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Calculation Methods - Motor Starting

Motor Starting Calculation Methods

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ETAP provides two methods for motor starting: Dynamic Motor Acceleration and Static Motor Starting. Both methods perform time-domain simulations and report results in both text report and plot formats.

The purpose of performing a motor starting study is twofold: to investigate whether the starting motor can be successfully started under the operating conditions and to see if starting the motor will seriously impede the normal operation of other loads in the system.

The Dynamic Motor Acceleration and Static Motor Starting differ in the way the starting motors are modeled.

Starting differ in the way the starting motors are modeled. Dynamic Motor Acceleration In Dynamic Motor

Dynamic Motor Acceleration

In Dynamic Motor Acceleration, a dynamic model throughout the whole simulation models the accelerating motor. For this study, you also need to specify a load torque model for the load that the motor is driving.

From the Model page for induction motor, or the LR Model page for synchronous motor, you can specify motor dynamic model from one of the five different types:

Single1 - Equivalent (Thevenin) circuit model with constant rotor resistance and reactance

Single2 - Circuit model with deep-bar effect, rotor resistance and reactance change with speed

DBL1 - Double cage circuit model, with integrated rotor cages

DBL2 - Double cage circuit model, with independent rotor cages

TSC - Torque slip characteristic curve model

While the Single1, Single2, DBL1, and DBL2 models are all based on an electrical circuit representation of the motor, the TSC model allows you to model a starting motor directly from the manufacturer’s performance curves. You can choose one of the existing library models or create your own motor model in the Motor Library.

ETAP also allows you to model the load torque curve for each individual motor. You can choose one of the existing library models or create your own motor model in the Motor Load Library.

Due to the difference in modeling of starting motors, you may perform the static motor starting study if you are more concerned with the effect of motor starting on other operating loads in the system or if information on dynamic model for the starting motor is not available. On the other hand, if you are concerned with the actual acceleration time or whether the starting motor can be successfully started, a dynamic motor acceleration study should be performed.

Static Motor Starting

In the Static Motor Starting method, it is assumed that the starting motor can always be started. You specify from the Motor Editor motor acceleration time at 0% and 100% of the load, and the module interpolates the acceleration time for the motor load based on these two values.

During the acceleration period, the motor is represented by its locked-rotor impedance, which draws the maximum possible current from the system and has the most severe effect on other loads in the system. Once the acceleration period has passed, the starting motor is changed to a constant kVA load and ETAP simulates the load ramping process according to the starting and final loads specified in the motor editor. Refer to Motor Starting Category page in Motor editor for more information.

Load Transition

In an event, you can specify a load transition to transfer system operating load from one loading category to another. This allows you to globally adjust the system load during motor starting studies. You may apply a load transition to all operating loads or to a group of loads by setting an upper limit of capacity on loads to be involved in the load transition. Additionally, you can start motors through load transition if the load percent is changed from zero to a non-zero value.

Due to the complexity involved in the interaction between normal motor starting actions and load transition, the following rules are implemented to resolve conflicts in motor starting action preparation.

1. If, in an event, both action by load or starting category and action by load transition call for change of status or loading of a load, the action by load or starting category takes priority.

2. If a load, whether a motor, an MOV, a static load, or a capacitor, is switched on/off through actions by load or starting category in one event, the load transition will not apply to this load from that point on.

3. If, in a load transition, the load percent of a motor (or an MOV) is changed from zero percent to a non-zero value, this motor (or MOV) will be started at the new load percent (non-zero value). And from this point on, the load transition will not apply on this motor (or MOV) any more.

4. Load transition does not apply on MOVs that have initial status as either Open or Closed .

5. In calculating load for a load transition, it takes into consideration the options for load diversity factors entered in the Motor Study Case editor for prestart load flow.

MOV Motor Starting

MOVs are specially designed motors that have different operational characteristics from regular motors. Since these motors behave close to constant impedance load during operation, they are modeled as constant impedance load in motor starting calculations.

The operation mode of an MOV may be opening or closing a valve, depending upon its initial status. To start an MOV motor, its status has to be either open or closed. If the initial status of an MOV is open, its operation mode will be closed and if the initial status is closed, its operation mode will be open. Both modes involve several stages of operation as defined in the Characteristic group of the Nameplate page in MOV Editor. For each stage, the impedance to represent the MOV is calculated based on the current and power factor for the stage and the rated voltage. Once the MOV is configured to start from the study case, it is assumed that the MOV will not consume any power before the event is executed.

Note: Once the MOV is configured to start from the study case, it is assumed that the MOV will not consume any power before the event is executed.

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Calculation Methods - Motor Starting

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For one motor starting simulations, a MOV is allowed to start only once due to infrequent operations of MOV.

Starting Device

A starting motor can have one of thirteen types of starting devices modeled in the Motor Starting studies, including four general models for soft starter. You can specify starting

device type and its control characteristics from the Start Dev page of Induction Motor editor or Synchronous Motor editor. Depending on the model type selected to represent a starting motor, certain types of starting device may not apply. The following table gives applicable starting devices for each type of motor models.

Starting Device Modeled in Motor Starting Studies

   

Motor Model

 

Starting Device Model

Static Motor

 

Starting

 

Dynamic Motor Starting

 

LRZ

Single 1

Single 2

Double 1

Double 1

TSC

Auto-XFMR Stator R Stator X Capacitor @ Bus Capacitor @ Term Rotor R Rotor X Y/D Partial Winding Current Limit Current Control Voltage Control Torque Control

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Generation Category Change

In power system operations, it happens sometimes that while a larger motor is in the process of starting up, a major source such as a power grid suddenly changes its operating

values for the magnitude of voltage at the interface point between the power grid and your electrical system. To simulate this situation, ETAP allows you to change generation category for generators and power grids. In any event, you can change generation category from the existing one to any category. The operating values for the ten generation categories are entered from the Rating page of Synchronous Generator editor or Power Grid editor.

If a system contains multiple power sources (generators and power grids), change of generation for any power source will potentially alter operating conditions of other power

sources. In motor starting calculation , whenever there is a change of generation category for a generator or a power grid, ETAP uses the prestart system loading to determine internal voltage magnitude and angle of all generators and power grids. These internal voltage magnitude and angle values stay constant until there is a new change of generation category.

Motor Starting vs. Transient Stability Studies

The motor starting calculation is intentionally directed to investigate the behavior of a starting motor and its effect on system operations, as facilitated by starting devices, etc. The transient stability calculation can also simulate the motor starting process, with emphasis on the dynamic behavior of the whole system under the impact of motor starting. The differences in objectives of the two types of calculation lead to different modeling of system elements, as shown in the table below. Comparison of System Element Models

 

Dynamic

Static

Element

Load Flow

Transient Stability

Motor Acceleration

Motor Starting

Generators

Infinite Bus

Dynamically Modeled

Constant Voltage Behind Xd’

Constant Voltage Behind Xd’

Exciter/Governors

Not Applicable

Dynamically Modeled

Not Modeled

Not Modeled

Utility Ties

Infinite Bus

Constant Voltage Behind X”

Constant Voltage Behind X”

Constant Voltage Behind X”

Operating Motors

Constant kVA

Modeled Dynamically or Constant kVA

Constant kVA

Constant kVA

Starting Motors

Not Applicable

Single1, Single2, DBL1, & DBL2 Models

Single1, Single2, DBL1, DBL2, & TSC Models

Locked-Rotor Z and Power Factor

Starters

Not Applicable

Modeled

Modeled

Modeled

Other Features of Motor Starting Study

Many features are included in the motor starting study to facilitate system design and analysis, including the following:

A static load can be switched on and off repeatedly at any time during a simulation with user specified loading category.

A motor can be started and switched off repeatedly at any time during a simulation.

The motor switching can be specified by an individual load or by bus and starting category.

In static motor starting, after the acceleration period is passed, it will be modeled as a constant power load. The load level can vary at a rate specified by the user. Please see Motor Starting Category page for a detailed description on the model for load changes.

An MOV can be started at any time during the simulation.

Modeling of SVC

In the initial load flow calculation, an SVC is modeled the same way as in a standard Load Flow calculation. It will adjust terminal bus voltage as specified in the SVC editor and

provide or absorb reactive power as needed. However, after the initial load flow, it will be represented as a constant impedance load with the value set based on the initial load flow.

Induction Motor with %Loading Equal to Zero

Since the induction motor editor has been enhanced to allow to specify the motor input current at zero loading, in load flow calculations, a motor with %loading equal to zero may still draw power from the system due the losses in the motor. This means that in load flow calculation a motor with zero loading indicates that the motor has no output power, but the motor is still running.

In motor acceleration calculations, the meaning of loading being zero is different from load flow calculation. If a motor has zero loading, it means that the motor is not connected

and it draws zero current and power from the system, even if the no-load current entered in the motor editor is larger than zero. This applies to operating induction motors in both initial load flow and load transition.

Note that if an operating motor has loading equal to 0.01%, its input power will be calculated based on the parameters from the Nameplate page of the Induction Motor Editor. So there may be a jump in input power for operating motors in motor acceleration when the load is changed from 0.01% to 0%.

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Calculation Methods - Motor Starting

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Calculation Methods - Motor Starting Page 3 of 5 Modeling of Induction Generator There is an

Modeling of Induction Generator

There is an option in the Info page of the Induction Machine editor to set the Application Type as Motor or Generator. If an induction machine is set as Induction Generator, its modeling can be different depending on whether the machine is started in a Motor Stating simulation. For all operating induction generators, the ones that are not started in a simulation, they are modeled the same way as in Load Flow calculation. The induction generator provides real power to the system and draws reactive power from the system. This rule applies to initial load flow as well as load transitions.

For induction generators that are started during a simulation, either through action by element, action by starting category, or action by load transition, it is modeled differently before and after the induction generator is started. In the initial load flow and during load transitions before the machine is started, it is modeled as in induction generator in the same way as in the Load Flow calculations. Once the machine is started, it will be modeled as an induction motor from that point on in the simulation. When modeled as an induction motor, its rated kVA will be the same value as displayed in the editor, but its output horsepower (or kW) will be recalculated based on the machine rated kVA, efficiency and power factor.

Modeling of VFD

VFD Connections

ETAP allows for very flexible connections for a VFD. Its input can connect to a bus, a branch, or multiple transformers. Its output can be connected to a bus or a load (motor or a lump load). The following figure shows some typical connections of VFD in ETAP. From the view point of calculation handling, there are two types of VFD connections: VFD sub- network and load directly connected VFD. A load directly connected VFD is shown as VFD-1 below where a load (a motor or a lump load) is connected to a bus through a VFD. A VFD sub-network is a sub-system connected to the output of a VFD, consisting of buses, loads and branches, as shown in VFD-2, VFD-3 and VFD-4 below. In the current version of ETAP, it is required that a VFD sub-network be a radial system, contain only one energized motor, and not include 3-winding transformers or source elements.

In Motor Acceleration Analysis, the sub-network powered by a VFD, i.e. the sub-system below VFD-4, is aggregated along with motor equipment cable as one equivalent impedance. ETAP does not report the voltages and flows on the buses and branches in the VFD sub-network. All adjustment options specified in the study case are still applicable to these elements. The fixes or manual operating taps of transformers in a VFD sub-network are considered in the calculation, but transformer LTC is excluded.

in the calculation, but transformer LTC is excluded. Typical VFD Connections Modeling of VFD for Operating

Typical VFD Connections

Modeling of VFD for Operating Loads

For an operating load (a motor or a lump load) powered by a VFD, either in the initial load flow or during load transition, the VFD is modeled the same way as the regular load flow calculations. The VFD is represented as a constant voltage source with the output voltage and frequency determined by the V/Hz and operating frequency of the applicable generation category. On the input side, the VFD is modeled as a constant power load with the input power equal to the output real power divided by its efficiency. The input reactive

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Calculation Methods - Motor Starting

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power is dependent on the operating input PF option selected from the Loading page of the VFD editor. When there are multiple input transformer connections, the input power is equally shared among all connections.

Note that for a load that is directly connected to a VFD,( i.e. VFD-1 shown above) the equipment cable loss is calculated based on the VFD operating voltage. For a VFD sub- network, i.e. VFD-4 shown above, the losses associated with the sub0network is calculated based on the aggregated equivalent impedance.

Modeling of VFD for Starting Motors

For a starting motor powered by a VFD, the VFD output voltage and frequency follow the control scheme specified in the Start Device page if the Frequency Control type is selected. If the option “None” is selected, the modeling of VFD will be different depending on if the motor is directly connected to the VFD or there is a bus in between (case for VFD sub-network). Additionally, the starting motor may have its own starting device entered in the motor editor and this motor starting device may take effect in some cases. The specific rules for handling all these cases are listed the section below.

Basic Rulesfor Starting Motorswith VFD

a. If a starting motor is directly connected to a VFD (i.e. Mtr1 below) and the VFD Starting Device type is set as None, the VFD is ignored in motor acceleration. This is similar to the bypass switch being closed. The motor starting device takes effect if it is specified.

b. If a starting motor is directly connected to a VFD (i.e. Mtr5 below), but the VFD Starting Device type is set as Frequency Control, the VFD will be modeled according to the specified Control Scheme. The starting device of the motor is ignored.

c. If the VFD output is connected to a bus (i.e. VFD3 below), the VFD will be modeled according to the specified Control Scheme. The starting device of the motor is ignored.

d. If the bypass switch of a VFD is closed, the VFD is simulated as a closed switch. The motor starting device takes effect if it is specified.

The motor starting device takes effect if it is specified. VFD and Motor Modeling for Starting

VFD and Motor Modeling for Starting Motors

#

Cases

VFD & Motor

Starting Device

Motor Starting Controlled by

Connection

VFD

Motor

1

VFD1 & Mtr 1

Direct Connection

None

Yes

Motor starting device

2

VFD2 & Mtr 2

Direct Connection

None

None

Start as across line

3

VFD3 & Mtr 3

Bus in Between

None

Yes

VFD starting device, output maintained at rated voltage and frequency

4

VFD4 & Mtr 4

Bus in Between

None

None

VFD starting device, output maintained at rated voltage and frequency

5

VFD5 & Mtr 5

Direct Connection

Frequency

Yes

VFD starting Device

Control

6

VFD6 & Mtr 6

Bus in Between

Frequency

Yes

VFD starting Device

Control

If a VFD has the Frequency Control type selected for motor acceleration and the starting motor has the characteristic model selected, ETAP does not support Dynamic Motor Starting simulation for the motor, since the characteristic model is only for rated frequency and it does not represent motor behavior under different frequency. For the same reason, if a starting motor is powered by a VFD, it is not supported to start this motor in the Static Motor Starting simulations, except that the motor is directly connected to the VFD. This exception is primarily for compatibility to the older versions of ETAP.

Motor Plotsfor VFD Controlled Starting Motors

Due to the variable frequency applied on a starting motor, several new types of plots are added to starting motors. The following table gives definitions for different plots. Note that the rated frequency for a motor is the ETAP project frequency. If a VFD is connected to the starting motor through a sub-network, the sub-network is modeled as an equivalent impedance for the motor. The table shows that when a starting motor is controlled by a VFD, plots for the motor line current and input power are actually the values at VFD input.

 

Plotsfor Starting Motors

Plot Type

Definition

Slip

Motor slip with respect to applied frequency. For a VFD controlled starting motor, this plot does not indicate motor speed if the applied frequency is not the rated value.

Speed

Motor speed in percent of the synchronous speed for motor rated frequency.

Current (Line)

VFD input current in percent of motor FLA.

Current (Terminal)

Motor terminal current in percent of motor FLA.

Vt (Motor Base)

Motor terminal voltage in percent of motor rated kV.

Vt (Bus Base)

Motor terminal voltage in percent of VFD input terminal bus nominal kV.

V bus

VFD input terminal bus voltage in percent of bus nominal kV.

Accel. Torque

Motor acceleration torque in percent of motor rated torque.

Motor Torque

Motor acceleration torque in percent of motor rated torque.

Load Torque

Load torque in percent of motor rated torque.

kW (Electrical)

VFD input real power in kW.

Kvar

VFD input reactive power in kvar.

kW (Mechanical)

Motor output power in kW.

Frequency

VFD output frequency applied on motor

Voltage/Hz

Motor terminal Volt/Hz in percent on motor rated voltage and freuqnecy.

Motor Acceleration Analysis Toolbars Study Case Editor Display Options Calculation Methods Required Data Output Reports

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Calculation Methods - Motor Starting

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Alert View Plots One-Line Diagram Displayed Results

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