scenario that would
result in injury due to equipment failure is extremely unlikely and would be readily
identified in advance. Many of SLAC’s inherently safe systems are associated with
beamlines and diagnostic devices.
The first section describes criteria for classifying on-site vacuum systems. If a system
meets all the criteria for an inherently safe system, it is approved for general use at
SLAC. Any system that fails to satisfy all listed criteria must be reviewed by the

1 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 14, “Pressure,
Cryogenic, and Vacuum Systems”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/pressure/policies.htm
2 Vacuum Systems Consensus Guideline, http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/tf/vacuum/vacuum.html
3 “Code of Federal Regulations: Main Page”, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/
Additional information on 10 CFR 851 and its implementation is available from the following site:
“Worker Safety and Health Program Final Rule - 10 CFR 851”,
http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/WSHP/rule851/851final.html
4 Worker Safety and Health Program (WSHP), http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/general/wshp/

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-037-R000 1 of 7


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum System Requirements

Hazardous and Experimental Equipment Committee (HEEC) before the required


operational approval is issued. 5
The second section, entitled Vacuum System Safety Recommendations, includes a brief
discussion on shielding, protecting the system from excessive external pressure
(including recommended pressure relief devices), and testing and inspection.

Vacuum System Classification


Legacy Systems
At SLAC, a legacy system is any vacuum system installed before May 25, 2007. Legacy
systems must be brought into compliance with 10 CFR 851 if the change involves an
addition or modification that affects more than 10% of the existing system.
Changes that do not affect a legacy system more than 10% must meet the codes,
regulations, and work smart standards, including those associated with maintenance and
operation, in effect at the time that the system was installed with the following caveat:
10 CFR 851 levies an overarching requirement that all workplaces be free from
recognized hazards that can cause or have the potential to cause serious physical harm to
workers.

New or Modified Systems


Any new vacuum system, or any legacy system that must be brought into compliance as
described above, must be categorized in terms of risk as follows.

Category I
Category I vacuum vessels include all vessels in which the differential operating pressure
can never exceed 15 pounds per square inch (psi). Such systems are designed to only hold
a vacuum and cannot become pressurized to greater than 15 pounds per square inch
gauge (psig) pressure in any credible accident scenario or under any operational
conditions (such as backfilling). Such systems are considered inherently safe if they meet
all the criteria listed below.

Category II
Category II vacuum vessels include all vessels that can be protected from pressurization
exceeding 15 psi through such engineering controls as pressure relief devices. Systems in
this category have an operational or credible accident scenario in which they could be
pressurized above 15 psig. To qualify as inherently safe, such systems are subject to a
limited review in which it is shown that the engineering control is appropriate and in
place. A common example of an appropriate engineering control is a vacuum-qualified
low pressure burst disk.

5 Hazardous Experimental Equipment Committee – Charter , https://www-


internal.slac.stanford.edu/esh/committees/heec/charter.htm

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-037-R000 2 of 7


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum System Requirements

Category III
Category III vacuum vessels include all vacuum vessels that are not or cannot be
protected from pressurization exceeding 15 psi. These systems must be reviewed by
HEEC to evaluate over pressurization hazards and hazard mitigation. 6

Inherently Safe Vacuum System Criteria


To be considered inherently safe, new or modified vacuum systems must meet all of the
following requirements. If a system cannot meet every criterion, contact HEEC to
determine the review requirement scope.
• The system components are made of vacuum qualified ductile (non-brittle) materials
such as copper, stainless steel, or aluminum and the manufacturing method meets the
appropriate SLAC standard technical specification. 7
• The system is designed with a safety factor of at least 4 based on the appropriate
failure mechanism.
– For vacuum systems, the design criteria is a theoretical vacuum pressure of -60
PSIG (-4 bar)
– Flexible subcomponents such as welded bellows are allowed to fail so long as
there is no possibility of injury
• Design parameters are at or below any one of these specifications
– The total system energy capacity is less than 20,000 joules (J)
– The vessel volumetric capacity is less than 7 cubic feet (ft3)
– The vessel cross-sectional area is less than 28 square inches (in2), which is
equivalent to the cross-section of a 6-inch diameter pipe
• The system will only be operated in benign environments and the vacuum vessel
temperature will be less than 300°C. (This applies to the structural vacuum wall only
and not to the insulated inner chamber of a vacuum furnace or bake station.)
• No aspect of the system warrants special safety considerations; for instance, the
system does not include large thin windows or unusual geometries
• Systems in which the major components consist of glass, ceramics, plastics, or other
brittle materials (such as bell jars or systems made from laboratory glass hardware)
are properly shielded
– Brittle components must be mechanically enclosed or isolated with a barrier or
shield to the degree required to protect everyone in the area from injury
• Thin beamline or radiofrequency (RF) windows made of metal foil or Kapton sheet
require additional protection
– Beamline windows larger than approximately 2 inches in diameter require the use
of hearing protection
• Standard commercially available flanged joints, such as Conflat flanges, as well as
crosses, tees, elbows etc. provide sufficient strength and reliability for vacuum service

6 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: HEEC Review Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-045),


http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqHEEC.pdf
7 For example, see Technical Specification FP-202-631-14, Fabrication of Ultra High Vacuum (UHV)
Components, http://mdweb.slac.stanford.edu/Doc%20Control.ODA.php (To view FP-202-631-14,
type this set of numbers into the drawing number and revision fields.)

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-037-R000 3 of 7


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum System Requirements

– Any flange modification that may impair flange integrity triggers an engineering
analysis prior to use
• The system is designed to be only operated as a vacuum vessel in air with the
following exception: The system may be operated at a slight over-pressure to purge it
or to control contamination. The maximum operating pressure must be less than 15
psig.
– Such systems must be protected by over-pressure relief valves while connected to
pressurized gas sources. For maximum protection, select a pressure relief valve
that is rated to release pressure at or below 2 psig.
– The purge gas must be chemically inert. Chemically inert gases include air,
nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, and/or argon. Any system that requires the use
of flammable or reactive gases such as oxygen, hydrogen, or fuel gases must be
reviewed by HEEC for safety.
• The system is designed, fabricated, tested, inspected, maintained, repaired, and
operated by trained and qualified personnel in accordance with applicable and sound
engineering principles
• The project manager has evaluated the vacuum system and has approved operation in
accordance with the requirements described in this exhibit

Vacuum System Safety Recommendations


Shielding
The type of component most likely to fail catastrophically in a vacuum system is a brittle
component such as a view port (window), glass bell jar, glass ion gauges, glass or plastic
vessel, or glass or brittle plastic tubing. Component failure can be caused by, for
example, an inadvertent blow or a scratch by a hard sharp object, and can produce sharp-
edged shrapnel.
Proper shielding is essential to avoid injury as well as damage to equipment. The type of
shielding required depends on the location and type of the brittle component. Common
shielding strategies include
• Placing mechanical protective shielding around components such as glass or brittle
plastic tubing and glass ion gauges
• Operating a system within a hood with the hood door down (size permitting)
• Operating the system behind a Lexan shield or within a Lexan or metal shield
• Wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) such as safety glasses or a face shield
– PPE is required when looking through an unshielded view port that is under
vacuum; in general, such ports should be shielded and positioned away from the
operator.

Protecting the System from Excessive Internal Pressure


A second common cause of catastrophic vacuum vessel or system failure, particularly if
there are brittle components, is the inadvertent application of internal pressure. Such
pressure may be realized as a result of
• Failure of a valve or regulator that is connected to the backfill source

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-037-R000 4 of 7


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum System Requirements

• Pressure generated by a chemical reaction involving reactive gases


• Pressure realized by the accidental connection of the exhaust port of a fore pump to
the inlet of the vacuum system
– Label the vacuum pump inlet and outlet to avoid switched connections

Components that can protect a vacuum system that must be purged or backfilled with a
high pressure source capable of causing the system to exceed the maximum allowable
working pressure (MAWP) include
• A safety manifold
• Relief valves
• Burst discs
The following components have been identified as candidates for lending safety to
vacuum systems.

Venting and Purging with Nitrogen: Recommended Assembly


The assembly illustrated in Figure 1 is typical for venting and purging a vacuum system
with nitrogen.
• Swagelok 8 components
– SS-4H SS bellows-sealed valve
– SS-401-PC port connector (2 required)
– SS-4F-05 filter, 0.5 micron
– SS-400-3TTF female branch tee
• Circle Seal Controls, Inc. 9 component
– Model 532T1-1M-.5 stainless steel relief valve, Viton seal, 0.5 psig cracking
pressure

Figure 1. The gas supply is connected to the valve at the left. The nitrogen passes through a 0.5 micron filter and is
pressure limited to 0.5 psig by the relief valve.

Pressure Relief: Burst Disc Recommendation


A burst disk may be incorporated into a vacuum system design to limit the internal
pressure to less than 15 psig following any equipment failure. Burst disks must be

8 http://www.swagelok.com/
9 http://www.circlesealcontrols.com/products/relief_valves/500/500-series_2007-10_lo.pdf

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-037-R000 5 of 7


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum System Requirements

adequately sized for the credible identified failure mode and must be rated to fail at
internal pressures of less than 15 psig in order to defend the system as intrinsically safe.
The burst disk must be connected directly to the vacuum system and must not be isolated
from the system by a valve.
Figure 2 shows an all-metal burst disk designed to be incorporated into ultra-high
vacuum (UHV) systems. It is available from MDC Vacuum Products, LLC product. 10
The vendor’s description follows for MDC part number 420033:
MDC burst discs are designed as a safety device to protect vacuum systems against over-
pressurization during back-fill or from an accidental increase in pressure due to a system
malfunction. BDA-series ASME UD certified burst disks feature all-metal stainless steel
construction and are designed for use in UHV applications.

Figure 2. MDC Burst Disk


• UHV Compatible all metal construction
• ASME UD certified
• 10 CFR 851 compliant
• Pressure relief range 9 to 11.5 psig
• Leak tight to 2 x10-10 std. cc/sec of Helium
• 316 Stainless steel body and disk membrane
• Bakeable to 450°C
• Compact design with no moving parts
• Calculated flow rates
– -107 SCFM on 1.33 inch Flange Assembly
– -435 SCFM on 2.75 inch Flange Assembly

Testing and Inspection


Most vacuum systems are designed for external pressure and contain components that
render an overpressure internal proof test inappropriate. Other means are necessary to
document the safety of these systems, and the appropriate method must consider system
type, system size (contained energy), system complexity (ease of making errors) and
associated hazards. In all instances, any observed design deviations must be brought to
the attention of a project manager.
The following is a partial list of inspection items of special concern.
• General inspection items

10 MDC Vacuum Products, http://www.mdcvacuum.com/

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-037-R000 6 of 7


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum System Requirements

– Check for leaks using the appropriate protocol


– Ensure that brittle and fragile components are protected to prevent leaks from
forming
– When testing sub-systems, be mindful of unevaluated hazards that would be
mitigated in the fully assembled system but may not be mitigated at the sub-
system level
• Bellows systems
– Verify that there is sufficient support at the points of connection so that vacuum
force cannot result in an uncontrolled bellows compression and/or injury to
personnel
– Bellows between systems that have different cross-sections require additional
support due to unbalanced atmospheric pressure loads
• Kicker-magnet ceramic vacuum chamber
– Testing before full assembly requires consideration of the overall design in which
the fully assembled magnet provides the necessary protection for the fragile
subcomponent
– Thin-walled ceramic beam pipes must be checked prior to installation in a kicker
system
– Special care is required during assembly
– Ceramic chambers and metalized joints must never be put in tension or put under
torque during assembly or while flanges are bolted

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-037-R000 7 of 7


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems:
Requirements for Systems for Acetylene and Other
Gases for Hot Work
Department: Chemical and General Safety
Program: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems
Owner: Program Manager
Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 14, Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems 1
All pressure systems must be in conformance with the requirements of Chapter 14, and
this exhibit provides the additional required information specific to systems for acetylene
and other gases for hot work. If you need further clarification on the unique
characteristics of this type of system or the specific codes, regulations, and standards,
please contact the program manager.

Unique Characteristics
Hot work is a term commonly used to denote torch brazing, welding, cutting, and allied
processes that use oxygen and a fuel gas such as acetylene or propane. Acetylene is
primarily used as a fuel gas for oxy-acetylene welding and torch soldering applications,
but it may be used for certain science applications. Gases that may be used in place of
acetylene include propylene, MAPP gas, and propane, but these materials are almost
exclusively dispensed from portable containers.

Required Regulations, Codes, and Standards


In addition to those listed in Section 3, “Standards”, of Chapter 14, the following
regulations, codes, and standards apply to acetylene piping systems and acetylene in
portable containers/tanks.
Note Use the most current edition unless otherwise indicated. 2

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Standards


• ASME B31.3-2002, “Process Piping”

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standards


• NFPA 51, “Standard for the Design and Installation of Oxygen–Fuel Gas Systems for
Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes”

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)


• ANSI Z49.1, “Safety in Welding Cutting and Allied Processes”

1 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 14, “Pressure,
Cryogenic, and Vacuum Systems”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/pressure/policies.htm
2 See the “SLAC Research Library Community Pages”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/library/CommunityPages.asp, for available standards.

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-040-R000 1 of 2


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Requirements for Systems for Acetylene and
Other Gases for Hot Work
California Fire Code
• Chapter 26, “Welding and Other Hot Work”
• Chapter 30, “Compressed Gases”
• Chapter 27, “Hazardous Materials – General Provisions”

Related Documents
• CGC: Portable Oxygen-fuel for Welding and Cutting Requirements (SLAC-I-730-
0A09S-024) 3
• SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter
12, “Fire and Life Safety” 4
• Fire and Life Safety: Fire Prevention Hot Work Guidelines (SLAC-I-730-0A12T-
006) 5
• Hazardous Materials: Personal Protective Equipment Requirements (SLAC-I-730-
0A09S-017) 6
• Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Codes, Regulations, and Standards List
(SLAC-I-730-0A21V-001) 7

3 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/cgcReqOxygen.pdf
4 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/general/fire_safety/policies.htm
5 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/fireGuideHotwork.pdf
6 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/hazmatReqPPE.pdf
7 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureListStandards.pdf

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-040-R000 2 of 2


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems:
Refrigeration, Chiller, Heating/Cooling System
Requirements
Department: Chemical and General Safety
Program: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems
Owner: Program Manager
Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 14, Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems 1
All pressure systems must be in conformance with the requirements of Chapter 14, and
this exhibit provides the additional required information specific to refrigeration, chiller,
and heating/cooling systems. If you need further clarification on the unique
characteristics of this type of system or the specific codes, regulations, and standards,
please contact the program manager.

Unique Characteristics
Refrigeration, chiller, and heating/cooling systems must be designed to certain additional
codes and regulations based on the methods employed to create the hot or cold
temperature regimes in a fluid.

Required Regulations, Codes, and Standards


In addition to those listed in Section 3, “Standards”, of Chapter 14, the following
regulations, codes, and standards apply.
Note Use the most current edition unless otherwise indicated. 2

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Standards


• ASME B31.5-2001, “Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components”
• ASME B31.9-1996, “Building Services Piping”

California Fire Code


• Chapter 6, “Building Services and Systems”

California Mechanical Code


• Chapter 11, “Refrigeration”
• Chapter 12, “Hydronics”

1 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 14, “Pressure,
Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/pressure/policies.htm
2 See the “SLAC Research Library Community Pages”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/library/CommunityPages.asp, for available standards.

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-046-R000 1 of 1


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Oxygen
Requirements
Department: Chemical and General Safety
Program: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems
Owner: Program Manager
Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 14, Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems 1
All pressure systems must be in conformance with the requirements of Chapter 14, and
this exhibit provides the additional required information specific to oxygen systems. If
you need further clarification on the unique characteristics of this type of system or the
specific codes, regulations, and standards, please contact the program manager.

Unique Characteristics
Oxygen system design, installation, use, and maintenance require the highest level of
attention to safety considerations and materials compatibility to minimize the ever-
present danger of combustion.
• Oxygen undergoes adiabatic compression when the pressure in the system is
increased. This can result in extremely high temperatures in a localized area; these
temperatures can exceed the auto-ignition temperature of certain soft goods or metal
particles in the system, resulting in a very hot fire within the gas system.
• The installation of and any repair or maintenance on oxygen systems requires the
highest level of attention to cleanliness. Impurities such as oils or grease can react
violently with pure oxygen, creating conditions for fire.

Required Regulations, Codes, and Standards


In addition to those listed in Section 3, “Standards”, of Chapter 14, the following
regulations, codes, and standards apply.
Note Use the most current edition unless otherwise indicated. 2

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Standards


• ASME B31.3-2002, “Process Piping”
• ASME B16 series, “Standards of Pipes and Fittings”

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standards


• NFPA 51, “Standard for the Design and Installation of Oxygen–Fuel Gas Systems for
Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes”

1 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 14, “Pressure,
Cryogenic, and Vacuum Systems”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/pressure/policies.htm
2 See the “SLAC Research Library Community Pages”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/library/CommunityPages.asp, for available standards.

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-042-R000 1 of 2


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Oxygen Requirements

• NFPA 53, “Recommended Practice on Materials, Equipment, and Systems Used in


Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres”
• NFPA 55, “Standard for the Storage, Use, and Handling of Compressed Gases and
Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Containers, Cylinders, and Tanks”

California Fire Code


• Chapter 30, “Compressed Gases”
• Chapter 27, “Hazardous Materials – General Provisions”

California Mechanical Code


• Chapter 14, “Process Piping”

ASTM Standards
• ASTM G-88, “Standard Guide for Designing Systems for Oxygen Service”
• ASTM G-93, “Standard Practice for Cleaning Methods for Material and Equipment
Use in Oxygen-Enriched Environments”
• ASTM G-128, “Standard Guide for Control of Hazards and Risks in Oxygen
Enriched Systems”

Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Standards and Publications


• CGA G-4, “Oxygen”
• CGA G-4.1, “Cleaning Equipment for Oxygen Service”

Related Documents
• Hazardous Materials: Oxygen Safe Handling Guideline (SLAC-I-730-0A09T-011) 3
• Hazardous Materials: Personal Protective Equipment Requirements (SLAC-I-730-
0A09S-017) 4
• Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Codes, Regulations, and Standards List
(SLAC-I-730-0A21V-001) 5

3 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/hazmatGuideOxygen.pdf
4 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/hazmatReqPPE.pdf
5 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureListStandards.pdf

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-042-R000 2 of 2


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Hydrogen
Requirements
Department: Chemical and General Safety
Program: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems
Owner: Program Manager
Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 14, Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems 1
All pressure systems must be in conformance with the requirements of Chapter 14, and
this exhibit provides the additional required information specific to hydrogen systems. If
you need further clarification on the unique characteristics of this type of system or the
specific codes, regulations, and standards, please contact the program manager.

Unique Characteristics
The design, installation, and use of hydrogen systems must incorporate the following:
• Monitoring equipment, as specified by codes that specify how rooms or areas are to
be monitored for a leak
• An excess flow control valve to minimize the effects of a catastrophic line break or
leak

Note Hydrogen is a flammable gas that is lighter than air. Hydrogen has a tendency to
dissipate readily if released into the air.

Required Regulations, Codes, and Standards


In addition to those listed in Section 3, “Standards”, of Chapter 14, the following
regulations, codes, and standards apply.
Note Use the most current edition unless otherwise indicated. 2

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Standards


• ASME B31.3-2002, “Process Piping”
• ASME B16 series, “Standards of Pipes and Fittings”

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standards


• NFPA 55, “Standard for the Storage, Use, and Handling of Compressed Gases and
Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Containers, Cylinders, and Tanks”

California Fire Code


• Chapter 30, “Compressed Gases”

1 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 14, “Pressure,
Cryogenic, and Vacuum Systems”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/pressure/policies.htm
2 See the “SLAC Research Library Community Pages”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/library/CommunityPages.asp, for available standards.

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-041-R000 1 of 2


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Hydrogen Requirements

• Chapter 27, “Hazardous Materials – General Provisions”

California Mechanical Code


• Chapter 14, “Process Piping”

Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Standards


• CGA G-5, “Hydrogen”
• CGA G-5.3, “Commodity Specification for Hydrogen”
• CGA G-5.4, “Standard for Hydrogen Piping Systems at Consumer Locations”
• CGA G-5.5, “Hydrogen Vent Systems”

Related Documents
• Hazardous Materials: Hydrogen Safe Handling Guideline (SLAC-I-730-0A09T-007) 3
• Hazardous Materials: Personal Protective Equipment Requirements (SLAC-I-730-
0A09S-017) 4
• Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Codes, Regulations, and Standards List
(SLAC-I-730-0A21V-001) 5

3 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/hazmatGuideHydrogen.pdf
4 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/hazmatReqPPE.pdf
5 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureListStandards.pdf

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-041-R000 2 of 2


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Flammable
and Combustible Liquid Requirements
Department: Chemical and General Safety
Program: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems
Owner: Program Manager
Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 14, Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems 1
All pressure systems must be in conformance with the requirements of Chapter 14, and
this exhibit provides the additional required information specific to systems that contain
or convey flammable or combustible liquids. If you need further clarification on the
unique characteristics of this type of system or the specific codes, regulations, and
standards, please contact the program manager.

Unique Characteristics
The design, installation, and use of systems that contain or convey flammable or
combustible liquids must incorporate into the design the applicable state code
requirements for the following:
• Leak control
• Containment
• Static charge controls

Note Included are drain systems that convey flammable/combustible liquids but not
flammable liquid cryogens.

Required Regulations, Codes, and Standards


In addition to those listed in Section 3, “Standards”, of Chapter 14, the following
regulations, codes, and standards apply.
Note Use the most current edition unless otherwise indicated. 2

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Standards


• ASME B31.3-2002, “Process Piping”

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standards


• NFPA 30, “Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code”

California Fire Code


• Chapter 34, “Flammable and Combustible Liquids”

1 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 14, “Pressure,
Cryogenic, Vacuum Systems”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/pressure/policies.htm
2 See the “SLAC Research Library Community Pages”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/library/CommunityPages.asp, for available standards.

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Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Flammable and Combustible Liquid
Requirements
California Mechanical Code
• Chapter 14, “Process Piping”

California Plumbing Code


• Chapter 8, “Indirect Wastes”

Related Documents
• Hazardous Materials: Flammable and Combustible Liquids Safe Handling Guideline
(SLAC-I-730-0A09T-004) 3
• Hazardous Materials: Personal Protective Equipment Requirements (SLAC-I-730-
0A09S-017 4
• Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Codes, Regulations, and Standards List
(SLAC-I-730-0A21V-001) 5

3 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/hazmatGuideFlamLiquid.pdf
4 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/hazmatReqPPE.pdf
5 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureListStandards.pdf

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-039-R000 2 of 2


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems:
Requirements for Systems Containing Fluids with Health
or Physical Hazards
Department: Chemical and General Safety
Program: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems
Owner: Program Manager
Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 14, Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems 1
All pressure systems must be in conformance with the requirements of Chapter 14, and
this exhibit provides the additional required information specific to systems containing
fluids with health or physical hazards.

Unique Characteristics
Fluids with significant health or physical hazards include flammable gases and materials
that are toxic, highly toxic, corrosive, oxidizing, unstable reactive, water reactive. The
design, installation, use, and maintenance of systems containing such fluids may require
consultation with the program manager to identify specific requirements based on the
seriousness of the hazard.
Note Pressure systems that contain or convey such materials must be designed and
installed with particular attention to the applicable state fire and mechanical
codes.

Required Regulations, Codes, and Standards


In addition to those listed in Section 3, “Standards”, of Chapter 14, the following
regulations, codes, and standards apply. In addition to the required codes listed below,
certain gases may also be regulated locally under San Mateo County’s toxic gas
ordinance. If you need further clarification, please contact the program manager.
Note Use the most current edition unless otherwise indicated. 2

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Standards


• ASME B31.3-2002, “Process Piping”

California Fire Code


• Chapter 27, “Hazardous Materials, General Provisions”

California Mechanical Code


• Chapter 14, “Process Piping”

1 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 14, “Pressure,
Cryogenic, and Vacuum Systems”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/pressure/policies.htm
2 See the “SLAC Research Library Community Pages”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/library/CommunityPages.asp, for available standards.

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-043-R000 1 of 2


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Requirements for Systems Containing Fluids
with Health or Physical Hazards

Related Documents
• CGC: Safety Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A09S-027) 3
• Hazardous Materials: Personal Protective Equipment Requirements (SLAC-I-730-
0A09S-017) 4
• Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Codes, Regulations, and Standards List
(SLAC-I-730-0A21V-001) 5

3 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/cgcReqSafety.pdf
4 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/hazmatReqPPE.pdf
5 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureListStandards.pdf

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-043-R000 2 of 2


Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: HEEC
Review Requirements
Department: Chemical and General Safety
Program: Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems
Owner: Program Manager
Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 14, Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems 1
This exhibit pertains to pressure systems that require review and operational approval by
the Hazardous Experimental Equipment Committee (HEEC). Operational approval will
only be granted after a review process has fully identified both the hazards and the
mitigation measures to control them, as outlined below. The expectation is that systems
and activities, insofar as possible, comply with all applicable ES&H policy and
requirements.

HEEC Review Requirement Criteria


Unlike pressure systems for conventional applications–which are governed by the
regulations, codes, and standards listed in Chapter 14–pressure systems, sub-systems, or
components for scientific applications require additional review by the HEEC if any of
the following apply:
• The pressure or vacuum vessel may not be able to meet the applicable regulatory or
code requirements because of a unique use required to support science or
experimental needs, extraordinary pressure service range, unique or special materials,
special service uses or restrictions, or vessel geometry
• The activity may create hazardous atmospheres or oxygen deficiency hazards
(installation of a cryogenic system is an example)
• The activity is not within the purview of any recognized standard, or a conflict with
existing standards must be resolved, or an equivalency must be determined
• The installation presents unusual hazards, for instance due to of equipment placement
or location
• The design presents an unusual combination of hazards
• The vacuum system is classified as belonging to “Category III” in the exhibit
Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum System Requirements. 2
Category III vacuum vessels include all vacuum vessels that are not or cannot be
protected from pressurization exceeding 15 psi. (Vacuum systems classified as
Category I or II are not subject to HEEC review.)

1 SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 14, “Pressure,
Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems”, http://www-
group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/pressure/policies.htm
2 Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: Vacuum System Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-037),
http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/pressureReqVacuumSafety.pdf

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Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: HEEC Review Requirements

HEEC Review Process Overview


The equipment owner or project manager of the intended design is encouraged to contact
HEEC as early in the design process as possible. 3 Early contact allows ample opportunity
to perform a risk analysis and incorporate mitigating measures throughout the design
process. Steps for obtaining the required operational approval follow.

Project Proposal
Submitting a proposal to the HEEC initiates the formal review process. The proposal
must contain sufficient detail for HEEC members to the able to determine
• The nature of any hazards
• The likelihood of a system or process failure
• The anticipated consequences of a failure

Review Scope
Based on provided information and follow up questions, HEEC members will determine
the scope and depth of the review as well as requirements and conditions for operational
approval. If deemed necessary, HEEC members will conduct a comprehensive safety
review of all aspects of the system.

Review Process
The review process seeks to gain assurance that all hazards are identified and that
proposed mitigations provide an acceptable level of safety. Systems that cannot be made
inherently safe by design and engineering controls must incorporate additional measures
such as administrative controls and personal protective equipment (PPE).
Examples of systems that may require additional reviews include:
• Category III vacuum systems may be referred to the Pressure Safety Committee
• Scattering chambers with thin beamline windows may be referred to the pressure
vessel registration manager to determine if the design and construction of the vessel
(windows excluded) would meet applicable code expectations
• A cryogenic magnet review will seek to assure that pressure relief systems will
adequately address a quench, a vacuum system failure, and other unique potential
failures.

Operational Approval and Renewal


The equipment owner or project manager of any system subject to approval by HEEC
must obtain an operational approval before the system is energized.
• HEEC members will routinely conduct a visual inspection before approval. If a more
in-depth inspection is carried out, results must show that all hazards are under control
before an operational approval is issued.
• An operational approval is valid only for the specified period.

3 Hazardous Experimental Equipment – Members, https://www-


internal.slac.stanford.edu/esh/committees/heec/members.htm

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Pressure, Vacuum, and Cryogenic Systems: HEEC Review Requirements

• The equipment owner or project manager must request a renewal before the
operational approval expires.

9 Sep 2008 (updated 9 Sep 2008) SLAC-I-730-0A21S-045-R000 3 of 3