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# Exercise 8

EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will be familiar with the operation of

DISCUSSION OUTLINE The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points:

The dc-to-dc converters discussed so far, that is, the buck chopper, the boost
chopper, and the buck/boost chopper, allow a dc voltage to be converted into a
dc voltage of the same polarity and having a lower or higher value. Furthermore,
in the buck and boost choppers, the current can flow in one direction only,
whereas in the buck/boost chopper, it can flow in either direction.

## Another type of dc-to-dc converter, the four-quadrant chopper, allows a

dc voltage to be converted into a dc voltage having a lower voltage value as well
as current flow in either direction. Furthermore, in the four-quadrant chopper, the
polarity of the converted dc voltage can be reversed with respect to the polarity of
the original voltage. Therefore, a four-quadrant chopper can provide a positive or
a negative dc voltage regardless of the direction in which current flows. This
feature allows the four-quadrant chopper to operate in any of the four quadrants
of a voltage-current Cartesian plan as shown in Figure 53.

Voltage (V)

Current (A)

## © Festo Didactic 86356-00 117

Exercise 8 – The Four-Quadrant Chopper  Discussion

In Figure 53, four dots have been drawn, one in each quadrant. Each of these
dots represents a possible operating point of the four-quadrant chopper. Drawing
straight lines from any one of these dots to the horizontal and vertical
axes (current and voltage axes, respectively) allows the dc current and voltage at
the output of the four-quadrant chopper to be determined. For example, the dot in
Quadrant 3 indicates that the current and voltage are equal to -2 A dc and
-60 V dc, respectively. If the operating point of the four-quadrant chopper passes
from the dot in Quadrant 3 to the dot in Quadrant 4, the current and voltage
change to +2 A dc and -60 V dc, respectively. This indicates that the direction in
which current flows has been reversed while the voltage remains the same.

## Figure 54 shows a four-quadrant chopper built with electronic switches and

diodes, and some waveforms related to the circuit. The switching control signals
show that the electronic switches are switched in pairs, that is, ܳଵ with ܳହ and ܳଶ
with ܳସ , and that when one pair of electronic switches is on, the other pair is off.
Therefore, the input voltage ‫ܧ‬ூ is alternately applied to the output of the four-
quadrant chopper through either one of the two pairs of electronic switches. The
instantaneous polarity of the output voltage ‫ܧ‬ை depends on which pair of
electronic switches is on. It is positive when electronic switches ܳଵ and ܳହ are on,
and negative when electronic switches ܳଶ and ܳସ are on. The average (dc)
output voltage ‫ܧ‬ை of the four-quadrant chopper depends on the time each pair of
electronic switches is on during each cycle. This, in turn, depends on the duty
cycle of the switching control signals. The equation relating voltages ‫ܧ‬ை and ‫ܧ‬ூ is
written below.

## where ‫ܧ‬ை is the dc voltage at the four-quadrant chopper output.

‫ܧ‬ூ is the dc voltage at the four-quadrant chopper input.
ߙொభǡொఱ is the duty cycle expressed as a decimal (50% = 0.5).

In this equation, ߙொభǡொఱ is the duty cycle of the switching control signals applied to
electronic switches ܳଵ and ܳହ in the four-quadrant chopper shown in Figure 54.
Since the duty cycle can vary from approximately 0 to 100%, the voltage ‫ܧ‬ை can
vary from approximately -‫ܧ‬ூ to +‫ܧ‬ூ .

## 118 © Festo Didactic 86356-00

Exercise 8 – The Four-Quadrant Chopper  Discussion

‫ܫ‬ை ‫ܮ‬ଵ

ܳଵ ‫ܦ‬ଵ ܳଶ ‫ܦ‬ଶ

‫ܧ‬ூ ܴଵ ‫ܧ‬ை

ܳସ ‫ܦ‬ସ ܳହ ‫ܦ‬ହ

## ܳଵ and ܳହ on ܳଵ and ܳହ off ܳଵ and ܳହ on

ܳଶ and ܳସ off ܳଶ and ܳସ on ܳଶ and ܳସ off
ܳଵ and ܳହ
Amplitude

5
Switching
control
signals
0
Time

ܳଶ and ܳସ
Amplitude

5
Switching
control
signals
0
Time

൅‫ܧ‬ூ
Amplitude

Output
Voltage 0
(‫ܧ‬ை )
Time

-‫ܧ‬ூ

I
Amplitude

Output
Current
(‫ܫ‬ை )
0
Time

## Figure 54. Operation of the four-quadrant chopper.

Varying the frequency of the switching control signals while maintaining the duty
cycle constant does not affect the dc voltage and current at the four-quadrant
chopper output. However, the ripple magnitude decreases as the frequency of
the switching control signals increases.

## © Festo Didactic 86356-00 119

Exercise 8 – The Four-Quadrant Chopper  Procedure Outline

##  Setup and connections

 Switching control signals of a four-quadrant chopper
 Operation of a four-quadrant chopper
 Partially discharging the batteries in the Lead-Acid Battery Pack

PROCEDURE

High voltages are present in this laboratory exercise. Do not make or modify any
banana jack connections with the power on unless otherwise specified.

## Setup and connections

In this part of the exercise, you will set up and connect the equipment.

## 1. Refer to the Equipment Utilization Chart in Appendix A to obtain the list of

equipment required to perform this exercise.

Make sure that the batteries in the Lead-Acid Battery Pack are fully charged
by measuring the open-circuit voltage with a voltmeter. If the open-circuit
voltage is lower than 51 V, ask your instructor for assistance as the battery
pack is probably not fully-charged. Appendix C of this manual indicates how
to prepare (charge) the Lead-Acid Battery Pack before each laboratory
period.

## Install the required equipment in the Workstation.

2. Connect the Power Input of the Data Acquisition and Control Interface to
a 24 V ac power supply.

Connect the Low Power Input of the IGBT Chopper/Inverter to the Power
Input of the Data Acquisition and Control Interface. Turn the 24 V ac power
supply on.

3. Connect the USB port of the Data Acquisition and Control Interface to a
USB port of the host computer.

## Connect the USB port of the Four-Quadrant Dynamometer/Power Supply to

a USB port of the host computer.

## 120 © Festo Didactic 86356-00

Exercise 8 – The Four-Quadrant Chopper  Procedure

4. Make sure that the main power switch of the Four-Quadrant Dynamometer/
Power Supply is set to O (off), then connect the Power Input to an ac power
outlet.

## Set the Operating Mode switch of the Four-Quadrant Dynamometer/Power

Supply to Power Supply.

## Turn the Four-Quadrant Dynamometer/Power Supply on by setting the main

power switch to I (on).

## 5. Connect the Digital Outputs of the Data Acquisition and Control

Interface (DACI) to the Switching Control Inputs of the
IGBT Chopper/Inverter using a DB9 connector cable.

## Connect Switching Control Inputs 1, 2, 4, and 5 of the IGBT Chopper/Inverter

to Analog Inputs 1, 2, 4, and 5, respectively, of the Data Acquisition and
Control Interface using miniature banana plug leads.

Connect the common (white) terminal of the Switching Control Inputs on the
IGBT Chopper/Inverter to one of the two analog common (white) terminals on
the Data Acquisition and Control Interface using a miniature banana plug

6. Turn the host computer on, then start the LVDAC-EMS software.

In the LVDAC-EMS Start-Up window, make sure that the Data Acquisition
and Control Interface and the Four-Quadrant Dynamometer/Power Supply
are detected. Make sure that the Computer-Based Instrumentation and
Chopper/Inverter Control functions for the Data Acquisition and Control
Interface are available, as well as the Standard Functions (C.B. control) for
the Four-Quadrant Dynamometer/Power Supply. Select the network voltage
and frequency that correspond to the voltage and frequency of your local
ac power network, then click the OK button to close the LVDAC-EMS
Start-Up window.

7. Set up the circuit shown in Figure 55. Use the 2 mH inductor of the Filtering
Inductors/Capacitors module to implement ‫ܮ‬ଵ .

## © Festo Didactic 86356-00 121

Exercise 8 – The Four-Quadrant Chopper  Procedure

Chopper/Inverter

‫ܮ‬ଵ
2 mH

ܳଵ ‫ܦ‬ଵ ܳଶ ‫ܦ‬ଶ

‫ܧ‬ூ ‫ܥ‬஻௎ௌ ܴଵ
100 V 171 ȍ

ܳସ ‫ܦ‬ସ ܳହ ‫ܦ‬ହ

## Switching control signals

from digital outputs
on DACI

## Figure 55. Four-quadrant chopper circuit.

8. Make the necessary connections and switch settings on the Resistive Load
in order to obtain the resistance value required.

## Switching control signals of a four-quadrant chopper

In this part of the exercise, you will observe the switching control signals and see
that the electronic switches in a four-quadrant chopper are switched in pairs (ܳଵ
with ܳହ and ܳଶ with ܳସ ), and that when one pair of electronic switches is on, the
other pair is off.

## 9. In LVDAC-EMS, open the Four-Quadrant Dynamometer/Power Supply

window and make the following settings:

## 122 © Festo Didactic 86356-00

Exercise 8 – The Four-Quadrant Chopper  Procedure

10. In LVDAC-EMS, open the Chopper/Inverter Control window and make the
following settings:

##  Start the four-quadrant chopper.

11. In LVDAC-EMS, open the Oscilloscope window and display the four
switching control signals (AI-1, AI-2, AI-4, and AI-5).

Select the Continuous Refresh mode, set the time base to display two
complete cycles, and set the trigger controls so that the Oscilloscope triggers
when the rising edge of the switching control signal (AI-1) of electronic
switch ܳଵ reaches 2 V.

## Select convenient vertical scale and position settings in the Oscilloscope to

facilitate observation of the waveforms.

12. Referring to the waveforms of the switching control signals displayed on the
Oscilloscope, describe the switching sequence of the electronic switches in

13. Referring to the waveform of the switching control signals, does the duty
cycle setting that you have made in the Chopper/Inverter Control window
correspond to the duty cycle of the switching control signals of electronic
switches ܳଵ and ܳହ or to the duty cycle of the switching control signals of
electronic switches ܳଶ and ܳସ ?

## © Festo Didactic 86356-00 123

Exercise 8 – The Four-Quadrant Chopper  Procedure

## Operation of a four-quadrant chopper

In this part of the exercise, you will calculate the average (dc) output voltage of a
four-quadrant chopper for various duty cycles and compare the results with the
measured average (dc) output voltages using the circuit in Figure 55. You will
observe that the dc voltage can be either positive or negative and that the current
can flow in both directions at the output of a four-quadrant chopper. You will also
observe the effect of the switching frequency on the voltage conversion.

14. Considering an input voltage ‫ܧ‬ூ equal to 100 V and using the equation
‫ܧ‬ை ൌ ‫ܧ‬ூ ൈ ሺʹߙொభǡொఱ െ ͳሻ, calculate the dc voltage which should appear at the
output of the four-quadrant chopper for the following duty cycles: 25%, 50%,
and 75%.

Table 14. Calculated dc output voltages of a four-quadrant chopper for various duty cycles.

## Duty cycle ࢻࡽ૚ ǡࡽ૞ DC output voltage ࡱࡻ

(%) (V)

25

50
75

15. In the Oscilloscope window, display the voltage and current (inputs E1
and I1) at the four-quadrant chopper input, the switching control signal (AI-1)
of electronic switch ܳଵ , and the voltage and current (inputs E2 and I2) at the

16. In the Data Acquisition and Control Settings of LVDAC-EMS, set the range of
E4 to High. This corresponds to a 0 V to 800 V range.

## 17. In the Chopper/Inverter Control window, set the switching frequency

to 15 000 Hz, and then successively set the duty cycle to each of the values
in Table 15. For each value, measure the dc voltage and current at the
input (inputs E1 and I1) and output (inputs E2 and I2) of the four-quadrant
chopper. Record your results in the corresponding cells of Table 15.

## DC input DC input Duty cycle DC output DC output

voltage current ࢻࡽ૚ ǡࡽ૞ voltage current
(V) (A) (%) (V) (A)

25

50

75

## 124 © Festo Didactic 86356-00

Exercise 8 – The Four-Quadrant Chopper  Procedure

18. Explain why the dc voltage and current at the four-quadrant chopper output
are almost null when the duty cycle is 50%.

19. Does the polarity of the dc currents measured in step 16 confirm that the
current can flow in both directions in a four-quadrant chopper?

 Yes  No

20. Does the polarity of the dc voltages at the output of the four-quadrant
chopper measured in step 16 confirm that the voltage can be either positive
or negative?

 Yes  No

21. Do the voltages calculated in step 14 and measured in step 16 confirm that
‫ܧ‬ை ൌ ‫ܧ‬ூ ൈ ሺʹߙொభǡொఱ െ ͳሻ in a four-quadrant chopper?

 Yes  No

22. Determine the range of the dc output voltage of the four-quadrant chopper by
varying the duty cycle from 0% to 100%.

DC output voltage when the duty cycle ߙொభǡொఱ is set to 0%: _____

DC output voltage when the duty cycle ߙொభǡொఱ is set to 100%: _____

23. In the Chopper/Inverter Control window, set the duty cycle to 80%.

Vary the switching frequency from 15 000 Hz to 1000 Hz while observing the
voltage and current waveforms at the output of the four-quadrant chopper.
Does the switching frequency have a significant effect on the dc voltage and
current the four-quadrant chopper supplies? If so, describe this effect.

## © Festo Didactic 86356-00 125

Exercise 8 – The Four-Quadrant Chopper  Procedure

## Partially discharging the batteries in the Lead-Acid Battery Pack

In this part of the exercise, you will partially discharge the batteries in the Lead-
Acid Battery Pack. The batteries must be partially discharged in the next part of
the exercise to obtain the desired operating point and make the appropriate
observations.

## 25. Perform procedure step 37 and step 38 in Exercise 5.

You observed that the dc voltage can be either positive or negative and that the
current can flow in both directions at the output of a four-quadrant chopper.
However, you observed the operation of the four-quadrant chopper in
quadrants 1 and 3 only. In this part of the exercise, you will use the circuit shown
in Figure 56 to observe the operation of the chopper in the four quadrants. You
will use the Oscilloscope in the X-Y mode to observe in which quadrant the four-

Chopper/Inverter

‫ܮ‬ଵ
2 mH

ܳଵ ‫ܦ‬ଵ ܳଶ ‫ܦ‬ଶ

‫ܧ‬ூ ‫ܥ‬஻௎ௌ
100 V 50 V

ܳସ ‫ܦ‬ସ ܳହ ‫ܦ‬ହ

## Switching control signals

from digital outputs
on DACI

## 27. In the Four-Quadrant Dynamometer/Power Supply window, make sure that

the source voltage is set to 100 V, and start the voltage source.

## 126 © Festo Didactic 86356-00

Exercise 8 – The Four-Quadrant Chopper  Procedure

##  Set Channel 1 (X) to display the four-quadrant chopper output

current (input I2) and set the sensitivity to 1 A/div. The input selected
in Channel 1 is used as the X-axis parameter in the X-Y display
mode of the Oscilloscope.

##  Set Channel 2 (Y) to display the four-quadrant chopper output

voltage (input E2) and set the sensitivity to 20 V/div. The input
selected in Channel 2 is used as the Y-axis parameter in the X-Y
display mode of the Oscilloscope.

##  Select the Continuous Refresh mode.

30. In LVDAC-EMS, open the Data Table window. Under the Options tab, open
the Record Settings dialog box, select Oscilloscope in the Settings field, then
select Channel 1 AVG and Channel 2 AVG as the parameters to be record-
ed. Close the Record Settings dialog box.

31. Make sure that the average (dc) output current ‫ܫ‬ை (input I2) is null. Slightly
readjust the voltage of the voltage source if necessary. In this operating
condition, the average (dc) output voltage‫ܧ‬ை of the four-quadrant chopper is
positive and equal to the battery voltage plus or minus the voltage drop
across inductor‫ܮ‬ଵ .

In the Chopper/Inverter Control window, vary the duty cycle between 70%
and 80% by 1% increments. For each setting, observe the location of the dot
in the Oscilloscope display and record the average (dc) output current ‫ܫ‬ை
(Channel 1 AVG) and average (dc) output voltage ‫ܧ‬ை (Channel 2 AVG) of the
four-quadrant chopper in the data table. Do not exceed 4.5 A at the output of
the four-quadrant chopper. Manually record the duty cycle ߙொభǡொఱ
corresponding to each setting in the Data Table.

## © Festo Didactic 86356-00 127

Exercise 8 – The Four-Quadrant Chopper  Procedure

## 32. Stop the four-quadrant chopper and the voltage source.

33. Reverse the battery connections in the circuit as shown in Figure 57.

Chopper/Inverter

‫ܮ‬ଵ
2 mH

ܳଵ ‫ܦ‬ଵ ܳଶ ‫ܦ‬ଶ

‫ܧ‬ூ ‫ܥ‬஻௎ௌ
100 V 50 V

ܳସ ‫ܦ‬ସ ܳହ ‫ܦ‬ହ

## Switching control signals

from digital outputs
on DACI

Figure 57. Circuit used to demonstrate four-quadrant operation (with reversed battery
connections).

34. In the Chopper/Inverter Control window, set the duty cycle to 25% then start
the four-quadrant chopper and the voltage source. Make sure that the
average (dc) output current ‫ܫ‬ை (input I2) is null. Slightly readjust the voltage of
the voltage source if necessary. In this operating condition, the average
(dc) output voltage‫ܧ‬ை of the four-quadrant chopper is negative and equal to
the battery voltage plus or minus the voltage drop across inductor‫ܮ‬ଵ .

In the Chopper/Inverter Control window, vary the duty cycle between 30%
and 20% by 1% increments. For each setting, observe the location of the dot
in the Oscilloscope display and record the average (dc) output current ‫ܫ‬ை
(Channel 1 AVG) and average (dc) voltage ‫ܧ‬ை (Channel 2 AVG) of the four-
quadrant chopper in the data table. Make sure not to exceed 4.5 A at the
output of the four-quadrant chopper. Manually record the duty cycle
corresponding to each setting in the data table.

## 128 © Festo Didactic 86356-00

Exercise 8 – The Four-Quadrant Chopper  Conclusion

36. Transfer your recorded data into a spreadsheet application, and plot on a
same graph, a curve of the dc output voltage (Y axis) versus dc output
current (X axis) when the duty cycle varies from 70% to 80%, and a curve of
the dc output voltage (Y axis) versus dc output current (X axis) when the duty
cycle varies from 30% to 20%.

37. Do the curves you plotted confirm that the four-quadrant chopper can
operate in any of the four quadrants?

 Yes  No

38. Referring to the curves you plotted, determine the duty cycle at which the
current changes polarity.

39. Close LVDAC-EMS, turn off all equipment, and remove all leads and cables.

CONCLUSION In this exercise, you observed that the electronic switches are switched in pairs in
a four-quadrant chopper, and that when one pair of electronic switches is on, the
other pair is off. You observed that the voltage at the input of the four-quadrant
chopper is alternately applied to its output through each pair of electronic
switches and that the polarity of the output voltage alternates depending on
which pair of electronic switches is on. You also observed that the four-quadrant
chopper can provide a positive or a negative average (dc) voltage regardless of
the direction in which current flows, thereby allowing four-quadrant operation.

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Referring to Figure 54, is the voltage ‫ܧ‬ை applied to the load positive or
negative when electronic switches ܳଶ and ܳସ are switched on?

2. Determine the output voltage variation that can be observed when the duty
cycle of a four-quadrant chopper varies from 0% to 100%?

## © Festo Didactic 86356-00 129

Exercise 8 – The Four-Quadrant Chopper  Review Questions

## 4. A four-quadrant chopper, which is supplied by a +200 V dc power supply,

provides -24 V dc at its output. What is the duty cycle ߙொభǡொఱ ?

5. What is the main feature which distinguishes the four-quadrant chopper from
the buck/boost chopper?