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John.- Hi, Mary.

Mary.- Hi John. Have you been here long time ago?

John.- Oh, no. I’ve (I have) arrived five minutes ago.

Mary.- Great. I have think you have been here at least an hour before. I
have drived all the morning, but traffic was so heavy.

John.- Never mind Mary. Have you eat yet?

Mary.- No, no yet.

John.- Then come to that restaurant. I have come here for six months,
cooks well.

Mary.- No, better go to Tako Loko. My uncle has worked there for two
years, and says that are so good tacos.

John.- Is expensive?

Mary.- Not at all. My uncle says that from the begining, they have sold so

John.- Ok, its has been decided. Let’s go.


Structure (Estructura)

1. Affirmative Sentences (Frases affirmativas)

Sujeto + verbo auxiliar (to have) + participio pasado…

I have [I’ve] talked to Peter. (He hablado con Peter.)
She has [She’s] gone to work. (Ha ido a su trabajo.)
We have [We’ve] been to London. (Hemos ido a Londres.)
They have [They’ve] learned English. (Han aprendido inglés.)

2. Negative Sentences (Frases negativas)

Sujeto + verbo auxiliar (to have) + “not” + participio pasado…

I haven’t talked to Peter. (No he hablado con Peter.)
She hasn’t gone to work. (No ha ido a su trabajo.)
We haven’t been to London. (No hemos ido a Londres.)
They haven’t learned English. (No han aprendido inglés.)

3. Interrogative Sentences (Frases interrogativas)

Verbo auxiliar (to have) + sujeto + participio pasado…?

Have you talked to Peter? (¿Has hablado con Peter?)
Has she gone to work? (¿Ha ido a su trabajo?)
Have you been to London? (¿Has ido a Londres?)
Have they learned English? (¿Han aprendido inglés?)

Grammatical Rules (Reglas gramaticales)

Form (Forma)

Para formar el presente perfecto, se usa el verbo auxiliar “to have” en el presente y el participio
pasado del verbo. Para verbos regulares, el participio pasado es la forma simple del pasado. Ver la
lección sobre el pasado simple para más información sobre como formar el pasado.

Sujeto Forma Corta Participio Pasado

I, you, we, I’ve, you’ve, we’ve, talked, learned,

they they’ve traveled…

talked, learned,
he, she, it has he’s, she’s, it’s

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