Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 62

LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 1 of 62

Instrumentation & Control

CONTENTS

Temperature Measurement
Pressure Measurement
Flow Measurement
Level Measurement
Control Panel – Indicators, Recorders
Final Control Elements – Actuators
Final Control Elements – Control Valve
Final Control Elements – Accessories
Automatic Process Control
Protection and Interlocks
Annunciation System
Analysers
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 2 of 62

Temperature Measurement
Temperature is an indication of the degree of hotness of the body. Depending on the
property of the material under consideration temperature is also an indication of heat
(energy) content. Temperature measurement and control is important both from the
point of safe operation and quality of final product.

Thermocouples
Thermocouple is the simplest and most commonly used device for temperature
measurement.
A thermocouple is a system composed of two homogenous wires, dissimilar in
chemical composition, which are soldered or welded or fused at one end, forming a
closed circuit when the free ends are connected to an instrument such as
millivoltmeter.
The joined ends of a thermocouple form a junction called the hot junction, or
measuring junction. The other ends of the wires which are connected to a measuring
instrument form the cold junction, or reference junction. Simply stated, the voltage
produced by heating the measuring junction varies with the difference in
temperature between the measuring junction and the reference junction. This
property is called the SEEBECK EFFECT. Thermocouple must be selected on the basis
of the temperature to be measured and the atmosphere surrounding the couple.

Table-1 gives the upper temperature limits for the various thermocouples.

Name of Thermocouple Ty Range Deg. Colour of Insulation


Overall Positiv Negativ
Chromel – Constantan E -270 to 100 Purple Purple Red
Iron – Constantan J -210 to 760 Black White Red
Chromel – Alumel K -270 to 137 Yellow Yellow Red
Copper – Constantan T -270 to 400 Blue Blue Red
Platinum – Pt.Rhodiu S -50 to 1768 Green Black Red
10%
Platinum – Pt.Rhodiu R -50 to 1768 Green Black Red
13%
Platinum – Pt.Rhodiu B -0 to 1820 Gray Gray Red
30%
Rhodium 6%

Table-1 Thermocouple Types, Ranges and Colour

Extension Wires
The measuring instrument may be at a considerable distance from the hot junction.
For most accurate measurement, the wires from thermocouple to the instrument are
of same material as the thermocouple wires. These are called extension wires. Fig. 2
shows a thermocouple circuit using extension wires.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 3 of 62

Fig.2 Fig.3
If A & B are dissimilar metals, Thermocouple with extension wires
Current will flow through the
Junctions kept at Temp. T1 & T2
(T1 > T2)

Compensation Wires
For some types of thermocouples, e.g. Platinum – Rhodium or Chromel – Alumel,
long extension wires would be very costly. To overcome this, extension wires of
cheaper materials which have similar thermoelectric properties to those of actual
thermocouple, are commonly used. These are called compensation wires. This is
permitted by The Law of Intermediate Metals which states that the use of a third
metal in a thermocouple circuit does not affect the voltage as long as the junctions of
the third metal with the thermocouple metals are at the same temperature.

Table-2 – Types of Extension/Compensating Wires

THERMOCOUPLE LEAD WIRE


+ - + -
Copper - Constantan Copper - Constantan
Iron - Constantan Iron - Constantan
Chromel - Alumel Chromel - Alumel
Chromel - Alumel Iron - Copper Nickel Alloy
Chromel - Alumel Copper - Constantan (upto 125°F only)
Pt. Rhodium - Pt. Copper - Copper Nickel Alloy

Fig. 4 – Thermocouple with compensating wires

Reference Junction Compensation


It is not always possible to maintain the reference junction at a desired temperature;
but if the temperature of the reference junction is measured or is known, it is
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 4 of 62

possible to apply corrections to the observed emf or temperature enabling an


operator to make a correct measurement.

The Law of Intermediate Temperature states that the sum of the voltages generated
by two thermocouples (Fig.6) one with its reference junction at 32°F and its
measuring junction at a higher temperature (A°F), and the other thermocouple with
its reference junction at A°F and its measuring junction at a still higher temperature
(B°F) is equal to the voltage generated by one thermocouple with its reference
junction at 32°F and its measuring junction at B°F. Thus a reference junction at a
fixed temperature can be established and circuits provided to compensate the
indication by an amount equal to the reference junction temperature. This is done in
Cold Junction Compensating Box (CJCB).

Fig. 5 Fig. 6
The law of intermediate temperatures A practical thermocouple

Once a CJCB is used, further wiring is not critical and can use ordinary copper wires.

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)


The principle of the resistance thermometer is based on the fact that the electrical
resistance of a metal varies with changes in temperature. If a metal wire is heated,
its electrical resistance will increase.

For a typical RTD of type Pt100, Platinum is the material of the resistance and it is =
100 ohms at 0 deg C. It increases by 3.958 ohms for every 100 degree increase in
temp, i.e. at 200 deg C the RTD resistance iscome 103.958 ohms.

In a resistance thermometer the resistance element is calibrated so that temperature


may be determined by measuring the electrical resistances of the element by means
of a Wheatstone Bridge. The relationship between temperature and resistance is
almost a straight line function.

Construction
Fig.7 shows a typical RTD.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 5 of 62

Fig. 7 – Resistance thermometer

Conventionally the resistance wire is non-inductively would on a mica former and


covered with a ceramic glaze to protect from contamination. The temperature
sensitive portion is only about 25 mm long and the terminals are brought out by
insulated copper or silver wire to a terminal head. Generally for long elements, rigid
protective stainless steel sheathing is given.

Wheatstone Bridge
Fig. 8 shows a simple Wheatstone Bridge Circuit.

Fig. 8. Wheatstone bridge circuit with fixed resistors and millivoltmeter


LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 6 of 62

As the temperature of the resistance bulb Rt. Rises, its resistance rises. Because of
this, the bridge is unbalanced. This unbalance is detected by the millivoltmeter,
causing it to give a temperature indication. Use of regulated power supply is
absolutely necessary because the bridge must operate under standard conditions of
current if correct voltages are to be developed at each of the various resistors.

Lead – Wire Compensation


Where the resistance bulb is considerably away from the bridge circuit, the actual
resistance of the lead wire presents itself in the accuracy of temperature
measurement. If 2-wire system (Fig.9) are used, then a ballast resistor has to be
adjusted in the leadwire circuit so that the total resistance remains unchanged. This
is overcome by other methods of compensation, namely 3-wire and 4-wire type of
connections which are illustrated in Fig.10 and 11.

Fig.9 2 Wire System

Fig.– 10 3 Wire System

Fig. 11 4 Wire System


LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 7 of 62

Thermocouple v/s RTD

Fig. 12 shows the application fields of T/C and RTDs.

T/C RTD

a) Can be used up to 2320°C Limited to about 800°C


b) Moderate accuracy High accuracy
c) Signal generated is low (mV)
Hence susceptible to noise errors High signal. Hence immune to noise
d) Sturdy Delicate
e) Cheap Costlier

Fig. 12 – Thermocouples & RTDs

Mercury/Liquid in Glass Thermometer


Fig. 13 shows a typical Mercury in glass thermometer.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 8 of 62

Fig. 13. Typical industrial mercury in glass thermometer

A mercury-in-glass thermometer consists of glass bulb filled with mercury, and


attached to a closed glass capillary. Application of heat causes the mercury to
expand and rise in the capillary. Ranges cover minus 39°C (freezing point of
mercury) to plus 550°C. Other liquids such as alcohols are used sometimes instead
of mercury, especially for low temperatures down to minus 200°C.

Mercury in Steel Thermometer


Fig. 14 shows a typical Mercury in Steel Thermometer.

Fig. 14 – Mercury in steel thermometer.

A mercury-in-steel thermometer consists of steel bulb connected to the bourdon


tube, spiral, or helix by means of a fine steel capillary tube, the whole system being
charged with mercury under pressure. Application of heat to the bulb causes the
mercury to expand, creating an increase in pressure in the closed system and
therefore movement of the pressure sensitive element to which is attached a pointer
or pen moving over a scale or chart marked of in temperature. Since the cubical
expansion coefficient of mercury is linear, the scale markings on the dial or chart are
also linear. Ranges lie within –39° to +550°C.

Capillary lengths may exceed 30 m permitting the dial to be remote from the bulb.
On the other hand, the dial may be rigidly connected to the bulb.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 9 of 62

Pressure Measurement
Pressure Measurement Scales

Fig.15. Pressure – Absolute, Gauge, Vacuum

There are three scales for pressure measurement:

- Gauge Pressure Scale


- Absolute Pressure Scale
- Vacuum Scale

The difference between the gauge pressure scale and the absolute pressure scale is
the location of the zero point. On the gauge pressure scale, the zero point is at
atmospheric pressure. On the absolute pressure scale, the zero point is at the
absolute zero pressure point.
The vacuum scale has its zero at atmospheric pressure and its maximum point at the
absolute zero pressure point. Thus, the vacuum scale is used to indicate negative
gauge pressure.
The measurement of atmospheric pressure is essential to the establishment of the
gauge pressure scale and the vacuum scale. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure
exerted by the air surrounding the earth. This pressure varies with the altitude since
the air nearer the earth is compressed by the air above. At sea level, the
atmospheric pressure is 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi).
Complete vacuum or absence of matter is defined as 0 mm Hg. 1 Atmosphere is 14.7
psi or 760 mm Hg. Pressure below 760 mm Hg. Are negative pressures or vacuum.
Pressure above 760 mm Hg. Are positive pressures.

Basic Pressure Sensors


Since there is no fundamental difference between the measurement of pressure or
vacuum, the instruments used for both services is considered under the same head
here.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 10 of 62

The various commonly used sensors and their span limitations are:

Type Min. Span Max. Span

Bourdon 1 kg/sq.cm. 1500 kg/sq.cm


Bellows 380mm WG 2 kg/sq.cm
Diaphragm 25 mm WG 15 kg/sq.cm.

Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauge


Typical Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauge is shown in Fig. 16.

The Bourdon in a pressure gauge is a C-shaped flattened or oval tube, bent into an
arc of about 250°. One end of the tube is fixed on to a fitting where the pressure to
be measured is admitted and the other end is sealed/brazed.

Fig.16 – A typical arrangement of Bourdon tube pressure gauge

When the applied internal pressure is increased, the two ends of the tube are forced
apart as a result of increase of the radius of the curvature of the tube.
The movement or lift of the closed end of the Bourdon tube resulting from internal
pressure change is converted into rotary motion by means of a sector-and-pinion
arrangement. A pointer carried on the extension of the pinion moves on a calibrated
dial.
The material of the tube should be (1) hard enough to withstand the pressure
without any part of it being stressed above the limit of proportionality, (2) stable
enough to retain its calibration indefinitely, (3) immune to corrosion from the fluid
inside it or the atmosphere around it and (4) easy to fabricate.

Diaphragm Seal Type Gauge


Typical Diaphragm Seal type Gauge is shown in Fig. 17. Diaphragm Seals are
protection devices to prevent corrosion/clogging or freezing of Bourdon elements of
pressure gauges/transmitters used in difficult fluids like acids, hydroxide etc.
A thin, flexible (corrugated) diaphragm fitted inside a diaphragm housing prevents
the process fluid from entering the Bourdon tube. The space above the diaphragm,
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 11 of 62

the thin connecting tube and the Bourdon tube is completely filled with a seal fluid –
Silicone oil is commonly used as seal fluid.
It is also possible to have a long flexible capillary between the diaphragm and
Bourdon Tube.

Fig. 17 – Diaphragm seal pressure gauge

Bellows Type Gauge


Bellows assembly is essentially as shown in Fig. 18.
Bellows assembly has often been compared to spring, in as much as they are
continuously compressible or expandable by an applied force or pressure. Both
posses a pressure necessary for, say, one centimeter travel. Available ranges on this
type is from 0-5 in Hg. to 0-3 kg.sq.cm. The materials of construction of bellows are
80% Copper – 20% Zinc, Brass, Phosphor Bronze, Beryllium Copper or Stainless
Steel.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 12 of 62

Fig. 18 – Bellows type gauge

The bellows is a thin-walled tube in a corrugated shape. One end of the bellows is
completely sealed and the other end soldered/brazed to a fixture with an opening to
apply the pressure or vacuum.

Schaffer Diaphragm Gauge


This has a thin circular diaphragm element fixed firmly round its edge. A pressure
greater than that on the other side makes the diaphragm deflect in a direction away
from the higher pressure side. The magnitude of deflection depends upon the radius
of the diaphragm, its thickness and Young’s modulus of the material.
Corrugations improve the deflection characteristics of the metal diaphragm with an
approximate magnification of 4 times and provide a more linear characteristic.

Fig. 19 Schaffer diaphragm gauge

A number of diaphragms punched out in the centre and soldered, welded or


otherwise rigidly joined in a leak-proof manner constitutes a “Diaphragm Stack”;
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 13 of 62

when used in two, it is called a “Capsule”. The vertical deflection of stack for a
pressure differential applied is many times that of a single diaphragm. The linear
movement of the diaphragm or stack is converted via a regular sector and pinion
arrangement to move an indicator pointer against a scale like in an ordinary pressure
gauge.
The material of construction of the same is beryllium copper, phosphor bronze,
nickel, silver, special steel etc.

Pressure Switches
Pressure switches consist of one of the sensing elements used in a Gauge. However,
instead of Sector and Pinion, pointer and scale, a set of miniature micro switches is
provided. As pressure rises or falls to set pressure value, the micro-switch actuates.

Pressure Transmitters
A Pressure Transmitter converts a pressure change into a signal which can be
transmitted to locations away from the point of measurement.
The transmitter consists of one of the sensing elements used in a gauge. The motion
generated by the element is Converted by a transducer into a signal. Depending
upon the type of signal generated, following major types of Pressure Transmitters
are commonly used:

Electronic
Electronic transmitters commonly used can be of following types:

a) Resistive – Ref. Fig. 20

Fig. 20
The moving-contact type of resistance A strain gage consists of a wire grid
transducer is not sensitive to every small bonded to an impregnated paper or
pressure change as the strain gage. ceramic backing.

i) Potentiometric:
Utilises direction mechanical or servo operated linkages to position a wiper on a
resistor. AC or DC excitation can be applied.
Limitations:
Vibration-sensitive; has noise pick-up and slow response.

ii) Strain Gauge:


A strain gauge is simply a fine wire in the form of a grid. When the grid is
distorted, the resistance of the wire changes according to the formula:
R = KL/A
Where K = a constant for the particular kind of wire
L = Length of wire
A = Cross-sectional area
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 14 of 62

Useful for dynamic measurements, low-source-impedance and minimum


mechanical motion.

b) Capacitive – Ref. Fig. 21


Capacitive pressure transducers consist of two conductive plates and a dielectric.
As the pressure increases, the plates move farther apart, changing the
capacitances. The fluid whose pressure is being measured serves as the
dielectric.
Have high sensitivities and response, but affected by temperature variations.

Fig. 21 – Capacitive transducer


In the capacitive pressure transducer, changing pressure directly changes the distance
between the capacitive plates, thus changing the voltages

Low Pressure Measurement Using Manometer


The manometer is one of the most accurate ways of measuring pressure. The
manometer is based on the comparison of the unknown pressure force with the
gravity force on a known mass. Manometers measure the pressure difference
between the two ends of the liquid column. If one end is at zero absolute pressure,
then difference in height (h) A is an indication of absolute pressure.

Fig. 22 – U-tube low pressure manometer


LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 15 of 62

This is a bent tube filled with liquid.


PA = PC + P M
Wherein PC is the pressure created by the column between level S1 and S2.
PB = PC + P 1
Wherein P1 is the pressure created by the column h which is above S2 in the right
leg.
PA = PB
(Because they are at equal height above datum line)

Hence PM = P1 which is equal to h1 mm of water column if manometer is filled with


water OR h mm of Hg. column if manometer is filled with Hg.
To convert pressure expressed in equivalent feet of Water Column into Pressure Unit
lbs/sq. in:
Pressure in Psi = head in feet x 0.4335 x specific gravity

Flow Measurement
Head Meters
The majority of industrial flow measurements of liquids, vapour, gases use head
meters.
The basic principle of head meters is the Bernoulli’s theorem. This states that the
total energy of a fluid flowing through a pipe is constant.
Total energy or Head = Pressure Head + Velocity Head

Fig. 23
Maximum pressure in the orifice plate installation is at A; minimum pressure is at B.
Because of loss of pressure across the plate, downstream pressure rises only as high
as point C.
A head meter consists of a restriction in the pipe line. Fig. 23 shows a typical orifice
plate restriction and the flow profile. At the restriction, the flow velocity increases. By
Bernoulli’s Principle, there is a consequent drop of pressure. The variation of
pressure is as shown in the above figure. The narrowest flow profile (Point-B) is the
point of highest velocity and lowest pressure and is called Vena Contracta point. The
pressure differential between points A and B changes with the fluid flow rate.
If q = Fluid flow rate
h = Differential pressure across restriction
c = Constant
Then q = c x square root of h
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 16 of 62

i.e. rate of flow is proportional to square root of DP across restriction.


As evident in the above figure, after the Vena Contracta point, the fluid again begins
to fill the pipe and the pressure rises. The pressure, however, does not recover
completely. There is a loss of pressure across the plate.
The principle consideration in selecting a restriction is the Beta Ratio:
Beta Ratio = d/D
Where d = diameter of restriction
D = diameter of pipe
If the d/D ratio is too small, the loss of pressure becomes too great. If the ratio is
too great, the loss of pressure becomes too small to detect and too unstable.
All Head Producing restrictions work on the same principle. The most commonly used
Head Producers are discussed below:

Orifice:
The typical orifice plates are shown in Fig. 24. The sharp edge orifice is the most
widely employed flow metering element mainly because of its simplicity, its low cost
and availability of adequate data for calculation of correct size. It is easier to install
and to replace. The orifice plate inserted in the pipe line causes an increase in the
flow velocity at Vena Contracta point and a corresponding decrease in the pressure.
The orifice plate inserted in the line is basically a thin plate of metal with a circular
opening. The pressure tappings for flow rate measurements can be taken out by a
variety of methods. For pipe sizes (pipe dia D) of 5 cm or greater in diameter, the
usual practice is to locate tappings at distance D and D/2 in the upstream and
downstream respectively.
The orifice plate is not so accurate as either the venture or flow nozzle and does not
have a good pressure recovery. It cannot be used with high (d/D) ratios. The orifice
plate is subject to erosion and damage, but its easy replacement offsets this
drawback. Hence it is the most widely used type of primary flow element.

Fig. 24
Orifice plate with D and D/2 tappings (Extracts from B.S. 1042: Part 1: 1964)
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 17 of 62

Disadvantages and limitations of Orifice Plate:

i) Cause relatively high permanent pressure loss


ii) Tend to clog, thus reducing use in slurry service
iii) Accuracy dependent on care during installation
iv) Changing characteristics because of erosion, corrosion and scaling

Venturi Tube:
Typical venturi tube is shown in Fig.25. The basic design of a venture tube comprises
of three sections, viz, the converging conical section at the upstream, cylindrical
throat, and the diverging recovery outlet cone at the downstream. The inlet cone
tapers down from the pipe area to the throat section of a smaller area to produce the
necessary increase in velocity and decrease in pressure. The cylindrical throat
provides a point of measurement of this decrease in pressure where the flow rate is
steady. The diverging outlet cone expands from the throat to the pipe area resulting
in pressure recovery. Pressure measurements are carried out at the upstream
entrance to the cone and at the throat. Tappings take the shape of annular
chambers, and the inside surfaces are smoothly machined with holes drilled around
the circumference at regular intervals. This enables the pressure to be averaged
before transmission to the measuring instruments.

Fig. 25
Venturi tube (Extracts from B.S. 1042: Part 1: 1964)

Advantages of Venturi Tube:

i) Causes low permanent pressure loss


ii)The pressure recovery is excellent. Widely used for high flow rates.
iii)
Available in very large pipe sizes
iv)Has well known characteristics. It does not obstruct abrasive sediment and
because of its shape it resists wear effectively.
v) More accurate over wide flow ranges than orifice plates or nozzles.

Flow Nozzles:
A typical flow nozzle is shown in Fig. 26.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 18 of 62

a. mounted between pipe flanges b. mounted in a carrier ring


Fig. 26 – Examples of constructional arrangement of a nozzle

Flow nozzles combine the simplicity of the orifice plate with the low losses of the
venture tube with a curved form of approach, giving a gradual change of sectional
area, having the same order of discharge co-efficient. However, the absence of the
down-steam expansion cone brings the pressure loss to the same order as that for
an orifice plate. At high velocity flows, the performance is better than the orifice
device. The curved profile of the nozzle renders its usefulness whenever fluids with
suspended solid matter are encountered.

Comparison of Orifice Plate with Flow Nozzle:

a) Orifice plates are distinguished by their usual simplicity of design, low cost of
manufacture, Dimensional gauges suffice to check the accuracy of manufacture,
while templates are used to check nozzles resulting in higher manufacturing cost.

b) In orifice plates, the flowing liquid is throttled by the sharp edged orifice and in
nozzles the liquid is guided by the cylindrical outlet portion, as that the liquid
issues from it in a shape of jet of circular cross-section, hence the capacity of a
nozzle for given area ratio in a pipe is more.

c) The disturbance arising after the construction is greater in orifice plates than in
nozzles, which has an adverse influence on the correctness of pressure reception
and the magnitude of the energy losses.

d) Characteristics of orifice plates, changes more quickly with time than that of
nozzle. Since even slight damage to the throttling edge, sensibly changes the
accuracy of indication of orifice plates.

Pitot Tube:
Another primary flow element used to produce a differential is the pitot tube. In its
simplest form, the pitot tube consists of a tube with a small opening at the
measuring end. This small hole faces the flowing fluid. Refer Fig. 27 for principle of
measurement using pitot tube. When the fluid contacts the pitot tube, the fluid
velocity is zero and the pressure is at a maximum. This small hole, or “impact
opening” as it is called, provides the higher pressure for differential pressure
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 19 of 62

measurement. While the pitot tube provides the higher pressure for differential
pressure measurement, an ordinary pressure tap provides the lower pressure
reading.
The pitot tube actually measures the velocity of fluid flow and not rate of flow.

Fig.27 – Flow measurement using pitot tube

Pitot tubes are used mainly for the measurement of air/gas velocity in ducts by the
traverse method. The operating principle of a pitot tube is based on the fact that,
when a solid body is kept centrally and stationary in a pipe line with air/gas flowing
the velocity of the fluid starts diminishing due to the presence of the body, till it is
reduced to zero directly in front of the body. Thus the velocity head is converted into
an impact pressure. When inserted into a duct with the tip facing directly into the
flow it will enable air velocity at that point to be determined by connecting the static
pressure and total pressure tapping to the manometer. The manometer gives
difference between the static pressure and the impact pressure which is proportional
to the flow rate.

Air Velocity Calculations Using S.I. Scales:


The standard formula for calculating velocity from velocity pressure is V = 1.291
√Pv. This is valid for standard air density at 16°C and 1 bar atmospheric pressure.
For non-standard air conditions the equation is:

V = 1.291 1000 x T x 100000 x Pv


------- --- -----------------
B 289 (100000 + Ps)
V = Velocity m/sec
B = Barometric pressure, mbar
T = Absolute temperature deg. k
(= t deg. C + 273 where ‘t’ is air stream temperature)
Ps = Static pressure Pa
Pv = Velocity pressure Pa

The expression 100000 / (100000 + Ps) is a correction for the static pressure in the
duct and may normally be ignored if Ps is less than 2500 Pa.

Mounting of Flow Transducers


The rate of flow of fluids (liquids, vapours, gases) can be measured by differential
pressure generated across the head producer (orifice, venture, flow nozzle). This is
usually measured by a Differential Pressure Transmitter.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 20 of 62

Pressure measuring tapping points are provided on the pipe across the restriction.
Fig. 28 shows correct location of tapping points. These are then piped (called impulse
pipes) to the transmitter which is commonly provided with a MANIFOLD VALVE. A
typical MANIFOLD VALVE is shown in Fig. 29.

Fig. 28 – Tapping Point Location

For liquid and steam services, the transmitter should be located at an elevation lower
than the tapping point to prevent air locking in the impulse pipes. For gas services,
the transmitter should be located at an elevation above the tapping point to prevent
condensate-blocking of impulse pipes.
The type of meter selected is governed by the operating conditions, the kind of fluid,
materials in suspension, electrical resistivity, boiling point, piping conditions,
allowable pressure drop and the volume of the flow.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 21 of 62

Fig. 29 – Typical Manifold Valve

Flow Transmitter:
Flow transmitters are basically differential pressure transmitters which measure
differential pressure and transmit a proportional electric signal of 4-20 mA D.C. The
transmitter operate as a part of two wire system. They receive power (+24 V D.C.)
from the same pair of wires over which the output signal is transmitted. The span of
the transmitter is adjustable.
The transmitter has a built in Square Root Extractor and hence the output electrical
signal is linear with relaxation to flow. It is also quite common to use a DP
Transmitter without extractor; in this case, the electrical signal would NOT be linear
with flow and for getting linear scale on the final flow indicator, a separate square
root extractor is used.

Variable Area Meter:


In the variable-area flowmeter, the differential pressure across the meter is held
constant. Hence, the ratio of flow varies as the metering area varies. The differential
is maintained by a free floating element which rises and falls as the flow rate
increases or decreases. As the float rises, the metering area is increased. The weight
of the float and the weight of the flowing fluid determine the amount of rise of the
float.

Rotameter:

Fig. 30 – Rotameter
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 22 of 62

In the rotameter, which is the most common form of variable area meter, the float
travels in a tapered tube. The metering area is the annular area (in the form of a
ring) between the float and the tube.
The rotameter is chiefly used as an indicating device, although it is possible to obtain
remote indication by attaching to the float different types of followers that will vary
an electrical quantity such as resistance.

Level Measurement
Gauge Glass
A typical gauge glass is shown in Fig. 31.
This consists of a graduated glass tube mounted on the side of the vessel. As the
level of the liquid in the vessel changes, so does the level of the liquid in the glass
tube. Measurement is a simple matter of reading the position of liquid level on the
scale of the sight glass tube.

Fig. 31
Reflex Type Gauge Glass:
For high pressure, high temperature applications such as boiler drum, Reflex type
gauge is used. This has a flat, thick glass slab through which water level is seen.
Special optical properties of the surface design of glass piece create a sharp line of
demarcation of liquid level. A typical Reflex type gauge is shown in the above figure.

Float Type:
A typical Float type level indication is shown in Fig.32. It is used in open, non-
pressurised tanks.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 23 of 62

The primary device is a float that by reason of its buoyancy will follow the changing
level of the liquid, and a mechanism that will transfer the float action to pointer. The
float is a hollow metal sphere; but cylinder-shaped ceramic floats and disc-shaped
floats of synthetic materials are also used.
The float is usually attached to a cable, which is wound around a pulley or drum to
which the indicating pointer is attached. The movement of the float is thus
transferred to the pointer, which indicates the liquid level on an appropriate scale.

Fig. 32 – The buoyancy of the float permits it to be immersed in the liquid, and its movement is
transmitted to the indicator as it follows the changing liquid level.

Displacer Type:
A typical Displacer Type Level Transmitter is shown in Fig.33.
In accordance with the Archimedes Buoyancy Law, the apparent weight of the displacer
body changes in proportion to the weight of liquid which it displaces.
The transmitter converts this change in apparent weight into a pneumatic output signal.

Fig. 33 Displacer type level measurement


LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 24 of 62

The displacer body is suspended by means of a “hook” attached to the transmission


rod, which is connected to the torque tube. The transmitter operates on force
balance principles. As the liquid level rises, the displacer body suffers a loss of
apparent weight, and the force beam rotates in a clock-wise direction. The flapper
approaches the nozzle. This causes an increase in back pressure, and modulates the
output amplifier. The balancing force generated in the feedback bellows rotates the
force beam in the opposite direction until the beam almost returns to the initial
position.
In place of the pneumatic signal, an electronic transducer can be provided to give an
electric signal for remote level indication.

Pressure Type:
A typical arrangement using a Pressure Gauge for level indication is shown in Fig.34.
this too is useful for non-pressurized tanks.

Any rise in the level causes an increase of pressure, which can be measured by the
gauge. The gauge scale is marked in units of level measurement (feet or inches). A
pressure transmitter can be used in place of pressure gauge to get remote indication.

Fig. 34 – As the tank fills, the pressure of the liquid naturally increases. This increase of
pressure can be read on the gage in feet and inches of level.

Differential Pressure Method:


This is the most common method used for pressurized tanks. Fig. 35 shows the
principle of operation.

Fig. 35 – Liquid level in an enclosed vessel measured using differential pressure manometer.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 25 of 62

Connections are made to the vessel at top and bottom, and to the two columns of
the differential pressure meter. The top connection is made to the low pressure
column of the meter, and the bottom connection to the high pressure column. In this
way the pressure in the vessel is balanced out, since it is fed to both columns of the
meter. The difference in pressure detected by the meter will then only be due to the
changing level of the liquid.

Remote-indicating boiler water-level manometer


Fig. 36 – Principle of Level Measurement using Differential Pressure

Fig. 36 shows the typical arrangement used for Boiler Drum Level Measurement.
A DP Transmitter is used to send the signal for remote level indication.

Level Switches:
Level switches are devices which give an alarm/interlock contact output when level
rises/falls to pre-set levels. The most commonly used level switches are described
below:

Float Type:
These consist of a hollow metallic float, spherical or cylindrical in shape, to which is
attached a rod having a permanent magnet at the other end. This assembly is
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 26 of 62

exposed to the tank fluid. On the other side of barrier plate or tube, are located a set
of magnetically operated microswitches. As the float moves with changing level, the
magnet at the other end of the rod comes close to the microswitches, actuating them
when level reaches the set value.
Fig. 37 shows a typical float operated level switch.

Fig. 37 – Float level switch

Displacer Type:
Fig. 38 shows a typical displacer type level switch. These switches operate on the
BUOYANCY Principle.
Displacer operated level switch have displacers (heavier than the liquid) suspended
with the help of a wire rope. The displacers, due to the weight, keep a spring in the
spring housing in compressed state. When liquid level rises, the effective weight of
displacers becomes much less due to buoyancy and the spring compression reduces.
This causes a magnetic sleeve to move up inside the sleeve pipe. The sleeve attracts
a magnet located outside the sleeve pipe. When the magnet moves in, it tilts the
switch mechanism, operating one/two switches mounted on it. When liquid level
goes down again the sleeve goes down and the magnet, operated by return spring,
goes back to original position thereby re-operating the switches.

Fig. 38 Level switches displacer type


LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 27 of 62

Control Panel Instruments – Indicators & Recorders

In modern power stations, electronic instruments are used for all measurements. The
usual signal ranges for various measurements are as follows:

Pressure : Electronic : 4 – 20 mADC


Flow : Transmitters : 0 – 20 mADC
Level : 10 – 15 mADC
: 0 – 5 V DC

Temperature : Thermocouple : DC Mv
: RTD : Resistance

The signals from all these instruments are sent to control panel by means of wires.
On the control panel, these wires are connected to Electronic Indicators and/or
Recorders. These Indicators/Recorders are provided with scales marked in process
units (e.g. 0 to 600 deg. C) so that actual value of the measured parameter can be
read directly.

Discussed below are the most commonly used types of Indicators/Records for
process measurements:

Indicators:
Moving Coil Indicators:

Fig. 39 shows the principle of a permanent magnet type moving coil instrument.

A light rectangular coil is pivoted so that its sides lie in the air gaps between the two
poles of a permanent magnet and a soft-iron cylinder. When current passes through
the coil a deflecting torque is produced owing to the reaction between the magnetic
field of the permanent magnet and the magnetic field of the coil. Moving-coil
instruments are spring-controlled. Two phosphorbronze hair springs are used, these
also serve as leads to the moving coil.

Fig. 39 – Action of Permanent-magnet Moving-coil Instrument

Moving coil indicators can accept DC voltage or current and provide very good
linearity of scale with DC signals. They are thus suitable for use with all electronic
transmitters for pressure, flow and level measurements. They are also suitable for
thermocouple signals and with some additional circuitry for Wheatstone Bridge, can
also be used for RTDs.

Recorders:
Most of the recorders in use at present are the STRIP CHART type, where the chart
paper is a roll of paper which can serve for up to 1 month. Circular chart recorders,
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 28 of 62

where the chart is circular in shape and is to be replaced daily, are progressively
being discontinued except for field mounted recorders in process industry. Fig.41
shows a typical circular chart recorder.

Described below are the two common types of strip-chart recorders. Both essentially
work on the same principle as the servo type indicator described earlier.

Pen Recorders (Continuous Line Recorders)


These give continuous record of the measured parameters. Pen Recorders with up to
3 ink pens are available. The three pens use different coloured inks, typically, red,
blue, green. All three pens write on a common strip chart driven by a chart drive
motor.

Fig. 40 Three pen strip chart recorder Fig. 41 Three pen circular chart recorder
(Vertical Scales (SIEMENS)

Fig. 40 shows a typical 3 pen recorder with pen movement along vertical scales (one
for each pen) and chart movement from left to right single or 3 Pen recorder with
pen 3 Pen recorder with pen movement along horizontal scales (one for each pen)
and chart movement from top to bottom are also available. Fig. 41 shows the
schematic diagram of the recorder. Each pen is driven by its own motor, wheel, wire,
rope etc. Each motor is driven by one parameter input through its own amplifier. A
common chart drive motor drives the chart. Adjustable chart speeds are available,
though 20 mm/hr is the commonly preferred speed.

Final Control Elements (Actuators)


The final control element is the mechanism which alters the value of the manipulated
variable in response to the output signal from the automatic control device. The final
control element mainly consists of two parts; (1) actuators (2) valves or dampers.
An actuator is used to translate the output signal of the automatic controller into a
position of valve/damper exerting large power.

Actuators
Valve actuator is a device which is used to close/open (trip) or control (modulate)
the valve used on a pipe line carrying liquid or gas. This eliminates the manual
operation and replaces by a power driven unit. There are three types of actuators,
viz.,
i) Pneumatic actuators
ii) Electric actuators
iii) Hydraulic actuators
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 29 of 62

Pneumatic Actuators (Ref. Fig. 42 & 43)


Pneumatic valve actuators position the control valve by responding to air pressure
signal. There are mainly two types of pneumatic valve actuators:
1. Spring and diaphragm actuator
2. Piston actuator

Spring and Diaphragm Actuator:

In the spring and diaphragm actuator, variable air pressure is applied to a flexible
diaphragm to oppose a spring. The combination of diaphragm and spring forces acts
on the stem to balance the fluid forces on the valve.

The pneumatic actuator consists essentially of two diaphragm cases, the diaphragm
and the springs. Actuators with hand wheel drive are fitted additionally with a hand-
wheel mounted on diaphragm case or side mounted on the yoke of the valve. The
hand-operate actuator is a spindle drive with hand wheel, the valve position is
secured by a locking device.

Operation:
The signal pressure produces a force on the diaphragm surface which is balanced by
the actuator spring. Since the travel is proportional to the signal pressure, the
number of springs and the spring pre-tension define the signal pressure range and
the nominal pressure.

Fig. 42 Air to Extend Actuators Fig.43 Air to Retract Actuators


LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 30 of 62

PARTS REFERENCE
Ref.No Part Name Computer Ref. Part Name Computer Ref. N Part Name
Abbrev. No. Abbrev.
*15 Gasket (packing bo GASKET *32 Packing PACKING 45 Cap Screw
(diaph case)
17 Yoke YOKE 33 Spring Seat (upper) USPR ST 46 Nut (diaph
case)
18 Cap Screw (L case CAP SCR 34 Spring Seat (lower) LSPR ST 56 Travel
yoke) Indicator
Scale
*19 Gasket (L case GASKET 35 Pipe Plug PIP PLG 57 Machine
yoke) Screw
20 Packing Nut PKG NUT 36 Spring Adjustor SPR ADJ 70 Ball and
Retainer
21 Snap Ring SNP RNG 37 Bushing (spri BUSHING 71 Spring
adjustor) Barrel
22 Actuator Spring ACT SPR *39 Diaphragm DIAPHRM 72 Spring
Barrel Cap
22A Actuator Spring ACT SPR 40 Diaphragm Plate DPH PLT 73 Ball Bearing
Race
26 Actuator Stem ACT STM 41 Diaphragm Washer DPH WSH 74 Cap Screw
(SBL to UD
CSE)
30 Nut (actuator stem NUT 43 Upper Diaphragm Case U D CSE A Air
Connection
31 Packing Box PKG BOX 44 Lower Diaphragm Case L D CSE

In case of air failure, the valve opens or closes fully depending on the type, due to
the action of the spring.
The direction of the stroke of the actuator stem depends upon the location of the
springs and of the actuator air connection.

Spring Closing Actuator:


The springs will move the actuator stem downwards. The actuator air connection is
located at the lower diaphragm case.

Spring Opening Actuator:


The spring will move the actuator stem upwards. The actuator air connection is
located at the upper diaphragm case.

Cylinder (Piston) Actuator:


(Comparison with Diaphragm type) (Ref. Fig. 44)
The cylinder actuator is smaller in size compared to the diaphragm actuator. Because
the valve equipped with a cylinder actuator is smaller, it can fit into more confined
and unusual spaces than a diaphragm. In addition, the air action of the standard
cylinder actuator can be reversed in the field very easily. One of the most important
characteristics of a control valve is tight shut off. Diaphragm can be sized so that
they will provide tight shut off. The cylinder actuator used on the same valve will
provide 1000 times better shut off.

The substantially smaller leakage rate a valve with a cylinder actuator has, results
from much larger seat load due to higher thrust potential of the cylinder actuator. In
the case of the cylinder actuator, the forces which provide seat load are the spring
and the air supply times the cylinder area, with a diaphragm only the spring provides
seat load. In addition to these forces, another one is the force exerted by the fluid.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 31 of 62

In the case of the cylinder actuator the flow can be used to assist in closing and with
a diaphragm the flow must oppose the spring.

Fig. 44 – Linear spring cylinder actuator

The spring and diaphragm combination in a diaphragm operator lacks the stiffness of
a double acting cylinder actuator. As a result, flow must be from under the plug of
the valve to prevent the plug from being sucked into the seat when throttling in a
partially open position. In the cylinder type, since there is air pressure on both sides
of the piston, any tendency for the plug to be drawn into the seat is overcome by a
build up of pressure under the piston. When the plug is in a partially open position
the piston is close to the bottom of the cylinder and has a very small volume
underneath it. Any movement of the plug tending towards the seat results in a very
large decrease in the already small volume underneath the piston. Since the amount
of air under the piston does not change, the pressure goes up substantially
preventing any movement of the plug.

Cylinder actuators are much easier to set up and calibrate. Because the springs
function is to provide action on air supply failure, it does not require a bench set. The
spring in a diaphragm in addition to providing the range must also be set specifically
for the valve size and pressure conditions. Because of the bench set, a diaphragm
never provides full closed position at 3 psi instrument signal or full open at a 15 psi
signal. A positioner helps overcome this problem but results in a necessity to
calibrate both the positioner and the spring in the diaphragm. In a cylinder actuator,
there is a direct relationship between valve position and the instrument signal it is
calibrated for.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 32 of 62

Electric Actuators:
Generally the electric actuators are of a reduction gear box coupled with electric
motor type and these are used for operating sluice, globe, gate, butterfly valve etc.

For motor actuators braking is required to stop the motor at the desired valve
position.

Torque and Limit Switches:


While closing a valve the first and foremost requirement is that there should not be
any leakage on the delivery side when the valve is closed. At the same time it is also
necessary that the valve seat lining is not damaged due to over tightening of the
wedge. The torque switch can be preset within its range to limit the output torque.
When the required torque is developed by the actuator, the torque switch trips off
the motor.

The torque switch provided in the valve opening direction works as a back-up
protection in case the limit switch in operating direction fails or the valve gets struck
due to some obstruction thereby increasing the actuator output torque beyond the
preset value.

Thus the torque switches in either direction stop the valve movement in case the
preset torque is exceeded, thereby avoiding costly damages to the valve.

Hydraulic Actuator
Description:
The hydraulic linear unit is used to actuate valves with straight-line stem motion.
These units are specially used to actuate valves that require a force of a few tons to
change their position. The main components of the system are oil pump-motor set, a
fine filter, a pressure relay, an overflow valve, an electromagnetically operated two-
position distributor, non-return valve, emergency control set, shut-off valve,
intermediate plate and a thermometer.

Principle of Operation: (Ref. Fig. 45)


The oil gear pump is driven by an asynchronous motor and sucks oil from the tank
through a suction filter. This oil is delivered through the fine filter to the following
components:

1. Overflow valve, which sets the desired value of supply pressure.


2. Electromagnetically operated two-position distributor, which sends the oil to the
upper or lower chamber of the actuator.
3. Hydraulic accumulator, through a non-return valve and shut-off valve.
4. Pressure relay.
5. Distributors, in the form of overshoot pressure.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 33 of 62

Fig.45 – Hydraulic linear unit

1 Tank 8 Hydraulic actuator 14 Manual distributor


2 Suction filer 9 Minimum flow valve 15 Pressure gauge
3 Electric motor-pump 10 Hydroaccumulator 16 Pressure relay
4 Fine filter 11 Shut-off valve 17 Limit switches
5 Overflow valve 12 Non-return valve 18 Oil cooler
6 Electrohydraulic distributor 13 Hydraulic valve HB3-0130-2 19 Thermometer
A-201
7 Hydraulic distributor HB3-0130-

The position of the actuator is changed by the distributor when the unit is under
automatic control. A control signal is applied to the distributor electromagnet, from
the flow measuring system. When there is no signal, oil is delivered to the upper
chamber of the actuator, opening the valve. When there is a pump pressure failure,
the hydraulically operated distributor shuts off the actuator from the supply system.
A change of the control signal from state 0 to 1, the oil is delivered to the lower
chamber, thus closing the valve.
When the oil pressure drops below the adjusted valve, the oil supply to the actuator
is cut off by the hydraulically-operated directional control valve. When the unit is
under manual control mode, the change in actuator position is achieved by means of
hydraulically-operated distributor and manually controlled distributor. According to
the position of the distributor slide, oil from the hydro accumulator under nitrogen
pressure is delivered to either of the chambers of the actuator, making it shift.
The manual distributor is used for controlling the actuator in the event of block
failure. The remote controllers provided controls the valve by energising the solenoid
valves.

Final Control Element - Control Valve


Control valve is defined as follows:
A valve that regulates the flow or pressure of a medium that effects some
controlled process. Control valves are usually operated by remote signals from
independent devices using control mechanism powered electrically,
pneumatically, electro-hydraulically etc.
Valve Body & Seating Arrangement:
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 34 of 62

Fig.46 – Single seated valve Fig.47 – double seated valve

Globe Valve:
The most common valve body used for control valves is GLOBE. Moving the
stopper (plug) by direct thrust on to the orifice seating. This is the basic principle
of globe valve. Two common types of seating arrangements are used: Globe
valves are primarily used for controlling process fluids under variety of operating
conditions such as high temperature, high pressure high viscosity fluids as well as
low temperature fluids. These valves are available with unbalanced and balanced
trim.

Single Seated:
Fig. 46 shows a single seated valve. In a single seated valve there is only one
flow orifice, the plug is subjected to the total differential force across the valve
and hence if the pressure drop is large, large valve operator is required. Further,
single seated valves are sensitive to fluctuations in line pressures, which result in
fluctuating forces on the plug, and consequent deviations from control point.
Single seated valves are mainly used where low seat leakage is desired and
operating pressure is relatively low. These are unbalanced valves. The leakage
when the valve is fully closed is 0.01% of the rated CV. With soft seating, the
leakage is 0.001% of the rated valve CV.

Double Seated:
Fig. 47 shows a double seated valve. The double seated valve has got two flow
orifices and the two plugs are mounted on the same stem. Relative to the plugs,
the flow through the two orifices are in opposite directions. In double seated
valves the forces on the plugs due to differential pressure across the orifices are
balanced, so they need smaller valve operators. For the same reason of force
balance, pressure fluctuations in the line do not change the position of the plugs.
However, in the case of double seated valves, tight seating at both the seats
simultaneously cannot be obtained easily owing to manufacturing limitations. The
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 35 of 62

seat leakage of these valves in fully closed position is 0.1% of the rated CV. With
soft seating, the leakage is 0.01% of the rated valve CV.

Fig. 48 – Three-way valve

So far we have considered Globe type valves. 3 way valves (Fig.48) are basically
double ported globe valves and can be conveniently used either to divide the
flowing into two steams or mix two streams. The other commonly used types of
valves are Butterfly Valves, Ball Valves, Saunders Diaphragm Valve, Angle
Valves, etc.

Selection of Control Valve:


A valve is essentially a variable orifice. There are three important features which
influence the selection of valve to meet specific flow requirement through orifice.
• Flow capacity
• Control valve noise
• Flow characteristics
• Rageability (turn down ratio)
• Allowable seat leakage

Flow Capacity:
CV is the factor governing the size of a control valve and is dependent on the
maximum flow likely through the valve. Valve coefficient CV is the number of US
gpm of water which will pass through the given flow restriction with a pressure
drop of 1 PSI. The CV rating of a valve is always specified at full lift or in the wide
open position.

Flow Characteristics:
Valve characteristics are usually described graphically in terms of % flow vs. %
lift (or travel).
The basic types of valve characteristics are:

a) Quick Opening:
Ref. Fig. 49. The flow is linear upto about 50% valve travel and thereafter
increases rapidly.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 36 of 62

Fig. 49 - Quick opening globe valve with graph showing plug characteristics
The quick opening bevel or pappet is the simplest to construct and its orifice area
increases linearly with valve lift which is usually small. This type of valve is
satisfactory for use with two step controllers which require the valve to be in one
of two positions either open or shut.

b) Linear:
Ref. Fig. 50. The relationship is a straight line. For linear flow a Vee-port or a
contoured plug is used. The flow is directly proportional to the valve travel.
Change in flow rate (dQ) = K change in valve lift (dl); K = Constant

Fig. 50 – Linear globe valve with graph showing plug characteristics: At 50%
Open, there is 50% flow at 25% open, 25% flow, and so on.

c) Equal Percentage:
Ref. Fig. 51. Equal increments of travel provide equal % increments of flow.

Fig. 51 - Equal percentage globe valve with graph showing plug characteristics. Almost
constant rate of change of flow for unit changes in lift.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 37 of 62

The change in flow (dQ) resulting from a change in valve lift (dl) expressed as a
percentage of the initial flow is proportional to the change in valve lift.
DQ/Q = K dl
In equal percentage valves a unit change in lift will result in a change in flow that
is a fixed percentage of the flow rate at that lift.
When the control valve is installed its flow characteristics are no longer
independent of the rest of the system.

Control Valve Accessories


Elecro-Pneumatic Converter (E/P)
Receives electric signal (usually 4-20 mA D.C.) from controller and converts this
into a proportional air pressure signal usually 3-15 psi.

Positioner:
A pneumatic valve positioner is a device which precisely positions, with the help
of air, the moving part (or parts) of a pneumatically operated valve in accordance
with a pneumatic control signal. The pneumatic positioner has a pre-selected
relationship between the valve stem position (controlled variable) and the
controller output signal. The air pressure signal from E/P converter could be
directly connected to actuator diaphragm to operate the control valve. However,
due to friction in actuator as well as valve, precise positioning of valve for a
particular controller output is not practical. To overcome this, a positioner is
used. A positioner essentially has incorporated in it a position control loop. Its
input is the output pressure from controller. Its output is fed to the control valve
diaphragm.

Fig. 52 Mounting positions of nozzle and


Schematic of the positioner flapper for “direct action”

Through a linkage mechanism, the valve stem position is measured and a


corresponding pneumatic pressure signal is generated inside the positioner. This
pressure representing the actual valve stem position is compared with controller
output pressure which represents the desired stem position. If there is an error
the output from the positioner is changed so that the valve stem moves in a
direction which will reduce the error. The positioner consists of a lever with a
shaft and measurement spring, the diaphragm and the pneumatic control system
with nozzle, flapper plate and amplifier.
Fig. 52 shows schematic arrangement of a positioner.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 38 of 62

Operation:
The positioner operates on the force balance principle. The input to the positioner
is fed from pneumatic controller. The output of the positioner is the air pressure
Pst.
For every position of the control valve there is a corresponding torsion of the
measuring spring (3). Whenever the actuator or control valve stem plate (20)
and the pin (1.1) move, the lever (1) and other transfer elements (2.1, 2.2, 3.1)
cause the spring (3) to rotate and the spring torsion is altered. The input Pe
produces a force on the diaphragm (4) which is balanced by the torsion load of
the spring (3). If the input signal Pe changes, then the feeler pin (5.1) moves, the
flapper plate (6) follows this motion and influences the nozzle (7).
The supply air is connected to the pneumatic amplifier (8) and flows through the
throttle (9) and the nozzle (7) against the flapper plate (6). A change in either
the signal input or the actuator position causes a pressure change before and
after the amplifier. The output pressure Pst, controlled by the amplifier (8), flows
through the adjustable volume throttle (10) to the pneumatic actuator.
Adjustable needle valves (9, 10) are used for optimization and stabilization of the
position-control-loop.

Air Filters & Pressure Regulators (PRV):


Air Filters:
The air filter removes all foreign matter and allows dry clean air to flow freely
without resistance. Marks on the housing indicate the direction of air flow, so that
it can be installed correctly. A filter element or device for removing foreign
matter is kept in the housing.

Fig. 53 - Air pressure regulator (Masoneilan)


LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 39 of 62

The filter should be installed in a line in such a way that it cannot be by-passed.
If the filter is by-passed, the working devices may be damaged. The filter should
be large enough in capacity to handle the required flow of air.

Maintenance:
a) The foreign matter and water collected under the participation should be
drained periodically by opening the drain valve. The pressure existing inside
the container blows out the filtered water condensate and the solid particles.
b) The filter element should be cleaned by blowing compressed air into it in the
reverse direction.
Pressure Regulator:
The pressure regulator is sometimes called a reducing or regulating valve. The
regulator provides a constant set pressure at the outlet of the regulator. This
setting may range from ‘O’ to full line pressure. Regulators can be either the
diaphragm type or the piston type.
In the diaphragm type regulator, the adjusting screw is used to set the value for
a given pressure at the reduced (output) side. After the valve has been set for a
given pressure, the lock nut should be tightened to prevent a change setting.
In the piston-type regulator, the spring acts on the top side of the piston which
consists of the piston cup and a metal backing disk. The force of the spring can
be changed by means of the adjusting screw. The regulator body acts as a
cylinder for movement of the piston.

Automatic Process Control


Feedback Control Fundamentals
Fig. 54 shows a water tank with inlet and outlet connections. The operator is
required to maintain a constant level in the tank. Now suppose the inlet flow is
increased by certain amount, it will have an effect on the liquid level in the tank
i.e. liquid level will slowly rise. This level change from required value is noticed by
the operator from the level indicator mounted on the tank. He will evaluate the
level change by measuring the deviation of level from desired value and to lower
the rising level will open the valve on the outlet of the tank and thus control the
liquid in the tank to desired value. In this example the outlet valve is the control
element.

Fig. 54 – Water tank level control

This is an example of Manual Control. Automatic Control also works in a similar


manner. Whether Manual or Automatic, the control has following functions:
i) Measurement
ii) Comparison
iii) Computation
iv) Correction
Fig. 55 shows the control system block diagram for the tank level control. The
part shown in the dotted block can be done manually or automatically and is the
FEEDBACK. Hence the name FEEDBACK CONTROL.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 40 of 62

Fig. 55 – Control system block diagram

Although the functions are simple, time lags in each operation increase the
difficulty of control. Time lags are caused by (1) Capacitance (2) Resistance (3)
Transportation time (4) Dead time due to friction, inertia etc.

Fig. 56 – Control loop response curve

Process Control Response:


The whole purpose of the control system is to minimize the process upset when
the inevitable changes in process conditions, called disturbances or load changes,
occur.
In the example of Fig. 54, suppose original level was ho and inflow = outflow =
Qo. Now suppose the outflow increases to Q1, the response is as shown in
Fig.56. To make the response faster, we may open inlet valve more than
necessary initially and after level reaches ho again, close it back to Q1. The
response due to this temporary excess correction is as shown Dotted/Shaded in
Fig.56.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 41 of 62

Automatic Process Control:


Fig. 57 shows the block diagram of an automatic control loop.

Fig. 57 – Automatic control loop block diagram

Modes of Control:
The mode of control is the manner in which a control system makes corrections
relative to deviations. Following modes are commonly used:
a) On – Off Control
b) Proportional Control
c) Reset Control (Integral)
d) Rate Control (Derivative)

On-Off Control:
In this type of control action the signal to actuating element is either open (OFF)
or closed (ON). Let us consider the example of level control in Fig. 107. Let us
assume the level is controlled by opening the inlet valve fully, whenever the level
drops below the desired level of time lags in the system the level will continue to
rise for some time even after the valve is closed, and will continue to fall for
some time even after the valve is opened. Since an exact correction is never
applied, no stable balance condition of inflow and outflow of water is achieved
and the level cycles up and down as shown in Fig.58.

Fig. 58 – ON-OFF Control


LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 42 of 62

Proportional Control:
Proportional action allows the final element to take intermediate positions between
ON and OFF. This permits the final element to vary the amount of energy to the
process,
depending upon how much the value of the measured variable has shifted from
the desired value. It is important to note that in proportional action there is a
particular position of the final element for each unit of departure of the measured
variable from the set point.
A controller with proportional action gives a change in the output signal (V) which
is proportional to the deviation (e)
V = -K2 e
Where K2 is the gain of controller as % change in valve position per % change in
deviation.

Proportional Band:
The change in deviation in % full scale which causes full valve travel is called
proportional band.
From the eq. V = -K2 e we see that when
E = 100/K2% we will have V = 100% and hence proportional
Band = 100/K2% or proportional band = (100/Gain)%

Offset:
There is only one valve opening for each load condition that will give no
deviation. Suppose to start with we had one set of load conditions and the valve
opening was adjusted so as to get zero error under these conditions of load.
Assume now the demand is suddenly changed and that it requires a valve
opening corresponding to an output V2 if error is to be zero. As soon as the
demand changes, error attains its maximum value and the controller starts giving
an increased output to reduce the error. As the error goes on reducing, the
controller output also increases. It is easy to see that the error cannot be
completely eliminated, for we have seen that when the error is zero, the
controller can given an output V1 only, but the process requires an output V2 if
the error is to become zero. Thus the controller output actually settles down at
V3, in between V1 and V2, and in this position, there is a residual error in the
controlled variable which will give rise to a controller output V3. This residual
error is controlled variable is known as the OFF-SET. Ref. Fig. 59.

Fig. 59 – Off-set
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 43 of 62

Reset Control:
In this mode the position of the final control element is changed at a rate which
is proportional to deviation. Thus as long as deviation continues, the valve motion
continues. This mode is also called integral mode. If the response of the final
control element is not quick and the time lags in the process and control loop are
not small, exact correction may not be applied at the correct time, thus causing a
stability problem. For this reason this mode is rarely used alone. However, it
plays an important part when used in conjunction with proportional action, in
eliminating offset.

Proportional Plus Reset Control (PI):


By adding this mode to the proportional mode, we can completely eliminate the
offset under any load conditions.
As soon as a load change occurs, proportional control action (due to proportional
mode) gives rise to a correction proportional to initial deviation. As time passes,
the integral action adds its contribution to the proportional action trying to
decrease the deviation. As the deviation decreases, the contribution from
proportional action decreases, but the integral action goes on correcting the error
as long as deviation exists. Finally when the deviation tends to become zero, the
proportional action contributes nothing and the final exact correction is applied
wholly by reset mode. Fig. 60 explains these actions. The area A represents the
energy (or material) added by the proportional mode, area B represents the
energy (or material) added by the reset mode and the area C represents the
excess correction that is applied and withdrawn by proportional mode.

Fig. 60 – Proportional + reset control response

Reset Rate:
To explain the meaning of reset rate, let us assume that a constant deviation is
somehow maintained. Then the components of the proportional action and the
integral action can be represented as shown in Fig. 61. Here x is the amount of
correction generated by proportional action. The integral action takes a time y to
generate a correction equal to x, the proportional contribution. Also in every time
interval of y the integral action adds an amount x to correction. In other words, the
integral action repeats the proportional action at the rate of 1/y per unit time. This
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 44 of 62

rate of generation of integral action in terms of proportional action is known as the


Reset Rate. It is usually expressed as repeats per minute.

Fig. 61 – Reset rate

The equation for proportional plus reset mode can be written as:

V = (K1 ∫ e dt + K2e)

If e is constant and integral action generates a correction = K1e t and


proportional action generates a correction = K2e, then the reset rate = K2/K1
repeats per unit time.

Rate Control:

In all of the modes considered so far a sudden large change of load will cause
oscillations in the controlled variable. When the load change is high, the deviation
of the controlled variable is also high, and due to proportional action the control
valve goes to one extreme position immediately. It is kept in this extreme
position for quite some time, because it takes time for deviation to decrease
because of process time lags. Actually the deviation continues to increase for
some time and then only begins to decrease. In the meantime because of the
large duration of the deviation, the reset action has built up a large correction.
Hence even when the deviation becomes zero, equilibrium conditions do not exist
and the controlled variable overshoots beyond the set-point and now the
deviation in opposite direction increases to a large value. Then the reverse
sequence of operations takes place and thus the controlled variable oscillates for
a considerable amount of time before it settles down at the desired value. It is
desirable to have an action which will partially compensate the over-correction
due to reset, when the deviation begins to decrease, and the controlled variable
approaches the set point. By this we can reduce overshoots. The action used is
the Rate action, and this gives a controller output which is proportional to the
rate of change of controlled variable (i.e. rate of change of deviation). The
equation can be written as V = - K3 de/dt.

Proportional Plus Rate Control (PD):


The equation can be represented as V = -K2e – K3de/dt where K2 is the gain in
the proportional mode and K3 is the proportionality constant in the rate mode.
Fig. 62 shows the improved response with Rate action.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 45 of 62

Fig. 62 – Response with rate action

Protection and Interlocks

Main Objectives:
The Protection and Interlock systems have the following main objectives:

a) Safety of Equipment
Example: Boiler trip on very high furnace pressure prevents boiler furnace
from exploding.

b) Safety of Personnel
Example: Provision of local emergency push button for large motor driven
equipment such as ID fans.

c) To Minimise Plant Down-time


Example: Provision of quick opening of HP by-pass valves to avoid boiler trip
in case turbine trips.

Basic Building Blocks:


Interlock systems are designed and represented by schematic diagrams. A typical
interlock scheme is shown in Fig. 63.

Fig. 63 – RAPH Damper (motor operated) open command – Typical interlock

The following are the main building blocks of an interlock system:

a) AND Gate
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 46 of 62

The standard symbol used and the truth table are shown in Fig.64. The AND Gate
gives an output only when ALL the inputs are present. Typical representation of
AND Gate using solid state circuits as well as relays are also shown in Fig. 64.

Fig. 64 – AND Gate

b) OR Gate
The standard symbol used and the truth table are shown in Fig. 65. The OR
Gate gives an output as long as AT LEAST ONE input is present. Typical
representation of OR Gate using solid state circuits as well as relays are also
shown in Fig. 65.

Fig. 65 – OR Gate Relay based OR Gate

c) NOT Gate (Inverter)


The standard symbol used is shown in Fig. 66. The NOT circuit is simply an
inverter, i.e., it gives an output only when input is not correct.

Fig. 66 – Symbol NOT (Inverter)


LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 47 of 62

e) Exclusive OR
The standard symbol is shown in Fig. 67.

Fig. 67 – Exclusive OR gate

e) Time Delay Element


The standard symbols used are shown in Fig. 68 & 69. Time delay can be two
types:
- ON Time Delay
- OFF Time Delay

Type:
Switch-On Delay

Fig. 68 – Switch-on delay


Function:
Output Y is available after time ‘t’ has elapsed, if the input signal is available for a
minimum of period ‘t’. If input condition A is omitted, then output Y is omitted
immediately.

Type – Switch-off Delay

Fig. 69 – Switch-off delay

Function:
Output Y is immediately available when input signal A is available. If input
condition A is omitted, then the output signal Y is maintained for the period ‘t’
and is omitted thereafter. Output signal Y is not omitted if input A returns before
time ‘t’ has elapsed.

Flip-Flop (Memory)
The standard symbol used for Set-Reset Flip Flop is shown in Fig.70. The output
Q is present when the circuit is set. The output Q is present when circuit is Reset.
For setting or resetting, only a momentary pulse is required at S or R input
respectively. Once a pulse is given, for example to S input, the circuit is set even
if there is no input. This capacity to hold its position enables the circuit to be used
as a memory.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 48 of 62

Fig. 70 – S-R Flip-Flop

Types of Interlock Systems:


Relay based interlocks are the oldest and are still being used.

Solid – State hard – wired interlocks came into use after the advent of reliable,
simple integrated circuits for various gates etc.
Programmable interlocks are presently increasingly being used. These are based
on microprocessors now readily available.

Table-8 gives a comparison of the 3 systems.

TABLE-8 – Comparison of protection and interlock systems

Relay Based Solid state hard Programmable logic


wired modules control (PLC)
Execution of Difficult Possible with Extra Easily possible with
Complex Interlocks Modules software
Flexibility for Difficult Possible -do-
Modifications in Additional Relays Additional wiring
future and wiring required reqd. additional
modules may be
required
Monitoring Facilities Limited Good Excellent Detailed
Diagnostics
available
Reliability Reliable System Reliable System Reliable System
Environmental 1) Prone to failure 1) Free from dust 1) Free from dust
Conditions due to dust failure failure
2) Air-conditioning 2) Air-conditioning 2) Air-conditioning
not required desirable required
Operation and Simple Limited electronics Electronics as well
Maintenance skills expertise required as software
required expertise required
Cost Cheap Relatively costlier For large system,
cheaper than solid
state

Safety Considerations:
Redundancy:
For critical equipment protections where failure of a single instrument could
cause serious damage, 2 out of 3 systems is used. For example, for boiler
tripping on low
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 49 of 62

furnace pressure, 3 independent pressure switches are provided; if at least 2


pressure switches sense very low pressure, the boiler is tripped. Fig. 71
illustrates this circuit.

Fig. 71 – Two out of three protection

Fail Safe:
On loss of electrical power to the protection and interlock system circuits, the
equipment safety could be jeopardized. To prevent such risk, protection circuits
are so designed that on loss of electrical power, the equipment would
automatically shut down. This practice is commonly followed for boiler
protections, for example, Fig. 72 illustrates this method.

Fig. 72 – Typical fail-safe interlock

During normal operation, all tripping parameter contacts are closed, keeping
master trip relay energized.
When any parameter reaches trip value, its contact opens, causing master trip
relay to de-energise.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 50 of 62

Boiler trips if master trip relay de-energises. Thus, on loss of logic power supply,
master relay will de-energise, causing boiler trip.

Annunciation System
The basic annunciator system consists of multiple individual alarm points, each
connected to a trouble contact (alarm switch), a logic module and a visual
indicator (Fig. 73). The individual alarm points are operated from a common
power supply and share a number of annunciator system components including
an audible signal generator (horn), a flasher and acknowledge and test push
buttons. In normal operation the annunciator system and individual alarm points
are quiescent.

Fig. 73 – Elements of Basic Annunciation System

The trouble contact is an alarm switch which monitors a particular process


variable and is actuated when the variable exceeds preset limits. It is normally a
switch contact which closes (makes) or opens (breaks) the electrical circuit to the
logic module and thereby initiates the alarm condition. IN the alarm state the
annunciator turns on the visual indicator for the particular alarm point and the
audible signal and flasher for the system. The visual indicator is usually a
backlighted name plate engraved with an inscription to identify the variable and
the abnormal condition. The audible signal can be a horn, buzzer or bell.

Operating Sequences:
The operation of an individual alarm point in the normal, alarm, acknowledged
and return-to-normal stages is the annunciator sequence, a wide variety of which
are available.
The most comprehensive sequences used in large annunciation systems, as in
power stations, are as shown in Table-9 and Table-10.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 51 of 62

TABLE-9 – Non-First up Sequence


Condition Field Contact Alarm Lamp Horn No.1 Horn No.2
Normal Normal Off Off Off
Alarm Abnormal Fast Flash On Off
Sound Cancel Abnormal Fast Flash Off Off
Acknowledge Abnormal Steady Off Off
Return to Normal Slow Flash Off On
Normal
Reset Normal Off Off Off
Test Normal Fast Flash On Off
Lamp Test Normal Steady on - -
Some of the other popular sequences as defined by Instrument Society of
America (ISA) ARE THE SEQUENCES 1b, 2a (Ringback) and 4A (First-up) shown
in Table-11.
The normal flashing frequencies used in most annunciators are as follows:
Slow Flash : 1 – 2 Hz
Fast Flash : 3 – 4 Hz

Operation:
As soon as an alarm appears, the horn will ring. The operator should only press
SOUND CANCEL push button; other push buttons – ACKNOWLEDGE, RESET etc.
MUST NOT be pressed. After noting down the alarm inscription, ACKNOWLEDGE
& RESET PBs can be pressed. This should be strictly followed to avoid losing
useful information as some alarms may appear momentarily only and may clear
as soon as RESET PB is pressed.

TABLE-10 – First-up Sequence


S.No. Operator Action/ Contact Status Lamp Horn 1 Horn 2
Condition
1. Normal Normal Off Off Off
2. Alarm First Abnormal Fast flash On Off
Sub Abnormal Fast flash On Off
3. Sound Cancel First Abnormal Fast flash Off Off
Sub Abnormal Fast flash Off Off
4(a) Acknowledge First Abnormal Intermittent Off Off
flash
Sub Abnormal Steady on Off Off
5(a) Return to Normal First Normal Slow flash Off On
Sub Normal Slow flash Off On
6(a) Reset First Normal Slow flash Off Off
Sub Normal Off Off Off
7(a) First-up key First Normal Off Off Off
Operation
4(b) Return to Normal First Normal Slow flash Off On
before acknowledge
Sub normal Slow flash Off On
5(b) Acknowledge First Normal Slow flash Off Off
Sub Normal Slow flash Off Off
6(b) Reset First Normal Slow flash Off Off
Sub Normal Off Off Off
7(b) First-up key First Normal Off Off Off
operation
8. Test Fast flash On Off
9. Lamp Test Steady on
Note: The first-up alarm window will continue to flash even after acknowledge or Reset PB
operation. It will clear only after First-up key is operated.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 52 of 62

Analysers
Analysers in a power station are broadly classified into two groups:
a) Water & Steam Analysers
b) Flue Gas Analysers

Water & Steam Analysers:


The important analysers for steam and water are:
i) Conductivity
ii) pH
iii) Silica
iv) Dissolved O2

Fig. 74 shows typical water and steam analysis measuring points in a power
station.

Fig. 74 – Typical water & steam analysis locations

Sampling:
Steam and water samples drawn from high pressure/high temperature points are
brought to sample coolers where the sample is cooled to temperature acceptable
to various analysers. The pressure of the sample is reduced by Pressure Reducing
Valves. Cooled sample at low pressure is then distributed to various analysers.

Conductivity Measurement:
Electrolytic conductivity of a sample is a measure of concentration of various
charged ions in it. Presence of ions affect the ability of the solution to pass an
electrical current. Conductivity is measured by measuring resistance between a
pair of electrodes immersed in the sample. Since conductivity is inverse of
resistivity (ohm cm), it is usually expressed as:
Mho/cm or Siemens/cm. Practically, mho is too large a unit and micro mho is
more commonly used.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 53 of 62

A standard conductivity cell (Fig. 75) has two electrodes, each 1 sq.cm in area,
placed 1 cm apart. Such a cell is defined to have a CELL CONSTANT, K = 1.
Generally conductivity cells have areas different from 1 sq.cm. The cell constant
is the ratio of standard cell area (1 sq.cm) and area of cell under consideration,
i.e.:

Fig. 75 – Standard conductivity cell

Cell Constant = K = 1/a, where a = cell area.

pH Measurement:
Chemicals are added to the feed water to control pH and remove oxygen.
Typically pH is maintained on the alkaline side at about 8.8 – 9.5. This prevents
acidic attacks on ferrous components. Also the stable build up of the protective
magnetic layer is also dependent on the chemical condition prevailing. This pH
measurement is critical.
pH is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. This
means that H+ ion concentration is expressed in terms of the negative exponent
of power of 10.
Pure water dissociates into H+ and OH- ions each having a concentration of 10-7
gm/litre. A solution having a H+ ion concentration greater than 10-7 gm/litre is
called an acid. A solution having a H+ ion concentration less than 10-7 gm/litre is
called Base.
Water having H+ ion concentration of 10-7 gm/litre is neutral. For measurement,
unit is obtained by the logarithm of the above number with negative sign omitted
for easy expression, which is called pH number. Thus water is having 7pH. A
hydrogen ion concentration of 10-9 gm/litre is having a pH of 9 (Base) and of 10-5
gm/litre is having a pH of 5 (Acid). Strong acid and strong basic solution is
having 0 and 14 pH respectively.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 54 of 62

Fig. 76 – Cross Section showing elements of the glass electrode

The measurement of pH requires the use of specially designed electrodes. Two


electrodes are used for each installation. The most common pH-sensitive
electrode is the glass electrode, and the most common reference electrode is the
calomel electrode. Fig. 76 shows typical glass and reference electrodes. The pH
sensing portion is a specially processed glass mainly responding to hydrogen ions
situated at the tip of non-conducting glass tube. On the inside of the glass is KC1
solution (a buffer of pH 7). The outer side dips into the solution whose pH is to be
measured. Across the interfaces of the sensitive glass, a potential difference is
developed which is a measure of the difference in pH between the two solutions.

Silica Measurement:
The silicometer is a calorimeter in which the resultant colour of asolution to which
reagents have been added, is a measure of the concentration of silica in that
solution. The instrument automatically takes a measured quantityof the sample
water and fixed volumes of molybdate and reducing agents are successively
added, after which the mixture is stirred and the solution develops a blue colour.
This solution is then delivered to the optical comparator where the blue colour is
compared with either a Perspex blank, or, in cases where the sample is
discoloured, with the sample water itself. For calibration purposes, standard
solutions of silica can be incorporated. The whole sequence of operations is
entirely automatic. The electronic part gives a mADC signal for control panel
indication.
Silica Analysers usually require air conditioned room.

Silica Analyser:
Fig. 77 shows the flow diagram of the silica analyzer
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 55 of 62

Fig. 77 – Silica analyser


LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 56 of 62

Vemagiri 388.5 Mw Combined Cycle Power Plant Instrumentation &


Control

1. Plant Operating Mode


The VEMAGIRI POWER PLANT is operated primarily as a base load Unit. However,
to meet the cyclic nature of electricity loads, the VEMAGIRI POWER PLANT is also
capable of cyclic load operation. GTG operates in Load Control mode / Base load,
while STG normally operates on the sliding pressure mode. However STG also
has the facility to operate under inlet pressure control mode of operation. The
power generated by STG is based on the GTG load and steam generated by the
HRSG.

Start / Stop operation of the BMS system shall be either from the Local Panel or
from the BMS Panel in Control Room or from the DCS console, depending upon
the selection of the mode (LOCAL MODE / REMOTE MODE / DCS MODE). The
burner combustion control is from the DCS console only with Operator’s
intervention.

2. Overall Control Concept and Architecture


GTG, HRSG & STG and their auxiliaries are operated from CRT stations mounted
on Unit Control Desk located in Central Control Room (CCR). In addition,
emergency stop push buttons are provided for GTG & STG and for major drives
for safe shutdown of the plant/Equipment.

The auxiliary systems e.g. water treatment plant, air compressor system,
emergency DG sets, ETP and river water intake systems are operated from PLC
based control systems located in local control rooms.

2.1 Distributed Control System (DCS)


Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG), Balance of Plant (BOP) are operated
and controlled from the DCS. Protection and interlock of HRSG and the BOP are
also implemented in the DCS located in CCR.

2.2 Sequence of Event Recording (SER)


A sequence of event recording system (SER) integral to DCS is provided. The
GTG related SER points is time stamped and available to DCS through serial link.

Standalone Annunciation System


In addition to CRT based annunciation system integral to the DCS, a standalone
microprocessor based annunciation system with facia is mounted on a separate
panel. Standalone annunciation system shall acquire inputs from GTG, HRSG,
STG and auxiliaries and Electrical systems including DCS.

2.3 Unit Operation from CCR


Normal start up, shutdown and emergency operation of the entire plant, except
standalone control packages mentioned above is performed from a bank of CRTs
mounted on Control Desk in Control Room.

Following are the functions of operation CRTs:

a) Operation of GTG and associated auxiliaries from GTG CRT.


b) Operation of BOP auxiliaries from DCS CRT station.
c) Operation of STG and associated auxiliaries from STG CRT.
d) Operation of HRSG and associated auxiliaries from DCS CRT.
e) Operation of Electrical system from DCS CRT.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 57 of 62

f) Sequence of Event Recording & Monitoring System from SER CRT

The Operation Engineer is able to call for Plant overview, P& ID Graphics,
group display, alarm display, group trend display, loop displays in the
CRT.

2.4 Control Philosophy

2.4.1 The Gas Turbine and Steam Turbine generators is operated and monitored
through CRT based operator stations furnished with their respective Control
Systems. The HRSG, Steam water cycle system, Cycle chemical injection system,
Balance of plant (Power Block) equipment and electrical systems is operated
through CRTs furnished with the DCS.

2.4.2 The Co-ordinated Control of the plant shall be implemented in the DCS.
The load set point for gas turbine is generated in DCS after receiving the remote
set point. GT generates output based on this set point and STG generates the
balance of the required load. The DCS design includes a provision for the plant
operator to set the load set points manually through DCS when remote load set
point is not available.

2.4.3 The utility and auxiliary systems viz., WT plant, compressed air system,
emergency DG sets, Air Conditioning and Ventilation system, Effluent Treatment
Plant, are operated from PLC based control systems located in the respective
local control panels. Critical signals for Control (including Auto / Standby,
Start/Stop), and protection is hardwired from these systems to DCS. Serial links
between these auxiliary systems controls and the DCS is provided for monitoring
of major parameters from these systems.

2.4.4 The design of the control system ensures that loss of signal, loss of
excitation or failure of any component do not cause an unsafe condition including
the false trips.

2.5 Control Systems Functional Requirements

2.5.1 The following major control systems are envisaged on the basis of
functional requirements.
• GTG control system
• HRSG control system including HRSG (BMS) controls
• STG control system
• BOP ( Power Block Equipment) control system
• Electrical auxiliary control systems
• Off-site package controls

Following are the brief descriptions on functional requirements of each control

system.

2.6 GTG Control system

2.6.1 GTG Control System


LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 58 of 62

2.6.1.1 The gas turbine control system is a state-of-the-art SPEEDTRONIC Mark


VI Triple Modular Redundant (TMR) microprocessor based control system. This
system provides complete Monitoring, control, and protection of the gas turbine-
generator and auxiliaries. The GT Control system with its local Operator station is
located in Packaged Electronic and Electrical Control Compartment (PEECC) near
the GT. One dedicated Remote operator station is provided for the GT Controls.
This operator station is located in CCR. GT Control system is interfaced with the
Plant DCS, through redundant serial link for monitoring of critical parameters and
for coordination during Start-up, Shutdown, and receiving the load setpoint. In
addition, limited hardwired signals is provided between the DCS and the GTG
controls. The hardware interface is used for all protections and critical controls
which are initiated from DCS / STG control system to Mark VI and vice versa. The
balance controls and monitoring shall be through Plant Data Highway.

2.6.1.2 The following functions is implemented in GTG Control System:


2.6.1.2.1 Automatic closed loop control including

• Start-up control
• Acceleration control
• Speed /load control
• Temperature control
• Automatic synchronisation
• Variable inlet guide vane control, (IGV modulated exhaust Temperature
control)
• Load shedding (islanding from the Grid) and house load operations and
reconnection to Grid thereafter.

2.6.1.2.2 Automatic sequencing of GTG auxiliaries

2.6.1.2.3 GTG Protection functions

2.6.1.2.4 Monitoring and annunciation of malfunctions and starting of standby


auxiliaries as applicable

2.6.1.2.5 Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) feature

2.6.1.2.6 Critical tripping (e.g. electronic overspeed and loss of flame failure)

2.6.1.3 GT Turbine Supervisory system including vibration monitoring

2.6.1.4 Emergency tripping system

Provision is made for emergency tripping of GT from PEECC as well as from


control room through push buttons.

STG Control System

2.7 Steam Turbine and Generator (STG) Controls

2.7.1 The steam turbine control system consists of fault-tolerant


microprocessorbased set-up with three independent channels (power
supply, CPU, I/O Cards) performing the overspeed, fundamental and
thermal stress protections. The steam turbine auxiliaries is controlled from
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 59 of 62

redundant controller. This system provides complete monitoring control


and protection of the steam turbine-generator and STG auxiliary systems.

2.7.2 The steam turbine control system is located in Control Equipment Room.
The complete operation of the steam turbine is from a CRT based operator
station to be located in Control Room along side the DCS CRTs. One
dedicated Engineering Station is also located in Control Room. The
Engineering Station allows to download application programs to the
controllers, observe control value of controllers, modify on line tuning
parameter and obtain historical record.

2.7.3 STG Control system is interfaced with the Plant DCS for monitoring of
critical parameters and for co-ordination during Start-up and Shutdown.
The interface between STG control and DCS is through redundant serial
link and limited hardwired signal exchange between the STG controls and
the DCS.

2.7.4 The following functions is implemented in STG Control System:

2.7.4.1 Closed Loop Controls

• ATRS (Auto Turbine Run-up System)


• Automatic loading and unloading
• Steam pressure control
• Automatic HP/IP trimming control
• HP exhaust temperature limitation
• Stress limitation
• Governor Control

2.7.4.2 Turbine Protection

• Overspeed protections
• Fundamental and thermal stress protections
• Any other additional protection as per the STG manufacturer
recommendation.

2.7.4.3 Turbine Stress Evaluator

2.7.4.4 Open loop control of steam turbine auxiliaries

2.7.4.5 Steam Turbine supervisory system including vibration monitoring

2.7.4.6 Emergency tripping system

Provision is made for emergency tripping of STG from control room through push
buttons.

2.8 HRSG Control System

2.8.1 The DCS performs the normal start-up/shutdown and emergency


operations of HRSG and its associated auxiliaries and feed regulating
station. The HRSG (BMS) control is a standalone system with a dedicated
PLC configured as fault tolerant and fail safe with redundant CPU, I/O and
the power supply.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 60 of 62

2.8.2 The control and instrumentation includes the following:

• HP/IP and LP drum level control


• LP drum pressure control
• HP Steam and Reheat Temperature Control
• Deaerator pressure control
• Deaerator level control
• Deaerator inlet temperature control
• CBD tank level control
• CPH inlet temperature control
• LP / IP Startup vent control
• Combustion Control
• Emergency tripping and protection systems
• Sequence control and safety interlocks
• C&I for HRSG & related auxiliary systems, including local and remote
indication as required.
• Local and remote indication of control and isolating valve positions
• Alarms

2.8.3 Emergency tripping system


Provision is made for emergency tripping of HRSG from control room
through push buttons.

2.8.4 Sequence control and safety interlocks

2.8.5 C&I for HRSG & related auxiliary systems, providing local and remote
indication of process and
electrical parameters as required by finalised P&ID.

2.9 Balance of Plant Control System

Following modulating control loops are provided for Balance of Plant system:

1. Condenser Hotwell Level Control (Normal Make-up)


2. Condenser Hotwell Level Control (Emergency Make-up)
3. Excess Condensate Dump Control
4. Condensate Storage Tank Level Control
5. CEP Minimum Recirculation Control
6. CCW System Minimum Recirculation Control
7. HP Bypass Pressure Control
8. HP Bypass Temperature Control
9. IP(HR) Bypass Pressure Control
10. IP(HR) Bypass Temperature Control
11. LP Bypass Pressure Control
12. LP Bypass Temperature Control

2.9.1 Turbine HP/IP/LP Bypass Control


100% capacity HP/IP/LP bypass is operated under following conditions:

• When load is either temporarily lost on the steam turbine generator or is


rapidly reduced
• When steam turbine generator is tripped
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 61 of 62

• For rapid matching of steam and turbine metal temperatures during start-
up of the turbine.
• For serving as a pressure relief system to reduce the possibility of HRSG
safety valves opening when rapid load reduction on the steam turbine
generator occurs.
• To facilitate continuous operation of the steam turbine at part loads with
HRSG operating at 100% MCR operation.

Bypass system is equipped with an inlet pressure control loop modulating a


pressure control valve and an outlet temperature control loop modulating a spray
control valve.

Outlet temperature is controlled by means of spray from the IP feed water


system for HP bypass & condensate for HR and LP bypass system.

Pressure of steam at the inlet to the Bypass pressure control valve is monitored
and compared with a desired set point in the HP main steam line, and the
controlled deviation resulting there from used to initiate control action on the
Bypass Pressure Control Valve.

For temperature control, temperature elements sense the steam header


temperature at downstream of the bypass station. Set point for temperature
regulation is set manually in the temperature controller.

Auto/manual operation is possible for each bypass station. Auto/Manual selection


is done from the DCS.

Operating conditions:

During start up
HRSG is started with bypass valve in closed status and selector in auto position.
When HRSG steam attains desired preset pressure level, bypass valve starts
opening automatically (provided other conditions e.g. sufficient vacuum in
condenser are fulfilled) and dumps steam to the condenser. Initiation of opening
of steam turbine inlet valve starts when the desired pressure and temperature
parameters of the steam turbine are reached and bypass valve starts closing in
tandem.

During start up, the bypass valves operate on a pressure control mode with
variable set points to be programmed based on boiler start up curves.

STG Trip
Bypass valve opens and maintains the steam line set pressure.

Partial load throw off


Bypass action is automatically controlled based on rate of rise of
pressure/pressure high till load demand gets stabilized.

Plant running at full load


Bypass station is in auto mode. Bypass condition pressure and temperature set
points are also in auto mode. Both for sliding and constant pressure mode, the
operating point of bypass stations is approximately 2 kg/cm2 above the operating
pressure while tacking the main steam header pressure.
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED EPC POWER

TRAINING MANUAL
PROJECT 388.5 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant DOC No. IBDC/ L&T/ VCCPP/ 14
DOC. TITLE Fire Protection & Detection System Page No. Page 62 of 62

2.9.2 Condenser hotwell make up & dump control


Condenser hotwell normal level is maintained by regulating the control valve on
the hotwell makeup line. The control valve provided on the condensate excess
return (dump) line from the CEP discharge opens in the event of the hotwell level
becomes High and closes once the hotwell normal level is restored.

The condenser hotwell level is compared with a desired normal set point in the
DCS and control action is initiated on the makeup control valves.

In the event of hotwell level reaching very high the excess dump valve comes
into operation. The measured Hotwell level is compared with set point in the
controller and control action initiated on the excess dump control valve.

2.9.3 CEP minimum recirculation control


The condensate minimum recirculation control valve ensures the minimum flow
requirement of CEP/Gland Steam condenser. This regulating valve is controlled
by control action initiated by comparison of CEP discharge flow with a desired set
point in the DCS.

2.9.4 Fuel gas system Control


An emergency shut down (ESD) valve is mounted on fuel gas supply header
which is open for GT start. This valve closes for gas supply pressure low
upstream of ESD valve or GT trip and/or fire signal.

Subsequently gas is passed through knock out drums and filter separators before
proceeding to the dew point heater. Gas turbine operation is dependent on gas
temperature after dew point heater.

Gas regulator reduces and maintain the desired pressure at the outlet of pressure
and reducing and control station, consisting of acting and working monitors in
series based on the pilot valve setting the gas sensing line. The automatic switch
over is achieved by pilot setting of the slam-shut valve in case of failure of one
pressure regulator. Downstream pressure of the working monitor and the end
positions of slam shut valves is monitored.

After pressure reduction gas is passed through performance heater to raise the
gas temperature suitable for gas turbine. Feed water from IP economizer outlet is
supplied for heating purpose. Feed water outlet from the performance heater is
led to condenser through a temperature control valve. This valve regulates the
feed water flow based on the gas temperature at the performance heater outlet.
Feed water pressure is higher than the gas pressure and hence there is a
possibility of water ingress to the gas in the process. The performance heater
constitutes moisture separator, in which the liquid level is monitored.
Subsequently gas is passed through the coalescent filters for absorbing the water
content and coalescent filter acts as the final filter upstream of gas turbine.
Adequacy of pressure and temperature of gas at the outlet of the coalescent filter
is monitored in DCS and these are start permissive for the gas turbine. Water
level in the coalescent filter is monitored in DCS. and in case of very high level
the gas turbine will trip. Gas turbine inlet emergency shutdown valve
automatically opens or closes on receipt of signal from GT control system.