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In 1769, the first self-propelled vehicle w as introduced in France by N icholas— Joseph C ugnot. In
1885, D aim ler and Benz used a gas engine w orking on O tto cycle to drive a four w heeler vehicle.
T he Peugeot fam ily then introduced the first G asoline or petrol engine car in France during 1891.
It w as in 1895 that H enry Ford run his car by a 2-stroke gasoline engine. B y the end of 1904 there
w ere m ore than 100 four w heeler m anufacturers in A m erica alone.
N ow the autom obile industry is grow ing w ith such a trem endous speed (m ore than 30,000 lacs
on roads) that any country’s progress is being m easured in term s of the auto vehicles running on
its roads.
In India at the tim e of independence, only tw o nam es of car m anufacturers w ere fam ous
H industan M otors, m anufacturing A m bassador C ars and Prem ier A utom obiles Ltd. selling Fiat C ars.
N ow quite a good num ber of auto vehicle-m akers are pushing their sales of cars in Indian m arket—
Ford India Ltd., G eneral M otors India Ltd., H industan M otors Ltd., H onda Siel C ars, H yundai
M otors India Ltd., M ahindra & M ahindra Ltd., M ahindra R enault Ltd., M aruti U dyog Ltd., M itsubishi
Ltd., N issan, Skoda A uto India Ltd., Toyota K irloskar M otors Ltd., B .M .W . India Pvt. Ltd., D aim ler
C hrysler India Ltd. and Fiat India A utom obiles etc. are few to nam e; alm ost all of them are fielding
their car m odels from sm aller cars to costlier luxury cars.
M aruti U dyog Ltd. is still the biggest car m anufacturer in India w ith their M A R U T I 800, Z EN
m odels, EST EEM , W A G O N R , A LT O , SW IFT , etc. and also serves an export hub for Suzuki.
India’s Tata M otors are w ell established in car m arket w ith their IN D IC A , IN D IG O , SU M O and
SA FA R I vehicles. In N ovem ber 2007, M r. R atan Tata put forth for exhibition his dream car— ‘T ATA
N A N O ’, the so called Lakhtakia sm all car, w hich is struggling to hit Indian roads. In M arch 2008,
M r. R atan Tata achieved another first by acquiring the m ost charm ing w orld fam ous cars— JA G U A R
and LA N D R O V ER of U nited K ingdom .
Tw o w heeler m arket in India is also very fast flourishing. B ajaj A uto Ltd., H ero H onda M otors
Ltd., H onda M otorcycle, Scooter India Pvt. Ltd., T V S M otorcycles, Yam aha M otor India Ltd., are
the m ajor tw o w heeler m anufacturers. Q uite a good num ber of 2-w heelers are running on batteries
claim ing to be eco-friendly.
2 A Textbook of Automobile Engineering

T he autom obiles of the m odern age provide their ow ners a safe driving, m ore reliability and
lot of com fort along w ith devices of I.T. and entertainm ent. T here are tw o kinds of vehicles
m anufactured in India— O ne for defence purposes and other for civilians. T he vehicles for defence
are generally produced at Jabalpur Plant and Passenger C ars m anufacturing units are located in
M um bai, K olkata, C hennai, Jam shedpur, Pune and G urgaon.

A utom ob ile Engines

Internal com bustion engines are extensively used for driving m otor vehicles. A ll the engines
used in propelling autom obile vehicles are called autom obile engines or sim ply auto engines. A n
engine is a device w hich converts heat energy of fuel into m echanical energy. In an internal
com bustion engine or I.C . engine, the heat energy is produced by burning the fuel (Petrol, G as,
D iesel oil, or any other fuel) inside the engine cylinder itself. Exam ples of I.C . engines are Petrol
engines, D iesel engines, and G as engines. Som e engines are classified as external com bustion
engines. In these types, the com bustion of fuel takes place outside the engine cylinder such as steam
engines and steam turbines. In these engines the com bustion takes place inside the boiler furnace
and the heat of the steam such produced is utilized for running the engines.

A dvantages of I.C. Engines over External Com bustion Engines

• G reater m echanical sim plicity.
• Lighter in w eight.
• H igh overall efficiency.
• Initial cost is low .
• C om pact in size and acquire less space.
• Easy start from cold.


T he internal com bustion engines are classified on the basis of the follow ing factors:
1 . O n th e b a sis o f w o rk in g cycle
• O tto cycle engines.
• D iesel cycle engines.
• M ixed cycle engines.
2 . O n th e b a sis o f fu el u sed
• Petrol engines.
• D iesel engines or oil engines.
• G as engines (C .N .G ., C oal gas, Producer gas, H ydrogen and Furnace gases m ay also be
• H ybrid engines— using m ore than one fuel such as electricity and any other fuel.
Automobile Engines 3

3 . O n th e b a sis o f ig n itio n m e th o d
• Spark ignition engine (S.I. Engine).
• C om pression ignition engine (C .I. Engine).
4 . A cco rd in g to n u m b er o f stro k es p e r cycle
• Tw o stroke engines.
• Four stroke engines.
5 . A cco rd in g to th e m eth o d o f co o lin g
• A ir cooled engines.
• W ater cooled engines.
6 . A cco rd in g to n u m b e r o f cylin d e rs
• Single cylinder engines.
• M ulti cylinder engines.
7 . A cco rd in g to th e a rra n g em en t o f cylin d e rs
• H orizontal engines.
• Vertical engines.
• V –type engines.
• R adial engines.
8 . A cco rd in g to th e ir u ses
• Stationary engines.
• Portable engines.
• A uto engines.
• M arine engines.
• A ero engines.
• Space craft engines.
9 . A cco rd in g to m eth o d o f fu el su p p ly
• C arburettor type.
• M PFI type.
• Solid injection type.
• A ir injection type.
1 0 . A cco rd in g to th e ir sp ee d s
• Low speed engines (up to 100 rpm ).
• M edium speed engines (100–250 rpm ).
• H igh speed engines (above 250 rpm ).
4 A Textbook of Automobile Engineering

1 1 . A cco rd in g to th e m o vem en t o f p isto n /ro to r

• R eciprocating engines (S.I. and C .I. engines).
• R otary piston engines— W ankel engine.
• G as turbines (R otary engines).
1 2 . A cco rd in g to m eth o d o f g o vern in g
• H it and M iss governed engines.
• Q uality governed engines.
• Q uantity governed engines.
1 3 . A cco rd in g to va lve a rra n g e m e n t
• O verhead valve engines.
• L–head type engines.
• T –head type engines.
• F–head type engines.
1 4 . A cco rd in g to p la ce o f co m b u stio n o f fu el
• Internal com bustion engines.
• External com bustion engines.

T he I.C . engines are used for driving vehicles in ground, w ater and air.
• R oad vehicles (e.g., cars, scooters, m otorcycles, buses, etc.)
• A ir craft.
• Locom otives (R ailw ay engines).
• C onstruction equipm ent in civil engineering such as bulldozer, scraper, pow er shovels,
road rollers, cranes, etc.
• Pum ping sets.
• C inem as— C ooling and lighting system s.
• H ospitals— Stand-by units of pow er supply.
• Several industrial prim e-m overs, pum ping sets, etc.
• Electricity G eneration— used as prim e-m overs.
• A griculture— Tractors, w ater pum ping sets.
• M arines, ships, boats, etc.
Automobile Engines 5


T he construction of internal com bustion engine is show n in the Fig. 1.1. T he cylinder w hich is
closed at upper end is filled w ith a m ixture of fuel and air. A s the crankshaft turns it pushes up
the connecting rod and the piston is forced up and com presses the m ixture in the space at the inside
top of the cylinder. T he m ixture is burnt by a spark produced by spark plug and, as it burns, the
gases expand and create a high pressure on the piston, forcing it dow nw ard in the cylinder. T he
piston pushes on the connecting rod w hich pushes on the U -shape crank. T he crank is thus given
a rotary (turning) m otion.

F uelInjector (C .I.E .)
or S park P lug (S .I.E .)
I.V. E .V. P iston (A t the end of
C om bustion cham ber com pression stroke)
C om pressed charge
R eference: C ylinder
I.V.– InletValve S m allend of connecting rod
E .V.– E xhaustValve G udgeon pin
C .I.E .– C om pression W ater jacket
Ignition E ngine
S .I.E .– S park Ignition
E ngine C onnecting rod

C rank case
R ing gear B ig end of connecting rod
R im
C rank C rank pin
F lyw heel
C rankshaft
H ub

K eyw ay

M ain bearing
C rank case
R ib
O ilsum p
R ing gear

F ig . 1 .1 Structure of I.C . engine (single cylinder)

A flyw heel, fitted on one end of the crankshaft, stores energy and keeps the crank turning
steadily. T he upper closed end is called ‘C ylinder head’, carries inlet and exhaust valves and also
fitted w ith fuel injector in case of a diesel engine or a spark plug in case of a petrol engine. T he
electric spark produced by spark plug, ignites the com pressed air fuel m ixture. T he cylinder is
surrounded by a cooling w ater jacket in case of w ater-cooled engines or by m etallic projections,
called fins, in case of air-cooled engines as show n in the Fig. 1.2.
6 A Textbook of Automobile Engineering

C ylinder head S park plug

E xhaust valve
Inlet valve Valve spring

E xhaust port
Inlet port
P iston rings
C ooling fins
P iston
O ilring
G udgeon pin or P iston pin
C onnecting rod
C ylinder

C rankcase

C rank pin
C rankshaft
C rank


F ig . 1 .2 A n air-cooled 4-stroke petrol engine

M ain Parts of an I.C. Engine

A n I.C . engine has the follow ing m ain parts:
• C ylinder— 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 or 16 cylinders.
• C ylinder head.
• Piston.
• C onnecting rod.
• C rank.
• C rankshaft.
• Flyw heel.
• C rankcase.
• Valves and valves operating m echanism .
• W ater jackets or Fins.
• Spark plug (Petrol engine) or Fuel injector (D iesel engine).
• C arburettor or M PFI system (Petrol engine) or Fuel Injection Pum p (D iesel engine).
Automobile Engines 7

D escrip tion of M ain Parts

C ylin d er: It houses the piston w hich reciprocates inside it. T he cylinder provides w orking
volum e for the charge/gas. O n the top side, it is attached w ith a cylinder head w hich houses the
spark plug in S.I. engines or a fuel injector in the case of the diesel engine and the inlet and exhaust
valves. T he various assem blies of cylinder— piston, piston and connecting rod and connecting rod
w ith crank are show n in the Fig. 1.3 (b). W ater-cooled engines have w et-liners or dry liners fitted

F uelinjector/S parking plug

Inlet valve E xhaust valve
C lyinder
A ir P roducts P iston
(F uel) G udgeon pin
W ater jacket inside
F uel engine block C onnecting rod
P iston

F lyw heel
C onnecting rod C rankcase
C rankshaft

C rankshaft S um p

(a) (b)

F ig . 1 .3 Various engine parts assem blies

inside engine block w ith interference fit. T hey are replaced w here w orn or dam aged. T hey are
generally m ade of G rey cast iron. Liners save the engine block from dam age. B oth types of liners
are show n in Fig. 1.3(c). Engine blocks are m ade of cast iron or alum inium alleys.

E ngine block
W ater space

W et liner W ater jacket/ D ry

(in touch S pace for w ater liner
w ith w ater) circulation (N ot in touch
w ith w ater)

R ubber rings

F ig . 1 .3 (c) W ater-cooled engine cylinder w ith w et liner/dry liner

8 A Textbook of Automobile Engineering

P isto n A ssem b ly: R eciprocating m otion of the piston inside the cylinder executes the w orking
process. Piston transfers the w ork to the crank shaft through the connecting rod. T he piston
construction and nom enclature is show n in the Fig. 1.4 (a). Piston rings, fitted into the slots around
the piston, provide a tight seal betw een the piston and the cylinder w all thus preventing leakage
of com bustion gases. G udgeon pin form s the link betw een the sm all end of the connecting rod and
the piston as show n in the Fig. 1.3 (a and b). M odern engine pistons are m ade of alum inium alloy
having sm all am ount of Silicon w hich gives good m echanical strength and low coefficient of

C row n

C om pression

O ilw ay O ilcontrolring

B oss/hole for C lam p ring

gudgeon pin

S kirt

S lot (allow s expansion due to heat)

F ig . 1 .4 (a) A split skirt piston

P isto n R in g s: The piston inside the engine cylinder has a clearance fit to allow free m ovem ent
of piston.To provide a com plete sealing betw een the piston and cylinder w alls to hold the com pression
pressure, the piston is provided w ith piston rings. R ings are m ade of cast iron of fine grains or alloy
spring steel. T he tw o ends are kept split/apart so that they can be expanded and slipped over the
upper end (top) of the piston to fit into the grooves cut in the outer periphery of the piston. The tw o
upper piston rings give a good sealing as the split ends of the both rings are 180° opposite direction
in their grooves. H igher the pressure in the com bustion cham ber, the better is the seal.

G AP S lots/O ilvents
R ing
face R adialthickness C hannel
R ing w idth O ilring
C om pression ring
F ig . 1 .4 (b) Piston rings

T he piston rings are of tw o types:

• T he upper tw o piston rings are called ‘C om pression R ings’. T hey hold the com pression
pressure successfully (Fig. 1.4 (b)).
Automobile Engines 9

• T he low er extra third ring is called ‘O il R ing’. It is em ployed only in the four stroke cycle
engines (Fig. 1.4 (b)). T he oil rings scrap out the extra/excess lubricating oil from the
cylinder w alls, thus preventing it to enter into the com bustion cham ber w here it w ould
burn and create m any troubles and black sm oke in exhaust gases.
G u d g eo n P in o r P isto n P in : T he sm all end of the connecting rod is fitted over the piston
pin w hose tw o ends rest in piston bosses. T he piston pin allow s the free sw iveling m otion of the
sm all end of the connecting rod. It is m ade up of hardened steel. It is sim ply a round bar spindle
type pin. See Fig. 1.3 (b).
C o m b u stio n C h a m b e r: T he space above the piston inside the cylinder at T D C called the
com bustion cham ber. C om bustion of fuel inside this space releases the therm al energy resulting in
a sudden pressure rise, leading to w ork done on the piston. (See Fig. 1.1).
S p a rk P lu g a n d F u e l In jectio n N o zzle: In spark ignition engine (S.I. engine), the spark
plug produces a strong spark at the end of com pression of the charge to initiate com bustion process
as show n in the Fig. 1.3 (a). In the case of diesel engine, spark plug is replaced by a fuel injection
nozzle w hich injects diesel oil into the hot com pressed air to initiate com bustion process.
In le t M a n ifo ld : T he pipe w hich connects the intake system s (A ir cleaner, C arburettor/Fuel
Injector) to the Inlet valve of the engine and through w hich air or air-fuel m ixture is draw n into
the cylinder is called Inlet M anifold. It is a sim ple steel pipe.
E xh a u st M a n ifo ld : T he pipe w hich connects the exhaust system s to the exhaust valve of the
engine and through w hich the products of com bustion escape into the atm osphere is called the
exhaust m anifold. See Fig. 1.5 (a).

H ot gases from exhaust valves (4-cylinder engine)

E xhaust
m anifold

E xhaust gases to silencer

F ig . 1 .5 (a) Exhaust pipe or exhaust m anifold

In let a n d E xh a u st Va lves: Valves com m only used are m ushroom shaped poppet type. T hey
are provided either on the cylinder head or on the side of the cylinder for regulating the charge
com ing into the cylinder (inlet valve) and for discharging the products of com bustion (exhaust
valve) from the cylinder as show n in the Figs. 1.5 (b) and 1.5 (c). T heir locations are show n in
Figs. 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. Exhaust valve is m ade m ore thick and strong to w ithstand high tem peratures.
Tem perature at inlet valve is just m ore or less atm ospheric.
10 A Textbook of Automobile Engineering

Intake valve E xhaust valve w ith projected head

face face 750°C
Land 70% heat
30% heat

S tem S tem 500°C

Valve-spring retainer
Valve-spring lock grooves
R etainer
lock groove

F ig . 1 .5 (b) Inlet valve F ig . 1 .5 (c) Exhaust valve show ing

tem perature zones

F lyw h e el: T he net torque im parted to the crankshaft during one com plete cycle of operation
of the engine fluctuates, causing a change in the angular velocity of the shaft. In order to achieve
a uniform torque, an inertia m ass in the form of a flyw heel is attached to the output shaft as show n
in the Fig. 1.1 and this w heel is called the flyw heel. T he variation of net torque decreases w ith
increase in the num ber of cylinders in the engine and thereby the size of the flyw heel also becom es
sm aller. T his m eans that a single cylinder engine w ill have a larger flyw heel w hereas a m ulti-
cylinder engine w ill have a sm aller flyw heel. It also facilitates the starting of the engine. It has a
ring gear over its periphery to engage w ith starting pinion of the starting system . Figure 1.6 show s
the details of construction of flyw heel.

R ing gear
R ing gear

H ub
H ub H oles for m ounting
F lyw heelon crankshaft
H oles
for m ounting

F ig . 1 .6 Flyw heel

C o n n e ctin g R o d : T he function of the connecting rod is to convert the reciprocating m otion

of the piston into the rotary m otion of the crankshaft. T he connecting rod connects the piston to
the crankshaft through piston pin and crankpin. T he expanding gas force on the piston is thus
transm itted to the crank pin through this rod.
Automobile Engines 11

S m allend


S ection at x–x

B ig end
(in tw o halves)

F ig . 1 .7 C onnecting-rod— half in section

T he piston pin fits into the sm all end of the connecting rod. T he big end, w hich is split into
tw o halves as show n in the Fig. 1.7, accom m odates the crankpin. T he connecting rod shank is
usually of I-section w ith breadth to depth ratio of 0.6 to 0.7 (approxim ately). T he shank of the
connecting rod is subjected to the force of inertia of reciprocating parts and the force due to gas
pressure inside the cylinder. T he stress produced is cyclic. T he connecting rod shank is also
subjected to bending stress due to axial shifting of the crankshaft.
C onnecting rods for S.I. engines are generally m ade of m edium carbon steel (0.35 to 0.45 per
cent carbon). For heavy-duty diesel and supercharged diesel engines, chrom e-nickel or chrom e
m olybdenum steel is used. In all cases the connecting rods are forged in dies and heat-treated after
m achining the ends. M alleable or spheroidal-graphite iron castings or sintered forgings are used in
sm all to m edium sized petrol engines. A popular m aterial used for both rod forgings and their
clam ping bolts or studs are m anganese m olybdenum steel, its com position being carbon (0.35% ),
m anganese (1.5% ), m olybdenum (0.3% ) and the rem ainder being iron.
C ra n k sh a ft: T he connecting rod and crank convert the reciprocating m otion of the piston
into the rotary m otion of the crankshaft. T he crankshaft is subjected to the external forces and
m om ents produced due to gas force and inertia of m oving parts. T he actual com plicated shape of
the crankshaft is show n in the Fig. 1.8 (a).T he gas force produces concentration of stresses at m any
local points. In m ulti cylinder engine, crankshaft is subjected to different torque at the sam e
m om ent due to shift in firing tim e of the cylinders, w hich produces unequal torsional deform ation
at different sections of the crankshaft. T his creates inertia m om ent of the crankshaft elem ents
betw een the m asses and som e torsional vibrations are also set up in the crankshaft, m aking it to
vibrate at som e frequency during rotations. T he crankshaft has to be balanced statically and
dynam ically to m inim ize vibrations for sm ooth running. C rankshaft of a single cylinder has been
show n in the Fig. 1.1 in the beginning.
12 A Textbook of Automobile Engineering

M ain journals

P ulley and
tim ing-spracket

O il-seal
rubbing face
C rank-w eb
F lyw heelflange
C ounterw eight
B ig-end journals

F ig . 1 .8 (a) C rankshaft for four cylinder engine

M ain journals of the crankshaft are supported by strong bearings fitted in the crankcase w alls
and these form the axis for the rotation of the crankshaft. O il holes are drilled from m ain journals
to the crankpins through crank w ebs to provide lubrication for big end bearings. T he centrifugal
forces acting at each crank pin due to rotation of both the crankshaft as w ell as the big end of
the connecting rod tend to bend the crankshaft. To counter this tendency, counterw eights are either
form ed as integral part of the crank w eb or attached separately, on the sides opposite to the crank
pin. T he flyw heel keeps the crankshaft rotating at a uniform speed. T he flyw heel has teeth in its
outer periphery, w hich m esh w ith the pinion of the starting m otor.
T he crank transform s the reciprocating m otion of the piston and connecting rod into the rotary
m otion for rotating the crankshaft and flyw heel. T he crankshaft is com posed of one or m ore cranks
betw een the ends. T he crankshaft is subjected to all sorts of forces developed w ithin the engine, and
it is therefore necessary to m ake it very strong, by forgings from som e extrem ely strong steel alloy
or chrom ium nickel m olybdenum steel. A sim ple diagram of a crankshaft for four cylinder engine
is given in the Fig. 1.8 (b).

O ilduct C rank pins – 1, 2, 3, 4

1 4 B earing – a, b, c, d, e
b c d e

2 3

F ig . 1 .8 (b) Sim ple line diagram of a crankshaft for four cylinder engine
C a m S h a ft: A sim ple cam shaft for four cylinder engine has been show n in the Fig. 1.8 (c).
It is driven either by a chain or by the tim ing gears m ounted betw een the crankshaft and the cam
shaft. It rotates at half the speed of the crankshaft in 4-stroke engines (inlet or exhaust valve
operates once in tw o revolutions of the crankshaft). Its function is to operate the valve lifting
m echanism and to drive F. I. pum p (in diesel engines).
Automobile Engines 13

C am s w ith lobes up

O ilpum p guide

C am s w ith
lobes (in the sides)
F ig . 1 .8 (c) C am shaft for four stroke tw o cylinder engine

W orking Princip le of Four Stroke I.C.Engine

In four stroke I.C . engine, one cycle of operations is com pleted in four strokes of the piston.
O ne stroke is the distance travelled by the piston from one end of the cylinder to another end during
half revolution of the crankshaft. T he topm ost and bottom m ost positions up to w hich the piston can
travel inside the cylinder are know n as top dead centre (T D C ) and the bottom dead centre (B D C )
T he distance betw een T D C and B D C is know n as stroke length. O ne cycle of operation in a
four-stroke engine consists of four strokes. T hey are:
• Suction stroke,
• C om pression stroke,
• Pow er stroke, and
• Exhaust stroke.
1 . S u ctio n S tro k e: D uring this stroke, the piston m oves from TD C to BD C creating a vacuum
inside the cylinder. T he inlet valve is opened and the exhaust valve is kept closed. T he vacuum
created inside the cylinder draw s the charge (air and petrol vapour for S.I. engine and air alone
in C .I. engine) into the cylinder through the inlet m anifold and the open inlet valve as show n in
the Fig. 1.9. T his process is know n as suction and is perform ed till the piston reaches B D C . T he
suction of charge carried out during one stroke length of piston m ovem ent is called suction stroke
and its volum e is called sw ept volum e.
Inlet E xhaust
valve valve I.M . Inlet m anifold
E .M . E xhaust m anifold
C harge I.M .
E .M .

S troke
S uction (below atm osphere)

F ig . 1 .9 Suction stroke— inlet open and exhaust valve closed

14 A Textbook of Automobile Engineering

2 . C o m p re ssio n S tro k e : A fter the com pletion of the suction stroke, the piston m oves from
B D C to T D C . B oth inlet and exhaust valves are kept closed during this stroke. T he volum e reduction
of charge during this stroke increases the pressure. T his process is know n as com pression and this
stroke is called the com pression stroke. See Fig. 1.10.
If V 1 = Volum e of air or charge sucked in during suction stroke (c.c.) = Stroke volum e
V 2 = Volum e of air or charge after com pression stroke is over (c.c.) = C learance volum e
V1 Stroke volum e
then C om pression ratio, rc = =
V2 C learance volum e
For S.I. engines, rc = 6 to 8
For C .I. engines, rc = 16 to 18
In m ulti-fuel engines, rc m ay be up to 21.
C lea ra n ce vo lu m e: T he space left in the cylinder (betw een cylinder head and piston crow n)
after com pletion of the com pression stroke w hen piston is at T D C .

S .P.

I.V. E .V.

C ylinder P
C om pression
P iston

Volum e
C on.rod O
C rankcase

C rankshaft P –V diagram
(C om pression stroke)

F ig . 1 .1 0 C om pression stroke— both valves are closed

A t the end of com pression stroke, a spark is introduced by the spark plug in S.I. engine to
initiate the com bustion in w hich the flam e produced by the charge consum es the charge to increase
the pressure instantaneously. In the case of C .I. engine, diesel is injected into the com pressed air
at the end of the com pression stroke. The com pressed air w hich is at high pressure and tem perature,
transfers heat to the diesel vapour. D iesel vapour on receiving heat reaches itself at its ignition
tem perature quickly and the com bustion process begins.
3 . Po w er S tro k e: R efer to Fig. 1.11. C om bustion process increases the gas pressure suddenly
and creates an im pact on the piston due to w hich the piston m oves from T D C to B D C , generating
w ork. T his stroke is know n as pow er stroke. D uring this process also both inlet and exhaust valves
are kept closed. It is also called ‘Expansion stroke’.
Automobile Engines 15

I.V. E .V.
I.M . E .M .
E xpansion or
P ow er stroke
P iston Ignition


F ig . 1 .1 1 Pow er stroke— both valves are closed

O nly during this stroke the engine develops pow er and for doing the com pression and suction
strokes engine gets pow er from its crankshaft and flyw heel. Pow er required for com pression and
suction strokes is only a fraction of the pow er developed by the engine and the balance pow er is
transferred through the crankshaft to the drive line of the vehicle.
4 . E xh a u st S tro k e: A fter the pow er stroke, the burnt or exhaust gas is pushed out of the
cylinder to atm osphere through the exhaust valve w hich is kept opened during this stroke. T he
pressure during exhaust stroke is little above the atm ospheric pressure. B ut theoratically, both inlet
and exhaust pressures are taken equal to atm ospheric pressure.

I.V. E .V.
I.M . E .M .
E xhaust

P iston O
C rankcase

F ig . 1 .1 2 Exhaust stroke— inlet valve closed and exhaust valve opened

Piston m oves from B D C to T D C pushing the exhaust gas to the exhaust m anifold. Inlet valve
is kept closed during this stroke to avoid the entry of exhaust gas into the inlet m anifold. C om plete
rem oval of the exhaust gas is very im portant for the efficient com bustion during the next cycle. T he
exhaust stroke is show n in the Fig. 1.12. A fter exhaust stroke, the cycle is com plete and the sam e
strokes are repeated again and again during running of the engine.
16 A Textbook of Automobile Engineering

A pp lication of Four Stroke I.C. Engine

• Four stroke petrol engines are used in autom obiles (tw o w heelers bikes and cars) and
m otor boats, dom estic generator sets etc.
• Four stroke diesel engines are used in high capacity autom obile (cars, buses, lorries,
trucks, ships, and sm all aircrafts).
• Four stroke diesel engines are also used for the electric pow er generation (diesel generator
• Four stroke diesel engines are also used in operating pum ps and m achine tools.

Theoretical and A ctual Indicator D iagram s for the Four-Stroke I.C. Engines
(i) O tto cycle engine
T he variation of pressure w ith respect to the volum e inside the cylinder of four stroke S.I.
engine is show n w ith the help of theoretical processes in Fig. 1.13.

3 P -V diagram (otto cycle)

P ressure,

E xpansion

2 C om bustion
C om pression 4
Patm B low -dow n
0 1
S uction/exhaust
(0, 0) Volum e, V

F ig . 1 .1 3 T heoretical indicator diagram for four stroke petrol engine (otto cycle engine)
T he m inim um w orking volum e inside the cylinder of the engine is know n as clearance volum e.
T his is the volum e above the piston w hen it reaches the T D C . W hen the piston m oves during the
suction stroke from T D C to B D C it creates another volum e V S know n as stroke volum e or sw ept
volum e during w hich the pressure alm ost rem ains as the atm ospheric pressure.D uring the com pression
stroke, the pressure increases to 15 to 50 kg/cm 2 w ith volum e reduction based on any one of the
com pression law s, that is isentropic (PV  = C ), polytropic (PV n = C ) or isotherm al (PV = C ). A t
the end of com pression, a spark is initiated w hich creates heat at constant volum e and raises the
gas pressure instantaneously. T he gases expand and pow er stroke takes place. T he expansion of
gases is usually adiabatic or isentropic. A t the end of the pow er stroke, the exhaust valve suddenly
opens and the pressure drops instantaneously to atm ospheric pressure. It then rem ains alm ost at the
sam e level during the exhaust stroke. T his cycle is based on the theoretical O tto cycle.
In actual cycle, there are som e deviations. Pressure during the suction stroke is less than
atm ospheric pressure and the pressure during the exhaust stroke is slightly m ore than the atm ospheric
Automobile Engines 17

pressure. Spark ignition is just before the end of com pression and the heat addition is not exactly
at constant volum e. T he actual indicator diagram is show n in the Fig. 1.14.

4-stroke otto cycle

P ressure (P )
E xpansion
X (+ve
w ork)
C om pression

E xhaust P um ping
P atm (–Ve) w ork
(0, 0) Volum e (V )

F ig . 1 .1 4 A ctual indicator diagram for four-stroke petrol engine

T he process of com bustion is not an explosion and does not occur at once. It is an orderly
burning of the charge. T he spark ignites the charge in the im m ediate vicinity of the spark plug and
the flam e front proceeds spherically outw ards from there at a m ore or less uniform speed. A head
of the flam e front is unburned m ixture and behind it are the products of com bustion. T he flam e
front takes certain tim e to travel from the spark plug to the farthest reach of the com bustion
cham ber. It is thus necessary to start the ignition considerably before T D C in order to com plete the
com bustion a little bit after T D C . T he highest efficiency is obtained w hen the point of ignition and
the point at w hich com bustion is com plete are sym m etric w ith respect to T D C .
A s the piston approaches B D C at the end of the pow er stroke, the exhaust valve is opened just
before B D C and the pressure falls due to rushing out of exhaust gas from the cylinder. T his
difference in pressure drop betw een the actual and ideal cycle at this point in the cycle, represents
unavailable w ork and is term ed as exhaust blow dow n loss.
T he pressure drops below atm ospheric pressure as the piston m oves dow n during the suction
stroke, draw ing air into the cylinder but it is above atm ospheric pressure during the exhaust stroke
in order to drive the gases from the cylinder. T his loop, called negative loop, represents w ork that
m ust be done on the exhaust gases and hence it is also called as pum ping w ork. A fter deducting
pum ping w ork from the w ork obtained during pow er stroke, w e get netw ork for conversion into
m echanical energy for driving the vehicle.

(ii) D iesel cycle

This cycle is sim ilar to O tto cycle or petrol engine cycle except that the pure air is sucked during
suction stroke and the fuel injection and com bustion take place at constant pressure after com pletion
of the com pression stroke as show n in Fig. 1.15. Follow ing are the various events w hich take place
in the diesel cycle:
18 A Textbook of Automobile Engineering

S –S uction 2 I 3
T he diagram
C –C om pression show n by dotted
I–Injection and lines inside the theoretical
ignition diagram is the actual
P –P ow er stroke P
indicator diagram .
E –E xhaust stroke

P ressure

0 1
P atm S E
Volum e (V )
F ig . 1 .1 5 T heoretical diesel cycle indicator diagram
0–1 —  Suction of pure air during suction stroke.
1–2 —  C om pression stroke, pure air is com pressed adiabatically/polytropically. Pressure
ranges from 50 to 75 kg/cm 2 .
2–3 —  Injection of fuel (D iesel oil) and its ignition at constant pressure, piston slow ly m oves
3–4 —  Expansion/pow er stroke, gases expand adiabatically/polytropically.
4–1 —  R elease: Sudden drop of pressure due to opening of exhaust valve, also called B low -
D ow n.
1–0 —  Exhaust stroke, piston drives out burnt gases from the cylinder at near atm ospheric
In processes 1–2, 2–3, 3–4 —  both valves are kept closed.
In process 0–1 —  Suction or Inlet valve rem ains open.
In process 1–0 —  Exhaust valve rem ains open.

(iii) D ual cycle or Sem i-diesel cycle or M ixed cycle

M odern high speed diesel engines w ork on dual cycle. In this cycle, ignition takes partly at
constant volum e (like O tto cycle) and partly at constant pressure (like diesel cycle) as show n in
the Fig. 1.16 (a). T he efficiency of this cycle is better than diesel cycle due to better atom ization
and com bustion of fuel. R eferring to the m ixed cycle P–V diagram , follow ing processes take place:
0–1 —  Suction of pure air (Suction stroke).
1–2 —  Polytropic com pression of air (C om pression stroke)/(PV n = C ).
2–3 —  Injection and com bustion of fuel at constant volum e.
3–4 —  Injection and com bustion continued at constant pressure.
4–5 —  Polytropic expansion of gases (pow er stroke)/(PV n = C ).
5–1 —  Pressure drop at constant volum e due to opening of exhaust valve (release).
1–0 —  B urnt gases are driven out of cylinder by piston (Exhaust stroke).
Automobile Engines 19

3 4
P –V diagram

P ressure

Patm 0
Volum e

F ig . 1 .1 6 (a) M ixed or dual cycle

(for four stroke diesel engine)

C o m p a riso n b etw een Petro l a n d D iesel E n g in es

S.N o . Petro l E n g in e D iesel E n g in e

1. D uring suction stroke, a m ixture of air Pure air is sucked during suction stroke.
and petrol is sucked in the engine cylinder.
2. To ignite the com pressed m ixture, a spark The fuel is sprayed by fuel injector and the
plug is em ployed. m ixtu re gets self-ign ited by h eat of
com pression.
3. T herm al efficiency is about 25% . T herm al efficiency is higher up to 40% .
4. C ost of fuel (petrol) is m ore. D iesel oil is cheaper.
5. T hey are light in w eight. T hey are heavy engine.
6. C om pression ratio is up to 8. C om pression ratio is up to 21.
7. Produces less pollution and noise. Produces m ore pollution and noise.
8. C arburettor or m ulti-point fuel injectors are Fuel injection pum p and injectors are
used for m aking air-fuel m ixture at alm ost em ployed for injecting fuel under high
atm ospheric pressure at the beginning of the pressure into the cylinder at the end of
suction stroke. com pression stroke.

Valve Tim ing D iagram of a Four-Stroke I.C.Engines

A valve tim ing diagram (V T D ) show s the various angular positions of the crankshaft at w hich
opening and closing of inlet and exhaust valves takes place during one cycle. It helps in adjusting
the valves tim ings and ignition for efficient w orking of the engine.
A valve tim ing diagram for a 4-stroke I.C . engines is given in Fig. 1.16(b).
20 A Textbook of Automobile Engineering

O verlap R eferences:
(B oth valves open)
T D C  Top dead centre
EVC B D C  B ottom dead centre
SI IV O  Inlet valve opens
IV C  Inlet valve closes
IV O E V O  E xhaust valve opens
m p re ssio n
E xh a u st

E xp
E V C  E xhaust valve closes

S u ctio n
F IB  F uelinjection begins

a n sio n
F IC  F uelinjection closes

S I  S park ignition


F ig . 1 .1 6 (b) A ctual valve tim ing diagram

Fo r P etro l E n g in e Fo r D iese l E n g in e

IV O  10° to 20° before T D C 10° to 20° before T D C

IVC  30° to 40° after B D C 25° to 40° after B D C

EVO  30° to 50° before B D C 40° to 50° before B D C

EVC  10° to 15° after T D C 10° to 15° after T D C

In petrol engines Ignition starts 20° to 30° before. T D C and continues upto 15° after T D C .
In diesel engine fuel is injected 10° to 15° before T D C in the last m om ents of the com pression.
T he injection of fuel continues 15° to 20° after T D C to com plete the com bustion.
Inlet valve opening (IV O ) is advanced (Lead) before T D C and the inlet valve closing (IV C ) is
delayed after B D C by few degrees to m axim ise the suction volum e of charge so as to obtain m ore
pow er. Fuel injection beginning (FIB ) and sim ultaneous fuel com bustion in D iesel engines or spark
ignition in petrol engines, is advanced to have com plete com bustion, just after T D C . Exhaust valve
opening (EV O ) is advanced before B D C at the cost of pow er or expansion stroke and exhaust valve
closing (EV C ) is delayed after T D C by few degrees to increase exhaust stroke process in order to
achieve m axim um rem oval of burnt gases from the engine cylinder.

T he tw o-stroke I.C . engine is sim ilar in construction to the four-stroke I.C . engine except that the
valves are replaced by the ports as show n in the Fig. 1.17. O ne cycle of operation is com pleted
in the tw o strokes, that is, in one revolution of the crankshaft.
Automobile Engines 21

S park plug or F uelinjector

C ylinder
D eflector at piston top
E xhuast port
Transfer/Inlet port

Inlet port Transfer

or C rankcase port P iston
C onnecting rod
C rankshaft
C rank C rankcase

F ig . 1 .1 7 Tw o-stroke I.C . engine

W orking Princip le of Tw o-Stroke Engine

C om bustion of fuel in tw o-stroke engine takes place at T D C sim ilar to a four-stroke engine.
Piston m oves dow n executing pow er stroke after the com bustion process till the piston opens the
exhaust port. T he rem aining m ovem ent of the piston in dow nw ard direction keeps the exhaust port
open and allow s exhaust gas to m ove out of the cylinder. D uring this m ovem ent of the piston,
transfer port also opens in the opposite side of the cylinder allow ing the slightly com pressed charge
in the crankcase to m ove into the cylinder through transfer port as show n in the Fig. 1.18. T his
fresh and slightly com pressed charge/air helps to drive cut the exhaust gases through exhaust port.
T his process is know n as scavenging.
W hen piston m oves from T D C to B D C during pow er stroke, the low er side of the piston
com presses the charge or pure air sucked inside the crankcase during the piston’s upw ard stroke.
T his slightly com pressed charge is easily transferred to engine cylinder w hen piston uncovers the
transfer port— w hich connects crankcase to cylinder.
T he exhaust and charging takes place sim ultaneously till the piston covers the transfer and
exhaust port in its upw ard m ovem ent. C om pression of charge begins after the piston com pletely
closes the exhaust port. T he rem aining part of the piston m ovem ent in the upw ard direction
com presses the charge. A t the end of com pression, a spark is given (S.I. engine) or diesel is injected
(C .I. engine) to produce com bustion. W hen the piston m oves up during com pression, a slightly low
pressure is created in the crankcase w hich allow s the fresh charge to enter the crankcase through
the crankcase port via carburettor. T hus, one cycle of operation is com pleted in tw o strokes of the
piston. In case of diesel engine, fresh air enters in the crankcase during com pression stroke of
piston. In 2-stroke engines, the suction and exhaust strokes are avoided by providing a system to
rem ove exhaust gases by fresh charge itself.
22 A Textbook of Automobile Engineering

(S .P.) (S .P.) (S .P.)

Transfer IP IP IP

C rankcase

C harge transfer C om pression Ignition and

and exhaust and suction expansion

EPC EPC Ignition
0 TD C
E xhaust and transfer C om pression E xpansion after ignition
T P O = Transfer port opens E P O = E xhaust port opens
T P C = Transfer port closes E P C = E xhaust port closes
F ig . 1 .1 8 W orking of tw o-stroke cycle engine

Indicator or P–V D iagram for Tw o-Stroke Engine

T he variation of pressure inside the cylinder (above the piston) w ith respect to volum e for tw o-
stroke petrol engine can be represented as show n in the Fig. 1.19.
C  C om pression stroke
P –V diagram P  P ow er stroke
E  E xhaust
E P O  E xhaust port opens

T P O  Transfer port opens

P ow er
P ressure

E P C  E xhaust port closes

T P C  Transfer port closes
E xhaust
C om pr. TP C

V olum e
F ig . 1 .1 9 T heoretical indicator diagram for tw o-stroke petrol engine
T he pressure drops closer to atm ospheric level from the opening of the exhaust port and
thereafter rem ains at the sam e level till the piston com es back in its return stroke to close the
Automobile Engines 23

exhaust port. T he com pression and expansion follow any one of isentropic, polytropic or isotherm al
law s. H eat addition is at constant volum e in S.I. engine. For tw o stroke diesel engine the only
change in the P–V diagram is the constant pressure heat addition process. T he deviations of actual
cycle from the theoretical cycle are that (i) the pressure is slightly above the atm ospheric pressure
even after the exhaust port opens and (ii) the heat addition processes.

Port Tim ing D iagram of Tw o-Stroke Engine

T he representation of opening and closing of ports in one cycle of operation w ith respect to
the rotation of the crankshaft is know n as port tim ing diagram as show n in the Fig. 1.20. O ne cycle
of operation in a tw o-stroke engine is com pleted in one revolution of the crankshaft or tw o strokes
of the piston. T his is possible due to the overlapping of charging and exhaust processes.

15° 20°
p re ssio

P ow er
C om


EPC 35° 35° EPO


C harging
E xhaust
or S cavenging

F ig . 1 .2 0 Port tim ing diagram for tw o-stroke engine

D uring this overlapping period, a portion of the fresh charge w hich helps to push the exhaust
gas out also escapes through the exhaust port. T he fresh charge that goes out w ithout com bustion
reduces the therm al efficiency of the tw o-stroke engine significantly com pared to four-stroke engine
in w hich overlapping is m inim um . T he duration of pow er stroke represented in the port tim ing is
less than that of four-stroke engine. H ence, even though the tw o-stroke engine produces tw o cycles
in tw o revolutions of crankshaft com pared to one cycle in tw o revolutions of crankshaft of four-
stroke engine, the output pow er of tw o stroke engine is less than tw ice (1.75) that of four-stroke
engine. T he com pression process is also less than that of four-stroke engine m aking it suitable for
low com pression petrol engine than for diesel engine w hich needs high com pression for the self
ignition of diesel fuel. In case of petrol engine, spark ignition takes place few degrees before T D C
such that m axim um pressure due to com bustion is created w hen the piston is at T D C . In the case
of diesel engine, fuel injection begins (FIB ) few degrees before T D C such that the self ignition of
24 A Textbook of Automobile Engineering

diesel takes place w hen piston reaches T D C and there after the flam e produced ignites the injected
diesel spontaneously to m aintain constant pressure till the fuel injection ends (FIE). T he volum e
expansion inside the crankcase below the bottom side of the piston creates low pressure and it sucks
the fresh charge into the crankcase, w hich is transferred to engine cylinder w hen piston uncovers
the transfer port. T his fresh charge being at slightly higher pressure, drives out exhaust gases from
the engine cylinder, this process of driving out gases is called ‘S ca ven g in g ’.

G asket
In the assem bly of the engine, proper gaskets (m ade of leather, rubber, cork, m etal covered
rubber and asbestos) are alw ays placed betw een tw o stationary m etal surfaces to provide sealing
action. B etw een cylinder and cylinder head, one piece em bossed steel rubber gaskets are w idely

Valve Lifting M echanism

T he valve operating gear opens and closes each valve at the right point in the cycle. T he drive
com es from the cam shaft. In the four-stroke engines, the cam shaft is driven by the crankshaft, at
half the engine speed. T he crankshaft drives the cam shaft through a chain or set of gears called
‘T im in g G ea rs’. A s the C am shaft rotates, each cam lifts a tappet or rocker arm through push rod.
ln the case of a side valve engine, the tapppet lifts the valve stem against the spring force and opens
the valve. In the case of an overhead valve engine, the push rod placed above the tappet operates
a rocker arm to pivot and push the valve dow n against the spring force. T he valve is closed by the
valve spring. T his closing happens w hen further rotation of the cam allow s the tappet to descend.
Som e engines have tw o springs one inside the other for the each valve. T he valve operating
m echanism s can be seen in the Figs. 1.21 (a) and 1.21 (b).
Valve face

Valve seat
E ngine C harging
block inlet

Valve stem Valve guide

Valve stem

Valve spring Valve clearance

C learance adjusting
Tappet guide

C am
C am shaft

F ig . 1 .2 1 (a) Side valve lifting m echanism

Automobile Engines 25

Valve clearance adjusting screw

Locknut R ocker arm S pring retainer
Valve clearance

P ush-
rod Valve
Tappet clearance spring
F ixed pin
(P ivot)
Valve guide

Valve S tem
Tappet Tappet Valve
clearance port
adjusting nut Tappet
C A M follow er
Valve Valve seat
seat Valve
C am
F ig . 1 .2 1 (b) O verhead valve lifting m echanism

Tappet Clearance
For proper operation, the valve m ust return fully to its seat. To ensure this, a gap is provided
betw een the end of the valve stem or push rod (w hen the valve is in the closed position) and the
end of the tappet or rocker arm w hich operates on it. T his gap is called tappet clearance. T his gap
allow s the valve to expand w hen it becom es hot.
T he tappet clearance of each valve should be checked periodically and adjusted to the precise
value as recom m ended by the m anufacturer. G reater clearance results in noise. Insufficient clearance
m ay lead to failure of valve closure and hence the failure of engine operation.

Valve H eating
T he heating of valve and its seat during engine operation m ay cause distortion of the valve.
R em em ber they m ay be round and true w hen the engine is cold, but m ay not be so w hen the engine
attains operating tem perature. T his distortion w ill be aggravated due to hot spots in the cylinder
head or engine block near the valves or unequaltightening of the cylinder head bolts. The tem perature
of the exhaust valve varies from 500° to 800°C in S.I. engines. For cooling purpose, the exhaust
valve is closely seated w ith w ater jacket. Sodium cooled valve are also used. Sodium is filled in
a special hollow stem , w hich transfers heat quickly. T he valve tem perature m ay rise due to one or
m ore of the follow ing defects:
• Valve seat too narrow
• Loose valve seat insert
• W orn valve guides and/or valve stem
• Sticking valve stem s
• Valve guides loose in the block