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Elaborat eksploatacije rude volframa ,oblast Shiroro

Zoran Radulović


Minna Tungsten Project

A hard rock Wolframite vein deposit.

 The veins are en-echelon along a regional fault structure. The veins pinch and swell from
1m to more than 4m with an average around 2.5m in width.
 The veins dip to the northwest at moderate angles of 40-45 degrees. In some locations the
veins roll over to be steep angles at what appears to be cross faults.
 Mining activity has occurred in open cut fashion down to 5-15m and the locals have
descended down a further 10-15m by way of down vein declines. They appear at their
near limit using this method.
 Approximately 70-80% of the vein is discarded by the locals in their selection process
where the high grade vein margins and cluster areas are selected. The selection process is
visual with only the coarse crystalline wolframite selected.
 The vein has one significant creek pass thru it separating the outcrops. Hence to date the
company has focused on the first 860m of vein outcrop up to this creek.
 Three veins subparallel are observed all dipping at similar angles and lying over a 10m
wide falut belt.
 First observations suggest that underground mining would be difficult given the pinch
and swell en-echelon nature to the veins and significant parallel faulting. The continuity
of veins is very broken in places
 The vein is very rich on its margins and the locals are following this using hand held
methods. I would estimate that 60-70% of the total tungsten in the vein is in the lower
0.5m of the 2.5m vein.
Grade Sampling:-
1) Vein Check -Needs sampling of the vein “reject” material to determine what recoverable
grade this runs (use dry tabling at Abuja tin factory). I suggest 20 x 25kg bags (500kg) be
selected randomly from the large quartz piles of discarded material with one taken from
each of the 20 or so quartz dumps. Tungsten Content. Once this grade is established then
using the formulae as follows to determine the grade
80% x (Grade of factory)eg 80 x 0.2% = 16
20% x 2%* (conservative) 20 x 2% = 40
Average grade estimate. = 0.56% Grade average

 2%grade WO3 for selected ore from the locals comes from 1) Observation by author &
2)The fact that 1.5-2.0t of concentrate was being produced weekly from 130 people at
site. Max per person was about 1 large bag of selected material per day. ie 110kg per
person Ie about 10-15t mined per day for about 100t per week mined.

2) Soil Sampling:-Conduct a close spaced soil program using portable XRF machine for
analysis. This will determine the high grade tungsten parts of the +2km long vein. It will
help also help quantify the resource and provide a location for a second standby pit to be
constructed. Always a good idea in this type approach.

3) Plant Size:-Needs to ensure plant gets to 40tph. Currently estimated at 20tph. This is the
simplest way to ensure profitability. Note that at even at 0.1% WO3 average this still
makes a container a month. Grades are expected to be above 0.2-0.3% WO3 so it could
produce several containers per month. The only bottleneck to reach this adjusted size
appears in crushing and maybe a larger primary jaw (also add finger lifters in feeder as
this will lift capacity as first step). Maybe a larger screen to reduce the material to sub
25mm material prior to hammer mill.

4) Processing:-The plant is well advanced and appears with the equipment observed and
layout to have a suitable flowsheet – some check points are
a) A belt magnet needs to be installed prior to hammer mill to remove any scrap iron
from mining
b) A wet drum magnetic installed to clean concentrates during cleaning stages
c) That crushing be maintained at <2mm from hammer mill (ie regular change of
hammers). This product is then split to run in two streams over the tables. This is best
done by cyclone) This is backup if chinese jigs are not working efficiently.
d) All tables seem to be fine sand deck tops and this should be monitored to see if slime
decks might be better for the fine stream. Losses occur often in slimes.
e) Classifier I assume this sends fines direct to the tables and course product to jigs for
upgrade. Need to monitor that the jigs are performing ok and all the ore is liberated.
As the hammer wears then productivity from hammer will drop off (assuming there is
a 2mm mesh screen below the hammer mill.) If jigs are not performing then they
should be bypassed and the plant run at full table capacity directly. ie with 20 prinary
tables you could do 20t direct without jig and suggest 0-0.8mm and 0.8-2.0mm
f) A small regrind rod mill will be necessary to handle the course concentrates from the
jigs prior to them being tabled.

5) Open Cuts Work :- At 40tph processing and 20 hour per day operation then we need
280,000t of ore ready for first year. This is approx. 100,000m3 of vein exposed. Given
the easiest startup is the existing 860m of vein then we need to do a 30m open cut to
expose sufficient ore for the first year. The 30m depth requirement is over the entire
860m strike.

6) Stripping:-There will be significant works to expose this much vein and a small cutback
open cut front is needed. I suggest that the end of the vein has a natural push off point and
at the foot of the hill a bund be made that contains the overburden and then the dozer
does the work to push out the overburden. This will reducing costs in the initial stages

until an excavator / truck operation is required. Its estimated that year 1 a total of
387,000m3 of material (approx... 850,000t) needs to be removed as overburden.(about
100 x 25t trucks per day). It is felt the D8L dozer at site could push at least half of this
overburden to dumps in a cost effective manner. This work needs scheduling by the
mining engineer to ensure no delays on ore delivery occurs to the mill

7) Resource :- The vein has potential to be defined as a sizeable resource. This however can
only be done with drilling. The geological potential of the area can be determined easily
enough once grade is established and soils show the extent of mineralized vein. However,
at this point channel sampling is not recommended given the cost and timing of it and
that most of the high grade is gone on the exposures. The plant is close to completion and
once running grade will determine accurately. Drilling of several deep holes would be
beneficial however to convey the depth extents of the system. Ie if we drill 3-4 x 300m
holes and they all hit vein and mineralization you can arm wave a sizeable resource. In
this deposit, grade is the hardest part of the deposit to fix on.

Competent Person Statement

This report was prepared and signed herein by Competent Persons who, having relevant
experience to the style of mineralization and the type of the deposit under consideration, are
thereby considered Competent Persons according to the definition explained in the JORC Code.

By signing this report, we hereby confirm that the reporting terminology, mineral resource
classification, and estimation results in this report are compliant with the policy and procedures
(required for the control of the quality of reporting of mineral resource estimates) as specified by
the JORC Code.

Signed by

Tony Bainbridge
AMB Exploration Pty Ltd

1.Osnovni podaci

Ležište rude volframa nalazi se severozapadno 130 km od grada Abuje(Prilog br.1).Na osnovu
prospekcijskih podataka,rudno telo sa javlja u vidu izdanaka koji izlaze na površinu terena.Izdanci
su moćnosti(debljine) od 1-4 m,sa prosečnom moćnosti od 2.5m.

Rudno telo se pruža pravcem jugozapad-severoistok u dužini od 870 m.

Zaleganje rudnog tela je 40-45o pravcem severozapad-jugoistok.

Eksploataciono polje zahvata prostor 860x860 metara i ogranićeno je tačkama(Prilog br.2):

T1 : 9o58’19.35’’N ; 6o48’40.47’’E

T2 : 9o58’19.35’’N ; 6o49’06.38’’E

T3 : 9o58’45.06’’N ; 6o48’40.47’’E

T4 : 9o58’45.06’’N ; 6o49’06.38’’E

Na ležištu postoje aktivnosti eksploatacije rudnog tela od strane lokalnog stanovništva primitivnim
metodama(Prilog br.3.)

2.Koncepcija eksploatacije rudnog tela

Ležište je okontureno kako na površini tako i po dubini do kote +307 m.n.v.

Sistem eksploatacije volframa odvija se u diskontinualnom radu opreme za bušenje i miniranje,za

otkopavanje i utovar volframa u prijemni bunker drobilice.

Eksploatacija će se obavljati na etažama visine 5m i završne širine 6m gde je ugao etaže 80o.

Ležište je ukupne dubine 30m.

Eksploatacija će se obavljati u nekoliko faza:

a. -Otkrivanje ležišta,
b. -Bušenje i miniranje,
c. -Utovar i transport.

a.-Otkrivanje ležišta
Otkrivanje ležišta će se obavljati kombinovano sa mašinama :

-Buldozer CAT D8T,

-Bager CAT 345,

-Utovarač CAT 980,

-Damper A 40E – VOLVO.

Uklanjanje otkrivke-jalovine radiće se direktno buldozerom do ekonomične dužine guranja od

80m,sa direktnimodlaganjem na jalovište.Drugi deo otkrivke-jalovine,sa transportom preko
80m,izvodiće se bagerskim utovarom u kamione i voženjem i odlaganjem na odlagalište-
jalovište.Gornji deo jalovine(humus),deponovaće se posebno radi kasnijeg vraćanja za
rekultivaciju terena.

Odlagalište-jalovište će se formirati u jugozapadnom delu rudnika od kote +332 mnv niže.Visina

etaža odlagališta-jalovišta biće 10m,sa etažama širine 10m.

U drugoj fazi kada eksploatacija odmakne i dođe do granice etaže E-307 odlaganje otkrivke-
jalovine vršiće se deponovanjem u unutrašnji deo rudnika,odnosno zatrpavanjem tog dela
rudnika,a posebno odložena jalovina(humus)će se rasprostreti po površini.

b.-Bušenje i miniranje
Bušenje vrši se metodom udarno – rotacionog bušenja.Za bušenje kosih minskih bušotina
pod uglom 80 koristiće se samohodna bušaća garnitura tipa Tamrock DTH 800 Zoomtrack.

Parametri bušenja i miniranja:

Prečnik bušenja 74-89 mm

Dubina bušotine 5,6m,

Rastojanje bušotina 2,5m,

Rastojanje redova 2,5m,

Linija najmanjeg otpora 2,5m,

Ugao bušenja 80o,

Dužina čepa bušotine 1.7m,

Broj redova 2-3

Eksplozivno punjenje će se odrediti na licu mesta na osnovu karakteristika raspoloživog

eksploziva i prečnika bušotine.

Pri miniranju će se javiti I izvesna količina velikih blokova(negabarita) koji će se raspprostreti I

usitnjavati hidrauličnim čekićem montiranim nabager,ili će se sekundarno usitnjavati

c.-Utovar i transport
Utovar i transport minirane rude će se vršiti bagerom CAT 345 u dampere A 40E – VOLVO I
transportovati do prihvatnog bunkera Postrojenja za preradu rude.

Rudnik će biti otvoren tako da se transportna dužina svede na najmanju moguću meru.


Attachment no.1-Tungsten ore Shiroro

Attachment no.2- Exploitation field

Attachment no.3- Manual exploitation

Attachment no.4-Cross section

Attachment no.5-Cross section 1-1,2-2

Attachment no.6-Cross section 3-3,4-4

Attachment no.7-The final contours of the mine

Attachment no.8-The landfill

Attachment no.9-Cross section landfill 1-1

Attachment no.10-Elements of the mine