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STCW II/2 SYLLABUS QUESTION BOOK

TheMasterMariner.com

Gerard JM Pollock
STCW II/2 QUESTION BOOK
Introduction

My name is Gerard Pollock and am a Master Mariner, Captain and Port State Control Officer.

I help Merchant Navy Deck Officers achieve excellence in their journey towards becoming
Master Mariners and successful ship’s Captains.

I do this by writing about the many topics under the STCW II/2 syllabus.

These can be found on my website: TheMasterMariner.com

I created this website because I was so profoundly affected by the sheer scope of knowledge
required to successfully pass my Master Mariner exams.

After achieving this Certificate of Competency I became passionate about passing on what I
had learnt on my professional journey.

It is the express mission of TheMasterMariner.com to help other maritime leaders


successfully climb the mountain towards mastering these risks and responsibilities as they
become successful ship’s Captains.

I do this by breaking the STCW A-II/2 syllabus into manageable topics and subtopics, and
these again in turn into single bite-sized questions and answers, each designed to explore an
important aspect of the subject matter.

***

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STCW II/2 QUESTION BOOK
How to use this STCW II/2 question book

As a student of the sea I am fascinated about the many aspects of the maritime conventions
and practices within the successful maritime operation.

This self-assessment tool is offered as a roadmap through the huge body of knowledge
required by the ship’s Captain.

I have broken the STCW syllabus into 16 chapters which I have set out below.

Each chapter us then further divided into several subtopics, and again each subtopic is
broken down into individual questions.

You can use the Self-Assessment tool to test your knowledge under the various aspects of the
STCW II/2 syllabus.

As the book is over 175 pages, just print out the section that you are planning to study and
use it to guide you as you study that subject.

I have placed sections after each individual question for the reader to make their own notes
as they progress through their studies.

*** *** *** *** ***

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STCW II/2 QUESTION BOOK
The STCW Master Mariner II/2 Syllabus

An overview of the various broad topics under the STCW A-II/2 Master Mariner syllabus is as follows:

STCW A-II/2 FUNCTION 1: Control of the maritime operation

1. Regulating the maritime sphere


2. Statutory certification and survey
3. International safety management
4. Measures to enhance ship security
5. Protection of the marine environment
6. STCW & Manila amendments
7. MLC2006
8. Load Line Convention
9. Safety of ship’s crew
10. Facilitating maritime trade

STCW A-II/2 FUNCTION 2: Safety of navigation

1. Plan a voyage and conduct safe navigation


2. Ship borne navigational systems & compasses
3. Collision prevention
4. Ice navigation
5. Tropical revolving storms
6. Response to navigational emergencies

STCW A-II/2 FUNCTION 3: Emergency preparedness

1. Functional requirements for fire-fighting appliances


2. Functional requirements for life-saving appliances
3. Functional requirements concerning GMDSS
4. Functional requirements for auxiliary power
5. Requirements concerning drills
6. Response to on board emergencies
7. Rendering assistance to vessels and aircraft in distress

STCW A-II/2 FUNCTION 4: Carriage of goods by sea

1. Chartering the vessel


2. Principles of marine insurance
3. Marine salvage and general average
4. Resolution of commercial disputes
5. Regulatory requirements for the safe carriage of cargo
6. Safe cargo operations
7. General cargo calculations
8. Carriage of dangerous cargoes and marine pollutants
9. Dangers associated with particular trades and cargoes

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The experienced ships officer will recognise the above contents list as deriving from the STCW
syllabus regulation A11/2. The prime difference between the convention and the list above is that I
have made preparations for on board emergencies a subject in its own right, whereas the STCW
syllabus merely categorises it as a subtopic under the control of on board operations.

*** *** *** *** ***

© Gerard JM Pollock
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STCW II/2 QUESTION BOOK
About the author

I first went to sea when I was 19 and was fortunate enough to be sponsored as a cadet by the
Conway Merchant Navy Trust.

Upon being awarded my Second Mate’s license, I was employed by BP where I was whisked
off on a gas carrier before ending up on a DP shuttle tanker off the windy Shetland Islands.

Then after a few years, a good friend required a First Officer on the superyacht that he was
employed on, and my career took off in a different direction.

I have been employed since then as Mate and then Master on the largest superyachts in the
industry.

As well as this I am a qualified Port State Control Officer in New Zealand.

Good luck on your journey.

Gerard

*** *** *** *** ***

© Gerard JM Pollock
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STCW II/2 QUESTION BOOK
Contents

Chapter 1: Regulating the maritime sphere .............................................................................10


1.1 UNCLOS III ......................................................................................................................10
1.2 IMO: the competent international organisation ............................................................14
1.3 IMO instruments ............................................................................................................19
Chapter 2: Statutory certification and verification ...................................................................21
2.1 Statutory certificates ......................................................................................................21
2.2 Harmonised system of survey and certification ............................................................. 24
2.3 Statutory documents on board ships .............................................................................27
Chapter 3: Policing the conventions .........................................................................................31
3.1 Port State control ...........................................................................................................31
3.2 New inspection regime...................................................................................................35
3.3 Concentrated inspection campaigns ..............................................................................36
3.4 Outline of a PSC inspection ............................................................................................37
3.5 Detention of ships ..........................................................................................................39
Chapter 4: SOLAS......................................................................................................................41
4.1 Overview of the convention chapters ............................................................................41
4.2 Codes incorporated into SOLAS......................................................................................42
Chapter 5: Management for the safe operation of ships .........................................................44
5.1 ISM .................................................................................................................................44
5.2 Safety management system ........................................................................................... 48
Chapter 6 Security of the vessel ...............................................................................................50
6.1 ISPS .................................................................................................................................50
6.2 ISPS security levels .........................................................................................................53
6.2 Preparing for an ISPS audit ............................................................................................. 56
Chapter 7: STCW and the Manila Amendments .......................................................................57
7.1 STCW 78/95 ....................................................................................................................57
7.2 2010 Manila amendments ............................................................................................. 59
Chapter 8: The fourth pillar of maritime legislation .................................................................63
8.1 MLC2006 ........................................................................................................................ 63
8.2 The five titles under MLC ...............................................................................................65
8.3 Seafarer employment agreements .................................................................................67
Chapter 9: Load Lines and intact stability.................................................................................68
9.1 The Load Line Convention .............................................................................................. 68
9.2 Intact stability .................................................................................................................73
9.3 The GZ curve...................................................................................................................75
Chapter 10: Protecting the marine environment .....................................................................77
10.1 Marpol Annex I-A..........................................................................................................77
10.2 Marpol Annex I-B..........................................................................................................81
10.4 Marpol Annex II ............................................................................................................84
10.5 Marpol Annex III ...........................................................................................................87
10.6 Marpol Annex IV ...........................................................................................................89
10.7 Marpol Annex V ............................................................................................................91
10.8 Marpol Annex VI ...........................................................................................................94
10.9 Ballast water management .......................................................................................... 99
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Chapter 11: Facilitating maritime trade\ ................................................................................103
11.1 Facilitation convention ...............................................................................................103
11.2 Stowaways ..................................................................................................................107
11.3 International health regulations 2005 (IHR2005) .......................................................110
Chapter 12: The Role of the Master .......................................................................................112
12.1 The role of Master ......................................................................................................112
12.2 Signing on crew ..........................................................................................................114
12.3 Assuming command of the vessel ..............................................................................116
12.4 Master’s standing orders............................................................................................118
12.5 MN code of conduct ...................................................................................................120
Chapter 13: Medical care on ships .........................................................................................123
13.1 Taking a history and requesting RMA .........................................................................123
13.2 Death on board the ship.............................................................................................127
13.3 Preparations for a crew medevac...............................................................................128
Chapter 14: Safety of navigation ............................................................................................129
14.1 Navigational management .........................................................................................129
14.2 Aids to navigation .......................................................................................................131
14.3 Care of the magnetic compass ...................................................................................138
Chapter 15: Emergency preparedness ...................................................................................140
15.1 IMO Contingency planning requirements ..................................................................141
15.2 On board fire and ship damage emergencies.............................................................143
15.3 Damaged vessel emergency .......................................................................................146
15.4 Navigational emergency .............................................................................................148
15.5 Cargo-related emergency ...........................................................................................150
15.6 Abandoning ship emergencies ...................................................................................152
15.7 Crew-related emergencies .........................................................................................154
15.8 Rendering assistance to vessels in distress ................................................................156
Chapter 16. Carriage of cargo ................................................................................................159
16.1 Carriage of goods by sea ............................................................................................159
16.2 Cargo safety................................................................................................................164
16.3 Carriage of dangerous goods by sea ..........................................................................169

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STCW II/2 QUESTION BOOK

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STCW II/2 QUESTION BOOK
Chapter 1: Regulating the maritime sphere

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the foundations of the international regimes, instruments
and stakeholders that regulate the maritime sphere.

In the following sections, I have listed questions on the fundamental features of the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea, and the Convention on the International Maritime Organisation as
they apply to the ship’s Master.

In Section 1.1 we will look at the different sea areas created under UNCLOS, as well as how UNCLOS
applies directly to the ship’s Master.

In Section 1.2 we will look at questions designed to interrogate the structures, purposes and
responsibilities of the various bodies and committees that comprise the IMO.

In Section 1.3 the instruments by which the IMO exercises its various functions concerning maritime
safety and protection of the marine environment will be questioned.

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1.1 UNCLOS III

What is UNCLOS III?

***

Why was UNCLOS introduced?

***

To whom does UNCLOS primarily apply?

***
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What is contained in the convention text?

***

List the sea areas provided for in UNCLOS

***

What are the internal waters?

***

What are territorial waters?

***

What is the contiguous zone (CZ)?

***

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What is the exclusive economic zone (EEZ)?

***

What is the continental shelf?

***

What are archipelagic waters?

***

What is ‘innocent passage’?

***

What is the right of ‘hot pursuit’, and when does it cease?

***

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How is UNCLOS policed?

*** *** *** *** ***

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1.2 IMO: the competent international organisation

What is the IMO?

***

When and why was IMO formed?

***

Which instrument charges the IMO to perform its functions?

***

Privide an outline the structure of IMO

***

What is the function of the Assembly?

***

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What is function of the Council?

***

What is the function of the Secretariat?

***

What are the main Committees of IMO?

***

What are the functions of the MSC?

***

What is the function of the MEPC?

***

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What are sub-committees and what do they do?

***

What is the function of the Facilitation Committee?

***

What is the function of the Technical Committee?

***

What is the function of the Legal Committee?

***

How are IMO conventions drafted?

***

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How do maritime conventions come into effect?

***

How can a State express its consent to a convention?

***

What does signature of the convention document mean?

***

What is signature subject to ratification, acceptance or approval?

***

What is tacit acceptance and why was it introduced?

***

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Do any other organisations regulate the maritime sphere?

*** *** *** *** ***

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1.3 IMO instruments

What are the main instruments of the IMO?

***

What is an IMO convention?

***

What are protocols? Provide an example.

***

What are recommendations?

***

What are resolutions?

***

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What are codes and guidelines?

***

Outline some of the principle conventions of the IMO

***

Which other IMO conventions relate to the prevention of marine pollution?

*** *** *** *** ***

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Chapter 2: Statutory certification and verification

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the requirements for the harmonised system of statutory
survey, certification and documentation of ships.

In Section 2.1 we will look at the different statutory certificates required to be carried on ships.

In Section 2.2 we will look at the harmonised system of survey and certification.

In Section 2.3 we will explore the various documents required on ship.

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2.1 Statutory certificates

What are valid statutory certificates?

***

What are the privileges for a vessel of holding a statutory certificate?

***

List the statutory certificates required on board ships under each of the following:

SOLAS I

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SOLAS V

SOLAS VI

SOLAS VII

SOLAS IX

SOLAS X

SOLAS XI-2

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MARPOL I

MARPOL II & III

MARPOL IV

MARPOL VI

Other conventions

*** *** *** *** ***

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2.2 Harmonised system of survey and certification

What is the Harmonized System of Survey and Certification, and why was it introduced (HSSC)?

***

Outline the survey regime under HSSC

***

Which Conventions were primarily affected by the introduction of the HSSC?

***

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How are the ship’s statutory certificates surveyed according to the HSSC?

Use the table below to indicate the the surveys for each certificate.

Certificate Validity Initial Ann. Inter. Period Renew


1 SAFCON
2 SAFEQ
3 SAFRAD
4 PSSC
5 MSMD
6 GRAIN
7 DGDOC
8 LIQGAS
9 DGCHEM
10 NOXLIQ
11 SMC
12 DOC
13 ISSC
14 REG
15 CLASS
16 IOPPC
17 ISPPC
18 IAPPC
19 IEEC
20 IBWMC
21 LOADLINE
22 ITC
23 MLC
24 BUNKER CLC
25 P&I COE
26 ANTIFOUL

***

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Outline the main points of the Harmonised System of Survey and Certification

***

Will a copy of statutory certificates suffice for inspection on board the ship?

***

What are the requirements for eCertificates?

*** *** *** *** ***

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2.3 Statutory documents on board ships

What publications are required to be carried on board ships?

***

Which statutory documents are required to be carried on board ships under each of the following?

SOLAS II-1

SOLAS II-2

SOLAS III

SOLAS IV

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SOLAS V

SOLAS VI

SOLAS VII

SOLAS VIII

SOLAS IX

SOLAS XI-2

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SOLAS XI-2

SOLAS XII

MARPOL ANNEX I

MARPOL ANNEX II

MARPOL ANNEX V

MARPOL ANNEX VI

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BWMC

*** *** *** *** ***

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Chapter 3: Policing the conventions

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the various aspects of MOUs of port State, the new
inspection regime and the main causes of ship detentions under port State control.

In Section 3.1 we will look at the individual aspects of port State control.

In Section 3.2 we will look at the New Inspection Regime.

In Section 3.3 we will explore the more recent concentrated inspection campaigns.

In Section 3.4 we will look at an actual inspection protocol on board a ship.

In Section 3.5 we will explore the various reasons that ships can be detained under port State control.

*** *** *** *** ***

3.1 Port State control

Which IMO instruments sets out the protocols and procedures for Port State Control?

***

To which ships does Port State Control apply?

***

What is the doctrine of ‘no more favourable treatment’ and what is its purpose?

***

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Who can undertake Port State Control inspections?

***

What is the purpose of Port State Control inspection?

***

What are ‘substandard ships’?

***

Outline the inspection regime under Port State Control

***

What is an initial inspection?

***

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What is a ‘more-detailed inspection’?

***

What is a ‘follow-up inspection’?

***

What are ‘clear grounds’?

***

What are the possible outcomes from a port state control inspection?

***

What is a deficiency?

***

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What is a ‘stoppage of an operation’?

*** *** *** *** ***

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3.2 New inspection regime

What are memorandums of understanding?

***

How are vessels selected for routine initial inspections?

***

What is the new inspection regime and what are the ship risk profiles?

***

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3.3 Concentrated inspection campaigns

What are concentrated inspection campaigns. List some of the most recent ones?

***

Do the conventions provide any limits on the conduct of a port State control?

***

Explain the right of appeal against port State control outcomes?

***

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3.4 Outline of a PSC inspection

Ships office checks include:

Bridge checks include:

LSA checks include:

Accommodation checks include:

External decks inspection include:

Internal space checks include:

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Technical spaces checks include:

*** *** *** *** ***

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3.5 Detention of ships

What is detention? How is a vessel detained?

***

What are the most common causes of detention?

The areas under the SOLAS Convention that can lead to a detention are as follows:

Detainable deficiencies under the MARPOL include the following:

Detainable deficiencies under the Load Line Convention include the following:

Detainable deficiencies under STCW include the following:

***

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What factors are taken into account in the decision to detain a ship?

*** *** *** *** ***

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Chapter 4: SOLAS

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the structure and contents of International Convention for
the Safety of Life at Sea.

In Section 4.1 we will look at the structure and contents of the various SOLAS chapters.

In Section 4.2 we will look at the Codes incorporated by reference into the various SOLAS chapter.

*** *** *** *** ***

4.1 Overview of the convention chapters

Provide an outline of the history of SOLAS

***

Provide an outline of the SOLAS Chapters

***

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4.2 Codes incorporated into SOLAS

What is the purpose of the various codes incorporated into SOLAS?

***

Which codes are incorporated into the SOLAS Convention?

The technical codes and related instruments incorporated by reference under the various chapters of
the SOLAS Convention include:

Codes incorporated into SOLAS II/1

Codes incorporated into SOLAS II/2 include:

Codes incorporated into SOLAS III

SOLAS IV incorporates and makes mandatory the GMDSS system.

Codes incorporated into SOLAS VI include:

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Codes incorporated into SOLAS VII include:

Codes incorporated into SOLAS IX include:

Codes incorporated into SOLAS X include:

Codes incorporated into SOLAS XI-1 include:

Codes incorporated into SOLAS XI-2 include:

*** *** ** *** ***

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Chapter 5: Management for the safe operation of ships

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the various aspects of the SOLAS Chapter IX, and the
International Code for the Safe Management of Ships and Prevention of Pollution.

In Section 5.1 we will look at the individual aspects of ISM.

In Section 5.2 we will look at the components of the Safety Management System.

*** *** *** *** ***

5.1 ISM

Which IMO instruments mandate ISM

***

List the vessels types to which the ISM Code applies

***

Outline the main elements of the ISM Code?

The ISM Code consists of two parts.

Part A contains 12 elements that pertain to the implementation of the Code. The 12 elements are:

Part B of the Code pertains to Certification and Verification of compliance with the Code and includes:

***

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Define the objectives and principles of the ISM Code?

***

Outline the verification schedule under the ISM Code?

***

What is an observation? Give an example.

***

What is a non-conformity? Give an example.

***

What is a major non-conformity? Give an example.

***

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Outline the certification required under ISM? What periods of validity do these certificates have?

***

Explain the different purposes and verification of the SMC and DOC?

***

List the information that would be found on both a DoC and SMC?

The following would be found on a DoC:

The following would be found on a SMC:

***

State the purpose of interim certification under ISM, and when and how they would be issued?

***

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List the Company’s responsibilities under ISM?

***

How do IMO numbers apply to Companies?

***

What is the Designated Person Ashore? What are their responsibilities of the under ISM?

***

Outline the Master’s responsibilities under ISM

***

Outline the extent of the Master’s authority under ISM

*** *** *** *** ***

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5.2 Safety management system

Describe how the Company should verify the proper operation of the SMS

***

Explain when and how the Master would review the SMS

***

Describe how the Master would ensure that the SMS is functioning correctly on board the vessel?

***

Describe how the Master would implement the Environmental Protection Policy

***

Describe how the Master could develop a safety culture an on board the vessel?

***

Explain how the SMC would be affected, if a vessel was laid up for 4 months and the crew stood
down. State what subsequent actions would be required to remedy the situation.

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***

How would you prepare for an ISM audit?

*** *** *** *** ***

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Chapter 6 Security of the vessel

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the various security related requirements established by the
ISPS Code.

In Section 6.1 we will explore at the individual aspects of ISPS.

In Section 6.2 we will look at the three security levels in detail.

In Section 6.3 we will look at the preparations for an ISPS audit.

6.1 ISPS

Which instrument mandates the ISPS Code?

***

To which ships does the ISPS Code apply?

***

How are non-party ships affected by the ISPS Code?

***

How are ships below convention size affected by the ISPS Code?

***

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Describe in outline the structure of the ISPS Code

***

What are the objectives of the ISPS Code?

The ISPS Code sets out 5 objectives. These are to:

In order to achieve these stated objectives, the ISPS Code establishes a number of functional
requirements, including:

***

What are the responsibilities of the Company under the ISPS Code?

***

What are the responsibilities of the Ship Security Officer (SSO)?

***

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What are the responsibilities of the Company Security Officer (CSO)?

***

What is a Port Facility Security Officer (PFSO)?

*** *** *** *** ***

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6.2 ISPS security levels

What are the security levels under the ISPS?

***

What measures are required under ISPS Security Level 1?

All ships at SL1 are therefore required ensure that the following actions are undertaken:

***

Monitoring security of the ship under SL1

***

Lighting of the ship at SL1

Monitoring restricted areas at SL1

Monitoring cargo operations at SL1include:


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Checking of cargo can be accomplished by the following means:

***

What security measures are required under ISPS Security Level 2?

ISPS Security Level 2 is the level at which additional protection measures must be implemented so as
to defend against a heightened risk of a security related incident. These controls can include:

Monitoring the ship at SL2 includes:

Cargo handling at SL2 includes:

Detailed checking of cargo can be accomplished by the following means:

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Additional security measures under SL2 include:

***

What security measures are required under ISPS Security Level 3?

Security level 3 constitutes an exceptional measure that applies only when there is credible
information that a security incident is probable. Security level 3 measures include:

Additional measures under security Level 3 include:

*** *** *** *** ***

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6.3 Preparing for an ISPS audit

How would you prepare for an ISPS audit?

*** *** *** *** ***

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Chapter 7: STCW and the Manila Amendments

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the requirements for the standards of training and
watchkeeping within the STCW Convention as modified by the Manila Amendments as they apply to
the ship’s Master.

In Section 7.1 we will look at the structure and outline of the STCW Convention.

In Section 7.2 we will look at the many requirements contained with the Manila amendments.

*** *** *** *** ***

7.1 STCW 78/95

What is the STCW convention?

***

To whom does STCW apply?

***

Outline the structure of the STCW watchkeeping convention and code

***

What are the chapters of the STCW code, and what subjects do each cover?

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***

Does STCW cover the safe manning levels?

*** *** *** *** ***

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7.2 2010 Manila amendments

What are the Manila Amendments, (MA)?

***

Why were the Manila Amendments introduced?

***

Outline the changes to the STCW Convention and Code introduced by the Manila Amendments

***

When did the Manila Amendments come into effect?

***

What changes to certificates were introduced under the MA?

***

What measures were introduced to prevent fraudulent practices regarding the issuing of CoCs?

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***

What are the revised requirements on hours of work and rest?

***

What exceptions are permitted to the hours of rest requirements?

***

What are the amended requirements for the prevention of alcohol abuse on board ships?

***

Outline the competency requirements for ‘ratings forming part of a navigational watch’?

***

Outline the competency requirements for ‘ratings forming part of engineering watch’.

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***

What are the requirements for marine environmental awareness training?

***

What are the amended requirements for training in leadership and teamwork?

***

What are the amended requirements for security training, and anti-piracy training?

***

Outline the training requirements for personnel serving on board ships operating in polar waters?

***

What are the requirements regarding watch schedules?

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***

What are the requirements regarding records of daily hours of rest?

***

How are hours of rest requirements affected in the event of an emergency?

***

What is ‘compensatory rest’?

***

What are the new requirements for refresher training for short safety courses?

*** *** *** *** ***

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Chapter 8: The fourth pillar of maritime legislation

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the foundations of the fourth pillar of maritime legislation,
the Maritime Labour Convention.

In Section 8.1 we will look at the structure and contents of the convention.

In Section 8.2 we will look at the five titles under the convention.

In Section 8.3 we will explore the requirements for seafarer employment agreements.

*** *** *** *** ***

8.1 MLC2006

What is MLC2006?

***

Why has MLC been called the ‘fourth pillar’ of maritime regulation?

***

Where did MLC206 come from?

***

Why was MLC introduced if these principles were already contained in conventions?

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***

What were the basic aims of the MLC2006?

***

When did MLC2006 come into effect?

***

To whom does the Maritime Labour Convention 2006?

***

Provide an outline of the MLC2006

*** *** *** *** ***

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8.2 The five titles under MLC

What are the 5 titles of the MLC2006?

***

Outline the main requirements set out under Title 1

***

Outline the main requirements set out under Title 2

***

Outline the main requirements set out under Title 3

***

Outline the main requirements set out under Title 4

***

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Outline some of the main requirements set out under Title 5

*** *** *** *** ***

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8.3 Seafarer employment agreements

Outline the minimum information required to be included on Seafarer Employment Agreements.

The SEA can be divided in three principle parts.

PART 1 contains details that are required in ALL agreements. These include:

PART 2 contains the provision to be included where the seafarer is an EMPLOYEE. These include:

PART 3 contains provision to be included where seafarer is NOT an employee. These are

*** *** *** *** ***

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Chapter 9: Load Lines and intact stability

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the fundamental requirements of the Load Line convention
and Intact Stability Code.

In Section 9.1 we will look at the principles, structure and requirements of the Load Line convention.

In Section 9.2 we will explore the various aspects of intact stability of ships.

In Section 9.3 we will investigate the GZ curve and requirements for intact stability.

*** *** *** *** ***

9.1 The Load Line Convention

What are the principles of the International Convention on Load Lines, 1966 (hereafter: LL66/88)?

***

Provide an outline the Load Line Convention 1966/88

***

To which ships does the Load Line Convention apply?

***

To which ships does the Load Line Convention not apply?

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***

Outline the certification and verification schedule under the LL 66/88.

***

What is the period of validity of an International Load Line Convention?

***

Under which circumstances can an International Load Line Certificate cease to be valid?

***

List and provide definitions of some key terms of the LL66/88

Block Coefficient

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Freeboard

Freeboard deck

Moulded depth

Load Line mark

Superstructure

Weathertight

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Watertight

Deck line

***

What does LL 66/88 say about submersion of the load line?

***

Describe how the applicable load line should be marked?

***

Can a vessel be assigned more than one Load Line?

***

What are the Conditions of Assignment?

When a minimum freeboard has been calculated for a ship, certain parameters and assumptions
concerning water-tightness are made. These parameters are recorded in a supplement to the Load

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Line Certificate called and cover the following broad principle topics:

The Record of the Conditions of Assignment include specific details and measurements covering the
following structural areas:

*** *** *** *** ***

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9.2 Intact stability

What is stability?

***

Which external forces can cause a ship to heel?

***

What is Archimedes Principle?

***

What is the initial metacentre (M)?

***

How is the position of M on the ship defined?

***

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What is the metacentric height (GM)?

***

How does GM indicate the state of a vessel’s stability?

***

What is the righting arm?

***

What are stiff and tender conditions?

***

What is free surface affect?

*** *** *** *** ***

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9.3 The GZ curve

How is GZ calculated?

***

How does GZ change with an increase in heel?

***

What information can found from interpreting the GZ curve?

***

Describe the GZ curve of a vessel with negative initial stability

***

How would an angle of loll be rectified?

***

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What is a list?

***

What are the intact stability criteria?

*** *** *** *** ***

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Chapter 10: Protecting the marine environment

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the foundations of the protection of the marine
environment.

In Sections 10.1 to 10.7 we will investigate the many requirements of the 6 Marpol Annexes as they
apply to the ship’s Master.

In Section 10.8 we will look at the Ballast Water Management Convention.

*** *** *** *** ***

10.1 Marpol Annex I-A

What is Annex I and what subjects, and which ship types does it cover?

***

What is ‘oil’ within the meaning of Annex I?

***

What statutory certificates are required under Marpol Annex I?

***

Outline some of the requirements contained in Annex I

The regulations contained in annex I can be divided into the requirements covering two broad
subjects:

1. Control of operational discharge of oil from the machinery spaces of all ships, and
2. Control of operational discharge of oil from the cargo areas of oil tankers.

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Regulations covering the machinery spaces of all ships include the following:

Regulations covering the operational discharge of oil from the cargo areas of oil tankers include:

***

What are the requirements for the control of operational discharge of oil from machinery spaces of all
ships outside special areas?

***

What are the requirements for the control of operational discharge of oil within special areas?

***

When is the vessel considered to be ‘en route’?

***

What are the Special Areas under MARPOL Annex I

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Special areas are:

For the purposes of Annex I, the 10 special areas are defined as:

***

What are the requirements for discharges in Antarctic waters?

***

What are the requirements with respect to oil filtering equipment?

***

What operations are required to be recorded in the Oil Record Book, Part I ‘Machinery Space
Operations’ (ORB1)

***

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Which other events should be recorded within the ORB1?

***

Where should the ORB1 be kept?

***

For how long should historic ORB1 records be retained on board the ship?

*** *** *** *** ***

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10.2 Marpol Annex I-B

***

What are the requirements for discharges in special areas?

***

What are the requirements with respect to the Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control System (ODMC)
on board oil tankers?

***

How long should the ODMC records be retained on board for verification?

***

What is required in the event of an ODMC system failure?

***

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What are the requirements for Oil Record Book, Part II, (Cargo/Ballast Operations), (ORB2)?

***

What information sis required to be recorded in the ORB Part II?

The Oil Record Book Part II shall be completed on each occasion that any of the following
cargo/ballast operations take place.

For cargo operations:

For ballasting operations:

***

How should record entries in the ORB2 be made?

***

How and where shall the ORB2 be stored?

***

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What are the requirements with respect to the slop tanks?

***

What are the requirements with respect to the bottom protection of pump-rooms?

***

What are the requirements with respect to the Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP)?

Every oil tanker of 150gt and above and every ship other than an oil tanker of 400gt and above shall
carry on board a shipboard oil pollution emergency plan approved by the Administration.

The plan shall consist at least of:

***

In addition to the SOPEP, what other information is required to be made available for oil tankers?

All oil tankers of 5,000 tons deadweight or more shall have prompt access to a:

*** *** *** *** ***

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10.3 Marpol Annex II

What subject does Marpol Annex II deal with?

Marpol Annex II contains regulations for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substances (NLS) in
bulk. It does this by incorporating the following requirements:

***

To which types of ships does Annex II apply?

***

What is an NLS tanker?

***

What codes are incorporated by reference by Annex II?

What certificate is required under Annex II?

***
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How are noxious liquid cargos categorised?

NLS are divided into four categories as follows:

***

What are the discharge standards for the above categories of NLS?

Where discharges of NLS under the above categories are permitted then the following standards shall
apply:

***

What are the requirements with respect to the Procedures and Arrangements Manual?

***

What are the requirements with respect to the Cargo Record Book?

***

What are the requirements for the Shipboard marine pollution emergency plan?

All ships above 150GT certified to carry NLS shall carry a SMPEP approved by Flag. These plans shall
include as a minimum:

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*** *** *** *** ***

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10.4 Marpol Annex III

What does Annex III deal with?

***

To which ships does Annex III apply?

***

How does Annex III deal with harmful substances?

***

How shall harmful substances be properly stowed?

***

How shall packaging of harmful substances be marked?

***

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How shall empty packaging used previously for the carriage of harmful substances be treated?

***

What documentations is required under Annex III?

***

Are there any exceptions to this regulations of Annex III?

*** *** *** *** ***

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10.5 Marpol Annex IV

What is the purpose of Marpol Annex IV?

***

To which type of ships does Annex IV apply?

***

What certificate is issued under annex IV?

***

Which surveys are required under Annex IV?

***

Which types of sewage systems are permitted under Annex IV?

***

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What are the requirements for the discharge of sewage?

*** *** *** *** ***

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10.6 Marpol Annex V

What is the purpose of Marpol Annex V?

***

To which ships does Marpol V apply?

***

What does Marpol V say about garbage pollution?

***

What exceptions are there from this general prohibition?

***

How is garbage defined under Marpol V?

Garbage is defined as all types of food, domestic and operational wastes generated during the normal
operation of the ship and liable to be disposed of continuously or periodically. It includes the
following categories of waste:

***

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What are the Special Areas under Marpol V?

For the purposes of Annex V, Special Areas are sea areas where for recognised technical reasons
relating to their oceanographic and ecological conditions require special conditions imposed on the
discharge of garbage. They include:

***

What are the requirements for discharge of garbage outside of special areas?

Discharge shall only be made en route as far from land as practicable but in any case not less than:

***

What are the requirements for discharge of garbage within special areas?

Discharge shall only be made while the vessel is proceeding en route as follows:

***

What does en route mean?

***

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What are the requirements for garbage from fixed/floating platforms?

***

What are the requirements for garbage placards?

***

What are the requirements for garbage management plans?

***

What are the requirements for Garbage Record Books?

Garbage record books are required to be carried by :

***

What entries are required to be made in the Garbage Record Book?

Entries shall include all instances when garbage is:

*** *** *** *** ***

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10.7 Marpol Annex VI

What is the purpose of Marpol Annex VI?

***

To which ships does Annex VI apply?

***

Are there any exceptions or exemptions under Annex VI?

The requirements of Annex VI do not apply under the following circumstances:

***

To which ships do the survey requirements of Annex VI apply?

***

What is the survey regime under Annex VI?

***

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Which certificates are issued under Annex VI?

***

What are the Annex VI requirements for ozone depleting substances (ODS)?

***

What entries shall be recorded in the ODS Record Book?

Entries shall be made in terms of mass in kilograms of ODS and shall include each instance of the
following:

***

What are the Annex VI requirements for the control of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emissions?

***

What are the Annex VI requirements for the control of Sulphur Oxides (SOx) and emissions of
particulate matter?

***

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What are Emission Control Areas (ECAs)?

***

Which areas are presently designated as ECAs?

The following areas are currently designated as ECAs:

***

What are the SOx requirements for ECAs?

***

What are the Annex VI requirements for the control of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)?

***

What are the requirements for VOC Management Plan?

***

What are the Annex VI requirements for shipboard incinerators?

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The following substances are prohibited from shipboard incineration:

***

What are the requirements for energy efficiency of ships under Annex VI?

***

What is the purpose of the attained EEDI?

***

What is the purpose of the SEEMP?

***

What is the purpose of the IEEC?

***

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What are the requirements for the recording and reporting of fuel consumption data?

*** *** *** *** ***

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10.8 Ballast water management

When did the Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC) enter into force?

***

What is the purpose of the Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC)?

***

To which ships do the various requirements of the BWMC apply?

***

Are there any ships which are not covered by the BWMC?

The BWMC does not apply to:

***

Are there any exceptions to the provisions of the IBWMC?

The requirements of the BWMC shall not apply to ballast water operations under the following
circumstances:

***

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How are the provisions of the IBWMC laid out?

The relevant provisions of the IBWMC is included within an Annex to the Contention, which is itself
comprised of 5 sections (A to E) and two sub-annexes. These are:

***

Provide an outline of the management and control requirements of the IBWMC

The IBWMC establishes the following requirements:

***

What are the requirements for the Ballast Water Management Plan (BWMP)?

Each ship shall carry a ship-specific BWMP, written in the working language of the ship and approved
by the flag State, containing the following:

***

What are the minimum requirement for the Ballast Water Record Book (BWRB)?

***

What are the Ballast Water discharge requirements for ships?

***
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What is the D1 standard for ballast water exchange?

D1 is a ballast water exchange standard which requires a dilution efficiency of not less than 95%
volumetric exchange. There are three practical methods that meet this requirement. These are:

***

Are there any circumstances under which ships are not required to comply with the various D1
standard?

The Convention states that Masters shall not be required to deviate from its intended voyage, or
delay the voyage, in order to comply.

Additionally, Masters may choose that undertaking the exchange operation under the following
situations:

***

What is the D2 standard?

***

What are viable organisms?

***

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What certification is required under IBWMC?

***

What is a Statement of Compliance with respect to BWMC?

***

What is the survey regime under the IBWMC?

*** *** *** *** ***

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Chapter 11: Facilitating maritime trade

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the various international requirements that facilitate
efficient maritime trade.

In Section 11.1 we will look at the different documentary requirements under the FAL convention.

In Section 11.2 we will look at questions concerning the care of stowaways on board ships.

In Section 11.3 we will explore the requirements of the international health regulations.

*** *** *** *** ***

11.1 Facilitation convention

What is the purpose of the Facilitation Convention (FAL65)?

***

What are the benefits of FAL to the ship’s Master?

The practical benefits of FAL to the ship’s Master are:

***

Provide and outline the forms required by the FAL Convention

There are 7 forms developed under FAL are as follows:

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Additionally, the following forms can be required during entry into port:

***

How many copies of each form should be made available on arrival and departure?

In respect of a ship’s arrival in port, FAL stipulates that public authorities shall not require more than
the following number of documents to be printed and signed.

On arrival:

On departure:

***

What information is contained in the General Declaration?

The General Declaration under FAL should contain following data:

***

What information is contained in the Cargo Declaration?

Under FAL, the Cargo Declaration on arrival and on departure should contain the following data.

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On arriving ships:

On departing ships:

***

What information should be included in the Crew List?

The Crew List, under FAL, should contain the following data:

***

What information should be contained in the Passenger List?

The Passenger List, should contain the following data:

***

What information should be contained within the Dangerous Goods Manifest?

The Dangerous Goods Manifest should contain the following information:

***

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How should errors if discovered in the documentation be handled according to FAL1965?

*** *** *** *** ***

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11.2 Stowaways

Which international instruments deal with the treatment of stowaways on board ships.

The care and treatment of stowaways are set out in the following instrument:

***

Who is defined as a ‘stowaway’ under FAL33?

Under FAL33, a stowaway is defined as ‘

***

What are the principles set out in FAL with respect to the prevention stowaway incidents at sea?

Coastal, port and flag state authorities, ship owners, Companies and masters shall co-operate fully so
as to:

How should stowaways be treated when on board the vessel?

***

What measures shall the Master take to provide for the humanitarian treatment of the stowaway?

Flag States shall require that Masters of ships flying their flag, take appropriate measures to ensure
the following minimum standards.

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***

Can stowaways be put to work on board ships?

***

What actions should the Master take when gathering information from the stowaway?

On discovery of a stowaway, the ship’s masters to make every effort to establish the following:

***

From which bodies can the Master seek assistance in gathering information about the stowaway?

The Master should seek assistance from both the flag State of the ship as well as the port States of
the first port on the passage plan, who shall assist and coordinate the appropriate public authority so
as to:

***

Should the vessel deviate from its intended destination, so at to land the stowaway as soon as
possible?

Under FAL33, Administrations and public authorities shall recommend that Masters do not deviate
from the planned voyage to seek the disembarkation of stowaways, unless:

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***

How should stowaways be repatriated?

*** *** *** *** ***

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11.3 International health regulations 2005 (IHR2005)

What is the purpose of the IHR2005?

***

Which certificate is required under IHR2005?

IHR2005 required one of either two new certificates to be carried onboard ships. These are the

***

Which must the Master provide under IHR2005?

***

Which questions are set out in the WHO model MDH?

The WHO model MDH contains 9 yes/no ‘health questions,’ which must be completed. These are:

***

What is free pratique?

***

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What are ‘clear grounds’ on board that that the Master should assume involve a hazard to public
health?

If a crew member is observed with any of the following signs and symptoms, then such a situation
should be considered grounds for suspecting the existence of a disease of an infectious nature on
board the vessel.

Where a fever is present:

With or without fever present:

*** *** *** *** ***

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Chapter 12: The Role of the Master

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the role of the Master as the manager of the ship and her
crew.

In Section 12.1 we will look at the role of the Master.

In Section 12.2 we will look at questions concerning the signing crew onto the ship.

In Section 12.3 we will explore the Master’s responsibilities on assuming command of the ship.

In Section 12.4 we will look at questions concerning the Master’s standing orders.

In Section 12.5 we will explore the Merchant Navy Code of Conduct.

*** *** *** *** *** ***

12.1 The role of Master

Outline in general terms the role of the Master

The role is deep in that the knowledge required to successfully manage all the above items require a
high level of expertise.

Due to his technical expertise and his long experience as a seaman the Master is required to provide
leadership on board across an array of disciplines. From a higher perspective, the role of the Master is
to provide leadership under the following broad headings:

Planning:

Organising:

Implementing:

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Controlling:

Monitioring:

Evaluating:

***

Outline in general terms the responsibilities of the Master

The Master is ultimately responsible for safe operation of the vessel and all that that entails. As a
minimum, this will include the following:

*** *** *** *** ***

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12.2 Signing on crew

Describe how the Master would find guidance on signing on new crew members

***

Briefly outline which of the international maritime Conventions are directly relevant to the Master
when signing on new crew members

***

Outline the checks that the Master should undertake when signing on crew

***

Outline the checks that would be made when signing on an Able Bodied Seaman (AB)

When signing on Abs, in addition to the above, the Master will ensure that the following items are
available, correct and valid:

***

Outline the checks that would be made when signing on an OOW / EOOW

The Master will check the veracity and validity of the following items when signing on an
OOW/EOOW:

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***

How would the Master ensure that the new joiner is thoroughly familiarized with the vessel prior to
permitting them to perform their role?

*** *** *** *** ***

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12.3 Assuming command of the vessel

Describe the actions of the Master upon joining a new vessel

From the dock the Master will inspect the following items:

At the gangway:

On deck:

In the accommodation:

A handover of the contents of the ship’s safe:

With respect to the crew:

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On the Bridge:

With respect to ship handing:

In the cargo control room:

In the engine room:

*** *** *** *** ***

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12.4 Master’s standing orders

What are the Master’s Standing Orders and what are their purpose?

***

Which other instructions supplement the Master’s Standing Orders?

***

What if a conflict is observed between the Master’s Standing Orders and the requirements of the
Company, Flag, or port State?

***

What else would the Master include in his Standing Orders?

With respect to general navigation duties

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With respect to characteristics, constraints and limitations on the use of electronic navigation aids:

With respect to weather the prudent Master would ensure that the officers:

*** *** *** *** ***

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12.5 MN code of conduct

What is the Merchant Navy Code of Conduct (the Code), why was it created, and to whom does it
apply?

***

Which subjects are covered by the Code?

The Code covers the following items:

***

Under the Code, what conduct is required in emergency situations?

***

What conduct is required in situations other than emergencies?

***

List the breaches of discipline which according to the Code constitute Gross Misconduct

Examples of gross misconduct include:

***

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Outline the possible sanctions for a charge of Gross Misconduct?

***

List the behaviours that constitute less serious misconduct

***

Outline the possible sanctions for less serious misconduct

***

Outline which of the above sanctions can be imposed by the various ranks on board?

The permissible sanctions that may be imposed to discipline a crew member are established
according to the experience and seniority of the rank of the discipliner. For example:

***

How are these sanctions to be handled on board?

For informal warnings:

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Where formal actions are required:

Where a disciplinary hearing is considered necessary, so as to ensure that the process is sound and
fair, the seafarer shall be given the opportunity to:

*** *** *** *** ***

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Chapter 13: Medical care on ships

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the provision of medical care on board ships.

In Section 13.1 we will look at the different considerations when taking a patient history and radio
medical advice.

In Section 13.2 we will look at the procedures following the death of persons on board ships.

In Section 13.3 we will explore the requirements for medevacing crew from the ship.

*** *** *** *** ***

13.1 Taking a history and requesting RMA

What are the initial steps when a crewmember presents with a medical condition?

When a crewmember first presents with a medical ailment, the initial assessment shall comprise
three stages, which each must be completed in turn so as to effectively identify the most likely
condition:

***

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How should a patient history be taken and recorded?

Using the following pro-forma describe what points you would consider under each section:

Subject Considerations during assessment


1. Patient details

2. Recent occupational
history

3. Background to the
current ailment

4. Signs & symptoms

5. Medication

6. Patient’s and
families’ medical
history
7. Allergies

8. Treatment given

9. Lifestyle factors

***

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How should the bodily systems be assessed?

Using the following pro-forma describe what points you would consider under each section:

Bodily system Presenting signs and symptoms of each system


1. General impressions

2. Assessing pain levels

3. Cardiovascular
assessment

4. Respiratory
assessment

5. Assessment of head
and neck

6. Gastrointestinal
assessment

7. Genito-Urinary
assessment

8. Neuromuscular
system

***

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How should a physical assessment be conducted?

Using the following pro-forma describe what points you would consider under each section:

Assessment area Considerations


1. Initial impressions of
patient and their
behavior
2. Level of
consciousness

3. Medical survey

4. Skin appearance

5. Vital signs

*** *** *** *** ***

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13.2 Death on board the ship

What is the Master’s first responsibility, when death has occurred on board the ship?

***

Where can the Master seek guidance in this?

***

Outline the procedure to be implemented when a death has been confirmed on board

***

Outline the evidence to be recorded or collected in the event of a death onboard

***

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13.3 Preparations for a crew medevac

What considerations must the prudent Master take when preparing to evacuate a crew member from
the ship?

Once it has been decided that the crew member’s condition is sufficiently serious, and not a trivial
illness, the Master must make preparations as follows:

***

How would the Master prepare the deck for a helicopter evacuation?

The Master will take direction from the ship’s SMS procedure for helicopter operations, but the
following should be borne in mind:

*** *** *** *** ***

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Chapter 14: Safety of navigation

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the foundations of the safe navigation.

In Section 14.1 we will look at questions covering the safe management of the ship and navigation
team.

In Section 14.2 we will look at questions designed to explore the various principles of operation and
limitations of the aids to navigation.

In Section 14.3 we will explore the care of the magnetic compass.

*** *** *** *** ***

14.1 Navigational management

What are the standards required to ensure safe Bridge watchkeeping?

It is one of the Master’s chief responsibilities to ensure that watchkeepers maintain a safe
navigational watch all times. Principles that the Master shall promote include the following:

***

What items would the prudent Master include within his standing orders for watchkeeping?

Although the Master delegates the standing of a watch to the junior members of his bridge
team, the responsibility for maintaining a safe watch remains firmly with him. To ensure that
the watches standards are observed, he will issue standing orders to guide the watchkeepers.
These orders will vary from one Master to the next, but will include the following items:

***

What would be included in the Master’s standing orders for restricted visibility?

Due to the increased risk of collision created by restricted visibility conditions, the standing
orders shall be supplemented with the following items:

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***

What would be included in the Master’s standing orders for heavy weather?

When the vessel encounters heavy weather, the Master is required to decide as to how the
vessels navigation shall be conducted. For example a decision on whether to heave-to or run
before the weather until the dangers have passed must be made. In any event, the prudent
Master will provide instructions to the OOWs, by issuing standing orders for the event of
heavy weather. These may include:

*** *** *** *** ***

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14.2 Aids to navigation

What is contained in SOLAS Chapter V?

Knowledge of the contents of SOLAS V is of paramount importance to the marine navigator,


where contained in its 35 Regulations and 23 Annexes, he will find the origins for most stock
practices, procedures, responsibilities and equipment for safe navigation. The 35 Regulations
are:

The 23 Annexes are:

***

What is unique about SOLAS V?

***

What are the carriage requirements for navigation equipment?

The requirements for ship borne navigational equipment are contained in SOLAS V/19. In
summary these are as follows:

All vessels are required to carry:

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All ships over 150GT, and all passenger ships, will additionally carry:

All ships over 300GT, and all passenger ships, will additionally carry:

All ships over 500GT, will additionally carry

All ships over 3,000GT, will additionally carry:

All ships over 10,000GT, will additionally carry:

All ships over 50,000GT, will additionally carry:

***

What are the principles of operation of the various speed measuring devices?

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There are many designs of speed measuring devices used on ships, but by far, the main ones
used are the Doppler electromagnetic and logs.

The Doppler log works by

The electromagnetic (EM) log works by

***

What are the navigational repercussions of a speed log failure

Upon first learning of the failure, the Master will relocate himself to the Bridge to manage
the situation. Once there, he will include the following in his actions and considerations

***

How can the Master make a reasonable speed estimate in the event of a log failure?

***

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Why is accurate speed so important?

***

What types of compasses are there?

***

What is the principle of operation of a gyrocompass?

***

What are latitude, course and speed errors of the gyro?

The gyro is said to have an error when it reads either high or low relative to true north. This
becomes evident when the gyro heading reads differently from a known true bearing. Such
errors, whether high or low, can be attributed to any or all of the following sources:

***

What are the effects of high-latitude navigation on the ship's compasses?

***

What are the indications of a gyro failure?


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Indications that a gyro failure has occurred include:

***

What are the navigational repercussions of a gyrocompass failure?

Upon being informed of the gyro failure, the prudent Master will include the following
among his considerations:

***

Provide an overview of the principle of operation for GNSS

***

What are the errors of the GNSS?

Sources of error in GNSS include the following:

***

What is HDOP and how can it be assessed?

***

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What are the principles of operations of an ARPA?

***

What are the limitations of ARPA?

Such limitations include:

***

What errors can affect the accuracy of ARPA?

**

What are the requirements for the use of ECDIS as a primary means of navigation?

ECDIS can be deemed to meet the carriage requirement of the SOLAS Chapter V-19, and
replace the need for paper charts, provided that the following conditions are met:

***

What are included within the Master’s instructions to OOWs on the limitations of ECDIS?

Like ARPA, the ECDIS is a revolutionary tool for ship-borne navigation. And like ARPA, it must
be remembered that all tools are subject to their limitations, and the Master must

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acknowledge these if he is to use the tool successfully. These limitations include:

***

What are the errors of the echo sounder?

The proper operation of the depth sounder can be affected by:

*** *** *** *** ***

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14.3 Care of the magnetic compass

Describe the principle of operation of a magnetic compass

***

Outline the operational checks on the magnetic compass

This piece of equipment must be inspected regularly to ensure its continuing and efficient
operation. The checks to be performed include the following:

***

When, and by whom, must the magnetic compass be adjusted?

The compass must be adjusted at the soonest practicable opportunity by a certified adjustor
if the following conditions are observed:

***

What is magnetic variation and how is it obtained?

***

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What is magnetic deviation and how is it obtained?

***

What factors can affect deviation?

Deviation is the sum of all the components of the ship’s own magnetic characteristics which
deflect the needle from the true north meridian. The various components which come
together to cause deviation are the vessel’ structure, keel, machinery, lifeboats, deck cranes
and fittings and electrical equipment. These can be categorised as:

***

Why are variation and deviation so important to the marine navigator?

***

Describe the various methods for finding deviation

There are six methods for determining the deviation of a compass, each of which involves a
comparison of the ships head with another line of bearing as follows:

*** *** *** *** ***

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Chapter 15: Emergency preparedness

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the various requirements for preparing the vessel to
successfully respond to an emergency on board.

In Section 15.1 we will look at the IMO contingency planning requirements. I will also explore my own
system for emergency response planning so that student can build their emergency responses.

In Sections 15.2 to 15.7 we will look at the various types of emergencies on board ships.

In Section 15.3 we will explore the requirements for rendering assistance to ships or aircraft in
distress.

*** *** *** *** ***

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15.1 IMO Contingency planning requirements

What are the IMO requirements for contingency planning?

IMO Res. A .1072(28), provides direction on the preparation of emergency plans on board
ships. The stated objectives of the resolution include:

The two tiers are:

***

What is the IS-SAFE structure for emergency planning?

IS-SAFE is a structured schema for contingency planning on board ships created by the author
that fits neatly with the IMO two tier requirements.

My intention in offering the IS-SAFE schema itself is to set out a simple and practicable
cognitive framework by which the ship’s Master and crew can tame the variations of
shipboard contingencies together with the actions expected of them to resolve each.

The schema, which is comprised of six consecutively-arranged elements, can be identified by


the acronym IS-SAFE, with each of the 6 letters representing the initial keyword attributed to
that step. These are

1. Initial actions:
1a. Immediate assessment and initial responses to the emergency, and are taken
to activate personnel and technical assets.
1b. Shoreside-response initiation actions taken according the various statutory
requirements.

2. Subsequent responses:

2a. Substantial control actions utilising the technical and crew assets.
2b. Additional reporting requirements taken to augment the initial reporting
requirement.
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2c. Follow-up actions taken on board the ship to return the ship to an operational
condition.
2d. Evolution to the post emergency condition includes actions taken in the long
tail after the event.

By defining the elements to be considered for the management of emergency situations on


board ships, and by outlining a possible structure for prioritising them, the leadership at sea it
is hoped will incorporate the structure into thier own thinking in preparing for emergency
events.

The IS-SAFE schema builds on the concept of ‘harmonization’ of responses across the broad
spectrum of possible emergency scenarios and as such accords happily with IMO Res. A
.1072(28). It is hoped that where the system is applied consistently, the result will be an
aggregation of consistently framed emergency response protocols.

That an emergency shipboard situation could be managed in a routine and systematic way
may well seem improbable, but the IS-SAFE structure is offered as a viable tool towards this
end.

*** *** *** *** ***

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15.2 On board fire and ship damage emergencies

Outline a response to a galley fire emergency

A set of responses to a galley fire is as follows:

1. Initial actions to be taken on the discovery of the emergency event.

1a. Immediate assessment and responses to the emergency, including:

1b. Shoreside response initiation actions, including:

2. Subsequent responses to be taken to mitigate the hazards of the emergency event.

2a. Substantial emergency response actions, including:

2b. Additional reporting requirements, including:

2c. Follow-up actions taken on board the vessel including:

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2d. Evolution to the post emergency condition, including:

***

Outline your response to an engine / boiler room fire emergency

A set of responses to an engine / boiler room fire is as follows:

1. Initial actions to be taken on the discovery of the emergency event.

1a. Immediate assessment and responses to the emergency, including:

1b. Shoreside response initiation actions, including:

2. Subsequent responses to be taken to mitigate the hazards of the emergency event.

2a. Substantial emergency response actions, including:

2b. Additional reporting requirements, including:

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2c. Follow-up actions taken on board the vessel including:

2d. Evolution to the post emergency condition, including:

*** *** *** *** ***

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15.3 Damaged vessel emergency

Outline your response to a sea chest failure with rapid engine room flooding

A set of responses to a sea chest failure with rapid engine room flooding is as follows:

1. Initial actions to be taken on the discovery of the emergency event.

1a. Immediate assessment and responses to the emergency, including:

1b. Shoreside response initiation actions, including:

2. Subsequent responses to be taken to mitigate the hazards of the emergency event.

2a. Substantial emergency response actions, including:

2b. Additional reporting requirements, including:

2c. Follow-up actions taken on board the vessel including:

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2d. Evolution to the post emergency condition, including:

*** *** *** *** ***

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15.4 Navigational emergency

Outline your response to a loss of power at sea in proximity to a lee shore

A set of responses to a loss of power at sea in proximity to a lee shore is as follows:

1. Initial actions to be taken on the discovery of the emergency event.

1a. Immediate assessment and responses to the emergency, including:

1b. Shore-side response initiation actions, including:

2. Subsequent responses to be taken to mitigate the hazards of the emergency event.

2a. Substantial emergency response actions, including:

2b. Additional reporting requirements, including:

2c. Follow-up actions taken on board the vessel including:

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2d. Evolution to the post emergency condition, including:

*** *** *** *** ***

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15.5 Cargo-related emergency

1. Initial actions to be taken on the discovery of the emergency event.

1a. Immediate assessment and responses to the emergency, including:

1b. Shore-side response initiation actions, including:

2. Subsequent responses to be taken to mitigate the hazards of the emergency event.

2a. Substantial emergency response actions, including:

2b. Additional reporting requirements, including:

2c. Follow-up actions taken on board the vessel including:

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2d. Evolution to the post emergency condition, including:

*** *** *** *** ***

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15.6 Abandoning ship emergencies

1. Initial actions to be taken on the discovery of the emergency event.

1a. Immediate assessment and responses to the emergency, including:

1b. Shore-side response initiation actions, including:

2. Subsequent responses to be taken to mitigate the hazards of the emergency event.

2a. Substantial emergency response actions, including:

2b. Additional reporting requirements, including:

2c. Follow-up actions taken on board the vessel including:

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2d. Evolution to the post emergency condition, including:

*** *** *** *** ***

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15.7 Crew-related emergencies

1. Initial actions to be taken on the discovery of the emergency event.

1a. Immediate assessment and responses to the emergency, including:

1b. Shoreside response initiation actions, including:

2. Subsequent responses to be taken to mitigate the hazards of the emergency event.

2a. Substantial emergency response actions, including:

2b. Additional reporting requirements, including:

2c. Follow-up actions taken on board the vessel including:

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2d. Evolution to the post emergency condition, including

*** *** *** *** ***

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15.8 Rendering assistance to vessels in distress

What are the Master’s responsibilities with respect to assisting vessels in distress?

***

Under what circumstances is a Master relieved of any obligation to provide assistance?

***

How would the Master prepare the vessel and crew to assist a vessel in distress?

***

How is a rendezvous calculation performed? What information is required to complete this?

***

How do is the Most Probable Position determined for a stricken vessel, survival craft or
person overboard? What factors affect the MPP?

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***

What are the different search patterns and how would the Master choose the correct
pattern for the situation? Which statutory publication can assist the Master in deciding this?

***

What are the responsibilities of the On Scene Commander?

***

What search pattern would a single vessel adopt to search for a life-raft?

***

What are track spacing criteria?

***

How can communication be facilitated with an aircraft during a SAR operation?

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***

What are the various methods for indicating a distress situation? Which publication can assist
with determining this?

*** *** *** *** ***

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Chapter 16. Carriage of cargo

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the responsibilities of the Master for the care of cargo.

In Section 16.1 we will look at the different requirements for the carriage of goods by sea.

In Section 16.2 we will explore the various risks posed by the different types of cargoes.

In Section 16.3 the we will explore the requirements for the carriage of dangerous goods.

*** *** *** *** ***

16.1 Carriage of goods by sea

What is a Bill of Lading?

***

What three functions does a BoL perform?

***

What are Charter Parties? List the various types of charter parties.

***

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What is a Demise Charter? What are its principal features?

***

What is a Time Charter? What are its principal features

***

What is Demurrage?

***

What are Laytime, Laydays and Laycan?

***

What is Force Majeure?

***

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What are the Hague-Visby Rules? What subject to they cover?

***

What are the York-Antwerp Rules? What subject do they cover?

***

When and how would the Master note protest?

***

When and how would the Master issue a letter of protest?

***

What is a contract of carriage?

***

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What is General Average? What is a G.A. loss? How is G.A. declared?

***

How is the G.A. position altered for incorrectly stowed deck cargo, that needed to be
jettisoned?

***

How can the Master avoid this challenge?

***

What is the five-point test for G.A?

***

Define the following terms: common adventure; action for common safety; peril; voluntary
act; reasonable sacrifice.

***
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Are the York-Antwerp Rules the only rules with regards to GA that can be used in a contract?

***

What are the differences in goods, materials, and articles?

*** *** *** *** ***

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16.2 Cargo safety

How would the Master ensure that the vessel is correctly stowed prior to departure? Which
documents and booklets on board the vessel provide guidance on this?

***

What information is contained in the Cargo Securing Manual? Which body must endorse this
document?

***

What are the hazards associated with the carriage of bulk cargoes?

***

What are the Grain Regs? What instrument mandates these?

***

Draw a GZ curve highlighting the grain carriage requirements.

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***

What are the various Cargo Codes mandated by SOLAS?

***

What is the purpose of a 'Notice of Readiness'?

***

What would you contain within the Master's standing orders for loading cargo?

***

What information would you expect the shipper to provide with respect to bulk cargos?

***

Outline the sections of the IMSBC Code. Is the Code mandatory?

***
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Using the IMSBC Code list the hazards associated with Ammonium Sulphate fertiliser.

***

What are the hazards associated with the carriage of coal?

***

How would you require the vessel to be prepared to load direct reduced iron (DRI) cargo?

***

What is stowage factor? How is this value obtained? How can this be verified for a cargo?

***

What is broken stowage?

***

What is cargo density? How, according to the IMSBC Code, could this be estimated?
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***

What are the considerations for vessel stability prior to commencing cargo loading
operations?

***

What are shearing forces and bending moments?

***

Draw a shearing force and bending moment diagram for an alternatively hold ballasted bulk
carrier. What are the hazards associated with this type of loading?

***

What are the two methods for securing a non-standardised cargo?

***

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What is liquefaction? Why is it a problem? How is it caused? How is it prevented?

***

What is the purpose of undertaking a draught survey? How is this done?

***

What information would be provided by the shipper for a bulk cargo?

*** *** *** *** ***

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16.3 Carriage of dangerous goods by sea

When is a cargo a dangerous good?

***

What instrument mandates the IMDG Code?

***

What certification and documentation is required for the carriage of DG?

***

What are excepted and limited quantities under the IMDG Code?

***

For UN 2046, determine the following:

• proper shipping name;


• subsidiary risks;
• segregation and stowage criteria.

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***

Using Ems list the actions to take if a fire occurs under deck, and actions in case of a spillage.

***

What information is contained in the DGDOC?

***

If there was a conflict between the instructions contained in the IMDG Code, and the DGDoC,
which should take precedence? Why might this occur?

***

What is a Marine Pollutant? Which instrument deals with these?

***

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Where would you find a list of all marine pollutants? Which symbol is used to indicate that a
cargo is a marine pollutant?

***

Describe the publication schedule of the IMDG Code. Explain when after publication of the
latest edition it becomes mandatory.

***

What documents are required to be carried with respect to marine pollutants? Are these the
same as those required for DG?

***

Where on board the vessel must Marine Pollutants not be stowed?

***

What information must a shipper provide to the ship prior to loading dangerous goods?

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***

What is the Orange Book?

***

You are required to fumigate the cargo. Are fumigants considered to be a DG?

*** *** *** *** ***

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