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IMPLEMENTATION OF SMART PULLEY PRACTICAL TOOLS AS A LEARNING

MEDIA OF NEWTON’S SECOND LAW

Ade Putri1,a) Ainul Yakin1 Erna Siti Nurhasanah1 Adam Malik1

1
Program Studi Pendidikan Fisika,
Jurusan Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam,
Fakultas Tarbiyah dan Keguruan, UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung,
Jl. A.H Nasution 105 Bandung, Indonesia, 40614

a)
adelp7980@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. One of the real challenges in education is that education should be able to
produce human resources that have full competence such as mastery of technology, and
learning media. With the learning media, learners become more active, creative and
innovative. In addition, the learning media serves to describe a natural phenomenon that is
still abstract. One of the material physics that is still difficult to understand is the material
of Newton’s second law. Therefore, to facilitate learners in understanding this material, it
takes an interactive learning media. This study aims to test the feasibility of smart pulley
tools as a medium to enhance students' understanding of Newton's second law material.
The method used in research is research and development. Research data were obtained
using pretest, posttest, and questionnaire of the feasibility test of the tool. Research subjects
are student of Physics Education at semester V in UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung and
students of MAN 2 Bandung at academic year 2016/2017. The results showed that the
highest average understanding of learners' concepts after using the smart pulley tool is
90.48 and the lowest is 85.71. The results of this study can be used as a basis for developing
smart pulley practicum tool as a supporting medium of concept understanding on Newton’s
second law material.
Keywords: learning media, smart pulley tools

INTRODUCTION The way of delivering physics


Cognitive knowledge illustrates material that can bridge between physical
that people tend to organize and analyze concepts is real by using the media. Various
observations, and their experience to express media can be used as an intermediary in the
abstract-looking concepts with their own learning of physics, such as props and
language. Thus, by investigating what practicum tools [2]
students use in understanding the concepts of Learning media is a tool used as an
physics such as the use of a medium, we can intermediary or conveyor content
help students to build an understanding of information in the form of visual and verbal
such abstract concepts [1] knowledge for the purposes of learning. In
general, learning media is a tool of learning
process. Because, with the learning media to such as the movement of an elevator, the use
make students aroused to process their of flywheel on a car engine, and so on. [10]
thoughts and memories during the learning According to research results
activities take place [3], one way learning (Sornkhatha and Srisawasdi 2013) [11], the
activities that can stimulate students to method of inquiry-based learning in
maintain the knowledge and concepts that he simulation can be considered as a
got to last longer is the activity lab [4] pedagogical tool to improve students'
Practicum in physics learning is a conceptual understanding on Newton's law
series of activities of proof and development material.
of physics concepts that have been studied in Recent research conducted by
abstract through books, internet and learning (Dias, Carvalho and Vianna 2016)] reveals
in the classroom. Learning by using practice that image modeling is a good learning
tools gives the learner the opportunity to be approach for understanding Newton’s second
able to see and prove the theories that have law materials because in this approach
been studied, through direct observation and students involve in describing a phenomenon,
experimentation. This will certainly enhance analyzing experimental and brainstorming
your creativity, and skill. Thus it will be more results. Students not only identify in practice
motivated in studying a theory, and indirectly the implications of physical law alone, but
the sense of curiosity is also growing and they must calculate the mathematical motion
greater in the learning process [5], practical in such a way that the learning process is
activities are very useful in learning physics, much more interesting. This image modeling
basically a lot of concepts that must be is a combination of strobe image and video
proven. [6] analysis. This tool can allow for a qualitative
However, learning practicum in and quantitative approach to physics learning
schools is difficult to implement, the limited [12]
tools and experimental infrastructure in Based on the above background
schools is the biggest obstacle facing then conducted research to develop a learning
teachers. To overcome these obstacles, media physics is expected to attract student
teachers should be more creative to pursue learning interests so that learning
practical activities with simple practicum achievement was also expected to increase.
tools that is by utilizing materials or The objectives of this research and
equipment in the environment [7] development are: (1) to develop smart pulley
One of the material that is difficult practicum tool in physics learning (2) to
to understand is Newton's law material, know the feasibility of smart pulley tool in
because in this material misconception often physics study (3) to know the achievement
occurs, in addition when students are given a level of learners concept after following
problem about the physics concepts in learning process using smart pulley
Newton's law material, many students are practicum tool.
still less understood, especially in describing
the style diagram to solve the problem [8] METHOD
Newton's law of motion is the During the research process took
material given to the class X of high school. place, researchers used the method of
[9], Newton's law material is one of the research and development. (2) product design
fundamentals, because in everyday we often (3) tool design validation (4) tool design
encounter events related to Newton's laws improvements (5) initial media development,
(6) field trials, (7) revised final product.
Research subjects consist of two learning. The learning model developed by
groups, namely: The subject of expert the researcher is the Inquiry-Based Learning
judgment or Expert / Expert consisting of the model. Where during the learning process is
subject of Needs Analysis in this cases is a provided a practicum tool and during the
lecturer physics lab and peer college students, learning activities take place, learners use
students of Physics Education of UIN Sunan practicum tools that have been made.
Gunung Djati Bandung at semester V Practical tools made by researchers to
academic year 2016/2017. Subject Try (user) facilitate the participants were found in
in this research and development of the understanding the concept of Newton's law is
student MAN Bandung school at class X a smart pulley tool. The series of smart pulley
academic year 2016/2017. tool design tools that will be developed by
Instruments used in research and researchers are as follows:
development is a matter of pretest, posttest,
and questionnaire. Data analysis and product
development trials consist of qualitative
analysis and quantitative analysis.
Qualitative Analysis Technique is used to
process data obtained from requirement
analysis, validation, product trial and trial
usage in the form of responses, inputs,
criticisms, and suggestions used to revise the
product. Qualitative data processing is
processed by using the qualitative descriptive
technique. Data analyzed using quantitative
analysis techniques are quantitative data
analysis needs that are quantified, such as 2. Product design
questionnaire assessment and product trial After the form of the media of a tool
data, and pretest-posttest data. practicum is determined then done the design
stage of product development.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION The series of smart pulley tool
1. The preliminary study phase of the tool design tools made by researchers based on
In the preliminary study phase of the design at the introduction stage of tools
the tool is in the form of ideas submission of such as the following:
practicum tool created. First, the researchers
determine the material that is difficult to
understand. According to the researcher
material that is difficult to understand is the
material of Newton II law, because in this
material learners tend to memorize Newton's
laws only mathematically. In addition,
according to research (Alias and Ibrahim
2016) shows that students experience some
problems in Newton's approach to
terminology and problem-solving [13]
therefore, to overcome this need the existence
of a method and model of appropriate
Equipment: validation in order to obtain suggestions and
a. Cart feedback from the validator. The accuracy of
b. Mass mounting the rope connecting rope
c. Track components as it passes through the track and
d. Pulley the wooden board conditions without
e. Force sensor obstructions puts the load on the trolly down
f. Table top as it passes into suggestions from the
g. Stopwatch validator to be fixed as this reduces the
h. String aesthetic level of the appliance. Based on the
results of development, practicum tool that
Physical principles: has been made has several weaknesses,
A net force, F, applied to an object with a among others: observation of time relies on
mass, M, will cause the mass to accelerate practicer relative, limited object distance, not
with an acceleration, a. In this experiment, a all Newton's legal materials can be used by
dynamics cart is accelerated by a string that applying this smart pulley law practice tool.
passes over a smart pulley. The smart pulley The advantages of smart pulley practicum
records the position and velocity of the cart tools made in them: the materials used are
as time passes. The acceleration of the cart is easy to obtain, easy to move, easy to
determined from the slope of a graph of the assemble.
cart velocity versus time. The string loops
under a second pulley that supports an 4. Design Improvement
accelerating mass, m, and they are connected This stage is based on the stages of
to the force sensor. The force sensor validation design tool, where after getting
measures the tension in the string which is the advice, researchers improve the design of
force that accelerates the cart. For smart pulley media. Improvements made on
accelerations, small compared to g this the media display smart pulley, which is on
tension is about half of the weight of the the track by using a barrier so that when the
accelerating mass. car passes does not make the load fell to the
side.
3. Design validation
The product that has been 5. Early development
developed in the form of smart pulley physics At the development stage is done by
practicum is then validated by two validators colleagues of students UIN Sunan Gunung
to assess the feasibility before large-scale Djati Bandung ie physics education at
field trials. The first validation was semester V academic year 2016/2017. The
conducted by the lecturer of the second phase purpose of this initial development is to
of the physics school physics laboratory by gather information and readability of the
analyzing whether the smart pulley practicum developed product. Information obtained
tool could explain the phenomenon of from this initial development is then used for
Newton's law. And the second validation is product refinement. Initial development is
done by colleagues were given the carried out by discussing with the initial
questionnaire with Aspects that are assessed development subject to obtain product
include the appearance of the tool, the deficiency data. These early development
relevance of the teaching materials, the subjects were given the freedom to provide
accuracy and efficiency. opinions and assessments of the products
A successfully developed practice being piloted. In addition, this product trial is
tool is then submitted to the validator for
done by three stages, the first stage of giving Respectively:
the pretest, the second stage of practicum
KPM 1 = Interpreting
activity, the third stage of posttest.
Here are the pretest-posttest results KPM 2 = Giving an example
on the material II Newton student law using
KPM 3 = Classifying
the media in the form of smart pulley tools:
Respondent Pretest Posttest N-Gain KPM 4 = Summarizing
R-1 80,95 85,71 0,25 KPM 5 = Drawing a conclusion
R-2 76,19 80,95 0,20 KPM 6 = Comparing
R-3 80,95 90,48 0,50 KPM 7 = Explaining
R-4 76,19 80,95 0,20 Based on the graph, it is found that
the highest achievement of conceptual
Average 78,57 84,52 0,29 achievement is in the interpreting indicator
In the table, it can be seen that there and the lowest average ability is the
is an increase in competence when using summarizing indicator.
smart pulley tools. This can be seen through Looking at the results of data
the average achievement of competence on recapitulation of tables and graphs can be
the subject of pretest and posttest students. At said that smart pulley practicum tool can be
pretest, the averages were 78.57 and the tested in the field to then be used as a medium
posttest 84.52. of learning on Newton II law material.
The question of pretest and posttest
used is a matter of understanding the concept 6. Field test phase
which refers to the material of Newton II law. Field trials stage conducted on
The item is based on the taxonomy of the students of MAN 2 Bandung at tenth class
category cohort (C2) which consists of seven with 10 people. Field trials were conducted in
indicators: interpreting, modeling, the tenth classroom by following the learning
classifying, summarizing, drawing plans that had been made. Field trials are
conclusions, comparing, and explaining. The aimed to determine the feasibility of the
percentage of learners' ability in developed practicum tool. Data obtained at
understanding concept based on indicators the trial stage of use are as follows:
can be seen in the graph below: a. Pretest

The average graph of achievement Respondent Value


results based on indicators R-1 80,95
120%
100%
R-2 57,14
100% 87.50% 83.33% R-3 57,14
75.00% 70.83% 79.17% 75.00%
Percentage

80% R-4 76,19


60% R-5 71,42
40% R-6 61,9
20%
R-7 76,19
0%
KPM KPM KPM KPM KPM KPM KPM
R-8 71,42
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 R-9 76,19
Student Skills Indicator C2 R-10 61,9
Average 69,04
Based on the above table that the
highest score obtained on the pretest issue is The average graph of
80.95 and the lowest is 57.14. achievement of the concepts
based on competency
b. Posttest achievement indictors
120.00%
Respondent Value 100.00%

Percentage
80.00%
R-1 85,71
60.00%
R-2 85,71
40.00%
R-3 90,48
20.00%
R-4 90,48
0.00%
R-5 90,48 KPS 1 KPS 2 KPS 3 KPS 4 KPS 5 KPS 6 KPS 7
R-6 85,71 Student Skills Indicator of C2
R-7 90,48
R-8 85,71 Respectively:
R-9 90,48 KPS 1 = Interpreting
R-10 85,71
Average 88,09 KPS 2 = Giving an example
The table above shows that the KPS 3 = Classifying
highest score is 90.48 and the lowest is 85.71.
Gain and N-gain values generated KPS 4 = Summarizing
by learners are shown in the following table: KPS 5 = Drawing a conclusion
No. Respondent Gain N-Gain
1. R-1 1,00 0,25 KPS 6 = Comparing
2. R-2 6,00 0,67 KPS 7 = Explaining
3. R-3 7,00 0,78
Graph data on the achievement of
4. R-4 3,00 0,60
the concept of students on newton legal
5. R-5 4,00 0,67
material illustrates that the highest average
6. R-6 6,00 0,75 competence of learners is on the interpreting
7. R-7 2,00 0,40 indicator that is about 96.67%, this explains
8. R-8 4,00 0,67 that learners can interpret the phenomena
9. R-9 5,00 0,63 associated with Newton II law. While the
10. R-10 3,00 0,60 lowest competence is the indicator classify
Average 4,10 0,60 about 66.67%.
Increased student learning Based on the pretest table, posttest
outcomes can be seen based on the average and N-gain values obtained data that there is
value of N-gain. The average value of N-gain increasing understanding of the concept of
is 0.60. learners after using smart pulley practicum
As for to see the extent to which the tool. Where the increase in understanding of
competence of learners on the material of this concept can be seen through the average
Newton II law can be known through the pretest value of 69.04, the value of posttest,
concept of understanding graphics based on which is 88.09 and the value of N-gain 0.60.
indicators of competence C2 (understanding) Also in the graph of the concept indicator C2
below: that the average lowest above 50% this
indicates that the concept of learning
knowledge has increased significantly. This excited in doing
indicates that the smart pulley tool is worthy practicum activities
of use as a supporting medium in I can use the practice
9 100%
understanding the concept of Newton's law. tool easily.
I can assemble practical
10 95%
c. Questionnaire tools easily
After practicum activities are done, I was able to work with
students are given a questionnaire that is used group mates when
11 80%
to determine students' responses after using practicum activities took
the smart pulley tool. The following is the place
result of a student response questionnaire I can analyze the
after using the practicum tool: experimental data from
12 the experimental results 75%
No Questions Prosentase
using the practicum tool
I have never used easily.
1 practical tools about 100% I can discuss practicum
13 80%
Newton's law data with group mates
The props can help me The practicum tool
2 find the basic concept of 80% 14 works well during the 90%
Newton's law lab work.
With the practical tools, I am interested in the
3 I can analyze the 85% 15 overall look of Newton's 100%
concept of Newton's law 2nd law practical tools.
The practical tools can Based on the chart above, it can be
4 help me solve problems 90% concluded that the average response of
related to Newton's law. learners to the media lab is very good, it can
With the tools of the be proven on the value or vulnerable
practicum, it can add to percentage of the response of each learner
5 my knowledge of the 90% clue above 50%. This means that practicum
use of Newton's 2nd law media can help improve students
concept understanding of Newton's second law
The existence of the material.
practicum tools made
me eager to deepen my 7. Final Product Revision
6 90%
knowledge of Newton's Based on the results of field trials,
laws material about researchers still find a variety of
motion shortcomings in the practicum tool
The existence of developed, among which is the design of less
practicum tools in the attractive tools and the use of stopwatch via
lab activities made me handphone. Secondly, this causes the practice
7 75%
interested in trying and does not work effectively, therefore in this
making props as final product revision the researchers
exemplified redesign the practicum and place a digital
With the tools stopwatch on one side of the tool, making it
8 100%
practicum, I am more easier to read time calculations without.
CONCLUSION [5] Aslam, Syamsu, Darsikin, and Unggul
Based on data analysis in general it Wahyono 2016 Pengembangan Alat
can be concluded that the result of Praktikum Hukum Ohm Berbasis
development of smart pulley tool is declared Grafik Menggunakan Mikrokontrolel
eligible to be used to support physics learning pada Mahasiswa Calon Guru Fisika.
on Newton’s second law material. Smart Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika Tadulako
pulley practicum tool developed as a (JPFT) 4 (1): 21-26.
percentage of eligibility of 88.67% with a
very good category. This indicates that based [6] Amin, Wildan Hasyim, Darsikin, and
on the validity of the propensity of the object Unggul Wahyono 2015 Analisis
acceleration tool is considered feasible to use. Koherensi Konsep Hukum Newton
Based on the result of field testing of smart pada Siswa Kelas X SMA Negeri 5
pulley practice tool for ten students of MAN Palu. Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika
2 Bandung, got the highest score 90,48 and Tadulako (JPFT) 3 (2): 40-45.
lowest 85,71. Students respond very
positively to the use of smart pulley tools in [7] Mustika, Indriyani 2011 Upaya
activities. Meningkatkan hasil belajar IPA
Fisika melalui pembelajaran
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