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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Mathematical Induction and Sigma Notation


].l lvlathernaticallndrtction
1.2 Sigma Notation

Chapter 2 Complex Numbers


2.1 Cartesian Form of Cornplex Nurnbers
2.2 Polar and Exponential Forms of Complex Nurnbers
Chapter 3 Polynornial Equations
3.1 Roots of Polynomial Equatiorrs
3.2 Rationa^l Roots, Bounds, and Descartes' Rules of Signs

Chapter 4 Matrices and their Elementary Properties


4.I Matrices
4.2 lVlatrixl\,fultipiication
Chapter 5 Vectors, Lines, and Planes
5.1 Vectors, Scalar arrd Vector Products
5.2 Plarres and Lines
Chapter 6 Systems of Linear Equations
6.1 Systems of Linear Equations
6.2 Gatrssian Elirnirratiorr and Row Echelorr Forrn
6.3 Gauss-Jordan Elirnirratiorr arrd Reduced Row Echelon Forrn
6.4 Homogeneous and Nonhomogeneous Systerns of Linear Equatiorrs
Chapter 7 Determinants
7.I Determirrants
7.2 Cramer's Rule
7.3 Lirrearly Irrdependent arrd Deperrdent Vectors
Chapter 8 Inverse Matrices
8.1 Irrverse Matrices
8.2 Direct Nfethod for l\fatrix Inversion
8.3 Adjoint Method for Nlatrix Inversion
8.4 Solving Systerns of Linear Equations With lnverse Matrices
8.5 Comparison of lVlethods for Solving Systerns of Lirrear Equations
Chapter 9 Linear TYansformations and Eigenpairs
9.1 Linear Tlansforrnations
9.2 Matrices for Lirrear Tlansforrnations
9.3 Eigerrvalues arrd Eigerrvectors
9.4 Eigerrpairs for Syrnrnetric Matrices
Appendix A Answers to Exercises
Appendix B Solutions to Even-numbered Exercises

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SECTION I.1

CHAPTER 1 MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION AND SIGMA NOTATION

$1.1 Mathematical Induction


Mathernatical inductiorr is a type of proof used to verify propositions that depend on integers.
It
is best introduced tlrrough a simple exarnple.
Suppose we are required to verify that the sum of the first n positive integers is giverr
by the formula

r+2+3+...*r,:"'("-jt). (1.1)

Proofs by rnathernatical irrduction break dowrr irrto three parts that we clearly iclentify in
this irrtroductory example.
Part A
It
is a simple matter to check that formula 1.1 is valid for the first few intesers:
1)
For n: 1, the "sun" is 1, ancl the forrmrla giu", {11 : 1.
1)
For n,:2, tlie surn is 1 * 2 : 3; the formula giu", l?1 : 3
a

For n - 3, the sum is 1*2*3 : 6; the formula 1Ql 1) -


giu.. 6.
(Irr actual fact, it is orrly necessary to verify the result to, n:1; we have included n: 2
and n : 3 sirnply to get a better feeling for the formula.)

Part B
In this part, we suppose that ft, is sorne irrteger for which the formula is valid; i.e., we
suppose that

t+2+3+...+k:-r,(k 2+ 1) . (1.2)

At this point, there are orrly tluee irrtegers for which we know that this is a valid assurnptiorr,
narnely, k - L, 2, and 3. We now atternpt to show that formrrla 1.1 works for the rrext integer
k + 1; that is, we attempt to show that the sum of the first k * 1 positive integers is given
by forrnrrla 1.1 when we replace n, by k + l,

r+2+3+...+(k+1): (ftj+lxk+2) (1.3)

Since the sum of the first k + 1 integers is the sum of the first /c integers plus the mrmber
k + 1, we may write for the left side of 1.3,

r+2+ 3+...+ (k+ 1): 11+2+ 3 +...+kl+ (k + 1)

_ !g+!+ (k + 1) (by supposition 1.2)


i{(k + 1)+ 2(Ai + 1)
2
(k+r)(k+2)
2

But this is forrmrla 1.3. In otlter words, we have shown that if 1.1 is valid for some irrteger
k, therr it must also be valid for the next irrteger k + 1, and, becarrse ic was never specified,
this is irrdependent of the vahre of *;.

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SECTION 1.1

The argumerrts irr Part C of the above exarnples were identical. In fact, rro rnatter what
result we are to prove by mathernatical inductiorr, the argument in Part C is always tfe
same. This argurnent is called the "principle of mathernatical induction", an{ it is stabe6
forrnally a^s follows:

PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION


Suppose that with each integer n greater than or equal to some fixed integer |y', there
is associated a proposition denoted by Pn. Therr P, is tnre for all n ) ly' providecl:
(A) Prv is valid;
(B) the validity of Pa irnplies the validity of p1_.1.
All irrductive arguments rmrst therefore corrtairr parts A and B. Part A is usually qqite
simple; part B, on the other hand, can sometimes be quite difficult. Be sure you understand
wliat we are doing in part B. We are proving that urrder the suppositiorr that P7, is tnre,
then Pp11 rntrst also be true. It is the principle of rnathernatical irrduction that plts parts
A arrd B together to state lhat Pn is true for all n ) N.
Part B always begins with the supposition that Pt is valid. We strongly suggest that
you write down the precise rneaning of this supposition. In the above exarnples, this means
writing 1.2 arrd 1.5. It rrow becomes a rnatter of proving Ppa1, and we again recornrnend that
you write dowrr the precise rneanirrg of P7ra1. hr the above examples, this rnearrs writirrg 1.3
and 1.6, with the added staternerrt that this is what we rmrst now prove. Mltry do we make
these suggestions? Because it is helpful to krrow exactly what you rmrst prove, and exactly
what yott are going to trse in provirrg it. We ilhrstrate these suggestions in the following
examples.

Example 1.1 Verify that the sum of the squares of the first 2n, positive integers is giverr by the forrmrla
n.(2n,-r 1)(4n + 1)
t2+22 +32+.'.-l(2n)2: , n) I. Ir.r /

Solution :
When n 1, the left side of this equation is the surn of two terrns, not just one,
12 + 22 : 5; the riglrt side is t(3)(5)/3 :
5. The required result is therefore tnre for l. n:
We now slrppose that k is some integer for which 1.7 is valid; that is, we suppose that

: k(2k+1x4k+1)
t2 +22 + 32 + . ..+ (2k)2 (1 8)

(Rernember, we write this down because we are going to need it.) Orrr objective now is to
f 1; that is, we rnust verify tliat
verify that the resrrlt is valid for k
(k + 1)[(2(k + 1) + r]14(k + 1) + 1l
12+22 +32+...(2k+2)2: (1 e)

Since the sum of the squares of the first 2k 12 integers is the sum of the squares of the first
2ft; integers plus (2*; *
1)2 and (2k + 2)2, it follows that

12 +22 +32 +...+ (2k+2)2 :p.2 +22 + 32 + ...+ (2D21+ Qh+r)2 + (2k+2)2
k(2k+1)(4k+1)
3
+(2k+t)2 +(zk+z)2 (by 1.8)

k(2k + t)(4k + r) + 3(2k+ 1)2 + 3(2k + 2)2


J
8k3+30*i2 +s7k+tb (Ai+1)(8k'z+22k+15)
t
J
(k+r)(2k+3)(4k+5)

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SECTION 1.1

This is straightforward,

a * o,+ ... + o,rh : * o,r 1 ... + o,rk_r)


(o, + ork
_ u(_r - !h) * urt_ (by 1.13)
a-o,rk+o,rk-o,rk*l
L-r
o'(t -rt."+t1
l-r
We have therefore verified the result for k -F 1, and herrce, by the prirrciple of rnathernatical
induction, 1.12 is valid for all n ) 1.o
Tlrrough the above exarnples a"rrd the exercises to follow we have tried to illustrate the
versatility of mathematical induction; it is a method of verification that proves invaluable
in many different areas of mathematics. Learn it well; you won't regret it.

EXERCISES 1.1
In Exercises 1-15 rr"se mathernatical induction to establish the forrmrla for n ) 1.

1. 12+ 22+82+...+ nz -n(n+l\2n+t)


o

^*
z. g+32 + J-+'..fJ-: 3n+r - 3
2
-r,
B. 13+23 f 33 +... l_ n," :n'-\r' n ,
,1,

n(nJ
4. | +3 + 6+ 10 +... *'26 1) n(n+ r)(n+2)
-
5. 1+ 4+T+'..+(3n -2):n'(3n'--r)
2

o. 12 + g2 + b2+ ... + (2n _ r)2 _ n(2n - r)(2n'+ r)


D

7. | +5+ 9+ 13+.. . I (4n- 3) : 2n2 - n

B. 2 +2r + 25+ ... + 22n-r --2(22"-- |


3

e. I _+ 1 1 .* n(n+J)
"' 1.2.s'2.9.4-3-4.5-r"'-r +D-a@+t)(n+2)
10. 43 + 83 + I23 +. .. + (4n)3 : t6n,2(n, -t L)2

tt' s,1 * sn1 + "'+ sr":


I r(.
- w)
l\
lt
^
L2, 2-r +2 +2-3 + "' +2 n : | - 2-n
2

n(n+ r)(n+2)
13. 1' 2+2'3+3'4+'.. + n(n-r r) -
3
L4. r(2-L) +2(2-2) + 3(z-s; +...+ n(2-^):2 - (n+2)2-.
15. 1(1!) +2(2t)+3(3!) +... + n,(nt) : (n+ 1)! - 1

16. Find a^rrd verify a forrmrla for the surn

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SECTION 1.2

*47. n,* (n* 3n(n + 1)


1) + (n +2) +... + (2n)-
2

0142. 3n+ 3'+1 +3n+2 T"-tro *zr r... r 3'(3t+t - 1)


-- - 2-
*4g. 4 (42^+r - I)
22n 122n+2 *22n+4+...+ ,an - 3
n(9n'-- r)
,r44. (3n+ 1) + (Bn,+ a)* (3n* T) +... + (6n - 2) :
*4s. 7n'(3?+ r)
2n-r (2n, + r) + (2n, -
+ 2) +. .. + (bn )

*46. Verifythatfor n)r, r+1+1*l*


-' 2' 3' 4' +: -nrr.
' 2n -'"
t047. Yerifythat for n) r, r+
-----1 -'1!I + I2l'31
* I +...+
' I . g- 1.
'n!' n
x48. Verify that arry integer n > 14 carr be expressed in the forrn n:3p * 89 where p and. rl are rrorrnegative
irrtegers.

*49. Firrd the fallacy in the followirrg irrductive argument to prove that "all birds are the sarne coloru";
In a set of birds consisting of only one bird, all birds are clearly the same colour. Hence the resllt is
valid wherr the mrrnber of birds in a set is n : 1. Suppose now that the result is valid when a set of birds
contains ,4, birds; that is, ali k birds are the sarne colorrr. Consider any set of k * 1 bircls. Emrrnerate the
birds with labels 1, 2, . .., k * 1. The set of birds with tabels I,2,...,k rmrst a,11 be the sarne colour by the
irrductive hypothesis. The set of birds with labels 2,3,. ..,k * 1 rmrst also all be the sarne colour. Since
these two sets have A; - l birds irr comrnon (narnely the ones with labels 2,3,...,k), all ki l birds rnust
have the sarne colour. Thus, by rnathernatical indrrction, arry set of n bircls must all be the sarne co]o1r.
x50. Verify that wherr r f 1,

r+2r +Br2 + 4r3+...+ n,rn-r :l - (nl.l)r".ln,rn+r , n) r.


(t ,12 -
*51. The "tower of Hanoi" problern corrsists irr rnoving the n rings on peg 1 in the figure below to peg 2 in as
few rnoves a^s possible. There are two mles to be followed:
(i) only one ring rnay be rnoved at a tirne;
(ii) a ring rnay never be placed orr top of a srnaller rirrg.
Solve the problem for n : 2 and n: 3, conjecture a sohrtiorr for arbitrary n, and prove it by rnathernatical
induction.

x52. Suppose that Carrada proposes a 2 cent coin and abolishes its 1 cerrt coirr. Show that arry amount of
money greater tha,rr 3 cents can be obtairred usirrg 2 cerrt coins arrd 5 cerrt coins.

fn. Ivr * 4 * + I .z,n for n)


yL 1+...
**53. Verify that 2.
{S 1/n'

**54. Verifythatif Hn:r*i*i * 11,then


Ht I Hz+ ... + H" : (n, I l)Hn - n,.

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SECTION 1.2

This rrotation could have been used in Section 1.1 wherr many resrrlts on slrrns were
verified by mathematical induction. We preferred not to use it there in order that attention
be focused orr indrrction rather than sigma rrotation. We strongly suggest, however, that at
the end of this sectiorr, you return to Sectiorr 1.1 arrd verify results irrvolving sumrnatiorrs
incorporating sigma notation where appropriate.
There is no reason why *, rnttst be used as the irrdex of surnmation; other letters can
also be used. The rnost comrnorr are i, j, k;, m, arrd n.

Example 1.4 Write the followirrg surns in sigrna notation:

t'n) I 4 9 16 169
\'"/ 2.3'* 3.4'- 4.5 -' 5.6 -...-
' ' 14.15
16 32 -:*-:*...-l:
64 128 4096
\-/ -|_-
{h) I
rt th'rt \/5' '\/fr
Solution (a) If we use i as the variable of surnrnation, it is ofterr helpfirl to write the valrre
of i above each terrn,
;-1 ;-' ;-e ;-A :9
1,::

5!r #n *f u +ifu+ *@+rs


Tlre choice i:1to correspond to the first term, i :2to the second, etc., was an arbitrary
one. We could also have chosen 'i : 2 to correspond to the first term, i : 3 to the secorrd,
etc. The particular choice rnade is usually based orr sorne, but not total, recognitiorr of the
pattern by which terms are formed. With the i's so written, we see that the pattern by
t-
wlriclr terms are formeCi is " n'-,
' corrseq'etrllY'
(t + lxi l 2)

r4e16 ' 16eJi,iz


+14.lb:l?trr6l_n
2.3+3.4+4.br b.6+
(b) If n is used as the variable of surnrnation, and we begirr with n : 2, then
n,:2 n:3 n-A n,:5 ^-?
+ + 4og:i1:.
10
-T-
16,32,
,n -
64
/7
r28
vo /10 {n, 7__,
^_

The sigrna notatiorr represerrtations for the surns irr Exarnple 1.4 are not unique. Irr
fact, there is an infinity of representations for each sum. Consider, for example, the sum
represented by
'' ,i+3
1t E--'
LT
i:r Y L

When each term in this summation is written out, we find that

s\ I 2i'+3 16 32 64_!_rl2g 4096

? \frT1 Jt g J4 J5 '
_ l_
fio'
the sarne surn a^s that in Example 1.4(b). This surn can also be represented by
6 or*6
t -:
,-"\/J + 4
and

We can verify that these summations are the same by writing all terrns out. Alternatively,
we can make a charrge of variable of sumrnation. If we set m : j + 17 in the latter of these
surnmations, arrd substitute this irrto the general term, we obtain

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SECTION 1.2 11

Solution (a) Using Theorern 1.1 we carr write that


22 22 22
\-/r-2_?-\_2D",_gI".
The first two formulas in 1.17 with n:22 now grve
22

\- en2 _ 3n) : ,lzz(zs_)(+s)l _,lrrl:tll : urrr.


/J\

(b) we can'ot third fo'nuta,"tr.t, o,r*u', o" ,rtr,. ,1,-rl*-". However, by addirrg
".";,"
arrd srrbtracting the terrns frorn n,: I to n: 13, we will be able to use this forrmrla.
45 45 13
\-
L
(n3 +5)
\'- '-t : \-
L\.- ''/ - \-
r",.3 + F)
/2\'"
rr3 +| x)
"t
n:I4 n:L n--!
45 45 13 13

- \- t \- L"- - \--3
L',o - \-
13 -r- s x,
L" Z-u
n:l n:I n:l n=L
(45)2(46)2 ,.45(5)---13(5)
,4</K\ (13)2(14)2
-l 4
: 1063 104.r

We make one final remark. Sigma notation is simply that a notation. It does not
evaltrate sumsl it merely represerrts thern in a concise syrnbolisrn. When we encounter sigrna -
notation, we should visualize terrns written out separately.

EXERCISES 1.2
In Exercises 1-10 express the sum irr sigrna notatiorr. Initiate the surnrnation with the integer 1.
_12
1 3 4 5 --
10
e
'' --L-r;+-f-:r+...+
2' 4' B' 16' 32" 1024 -' e.a'3.4+4.b+...+99.100
a u'
B. 1+t/i+rt+2+\/B+rt+...+r2r 4.,,16,-+,,17,,+ 18 +...+ 199
14+15 15+16 16+17 197+198
5. -2+s_ 4+b-6+z-8+...-1020 6. 1+l*l+=f
'z' 2.J' 2.s.4'+...- 2.g.4.5-16
1

- ,/,
\/1 !-!-!,
'/3 \m ^ 2.2 G.T 10.11 r4.rb' ' 4r4.4rb
2 1+22 1+32 l+2252 "' r.4 5.8 9.r2 13.16 413.416
v I-

-I-I--!-I
e. 0.9+0.99+0.999+...+0.999999999 10. 43+b2+6+1+1*]* 1
" -r
d y, 25ta
For Exercises 11-19 express the sums irr Exercises 37-45 frorn Section 1.1 irr sigrna notation. Use *; as the
index of surnrnation begirrning with k : 1.
In Exercises 20-23 verify that the surnrnatiorrs are identical.
24:2tq: 25;2 l
20. \- L: ancl \- ' ='
i'--t/t'+t \/i
oo t^ l3)3+b = .53 -3 rr
21. \- t" - arro \- "', -'
/-/ cosn z-z^ gsl (n * 13)
n:Llt n:2
14 18
22. Dsi+se 1a)t and | [ei*tjr]
.t-\)

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SECTION 2.1 13

CHAPTER 2 COMPLEX NUMBERS

$2.1 Cartesian Form of Complex Numbers


The frrndamental corn-plex nurnber is i, a rnrmber whose square is
-1; that is, i is defined as
a ntrrnber satisfyirrg i2 : -I. The complex number system is all nurnbers of tfie form

z::rlUi, (2.r)

wherer and g are real. The mrrnber r is cailed the real part of z, and. g is calle{ t}re
imaginary part of z. For exarnple, real and imaginary parts of 6 - 2i are 6 and
-2.
Both real and irnagirrary parts of a cornplex rnrrnber are thernselves real rmrnbers. The real
number systern is a subset of the complex nurnber systern obtainecl when g : 0. we call
t: I'11i the Cartesiarr forrn for a cornpiex mrrnber. Cornplex mrrnbers of the forrn
37i are said
to be purely irnaginary.
Complex mrrnbers can be visualized geornetrically as points in the cornplex (Argand)
plane. Some fixed point O is chosen to represent the cornplex rurrnber 0 * 0i. Tlrrolgh O are
drawn two rmrtually perperrdicular axes (Figure 2.1), orre called the real axis, and the other
called the irnagirrary axis. The cornplex rmmber il + Ai is therr represerrted by the poirrt z
units in the real directiorr and 37 rrnits in the irnagirrary directiorr. For exarnple, the cornplex
rrrrrnbers | + 2i, -l - i, 4 - 3i, and -2 l2i are showrr in Figure 2.2. The real rmmber
systern is represented by poirrts orr tlte real axis. Purely imagirrary rmrnbers are represerrted
by poirrts on the imaginay axis.

Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2


Two complex nrmbers r I yi and o,l bi arc said to be equal if their real parts are equal
and their irnagirrary parts are equal; that is,

:L + Ai:0,+bi e x: a, and U: b. t, ,\

Geornetrically, two cornplex rmmbers are equal if they correspond to the sarne point irr the
cornplex plarre.
We add and subtract cornplex mrmbers zr: n 1- yi atd zz: a* bi a^s follows:

4 -t zz: (e; * o,) + (y + b)i, (2.3a)


zt - zz: (e; - o,) + (y - b)i. (2.3b)

In words, complex ntrmbers are added arrd subtracted by adding and subtracting their real
arrd irnagirrary parts. For exa;rnpIe,

(3 - 2i)+ (6 + i) : : e - i,
(3 + 6) + (-2 + r)i
(3-2i) - (6+i): (3 - 6) + (-2-r)i: 3 - 3i.
Complex numbers are multiplied according to the following definition . lf z1 : r* A,i
and z2: r.l *
bi, then

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SECTION 2.1 15

The complex conjugate 2 of a complex mrrnber z : rI !/,i ts

Z::n_Ai. (2 5)

Geometrically, Z is the reflection of z in the real axis (Figure 2.3).

t 2:x-yi

Figure 2.3
If we rnultiply a cornplex rurmber z : n r gi by its cornplex conjugate, we obtain

zz : (:L -l yi)Q: - Ai) : x:2 + A2 . (2 6)

This real ntrrnber represents the square of the lerrgth of the iine segrnent joirring the nurnbers
z : 0 and z : :L + gri in the cornplex plarre. We shall give it a name in the rrext section. We
rrse this property in otu procedure to divide cornplex mrrnbers. To divide z1 by 22, multiply
l1
21/ 22 o! 22/ 22,

2t _ zt 2Z _ ZtzZ
22 zZ 22 z2Z2

The denominator will be real, arrd the Cartesiarr forrn is irnmediate.


With cornplex ntrmbers irt place, we carr give a complete discussion of quadratic equa-
tions. When the discrirninant of a quadratic equation is positive, the equation ha^s two reai
sohrtiorrs. For exarnple, the discrimirrant of

:r2+4:r_2:0
is 16 * 8: 24, arrd sohrtions of the equation are

-4+ \/Td +E : -2+J6.


When the discrirninant is zero, we regard the quadratic a^s having two real solutiorrs
which are iderrtical. For exarnple. the discrirninant of
,,2+4,tf4:o
is zero. The left side rnay be factored in the forn
(x)+2)2:0.
We say that -2 is a double root of the equatiorr.
For quadratics with negative discriminants, we first consider the equation

n2 + l:0.
The complex rmrnber i is asolution, but so also is -i sirrce (-i)'+ 1: -1 * 1:0. The
quadratic equation
12+16:0
has two solrrtions n : L.4i. If we apply the quadratic equation formula to the equation

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SECTION 2.1 L7

EXERCISES 2.1
1. Show each of the followirrg complex mrrnbers in the complex plarre: 2
- i, 3 + 4i, -I - bi, -g + 2i, Si,
2(r + i)
In Exercises 2-26 write the cornplex expressiorr irr Cartesian forrn.
2. (2 + 4i) - (s - 2i) s. (r + 2i)2
4. (-2 + i)(3 - 4i) 5. 3i(4i _ r)2
6. i3 -Bi2 +2i+4 r. 0+i\6
'l-i /Dt:\z
8' ' o \o-fzl
3+2i 2-i
ro.i24-3213+4 11.(i-2)l(2+i)(1_i) +si_ 2)

t2.6i(lfti ',(i-4\
3 B'
\2 - )* (rc * lJ
(e + 4-i)
'T1-
z-r3
r4.rT-i2r[+iP tu.(;-+r)
-
\- /
16. +z=)2 17 Qi+3)(4-i)
(1
"' 13+ i;66 * 2n;
ft+i\22 i)
18. # P -r oi)2- le. (1 -iltzei+B)
*2a. ([t]z *zr. !(L*a\'*
2i \\/2 ,/2 )
1' I
*22. ---j---=- *Zg. ,3 i,

l* ' t (2-i)' =

l+2i
*rn.Q+t3)2Q-i)
4-5i .zb. (L*a)'(a-:)'
\\/2 \/2) \r/z 12)
/ ); r-4i\2
oo u
*26. I
\i+t 3+4i)
I

In Exercises 27-36 find all solutions of the equation.


27. *52t3:0
n2 28. *3r*5:0
t:2
29.:r2 -F8rf 16:0 3O. x2-t2x-7:0
31. :r2 -t 2r -l7 : 0 J2. 4r2 - 2n r b :0
*33. 1/3:12 f 5lr * ,/R :0 x34. ra + 4r2 - b:0
tr35..ra+4r2+3-- 0 *3,6. t:a+622+3:0
*37. Verify the followirrg properties for the cornplex corrjugation operatiorr:
(a) 21+ zz:4 l7i
\D) zt - 22: zr - 22
(c) ZLzz: 422
/\
' (a\-:L
(d)
\zz/ z,
(e) z* :7,
n a positive irrteger. Hint: Tby rnathernatical irrduction.
x38, VeriSz that all complex rmrnbers z satisfyirrg the equatiorr z2: 12, r ) 0 areal corrstant, lie orr a circle.
What is its centre and radius?

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SECTION 2.2 19

The real and irnagirrary parts of a cornplex mrrnber carr be expressed irr terrns of its
moduhrs and argurnerrt. The triangle in Figure 2.6 indicates that

:t:rcos0t a:rsin0. (2.10)

Consequerrtiy, a cornplex mrrnber can be writterr irr the forrn

z : :L + yi : r cos? * (rsind)i.
When r is factored frorn both terrns,
z:r(cos0isil:'0i). (2.11)

Sornetimes this is written in the fonn z: r(cos 0 +isitr?). Expressiorr 2.11 is called tire
polar representation of a cornplex mrrnber. Realize again that it is rrot unique. If 2.11 is
a polar representation of a complex rrumber, so also is

rfcos (d * 2kn) * sirr (9 + 2ktr) i] for any integer k.

Example 2.3 Firrd poiar representations for -1 * i and 2 - 3i.


Solution Since the modulus of -1 * i ]s t/2,
and arr argurnerrt is 3r I 4 (Figure 2.7) , a polar
represeiltatiorr is
-1+ i: /Zlcos (3rlQ +sin(Jrl\i].
The rnodrrlrrs of 2 - 3i is /13, and an argrrment is
ran-r(-3lz) : -o.ges (Figrre 2.7). Consequently,

2 - 3i : /E[cos (-0.983) + sin (-0.e83)z].o


Figure 2.7
Example 2.4 Is -2[cos (T l4) + snr Qr /4) i] the polar form for a cornplex rnrrnber?
Solution No, becarxe -2 cannot be the modlrlus of a complex mrmber (rnoduli are
norrrregative). To express this cornplex mrmber in polar forrn we write

-2[cos (trl\+sin(trl4)i]:21-cos(trl4) -sirr(zrla)il :2lcos (5rl\ tsirr(5zrl4)i].e


Two complex mmbers are equal if arrd only if they have the same real parts and the sarne
irnaginary parts. How do we phra^se equality in terrns of rnoduli and argrrrnerrts? Certainly
cornplex mrrnbers can be equal only if they have the same rnoduli. Their argurnents need
not be the same, however, but they must differ by an integer multiple of 2n. h other words,
we have:
Two complex rlurnbers 4: rr(cos dr * sirr g1 i) arrd 22 : r2(cos|z t sin12i) are eqlal
if and orrlv if
rL : T2, 0t : 0z I 2lctr, k an irrteger. (2.r2)

Cornplex nrmbers are ea^sily added arrd subtracted in Cartesian forrn. Everr rmrltipli<la-
tion arrd divisiorr of any two cornplex illmbers is relatively ea^sy in Cartesiarr forrn. Orr the
other hand, multipiication and division in polar forrn exhibit properties that are not eviderrt
irr Cartesian forrn. Irr addition, to raise a complex rnrmber to a power, arrd take roots of
complex mrrnbers, it is irnperative to use polar, or even better, exponerrtial representatiorrs.
If z1 : 11 (cos d1 * sirr d1 i) and zz : rz(cos 0z * sirrt?z) are any two cornplex mrrnbers, their
oroduct is
2122 : [r1(cos 9r * sin d1 i)]lr2(cos 0z + sln?zi)l
: rtzl(cos01cos02 - sin d1 sirr d2) 1 (sin d1 cos d2 * sirr d2 cos d1)i]
: r(zlcos(h + 0z) * sin (d1 + 02)i). (2.18)

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SECTION 2.2 27

(1 + \Ai)8 : {2lcos (n l3) + sirr (zrl3)il}8 : 28[.o. (8rl3) + sin (8rl3)il


: ( r \
256[cos (2n (2rl3) i]: r-zbo\-r*
^
'f3i : 128(-l + Jlil.,
l3)r sin
,)
DeMoivre's theorem can be used to find roots of complex numbers; that is, find the
sqrrare rootsof 1* i, the cube roots of -2+ 3f, the fourth roots of 6 -2i, etc. In general,
we can find the n ntl'roots of a given cornplex mrrnber Z. What we are really cloirrg wherr
we find these roots is solving the equation

zn:2, (2.18)

where n ) 1 is an integer, artd Z is a giverr cornplex mrrnber. As we said, we carr use


DeMoivre's theorem to find all solutions of 2.18, but there is an easier way. We use what
is called the enponerftial form of complex rurrnbers. It is eqrrivalent to the polar forrn, using
modtrltrs r arrd argtrment d, but it is so rmrch sirnpler. In fact, we regard the polar form
of a complex ntrmber a^s a stepping storre to the preferred exponential form, and only use
Cartesian and exponential forms.
Exponential Form of Complex Numbers
Yorr carr alrnost see a connection with exponerrtial frrrrctiorrs in equations 2.I3 and 2.15.
If 11 : rz : I in 2.13, the'
(cos d1 t sin d1 i) (cos 02 * sin d2 i)
"os - (h + 0z) -| sirr (d1 + 02) i.
Compare this with e0te0" : eqrt9z. Irr each case we have sornething with dl irr it, rmrltiplied
by ihe same sornethirrg with 02 in it, giving the sarne sornething with h -l 0z in it. Sirnilariy,
compare 2.15 (with 11 : 12: l),
cos dr * sin d1 i
: cos (dr - 0z) r s:rn(01 - o2) i,
cosd2 f stn02i,
evL
with - : sat-az. We exploit this similarity by defining e9i for a real mrrnber d as follows

eoi : cosl * sin 9i. (2.1 e)

This is often called Euler's identity; we have used it to define eei. We have worked with
e' forreal ;u for many years. We have now defined what it means to take the exponential of
a purely imaginary rtrunber. For example,

(r/3) + sin(r/3), : * cos (tr I 2) + sin (tr I 2) i : i.


"ni/3 -cos i *, "nn/2 -
If z : r(cos0 + sin9 i) is the polar form of a cornplex mrmber, then using 2.19, we rnay
write

(2.20)

This is called the exponential form of a complex nrunber. As for the polar forrn, it uses the
modrrlrrs and argurnerrt of z, but replaces cos 0 + sin d i with eei . In term,s of this exporrential
representation, notice that 2.13 and 2.15 can be expressed irr the forrns

z1z2 : - ,rrr"(otroz)i
(ryeo'd)(r2eozi1 , (2.2ra)
z1 _ rteori _rt.1or-ery
(2.2lb)
22 r2eozi rz"

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SECTION 2.2 23

Figure 2.8 Figure 2.9


This process yields roots of any complex number. In general, to find the n nrr'roots of
Z : Reoi, we write

: j2kn)i / n 9:3!l) ( o + 2kr \


zr / n lI"e@
+zn^)T / n
- p) / n r(@ : Rr / n
|
( * r,r,
.l
"",
L\n/\")')'
where k - 0,... ,fr,-l.Geometricaily, the roots are equally spaced around a circle of radius
RL/" witlt angle 2trf n between successive pairs (Figure 2.9). The first (zs) has argurnent
o/r.
Example 2.8 Find the square roots of * i. 2
Solution When we set 2 f : ,/b.oi, where O :Tan-r(l/2),
,1

(2 + qr/z : lt/$"(o+zxn)t'1t'/z - 5r/4e(o+2kr)i/2 .

For ,4; : 0 and 1, we obtain

zo - bL / a [cos (O I 2) + sin (O/2) i], 2, : Sr / fcos (O I 2 +n.) + sin (O I 2 + n) i] :


a
- ro.
The sqrrare roots are a5t/a lcos (O/2) + sin (O /2) i). We ca.rr use a calculator to approxirnate
real and irnaginary parts (z: +(1.455 +0.344i)), or we can use trigonometry to find exact
values. Since cosO :2/r/B (Figrrre 2.10), it follows that

. /o\
slnttJ: 1 - cosO j_:__: and
z\/ b

/o\
costt/:
Figure 2.10
Tlms, the souare roots are

+51/4 :+( JElz+t+ lElz - rt).

EXERCISES 2.2
In Exercises 1-6 express the cornplex mrrnber in exponerrtial forrn.
1. -t+i 2. -2i s. \/5-i
4.3+4i 5. -L-2i 6. -2[cos (" l3) - sin (zrl3) i]

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SECTION 3.1 25

CHAPTER 3 POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS

fj3.1 Roots of Polynomial Equations

In this unit we discuss polynornial eqrratiorr,s. A polynomial irr z of degree n, where n ) 0


is an integer, is an expressiorr of the form

P.(:r) - o,n:t:n 1 ap 1x)n-L +... + a4:r: + o,o (3.24)

wliere a,r I 0, o,n-r, ... ,o,0 are constants. When Pr(r) is set equal to zero, the resulting
eouation

P-(r) : anil:n I o,n-1:I:n-r + ". + o,tr I ao : 0 (3.25)

is called a polynomial equation of degree n. In this chapter, we are concerrred with the
rurrnber of solutiorrs of polyrromial equations, the rrature of these solutions (be they real or
complex, rational or irrational), and techniques for finding the solutions. We call values of
r that satisfy equation 3.25 roots or solutions of the equation. They are also called zeros
of the polynomial P,(z).
When n: 1, equatiorr 3.25 is called a linear equation (or equation of degree 1),

Qtx + ao :0. (3.26)

Its only solrrtion is :t:: -aolo,t.


Quadratic equations (equations of degree 2) are obtained when n - 2. It is custornary
in thiscase to denote coefficients as follows

o,$2+br*c:0. (9.27)

Tlrey were solved in Section 2.1. In this chapter, we concentrate on polynornials of degree
three arrd higher.
The next sirnplest polynomial equatiorr after linear arrd quadratic is the cubic,

,t,'f + b"2 I ctt: i cl, :0, (3.28)

and after that the quartic,

una 1 br3 + cr2 + rh: I e.: Q. (3.2e)

There are procedures that give roots for both of these equations, but they are of little
practical use in this day ofthe electrorric calculator arrd personal cornputer. A more rnodern
approach is to use the analytic rnethods of this chapter, if possible, or failirrg this, use
ntrrnerical rnethods to approximate sohrtions. It is interestirrg to rrote that rro algebraic
forrnttla^s carr be given for roots of polyrrornial equatiorrs that have degree greater than or
equal to five. For such equations, it is usually necessary to use numerical methods to
approxirnate roots.
When arr exact solution of a polynomial eqrration can be found, it can be rernoved frorn
the eqtration, yieldirrg a simpler equation to solve for the remaining roots. The process by
which this is dorre is a result of the rernainder and factor theorems.
Theorern 3.1 Remainder Theorern Wherr a polyrromial Pr(e;) is divided by bn - a,, the rernainder
is P"(o,lb); that is, Pn(t:) can be expressed irr the forrn

P.(r) : (bn - n)Q"a(t:) t P.(o,ln), (3.30)

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SECTION 3.1 27

Thus quartic eqlration 3.31a ha"s two real solutions t; : ll arrd two complex sohrtiorrs
,1, _ 1r"'
L L.
-L

A sohrtiorr of the equatiott 2n3 - n2 + n - 6:0 is r : 312 (we show how we folncl it
shortly). We therefore factor 2r: - 3 from the cubic,
(2r - 3)(n2 t :r -r 2) : g.

The rernaining two solutions are cornplex

*_-r+JP=466 _-r+rti
22
The factor theorern enables us to remove a krrowrr solutiorr frorn a polyrrornial equation,
theretry replacing tlie origirral polyrrornial with a polyrrornial of lower degree. This presup-
poses two things. First that the equation has a solution, and secondly that we can find it.
The following theorem addresses the first question.
Theorem 3.3 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra 1 Every polynomial of degree n ) t ha^s exactly
n linear factors (which may not all be different).
For example, the quartic pollmomial in 3.31a has four different linear factors
.:r:4
+2:t3 l:r:2 -2t:-2: (n - 1)(r+ 1)(:r+ 1+i)(z +ir-i,); (3.32)

tlre crrbic polyrrornial 13 - 3n2 * 3e; - 1 has three linear factors all the sarne,

13_Zn2 lBt:_1 :(r_1)3; (3.33)

and the fbllowing eiglrth degree polyrromial has three distinct linear factors, but a total of
eight factors,

,r8 +7,r7 -8615 -95:ra *36313 -t486n2 - 540x-648:(x+J)a(:r-2)3(t:+ 1). (g.34)


Each lirrear factor irr 3.32, 3.33, or 3.34 leads to a zero of the polyrrornial. For 3.32, the
zeros are i1 arrd -lIi; for 3.33, they are 1, 1, 1; arrd for 3.34, they are -3, -3, -3, -3,
2,2,2, -1. hrtheca^seof 3.33and3.34,therearerepetitions. Wesaythatr:lisazero
of multiplicity 3 for the polynornial irr 3.33; the rmrltiplicity corresporrds to the nrmber of
times the factor :r - 1 appears in the factorizatiorr. Each of the zeros in 3.32 is of multiplicity
1. In 3.34, :r : -3 has multiplicity 4, the zero :L: 2 has multiplicity 3, and r : -1 has
multiplicity 1. These exarnples suggest that the surn of the rmrltiplicities of the zeros of
a polynomial is equal to the degree of the polynomial. This is confirmed in the following
alternative version of the F\rrrda"rnental Theorern of Algebra.
Theorem 3.4 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra 2 Every polynornial of degree n ) t has exactly
n, zer os (counting multiplicities).

Our discussions will be confined to polynomials with real coefficients, but Theorems 3.3
and 3.4 are valid even when coemcients are complex numbers. What is difficult to prove
in Tlteorern 3.4 is the existence of one zero. (This is usually done with material frorn a
colrrse on compiex frrnction theory.) Orrce existence of orre zero is established, the fact;or
tlteorem immediately irnplies that there are precisely n, zeros, arrd that the polynornial carr
be factored irrto n linear factors.
When coefficients of a polynomial are real, complex zeros must occur in complex con-
jugate pairs. This is proved in the rrext theorem.

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SECTION 3.i 29

11. If 1f i is azercofthe polyrrornialt:a I:t3 +Z:t;2 -Brf 14, find its other zeros.
x12. Prove that a polynomial of odd degreee with real coefficients must have at least one real zero. Is this also
tnre for complex polyrromials?
*13. P"rove that if P(r) is a polyrrornial havirrg only even powers of r:, and p(o,) :0, then p(r) is clivisible by

In Exercises 14-18, find k, in order that the first polynomial be a factor ofthe second.
*L4. r: - 2, 13 + kn2 * 5z - 10 *1b. e; * 1, n3 + 4t:2 -l kn -t g
*16. r*3, 14 +7t:3 I kn2 -2lr -86 *lT. 2t: - 3, 2na + k# -6t:2 -ge; - 15

*18. 2x I l, 6t:4 + :r:3 |_53x2 -f k:r - g

*19. Firrd the rernairrder wherr reee + 2reea * n2 - lis divided by r * 1.


*20. For what vahre(s) of k will the polyrrornial 5r5 + 4na + kr\ +2r:2 I:r: I I have rernaincler 15 wherr divi<tecl
by:r-1.
*21. Find the vahre(s) of k so that k is the remainder when 13 - kt:z - l4t: * lbA, is <tivided by z - 5.
*22. Findthevahre(s) of icsothatk2 istherernainderwhen2t:3-:t2+(kj+1)rf l0isdividedbyr*1.
In Exercises 23-25, find h arrd k in order that the first two polynomials be factors of the third.
,r23. n * 4, n - 6, t:4 + h:f 44n2 -l kn l- 576
-
*24. r:-2, n-5, t:5 _
15:14 +ht:3 +k:t2 +274:t-120

*25. t; 13, :t: - 3, rE + l6t:a + hr3 + kr,2 - 1296


x26. Slrow that when ar, a? and o3 are the zeros of a cubic polyrromial o,:t:3 + bt2 + cn + d, then:
(a) or+ c,zlas:-o
0,

(b) o1o2 f o1a3 I a2g,s: 9


o,

d
\c) a1a2as: --
',27. (a) Wlrat are the equations in Exercise 26 for the cubic polyrromial P(z:) : c3 * 3x2 + 2x + 5.
(b) The equations irr (a) represerrt three equations in the three zeros of P(:r). If we solve them, we find
the three zeros. Eliminate two of the zeros to find a single equation in the remaining zero. How do
you like the eqrratiorr?
*28. This exercise generalizes the results of Exercise 26. Suppose that the zeros of a polyrrornial anir:n + ... +
o,1i[ I o,g o,r€ @1 , e2,. . ., o, (where sorne of the o7 rnay be repeated) .
Show that:
(t) *, + az | ... I an: -+=
un

(b) a1o2 ' ''(tn: (-l)"gq


o,n
(c) the surn ofthe products ofthe roots in pairs is an-2fa,n; that is,

(oto, +' ''* o1o') -f (a2as * ' ' ' I a2an)


o:-'
+ "'+ (c.n-zc,n-.t I an-2ar)' * Qn-1Qn: '
art

*29, Showthat the onlyway o,n:t:n 1e,n-1!Ln-r +.'. + o,r:D+(ro:0 can have nf l distinct zerosis for all
coefficients to be zero.
x3O. SrrpposethatPl(e) attdP2(x) arepoiyrromialsof degreen.. Usetheresultof Exercise2gtoshowthatif
Pr(r) : P2(t:) at n i 1 distirrct points, then P1(e;) : Pr(") for all r.

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SECTiON 3.2 31

By trarrsposing o,npn to the riglrt side of 3.36, and factoring q from the rernaining
terrns,
it is sirnilarly shown that q divides a,.

The rational root theorem is a powerful result. It narrows the field of possible
rational
sohrtions of polyrrornial equations very quickly. The list of possible
ratiorral roots is shortest
when any common factors in the coefflcients have been removed. For example,
Bt" +21:, -i :
0 and gr3 r6t:2 - solutiorrs. The ratiorral root theorern yields *1, 12,
t1/3 and r2/3 as the first equation, and t1, +2, +g, +a, +112, +21s,
rrf g, atd I2/9 us the second equatiorr. Clearly tien it is advantageorrs
to rernove the com re second equation.
We now consider tluee rnore exarnples.
Example 3.11 Firrd all sohrtiorrs of the cubic equation Er:B + n2 r n - 4:0.
Solution Sirrce divisors of -4 are tl, i2, arrcl t4, arrcl those of b are t1 ancl *5, possible
ratiorral solutions are

+1, +2, +4, +rf\, +215, +4/5.


Tlial a"rrd error leads to the fact that :r : 4/5 satisfies the equation. We now factor St:
frorn the cubic. - 4

0:(5r-4)(*'*r+1).
The remainirrg two solutiorrs are cornplex conjugates,

,:'+F 22 --! i.' \/3'


2
2..

Example 3.12 Solve ra - n3 - 3:f + b:r - 2 : 0.


Solution Since divisors of -2 are *1 and 12, and those of 1 are tl, the only possible
rationalsolutionsaretheirrtegers+1,+2.Sincer:lisasohrtion,wefactorr-1from
the polynornial,

(r - 1)(e;3 - Bx t 2) :0.
Because divisors of 2 are tl arrd t2, arrd divisors of 1 are tl, possible ratiorral zeros of the
cubic are+1, +2' Once againr: l isasohrtion, arrdwhenu isfactoredfrornthecubic, -l
g : (r - 1)(z - t)(r' -t r- 2) : (:r - r)2 (t: r 2)(:r - 1) : (r - 1)3(lr; * 2).
The orrly roots of the equatiorr are therefore z : 1 (rnultiplicity 3) arrcl r: -2.o
Example 3.13 Find allsolutiorrs of ,,t -T20*' " + 43 -l40
2l
: 0.

Solution ^t; of fractions by multiplying by


First we ciear the equation 40,

40ns - 15412 + 43t: + 2I : 0.

Sirrce the positive divisors of 21 are l,g,T,2r, and those of 40 are 1,2,4,s,g,L0,20,40, we obtain
a rather long list of possible ratiorral sohrtions

+1, +3, 17, I2l; +I/2, +312, +7f2, L2t/2; +I/4, +314, +Tf 4, I2tl4;
+115, +3/5, +7f 5, +2115; +1/8, +3/8, +Tf8, +2r18;

+l/r0, +3frO, +7/rO, I2I/I0; +I/20, +3/20, +.Tl20, I2r/20;

+r/40, +3140, +7/40, +2t/40.

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SECTION 3.2 33

(r - 2)(ra r 4r3 - 5u2 - 4r- 20) : g.

The quartic must still have one rregative zero, arrd Descartes' mle inclicates that it ha^s
exactly one positive zero. we search for rational zeros arnorrg

+2, +4, +5, +10, +20,


(f i are rejected from their previous consideration). We immediately find that x: :2 is a
zero, and factor it frorn the quartic,

(t: - 2)(n - 2)(:f + 6n2 +Zj, + 10) : 0.


The cubic has rro positive zeros. The rregative zero rnight be amorrg the irrtegers
-2, -b,
-10. We find that r: _b is the req'ired zero, ancl therefore
(:r - 2)2 (r: + b)(n2 + n + 2) : 0.
The rernaining two solutions are cornplex conjugates

,. _ -1+ /1-T _ -r|.\,a7i


2-2
The five solutions of the original equation are therefore :z : 2 (multip)icity 2), t: : -5, and
(-1 +J1t)12..
",:
When using Descartes' rules of signs, vanishing coefficients are ignored. For exampJe,
Descartes' nrle orr

:r5 -3:r2 -t2n-ll:0


predicts either two or no positive roots.
The following theorem finds upper and lower bounds for the zeros of a polynomial. This
rnay further restrict the set of trial nurnbers a^s predicted by the ratiorral root theorern.
Theorem 3.9 Bounds Theorem If :r is a zero of the ntl' degree polyrrornial P(*) : o,n:Ln +. . .!a1t:!a11,
then lrl a #* 1 where M: rnaxirmrrn{1a,,-11, lo,n-21,...,lool}.
tqnl

Proof l4
51rt."
Itt'",1
* 1 is always larger than 1, the theorem is certainly tme if the zero
satisfies le;l < 1. Corrsider then > 1. Sirrce z is a zero of P(n), we rnay write that
when le;l

anvnl...loa:t*a6:9,
oft

an:Ln: -(o,0* arnlo,zt:2 +...+ o,n_Lnn-L).

Hence,

: loo + o,r* * a,2n2 + . . . + an-r.xn-Ll.


lan:r"l
Tlre properties lc* al<l.l*lrJl and lcdl:lcllal for absolrrte values allowus to write

lo,^llt:1" < l,rol + lo4:rl -l la,2:fl + . . . t lo,n rrn-tl


: loeli lalllrl+ k,rllrl'+ ...+ lo.n_llxl-r.
Since M: rnaximum{lo"-rl,lo,n zl,...,l,rol}, it follows t}rat

lo.^llxl" < A,I + Mlnl+ Atll:r:12 +...* Mlt:1"-, : tW(t+ le;l+ l*1, +...* lrl'-1).
In parentheses we have a finite geometric series that can be summed according to Example
1.3 irr Section 1.1,

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SECTION 3.2 35
Theorern 3'9 is also valid for complex zeros of a polyrromial;
we sirnply ilterpret tle
vertical bars as rnod*li rather than absohrte v^ahr-es For'exarnple, "r"ro,
all four 14, l/5,
-ll2 + t/Uf 1Z of the polyrrornial in Example 3.16 satisfv
128 131
l:rl < 1+ *rnax{l4, 4J,I28.48}: 1+ -
r'33

EXERCISES 3.2
In Exercises I-22 : (a) use Descartes' nrles of signs to state the rrrrr ive and negative
zeros of the polynomial; (b) use Theorem 3.9 to find bounds for
zeros use the rational
root theorern to list all possible rational zeros of the polynomial. Take
irr (c).
(b) i'to acco'nt
l. n3+3r;2-2:r+b 2. 2:r:3 - 3r:2 - 2n + b
3.2x4-Jxs+n-2 4. t:5 +3t:-2
5. 4r5 -f 3:ra -2r" + n2 - :r - 2 6, \r:a -2t} *3e;*b
7. 5x5 +I 8. -4rB - 2n2 + 6:r - I
9.616r4n2-2r-48 10. 6sF I2ra 1Tn3 + 2r2 *:r 1 6
t7. 6:rE - 2r:a + 8# - 2r2 -l n - 6 72.:t;a-13-:r2-:t-!
13. 13 -l 3n2 - 2:r: I 4 14. 3n3 I 3n2 - 2t: + 4
15. -23 I 2n2 a 3t: I b 16.4raf 3lr3-2:t2+r+6
L7. n3+I 18. 423 + 1
19. z3+4 2O. 2r5 * 3r * 16
21. 27r3 l3r:2 - 2t: -f I0 22. r6ra +5u3 -24
In Exercises 23-40 find all zeros of the polvnomial.
t023. 13
-2t;2 l5z; - l0 *24. x3 + 4n2 + l2t: -t g
,r25. :r3 I I2:t2 I48n -f 64 ,126. na l7r3 1g:f 2lt:
x27. :r4 - 16
- - 36
*28. 2ra I gr3 6x2 gil - - - lb
*29. 6na + lr3 + b}:t2 I gn - g *3O. l2t:a + 1912 + 5
x31. z3 - 23n2 - 2It: - T2 *32. ra - 4r:3 - 4412 + g6r I5T6
*33. 3za -l 13 + b:t:2 +34. 6x3 +n2 +lgr:-20
*35. lr5 I5r:a - gn - 4b *86. f gbr3
e;5 - Ibt:a - 22bt:2 * 2T4n - 120
,o37. 4xa I4n3 1I7:r2 + I6t: -f 4 ,r1g. 2bna - l20t:B -t I0gn2 S6u * 4
x39. z5 +g:ta +47:13 ll2br2 + 1gr-200
-
*4o. ,:t;6 :_I6:t:a _gl:tr:2 _1296
*'41' Prove the following corollary to the ratiorral root theorem called t6e Irrteger Root Theorern:
If r is a
ratiorrai zero of a poiyrromial I (t:) : :r:,n I o,n_rxn-r + . . . + a61 with integer coefficients,
where o,e f 0,
then r is an integer that divides o,6.
*42. Prove that when lnrl is greater than or equal to lo,n_j,
lon-zl,. . ., lrrol, then every zero of the polynornial
P"(n) : annn l. . . * oo rnust satisfy lnl < 2.
*43. Prove that when a+b{Z is a zero of a pollmomial with rational coefficients, and. a, b, and c are ratiolals
with c not a perfect sqlra.re, then rz - b\/E is also a zeto.
*44' Show that when o,n : l, Theorem 3.9 elirninates none of the possibilities suggestecl by the Ratiolal Root
Theorern.

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SECTION 4.r 37
In general, 1r, is the identity matrix of size n x n,.
A rnatrix whose errtries are all equal to 0 is said to be a zero matrix. Exarnples
are

/o o\
\o o ) ' (lssl)
we often denote a zero rnatrix by o to clisti'g'ish it frorn the r'rrnber
0.
A square matrix is said to be upper triangular if all elernerrts below its
diagonal are
zero' It is lower trianglular if all entries above its diagonal are zero.
-lhe first of the
following rnatrices is triang'lar and the secorrcl is lower trianqular
'pper

(i B' i)
Diagonal rnatrices are lrpper and lower triangular.

Equality of Matrices
Two rnatrices ,4 arrd B are said to be equal if they have the sarne dirnensiols
arrd if
correspondimg errtries are eq'al. Forrnally we say that A,r*n : Bpxqt if m": p, k : q, and
follows that

not the sarne

not in the sarne positions

Scalar Multiplication of Matrices

define ,\,4, where ,\ is a rlrrnber as the rnatrix obtainerl


tlrat is, if A: (aa7), then
\an )ara \arn
\azz \azs \azn
\oe" trasa \ogn (4 2)
:

\o^z \a^J ... \ar"n

For exarnple,

,(i -:): (1 T)
Addition and Subtraction of Matrices
We add and subtract rnatrices of eqrral dirnensions by adding and subtractirrg corre-
sponding entries; that is, if A: (o4)*rn and B : (bii),,rn,then
A+B:kt,qIbrj),,,n. (4.3)

For example,

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SECTION 4.1 39

EXERCISES 4.1

Showrr below are ten rnatrices:

/r\ /. ^\ /t 3
A: {i l, B:(l , c:lo | 2
D:(r'-B'o)'
\r/
?)
\u L/' \o o
4
o ;) ":(i, : g)
":(l 3 s') ":(i ll) ,":(B ss) ':(_+l s) ,*:(Ls)
In Exercises 1-8 identify which of the matrices are of the type specified
1. Sqrrare 2. Colurnrr 3. Row 4. Diagonal
5. Upper triarrgular 6. Lower triangular T. Zero 8. Identity
In Exercises 9-20 use the above ten rnatrices A-K to calculate the given matrix, if it exists.
9. A+B ro. E -2F TI. B+4K t2. 2F -3J
13. G-J 14. H +2G 15. A- DT t6. 2F -3Er
17. GBr -4K\r 13. 3C -2Fr 19. 4E-2F+3G 20. 2J -3Er +4€
*21. Find the rnatrixX that satisfies 4x -2F - 3J where F and J are as above.
*22. Find the matrix Y that satisfies 2Y -2JT :zE+ y where.E and J are a^s above.
i'23. Cornparries 1, 2, and 3 are beirrg purchased by Big company and the outstandirrg debts of each company
rnust be paid by Big. These debts are shown in the rnatrix,4. below
Due in 30 days 60 days
$60,ooo\ Cornpany 1
,4 : |/$4o,ooo
$2b, oo0 $15,000 | Cornpany 2
\$35,000 $58,000/ Company 3

(a) If Big pays 35% of the arnourrt owed on each debt, what rnatrix B gives the remainirrg clebts? Express
B irr the forrn B : ,\,4 for some vahre of ,\.
(b) Suppose instead that Big decides to pay 80% of all debts due irr 30 days and to increa^se debts clue
irr 60 days by 20%. Write the matrix C that gives the debts after these transactions are rnade. Carr
yorrexpressCintheformp'A?FindrnatricesDandEandscalars)arrdpsothatC:\D+rr,Il.
*24. In a government agency, paperwork constantly flows among five offices according to the following diagram.

(a) Corrstnrct matrix A with errtries


(t. if paperwork flows directly from i to j
0,ij:
\0, if paperwork does not flow directly from i to j.
(b) Corrstruct rnatrix B with entries

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SECTION 4.2 47
entry of the product is the srrrn of the entries in
row 1 of -4 multiplied by the corresponding
entries in colurnn 2 of B, narnely, (f)(Z)+ (2)(0)+ (_3)(4)_ _iO.
Contirruirrg irr this way,
the product is

( -t -10 -18 -e \
\20 24 le 5s).
Example 4,2 Evahrate the foilowing proclucts, if they exist:

(') (-'3 3) (;; r', (-" ,) (i i _x) (.) (i i +) (i .^,)


Solution (a) This is possible and the product is

(r z\(t\ /rr\
\-a o/ \s ): \_s)
(b) This is not possible, the number of columns of the first
matrix is not the same as ttie
mrmber of rows of the secorrd.
(c) This is possible and the product is

(i ;: +) (i :):(:^;:)
Example 4.3 Evaluate AnT - gC tf

': (+ i) ":(i il ":(i s -if)


sorution ABr -r": ( !, ?) l
f
s 5

\o ,)\'4 6

lz 17 27 gZ\
:lr is
'; 16) ;;).
\+ 8 12
14 _511 36 25
:l_8 40 1

\4 2 $ _11
Some properties of rnatrix rmrltiplication are

: (AB)C, (Associativiry of rnultiplicariorr)


A(BC) (4.6a)
(A + B)C : AC + BC, (Distributivity of multiplicatiorr) (4.6b)
A(B + C) : AB + AC, (Distributivity of rnultiplicatiorr) (4.6c)
0A:0, A0:0, (4.6d)
(AA)(4B) : Q,p,)AB, (a.6e)
(AB), : Br Ar , (4.60
Arrrnln: InrAnrrn : Arrrn. (4.6e)

Matrix rmrltipication is not, in gerreral, cornrmrtative; that is, in general,

AB + BA. (47)

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SECTION 4.2 43
*21' rf two real nurnbers o' andb are such that a,b:0, then either a,:0, or
for matrices. Show this by finding two nonzero matrices
b:0, or both. This is not t're
,4 a'd B such that AB : oi.
x22' Errcode the rnessage "Attack at six a.rn."
'sing
the errcocrirrg ,nati* (l l3). n..ig' the mrmber 2g
totheperiod. \L 4 /
*23' Encode the rnessage "Attack at six a.rn." usi'g the
encoding r.o (? -f l) . o..,*" the rurrnber
^
28 to the period. \ I -l 2 /
*24' A clothirrg rnamrfacturer has factories irr Nlontreal, winnipeg,
and vancouver. Sales of coats C, shirts S,
pants P, and ties T (in thousands) during the first quarter
a]re summarized in the matrix ,4 below.
CS PT
/qo 85 6 z\ Nlonrreal
,4: I 63 b6 18 10 I Wirrnipeg
\18 42 8 8/ Valcouver
(a) Drrrirrg this period the sellirrg prices of the coats, shirts, pants,
ancl ties were $100, $20, s3b, and $15,
respectively' Use matrix multiplication to find a matrix B
whose entries are total revenues fbr each
city.
(b) Wrat rnatrices could be rnultiplied together to give total
revemre for all cities? What is this total
revemre?
*25' A busirress plans to trse tlree rnethods of advertisirrg: TV,
raclio, and newspaper.
thousands of dollars) is giverr by the rnatrix
Tle cost per acl (i^

c:l /zo\
sI
rv
naaio
\ 6 / Newspaper
Suppose the business ha^s three fernale target populations for
its product: teenagers, single wornen 20 to
35, and rnarried womerl 35 to 60' x'{atrix ? s}tows the mrmber of
ads per mont}r clirectecl at each of these
groups.

TV Radio Newspaper
/so 30 5\ Teenagers
r:140 60 30 | Singte 20-3b
\45 40 60 / Marriecl3b-60
Find the matrix -4 that gives the cost of advertising for each group of wornen.
Can you set 1p a prod'ct
of rnatrices to give A?
x26. Suppose,4 is a diagonai.matrix with diagonal entries arLt a22t
...t ann. Calcrrlate A2 artd.-43, and
conject're the entries of Ar, , where m ) 2 is a positive irrteger. -'
*27. Repeat Exercise 26 for lower arrd upper triarrgular rnatrices.

*28. suppose ,-,


l:(a+t t' \ ..,r.^-^^'..^
""'"";" o,*1rl ,whereoisarealrrtrrnber' Showthat A3:83+382 +38+12w1ere
\ (r
B:(o a,o).
\rr, /

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SECTION 5.1 45
To indicate that a vector is a unit vector, we place
a circumflex ^ above it: f. The vector
i : (llJr,rl2,U2) is a u'it vector, as the notatio'irrdicates, sirrce (Ur/t),
(rl2)2 : r. + (rl2)2 +
To rnultiply a vector v: (u',ur,u,) by a scalar.\, we rmrrtiply each of its cornponerrts
bv tr,

)v - (.\o", \uo,),u"). (5.3)


What this does is rnultiply the lerrgth of the vector by .\,
but leaves
wherr.\ > 0 and reverses its directiorr wherr .\ < 0. For
-.2\: (-6,8, -2). The vector -2v is twice as lorrg as v ancl"*urrpt",
ln iHe'
To find a unit vector in the same direction as a given
vector v, we divicle v by its le'gth,
v^v
: t-;. (5.4)
lvl
For exarnple, a
'nit
vector irr the direction of the vector v : (2,-3,4) is
(2'
-3'4) - 1
i:
JE*5ji: ,B(2'-3'4)'
Example 5'1 Find a vector of lerrgth 4 in the opposite direction to the vector
frorn the point p(3,
to the point 0(6, 1, _l). - 1, b)

solution The cornpo^ents of the vector from P to


e are v: (3, 2,-6). A unit vector irr
this direction is

r:S:-1(r,2,-6).
\/9 + 4+ 36 7'
A vector of lerrgth 4 in the opposite clirection is

-4i-: |{t,r,-u7..
To add and sttbtract vectors algebraically, we acld and subtract their
u: (zr, u,g,u") arrd v: (ur,us,ur), then
comporre^ts. If

u*v: (r,, lrr,u, Iuy,u,"-lu"), \o.oaJ


tl-v: (u,, - rrru,n - 1Jytu,, - u"). (5.55)

To add vectors geornetrically, we can use either triangles or parallelograrns as


slown in
Figures 5'4a,b, respectively' They can also be subtractJ with triangles and parallelograrns
(Figures 5.5).

Figure 5.4a Figure 5.4b

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SECTION 5.1
47
Example 5'3 Find the angre between the vector. r: (2, v:
-3, 1) a'cr (b,2,4).
Solution Accordirrg to forrnula 5.11.

Example 5.4 Firrd the angle between the lirres :r l2A: 3 and 4:r _ 3y: 5 in the uy_plane.
Solution Since the slope of r 2A:3 ts _1f2, a vector along this line is :
sirnilarly, a vector along4n u (_2,1).
-3y - 5lr.r: (3,4).'rfd is the ung"I" t"t.";"rr these ou"to.r,
and therefore between the lines, then

o:co :cos-,(4:n\ ^ -,(-z


-(- - : t.zsraclians.
\\/51tr):uos )
Tlre acrrte angle Ines is n - I.Tb: l.3g raclians.o
The Vector Product
In many applications we need to find a vector perpendicular to two given
vectors. The cross
product of the two vectors gives such a vector. The vector prodirct
(cross product or
outer product) of two vectors u: (u,r,,,y,u") and v(,r,,r, ,,o,r"1 i" defined as

ux v: (u,ru, -u,.uo)il (u,u, - u,,u)jl (u,,u, _ uru)k. (5.12)

To eliminate the need for rnemorizirrg the exact placing of the


six componelts of u and
v in this definition, we borrow the notation for determinanis from linear algebra. you
have
probably seen this before^(and we will study deterrninants,
in general, Iater). We set up a
3 x 3 deterrninant.with i, j, and rt ac.oss the top row and the
cornponents ofu and v across
rne secolrcl and tJurcl rows:

ijk
'Il,r uu 112

ur ua uz

If we apply the nrles for expansiorr of a 3 x 3 determinant along its first row (namely,
i tir.r",
the 2 x 2 determinant obtained by deleting the row and cohrmn containing
i, ,nirur. j tt.r".
the 2 x 2 deterrninarrt obtained by deleting the row and column containing j, phrs
the 2 x 2 determinarrt obtained by deleting the row and cohrmrr corrtairrilg"flj,
f ti-u,
*" Jt.irr-"
a
I jk
u,u 11,a ',u,z :lA i"),-l:: ';'):.1:: 'i,:)r
,UT
ua uz

But the vahre of a 2 x 2 deterrninant is

lo bl
Lt:aa-oc.
lc dl
Consequently,
jk
u,,, : (uou" - u"u)i I (u,"u, - u,u,)j I (u,*uo - urur)k,
lr
'11,.

ug 'uz

and this is the sarne as the right side of equatiorr 5.12. We may therefore write. as a
rnemory-savirrg device, that

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SECTION 5.2
49
11. vxw
12. (-3u) x (2v)
13. u. (v x w)
14. Oxfv
1s. ((3u) x w) + (u x v) 16. ux(3v-w)
14 wxu
r | . i--------
luxvl 18. (u x w) - (u x v) * (u x (2u+v))
19. (uxv)xw 20. ux(vxw)
In Exercises 2r-24 det,ermine whether the vectors are perpendicrilar.
2r. (7,2), (3,5) 22. \2,4), (_8,4)
23. (7,3,6), (_2,1,_4) 24. (2,3, -6), (_6, 6, 1)
In Exercises 25-30 find the angle between the vectors
25. (3,4), (2,-5) 26. \r,6), (_4,7)
27. (4,2,3), (r,5,6) 28. (3,1, -1), (_2,t,4)
29. (2,0, 5), (0, 3, 0) 30. (1, 3, -2), (-2, _6,4)
In Exercises 31-33 find components for the vector.
31. Perpendicular to the vectors (1,3, b) and (_2,I,4)
32. Perpendic'lar to the y-axis arrd the vector joining the points (2,4,-g)
ancr (1,5,6)
33. Perpendic'lar to the triarrgle with vertices (_1,0,3), (b, 1, 2), and, (_6,2,4)
*34' Show that the cross-product is not associative; that is, irr general
u x (v x w) + (u x v) x w.

$5.2 Planes and Lines

Planes in Space
A plarre in space can be characterized irr
various ways: by two irrtersecting lines, by
a line and a point rrot on the line" or bv
three noncollinear points. For our p.eserrt
plrrposes, we llse the fact that given a
point P(e;e, ys, zs) and a vector (A, B , C)
(Figure 5.6), there is one and only orre
plane through P that is perpendicular
to (A,B,C). To find the equation of this
plane we note that 1f Q(:r,y,z) is any other
Figure 5.6
point in the plane, therr vector pe with
cornponents \:t - t:0, u - uo, ,
- ro) Iies in the plarre. But p Q rmrst tlen be perpendicrrlar
to (A,B,C); hence, their clot product rmrst be zero,
(4, B,C) . (* - ro,!/ - Uo, z - zs) : g.

Because this equation must be satisfied by every point (r, y, z) inthe plane (and at the sarne
time is not satisfied by any point not in the plane), it musi be the equation of the plane
tlrrough P and perpendictilar to (A,B,C). If we expand the scalar pro61ct, we obtairr the
equation of the plane in the forrn

A(r: - :r:o) + B(u - Ao) + C(z - zd :0.


Tlrrrs, the equation for the plane through the point (t:s,!o,20) perpendicllar to the vector
(A, B,C) is

A(r - q) + B(a - yo) + C(z - zs) : s. (5.15)

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SECTION 5.2 51

vector equa para_


nce again th erized
u,) along it. d irrto
ely, every poirrt on .t is represented by sorne
: 1 gives the point at the tip of v in"Figure

If rrorre of t)r, tts, amcl-u" is equal to


,,
the three expressiorm to obtairr
zero, we can solve equatiorrs 5.1g fbr rf arrd equate

lL - lLn
\,
:_'lt -
o 'tt^
'\,
z-zo
Ur u", uz
(5.le)

T':,;:"jf q"il[T.::illH*:n,i::J H'',',1;,:,iT:,.;d;1;j,J,i;:]'#'"'"


tt,(It - y()) : ur(r - ns) ancl u.(A : ur(z _ zs),
- ys)
or

ua:I: - ,uua : uano _ rna|t ,,az _ uz!/ : ,u.uzo _ uzao.


Since the first of these is linear in
n and, y arrd the seconcl is lirrear in y and z, each4escribes
a plane' The line has been described as the curve of intersectiorr
of tiro pl"rr"s.
Example 5'8 Find, if possible, pararnetric ancl syrrunetric equations for the line
throlgh the points
l-I,2,1) arrd (3,-2,1). Find two pLanes that irrtersect along the lirre.
Solution A vector along. the line is (8,_2,1) _ (_1,2,I) : (4,_4,0), arrcl so too is
(1, -1,0) . pararnetric equatiors for the line are tirerefbre
:r:t-L, !/:-t12, z:L
Becatrse the z-cornponent of every vector alorrg the lirre is
zero, we cannot write f\ril syrn-
metric equatiorrs for the line. By elirninating rf between the :r- arid y-equations,
however, we
can write

*11:!:3. z:r.
If weset rf L:2-u,z:1,or n-ttl:l,z:l.werepresenttheLirrea^stheintersection
of the planes xt + A :1 and z : 1.o
Example 5'9 Findtheequationof theplanecontainingtheoriginandthelile2z -tl)-z:4,r+z:b.
points on the plane. Fo r,:0,
:5arrdg:9; andif :r::b
0), as well as 0(0,0,0), arre. It
: (5, -6,0) are vectors vector

li j kl
oP x oQ:
l0 9 5l : (30,25,_45).
15 -6 0l
The vector (6,5, -g) is also norrnal to the plane, and the equation of the plarre is

0: (6,5, -9) .(:r - -0,2 - 0): 6r-lEy -92.o


0, U

Example 5.10 Find syrnrnetric equations for the line z* U _22:6,2:r_BA+42:L0.


Solution To find symmetric equations, we require a vector parallel to the line and a
point on it. By setting:r:0 arrd sorving _22,
u we obtairr -22:6, -Bu-t4z:10, a:

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SECTION 5.2
53
18. Through the point g) and parallel to the line : 4 t t, ! :
(2, 0, n 2, z : 6 _ 2t
xl9. Through the poirrt of intersection of the lines
n-L y+4 z-2
2-35 and ,-1_ A-t4 _z-2
6 3 4'
-:- (I, B, _2) and (2, _2,I)
and parallel to the line joining the points
+20. 2r - U : 5, 3n * 4y t z : I0
*21. Through the point (-2,3,1) and parallelto the line
x*A:B,2r_A+ z: _2
*22. Does the line (r
-3)/Z:A -2: (z +I)/alie in the plane n _A+22: _I?
*23. Show that a vector perpendicuiar to the line,4.rr Ba
* +C:0 in the egrplane is (,4,8).
*24' show that if a plane has no'zero intercepts a, b, and. c on
the n-, a-, and z-axes, then its eqrration
r/a-ty/b* zf c: L is

'*25' verify that the eqtation of the plane pasqing throrrgh the three points p1(21 pz(rz,g2,z2), attd.
ar,4) can be written in the form prF . prf, x prp, 0, ,h...'p( ,ar,zL), :
iiy, i"any poinr in rhe
fif:., "j'

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SECTION 6.1 oo

The vahres :r : _23 and y : g do satisfy the following


equations

rl3U:4,
2rlSY:-1.
3t -l6Y: -15'
These tlrree lines intersect at the poirrt (-23, g).
For large systerns of linear equatiorrs, the eliminatiorr rnethod is far easier to follow.
It can be described in a sequence of operations that can be incorporatecl into a cornpll;er
prograrn' In general terrns, the sequence of operations replaces the giverr systern
wiih arr
equivalent systern that is easier to solve, so easy irr fact, that we can sirnply
write down the
solution (or solutiorrs). We illustrate with system 6.2.
If we interchange the first two equations, the system is the same. Whatever values of
t:, y, amd z satisfy 6.2 also satisfy

2!l-z:3,
:r-1
2n-3yl3z:6, (6 3)
,t,-qt-Lz-9
4/ A | 4 -\
-

and vice versa' We rrow elirninate z from the secorrd and third equations. We do
this by
multiplying the first equation by -2 arrd adding it to the second, and then rnuliiplyilg
the
first equation by -1 and addirrg it to the third equation. The res'lt is

n129-z:3,
-TA I 5z :0, (6.4)
-3a l-22: -L.
This systern is equivalent to 6.2 irr that they have exactly the same sohrtions; systern
6.4 is,
however. sirnpler tharr system 6.2. II we rnultiply the secorrd arrd third eqrrations by
-1, we
obtairr the equivalent svstem

n+2A-z:3,
7y - 5z:0, (6 5)
39-22:1.
If we rmrltiply the third equation by -2 arrd add it to the secorrd equation, an eqlivalent
svstem is

r-l 29-z:3,
ot-ry--1 ., (6.6)
3y-22:1.
Multiplyirrg the second equation by -3 arrd addirrg it to the thircl gives the equivalerrt systern
n)-2y - z:3,
qt z _') 4,
- - (6.7)

We now have a much sirnpler system of equations equivalerrt to 6.2; but becalse they are
equivalent, they have the same solutions. In fact, the third equation in 6.2 telis us that
z:7' rf we substit'te this into the second equatiorr in 6.2, we obtain y:5, and if these

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SECTION 6.1
ot
The augmented matrix for this systern is

-!,
(i i'
In doing tl:is exarnple, we introduce notation that, in the future,
will elirninate the neces-
sity of explaining in words what elernentary row operations
are being used. We begin by
interchanging the first two rows. we denote this
as foilows

(i ,' I)E::E: -!,


+ (i -1
r-2
1-3
1

Rr --+ Rz irrdicates that row 1is replaced by row 2; R2 - + R1 irrdicates that


row 2 is replaced
by row 1' Now, we add
-2 times the first iow to the second row, and -5 times the first row
to the third row. The notation is

(ii'i -,' \
+ | Rz--2RrtRz +
7 / R"r-5r?r*fts (il'r
Were we to return to a systern of equations at this point, the second and tirird equations
would not contain z. we rrow add -2 tirnes the second row to the third row,
-s\
(i :' 10 I
-t ) n"-
zz -2Rzt Rs - (it'+
Tlre tlrird row is rnost irrforrnative if we corrvert it back to an equation.
We obtain 0 :2, an
irnpossibility. Consequently the systern of equatiorrs ha^s no solrtions;
it is a' irrconsisterrt
systern.
we do one rnore exarnple usi'g the operationar notation, ornitting the
words.

n-3y+22:6,
3:rt 2y - 4z :7, (6.11)
7a - l}y i 4z: 31.

The augmented matrix is

-32 -32
(i .tA
9) o, * -3Rr * Rz -----+ ft 11 -10
-10 4 31f f,t--TRt+Rt \o 11 Rs
-10 - -Rz-l Rs

2
_10 j') ., .- Rz/tr
2
-r0/rr
0 0 :')
when converted back to eq'atio's, we obtain the eq'ivalerrt system

r-3y+22:6,
10
U-
Uz: -L'
two equations in three variables. What we have shown is that the third equation in
the
original system was a combination of the first two equations. The second equation in
the
redtrced systern tells us that y: l0z/ll- 1, and ifthis is substituted into the
first equation.

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SECTION 6.2

ii
59

(i i)
Second row does not have leading 1

(:i; ;)
Leading 1 in row 2 is rrot to left of leading
1 in row 3

","*t.,f::"JTf-:1"":*:f:ni.,ffiiiH:f:','J';:llf f ;".'J,i#E::ti.#:rnil:,,",'r;
step 1' Firrd the leftrnost variable cohrmn that
has a nonzero entry in it. choose a nonzero
entry i' this cohrrnn and intercha"nrge rows, if necessary, ," p..Jirrr,, entry in the
top row.
step 2' Divide the top row by the nonzero entry
found irr step 1 so that the leftrnost entry
irr the row is 1. This is the leading 1.
step 3' Add rnultiples of the top row to the rows beneath
it to create 0,s berreath the
leadirrg 1.
step 4' Pretend the top row is not there and repeat steps 1, 2, and,3 on the remaining
rows.

The row echelorr form for an atrgmented rnatrix


is not rurique; the forrn depe'cls o'
the sequence of steps usecl to arrive Jt it (see Exarnple
6.1). It is irnportant to note that
it is not always advisable, at least with small systems that
are being simplified by hand, to
follow Garssian elimination to the Letter. In pu.tl"utu.,
to create a leacling I by clivision, a^s
in step 2, tnay lead to fractions; other alternatives
are available (see Exarnple 6.1 again). It
may also be advantageous to at least ternporarily
create a ieading mrmber other than 1 an.
change this mrrnber to 1 rater in the procecl"."
1.t* Example 6.2j.
Example 6'1 use Gaussian elimination to find two row echelon
forms for the augmented matrix associated
with the systern of linear equations

2niU-32:6,
:t-yl2z:-4,
n 1-3U - z: I.

Solution The following sequence of ernentary row operations reduces the augmerrterl
matrix to row echelon forrn
6\Rl R2
-4\
-14R, R1 -___+ 6 | R2--2RrrRz
) I / Re--ftr*fta
-1 2
2 -4\
(: rl -7 -7 14 | R2-R3
4 _J Rs --+ -Rzl Rs
-9 / Rs---+ ft2
/1

-i2 -1 2
T4 T4
o 0 -19
-l Rs
- -SRz1_ Rs Rs
- -Rs/r9

-+ (i i'i
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SECTION 6,2 61

.t 16\ J

-56 | ftz --+ R2lto


1E
- I(,
------+
-312
0 o/ 0

We rrow convert to the equivalent system of equations

r-2A*32:16,
328
a-'":-5
Variables r anrd g corresporrd to the leading 1's in the row echelorr forrn; they are called
leading variables. When the system has an infinity of solutions we always solve for leading
variables irr terrns of rrorrleading variabies. In this exarnple, the second equation gives 37 :
3z 12 - 28/5, which substituted into the first equation gives

.-,(+-?) i,z:,6 :r:


,A
-.
D

Thus, we have a l-pararneter farnily of solutions, with z as pa.rameter,


24
*: T, 3z 28
A: t - E, z arrntraty..

EXERCISES 6.2
Use Gaussian elimination and the augmented matrix to find all solutions for the system of equations in
Exercises 1-22.
x-l 2Y-32:13, lD-A+42:7,
1. 2x* ll - 4z :73, t: -f 39 - 6z : -I3,
3:r.-2y+z:-5. 2x -l tJ - 4z : -10.

-22:4,
lL+11 2:tlll-32:4,
3. 2nI3y * z: -6, n-!J -6,
h1-4Y-z:-2. 5:t:l!)-62:14.
nlY-z:0, 3n *4t - :0, 4z
5. 2:r'ly z:0, r +'!l + 3z :0,
3t: - 4y I2z - 0. :tIA :0.
r-A+22:0, - z:0,
3x l-U
7. 3x*A-42:0, n- *32 :0, 2Il
2n -l2y - 6z :0. 5n-3y*52:0.
n-Ylz:4, 3n-4ylz:1,
9. 2nI3y +22:6, 10. 2r-UI4z:-3,
6x-UI6z:20. r-3A-32:2.
r+A-22:4, 4rl-U-22:4,
11. r-l 3ylz:6, 12. 2x-t3yIz:6,
3r-y-f2z:7. 3r-AI2z:7.

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63

This is called the reduced row echelon form for the augrnerrted rnatrix. If we use it to
write a systern of lirrear eqrrations equivalent to the original systern, we obtain
t::0, ll:b, z:7.
In other words, we have the solutiorr to the systern.
Let us repeat the procedure with system 6.11,

r-3yI2z-6,
3:r: I29 - 4z :7,

7n - l0g -t 4z :31.

rnatrix is
6\ 6\
7 | Rz--3Rr I Ez
n) ns- -7Ri+ Rt - (ili-is -ll
-Il /
I
Rs - -Rz l- Rs

2
j') ", R2ttr
-32
1 -10l11
u \ n, --BRzrRr
-10
0
+
00 i')
+ (l
:
This is reduced row echelon form. When we recreate equatiorrs,
'{,1 +)

,r-Lr:3.
tt
,-!":-t.
ll
We now solve for the leading variables r and y in terrns of z,

r: fi'+ B, u : fr" - t, z arbiftary,

a 1-parameter family of solutiorrs.


What distingrrishes reduced row echelon form, then, is that 0's are always created
above, as well a,s below, each leading 1. The advarrtage of reduced row echelon forrn is that
back substittrtiorrs are unnecessary wherr the augrnerrted rnatrix is returned to a systern of
eqlrations.
We showed that the row echelorr forrn of an augmented rnatrix is not urrique. Accordirrg
to the following theorem, the reduced row echelorr forrn of arr augrnented matrix is unique.
Theorem 6.2 An augrnented matrix has exactly orre reduced row echelon forrn.
It
is permissible therefore to a*sk for the redrrced row echelon forrn of an arrgrnented
matrix, wherea^s we ask for a row echelon forrn. Because the reduced row echelon forrn is
unique, it follows that the mrmber of leading 1's in the reduced row echelon form for the
augrnerrted rnatrix of a systern of lirrear equations is urrique. We call it the rank of the
augmerrted rnatrix.

Definition 6. 1 The rank r of the augmented matrix of a systern of linear equations is the mrrnber of leading
1's in its reduced row echelon forrn.

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SECTION 6.3 65

Food I Food II Food IIi Food IV Total


Arnourrt :LAZU)
Nrrtrient A 55105 10,000

Nutrient B 10 o 30 10 20,000

Nutrierrt C LO 10 25 20,000

We can forrn the reouirements

5t: :
-t 5y -t l0z -l5Tr 10,000,
l\n I 5y -l 302 * 10u : 20,000,
5n -l I1y -l L)z * 25ut :20,000.

The augrnerrted matrix is

(5 5 10 5 10, 000\ Rl fu15 /t | 2 --> 1 2. 000 \


5 30 r0
110 15 20, 000 lR2-Rzl5 # lz 1 6 2 +, ooo I Rz ---+
-2Rt -t Rz
\5 10 25 20, oo0/ fu-Rsl' \t 3 2 5 4,000 ) Re--Rr*Rs
(r r 2 1
(t r21 Rt --+
-Rz I Rr
-----+ l0 -1 2 0 '' 3oo ) Rz --+ -Rz | -2 0 -----+ '' 3oo )
\o 2 o 4 2,000 f \0 204 2,000 f Rs --+
-2Rz I Rs

041 Rt -4Rs -l Rr
+(:
i+i
---+
'' 3oo) € ft | -2 0 ';1,') Rz --+ 2Rs I Rz
2,000 f \o 011
00 -J
10 2
01 1 ''',')
500 /
Wherr we corrvert back to eouations.

:t - 3ut : 0, ll -t 2w: 1000, z + 1D : 500.

Solvirrg for leadirrg variables gives


':r :Stu, U :1000 -2u, z -500 -ut,'ur arbitrary.
We have any infinity of possible ways to combine the four types of plant food. Because each
variable rmnt be nonnegative, para^rneter u rmrst lie in the interval 0 ( tu ( 500. The cost
of the food can be expressed in terrns of ur,

C(ta) : 15(3u) + 16(1000 - 2u) * 19(500 - T,) * 20w :25,500 I l4u, 0 ( tu < 500.

This is srnailest when 'ur : 0, irr which case the rnrrnber of bags of each plant food shorrld be
0 of type I, 1000 of type II, 500 of type III, arrd 0 of type IV.o
We have one last rernark, arr irnportant one, aborrt the reductiorr of an augrnerrted
rnatrix to reduced row ecltelon forrn by Gauss-Jordan elirnirration. We can ofben be more
efficient in performing the calculations if we create 0's in a different order to that suggested
by Gauss-Jordarr elirnination. We arrive at the same RREF (sirrce it is rufqre), but we get
there rnore qrickly and with less likelihood of error. To achieve RREF usirrg Gauss-Jordan
elirnirratiorr, each time a leading 1 is created, 0's are created both above the leading 1 and
below it. We suggest an a.lterrrative. Create leadirrg 1's as usual, and 0's below thern, just
as is done in Gaussian elimination. This results in row echelon form. Once this is finished,

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SECTION 6.3 67

r2-30 Er -+ 3Es + ftr


+fi;T 0 1 -1
0010
0 Rz --+ Rs I Rz

+ 00 01

.+fti,i -3\
-zl
sf
Rr - -2RzI Rr
+ l0
l0
lr 0
1
0
00
00
10
4/ \o o 01

EXERCISES 6.3

For Exercises 1-22 find the reduced row echelon form for the augmented matrix in exercises l-22 of Exercises
6.2, arrd obtain all solutions of the systern.

23. What is the difference between an augmented matrix in row echelon form and one in reduced row echelon
forrn?

24. What is the advarrtage of having an augrnented rnatrix irr reduced row echelon forrn rather than row
echelorr form?

*25. A biologist hus a40To solution and a 10% solution of the sarne plant mrtrierrt. How rnarry cubic centirnetres
of each sohrtion should be mixed to obtairr 25 cc of a 28% sohrtion?

*26. Four one way streets feed into a traffic circle that must flow counterclockwise as in the left diagram below,
where traffic flows are measured in cars per minute. We must determine the flows fr, fz, fu, and fain
the circle.
(a) Use the fact that traffic flow into any intersection must equal the flow out of the intersection to set
up four equatiorts in f1, f2, fs, and fa.
(b) Solve the resultirrg equations.
(c) Which part of the circle carries the least amount of traffic, and which carries the most?

In 100 Out 600

Out 200

In 300

0ut200 In200

*27. In the analysis of traffic flow, a city estimates the situation for an area of its downtown district in the
right figure above. The arrows indicate the flow of traffic on the four one-way streets. If /1 represents the
nurnber of cars travelling from intersection A to B, f2 the number from B to C, /3 the rnrrnber from C to
D, arrd /a the number frorn D to A, we can formulate equations based orr the principle that the mrmber
of cars enterirrg an intersection rmrst be equal to the mrrnber leavirrg the intersection.
(a) Forrnulate equations for each intersection.
(b) Solve the equatiorrs for fi, fz, fs, and fa.

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SECTION 6.4 69

AX: B. (6.15)

For exarnple, the system

2r-l 3y-42-tu-10,
:t lyI3to:I5,
A-z-4lu:0,
is writterr a^s

It
(; ii i) (il t*l
is corrvenient to divide discttssions irrto two cases deperrding orr whether al1 the b; are
zeroj or at least one of thern is not zero.

Definition 6.2 System 6.14 of linear equations is said to be homogeneous if all the bi are eeual to zero.
If at least
one of the bi is notzeror the systern is said to be nonhomogeneous.

Nonhomogeneous Systems
There are three possibilities a^s far a^s the rrurnber of solutiorrs of a nonhornoseneous
system IS concerrled:
1. No sohrtion (when the systern is inconsistent)
2. Exactly one sohltion (wherr the system is corrsistent and r : n)
3. An infinity of solutions (when the system is consistent and r ( n)
This is rnost ea^sily seen if we consider the possible reduced row echelon forrns of augmented
rnatrices (and rernember that the reduced row echelorr form of a given systern is urrique).
A system has no solution if at any stage in the simplification of its augmented matrix to
reduced row echelorr form, a row is encountered consisting of all 0's except for the la^st entry.
We will take this last entry to be 1, but it could be any other rurrnber,

0 0 0 0 ... 0

Were we to convert this row to an equation, we would obtain the contradiction 0 : l.


Corrsequently, the system is incorrsistent and has no solutions (see systern 6.10).
For the remainder of our discussiorr in this sectiorr, we a^sslune that a row such a^s that
in the previous paragraph is not encountered. Hence, the systern has at least one sohrtiorr.
The systern has exactly one sohrtion if r: n,, the mrrnber of leadirrg l's irr the reduced row
echelon form is equal to the rnrrnber of unknowns. This carr happen orrly if nt ) n; that is,
the mrrnber of equations is greater than or equal to the mrrnber of unknowns. We corrsider
an exarnple of each possibility. The systern

nl2Y:-6,
2r-g-3,
3t:+y:-3.
-:t l3Y : -$,

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SECTION 6.4 7t

(r -: :n
o\
7 to lr o -R /11

\z -10 4 srl| l0
\o o
-r0lrr
0

We have 2 leading l's arrd 3 urrkrrowrrs (, < r,). There is an infinity of solutions, a 1-
pararneter farnily r : 3 I 8z f ll, A :
-l ) l0z f ll, w[ere again n - r : J - 2 : 1.
The augrnerrted rnatrix for the systern

z-t2A-32:I,
2:r - 3y + 4z :6,
3:r-ylz:7,
-t*5Y-Tz:-5,
which has more equations tharr unknowns (nr. ) n), reduces frorn
lr 2
-o 1\ /r0 -r/7
I2 /l 6 La to r
lo o -roll
t\1R3 -3
I

-r i Tl lo o
I
\ -r o -7 -b/ \o o o

Tlrere is 2 leading 1 's, one less than the mrrnber of unknowns (, < n,) . The system has a 1-
parameter family of solutions r : l5l7+z17,A :
-4lT+l0zlT. Once again n-r : g-2: L
ffomogeneous Systems
Systern 6.14 is hornogeneous when all rnrrnbers on the riglrt sides ofthe equations are zero;
ittakes the forrn

I 0,pn2 I
{111:I:1 . .. ! alnrn - 0,
021:L1 I aZZiLz I ... ! a2nrn - 0, (6.16)

o,p1n1 i a22L2 ! ... I anrn:I:n : Q.

Unlike nonhomogeneous systems, when no solutions rnay exist, it is clear that 11 : n2 :


' ' ' : tn: 0 always satisfies the homogeneous system. It is called the trivial solution. The
real question for ltornogeneotrs systerns is whether there are norrtrivial solutions, sohrtions
other tharr the trivial solutiorr. There a,re two possibilities as far as the rmrnber of solutiorrs
is concerrred:
1. Exactly one solution, the trivial solution (when r : n)
2. An inflnity of solutions (when r <n,)
We can see this once again by exarnirring the two possible reduced row echelon forrns for
hornogeneorrs systerns. Hornogeneous system 6.16 ha^s orrly the trivial sohrtion if the mrrnber
of leadirrg 1's irr the redrrced row echelon forrn is equal to the mrmber of unknowns. This
carr happen only if n I m; that is, the mrmber of unknowrrs is less tharr or equal to tfie
mrrnber of equatiorrs. For exarnple, the systern

nI2Y-32:0,
2n-3yl4z:0,
n+A-z:01
3riz:0,
ha^s four equations with three rrnknowns. Its augmented rnatrix

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SECTION 6.4 73
Basic Solutions
The homogeneorrs systern of equatiorrs irr Example 6.4 ha^s a 2-pararneter familv of
solrrtions n:2U *tu, z: -2u. Suppose we write the sohrtions as a colurrm vectoi. or
matrix.

Using the operatiorrs of matrix addition and scalar rmrltiplication in Section 4.1, we carr
write

(i) ffi.(+) :,ffi) .,(+)


It is straiglrtforward to check that the four rurrnbers:r::2, : I, z:0, and :
ll u.r 0 in
the first column matrix on the right satisfy the original system of equations.
Likewise, the
valrres e; : r, u:0, z -
-2, and ur: 1in the seconcl coruml rnatrix also satisfy the
systern' Tltese are called basic solutions of the system. We have expressecl
all solutiorrs of
the system as a cornbination of the ba^sic solutiorrs. It is said to be a linear
combination
of the basic sohrtions- Bariic solrrtions always exist for homogeneous systerns
that have an
infinity of solutions.
The situation has some similarities, but it is definitely not the same, when the
system
is nonhomogeneous and has an infinity of solutions. For example, the reduced
row echelon
forrn for the augrnerrted rnatrix of the no'homogeneo's system
n+2t/-3zl4ta:5, (6.17)
2t:-yI4z-2tu:-5,
IS

(r 0 1 0| -1\
\0 I -2 2l s )'
When we convert to equations,
,r_L ry _ _1rt -1
tt-9zI9crr-?
u-- U:22-2utl3,
a 2-pa,rarneter fa"rnily of sohrtiorrs. We can write them in cohrrnn rnatrix form as follows:

:(l') .'(,') .'(',)


0 ?'=Ti')
Urrlike tlre hornogeneor$ ca^se, the nurnbers in the cohrrnrr matrices following tlte z and. u
do not satisfy system 6.17. They are rrot basic sohrtiorrs. It is straightforward to check that
they do satisfy the hornogerreous systern obtained by replacing the b ancl with zeros,
narnely
-b
tl2t/-32*4tu:0,
2:r-yl4z-2w:0.
On the other hand, the mrrnbers x : -I, U : 3, z: 0, and ru :
0 in the first column matrix
do satisfy 6.17' Brrt urrlike the homogeneous ca^se, a constant multiplying these mrrnbers
does not yield additional solutions, and we do not therefore catt this a basic solution.

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SECTION 6.4 ,D

EXERCISES 6.4
In Exercises 1-18 rrse Garrss-Jorda,rr elimination, or otherwise, to simplify the augmented matrix to redrrced
row echelon form and find all solutions of the system. For each consistent system, show that the number of
paxameters in the sohrtion is n - r where n is the mrmber of unknowns and r is the rank of the augmented
matrix.
-I. r I29 :13, n-2Y:7'
2n+Y:3' 2. 2r-4Y:f,,'
r*3u:1. n-u:7'
3.
2n!6Y:). 4. x -f39 : 1,.

x*29-32:1, n-A+42:7,
5. 2r -l ! - 4z:3, 6. 't*39-62:-13,
3u-29+z:-5. 2n-f2y -22: -10.

nI29-32:13, n-A+421w:7,
7. 2r-fA-42:L3, x-f39-Bz-2w:-I3,
8. 2n-fa-42-2w:-10,
3nI3y-Tz:26.
3n*A-z-2w:0.
re1-2y-32-2w:13, r-U+42*w:7,
9.
2u1-A-421.:t3i, r-t3y-62-2w:-13,
10.
3n-29Iz-ro:-5, 2r*A-42:-10,
n+A+z+w:2' 4r*3y-62-w:0.
nI2g-3zIw:L3, L-A+42*u:0,
2n*A-42-2w:13, r*3y-62-3u.r:0,
11.
3r-29-lzlw:-5, 2n*A-42:0,
6rl-U-6z:2L SrlU-22-u:0.
r-l 29-32-w:13, :x-A+4zl2w:7,
13. 2n*A-4zlw:13, L4. n t3y - 6z -2w: -L3,
3n -29 * z -2w: -5. 3n*5A-82-2u:1.
x1-2y-32:13, n-A+42:7,
2r*A-42:13, n -l3y - 62 : -13,
3r-2glz:-5, 2r-tU-42:-10,
6rIU-62:2L 4x I3y - 6z :2.

nI29-32:13, n-A+42:0,
L7.
2r-lA-42:L3,
18.
r-l 39 -62:0,
3r*3y -Tz:26, 2rIA-42:0,
-n+A-lz:0. 4n*3y-Gz:0.
*19. Prove that a nonhomogenous system has a unique solution if and only if ranks of coefficient and augmented
matrices are eqrral.

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SECTION 7.1 77

CHAPTER 7 DETERMINANTS

87.1 Determinants
The deterrninant of a sqlrare matrix A is a mrrnber denoted in one of two ways clet,A
or lAl. we define it in stages. The determinant of a 1 x 1 rnatrix A -- (o,)vt is defined
as the vahre of the sirrgle entry det A : o. Herein is the only confrrsion with the rrotation
lAl: kt). The vertical bars could be rnisinterpreted as the absohrte value of n instead of
the deterrnirrant of the matrix A : ("). Sirrce we shall herrceforth rrever have the rreed to
mentiorr the determinarrt of a 1 by 1 matrix, rro confusion will arise. The cleterrninant of a
2 x 2 matrix is defined as

la
|
b
,l:40,-oc.
I

(7.1)
lc 0l

For example,

13
oA - -4- 6: -10, I 9l: 12-12:o
For matrices of higher dimensions we need two preliminary definitions.
Definition 7'1 The minor rnii of the (2, j)th errtry of asquare rnatrix A: (onj)nrn is the deterrninant of
the square matrix of size (tt - 1) x (n - 1) obtained by cleletirrg the row and cohrrnn of -4
containing r.r,1i.

r: (i
F'or exarnpre, ,, rl,e'
: i)
,rrr:11 o, l:-r-o:-8, tl ,l
nr3s- l; ;l-2-6:-4.
-r I

Definition 7.2 Tlie cofactor qi of the (f ,


j)t}' entry of a square matrix A: (o,ai)nrn ts

cii: eI)i+im;i. (7.2)

Cofactorsrnaychangethesignsof rninors. If i+ j iseverr,therrqT:nlijtandif i+j


is odd, thencii - -vr"ti.It is the position of an elernerrt of ,4 that deterrnirres whether its
cofactor has a A1 attached to its rnirror. The followirrg rnatrix of sigrrs illustrates whether
signs of rninors are charrged when forming cofactors

(:; i; )

ft;:; ::)
(7.3)

For the above 3 x 3 matrix,

c12 : (-t)l+'*rr: -nlr2:3. ca3 : (-1)3+3rlrg - mss: -4.


We are now ready to define determinants of square matrices with dimensions greater
than 2.

Definition 7.3 The deterrnirrant of an n x n rnatrix A (n > 2) is the mrmber obtained by surnrnirrg the
entries irr any row or cohunrr each multiplied by its cofactor. If the sum is along the itlt row,
therr

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SECTION 7.1 79

30 0
02 0 :(3)(2x-4): -24.
00 -4
Findirrg tlte deterrninant of a square rnatrix rnay require the evaluatiorr of arr unwieldy
mrrnber of 2x2 deterrnirrarrts. F'or irrstance, evahration of the deterrninant of a b x b rnatrix
requires five 4 x 4 deterrninants, each of which involves four 3 x 3 determinamts, each of wlich
requires three 2 x 2 deterrninarrts. In all we would have 60 2 x 2 deterrninants. Forturrately,
there is a mtrch sirnpler way to evahrate deterrnirrants of large rnatrices. T[e main reslit
is the third of the following theorems. The theorems describe the effect of elementary row
operatiorrs on deterrninants, operations that can be performecl on cohrrnns as well as rows.

Theorem 7-3 If two parallel lines of a rnatrix ,4. are irrterchanged, the deterrninant of the 1ew rnatrix is
-Al.
Proof This carr

nants. The deterrni

of (
c
deterrnirrant
\(,
lh rr\.,
\a c)tsoc-o'a'
valid for determirrants of rnatrices of size ii x ll, ancl consider the deterrninant of a rnatrix,4
of size (Ai + 1) x (k + 1 ) We shall prove that interchanging the first two rows of -4 chariges
the sign of the deterrninant. The proof is similar when any other rows, or colurnrrs, ire
interchanged. Let B denote the matrix obtained by interchanging the first two rows of ,4..
Suppose we expand l,4l and lBl along the sarne row arrcl let that row be any row except the
first two' Cofactors of elements in this row of A are identical to corresponding cofactors
of elernents in this row of B, except that the first two rows are interchanged. Since these
cofactorsaredeterrninarrtsof sizekxk,they areoppositeinsigrr. HencelBl :-l,al. This
proves the result for deterrninants of size (t+ + 1) x (k + 1), and hence by mathernatical
inductiorr, the resuit is valid for determirrants of all sizes.r

Let us illrrstrate with the deterrnirrant of


1
o

1 ls)
If we expand along the second row,

|a| :1-211-rlll ?l*rli :l-2(e)+4(3) :30


lr ol lr ol
Suppose we interchange the second arrd third colurruts,

":(+ i l)
The determirrarit of this rnatrix, if we exparrd alorrg the secorrd row, is

1a| 'lo ll.rl*nr-'rl1


- 1-r11-'1ll 'lr ?l
0l
:rr-q-4(3) :-30
The sign of the determinant ha^s charrged.

Theorem 7.4 If all entries in a line of a matrix .4 are mrrltiplied by the sarne mrrnber k, then the determi-
nant of the new matrix ha^s value kl,4l.

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SECTION 7.1 81
a-t Expanding once again along the first row gives

lAl: -17(r4 _ 20) + 4(56 _ 112)l : 266.

13 -4 3 4t
Example 2.2 Evat'ate : l: -,' -:
l" o _z
l,4l ?l
4l
14, 2 b 6l
Solution If we add multiples of row 2 to the other three rows, we can create three zeros
in the first column.
2 L2 _21
l0 _2 _3 2l
I,'r :10
t^t 11
7 4 0il.
lo 10 rT -21
If we now expand along the first column,
I z 12 _21
l,4l :(1)(_1)17 4 01.
| 10 17 -21
If we expa.nd this 3 x 3 determirrant along the second row,

l,4l : -[-7(-24+ 34) + 4(_4+ 20)] : 6.o

It is surprisingly sirnple to take the determirrant of the prodrrct of two rnatrices. It is


not simple to prove the result.
Theorem 7.6 If -4 and B are n x n rnatrices, then

lABl: lAllB| (7 5)

Example 7.3 Ilhrstrate Theorern 7.6 by evahrating left and right sides of equatiorr 7.5 when

o -2\ lo 4
r:llIt 4l n:1, 1
3\
ol.
\2 -5 rl _1
\r 4l
so,ution si^""A':1,l i 1'\(S : S) :f7 S ;i)
\z -b 1/\1 -1 4l \-o 2 n)
lABl: -2(40) - 6(285) - 5(e3) : _2255.
On the other hand,

l,4l lBl : [1(21)


_ 2(_17)][_4(B)+ 3(_3)] : (55)(_41) : _2255.o

EXERCISES 7.1
In Exercises 1-12 find the determinant of the matrix.

1. (t g)
\-2 r/
b
B. /tl-z 1 -2\
3l
\3 -1 r/

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SECTION 7.2 83
o,+b a o, 0
o, o,Ib o ... u,

*20. Evahrate 0, o, o,*b o,

i i : '.. I

0 0 0, ..,
o,+b nxn
*21' The strm of the erttries of arry lirre of a sqlrare rnatrix each rmrltiplied by its cofactor is the d.eterrnina't
of the rnatrix' Show that the surn of the errtries of any line of u rqrrur" rnatrix each rmrltiplied
by the
cofactor of the corresponding entry in a parallel line is always zero.

57.2 Cramer's Rule


Deterrnirrants have many uses in mathernatics. We rnake use of thern in two ways i1 this
section, to solve linear systems, and to irrdicate the mrrnber of solrrtions of lilear systems
without actually finding the solutions. According to Cramer's rule in the following thlorem,
sohrtiorrs of sorne lirrear systerns can be represented as ratios of deterrninants.

Theorem 7.7 (Cramerts Rule) Consider the systern of n linear equatiorrs irr n urrknowrrs

{1121 ! a12:L2 -l .' . I alnnn : Sr,


{t21x:1 I o,22:L2 * .' . ! o,2n:r:, - b2,
AX:B +
o,nt't I an2L2 I . ..* {t,nnnn: [n,
where l-41 I 0. The systern has a unique sohrtion giverr by

lAdl
",, - |A|, (7.6)

where ,4.1 is matrix,4 with its ith colrrrnrr replaced by B.

We shall prove Crarner's nrle irr Sectiorr 8.4. It is ilhrstrated irr the following examples.
Example 7.4 Use Crarner's mle to solve

3r + 49:3,
2t:-59:-$.
A
Solution Since -23 + 0,
It
4l
13 -51_ 3l lr
e -61: -24 12 24
"._l-6-23 -23, ,: -=n- 13: 23''
Example 7.5 use cramer's rule to find only the value of y satisfyirrg the systern

2':t: : 6,
-t 3y - 4z
:L-A+z:51
3n1Y:4.
23-4
Solution Sirrce 1 -1 1 : 3(-1) - 1(6) : -e,
310

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SECTION 7.2 85

lB -R
r)
I

l +-tul
Rz Et(Rz -t Rz) -l EzRz
RrRz -f ftrfts * RzRs RtRz-t Erfia -F RzRt'
lnt+ n, nrl
rz
|t' -R" E,l Ez(h-t Rz)-r &Rz
- RtRz -t Rt Rs -t RzRs RrRz -l RrRs'l RzRs
The upward current through R2 is
Er(Rz+Rs)+EzRz Ez(h+R2)+ELR2 ErRt - EzRt
?'L
- 1'2: RrRz -t RrRs + RzRs RtRz RrRt
1- I RzRs RtRz-l RtRt I RzRs-
With the specified resistances and voltages,

xL-1'2:
(2000)(3000)
20(1000) - 40(2000)
+ (2000)(1000) + (3000)(1000)
:-3o. bbu
The negative crtrrent irrdicates that it is downward through ,R2.o

Notice irnportantly that Crarner's mle applies orrly when the mrrnber of unkrrowns is
tlte sarne a^s the mrmber of equations. When this is the case, Cramer's nrle can be used
to give information about the number of solutions to expect, even without finding them.
Suppose first of all that the system is homogeneous. We have seen that there are only two
possibilities as far as the rlrmber of solutions is concerned, onlv the trivial solution or arr
infinity of solutions. If lAl + 0, then Crarner's nrle irrdicates that the orrly solution is the
trivial one. It follows that the system has an infinity of solutions when l,4l : 0. Cramer's
rule cannot find them, but the fact that l,4l : 0 tells us there is an infinity of solutions.
This gives the following theorern.
Theorem 7.8 A hornogeneorrs systern of n linear equatiorrs irr n unkrrowns, AX : 0, ha^s orrly the trivial
solution if and only rt lAl+ 0; it has nontrivial solutions if and orrly if l,4l : 0.

Now suppose we have a nonltomogeneorr systern of n lirrear equations in n unknowns.


There are three possibilities when it cornes to the nurnber of sohrtiorrs: one, none, or an
infinity. There is one solution when l,4l f 0, so that wherr l'4l : 0, we have either no
solutions or an infinity of solutions.
Theorem 7.9 A rrorrhomogeneoln systern ofn linear equations in n unknowns, AX : B, has a unique
solution if arrd orrly If lAl + 0; it has either no solutions or an infinity of solutions if and
orrly if l,4l : 0

EXERCISES 7.2
ln Exercises 1-10 use Cramer's rule to find the solution of the system.
+ 2I) : 13, , :L-2A:7,
1. :n2x+g:3'
2:r-39:$.
:r*3u:1. iL-U:7,
3. 4.
2n-t5Y:)' n-l 3Y:1,.
l2y - 32 :1,
:r r-ll+42:7,
5. 2r-tU-42:3, 6. n+311 -62:-13,
3:r-2ylz:-5. 2x-29-42:-10.

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SECTION 7.3 87

o,Lr + I
b:I:z bt:s 1 .'. I bnn : 1,

bnt I o.:rz I brs a ... I bun : 1,

bq I bnz t aT s a ... 1 br.n : 1.

b:r1 lht:2 l-bns | ...-fa,rn:1.

$7.3 Linearly Independent and Dependent Vectors


Vectors play a prorninent role irr this section arrd again irr Chapter g. In Section 5.1, it
wa^s pointed out that the tail of a vector can be placed at any point. Irr sorne applications
of vectors, there is a specific place to place the tail. For instance, when a force F acts on
a particle a^s it rnoves around in space, it is custornary to place the tail of the vector orr
the particle. Likewise, the velocity arrd acceleratiorr vectors have their tails placed on the
particle. On the other hand, the displacernent vector is drawrr with its tail at the poirrt frorn
which displacernerrts are lnea^sllred, usually the origin. Here and in Chapter 9 we suggest
that all vectors be drawrr with their tails at the origirr. This will facilitate discussions.
We discrns here what it rneans for vectors to depen,d on other vectors. andfor vectors
not to depend orr other vectors.

Definition 7.4 A vector v is said to be a lirrear combirration of vectors llr, n2, .. ., n/" if there exist scalars
Cr, Cz, .' ., Cn srrch that

v : Cflr I C2t2t . .. * C;,up. (7.7)

We have already seen an extremely irnportarrt instance of this. To say that the components
of a vector v are (u,,'t)aluz) is to say that v: ,ri+ t4j+u"i. The vector v is a linear
cornbination of i, j, arrd i. Tlmt, every vector in space carr be written as a linear cornbinatiorr
of i, j, and k.
Vectors irr the :lg-pla"rre carr be expressed irr terrns of i and j. th"." vectors i arrd j are
special being perpendicrrlar to each other and of lerrgth orre. Vectors in the ry-plarre carr be
expressed in terrns of other pairs of vectors also, but not all pairs. We illustrate algebraically
and geometrically. Suppose ul : (2,I) and u2 : (1,3). Let v: (q,uz) be any vector in
the plane, and consider finding constants Cr and Cz such that

v : (rrr, 'u2) : gro, t C2u2 : Cr(2,1) + C2 (1, 3).

By equatirrg components, we obtain a pair of equatiorrs for Cr arrd Cz irr terrns of tr1 and 'u2,

C2: ur,
2Cr +
CrlSCz:uz'
Becarrse the determinant of this systern is not zero, there is a lrnique solutiorr for Cy and C2
for any given o1 and u2. Irr other words, there is a lrniqlre represerrtation of every vector v
in terrns of u1 and u2. We can see this geornetrically as well in Figure 7.2. We draw lines
through the tip of v parallel to u1 and u2 to intersect u2 arrd u1 at ,4. and B. It follows
then that v - OB + OA. Vector OB is a multiple of u1 arrd OA is a multipie of u2; that
is, OB : Crur and OA : Czvz. Hence, v : Gur I Czrtz.

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SECTION 7.3 89

this rnearrs thatq is in the plane defined by u1 and u2. Because v is not irr this plarre, it
carurot be expressed in terrns of u1, u2, and u3.
FinaJIy consider expressirrg t : (-5, -2, -4) in terrns of u1 : \-I,2,0), u2 : (0,3, 1),
and u3 : (2,5,3),

v : (-5, -2, -4) : Crur I C2t2t Ceus : Cr(-1,2,0) + C2(0,3,1) + Cr(2,5,3).


Irr this case,

-Cr -t 2Cs: -5,


2Ct -f3Cz -t 5C3: -2,
Cz I SCs: -4'

Although the determinant of the coefficient matrix is once again zero, there is an infinity of
solrrtions for C1, C2, and Cs. The rea^sorr is that v is in the same plane as nl, ll2, and u3.
There is an infinity of ways to express v in terrns of u1, u2, and u3.
Whether an arbitrary vector v irr the r3rplarre can be expressed irr terms of two given
vectors u1 arrd u2, ofld wltether arr arbitrary vector v in space can be expressed in terms of
three given vectors llt, rr2, and u3 is closely connected to whether the u vectors are what
are called linearly i,nde.pendent. This is defined as follows.

Definition 7.5 A set of k nonzero vectors u1, u2, . . ., u/r is said to be linearly dependent if one or more
of the vectors is a lirrear combinatiorr of the others. They are linearly independent if none
of the vectors is a lirrear combination of the others.
An equivalerrt characterizatiorr of lirrearly irrdeperrderrt and dependerrt vectors is corr-
tained irr the followirrg theorem.
Theorem 7.10 A set of k nonzero vectors ul , u2r ..., uk is lirrearly deperrdent if there exist scalars Ct, Cz,
..., Ck, not ail zero, strch that
Crur * Cztz * "' I Cutp : g' (7.8)

The vectors are linearly independent if the only way to satisfy this eqrration is for C1 :
Cz: "' : Cu:0.
Proof Suppose that the k vectors are linearly dependerrt. Then, at lea^st one of thern is
a linear combination of the others. Without loss in generality assurne that

rut: Czuz * Csua * "'* C6up'

Then,

-ur * Czuz lGus + "' * Cnut : 0,

and we have satisfied equation 7.8, where the coefflcients are not all zero. Conversely,
slrppose there exist constants, rrot all zero, such that 7.8 is valid. If C j + 0, for sorne j, therr
divisiorr by Ci gives

o,: -*o,
L:i Ui " -9#u,*,
!u,-, ,,%un'
Ui
-t
We have therefore expressed ui irr terrns of the other vectors, alrd the set is linearly
deperrderrt.o

The following facts are easily seen geometrically and easily verified algebraically.

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SECTION 7.3 91

This indicates that there is an infinity of nontrivial solutions, and therefore the vectors are
lirrearly deperrderrt. To express orre of thern irr terrns of the other two, we rreed one of these
solutions. we simplify the augrnented rnatrix to reduced row echelon forrn

and corrvert to equations,


fi'i t)
rl'rs, c1 : 3cs and ,,: -i;:;?*: ,, !:,..ii:", :, and cz : -2 rlris means
that
3\I,2, -2, -t) - 2(2,I, -t, -2) + (1, -4,4, -t) : g,

(which is easy to check). Corrsequerrtly,

(1, -4,4, -l) : -3(1,2, -2, -I) + 2(2,1, -L, -2).c


Example 7.9 Show that the followirrg vectors are linearly independerrt
(r,2, -2, -r), (2,1, -1, -2), (1, -4,4,3).
Solution We consider solving

c1(1,2, -2, -l) r c2 (2, t, -r, -2) + c3 (1, -4, 4, 3l : g.

This can be converted to scalar equations by equatirrg componerrts,

Ctl2Cz*Cs:0,
2Ct -t Cz - 4Cs : g,
-2Cr - Cz I 4Cg :0,
-Cr-2Cz+3C":0.
The augmented matrix is
01 /r 2 |
0 l fiz
--2RtlRz l 0 -3 -o
olRs--+2Rr+Rr + [o 3 6
0/ R+-+RttRs \O 0 4

+ftii 3l 0\ Rr--2BzfRr

o/
Rs-R+ -..+13'r? 's)"'-2Rst
Rq-Rs
/I 0 -3 0\

\o o o
Er ---+ 3Ra * Er
Rz

t)
Tlre only sohrtion is Cr : Cz : Cs: 0, and therefore the vectors are linearly independent.o

The following two results can simplify determirrirrg whether vectors are lirrearly depen-
dent or irrdependerrt.

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SECTION 7.3 93

the vectors are linearly dependent.r

EXERCISES 7.3
In Exercises 1-10 deterrnine whether the vectors are lirrearly dependent or linearly irrclependerrt.
1. (1,2), (3,5) 2. (2,-l), (-4,2)
3. (1,3), (2, -3), (4,10) 4. (t, -2,4), (2, -5,0)
5. (2, -4,1), (1, -3,5), (5, -11, 7) 6. (3,2, -1), (3,5,9), (-2,4, 1)
7. (3,2,-1), (3,5,8), (-2,4,1), (1,1,1) g. (1, -1, 1, -1), (1,3, -2,5), (4, 0,2, 5)
9. (2,0,3,4), (1, -3,5, 1), (l-,0,0,3), (4, _3,9,9) LO. (2,0,3,4), (1, 1, 1, 2), (_2,4,1,3), (4,3,2,1)
11. Show that the vectors (2,-1,4), (3,5,-2), arrd (1,1,0) are Jirrearly indeperrdent. Express the vector
(3, 5,8) as a iinear cornbirration of these vectors.

12' Show that the vectors (2,-1,4), (3,5, -2), arrd (I,-7,10) are linearly dependerrt. Show that the vector
(3, 5,8) cannot be expressed as a linear cornbination of these vectors.

13. Show that the vectors (2,-1,4), (3,5, -2), arrd (1,-7,10) are linearly dependent. Show that the vecror
\-4,-1I,8) carr be expressed as a linear cornbination of these vectors.

14. Suppose the set of vectors vl, ..., v7, o,r€ linearly dependent. Does it follow that V1 can be expressed in
terrns of y2t . . .i v6. Explairr.
In differential equations we are concerned with whether n functiorrs y1(n), ,Uz(t:), . . ., An(:r) are linearly
irrdeperrdent or deperrderrt (rather than vectors). It turrrs out that the firrrctiorrs are lirrearly indeperrderrt on
an interval I if and only if there exists at least one point in I at which the foliowirrg Wronskiarr deterrninarrt
is not zero

AL Uz Un

W(at,ar,." ,!ln) -
ut ai aL

a\-
,) aL"_ rt a*
_tt

In Exercises 15-20 deterrnirre whether the firnctions are linea,rly indeperrderrt or linearly dependent orr the
interval 1,
x15. {1, n, t2) on -oo < r < oo *16. {r, 2:r -3n2, 12} on -oo < r < oo
*17. {sinr, cosr} on 0 <. n 12r *18. {z, t:et, t:2er} on 0 ( r ( 1
r19, {zsinr, e2') oL -oo ( e; < oo *20. {sin r, cos r, 2 sirr e; - cos r} on 0 ( r I 2r

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SECTION 8.2 95

2. Suppose ,4 is a sqlrare matrix and there exists a nonzero rnatrix .B of the sarne size s'ch that AB : o.
Show that ,4 rmrst be sirrgular.

3. What is the irrverse of the iderrtity rnatrix?


4, Does a square zero rnatrix have arr inverse?
5. It A and B are invertible matrices of the sarne size, does A+ B have an inverse?
6. If A is a diagorral rnatrix and rrone of the errtries orr the cliagonal are zeror show that r4. 1 exists and find
it.
*7. If A is invertible, show that so also is ) 2 an integer), and (,4')-1 : (A-r)n.
A (n
*8, A rnatrix ,4 is said to be idempotent if A2 : A. Show that the only invertible idempoterrt is f.
x9. (a) Show that if A2 :0, theri I - A tsinvertible, arrcl that e n1-t : I + A.
-
(b) Show that if A3 : 6, therr 1 - ,4. is irrvertible, and that (I l1-r : I + A + A2
(c) Conjecture a result for a rnatrix ,4 for which An :0 for n ) 2.
- .

**10. Show that when A is square and there exists a rnatrix B srrch that AB: I, or BA: I, tSen B : A-r.

fi8.2 Direct Method for Matrix Inversion


There are two methods for finding the inverse of a matrix; we discuss what is called the
direct method in this section, and the adjoint method irr section g.3.

Theorem 8.3 If an n x n matrix -4 ha^s arr inverse, it can be fourrd by performing elernentary row operations
orr the rnatrix lAlI"l so as to reduce Ato In. In the process, I, becornes,4.-1.

For example, to find rhe inverse o - (t l),-. simprifl,,4 in


",

,o,rs: (L i l; ?)
to 12. The calculations are
tL o 1 o\ (t 3 | 1 o\
I

\2 4 0 r) Rz--+-2RttRz - \o -zl-z t)Rz--+-Rzl2


(t, Bl1 o \Rr.--+-JRz1_Rr (t o -2 3/2\
\o 111 -U2) - \o I 1 -rl2)
The inverse of ,4 is
r-! (-z 3/2\ r/-+ B\
\r -u2/-2\2 _r)'
It is a sirnple rnatter to check our calculations by rnuitiplying
r(_4 s\/r s\ lt o\
^^_r^
^:i\z -li \z +):\o r)
(r -l -1\
Example 8.1 Find the inverse of A: | 2 -3 4 .

\3 r -2/|
Solution We sirnplify A in

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SECTION 8.2 97

and multiplying each by /-t: -+ (-', ;n),


| z -a\ /ss\ /rs\
(
-to\-s r(z -a\/ar\ /r\
-ro
t )\+s):\t/' \-s r / \ss ): \ro)'
L (z (zz\ t(z /s\
-to \-e -a\/zs\
r )\nz ): \ts/' -ro \-s -+\/rrs\
r / \ os ): \r, )'
r( -a\/ar\ /r\
-10\ r(z
-io \-s -+\/sg\
(zz\
t )\n):\ro/' r / \roo ): \tn)'
r(z -a\/zr\ /rr\
-ro\-s | ( z -a\ /rzz\ /r+\
-to\-e
r )\zs):[ts./' r/\oo ):\rr)'
The nunbers
13, 5, 5, 20,27, 13,5,27, I,20,27,14,15, L5, L4,27,
a,re now trrrned into letters and spaces rrsing

abcdef ghi j k I m n o p q r s t u vwxyz


r 2 3 4 5 6 7 I I 10 11 L2 L3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2r 22 23 24 25 26 27
The resrrlt is "meet me at noon".

EXERCISES 8.2
In Exercises 1-16 find, if possible, the inverse of the matrix.

'n
'(l :' 3)

/z +\
[z s) ^ (; s)
(+ z\
\z r ) '(;

7.
'(,;

"(i
11. ,2(:ii)
34\
311
rl 13.
', i)

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SECTION 8.3

f1 I r
A | ,,,adj Al:;lA(adjA)l:
j L
Llfrl lnl
A similar proof shows that
tl I
A)A: I
LEI*j
Thus, ,4.-r : $adj A..
val
Theorem 8.4 gives us a quick way to decide whether a rnatrix is singular (whether it
has an inverse). Since the adjoint of a square matrix always exists, we have

Theorem 8.5 A square matrix L hari an inverse if a^nd only if lAl + 0.

To find inverses by the adjoint method, we suggest a three step procedure.


1. Form the matrix of minors of A.

M: (mti),
where rnai is the determinant of the matrix obtained by deleting the row a.rrd cohrmn con-
taining aii in A.
2. Forrn the rnatrix of cofactors

c: (qi);
this attaches the appropriate signs to the minors.
3. Form the inverse by taking the transpose of. C and dividing by 1,41,

- 1 o: tr./r
A-':
lal"aj Vl-
We illustrate with the two examples frorn Section 8.2.

Example 8.2 Firrd the inverse d, : (!


:)
4/
"t \z
Solution We are assrrred that -4-1 exists since lAl: -2. First we form the matrix of
minors,

*: (t ?)
Next, the matrix of cofactors is

(:, -")
":
Firrally,

-:AL- : r (4 _3\
u,r_r_r.r_ t
r(_4 3\
-z\-z ):i\z -r)t
/t -1 -1\
Example 8.3 Find the inverse of ,q: | 2 -3 4 |
\a r
.

-21
Solution We are assrrredthat A-r exists since lAl : 1(2)+(-1)(-1)(-16)-1(11) : -25.
First we form the matrix of minors

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SECTION 8.4 101

Solution The coefficient matrix is,4 :(i i :) We fourrd its inverse in Exarnple

8.1,

O-:*
The sohrti

_',;\ rl\ :,'',/-s\: /-ris\


n ,t r-;/ [, -ii) l, -','/J/
Thus, z: : -3/5..
The use of irrverse rnatrices to solve linear systerns is highly restrictive, a^rrd even when it
cart be used, it is ttsually not the rnethod ofchoice. First ofall, the nurnber ofequations rnust
be the same as the number of unknowns, otherwise the coefficient matrix is not square. Even
when we have equal numbers of equations and unknowns, the determinant of the coefficient
matrix rnust be nonzero, else ,4.-1 does not exist.
We never use inverse matrices on homogeneous systems. If the inverse of the coefficient
rnatrix exists, therr, becatrse B irr 8.7 is zero, the solutiorr is the trivial sohrtion. By checking
that l-41 f 0, we co'ld arrive at the same conchrsiorr rmrch rnore easily.
For efficiency reasons, we do not even recommend using inverse matrices for nonhomo-
geneous systems. For instance, to find the inverse of the coefficient matrix for the system

3r-2gl2z-4w:5,
2:tl5A+6u:-1,
n-t39-22:0,
6Y-3zl4w:6,
we would use elementary row operations to reduce the first 4 x 4 block of

fi' \t
block of the augmented rnatrix
ooA
'':i)
to the identity. Solving the system by Gaussian elimination involves reducins the first 4 x 4

ouo
aon
(; o -a v
6-34 ;')
to the iderrtity. Exactly tlte sarne row operatiorrs would by used, but they would be perforrned
on three less colurnns in the augrnented rnatrx.
The only time that it is advarrtageous to use inverse rnatrices to solve a nonhornogeneols
system is when the righLhand sides ofthe equations are unspecified constants. For instance,
slrppose we need to solve the systern

2,:t:Iy
-32-,
2:rI49lz:,
)+-L9>-
le | 4--1

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strictly prohibited.
SECTION 8.4 103

o -r l\ /r
-(i i -----lo -T
8 Rt --+ 7Rz -t Rt
22 3lnr--;R2lB 1 ,7, ih
x | 2 0/ \0 e
b
_4 i) Ra --+ -9Rz * Rs

-(i :i 1413
213
-o
Lrlsa\
2ls r |
-4 -9/ R"---+-Rrl49
lt o 43
--lo I
0
00 4rlr47 231r47
\0
b
1
R1 ---+ -43Ra * R1
Rz --+ -l&s + Rz

10 231r47 381r47
5/4e \
4l4s
01 5l4e 4l4s el4e
I
/
Tlns, ,4-l : . It follows then that

-1 ., l+t 2J rr\
: zm
[?l ?! :?)
+ \ : -, f unt +23E2 + taar \
rr
;t" ) T.fr \'lut;,**t:r";,.'it: )

;. IEL+2382+rg43 23h+3882-1583 l\h+1282+3EB


- t470 '
L2-
r470 I470
Proof of Cramer's Rule
With inverse matrices we can offer the following proof of Cramer's rule: If AX : B
represents a systern of n equations in n unknowns, arrd ,4-1 exists, the soirrtion carr be
expressed in the forrn X: A-LB. When we write this more fully, and rrse the adjoint
representation for r4.-1,

/"t\
l*'l 1
Il:l t_ _("djA)B_,^
1

\/ lAl' lAl
\:Ln '/
wlrere qi
is the cofactor of a,ii irr ,4. We prove Crarner's nile for t1; the proof is sirnilar for
the other urrknowns. When we equate entries irr the (1, 1) positiorr irr the above equation,

,r, : 1"r, br I czrhz+ . .. + cntbn).


fr
To verify Crarner's nrle for ul, we rnust show that 11 is l,a1 (B)l divided by l,4.l, where,41(B)
is the rnatrix ,4 with its first column replaced by B. Suppose we expand

along the first column,

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SECTION 8.5 105

for r, g, z, and u in terms of a,, b, c, and d,.

{j8.5 comparison of Methods for Solving systems of Linear Equations


We now have three rnethods for solving systerns of lirrea,r equatiorrs:
1. Gaussian or Gauss-Jordan elirnination and ausrnented rnatrices
2. Crarner's nrle
3. Nlatrix inverses
A surnrnary outlirrirrg the advarrtages and disadvarrtages of each method relative to the others
is rrsefill.
Gaussian or Gauss-Jordan Elimination and Augmented Matrices
For rnost situations, it
is the method of choice. It always works, for homogeneorrs ancl
nonhornogeneotrs systems, for any rrurnber of equations and any mrmber of rtrrknowns. Irr
addition, it is more efficient than the other two methods, especially for large systems.
Cramerts Rule
Cramer's mle applies orrly to systerns when the rnrrnber of equations is equal to the rrurnber
of unknowrrs. It provides the unique sohrtion to the systern when the deterrnina^rrt of t|e
coefficient matrix is nonzero. It has the ability to isolate on any particular unknown without
determining the remaining unknowns. If the determinant of the coefficient matrix is zero,
and the system is nonhomogeneous, either there is no solution or an infinity of solutions. If
the determinant is zero, and the system is homogeneous, there is an infinity of solutions. In
neither case, can Cramer's rule provide the infinity of solutions.
Matrix Inverses
Irrverses can be used only wherr the rurrnber of equatiorrs is equal to the nurnber of rrnkrrowns.
It provides the unique solution to the system when the determinant of the coefficient matrix
is nonzero since the inverse exists in this case. It faiis to give any irrforrnation when the
coefficient matrix is singular. It is useful when right sides of nonhomogeneous equations are
unspecified constants.

The followirrg eqrrivalence is a cornbinatiorr of previous results.


Theorem 8.7 For arr n, x n matrix A, the followirrg are equivalent:
r. lAl+0
2. ,4-r exists
3. AX - B ha^s a unique solution for any B.

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SECTION 9.1 107

Here is another physical exarnple.

Example 9.3 Suppose forces F with cornponerrts (F,, Fa,F") act at the point (1,2,3) in space. The
rnornents (or torques) M ofthese forces about the origin are defined as M: (1,2,3) x F.
Set this up as a transforrnatiorr frorn vectors F to vectors M.

Solution Sirrce

ijk
M: (1,2,3) x F: 'lDa : (2F. - 3Fr)i + (34 - F,)j -r (F, - 2F*)t ,
trtrF,
rn describe the transforrnatiorr a^s follows if we set M -- (Mr, Mu, A["),
IV' :2P" - 3Fa,
T : ArIo :3P, - P,,
M":Fa-2F,'o

,,."TIffi ;;Til:,'i,iilTlr'JH;'.1ffi """#:iillt?l::"9#"Lflif,*'1lT;f :ff ;


only to the preserrt context.
Definition 9.1 A trarrsforrnation ? from R' to R' is lirrear if for every pair of vectors u and v in R', and
every real rnrrnber c, the following two properties are satisfied:

7(u+v) :r-(u)*?(v), (e.2a)


?(cv): (e.2b)
"[r(")].
The transformation irr Exarnple 9.1 is rrot linear; it violates both conditions. For irr-
stamce, if v - (1, 0, 0) and c : 2,

: T(2,0,0) : (4,6,0) whereas Z[r(")] :2T(1,0,0) : 2(1,3,0) : (2,6,0).


"(cv)
The transforrnations in Examples 9.2 a^rrd 9.3 are both linear. We illustrate with Exarnple
9.3. We could use the cornponent representation, but it is easier to use the cross prodrrct
form. Irrdeed, for any two force vectors F and G arrd any constarrt c,
:" x (F+G) : (" x F)+ (r x G) :T(F)+"(G),
"(F+G)
T(cF) :rx(cF) :c(rxr) :c[r(r)].
The following is an equivalent definition of linearity.
Deflnition 9.2 A trarrsforrnation v/ : of R to E is lirrear if the components of v' are linear cornbi-
"(.r)is, if
nations of those of v; that

'tt',: lrrtut * o,tzuz + '''+ a1n't)n,


ut2 : {t,21u1 1- 0,22u2+' ., + o'2n'Dn,

(e.3)
un: tt'n1'tt1 ! o,n2tt2 + "'+ o,nn'Dn.

Notice that the transforrnatiorr irr ExampLe 9.1 is not of this form, but the trarrsformations
irr Exarnples 9.2 arrd 9.3 are.

Example 9.4 Firrd ?(1, -3,5) if


?(v) : T(u1,u2,'u3) : (3u1 -2u2,4u1 -2r,+
-4tt). 'u3,3u3

solution T(1, -3, 5) : (3(1) - 2(-3),4(1) - 2(-3) + 5, 3(5) - 4(1)) : (e, 15, 11)o

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SECTION 9.2 109

3. A trarrsformation ? frorn A3 to R3 rnaps vectors v : (rr1, u21q) to v' : (ul,u'r,ut"l according to


ut: ur - rt2 t 2tt3,
T : uL:2t\ -l3us,
DL:3ut-uz*\us.
(a) Firrd the irnage of v : (-5,2, 10).
(b) Is lirrear?
" the vector v, or vectors, that rnap to v/
(c) Find : (2,6,8).
*4. A transforrnation ? frorn R3 to r?3 adds the rrorrzero vector u : (rr, u2,u,s) with corrstarrt componerrrs
to every vector v irr R3. Deterrnine, with proof, whether ? is linear.
*5. Deterrnirre, with proof, whether the tra,rrsformation that rnaps every vector v in space orrto the unit vector
in the sarne direction as v is linear.
*6. A transforrnation ? frorn R3 to R3 rnaps the vectors i, j, atrcl li a^s follows:

:zi-sj+k, rf; : i-r., : si-4r-zi.


"(i) "([)
(a) Fincl r1i+4- 6k).
(b) Find the vector v that ha^s v' : 3i - 2: a*s its irnage.
A transforrnation ? frorn R3 to -R3 maps vectors by subtracting 2 frorn each of its components. Deterrnine,
with proof, whether ? is linear.
*8. A trarrsforrnatiorr ? frorn R3 to R3 rnaps a vector v : ori + u2: + u3f orrto

: ] "i * 2u7i + uzrk' if u2 ) 0


f^

"(rn)' I uri - D2: + u3k, 1[ u2 10.


Deterrnine, with proof, whether the trarrsforrnatiorr is lirrear.

[i9.2 Matrices for Linear tansformations


The forrn of a linear transforrnation in equatiorrs 9.3 suggests a corrnectiorr with rnatrices.
We define the matrix associated with the linear transformation in 9.3 as

Witlt coiumn vectors or matrices representing v and v',

": (;)
Iirrear trarrsforrnation T in 9.3 can be written irr matrix forrn
v' : Av. (e 4)

Instead of using 9.3 to find the components of v/, we simply rnuitiply ,4 by v. Here are sorne
examples.

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SECTION 9.2 111

-1\
+ (:I;# -tJ lr or -le -1 \ n, Rr-t9na*Er
-+ lo -r4 -r I -- L4Rt t Rz
7 /n"-Rsl80 \0 0 7180 / 1

srTso \
sl40 |
7l8o /
Tlre reqrrired vector is v : (53/80, 91a0,7 180).t

A very important realizatiorr about the rnatrix associated with a linear transforrnation
comes from the following observatiorr. Suppose ? is the linear transformation of Example
9.6 with rnatrix

^:(+ t i)
The irnage of tire vector i - (1,0,0) is

/r\ /z -3 4\/,\ /o\


r{ol:{-s r il{;)-t-,)
\o/ \z a o/\o/ \r/
Sirnilarly, irnages of j arrd I are

/o\ / z -3 4\ /o\ /-e\


4'l{'l:{n)' / z -3
/o\ (-s
r{ol a\ /o\ /+\
n'l(o):('l
"('l:(-s
\o/ \2 3 o/\o/ \r/ \r/ \z s o/\r/ \o/
Notice that these irnages are the cohrrnns of ,4. This is not coirrcidence; it always occrrs.

Theorem 9.1 The ith colrrmrr of the rnatrix associated with a linear trarrsformation ? is the irnage of the
vector whose cornponents are all 0 except for a 1 irr the ith positiorr.
This turrrs out to be a very useful fact when linear trarrsforrnations a,re described by
their actions rather than giverr in comporrent form.
Example 9.8 Firrd the rnatrix associated with the linear transformation ? of R3 to ,R3 that rotates vectors
by angle d around the z-axis when 0 < 0 <2r. Then find T(1,3,-2).
Solution Fipure 9.1 ilhrstrates that
- (cosd,sirrd,0) and - (-sirrd,cosd,0).
"(i) "(j)
F\rrthermore, : k. Tlur., the rnatrix a^ssociated with the trarrsformation is
"(k)
f cosl -sind 0\
A:lsind cos? 01.
\ o o t)
It is now easy to find ?(1,3 -2)

r(,,3,-,,: (ttfg ;::,'i : (f:f;;:::3)


l) (i)
.

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SECTION 9.3 113

*6. Find the rnatrix of of the lirrear transforrnation ? from R3 to R3 that rotates every vector around the
g-axis by arrgle a./3 radians, clockwise as viewed frorn the point (0,2, 0), arrd therr intercharrges its ri ancl
3r-cornponents.
*7. A lirrear transforrnatiorr ? frorn R3 to ,?3 has matrix

^ (t. ?
A:l-r -t\
3 5I.
\o 4 6/
It rnaps vectors v to v/ :7("). A secorrd lirrear transforrnation ,S ha^s rnatrix
o
B-lrlz 4 -3\
2 |
\5 -2 r /
It rnaps vectors v' to vtt :f $').Let ,S? denote the transforrnation that combirres,S and ?,
v": (ST)(v) : S[r(")].
(a) Show that ,97 is a linear transformation by finding the components of v/' in terms of those of v.
(b) Show that the rnatrix a^ssociated with
^9? is BA.
*8. F act at a fixed point (re, !0,2(t) in space. Moments of these forces about the origin are defined
Forces
a^s M: r x F, where r::loi+Uoj+ H ? is the lirrear trarrsforrnation frorn F to M, find its matrix.
"ot.
x9. Repeat Exercise 5(a) but replace the plane ll: n wjth the plarre l):2tr:.
* 10. Repeat Exercise 5(a) but replace the plane g : z with the plane !) : o,x), o, > 0.

*11. Firrd the rnatrix of the linear trarrsforrnation T frorn ,R3 to R3 that projects every vector into the plarre
A:r''
*12. Repeat Exercise 11 but replace the plane : I with the plarre Il :2r;.
U

*13. Repeat Exercise 11 but replace the plarre Il: t: with the plane A: o,n, a> 0.
*14. Repeat Exercise 5(a) but replace the plane g : r with the piane z : n +A.
i.15. Repeat Exercise 11 but replace the plarre g : e; with the plarre z : n * A.
*x16. Repeat Exercise 5(a) but replace the plarre ?l : t: with the plane z : A:r I B3r, where A arrd B are
positive constants.
**17. RepeatExercisellbutreplacetheplarreU:t withtheplane z:An*By,where AatrdB arepositive
constants.

$9.3 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

Every linear transformation of R' to R' ha^s arrnx n rnatrix associated with it. Corr-
versely, n x n, matrices define linear transformations of R" to R". Lirrear transformations
define square matrices and square matrices deflne linear transformations. E'igermectors of
rnatrices (or lirrear transformations) are irnportant irr applicatiorrs of rnatrices (or linear
transformations). We first define them geometrically in R2 and .,?3; an algebraic definition
follows that carr be rrsed in R'.
Definition 9.3 Arr eigenvector v of a linear transformatiorr ? orr R2 or R3 is a rronzero vector that does
not charrge direction when mapped by ?.
An eigerrvector v rnay charrge its length, arrd even be irr the opposite directiorr, -v, but
it canrrot bein any other directiorr. Sirrce all vectors irr the direction of v or -v can be

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SECTION 9.3 115

Before making some general observations, we illustrate how the characteristic eqrration
gives eigenvalues in the earlier examples of this section. The matrix associated with the
linear transformation of Example 9.9 is

/z o o\
e:lo -2 ol.
0 2/
\0
Its eigenvalues are defined by the characteristic equation
2-^ 0 0
0: lA _.\.rl : 0 -2-.\ 0 l:-(2-))2(2+)),
0 0 2-^
Sohrtions are ): t2. These were the eigenvalues
found in Example 9.10.
The matrix associated with the linear transformation of Example 9.8 is

fcos0 -sind 0\
,4:lsind cosO 01.
\ 0 0 rl
Eigenvalues are defined by the characteristic equation

lcosd-,\ -sind 0 I

0:lA-.\rl :l sind coso-.\ 0 l:(t-.\)[(cose-^)'+sin2A].


I o o 1-,l.l
First we set
6: (cosd - l)'+ sirr2 d: cosz 0 - 2\cos0 + tr2 + sin2 0 :,\2 - 2,\cos0 + 1.

Sohrtions of this qrradratic are

, 2cosl+t@' :cosd+V-sln-d'
^: 2
an impossibility. Thrrs, (cosg - l)2 +sin2 e +0, and the only eigenvalrre is.l: 1, as was
discovered in Example 9.11.
Here is another example.

Example 9.12 Find the eigenvalues of the linear transformation with matrix

,t-l /s -B -B\
A:l_6 E 0 |
\ 12 -r2 -r0 /
Solution Eigenvalues are given by the characteristic equation

o:lA-r/l:l-6 -3
l5-r 8-l -3
6 |

I.
I 12 -r2 -10-^l
If we expand along the first row,

0 : (5 - l)[(8 -.\)(-10 - r) + 72] + 3[-6(-10 - - 72] - 3172 - 12(8 -,\)l


: (5 - I)(I2 + 2^ - 8) + 3(6^ -12) -3(r2^-24)^)
: -)3 + 3.\2 - 4 : -(I + 1)(I - 2)r.
Eigenvalrres are therefore ) : -1 and .\ : 2.o

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SECTION 9.3 tL7
-o
oo
-J 0\ Rr- Rtl3
66 0 I Rz - 2Rt I Rz
-r2 -t2 0/ R" - -4Rr tfts
------+
(i B' I' t)
Thus, t,,1
-'02 - t/3 : Q, or, o1 : t)2 | us. Eigenvectors are

/ "t\ /t\ / t\
":l "+1)z tl**lql
\ ,,r /l:,,1\o/ \1/
In this ca^se we have a 2-parameter family of eigerrvectors, a plane of eigenvectors; every
vector in the plane deterrnirre by the vectors (1, 1,0) ancl (1,0, 1) is an eigenvector. ff"
corrld again check otu calculatiorrs by showirrg that for each of these vectors, Av:2v.o

Eigenvalues are soltrtions of a polyrromial equation, the characteristic equation. and


as strch they can be real or cornplex. Sirrce the characteristic equation is real, cornplex
eigenvahres rmrst occut irr cornplex corrjugate pairs. Eigerrvectors must also be cornrrlex
corrjugates. We illustrate irr the followirrg exarnple.

Example 9.14 Find atl eigerrpairs of the linear transforrnation with matrix

Solution Eigerrvalues are given by


2-^ 0 -4
0:lA-I1l: 0 l-.\ 0 |
_4(_2)(1_^)
2 0 -2-^l l:(2_l)(1_l)(_2_))
: (1 - ))(-2 _ r)+ 8l : (1 _ l)()2 + 4).
-
^)l(2
Eigerrvalrres are therefore \: l, l2i. Eigerrvectors correspondirrg to ,\ : 1 satisfy

/r o
o:(A-I)v:10 0 -+\ /,u1\
0ll,rl.
\z o -r/ \us/
The augrnerrted rnatri XIS

(; ii 9\
9l
u/
Rz ---+

Rs-Rz
-2Rt i Rs

Rr 4Rz
-)

+ Rt
(; lf 9\
3)
Rz ---+ Rz/5

+ (: --+ 0 0

s; t)
0
0
1

0 t)
Thus, : : v: rr*0.
'u1 0 arrd ?/3 Q. Eigenvectors are
(+) provided

Eigenvectors corresponditrg to ): 2i satisfy


(2-2i 0
0: (,4 _2il)v: I
,':r,) (ii)
g r-2i
\z 0

The augrnented matr tx ts

fz -zt o -4 0\ R' --+tu1(2-2i) (r 0 l_i


I 0 r-2i 0 ol € l0 t_2i 0
\ 2 O -2-2i o/ R3---+Rsf2 \t 0 l-i t) Ra--fir*Ro

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strictly prohibited
SECTION 9,4 119

[i9.4 Eigenpairs for Symmetric Matrices


A square rnatrix,4. is said to be symmetric if AT : A. An equivalerrt way to say this
is o,ii : o,ir for all i arrd y. What this means is that entries on opposite sides of the diagonal
are equal. The following tlrree rnatrices are synunetric

(t
I
IO i) (iis) (,',iir)
Real symrnetric rnatrices have many special properties. Irr particular, we shall see in this
section that eigerrvalues are always real. Arr irnportarrt property of eigerrvectors requires a
prel.irninary discussiorr.
The scalar product of two vectors v : (or, u2,us) atd u: (zr, ,u,2,,u,s) irr R3 is defined
as

u .v : u,1,01 | 11,2,02 + u3,u3. (e.e)

Two norrzero vectors u and v are perperrdicular if and only if u.v : 0.


In Rt, we define the scalar product of two vectors u and v a^s

u. v : 1r1'\ * u,2,u2 I . .. I unun. (e. 10 )

Becarrse we do not have the geometry of R3 irr Rn, we irrtroduce a new word to replace
perpendicularity. Two nonzero vectors u and v in R' are said to be orthogonal if

U.V:0. (e.11)

Orthogorrality and perpendicularity are the sarne in 82 arrd ,R3.


We can now prove the following facts about eigerrpairs of real syrnmetric rnatrices.
Theorem 9.3 If A is a real, syrnrnetric rnatrix, then:
1. all eigenvahres of 14. are real;
2. eigenvectors corresponding to different eigenvalues are orthogonal.
Proof The proof is somewhat strange in that we first prove part of 2, then use this to
prove 1, and then finish the proof of 2. Suppose that (.\, v) and (p, u) are eigerrpairs of ,4
with .\ f p. Then,,Av : .\v and ,4u : pu. Since v and u are cohrrnn vectors (or rnatrices)
in this context, their scalar product is

vru: (+)",,: ]{.,,'r"),,: }.',r14",,)


:1.,'1a,,y : i"(0,,1: f {.,,',,).
Hence,

(t - i) (",,) : o =+ v"u: 0.

(This would irnply that v and u are orthogorral if we knew that v and u were real, but this
ha^snot yet been established.)
With this fact, however, suppose that (.\, v) is arr eigenpair of ,4. where both ) arrd v
are cornplex. Then takirrg complex corrjugates of /v : .\v gives

(sirrce L is real).
Tlris equatiorr irnplies that (,\,v) is also arr eigerrpair of ,4. Sirrce it follows that v
and V rmrst satisfy ^+ ^,

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SECTION 9.4 tzl
0\ Rr--Rr /t -1 110\
(r, + 0lRz--+RrIRz -----+ f O 0 0l0l
r, o) Rs--Rr*Rs \o o olo/
Thus, u1 - az I o3 : 0, and eigenvectors a,re

(,,-o"\ /l\ .,'l?/


/ -t\
I i? ):"ll/ :
Ifwe take the scalar product of any eigenvector u u3(1, -1,1) corresponding to ): 0,
and any eigenvector v :
uz(7,1,0) + ug(-1,0, 1) corresponding to ) 3, we obtain :

u v:- (+)
1,,(i)
*,, (i)] : usu2(,-1+0)+o3?,3(-1+0+1):0

They are orthogonal. Notice that the scalar product of the eigenvectors (1, 1, 0) and (- 1, 0, 1)
corresponding to ,\:3, is not zero; it is (1, 1,0) .(-1,0, 1): -1..

EXERCISES 9.4
ln Exercises 1-6 find eigenpairs of the syn'rmetric matrix. Verify that eigenvectors corresponding to distinct
eigenvalues a,re orthogonal.

1 (j, i,j)
s(+j,+)
b (+ t',+)
*7. If A is a,ny matrix, show that AAT and Ar A are both symmetric.

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Arrswers to Exercises I2B
74. -2 t5.12 16. I L7. g 18. I 19. 1 20. 2 2L. 5
22. 2, -3 23. -4,96 24. 85, -22b 2b. 0, 27. (b) gs+BBr+2g+S:O
31. P(e;) : (t: - c,,)kQ(") where e(o.) I 0 -81
32. (n} - 6n3 + 23n,2 - rgn, * 24)/24, b7
Exercises 3.2
L. (a) 2,0;1 (b) l*l < O (") +1, +b 2. (a) 2,0;1 (b) <T/2 (c) +r, +r12,+512
lz;l
3. (a) 3,1; t (b) lrl < b/2 (c) +r, +2, +.rf 2 a. @) r;0 (b) lzl < + 1c1 r,z
5. (a) 3,1; 2,0 (b) lrl<Tla (c) f1, +r12,+r/4 o. (a) 2,0; 2,0 (b)
1ti1<z (c) +1, rllb
7. (a) 0; 1(b) lul <6/5 (c) -r,_rlb s. (a) 2,0; r (b) l.r[ <rDGl+t,+ifz,+t1+
e. (a) 1; 1(b) lzl <4916 (c) 11, +r12,+rlg,+116,+4316
10. (a) 0; 5,3,1 (b) Irl < 13/6 (c)
-r, -2,-r12, _812, _rl}, _21g, _tl6
11. (a) 5,3,1; 0 (b) lrl < z /3 (c) 1,2, rf 2, 312, r/3, 2/3, r/6
12. (a) 1; 3,1 (b) lr'l<2 (c) +1 18. (a) 2,0; t (b)
lzl <5 (c) 11, +2,+4
14. (a) 2,0; 1(b) lt:l<TlZ (c) {1, +2,+tf},+2/3,+4/3
15. (a) 1; 2,0 (b) lzl < 6 (c) tl, 15
16. (a) 2,0;2,0 (b) lzl < b12 (c) +1, +2, +r12, +3/2, +114, +Sl4
L7. (a) 0; 1(b) l"l<2 (.) -t
18. (a) 0; 1 (b) lrl<bla@) -r, -r12,
-rl4 1e. (a) 0; 1 (b) lrl < 5 (.) _1, _2, _4
20. (a) 0; 1 (b) le;l < 9 (") -r, -2, -4,_8, _tl2
2L. (a) 2,0; 1 (b) lr:l <tTl2T (c) tt, +rlB, +212, +ElS, +.rlg, +21g, +blg,+10/9, +rl2T,
+2/27, +5/27, +r0127
22. (u) t; ft) l"i < 5lz (c) +r, +2, +.r12, +312, +I14, +814, +r18, +518,
I
23. 2, +,,/5i
+rlL6, +gl16
_24. -t, (-3/2) r G\/3/2)i 25. _4 of mulriplicity 3
26. -3, -4, +\/3 27. +2, +2i
29. -r/2, r13, +3i
_ 28. _5, 3/2, (_rl2) + (r/z/z)i
30. +(L/\/3)i, +(lE/2)i sr. 24, (_r/2) + (\/r5/2)i
32. -4, 6 botlr of multiplicity 2 83. 0 of rnuttipticity 2, (_116) + (\/fi16)i
34. 516, (-rl2) + (fi512)i 35. _5, +t/5, +t[st 36. 1; 2:, 3,'4, 5
37. -l12 of multiplicity 2, +2i 98. 2lb of rnulriplicity 2, 2 *. r/l
39. l, -2, -4, -2+\qi 40. +3, +3i, +4i,
Exercises 4.1
l. B,E,F,G,J,K 2. E,G,K 7. H
8. B 9. Not possible

- (i, _:, _il) ,,


^" 13)
\rt -24 )
(? 4 r\
2T
U/
_4
lt 2\

,, f '-i it'!,) ,, (
\ -11 16 B I \-zt1+
,!t !lL2 ,it
2T )
*l
lza,ooo 39,ooo\
28. (a) ro. zso
| 22, 750
ez5o In: o.ast
\ 37,700 /
: o2o(ililrl
l) ", (l ili:::)
c

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Answers to Exercises
t25
: I+2t,!) : -ll4t, z: 3-3rl; .,
+ :+ :
72. r a-o
--o
_D
13. t: : -I+2t, U :3 -Bt, z : 6; 1J I ==St-3 z:o
2 -{,
L4. :r : 2 + 3t, A : -3 -l bt, z : t:-2 _:_
A+3 z-4
4 - bt..
35-5
L5. n : -2, !/ : B +t, z: S *f; u: z, lL: -2
L6.:r:1, I/:B,z:4It
17. n : l+5t, U : -S l_Jt, z : _ Uj] : Z-l
-2t; -153_2 E
18. r: 2+u,, lJ :0, z:3-2u.; :r _ 2:
4, r:O
19. t: : I1-t, g - -4-bt. z :2*3t; n
-I :yj:-53:
2O. n: t, ll :2t =
- 5, z :30 - 11t; ,, : LjS - z -.30 2n
21. :r : -2+t, U :3 -t, z : I _ St; x -12 : Y= : 1:l
22. No -l 3

Exercises 6.2
L. :r:1,lJ:3, z:-2 2. n: -1,!/:0, z:2 Z. x:lg+Zz,?): _14- Ez
4. n zII0/3,y:z-813 5. :r:0,y:e,2:g 6. :r:0,y:0,2:0
7. n zl2, y : $2f 2 8. z: -zl7,ll: I0zlT 9. No sohrtion 10. No
solutiorr
LI. x:lll4,g:31128, z: -IlI4 t2. t:IIIT,.s:24149, z:68149
L3. n:l,a :3, z: -2 74. n: _I, U :4, z:5 15, t: :2g122,'A :IIl4, :31144
z
16.x -3/8,y:4, z:9/4 LT. t::I,ll: _1, z:2,ut:_S
18.r 0, U :2, z : -3, tu : I 19. No solutiorr
2O. r : 4lull4 + 617, A : 3tull4 + IT
lT, z : Sgut/I4_t 4lT
2I. r : 29/14, y : 67 l14, z : 61128, u : -b/2
22. :r : -9/ 43, A : -781 43, z : -25/86, u : 801 43
Exercises 6.3
See answers for Section 3.2.
23. Irr reduced row echelon forrn 0's are created above leading l's a^s well as below them.
24. When solving equatiorrs using the reduced row echelon forrn, back substitutions are
unnecessaxy,
25. 15 cc of.407o solution and 10 cc of I0To soiutiorr
26. (a) fs-r70: h, ft:60* fz, fz-t 50:"fa, h: fq,+70, f2: f+-1r0,
"fe:60+/+ (b)
f s f 60, where /a rmrst be a nonnegative integer (c) fi is largest ana'ff is srnatlest
fs:
27. (a) * 100: /r + 200, h* S00: fz-1200, fzl_200: /s + rO0, /s + b00:.f+ + 800
(b) /t : /4 - 100, fz : fq, fs: fa. + 100, where
"f+
/a ) 100 rmrst be an integer
28. (a) h-l f2:500,000, fi:50,000 I fs-t fs, fz:50,000 -f fs, fzI
f+:i00,000,
.fr:200,000 Q)ft :250,000*/+, f2:250,000- fq, fs:200,000- fa,,fr: iOO,0OO,
where03fq3200,000
29. (a) For z pills of Brand 3,8-z and z-3 of Brands l arrd 2 should be taken where 3 1 z 1g
rnust be an integer. (b) $8.b0, $9.30, $9.60
30. 4 glasses of rnilk, 3/8 pourrds of meat, 6 slices of bread

Exercises 6.4
I. n: : -T 13, A :23/3 2. No sohrtiorr B. .r : | - 3U, g arbitrary
4. n:2514,y : -314 5. r: -l5l7,y : -t3l|, z: -t6l| 6. Nosotltiorr
7. n: (52 + 13)13, A: Qz + 13)/3, z arbitrary 8. :r : -5, A:4f B, z: t}f 3, u : _6
9. n : I, A :3, z: -2, ut :0 10. No sohrtion
LL. r :I - I0uf7, U :3- 18uf7, z : 1-2. t: :0, A :0, z :0, :0
z: II3wf2,A:3+2u), z: -2-l-2-I3ut/T
1t
13. 3tu/2 14. No solution

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University of Manitoba Bookstore. Further reproduction, in part or in full, is strictly prohibited.
Arrswers to Exercises L27

1o Noinverse
" -t (l: t 1i) " * (-1, ): 1,)
13. No irrverse

",,-t(;' 4,-'*$) "#(i, #*;)


/2 2 0\ -2
"*lli f i
19.
-?,)
"good hrck on yous exarns" Yes

Exercises 8.3
See Exercises 8.2 for alrswers.
Exercises 8.4
7, r : -37, y :25 2. No solution S. x: I,lJ : J, z: -2
4. :r:2 -3zf 2,a - -5-l 5zf2, z arbitrary 5. No sohrtiorr
6. r: -3zf2,a:5212, z arbitrary 7. :t,: -419,a:t619, z: -Ilg
8. z : -1, U :2/3, z : 1316 9. r : -72137,A :77137, z : -t9137, ut : -t\2lBT
10. z : 813 + ut 13, a : 4tl9 -t Twf9, z : 2019 -t ttwltS, u arbitrary
Ir. n: (5o+3b -.)18,y:(rro,+5b- 7c)18, z: (Ta,l_b-Jc)18
12. n - (32o,-tl8b-r5c-4d,)/67,y: (-29aIl3bI45c-tI2d)167,2: (-bo,-Tb+t7c+g(D16T,
: (-Ilo, - 2b + 2ac - 7d) /67
,11

Exercises 9.1
L. (a) (25,-4,20) (b) Yes (c) (-T13,-113,413)
2. (a) (-5,1, -3) (b) No (c) (1,1,5) and (-1, -2,-2)
3. (a) (13,20,33) (b) Yes (.) (3 - 3o,,I I a,2o,) 4. Not linear b. Not lirrear
6. (a) (-14,21,11) (b) (10/9,1619,-Ll3) 7. Not linear 8. Not linear
Exercises 9.2

1. 2. A-, 3 S ) (b) (6, -e _,) (") ('l ,d,


0 -3/ l,)
4. ) (-3,0, 1)

b. )(-2,1,3) S) " ( ,),


I/ \\/312
\\
8.
)'* )ro.(o,2r1)-1
11. '- 'rB.
i(L
t\o (o, *rr, (!,
\o
14. 'u I i)z)
Exercises 9.3
1. ):5,v:u1(1,0,0) 2. ),:3,v:u2\_t11,0)+r.r3(_1,0,1); ,\:14,v:(usl6)(2,8,6)

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Sohrtiorrs to Even-mrrnbered Exercises 129

APPENDIX B SOLUTIONS TO EVEN-NUMBERED EXERCISES

Chapter 1 Mathematical Induction and Sigma Notation


1.1 Mathematical Induction
2. When n : l, the lefb sicle is 3, and the forrmrla on the right gives Q2 - 3)12 : 3. The forrntrla
is therefore valid for n : l. Suppose that k is sorne integer for which the resrrlt is valid; that is,
suppose that
ok+1- t
B+32+33+... l, 3a:' r-'.
We rmrst now slto that
nb+)
3.l 32+33 I ...+3k+r : "' _-o.
We begirr with the left side,

L.S. - [3+ 32 + 33 +'.. + 3*] + 3h+1


rA+1 D
: \-" + Bri+l (by srrppositiorr)

3r.+1 _ 3+2. Bh+1 3ri+1(1 +2) _3 3rc+z _ 3


2:22'
Th1s, tfie formuia is vaLid for k * l, and by the principle of mathernatica] induction, it is valid for
alln)1.
4. When n,: I, the left side is 1, and the forrnula orr the riglrt gives l(2)(3)16: 1. The forrnula
is therefore valid for n, : L suppose that k is sorne irrteger for which the result is valid; that is,
suppose that

r+3+ 6+ 10 +... +
k(i{_+ 1) _ k(k + r)(k +2) .
26
We rnust rrow show that

1+3+6+10+ +
gflY-L- (k+ 1)(kl-2)(k+3)-

We begin with the left side,

LS. : [tl_,*6 +10+'+ {+!l * @a+i2


LL
k(k: + r\(k + 2) (,k -r l)(k + 2)
(bysupposit,ion)
ff
-irr-l
k(/c + lxk +2) +3(/i + 1)(i; + 2) _ (k + 1)(k+ 2)(k+ 3)
66
T[us, t]re forrmrla is valid for ft, f 1, and by t]re prirrciple of rnathematical inductiorr, it is vaiid for
alln>1.
G. When n: l, the left side is 1, and the forrmrla on tlte riglrt gives 1(1)(3)/3 : 1. The formula
is therefore valid for n, : I. Suppose that ft; is sorne integer for which tlte result is valid; that is,
suppose that

t2 + 82 | +,\-"
| b2 +... (2k - r),
-/ : k(2k - 1)(2k + 1).
3

We rmrst now show that

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Sohrtiorrs to Everr-rurrnbered Exercises 181

2-r +2-2 +2_3 + ...+2_h : | _2_t".


We rmrst now show that

2-r +2 2 +2-s +...+ 2-@+r) :y-2-(h+r):1- 2-k-1.


We begin with the left side,

" : T-:i;':'?-"-: .'


r +z-k1-r +2-L):r-r2-k '*:"""'."'
(-r*l)z/ - r*r-^ f-:)z/ _ r-2-k_,.
\ \
Thus, tlte forrmrla is valid for k + 1, and by the prirrciple of rnathernatical induction, it is valid for
alin)1.
14. Wlren n,: I, the left side is 1(2-r) : l12, and the forrmrlaon the right gives 2-(a)z-t - 2-312 -
ll2. The forrmrla is tlterefore valid for n:1. Suppose that k is sorne integer for which the result
is valid; that is, suppose that

1(2-') + 2Q-\+ 3(2-3) +. .. + ke-\ : 2 - (k + D2-k.


We rmrst now show that

1(2-t) +2Q-\ +3(2-3)+...+ (k+ t;12-tn+t)l:z- (Ar+ r+z1z-(n+t):2-(n+\z-k L.

We begirr with the left side,


L.s. : 3)
fr(z-t) +2Q-2)+ 3(2 +... + k(2-^)l+ (,qj+ 1)fz-tn+tr1
: 12 - (k + 2)2-hl + (k + 1)[2 (k+1)] (by suppositiorr)
: 2-t 2-k l-r - r* 11, * tll : , + z-- ( -2!:!!J rJ\
l'zl\2)
- 2 + 2-k-t (-,k - 3) : 2 - (k -r 3)Z-n-r .

Tlms, the formula is valid for k-l 1, a,rrd by the principle of mathematical. irrduction, it is valid for
alln)1.
16. Whenn,:1, thesumtsll2;wherrn:2,thesurnisll2+U6:213;whenn:3,thesurnis
I/2 + l16 + l/12: 314. We might suspect that the formula is
111 " 1rL
1.2+ 2.3+ 3.4+ +,"(n+1): n+l
The forrmrla is certairrly valid for n:1 (and 2 and 3). Suppose that,L is sorne integer for which
the result is valid; that is, suppose that
111 1k :
r .2+ z.g- {s'" I k(k + 1) k + r'
We rntrst now show that
1 1 1 1 k+l
r.2+ 2i+ 3.4+"'+ (k+lxk+2) k+2'
We begirr with the left side,
l-r
I s ..._,_L 1 I | 1 I r- I
8.4 "
_r_ r-,
It.z' 2.s' a(k I t)j (k+1Xk+2)
kr,.
: ri.+ (bY suPPosition)
+ r1l, + 4
11,

_ k(k+2)+1 _ k2+2k+r (l+r)2 _k+r


(k+1)(k+2) (k+r)(k+2) (k+lxir+2) k+2'

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Sohrtions to Even-rnrrnbered Exercises 133

28. Suppose that k is sorne irrteger for which the result is valid; that is, suppose that

l+2+ 3+ ... **- (a+2)_(4. - l)


(k +
The res'It fbr,k + 1is l+2+3+.'. 'T\^rr)-
-+ (L:-+1\ - 2
3)fu
'

We begin with the left side,

L.S. : (1 +2+ 3+... + k) + (*j+ 1)


: (k+2)(k-r)
' '.'
2
' + (k + r) (by suppositiorr)
(k+2)(k-1)+2(k+r) k2 +3k k(k+3)
222
Corrsequerrtly, the formula is valid for k t 1. The result is not valid for all n ) 1 sirrce it is not true
n: l.
for
30, When n : 1, the left side of the inequa)ity is 1 arrd the riglrt side is 1 -f I : 2. Hence the inequality
is valid for n:1. Suppose that for sorne integer /r,
I +3+ 5+.'. + (2k - l) < k2 + k.
We rmrst now show that

1+3+5+'.. + (2k+1) < (k+ r)2+ (k+ 1) - k2 +3k+2.


We begin witir the left side,

L.S. : + 3+5 +'.. + (2k -1)] + (2k+ 1)


[1
< (k' + k) + (2k + l) (by supposition)
:k2*3k+1
<k2+3k+2.
Tlurs, the result is valid for k + 1, a,rrd by the prirrciple of rnathematical inductiorr, it is valid for
aIIn>1.
32. Wlrerr n,:5, the teft side of the ineqrrality is 9(5!):1080. Sirrce the right side is 210: 1024,the
inequality is valid for n : 5. Srrppose that it is valid for some integer k > 5; that is, suppose that
9(k!) > 22k. We rmrst now show that 9(/c + 1)! s 22k+2. We begin with the left side,
e(k + 1)! : 9(k + r)kl > (k + r)22k.

Sirrce /c > 5, it follows that k t 1 ) 6, and


g(Aj + 1)! > 6(2'^) > 4Q'\ :22k+2.

Thus, the inequality is valid for k * l, and by the prirrciple of rnathernatical irrduction, it is valid
foraUn)S.
/ 1\
34. (a) Whenn:l,theleftsirleis (t+ i) :r,andtheforrnulaontlterightgivesl*1:2. The
formula is therefore valid for n,: l. Suppose that ft; is sorne integer for which the result is valid;
that is, suppose that
/. t\/. r\/ ,\ / 1\
('*i) ('*;J ('*;,) ('* i):n*'
We rmrst now show that
/ r\/ (t+^)
(t+i) /
1\/(1+;1\ . (1+;,1\ :(a+r)+r:k+2.
\ I/\ z/\ r/ ) /f+r/) \

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Sohrtions to Even-rnunbered Exercises 135

We begirr with the left side. Because the base of each cube increa^ses by 2, it foltows that the terrn
before (44; + 4)3 ha^s ba^se 2 less, nameiy, (4k + 2)3. The terrn before that is (4k;)3. Hence,

riil,",t:#isi#i!:!ir::J..g,l"r;*''
Thus, the forrmrla is correct for k * 1, arrd by the principle of mathernatical inductiorr, it is correct
foralln)1.
40. Wherr n: I, the surn on the ieft is 2 .2:4, a.rrd the forrntrla on the right gives (I)2' :4. The
formula is therefore valid for n,: L Suppose that k is some integer for which the forrmrla is correct:
that is, suppose that
2.2+g-22 + 4.23 +5.24 +...+ (2k)22k-r : (2k- r)z'k.
We rmrst rrow sltow that

2-2 + 3 - 22 + 4. 23 + 5 . 24 + . .' + (2k -t 2)22r',+r : Qk + r)22n+2 .

We begin with the left side. Sirice increasing ic by 1 results in two extra terrns on the Left, it follows
that

L.S.: 12.2+3.22 + 4.23 +5.24 +'..+(2k)22k-11+ (zlc +r)22k + Qk+2)22t"+t


: (2k - t)Z2k + (2k + D22k + Qk + 2)2zn+r (by suppositiorr)
: :
: z2kl(z*'- 1) + (2k + r) + 2(2k+ 2)l 22k (8k + 4) (2k + r)22k+2.
,k * 1, arrd by the principle of mathernatical irrductiorr, it is correct
Tllrs, the forrmrla is correct for
foralln)1.
3(3:- i) : 12.
42. Wherr n : 1, the sum on the left is 3 * 32 : 72, and.the formula on the right gives a
The forrnula is therefore valid for n : L. Suppose that k is some integer for which the forrmrla is
correct; that is, suppose that

3k + 3k+1 + 3h+2 +. ..+ rzt -


3*(3to1t - t).
a

We rntrst now show that

gA+1 + gk+z +3k+3 + .,. +B2k+2 -


3k+1(31+2 - 1).

We begin witli the lelt sicle. Irrcrea^sing i+ by orre results itt trvo extra terrns at the encl of the
slrnrnation, but one less at the beginrring. In order to use the supposition, we therefore add and
subtract the terrn 3k at the begiruring of the left side,

L.s. : -ak + + 3k+1 + 3k+2 + "'+ gznl 13zr++r +32k+2


fak

: _Bk+ 3k(3kl - 1) + 32k+1 +B2k+2 (by srrpposition)


(3r-t-Jr ?k-1 t2h_2- : (34-1- t +2'3r+r +2'3k-2 - 2\
: t^, (- + 3"-' *t'-'- 1) rr, 2
/ 1 )
^.. [3k+t(1 + 2 + 6) - 3'l -u /3*" - 3\
-2
3t+t 13r - r)
-'r; , 1:o\ z l: 2 '

Tl1rs, t|e forrmrla is correct for k11, arrd by the prirrciple of mathernatical indrrction, it is correct
foralln)1'

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Sohrtions to Even-ntrrnbered Exercises 137

: k + 1 3p+ 2(8) - 5(3) : 3(p - 5) + 8(2)


Silce A > 15, it follows that p ) 5 and herrce p - 5 > 0. Tlms, in all ca^ses, A: + 1 ha^s been expressed
in t|e required forrn. By ihe principle of rnathematical induction, the result is valid for all n 2 14.
- ).r I,r'2
--GW-:1.
1
50. Wlrerr n,: l, the left side is 1, arrd the forrmrla on the right gives The forrmrla
is therefore valid for n : 1. Suppose that k is sorne integer for which the forrnula is valid; that is,
suppose that
| (k +l)rk + krk+r
r,t2r _f gr2 +... I krk-r - - lL-r)'
.

We must now show that


I - (ir + 2)vr-r + (k + l)rr+z
I I2r * 3r2 +... + (k * l)rk :
0-r)2
We begirr orr the left,

L.S. : (t +2, + 3r2 +... + krk)+ (/c + l)rk


_I - (k:+l)rk_+ krk+r + (k + r)rk (by suppositiorr)
\L - r)'
|- (k + r)rk + krk+t + (k + r)(rk - 2rk+r + rk+2)
(1 - ")'
1- (k+ 2)7r'+t + (k+ l)rk+z
(r - r;z

Tlns, the forrmrla is correct for ,k + 1, arrd by the prirrciple of mathernatical induction, it is correct
foraljn)1.
b2. We mrrst show that any irrteger n ) 4 cant be expressed irr the forrn n,:2p * 5q where p and q
are rronrregative integers. Certairrly n-- 4cattbe expressed iIr this form (choose P-2 attd S:0)'
Srrppose that some irrteger k ) 4 can be expressed in the forrn k
:2p * 5q where p and q are
rronnegative integers, We rmrst now show that k f 1 can be expressed irr the sarne forrn' We begin
by using t5e slpposition to express k+ 1 in the forrn k+I: (2p+5q)* 1. Sirrce 1:3(2)- 5(1),
we can write that

k + 1 : 2p + 5q+ 3(2) - 5(1) : 2(p + 3)+ 5(q - 1).

Thisexpressesk*lirrthecorrectformwheneverq>t'Ifg:0,tiren/cisofthefortnk:2p'
ancl k* l:2pi 1. Irr this case, we express I irr the forrn 1:5(1) -2(2), and write

k +| : 2P + 5G) - 2(2) : 2(P - 2) + 5(1)'


Silce k > 4,it follows that p ) 2 and hence 7t-2> 0. Thus, irr all cases, k+1has been expressed
in t6e reqlired forrn. By the principle of rnathernatical irrduction, the restrlt is valjd for all n ) 4'
1.2 Sigma Notation
2. By writirrg valles of the variable of surnmation n above tertns, we obtairr

n,:l n--2 n,-3 n:? e8


2.3 + 3.4 + 4.5 +...+e9'100:D("+r)(n,+2).
n:l

4. By writirrg values of the variable of surnrnation n above terrns, we obtairr


n,:l n:2 n':3 r54
_f lnTr199 n-t Lo
16 17 * 18rn ... : \-
14+15-| 15+16 loQ - Zr
_r_
rr, ra I tc, tgz+tgs _?^("+ 13)(n+ 14)'
16+17 "

in part or in fuI1, is strictly prohibited


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Sohrtions to Even-ntrrnbered Exercises 139

tl]
,.a.i,(i.-3)':
i:l
>r -utu*ri n:lt!+!l
i:l i:L i--I
-u ["("+tXz"+ -t
l*Pl
r)
+ tg1:
n'(n r r)(n2-- 7n + t+)
- '(n' 4':
", lr,(n + 1) - 4(2n+ 1)

,0. i_(3n,2)
n=21
:'(i"-i')
\n=1 n:l /
., r1ru, :'Iry-'ry)+b2--26Gs
33 33 33 33 /33 s \ /33 8- \
Br. ,(3k + 1)'z : et +al,o * Dt: n (E k' -Do'' t (p- k -Dn)+zs
n'2
k=9 k:9 k:9 h:9 \t:1 k=l /)*
eslga, _
2 Pl
8(e)_(12)l
_e _
6 I +o-L _r2b:114100
I o
f33(Bg(67) f
2)
1 r\ /1 1\
t-i)-\5-4) '

_1\,' 11 __1-\
n-tl)
",) \", parentheses,
Since the second term in each set of parentheses cancels the fi.rst term in the next set of
we have

$ t 1
:,-- nr1 n'
- n+1
?.:1k(k+r)
36. The iclentity is false. The left side ha^s n, terrnsl the right side has n2 terrts, n of which are the

terrns on the left. For exarnple, when n:2, I tltllat;l] : /(t)s(t) + f (2)g(2), whereas
z=L

f2 I f2 I
lf ft,ll lIg(,;)l : tftrr+/(z)l[e(t) +s(2)]:/(t)g(t)+/(t)s(z)+/(z)g(t) + f(z)g(z)'
Lr:r I Ll:t I
38. The forrmrla for the absohrte vahres of the mrrnbers is clear, Il2" If we begirr with n.:0. The
difflculty is a formula that gives the numbers 1, 1, -1, -1, 1, 1, -1, -1, . ' " Think about the sirre
firnctiorr. Its sigrr in qladrants one, two, three, four, arrd repeatimg is *,t,-,-,*,*'-,-,""
Now notice that vahres of the sine fiurctiorr at angles rf 4,3rf 4,\ttf 4,7rf 4,9nf 4, etc. are
I I \/r, I I ,/t, -U Jr, -U \/t, I f J2, etc. If these are rmrltiplie d by rt,
the sequence gerrerated is
1, 1, -1, -1, 1, 1, -1, -1, ' . " Hence the sum can be expressed in the form

i1 .,/2 *i" (trla+nn12) /tsin + 1)?r/4]

k-*k*
[(2n
-3
40. If we sllm all sets of three consecutive rnrtnbers, the surn rnust be tlrree times the surn of the
iltegers from 1 to 36, silce each of these mrrnbers will appear three times. Using forrmrla 1.17,
this mrmber is
^ Itu{tl :1ee8.
"l-'t r

Sirrce there are 36 sets of three consecutive mrmbers, the average surn of three consecutive rmrnber
is 1g98/36: 55.5. Since at least orre of the surns of three consecutive rurrnbers rntrst be above the
average, it foliows that at least one of the surns rnust be larger tharr 55.
42. h sigma notation, the forrmrla reads

$ | n(n+3)
?- t(t + lxi + 2) a(n,+ r)(n,+2)

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prohibited'
Solutions to Even-rnrmbered Exercises l4l
Chapter 2 Complex Numbers

2.I Cartesian Form of Complex Numbers


2. (2 + 4i) - (3 - 2i) : (2 - 3) + (4 + 2)i: -r + 6i
4. (-2+ z)(3 - 4i) : (-6 + 4) + (3 + 8)i : -2 + rti
6. i3 - 3i2 + 2i i 4: -i + 3 + 2i -l 4 : 7 -f i
^ l-i r-i3-2i t-'i 1 5.
"' z+2i- g+ag-n- 13 - 13 - 13'
v-

ro. i24 -3i13+ 4:(i,n)o -3i(i4)3 *4:r-3i+ 4-5-3i


/rr;\ /i-4\ :tii{nil 4t 2i\
12. 6i(-)+3(* I ../t+i2+i\,.(it+rt-,
-\1+2iI-2i/
\'2-x/ \'2i+L) \2-i2+i) J

:o'\
^.
(t+3i\ . ^ (-21 9i\ -18 t-6i -6+27i
r /'"\ s ): b - 5
: -'joo*90
14. T +7" + (1 + i)2 : (r - t)' +T, : -zt - 2i : -4i
16. (1 1z a1z : (1 + 2 + i)2 : (3 + i)2 : s+et
(r+i)2(2-i) 2i(2-i) 2+4i5-r2i 58-4i 58 4.
B+2i\2 5tl2i 5+r2i5-r2i 169 169 169
20. (4172 : (4+ i)2 :15T€t: 15 - 8i
1 1 L+2i2-2i 6+2i 3-t 1.
--.1-L r r | 2i+l 2+2i 2-2i 844 - -1,

' - 1t-2i L+2i


(1 - i) _ (r - i)2(2 - i) _ -2i(2 - i) _ -2 - 4i 4 - 5i _ -28 -
+i3)'z(2 6i _ _-
28 6.
T-Ei 4+5i 4+5i 4+5i 4-5i 4l 41 41"
-
-1

/ _ 2i _3-4i\'| _ |/g_ r-62\2 /a+ai -1 -7i\2I |lza_ azi\2


-"' |\r+i3+4i)
o4 | _ | _

\-r+Ti/ \-1+7i -r-7i) \ -


_
50 )
I

:\ / 17 - 3ri\' -672 - ro54i 672


:-6%- ro54.
zs l: 6% 62s'

28. n: 4+\/g=n 3 /11


2- 2 "

30. z: : -l+2\/,
32. :t::
t , Jrs.
-l
44 -

34. Sirrce 14+4:r2 -5:(t:2 +5)(r'z-1), it


-1
follows that:r2: -5or x2:1. Hencez:ItfSlor
-, -Ll
-
-6 r : i /6, both of which are rregative, * : +t/i -&i or :r :
36, since *z - ^/36=-D
2
-3
+^/s + +s {at.
38. If z:rlgi,therr zZ:12 irnpliesthat12:(z+gi)(:r-l)i):n2 +372. Tirisistheequationof a
circle with cerrtre z : 0 and radius r.
40. If zL : 22: -1, then Jzrz, :,1rGTpD : \/1 :1. Orr the other hand, ,/-"tt/n : J=J= :
(i)(i) : -1.
42. If we let the mrrnbers be z arrd ,u, then z -f ut : 6 and zu: 10. Substitution from the first into
the second gives z(6 - z) : l0, or z2 - 62 *10 : 0' Thus, z : (6 + 1/T6=n1p: 3 * i, arrd the
nrrmbers arez:3*iand u:6-z:3-2. Choosirrg z:3-igivesthesarnepairof ntrrnbers.

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Sohrtions to Even-rnrmbered Exercises 743

22. Wewrite 2 +2rtiin exponential forrn


_ 4rri/B : 4rG /t+znn)i _ 4"$k+t)nal3,
"2
where *; is an irrteger. Square roots now give

z : l4e(6k+r)rt
/ s1t / z : 2e(sk+r)ri / 6
.

For k : 0 arrd 1. we obtain

a2rnn/6 : t2lcos (n16) + sirr (n/6) tl : +(rA + z).


24. We write 4 - 3i in exoonential form
z3:1eOi:be(o+2hr)i,
where O : -tan-l(e/4) a^rrd ic is arr integer. Cube roots now give
z : lbd@
+2kr)ill' /3
- br /3 e(o
+2kr)i /3 .

For k : 0.1.2. we obtain

zo: 1r/3eoils : 51/3[cos (O/3) + sin (O/3) i] x t.6T - 0.g}4i,


z1: 5r/3s(o+2n)i/3 : 51/3[cos (O/3 + 2tr l3) + sin (O/3 + 2r l3)i]
=
_0.520 + 1.63i,
z2: 5r/3"(o+an)i/3 : 51/3[cos (O/3 + atr lS) + sin (O/S + ar l})i]
= -1.15 - L26i.
+'[g=m
2G. z2 - -3 222 : -1 * 4, To find the square roots of _gl2 + \/nil2, we write it irr
exporrential forrn
: t/\eoi :
"2 'S'(o+znn)t' '
where O : zr - Tan-1 (t/nft) arrd k is an irrteger. Square roots now give
z : l{be(o +2kr)ilr / 2 : bI l e(o +2kr) i / 4 2
.

For A; : 0 arrd 1, we obtain

z :
- a5r/+1cos (O/2) + sin (O/2) i] r: +(0.602 + I.3Ti).
tbL/aeot'/z
The square roots of -312 - t/-ttllZ lead to the sohrtiorrs z = t(0.607 - 1.37i). Alternatively,
because this is a real polynomial equation, the remaining roots rmrst be the complex conjugates of
+(0.607 + r.37i).
28. We write 1in exponential forrn
zn : l: leoi : le2kni,
'We
where k is an irrteser. rrow take ntlt roots

7: p2kri/n: ... f 41) + *i" (41) r


\n / \n /
30. When the cornplex rmmber irr De\,foivre's theorem 2.22 ha.s modrilus r : 1,

,n:("oo):enoi.
For n: 3. this becornes

(e0i)3 - dei + (cosd+sindi)3 :cos3d*sin3di.


When the left side is expanded with the birrornial theorern, the result is
cos3 d + 3 cos2 0 sin0 i -3 cos d sirr2 0 - sin3 0 i : cos30* sirr 3d i.

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Solutions to Everr-mrmbered Exercises I45
Chapter 3 Polynomial Equations
3.1 Roots of Polynomial Equations
2. Accordirrg to the Rernainder Theorern, the rernairrder is the vahre of the polyrrornial at r: -1,
namely, (-1)t - 2(-l)' +4(-t) :_5: -2.
4. According to tire Rernairrder Theorern, the rernainder is the value of the polyrrornial at z - 1 /2
narnely, (1/3)3 + 3(r I B)2 - 2(r lB) + 2 : 46 l2T,
6. A polynornial is (r - 2)2(x -t 3)(r - 4)3.
8. A polyrrornial is (z - 1)(.r + 1)(" - 3)(n + 2)2.
10. Since r : -2 + 3i is a zero, and the polyrrornial is reai, a secorrcl zero is the complex conjugate
-2-3i (Theorern 35). Factors of the poyrrornial arer+2-3iandt:+2-l 3i, a^sis (n-1 2-
3i)(z; + 2 + 3i) : 12 + 4r -f 13. This gradratic may be factored from the polyrrornial giving
13 + 7t:2 -t 25r j- 39 : (t:2 I 4n -t i3)(r + 3). The third zero is r :
-3.
t2. A polynornial of odd degree must have an odd mrmber of zeros. If the degree of a real polynornial
is 1, it will have orre real zero. Suppose tlten that the degree is greater tharr 1. Because t|e
polyriornial is rea1, its complex zeros rmrst occur irr cornplex conjugate pairs (Theorem 3.5). This
irnplies that at least one of the zeros rmrst be real. This is not true for cornplex polynornials since
cornplex zeros need not occur irr complex corrjugate pairs.
L4, :r-2tsafactorof thepolynornialorrly rf n:2isazero;thatis,0: (2)3+k(2)2+b(2)-10- 4k+8.
Thus, *;: -2.
16. z*3isafactorofthepolyrromialorrlyifz:-3isazero;thatis,0:(-3)a+Z(-3)3+k(-3)2-
2i(-3) - 36:9k - 81. Thus, k:9.
18. 2n t I is a factor of the polyrrornial only if t: -ll2 is a zero; that is, 0:6(-112)4 + (-tl2)3 +
53(-rl2)2 + keVD - I : -kl2 +912. Herrce, ft : 9.
20. Wlren the polynornial is divided by n- 1, the rernairrder is 5(1)5 +4(t)4 +k(1)3 +2(D2 +(1)+ 1:
i{ + 13. T}re remainder is 15 w}rerr k + 13 - 15 k :2.
22. Wherrthepolynornialisdividedbyz*l,therernairrderis2(-1)3-(-1)2+(k+1)(-1)+10: -k+6.
The remairrder is 7';2 w6err _k _t 6 : k2 3 Q : k2 + k _ 6 : (k+ 3)(k _ 2) :_+ k : _8,2.
24. For r - 2 and :r - 5 to be factors of the polynomial, r: 2 and r: 5 rnust be zeros,

0 : (2)5 fiQ)4 + h,Q)3 + kQ)2 + 224(2)


- - r20 0 : (5)t - 1b(b)4 + h(b)3 + k(b)2 + 274(s) - r20
: 8h + 4k + 220, : 125h, + 25k - 5000.

Tlre solutiorr of these equations is h 85 and k: -225. :


26. If dr, d2, and o3 are the zeros of the polynornial an3 + br2 + ct: I d, then
o,:f a l1x;2 + cn + d,: o,(n - a)(t: - a2)Q: - a3).

Wherr we expand the riglrt side, we get

o,t:3 +bt:2 rcrrd: o,[.r:3 - (.. + o,2+ o,l)ftz I (a1a2r a2a3*o1o3)u -a1a2as].
When we equate coeficients of ;t2 attd r, and the constant coefficients, we obtain
b - -o,(c-tl a2 I as), c: o,(ataz -f a2as * o1o3), d,: -o,(6-t6zas).
These give the regrired results.
28. If ctrt(t2t...on are the zeros of the polynorialo,rt:n +..'+o,rjr+a0, then
an:L^ + o,n-1,Ln-t "'I oa:t: * o,o: o,n(L - o1)(:l - tr) "'(:r - an)'

When we expand the riglrt side, we get


a,n!r:nI(tn-y:Ln-r-..]_a,tnla,s-o,nlrn-(or+o, l...o,n)rn-l +...*(-1)t(o1az-..o.)].

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Solutiorrs to Even-mrrnbered Exercises r47

(c) Sirrce divisors of -4 are +I, +2, i4, and those of -1 are 11, possible rational zeros are tl,
+r/2, +r/4.
10. (a) Since coefficients of P(r) : 615 * 2na +7t:3 +2x2 I t:I6 have no sign changes, the polynomial
lra^s rro positive zeros. Becarrse P(-r) :
-6t:5 ! 2# - 7n3 + 2r2 - r * 6 has five sign changes, the
polyrrornial has either 5, 3, or 1 negative zero.
(b) Since rnax{2, 7,2,1,6) : 7, aII zeros satisfy lrl < (7 l6) + I : 1316.
(c) Since divisors of 6 are +1, +2, +3, +6, possible rational zeros are +\, +2, +3, +6, +112, +912,
+I13, +213, {1/6. We carr elirninate all positive r,ahres orr t}re basis of (a) and -3 arrd -6 on the
ba^sis of (b).
t2. (a) Since coefficients of P(r) : :I:4 - n3 - t:2 - :t:, - I have orre sign cltange, the polyrrornial ha^s
exactly orre positive zero. Becalrse P(-r) : xa lt:3 -12 ln-L ha^s three sign charrges, the
polyrrornial has eitlier 3 or 1 negative zeros.
(b) Since rnax{l,1,1,1}: 1, all zeros satisfy lrl < (t/t) -ll:2.
(c) Since divisors of 1 are t1, possible rational zeros are tl.
r4. (a) Since coefficients of P(z) : 3n3 +3r2 -2n14 have two sign changes, the polynornial ha^s either
two positive zeros or rro positive zeros. Becatrse P(-r) : -3r3 +3n2 +2t:+4 has orre sign charrge,
the polynomial has exactly 1 negative zero.
(b) Since max{3, 2,4} : 4, al). zeros satisfy lnl < @13) + I : 713.
(c) Sirrcedivisorsof 3are+1,+S,arrdthose of 4are+.I,+2, t4,possiblerationalzerosare*1,
t2, +4, +113, +213, +4/3. We carr elirninate *4 on the basis of (b).
16. (a) Since coefficients of P(r) : 4ra + 3r3 - 2tt:2 -l :r: l 6 have two sign changes, the polynornial has
eitlrer two positive zeros or rro positive zeros. Because P(-r) : 4na - 3x3 - 2t:2 - x * 6 has two
sign charrges, the polyrromial has either two rregative zeros or rro rregative zeros.
(b) Sirrce max{3,2,L,6}: 6, all zeros satisfy lr'l < (614) * l:512.
(c) Since divisors of 4 are +I, X2, i4, and those of 6 are *1, 12, +3, i6, possible rational zeros
are +1, +2, +3, +6, +If 2, +312, +114, +3/4. We can elimirrate *3 arrd t6 orr the ba^sis of (b).
18. (a) Since coefficients of P(r) : 4:t:3 + 1 have rro sign changes, the polynornial has no positive zeros.
Becarrse P(-") : -4r3 * t has one sigrr charrge, the polynomial has exactly 1 negative zero.
(b) Since max{l} : 1, all zeros satisfy lt:l < $l\ + I:514.
(c) Since divisors of 4 are +I, +2, t4, and those of 1 are t1, possible rational zeros are +I, +lf 2,
IIl4. We can eliminate the positive values orr the ba^sis of (a).
20. (a) Since coefficients of P(n) : 2r5 * 3r * 16 have no sign changes, the polynornial has no positive
zeros. Because P(-e;) : -2n5 - 3a * 16 has one sign chalge, the polynornial has exactly 1 negative
zeto.
(b) Since rnax{3,16}: 16, all zeros satisfy lnl < (1612) * 1: 9.
(c) Sirrce divisors of 2 are +t, +2, and those of 16 are +I, +2, +4, +8, t16, possible ratiorral zeros
are +1, +2, +4, +8, +16, II12. We can eliminate positive vaLues on the ba^sis of (a), and -16 on
the ba^sis of (b).
22. (a) Since coefficients of P(r): I6na l5n3 -24have one sign change, the polynornial ira^s exactly
one positive zero. Becarrse P(-e;) : l6ra - 5n3 - 24 has orre sign change, the polynornial }ia^s
exactly one negative zero.
(b) Sirrce rnax{5, 24} : 24, aII zeros satisfy lrl < Qalrc) + | : 512.
(c) Since divisors of 16 are +1, +2, +4, +8, f 16, and those of 24 are +I, +2, +3, +4, +6, +8,
+t2, +24, possible rational zeros are +1, +2, +3, +4, +6, +8, +12, +24, +112, +312, +I14,
+314, +118, +3/8, +ll16, +3116. We carr eliminate +3, +4, +6, +8, t12, arrd L24 on the ba^sis
of (b).
24. Descartes' rule indicates rro positive zeros, and with P(-e;) : -:r3 I 4t2 - I2n -f 9, there are
three rregative zeros or one rregative zero. Possible rational zeros are -1, -3,-9 (and Theorem 3.9
eliminates rrorre of them). Since r:
-1 is azeroln3 +4n2 Il2n: g: (r* 1)(r2 l3t:i_9). The
relnalnlng zeros are-3+/9=6
2
: -r.3 ' 3/3 ,.
2

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Sohrtiorrs to Even-rnrrnbered Exercises t49
that divide evenly into n61; that is, absohrte values of zeros a^s preclicted by the Ratiorral Root
Tlreorern are all less or equal to lo,sl. Since A,I +l > lr.rol, Theorern 3,9 elirninates none of these.

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Sohrtiorrs to Even-nurnbered Exercises 151

fillii)
(c) Wherr we add the rnatrices irr parts (a) and (b), the result is Row 2 ha^s

the lareest sum so that office two has the most influence.

4.2 Matrix Multiplication


2. DA: (1(1) - 3(3) + o(2)) : (-8)
4. Sirrce the rnrrnber of colurnns of .4 is not eqrral to the mrrnber of rows of E, this product is not
defined.

6.
"':(i zil (i;l) :(s
i s)
Sirrce B is an identity rnatrix 2KB:r": ('^ S)

Io. DG: (1, -3,0) (i il) : (1,0,0)

12. Since FG:


fi ;s) ft I l) (i I s )' ',
r'u'*'
'lt'"

E(FG): (i,a l)(s s s):(i s

14. FC: (: ; il) (s ;6i) :(l i s :)

lilt-' ll) (+ ,iil)


IA. CTJ:
ft
sAr A --3(1, 3, 2) (i) :,r,

":(-+ i l) (s ; s) (+
22. The rrurnber assigrtrnent to the characters in the message is
i)
A t t ac k a t s i x a rn
r 20 20 1 3 11 27 | 20 27 19 I 24 27 1 28 13 28

We pair ruunbers irr cohrmn vectors

(;), ('i), (,1), (T), (i?),(f), (i+),(' ) (;3)


We now ca.lculate

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Solutions to Even_mrmbered
Exercises
L53
28. force evahtating matrices on borh
.Tiltl'i:.i: ffi}|.Hi: sides of the eq'arion. However, the

(B + Iz)3 (B + h)(B + rz)(B + 12): (B


+ 12)(82 1_ Brzf_ r2B + rr)
(B + 12)(82 + 28 + Iz) B(82 :
+ 28 + 12) + 12(82 + zi + h)
(83 + znz+ B) + (82 + za + 12) _f : Bs + BB, BB 1 Jr.
In other words, we rnust prove that :
As (B a lr)".Brrt this is obvious since B i 12 : n.

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Solutions to Even_nurnbered Exercises lbb
4' one vector in the Pla'e,is(3, 4, r-) slce (t,
is a second point i' the plane, a second
- -2)
u-l
irrtlrepiarre is(2,-4,3)-(1, _5,_2): ('t,t,b). vector
Avector"o.r.r"rrtothepla'eis

li nj kl,l : (19, _14, _1).


'^"\ x (1,1, b) : lS
(3,4,1)
jr 1 5l
Tlte equationof the plane is g:
(19, _L4,_I).\:t_2,!1_4,2_3) :
Igt:_I4y_ z_gL
Two lines determine u
jf they are parallel or they i'tersect. si'ce these
(a vector alorrg each is 9lT":iry
(3,4, 1)), they deterrnl'e a plane si""; lines are parallel
onthelines,asecondvectorintheplarreis(1,0, ai,0. -2) an<t (-r,2,-b) are points
to the plane is -2)-(-r,2,-b):(2,-2,3). Avectornorrnal

(3,4,1) x(2,-2,r, :li j Tl: (r4,-7,-r4), a^sis (2, -1 _t\


lz _2 3l
8. T*::$'#f"1"'.i,ll,',:*?ni:l,I,(,?;:# #;;r: i,,, *2) :2n - v -2z -6
or they intersect. The vectors (I,2,4) ana (ii_t,O)
are norrnal to the planes r: -f 29 l4z:21 and
:- A + 6z:13, respectively.
(r,-1,6
A vector alorrg the line
determined by these planes is (?

ij kl (r6,-2,-3)
(I,2,4) x (1, -1, 6) : I2 : ttu -2' -3)
1 -1 t |
si'ce 0,5) is a vector alo'g the seconcl li'e, the given lirres
(3'
are parallel To ens're that
:L:j'ffiTl:f:"i 2+3t,,?t_: a, a,,d
"::
f,',"0*,jli:":2r =-+rf :1. Thisgivest'e poi't
giving (2+3t)+s+4(-3+br)
_3*brr z:
'ot irrto :t:_2yr4z:2r
: (b",4;;;;;rff,;;;r::
* 6z 13' The lines there bre intersect at this point. A u".to, norrnal
i"- ' to the required plane

a
I j kl
(16,-2, -3) x (3,0,b) : 16
3
-3 -;l : (-10' -8e' 6)
Tlreequationof theplarreistherefore6:(10,gg,_6).(n_2,y_4,2*B)):102*g9g_
6z_Jg4.
10. (a) Sirrce the vectors (L,I,
--4)
10, respectively, a vector along
and (2, S, b)
_ure
norrnal to the planes rlA_42: 6 and 2n1_3g+bz :
their lirre of intersectiorr is

(1,1,-4) x(2,3,r) :li t jl:,rr,-13,1)


3 12 5l
Since the plane is to be perpendic'lar to the ely-plane,
normal to the required plarre is
f rnust also lie in the plarre, ancl a vector

ij kl
(r7,-r3,1)xk: L7 -13
00 ,tl:,-tt,-17,0).
sinceapointontheplaneis(g,-2,0),theequatio'ofthepraneisg:(13,
13:r*l7ll - 70. sirnilar derivations give the other two eqratiorrs.
rT,0).(:r-g,y12,z):
12. Para"rnetric equations of the line are

:r:II2t, U:-I+4t, z:B_Bt.

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Sohrtions to Even-rnrrnbered Exercises
757

Chapter 6 Solving Systems of Linear Equations


6,2 Gaussian Elimination and Row Echelon Form
2' We preserrt a sequence of elernentary row operatiorrs that lead to a row
echelon forrn for the
augmented matrix of the given system. You may, however,
use a different sequence of operations,
resulting in a different row echelon form. The solution of the system,
however, must be the same.

(: -.1 n.l 1\ -Rz--RrtRz lr-r4 _r0l-rolRz--RstRz 4l7\


l1 3 -6l-1ll lo
\2 r -41-to/ Rs--2RrjRs, -+ \o 3 _L2l_24/ Rs_Rs/S

-+ (t i' i^ -1r) R, -..+ (: ;' i, lrr)


", - -Rz*
^, - -Rst6

)
We now convert this augrnerrted matrix to an equivalent system of eqlations,

:r - y -l 4z:7,
tt-t2z:4.
z:2.
When we s'bstitute z:2 into the second eq'ation, we obtain

Y+2(2):a + a:0.
When we strbstitute U : 0 arrd z : 2 into the first equation, we get
n-0-r4(2):7 =+ r:-r.
4' We present a sequence of elernerftary row operations that leacl to a row echelon forrn
fbr the
augmented matrix of the given system. You may, however, use a different sequence
of operations,
resulting in a different row echelon form. The solution of the system, however, must
be the same.

lz 1 -3o_l.u.
1+\R,--n, # /t _t
I
ol6\
t1 .t -6114/
\5 L lRr_.R, lz 1 _6lu)
_3 lnlnr-_2Rrttz
\s n"__rn,+ns
(r -1 0 6\ /t -1 o
€ l0 3 _3
-a | + lo 3 _3 Rz/3
\0 6 -6 -r6f fuu -2Rz*Rs \o 0 0 *) "' -

We now convert this augrnerrted matrix to an equivalerrt systern of equations,

t:-U:6,^
d
a_z:_3.
When we solve the second of these for y irr terrns of z, we obtain
!! : z - B/8. We now substitute
this into the first equatiorr,

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Solutions to Even-rnrrnberecl Exercises
159

:I:-i, z lJ: 702 zarbifuary.


,,
We present a sequence of-elernentary row operations tirat lead to a row
echelorr forrn fbr the
augmented matrix of the given system. You may, however, use
a different sequence of operations,
resulting in a different row echelon form. The solution of the
system, however, must be the same.
1\R' R3 /t -3-3 2\
(i -I l, -31
2/n' ft1
+ Iz _t 4 4 | Ar- -2Rtt Rz
\l I
-4| Rt*-3rQrf / fte

2\
-+ (t l'il -7 1

(: ild
.l\
"l
-5/ Rst-Rz*Rs - ;')
When we corrvert the last row to an equation, we get 0 :
2, an irnpossibility . The systern has no
solutions; it is inconsisterrr.
12' We present a seqlrence of elernentary row operations that leacl to a row eclelon
forrn for the
augmented matrix of the given system. You may, however, use
a different sequence of operations,
resulting in a different row echelon form. The solution of ihe system,
however, must be the same.

ki, i ;)
"..+
-Es * Rr
-) (i ':' -a\
u o, - -2Rr* Rz
': 7 /I Rs--3fir*fis
-4
(; j,
I Rz --+ -Rz
-3\
t4
-----+
-r -r2 |
16/ Rs-TRzlRs
2 -4 2-4
1
-9 1-9
0 -49 *) r, - -Rz/4e -+ (: 0l
'We
rrow convert this augrnerrted rnatrix to an equivalerrt systern of equations,

t-1 21t-42:-3,
A-Sz--12,
68
": N'
wlren we s'bstitute z:68/4g i'to the secorrd eq'ation, we obtairr

,-ef9):-n
\4e / - u:-r2*W:21
49 49'
Wlren we substit'te y :2ala9 and z : 6814g into the first equation, we get

,*t(y\_r/68\__" 48.272
r:-3-*+ 11
'\n)-4(4eJ:-3 *:,
14. We present a seqlrence of elernentary row operatiorrs that lead to a row echelon form fbr
the
augmented matrix of the given system. You may, however, use a different sequence of operations,
resulting in a different row echelon form. The solution of the system, howevei, must be
the same.

(i l,i j:):'^::,." + (i r-o


11
-1 1
-22\
, |^r--2RrIRz
-I / Rt -2Rt I Rs
---+

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Sohrtions to Even-mrrnbered Exercises 161

/r -3 I 0 0
Io 41 o
+
fii+
2 2
lo -g 3 Rs ---+ I Rs
-4Rz -o Rz --+ 2Rt+ R'J
\o 4 z -l Ra - -4Rzl Ra -9

/L -3 r 0 0
f0 1 0 2 2
0 1
fi i'i
|

- [0
\0 0 2 -23 -23
-9 DT Rq - R+/37

_o\
;'l
-26 |
I/
We now corrvert this arrgrnented matrix to an equivalent systern of eqrrations,
t:-39lz:-9,
g l2u:4,
z-23u:-26
w:L
Wren we substitute ur : 1 into the third eqrratiorr, we get
z - 23(L): -26 + z: -3.
When we substitute rl : 1 into the second equation, we find

v+2$):a + v:2'
Finally, substitutirrg A :2, and z : -3 into the first equation gives
t:-3(2)-3:-g + :r:0.
We preserrt a sequence of elernerrtary row operations that lead to a row echelon forrn for the
augmented matrix of the given system. You may, however, use a different sequence of operations,
resulting in a different row echelon form. The solution of the system, however, must be the same.
4\ /1 2 -3 1

G i !-tt -5 lRz--2Rt+Rz
t I Re--ftr*Re
l0
Io
-7
-1
7 -4
-l b
0 / R4--4RrlRq \0 -8 6 1

/I 2 -3 1

-5 lo l 1 -b
-4 Rt ---+ 7Rz -f Rs
- [o o 14 -39
1 Rs --+ 8Rz -l R+ \0 0 14 -39 i) Rs ---t -Rs I R+

2-3 1 1
I r -o
0 14 -39
000
We now convert this augrnented rnatrix to an equivalent systern of equations,
ftiT -3elL4
0

rI2y-3zIw:4,
A+z-bto:3,
394
147

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Sohrtions to Even-mrrnbered Exercises 168

(-3'1 - *: -u
ur s"\-86/-+3--u + u:-b+ loo | 80:
n'+g -784J'
a: -78143, z: -25186, and rr.r:80/43 into the first equation gives
Firrally, substituting

.".,,( z8\ ^( 25\ 12l;l--2


r+4t--l-ttl-;l "/s0\ A + r:-2 4' ^ 312 Tb 160--43e
\ 43) \ 86/'-\43) 4{ $-43
6.3 Gauss-Jordan Elimination and Reduced Row Echelon Form
2. We present a sequence of elernentary row operations that lead to the reducecl row echelon forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
since the redlrced row echelort forrn is unique, yorr rmrst arrive at the same augrnerrtecl rnatrix.

/r -1 4 7\ /t -r 4 I\
+
Ui-t -13lRz--Rr;'Rz
-10/ fu.--2Rt1 Rs lO 4
\O 3
-10 -20 |
_r2 -24 /
Rz- -Rz1r Rz
Rs --+ Rsl3

-+ (: l' 1^
;l
-o/
Rt - Rzl Rt
+
(::j, :l')
Rs - -Rz] Rs
-Rst6
^,...+
06
I2
01 T)
Rr--6Ra*Rr
Rz -+ -2Rt I Rz .+(iri r)
The solutiorr of the systern is r : -1, !/ -
0, z :2.
4. We present a sequence of elemerrtary row operations that lead to the reduced row echelon forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
since the redtrced row echelon forrn is unique, you must arrive at the same augrnerrtecl rnatrix.

(i -l' i t^)E::fr: + (i I' i l)", --2Rt


14/ &--5Rr
Rz
r?s

Ir -1 o
# l0 3 -3
\o 6 -6 Rs--2Rz*Rs
+
(; B'+ Rz --+ Rz/3

-1 0 6 \ Rl --+RztRt
1 -1 -8l3 + (ii,1
00 o/ I

We now convert this augrnerrted rnatrix to an equivalent systern of equatiorrs,


10
o,
nt

A-r:-i.
When we solve tltese for :r: and g irr terms of z, we obtain the infinity of solutions

:t-zI 10 A:z- 8 ,.
zarbifiary.
,, 3,
6. We present a sequence of elernentary row operations that lead to the reduced row echelorr forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
since the reduced row echelon forrn is unique, you rmrst arrive at the same augmerrted rnatrix.

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Sohrtions to Even-mrrnbered Exercises 16b

1-2. We present a sequence of elernentary row operatiorrs that lead to the reduced row echelon forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
sirrce the reduced row echelorr forrn is unique, you rmrst arrive at the same augmerrted rnatrix.

"'--Rs*Rr + (i 3,i Rz- -2Rt-t Rz


i) Rs--3.tRr*Rs

-4 Rr ---+
-2Rz I Rt
a
1A
Rz --+
-Rz ------+
(: l, -r
Rs ---+ 7Rz * Rs

I4 Rr ---+
-14Ra f Rr
-9
-49 Rs - -Rtl49
(: rT Rz --+ 9RB, -f Rz

lr 0 0 rrlz \
+ z+i+s
l: ;? 6814s /
I

The sohrtiorr of the systern is n : II 17 , Il : 241 49, z : 681 49.


14. We present a sequence of elernentary row operatiorrs that lead to the reduced row echelon forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
sirrce the reduced row ecltelon form is uniqrre, yorr must arrive at the same augrnented rnatrix.

-4 -15\t_ Rr -
_Rz 1 Rt 1-5 -tc \
1
al rl- (, 11 7 | Rz - -2Rrl Rz
t-
2 -2 / R"- Rsl2 -1 1 -I / R" - -2p,rl Rs
1 1
-o -22 \ Rt --+
-Rz I Rr
I -5r I
-1
-,f
11
11
(r -J
-11
11 43/ Rs --+ 3Rz * Rs
o 6 29\ Rr*-6Rs*Rr
-11 -11 -g' I
R2 --+ llRs I R2
-22 R3---+ -R3122 I o/

(ir? t)
The solutiorr of the system is r : -1, U : 4, z : 5.
16. We preserrt a seqlrence of elernerrtary row operations that lead to the reduced row echelon forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
since the reduced row echelon forrn is uni<lre. vou rmrst arrive at the same augmented rnatrix.

(z t\ t nr --RztRr
-1
4l\
1

l4 3 -2 6 lnr+-2R1 Rz €
\o -1 1 -a/ Rt - -3Rr Rs -7/ Rt--4RzfRs
--+ Ra * Rr
(: :il Rs "+ R3f 4

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Sohrtions to Even-rnrrnbered Exercises 167

/ro 0I 0o -4rlr4
f
' l0 -Jrlrl
0 1 -3elr4
\0 0 0 0
We now convert this augmented rnatrix to an equivalerrt systern of equatiorrs,

1)
4lw 6
t4 7',
JL'U I I
a t+ 7'
- 39tu
-147'
4

Wlren we solve for r, y, antd z irr terrns of 'u, we get

,,:ry14 +9. t, 39ut 4


Z, u 14 .' T, t: * + 7,
,,:3to, rr.r arbitrarY'

22. We present a sequence of elernentary row operations that lead to the reduced row eclielon forrn
for the augmented matrix of the given system. You may, however, use a different sequence of
operations, resulting in a different row echelon form. The solution of the system, however, must
be the sarne.
/3 r -2 1 Rr--RzlRr /r 4 -6 2
lz -3 4 -r l2 -3 4 -r Rz ---+
-2Rr + Rz

[3 1 0 4 [3 1 0 4 Rs*-3Rr*fts
\0 3 -2 1 \0 3 -2 I
4-O , -62 Rr ---+
-4Rz + Rr
-11 16 6 -r
-11 18 o 18 -2 l1Rz -| Rs
fi 3-2 'I
-2 1 ,i) Rs
Rs
---+

- -3Rzt Rq

0 -38 o 0 o
1B -1 J
r8-38 -1
0 106 -13 Rs --+ 4RtI Rs 02 J
fi 0 -26 4 fi 0 -26 4 ,{) R+ ---+ l3Rt -f Rq

o 0 -38 6 Rr -+ 38Re * Rr
6 Rz - -8Re]_ Rz
Rs' Rsl2 #
-1 1
-t-
J 0 r 312
+J ft 0 043
0 063 ftr--63r?tlR1
I 0 -13 Rz ---> ISRt -l Rz
0 t 312 Rs ---+ -3Raf 2 -l Rs
Rt - Rtl43 0 01

+
Tlte sohrtion of tlte systern is
fii:r
r: -gl43,A: z:
-78143, -25186,u:80143.
24. No back substitutions are necessary when the augmented rnatrix is in reduced row ecltelon form.

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Sohrtions to Even-nurnbered Exercises 169

ft I f2:500,000,
fr - fq,: 250,000,
fz - fs: 50,000,
fs * fa: 200,000.

The augrnerted rnatrix is


500, 000\ /I 1 0 0 500,000 \ R, -- Rz I Rr
f o -1 0 R, -- -Rz
ftii''' lRr-_Rr1Rz
250, 000
| 1 -1 -250,000 | Rr -- Rz-l Rt
50, ooo
200, ooo/\oorl
[o -1 o 50,000 I
200,000 /

/I 0 0 250,000\ 00 -1
lo I o -11
250,000
r | 25o.ooo I 101 250,000
\
o
-lo\o o -1 -rl-zoo,ooof Rs--Rr 011 200, 000
|

l r 2oo,ooo / Ra-,Rs-rRq
| 00 0 /
Wrerr we corrvert back to equations, we obtain

fr : fn + 250,000, fz:250,000 - /a, 000 - /4


To maintain flow directions in the figure, we would require 0 a fn < 200,000.
30. We let :r, y, and z represerrt the rurrnber of glasses of skirn milk, the rmrnber of orre-quarter polrrd
portiorrs of lean red meat, arrd the rrurnber of double slices of whole wheat bread, respectivley.
Therr, these variables rnust satisfv the eouatiorrs

0.1r * 3.49 -f2.22 : I2.L,

'n::iSilii:::i:,;
The augrnented rnatrix associated with these equations is
/ o.t J.4 2.2 rz.r\ Rr- fts € / t 20 12 70\
97 f Rr--t0^R1 lt J4 22 12llt- Rz--RrtRz
f'l iz ii 70 / Rs---+ 2R2 \ rz 44 20 194/ h --+ -17Rr * Rs

+ /t 20 12 70 \ /r 20 12 70\
lo 14 10 51 I lo 14 10 51
-996/ Rt--Rsl4 -
I
\0 -2e6 -r84 \0 74 46 249/ P' .--5ft2*Ra
/t 20 12 70\ /r 20 12 70
# lo M 10 srf nr-Rs/2 2 -2
{o 14 _J

\o 4 -4 -6/ Rt-Rz - \0 10 51 )

+ /t o 82 + (g 100
lo 2 -2 ;#) Rst24
!3 -J
\0024 + Z J )
",
+ (i 3? i) ",-Rzt2 -+ (: ll ,1,)

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Solrrtions to Even-mrrnbered Exercises t77
/r 0 6 2
+ l0
[0
\0
r 2
0 3 2
0 -21 -9
/r 0 0
1

Rr 2R+-t Rr
fiiii R+'-+ Raf 5

-2 --+

-+ ll s;+
Rz
Rs--+
--+ -Rs
-2R+l Rs
€I Rz

fi''i q) Rs -+ Rs/3

/I 0 0 0
+ I € for oo
ft;;i
Rz --+
-2Rs Rz

\3 3r?
Tlre sohrtion of the system is :l: -3, A:4/3, z:1313, a1{ ur : -6. The rnrnber of variables is
n : 4 and the rank of the augrnented rnatrix is r : 4, arrd therefor e n - r: 0. This is the mrrnber
of parameters irr the solution.

L0. We present a sequence of elernentary row operatiorrs that lead to the redrrced row echelon form for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
sirrce the reduced row echelon form is rrnique, yorr rmrst arrive at the same augrnented rnatrix.

4L 7\ /r -1 4l
(il' -6 -2 -tSlRz--RttRz
-40 -10 , R3 ---+ -2art Rs
-6 -1 0 / R4---+-4RrlR+
lO
Io
\0
4
B
7
-10 -3 -zofnr--RstRz
-t2 -2 -24 |
-22 -5 -28 /
1 Rt --+ Rz I Rr /I 0 6 0
j,, lo | 2
-+
fit -1
-2 Rs
R+
--+
-3Rz
- -TRzI R+
* Rs I0 0
l" -lR I
\0 0 -36 2
-1

60
2 -1
_18 I
0 0 +)
The systern is consistent; there is rro solution.

12. We preserrt a sequence of elementary row operatiorrs that lead to the reduced row ec|elorr forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
since the redrrced row ecltelorr forrn is urrique, yorr rmrst arrive at the sarne augrnerrted rnatrix.

4I
-
1
-1
-J
0 :) *t -,:rl;: fi
A

J
-10 -4
-r2 -2
Rz
- -Rs* Rz

-1 0/ R4 - -3Rr * fta \O 4 -r4 -4 t) Ra --+ Ral2

4I Rr :Rz*Rt 06 -1
2-2 Io t2 -2
-12 -2 Rs'-+ * Rs t0 0 -18 4 Re - Rsl2
-7 -2 i) Rn- -3Rz
-2Rz -t R+ \0 0 -11 2 t)

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Sohrtions to Even-nurnbered Exercises 773

/r -1 4
Rz--RtIRz la
t;
n

Rs+ -2Rr]_Rs € ; -10


Rz --+ -Rs* Rz

GT -2 i) Rq --+
-4Rt t Rt \0 7 -t2
-22 il Rs - RslS

+fti'1 t) Rr

Rs
--+

---+
Rz

-Rz I Rs
I Rr

-+
ft; _i
0\
s) Rs - -Rs/6
R+
- -7Rz l- Rs 0/ R+
- -R+/36
/l 0 6 Rr--6Ra*Rr /l 0 0

# [o | 2 Rz--2RzlRz + lo 1 o

\3 31 t) Rs --+ -Rt t Rs l': Bt t)


Tlre sohrtiorr of the systern is t: lJ: z:0. Themrrnber of variabies is n:3 and the rankof
tlre augrnented rnatrix is r: 3, and therefor e n -r: 0. This is the mrrnber of pararneters in the
solutiorr.

20. We present a sequence of elementary row operations that lead to the reduced row echelon forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
sirrce the reduced row echelon forrn is unique, you rnust arrive at the sarne augmerrtecl rnatrix.

0\ R1-+ ft2
(;ir, 3)
o''
^'
......+
(ii-r t)
Rz
Ea
--+
---+
-2Rr I
-5Rr *
Rz
Bs

1 Rt ---+ I Rr
_J
-6 t) Rs
Rz
--+
- -Rz
-2Rz* Rz
-----+
(iis t)
-2Rz

u-o
IO
00 t)
Wherr we convert back to eouations. we obtairr

t:-5z:0, ylJz:0,
from which n:52, lJ: -32, where z is arbitrary. We write the sohrtions in the form

/,\y /s"1 /s\


flt
I l: | -s"l:"1 -sl.
\,/ \"/ \r/
The basic solutiorr is z : 5, a : -2, z : L

22. We present a seqlrence of elernentary row operations that lead to the reduced row echelon forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
since the reduced row echelon form js unique, you must arrive at the same augrnented rnatrix.

R1 --+ Rs
Rz --+ -SRt I Rz

fi r !::,
+

t)
Rs ---+ Rr
fi :,'i+, t) Re ---+ -2Rt
R+ - -Rtl
I Rs
R+

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Sohrtions to Even-numbered Exercises L75
n 26. Tbue

28. Fa.lse s'ppose the red'ced row ec'eion ,".* ,.


fi i i | ;)
\o o olo/
30. i, (l ?
-;
False Srrppose the reduced row echelon forrn ; | 3)
ho*og")j'.?r.rl--.0 | /
t
32. Fa,lse Basic sohrtions can exist only ro.
34. False Homogeneous systerns with an infinity of solutions have nontrivial solutions.

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Solutions to Even-mrrnbered Exercises t77
we factor -1 frorn each row, and then expand alorrg the bottorn row,

lr 5 ro rl
D :al5 2 l:412(20_5)_1(14_5)_5(35_50)l:3s4.
12 1 _51

r4. Wecanfactor-1 fromeachof therowsof l-,41. If ,4ha^snrows(andcolumns),theeffectisto


have (-1)" rntrltiplying l,4l; rtrat is, l-ll : (-1).lAl.
16. (a) If the determinant is expanded along the first row, the result will have the form Ay:IB7IC :0,
wlrere ,4., B, arrd C are corrstants, the equation of a straiglrt lirre. If we set n and. y in the first
row equal to either Ix1 and '!/r, or !L2 and y2, then two rows becorne identical, arrd the vahre of
tlre deterrnirrant is 0. This rneans that the points (tl,yt) arrd (n2, Uz) arc orr the iirre; that is, the
equatiorr is the equation of the line through (U,Ur) and (r:2,y2).
(b) If we s'bstit'te the points (1, 1) and (-2,3), the deterrninant becornes

n 11 1
0: 111 - r(r - 3) - y(t + 2) + 1(3 + 2) : -2r - 3y r b,
-2 31
or,2nl3A:5.
18. A determinant defining the equation of the parabola is

0:

20. If we add negative 1 tirnes col runrr 1 to every other colurnrr, we obtain
a,l b -b -b A

b0 0
0 0b
I
a 00 h
nxn
We now add every row to row one,

nxn
Sirrce the rnatrix is now lower triangular, its determinant is the product of its diagonal entries
(na * b)b-T.
7.2 Cramer's Rule
Ir -cl
Z. Since
lj _;l: -3+4:1, we rnayuse Cramer'snrle to calculate

,:ry :_2t*10:_11, r:ry:5_14:_e

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Sohrtions to Even-nurnbered Exercises
1-79

-2 lr -6 -31
l1
46 t, 10
lr -2 -21
l1 -2 4 rl
t1
l- 0 -6 -31
t?
4 -4 0l o
4 rl
'n: t,t 0 -r -,I 0 -6 -31
0 4 2l
0 _, _91
Ir
., lr
ti
r2g
-46 1: 23-[1(-8
+ +) + 6(-8 - 6) - 3(-8 _ r2)]: _+,
lr
l1
l1 3

123
13 1
l1 -1
rl1 3 -2 1l
0 -31
naln I 0 2l
13 1 0 -21
1D ol
-gro
-ol
2^l: - 2) - 3(_8 _ 6) _ 3(4 _ 3)l :
1

40o1
OI _9 1
-;le2
-a -
35
231
'l
r1 -1 4 -21
tr
I

3 -6 0l
t,
I

4l 4
le
e
-4 l1 -1
3 _6 0l
_21
1
-2 0l 111
*ln rr 4 ol
lB -2 o
2lr 3 _61:
I

: *II
'13 Ir 1l
,
ritt e2-4)_B(_8 _12)_6(4_3)t :
-2ll 'u #
t2. (a) Sirrce the direction of current h
- iz tlrrough R2 is determirrecl by the sigl of EtRs
the vahre of R2 does not affect the direction. - EzRt,
(b) The sign of EtRs- -E2R1 deterrnines the direction of c'rrent through
82.
L4. (a) Equations determirring the loop currents are

Er - Ez: Rir -f R2(fi - i2), Ez: Rsiz + Rz(i,2 - i).


These can be written irr the form

(Rt -t Rz)h - Rziz: Er - Ez,


-Rzh -r (Rz -t Rs)iz: Ez.

(b) sirrce n -l&t+^n' Rz-r


| -nz ^-Rz- : *
l:,o,
R, I lh + Rz)(Rz r R3) - R3: RrRz-r RzRs+ Rs'Rr,
we carr rrse Crarner's nrle to calculate

lE'- E, Rz-r
-R2
,- _ | E2
|

Rsl @, + ns)(El -
,t:---f, _ Ez) + EzRz

&(Rz*Ri-EzRs
RtRz -l RzRs -t RsRt'

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Sohrtions to Even-nurnbered Exercises
181
10. Since
2L-241 2r _6 1
0 1 4 31 0 1 0 0
3 1 r zl: s 1 _3 _1
4 2 3 11 4 2 _5 _5
: 2(75 _ 5) + 6(_15 + 4) + 1(_15 + 12) + 0,
the vectors are linearly independent.

12. Since lz r rl
-,1 t^ .:l:2(50 - 14) - 3(-10 + 28)+ I(2 _20):
. l4 _2 10
| 0, rhe vecrors are linearty ctepen_
I
dent. Consider solvirig the equatiorr
(3,5, 8) : Cr(2, -I,4) + C2(3,b, -2) + Cs(t, _7,I0),
for c1, c2, arrd Cs. wiren we equate cornponents, we
obtain the scalar eq'ations
2Ct*3Cz*Cs:8,
-Cr I 5C2 - lQ3: g,
4Ct-2Cz+10C3:8.
The augrnented matrix is

3\ nt - -Rz tr
7
(,^, ':, ; 5| Rz Rt
8/ Rt-Rs/2
---+ ------+ .l 1 Rz ---+
-2Rr I Rz
G _l
Rs --+
-2Rt * Rs

7 -5\ _(,I 7 -o\


-ro
1t
::|^,-RztL3 (i 1
-1 1l
-9 I -u 14f xo--9Rz-rRs
7
-1
f)
1

0 0
This shows that the systern ha^s no solutions.
14. Not necessarily. For example, the vectors i, j, and i +j u1. lilearly dependent, and the first of
lh:tt.Tt^P"
expressed in terms of the other two, i: ti+ jl - j. On tn" otfier !ouu,
harrd, the
llrE vectors
VEUUUI!
i, j, and 2j are Iinearlydependent, but i cannot be expressed in terrns of j arrd zj wt
a set of
vectors is linearly deperrdent, at least one of the vectors is expressible "r,
in terrns of the otlers, but
every vector rreed not be expressible irr terrns of the others.
16. Since

lr 2r-3tP *rl
W(r,2t:-J*',:r21 :lI 2-6r. Z,t:l
:
lo _ -6 2l
n[2(2 6r) + r2:l _ r[2(2t: _ grr) * 622] : g,

the firnctiorrs are linearly dependent.


18. Since
ln x:e* r:2et
W(:r,:re' ,f e') : ll (:t -f l)e, (:r2 + 2t:)e*
I
o (n+2)e' (r'+ 4nr2)e*
:"1(r-tl)Q:2 I4na2)"'"-(t:-t2)(n2i2r)e2*l-r[r:(:r2-l4xI2)"r"_nz(:r+2)e2,]
a,3 p2x
-

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Solutiorrs to Everr-mrrnberecl Exercises
183

Chapter 8 Inverse Matrices


8.1 fnverse Matrices
2' Suppose to tlte contrary that ,4 is not sirrgular. It then has an irrverse A_L. Ifwe rmrltiply AB : o
on the left by ,4.-1, the result is

A-|AB: A-rO IB:O :+ B:O.


Brrt this contradicts the fact that B is nonzero. Hence .4 rmrst be
sirrgular.
4. No A sq'are zero matrix rmrltipJies every rnatrix to give a zero rnatrix.
6. If ,4 is an n x n diagorrar rnatrix with nonzero diagorral entries nii, 1,...,n,
rnatrix with diagonal errtries aii is the inverse of ,4..
If
- then the diagonal

8. If ,4 ha^s an inverse, therr rnultiply botir sides of A2 : Aby it,


A-t(A\: A-rA (A-LA)A: r =+ rA: r A: I.
8.2 Direct Method for Matrix Inversion
2. sirrce the rnatrix is not sq'are, it does not have an inverse.
4. /r 1 0\
tLo o
(t 3 | 1 o\
I

\2 0 0 r/ Rz--2Rr+nz - . \0 _al_z r) Rz - -Rz/6


31 0 t'* -SRz'r Rr II l0 1/2
(; r r/3 -1 €l
0
\
/6
) \0 l1/ 3 -116 )
r'e inverse matrix,, (rl, :(D: * (3 jr)
6'
G Sll ?) -.+-2R,*o, =
",
(l ,, I
-2 ?)
There is no inverse rnatrix.
8.

0 0 1\
(t;? s ; l) ", ::",-- (':,i 0 1 OfRz--4RrtRz
i 1 0 0/ Rs--+2R11Rs
0 0 1\
-(i i + I: +)^'.+Rzt"'-(i +; r 1 -2lnr--Rz 10 2/
0 0 t\
2 2 -3\
- -2RzIRt ------ /t 0
R,
-(i ;+ -r -1 zl lo 1 -1-1 2l
1 0 2/ Rr-, -6&zt Rs \O 0
7 6 -r0/
T
_3
2g P'a-Rsl23

2 2 -3 \ ft, -, -TRs*Rr
-_:
T/23 6l2s -ro/23 )
00 -3/23 4l2s rTzs \
10 -2123 -5/23 16/23 I
01 /23 6123 -10123 /
7

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Solutions to Even-nurnberecl Exercises
185
8 300 Rr -+ -9Es * Br
o
-i00 Rz - f-
(/2 r -r/2 _rl2 SRs Rz

-50 -13 i0 I Rt - -Rtl50


-47 /2 s/2 e/2
-6 _312
-(i,; 1,2

712
1
/.) 2 _3/2
L _rl2 _rl2
13150 -rl5 -e150
Rz
R1 -+

Re
---+

-
4TRa/2I Rr
-I7Rql2 + R2
-TRtl2-t Rs

/7 0 0 0 11/r00 -r/5 27/100


__-, {o I o o -2r/r00 r/5 31100
l0 01 0 9/100 r/5 13/100
\0 0 0 1 13/50 -r/5 _s/50

The inverse rnatrix i, a


100 (;' '4^:r$)
t'ii
16.

/I J 2 0 10 0 0\
Rz -+ -2Rr -l _ lo -T -b
i;*i)
Rz
-+ -Rs -f Rz
ft
1
-, 1
Rz
t0 2 |
Rt '-+
-3Rt I R+ \0-8-60
1 00
-30 :il
lL 3 2 0 Rr --+ I Rt lL 0 -1 _3
-2 -3 0 3\
1
i;;i)
-SRz
____ l0 1 1
__ l0 1 1 1 I o -1 |
2 |
[0 1 Rs --+
-2Rz -f Rs 0
1

\0-8-60 R+-8Rzi_Rq [0
\0 0 -1
2
_1
8
-: -: :,)
Re--Ra

c
-2 -3 0 ,, Rr * Er
-1 "
-(i; I'
---+ Ra o

-(i;:
0
1 110 \ 0 1

22-1 -1
1
bUU -;l Rz--Rs, Rz 1
-a
2 2
8
-T --+/ Rq -2Rs -t Ra o A

-2 0 -1 -1 1\ Rt I r/3
-(i;:
--+ 2Rq Rr 0 0 r/3
0 -1 -r 1 I
1 2 2 -1 _2 I | Rs - -R+l Rs
0
1
0
0
-1
Lu6 413
-1
I rl6 2/s r/J -r1z/ 0 1 1/6 2/3

rlre rnatrix'.
inverse
; (lt
i $ i)
18. Tlre coded message was -88, g1,2I,4,Ig,20,T1,31, 66,6, 10g,26, _82,I32, _I,4b,g0, 21. We triple
the nurnbers in cohrrrur vectors:

( ;i) (;1) (ij) (*) (,#) (;i)


We rrow rreed the irrverse of ,4.,

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Sohrtions to Even-nurnbered Exercises
187
If we denote the matrix by ,4, then
lAl _2(l - 4) : _ 2(4 _ 2)+ B(B _ t) : 28. Hence, the rnatrix
ha^s an inverse. First we forrn the rnatrix of rninors

2 z\
/_s _5
M:l-4 _6 I
\r -16 _rc)
Next, the matrix of cofactors is

": ( ,; _i
{,)
Firrally,

A-'!: l;c' : ( -:r :u )


tAt + ,r\, 6 _io)
10. Ifwe denote the rnatrix by ,4, then
l,4l : "'
1(-38 + 25) + I(22 _20) + 3(_10 + 12) :0. Herrce, the
matrix does not have an inverse.
72. If we denote the rnatrix by ,4., then
lAl:2(0 1) 4(0 _ 6) + I(4 _ :
ha^s an inverse. First we forrn the rnatrix of mirrors
- - 1g) S. Herrce, tle rnatrix
_6 _14\
*:l-,/ -t _2
-6 _r0/
-r2l
\1
Next, the matrix of cofactors is

": (l' + ;:)


Firrally,

n^-I
fr,c': * (-t ,: i,)
14. If we derrote the matrix by ,4, then

tAt:
t__l

ls
:(1)13 -6
2 -sl
1 l:5(_12+1)+6(_18_3)_e(_3_6):_100.
l3 -1 -61

The rnatrix therefore ha^s an inverse. First we forrn the matrix of mirrors. We shall not show the
calculatiorrs of the 25 3 x 3 deterrninantsl they are

/ -rI -2r -9 26 \
no_l-20 -20 20 20 I
"':|-r, 3 -r3 -18J'
\ -12 -32 -28 -8 /
Next, the rnatrix of cofactors is

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Solutions to Even-nurnbered Exercises
189

4. Consider finding the inverse of the coefficient matrix ,4 :


(i I' _!)
-1 4 4t1
o
1
-6
-1 s3i) Rz--RrlR2
Rg--RrfBa - (: 1' -10
<11
| -1
:i) Rz
- -2Bsf Rz

si'ce the inverse rnatrix does not exist, we consider the a'grnented rnatrix.
7\ /t
-trf R2--Rr+R2---*10 -1
4
4 -ro :-lz) R2t2
4/ n"*-RrFRa \O 2 -E "..+

-(i z' i 7\ I
-r0 |
-10/ fu- z' +
-RztRs -(i
Rz - Rzl2

7\ /r o
- (i i' -:{'
;)
o'- Rzt o'
- [3 t
s/2
-tJ'
We now convert this arrgrnerttecl rnatrix to an equivalent systern of equatiorrs,

,r,
,tz
-L
-2 -,

,-T:-r'
The system therefore has an infinity of solutions,

r:z-nt
^Jz5z U:T-5, arbitr v.

6. :(i
Consider finding the inverse of the coefficient matrix ,,A
?' i)
/tt -l 4lr oo\ /r
f s -olo t olRz--Rr+.R2------f o
\r 1 -110 0 r/ Rs*-Rr*Ra \o
4
2
-10
4
jr :?) Rz
- -2RsI Rz
-o

Since the inverse rnatrix does not exist, we corrsider the augrnented matrix.

o\ lr -1 4
olRz--Er+Rz----10 4 -t0
0/ R"--RrfRs 2 \O -b

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Solutions to Even-mrrnbered Exercises
191

-14_2 I 0 Rt --+ Rzl Rr


r2-2 1 I
3 -r2 5 -2 Rs --+ -3Rz * fie
ft 7-228 A
0
0 Rs - -TRzl Rs

06
L2
-4
-2
0 -18 11
2
1
1
1 t'
-o
ft 0 -36 22 -11 -t
-3J
i) Rt - -2Rsl Rq

-fi;j' -4o 2 r -_t


1 11
11 4
-,J
0 -1 -1 -1 i)
sirrce the irrverse rnatrix does not exist, we consider the augrnented matrix.

lL -1 4 -2
.7
4-2
3
l1 | -6 1 o Rz --+ -Rt I Rz
-10 3
12 -4 Rs ---+ -2Rr + R, -* Rz
- -Rs]_ Rz
\4 3 -6
1
0
1
11 Rs - -4Rr -t Ra
-r2 5
-22 8
/L -1 4 2 Rt - Rz* Rr 06
_., lo r
-4o
2 2 t2
3
[0 -r2 o Rs- -3Rz-l Re 0 -18 11
\0 7 -22 8 R+- -7Rzl R+ 0 -36 22 R+ -+ 2Rsl Rq

/1

-4o ftr ---+


-6Re * Rr

-(t ;i' -2
11
0
-rLl18
0
Rz --+ -2Rs I Rz

0 -rl3
0 -7/e
1 -11118
00
When we corrvert this augmented matrix to an equivalent systern of equations, we obtain

u) 8
.) ^-l
J
7u 4I
v g- g'
?__-
llut 20
I6 9'
The system has an infinitv of solutions

": 3*i,,:T*t,,:t#*T,,u,arbitrary
/2 -1 3 1\

fi 3, i
12. Consider finding the inverse of the coefficient matrix .4 :
!^)

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Sohrtions to Even-nurnbered Exercises lg3
'-" Chapter g Linear Tbansformations and Eigenpairs
9.1 Linear tansformations
2. (a)Since,ui:3(-t) -2(I):-b,uL:(-1)2:1,andui:2(_I)+t_2:_3,theirnageis
v, : (_5,1, _3).
(b) No
(c) We rmrst solve the equatiorrs

| :3ut - 2uz,
l: u?, -2 :2t\ -l u2 - us.
There are two sorutions to these equations t : (1, 1, b) and v : (-1,
-2, -2).
4. The trarrsformation is rrot linear. We carr prove this as follows. Let v be the vector (1, 2, 4) . T1e',
T(2v):T(2,4,8) : (2 ]_u1,4lu,2,gl u.s).

On the other harrd.


Zlf Q)l : 2V L 2, 4)l : 2(l + u1, 2 * uz t 4 + u,s) : (2 + 2u1, 4 ! 2u2, 8 + 2u,s) .

Since ?(2v) I 2lT(v)], condition 9.2b is vioiated.


o. (a)r(i+zj-6k): r1i1+zr$s-6r([): (zi-sj+f)+z(i-r<)-o(si-+j-zr.;:
-r+i+zrj+ru<.
(b) If (u1, .uzlusl are the comporrents of v, then

si - zj : + u2j +?/3k) : urr(i) + u2T$)+ u3?(ft)


?(?rli
: tn(2i- 3j + t<) +,ur1i - t ) + r.,3(Bi - 4: - 2k)
: (hlt I uz :_Sus)i* (-3,r.,r - +r)3 * (r. - uz - 2us)t<.

wren we eqrrate cornponents, we obtain the scarar eqlations

2ur*uz*3u3 :3, -3ur-4us: -2, ty-D2-2us:g.


Using any of our rnethods for solving gives v : (l0lg,16lg,_llS).
8. The transforrnation lq 16tr linear. We can prove this as follows. The transforrns of u : 2j and
v : -j are T(u) : 4j and : j. We now calculate that
"(")
: r(j): zj, r(u) +"(.,,): aj+ j: sj
"(u+v)
g.2a
Thus, conditiorr is violated.
9.2 Matrices for Linear Tbansformations
2. Let u' - ?(u) and v' : Since T is linear, it satisfies properties 9,2. The first of these is
"(").
?(u* v) : : u/ + v/.
"(u)+ "(v)
If we apply ?-1 to each side of this equation, we obtairr
r-1fr(u + v)l : ?-t(rr, +.t,).
Since ?-1 reverse the actiorr of ?, we can write that
u*v:?-1(u'+v,) ?-t(r,fv/):? t(r,)+?-1(v,).
This verifies property 9.2a for ?-1. property g.2b for ? states that

T(cv): c[r(v)] : cv'.


If we apply ?-r to each side of this equation, we obtairr
T- |
lT (cv)l : T -' (r^,' ) .

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Solutions to Even-rnunbered Exercises 195

12. Flom the flgure to the right, we note that


tand : 2. Ffom LOPQ, b: lOPlcos|,
and from LO P R, lO Pl : cos 0. Hence,
'' I
b:c o.-d:5^
Similarly, c sirrdcosd : f. fnr., z(f):(b.c,o)

^1r"(",:, o).
T(i) DD
By a sirnilar calculation, ' : (?,!,0).
'o o
: "(j)
Since , the rnatrix of the trarrsforrnation is
"(ft)
iti :; (i
^: (ti r) t l)
14. Flom the figure, we can say that
: i+ 2PQ, where Q is the
"(i) at which a perpedicular
poirrt
frorn P to the plarre irits the plarre
A vector irr direction PQ is (-1, -1, 1),
so that q, unit vector in this direction is
PQ: *(-t, -1,1). Parametric
v,t
equations for the line throrrgh P and Q a.re
x : | - t, ?J : -t, z - t- Wlnen we substitute
t: | - f - f frorn which rl : I/3.
these into the equation of the plane, we obtairr Herrce, the coor-
dirratesofQarc(2l3,-|l3,1/3)'T}reIengthofPQis:
1/f. Hence,
: i+ zrq: i+ 3t-r. 'i'/ :
J ^t-1.1)
l.-?.'z=1.
,3' 3'3
"(i)
Sirnilar calculatiorrs give
,1r
^ (-;,;,;), ^ ,r1
76)- 7(k) - (;,;,;).
The rnatrix a"ssociated with the trarrsforrnation is therefore

^:i(+ i )
9.3 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
2. Eigenvahres are giverr by the characteristic eqrratiorr

5-l 2 2
0:lA-^11: 3 6-) 3
6 6 9-.\
- 6(6 - ))l
I f^;ili!l,Jill*'jr-,it1'3r,i'-,lil+2118
Eigervalues are ): 3 and .\: 14. Eigerrvectors corresporrdirrg to .\: 3 satisfy

0-(A-31)v: (iii)(ti)

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Sohrtions to Even-mrmbered Exercises L97

(-'rr") :rr, (
- *t).r, (lt)
Tlrrrs, r.,1 -D2-tr3. Eigerrvecrorsare
": ur
\ / \0,, \r/
Eigerlectors corresponding to .\ : 2 satisfy

o:(4 _2r,v (r + i) (li)


The augrnented matrix is

l-zr I 1lo\R,--a,
1 lol Rz-Rr € -2 1

I -2 | _210/
11
r-2 t)
R2 ---+ 2Rt -f Rz
\1 Rs t -rBr * Rs

[r -2 1 1 Rt --+ 2RzI Rr
---+ l0 -3 3 Rz
---+ RsfS
-Rz/S _I 1

\0 3 -3 t) Rs -1 t) Bs--ft2*fts
#ft\o 0
1

0
-1
-1
0 t)
/rr\
Tltus, u1 : ?a and u2:'u1. Eigenvectors .." .t, : | ,s I
:-(i)
\'rs ,/
6. Eigerrvahres are given by the characteristic equatiorr

4 7- -16
0: 1,4 - III : 5-^ -82
2
2 -5-^
: (7 -))[(5 - ])(-5 -)) + 161 _ 412(_5_ )) + 161 _ 16[4 _ 2(5 _ ))]
: -)3 +z^2 - lbl+9: -(,\ -3)r(^ - 1).
Eigenvalues are ): 3 and ,\ : 1. Eigenvectors corresporrding to ,\ : 3 satisfy

|+ +
0:(.4-31)v:12 2 -16\ /or\
-B ll*1.
\z 2 -8/\,,/
The arrgrnented matri xis

(4 4 -16 o\ n, --+ R1l4 /t r -4


2
12 2 -8 0/I Rt--+Rs,/2---) | r |
o R, --+ R2l2
-4 Rz--Rr]_Rz
\2 -8 \l I -4 i) Rt --+
-Rr * R3,

+ (t; ,'I
\oo ol
Thrrs, u1 : -uzl4o3. Eigenvectors are (-';
":
\ r.ts
Eigerrvectors corresponding to I: 1 satisfy

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Solutions to Everr-mrrnbered Exercises 199
/^\

t)
Tlttrs, rr1 : 0 ancl uq:o.Eigerrvectors u""
"
:
(r|]
:,,(i)..(:)
)
Eigenvectors correspondirrg to ,\:2 satisfy

o: (,4 -2r)v:
fr;'
j,ilfi;)
The augmented rnatr ix is

;\ /r 0 0 0

"l Rz --+ -4Rr * Rz {o -1 o o Rz --+ -Rz


ft;'+, UI
.I
lt I
DD
rl,3 + -rL3 t0 0 I
\o o o
-2
o t)
lr 0 0
+ t3l? :, 0

\0 0 0 0

Thrrs, o1 :0,u2:0, arrd us:2a1. Eigenvectors are v

Eigenvectors corresponding to ,\: 3 satisfy

,? + jJfii)
o:(,4-31)v:

The augrnented matrix 1S

R1--+ R2l2 1z Rt Rtl2


- Rzl
R2 ---+
-Rsf2 Rz - Rs

ft?+i t) Rs'-R+
R'+
- Rr
l3
\o t)
-1 /r. 00
0 10
0 01
0 00

Thtrs, tr1 : uzl2, ?3 : Q, and 24 :0. Eigenvectors are v

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Sohrtions to Even-nurnbered Exercises ZOI

Tlrrrs, o1 : u3 arrd ?,2 u3. Eigerrvectors are : (i:) : ,, r l) tt we take the scalar prod'cr
"
of any eigenvector u u,2(-lj 1,0) + rs(-1,0, 1) correspondirrg to
\,'/ \t/
): 0, ancl arry eigerrvector
v -'u3(1,1, 1), corrsporrdirrg to l:3, we obtairr

[ /-'t /-r\r /r\ :?u,z-u3)r.r3


' ": 1,, ( 1^ )
*", ( 9^ l | * ( iI tu2usrz3u3:s
L \0/ \r/) \r/
4. Eigenvahres are giverr by the characteristic equatiorr

-^ 1 1l
0:lA-^11 : 1 -.\ 1l
1 1 -)l
: -)()2 - 1) - 1[-l - 1) + 1(1 + ))
: _)B + 3^ + 2: _(^+ 1)r(^ _ 2).
Eigenvalues are ,\: -1 arrd ): 2. Eigenvectors correspondirrg to ) : -1 satisfy

/r rl r\
o:(A+I)v:It /,ur \
lllurl.
ql r r/ \us)
The augrnerrted rnatrix is

(r 1 1

3) - -Rr
tl I I 0/ ",
Rt--Rr (:

Thrrs, 'u1 - -D2 -T.r3. Eigenvectors are v: -u2


Eigenvectors corresporrding to ): 2 satisfy

o:(.4-2t)v:(-: :, i) (ti)
\r r -2)
The augmented rnatrix is
o1

(i + 'i, S) f,;:fit + (+ 11 Rz 2Rt -f


r-2 t) Ra--EriRa
--+ Rz

+ (: -i i o\
o
o/
l nr
Rs
--Rz/3
---> Rsl3
/t
t
lo
\o
-2
1
1
1

-1
-1 t)
Rt ---+

Rs--Rz*Re
2Rz + Rt

-1
-1
0

/,'\ /t\
Tlrrrs,trl:usarrd'02-D3. Eigerrvectorsarev: lrr l:rs I l l.Ifwetakethescalarproduct
\,'/ \t/
of a.rry eigenvector u: u,z\-I,l,0) + ?/3(-1,0, 1) correspondirrg to ,\ : -1, and any eigenvector
v : oe(1,1,1), corrsporrdirrg to tr: 2, we obtain

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Solutions to Even-rnunbered Exercises z}g
/-.r\
u v: ..,(?)] .r, II -t'l | :rrr(-2,,r)+(-2q*2u,3)(-r.'3) Iu,s(2ts):g.
[.'(+) \2 /

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74 SECTION 6.4

Chemical Balancing
The followirrg discussion is a nice application of homogerreous systems of linear equatiorrs
irr chernistry. When chernicals react with each other to produce other chernicals, there rmrst
be a balarrce between atorrs ofelernerrts that errter the reaction arrd those that resuit frorn the
reaction. For exa,rnple, corsider the following reaction where rnethane and oxygen cornbine
to give carbon dioxide and water,
Carborr
N{et}rarre Oxygerr Dioxide Water

CHa + Oz -r COz + HzO

What is irnportant to realize at this point is that this is not, as yet, a quantitative "equatiorr".
For exarnple, notice that there are two atoms of oxygen on the left arrd three on the riglrt;
there are four atoms of hydrogerr orr the left and orrly two on the right. We can determine
possible mrrnbers of rnolecules of each of the four cornpourrds if it is reqrrired that aII methane
arrd oxygerr be used up. This is called balancing the equatiorr. Suppose we let z, g, z, anrd
,rr.r be the rmrnbers of molecules of rnethane, oxygen, carborr dioxide, and water. We then

write
r(CHa) + s(Oz) --+ z(COz) + u,,(H2O)

The expression on the ieft shows 2y atons of oxygerr entering tlte reaction, and tire expression
on the right shows 2z I u oxygen atorns being trsed trp. It follows that 2y - 2z I rtl. Wherr
similar cornparisons are made for hydrogen arrd carborr, we obtain the foliowirrg systern of
hornogerreous equations for n, y, z, antd ut,

n.--r:,-Zi,
2Y - 2z - ttt :0.

The augrnented matrix for this system is

(i 3, ;,:
/t o -1 0
-4Rt*Rz ---- lo o 4-2
t)
R2 "+ R3
Rzl2
\02 -2 -1 Rs-
Ir o2 -1 o 0\
ol
0
(') -1
0 Rr-Rs*Rr
*
l0 -2
(>
------+
-1 -1 Rz --+ 2Rs Rz

\oo2-1 o/ nt --+ Rsl2 01 -1 /' t)


0 -Ll2
-+ fti
\oo
0
0
I -rl2
-rl2
.)

t)
Rz - Rzl2 0-1
| -rl2 t)
When we convert back to equations, we obtain an infinity of solutions

x:;,wz2 A-u, z-- 1l)

Altlrough we can rnathernatically give any vahre to ur and find corresponding values for x, y,
and z, the fact that x, ?J, z, and u rmrst be positive integers restricts choices for u.,. Clearly,
,r.r.r
would have to be a positive even integer. Usually choserr for balarrcirrg is the smallest set
of positive irrteger sohrtions. In this case, we worrld set w :2, from which r : l, U : 2, a,nd
z : 1. Tire balanced equation is therr

CHa + 2(Or) ---+ COz | 2(H2O)

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72 SECTION 6.4

ll
fti il
Tlre orrly solution is the trivial orle j, : A
redrces'1o

: z :0.
fti:lr)
A homogeneous system has an infinity of nontrivial solutions whenever the number of
leadirrg 1's in tire reduced row echelon forrn is less than the rmrnber of unknowns. This can
occur for any number of equations and any number of unknowns, but will definitely occur
if the mrrnber of equations is less tharr the rnrrnber of unknowns. For exarnple, the systern
t 2y - 3z :0,
:t:

2t-39l4z:0,
has rnore unknowns tharr equations (nr, < n). The arigmented matrix
(r 2 -3 lo\ reo.cesLo
(t o -1lzlo\
\z -3 +lo) [o | _rolllo)
It has a l-pararneter farnily of solutiorrs n : zl7, U : l0zl7. The ntrrnber of parameters is
n,-r:3-2:1.
The systern

rI29-32:0,
2n-2Yl4z:0,
5nI4U-52:0,
ha^s equal rurrnbers of equations and unknowrrs (nl : n). Its augrnented matrix

(i :r t, l) rec,'ces to (: i :'i' l)
It also has a l-pararneter farnily of solutions :r : -z 13, A
: 5z 13. The mrmber of pararneters
isn-r:3-2:L
Finaily, the systern
t:-2y-f 2zf-tl:0,
3t: ly-4zf-2u:0,
4;r-g-2zl3ro:0,
-2t:-3y-t6z-ur:0,
7n-62*5u:0,
ha^s more equations than trnknowns (m, > n,). Its augmerrted rnatrix
/t 0 -617 517
{ o r -roll
1 ln

reducesto | 0 0 0 0

[0 o 0 0
\0 0 0 0 l)
It has a 2-parameter farnily of soltrtions, r: 6z 17 - \ut f 7 , y : l0z l7 )- w l7 ' The number
of parameters is n r - :
4- 2 2. :
In surnmary, then, nonhomogeneous systerns can have no solution, one sohrtion, or an
infinity of solutions; homogeneous systems can have one solution (the trivial one), or an
infinitv of solutions.

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SECTION 6.4

has rnore equations (m. : 4) than unknowns (n : 2). Its augrnented matrix

to
rJ reduces

ft i
The two lines of zeros indicate that the last two equations depend on the first two. In
fact, the third equation is the sum of the first two equations, and the last equation is the
difference of the first two equations. The reduced row echelon form has 2 leading 1's, the
sarne as the mrrnber of trnknowns (, : ,). The sohrtion of the system is r: 0 , IJ - -3'
The systern

:t: - 6z : -21,
-t 29
2t:-U-32:-5,
3riU-42:-ll,
has the sarne ruInber of trnknowns as equations (nl: n). Its allgmented rnatrix

lt 2 -61-zt\ reducesto l0 1
/t o o

lz -l -3 1-5 | 0

\a 1 -41-tt) \o o 1

The reduced row echelorr forrn has 3 leading 1's, the sarne as the rrurnber of unknowrrs
(r : n). Tlre sohrtiorr is z : 1, U : -2, z :3.
The system has an infinite number of solutions if the number of leading 1's in the
reduced row echelon forrn is iess than the number of unknowns (that is, if r < n)' This
carr happen for arry nlmber of equations and arry mrrnber of trnknowns. We corrsider the
three possibilities wherr the rmrnber of equations is greater than, equal to, and less than the
number of unknowns. We shall also illustrate that the number of parameters in the infinity
of sohrtions is n - r. The svstern

:tt2Y-62:-2,
2n-A-22:6,
ha^s rnore unknowns tha^n equatiorrs (n > nz). Its augmented rnatrix

lt 2 -61-2\ reo'ces Lo (t ot -21 2\ '


[z -1 -21 G ) \o -z | -z )
The reduced echelon forrn ha^s 2 leading l's which is less than the number of urrknowns
(r < n\. When we convert to equations, we obtain the l-pararneter farnily of sohrtions
n : 2z + 2, lJ : 2z - 2. Notice that the nurnber of parameters is n - r : 3 - 2 : 1. It is
always the ca^se that wherr a rionhomogeneous systern with more unknowns than eqrrations
has solutions, then there is an infinity of them. In other words, when there are more
unknowns than equatiorrs, it is irnpossible to have the number of leading l's equal to the
mrrnber of unknowns, and therefore irnpossible to have a uniqrte sohrtion.
The augmented matrix of the systetn in Exarnple 6.11

n-3Al2z:6,
3n*2Y-42:7,
7n - l0g -l 4z :3I.

where there is eqrral uunbers of equations and unknowrrs (rru : n), redtrces from

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68 SECTION 6.4

*28. An irrigation system allows water to flow in


the pattern shown to the right. Water flows
irrto the system at A and exits at B, C, D,
and E, with the arnounts shown irr litres per
hour.
(a) Usirrg the fact that at each point water
entering equals water leaving, forrmrlate
equations for water flows at each of the
five points.
(b) Solve for fi, fz, fs, fa, and f5. Out 50,000 Out 200,000

*29. A wornarl mtrst take 5 units of vitamin A, 13 units of vitamin B, and 23 rurits of vitamirr C each day.
Tlrree brarrds of vitamin pills are available and the mrrnber of units of each vitarnin per pill are given irr
the followirrg table.

Brarrd 1 Brarrd2 Brarrd 3

Vitarnirr A 1 10
Vitarnirr B 2 1i
Vitarnirr C 4 31
(a) Find all combirrations of pills that provide the exact daily requirement (no partiat piils).
(b) Ifbrands 1,2, and 3 cost $1.50, $0.90, and $0.50 per pill respectively, find the least expensive
treatment. What if the cost of brarrd 3 is $0.60 and $0.70?
*30. Agla^ssof skimrnilksupplies0.lmgof iron,8.5gof protein?andlgof carbohydrates. Aquarterpound
of learr red rneat provides 3.4 rng of iron, 22 g of protein, and 20 g of carboirydrates. Two slices of whole
wheat bread supply 2.2 ng of iron, 10 g of proteirr, arrd 12 g of carbohydrates. If a persorr orr a special
diet rmrst have 12.1 mg of iron, 97 g of proteirr, arrd 70 g of carbohydrates, how rmrch rnilk, rneat, and
bread supply these needs.

$6.4 flomogeneous and Nonhomogeneous Systems of Linear Equations

To discuss general properties of systems of linear equations, we lrse matrices to represent


them irr a compact forrn. A systern of rn linear equations in n urrknowrrs i[y, !12, . ..1 iLn can
be reoresented as follows
a,nrr I a,y2r2 1_''' ! rtln:r:n - b1,
a21x,1 I tt,22r2 I ... I a2nnn : $r, (6.14)

A^1!L1 * t1^2!L2 * . . . I Av1nfrn -- 0p,

Ifwe define the coefficient matrix A of this system, a collrmn matrix of unknowns X, and a
column matrix of coefficients B by

A: X: B:

itis straightforward to show, using definitions of matrix equality and multiplication, that
systern 6.14 can be expressed very compactly a^s

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66 SECTION 6.3

create 0's above the leadirrg l's but proceed frorn the rightrnost leading 1to the leftrnost
one. The advantage of this procedure, as you will see, is that in creating 0's above the
leading 1's, you witl be doing calculations with rnany 0's, thereby rnaking your calculatiotts
easier arrd less prone to error. As an exarnple to ilhrstrate otrr point, corrsider reducing the
augmented matrix for the followirrg systeln of equations to RREF.

n*2Y-3zf-4ut:4,
-:r*!/t2z- 3rr.r- -9,
2:t-3'11 +z+u):151
3n!-211 -22-ttt:-ll,

The followinrg seqlrence of operations creates 0's above arrd below each leadirrg 1 as it is
created.

-34
OD
4
1

11
-2 -1
-7
- r.t ,;,)"^:-x''
-,) 'I
A
-1 2

-l
1 -1 1
q
-t 1 2 R3 --+ Rsl2
,7 -13 J _q Ra -+ Raf3

0 -1 2 "t\
Rr-fte*Rr /r 0 0 1
1 -1
01 -1
01 -.1
1
_il
R2-+Rs|_R2
_u / Ra --+
+ l:\o Io ? -1
0

-Rs-l Ra o -2

/r 0 0 0
+ft;: -1
I
I
0
+lli:i
Tlnrs,thesohrtionofthesysternisr:l,A--2,2:3,antdut:4.Hereisthesequerrce
of augmented matrices that creates 0's in the order that we suggest as a modification to
Galss-Jorda,rr elirnination. Once you have calculations clear in your mind, cornpare the
arithrnetic irr creating 0's above leadirrg I's here cornpared to that in the above reduction.

lr 2|
-3
2
4 4\ ll 2 -34
l-1 -3 -9\ Rz,RttRz lo 3 -1 I
[2 1 -3 1 lb l*r-_2Rri-Rs Io -7
nn
\3 2 -2 -1 -ll/ Ra--3Br]_R.a \0 -4 7 -t3
2-34 4
1 -1 1
3 -1 1
-4 / -rJ ftii I
-2
-9

2-3 4 /r 2 -3
+ll
A

1 -1 1 1

0 I -1
01-3 si -l
-2

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64 SECTION 6.3

The rank of the arrgrnerrted matrix of a system of linea^r equations is an irnportant


pararneter in discussing general properties of the systetn. The other two ntunbers are the
rnrnber of equations rn and the mrrnber of unknowris n. We shall use these parameters
extensively in Sectiorr 6.4.

Example 6.4 Find the reduced row echelon forrn for the augrnented matrix associated with the systern of
eqrrations

:r-2ylzlu:0,
-r-l 2Y*ttt:0,
2:t:-4ylz-0,
and use it to flnd all solutions of the system.

Solution The following sequence of augrnented rnatrices restrlts irr reduced row echelon
form:
/t -2 l 1lo\ /r -2 r 1

f -r 2 o rlol Rz-RttRz ------+ lo o 1 z 3) "''-Rz._Rt


\z -4 r olo/ R"-*-2RttRs \o o -1 -2 0/ Rs- RzlRs

/r -2 o -r
-----+ lo o 1 2

\oooo t)
When we recreate eqtrations,
r-2A-u:O, zl2to-0.
We now solve for the leadirrg variables :t amd z,

n :2u I ut, z: -2tn, g and Tu arbitrarY,

a 2-pararneter farnily of solutions, g and ut beirrg the parameters. Notice that the mrmber
of parameters is n - r : 4 - 2 : 2, wltere n, : 4 isthe mrrnber of unknowns and r : 2 is
the rank of the augrnented rnatrix.o

Example 6.5 Four different types of plant food can be purchased, each of which comes in the same size
bag, and the following table surnmarizes the rnrmber of grarns of each of tlrree mrtrients irr
each bae.

Foocl I Food II III


Food Food fV
NutrientA 5 5 10 5

Nutrierrt B 10 5 30 10

Nutrierrt C 5 i5 10 25

If10,000 g of rmtrient A, 20,000 g of mrtrient B, and 20,000 g of mrtrierrt C are required,


how rnany bags of each type should be used? If the costs per bag for the four types of food
are $15, $16, $19, and $20, find the cheapest way to satisfy the requirements.

Solution We let the rmmber of bags of each type be fr, !/, z and u,, and incorporate these
arrd the total reqrrirernerrts into the table.

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62 SECTION 6.3

2n+A
-42:13, - 4z: -15,
3:t-t2A
13. 4t: - + 22 : -3,
'11 14. 2:r l A * z :7,

6n -l2y - 2z : 16. 4:r: - 2Y -l2z : -2.

5n - 4y !22: -3, 2rI A - z: l,


15. 3r-la-z:6, 16. 4r-l3y-22:6,
2x - A -l3z -- 2. 6n - 11|- z: -4.

':t:I'!/ - z ttu - -5, 2x - A * 4ziu: -!3,

r:IU l2tu:-6. 4gI2z-w:I'


t:l2y -32-l w:4, :r' l2A -32-t w:4,

2r-l 6y-32-2w:6. 4x -62 I5'u:0'


r+A -22 lu:0, 3t' -tY -22 lw:0,
2r-kt+42-u:1,
"v ' -- 2x-3Yl4z-w 2,
21. 22.
3t'+g+4tu 5,
3r-l?l+2w:6,
39-22:10. 3Y-22+?,:-3'

fj6.3 Gauss-Jordan Elimination and Reduced Row Echelon Form

We have lsed Gaussiarr elirninatiorr to sirnplily the augrnerrted rnatrix of a system of


lirrear eqlatiorrs to row echelon forrn. When the row echelorr form is converted once again
to equations, back substitutiorrs are needed to solve the system. They can be incorporated
irrto the reduction process if each time a leadirrg 1 is created, not orrly are 0's created below
it, but 0's are also created above it. This is called Gaussr-Jordan elimirration. We ilhrstrate
with some of the previous examples. consider system 6.2 from sectiorr 6.1,
2r-3yl3z:6,
r-l 2Y-z:3, (6.12)
:t-g*z:2.
Its augrnented matrix IS

o\R1 --ft, /t 2 -r
(i !,,' 3 | R2 -- Rt
2/
------+ | 2 -3
\1 -1
3
1
3)
2/ Re
- -Rr *Rs

+ (i ii' jr) ,*' ..+ -2RB't Rz ......+ (l


2-l
-1
-32
1 l).,--Rz
-l/ *
R" -Rr

, (i i'i -23\| /1Rr--+-2RztRt


Rs--3Rz1Rs
+
(r 0
1010
\0
1

1
,l
7 \ Rt--Rs*Rr
-2| Rz-RslRz
7/

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60 SECTION 6.2

Suppose we interchange rows 1 arrd 3 in the original augmentecl rnatrix to create the
first leading 1. The following sequence of steps, then leads to a different row echelon form.
6\ Rt-4r /r 3 -1 t\
(i +!, -4| # lr -1 2 -+l l- Rc+-Rt R
rf Rs-R, \z I -3 6 / Rz ---+ -2Rr Rs

+(i 1r +) ",
+-RstRz -, (l i l,
+) ..+ bRz.t Rz
",
+ (: I Ir 3 -rl r \ lt 3 -1
+ (: t\
Ii -9 l.
'1 l-lr) ^,-Rstte -+t1ts /
Example 6.2 Firrd a row echelon form for the augrnented rnatrix a^ssociated with the system

2:r - 3'u, : 5,
l3y I 4z
4r-3ylz-6tu:2.
6nIU-3zl u:I.
Solution The beginning augmerrted matrix is

(z 3 4 -3
l4 -3 r -6
\6 1 -3 1

To create the first Ieading 1 by dividing row 1 by 2 leads to fractional calculations, and
there is no other obvious way to create a leadirrg 1. Since it is sirnple to create 0's below
the leadirrg 2, we do so, and ternporarily leave the 2,

/z 3 4 1 -3 s\
2lnr--2at+az € /z s 4 -3 5\
l+ -g
1
-6
r 1/Rs--3nrrr?e
lo -9 -T o -8 | Rz - -Rzl Rz
\6 -3 \0 -8 -15 10 -:I4)

+ (l jr
D
r\
6lRr---.,-Rz +
/zsI 4 -3 jr)
-10 lo -8 to
-q, 10 -t+) nt--ftr \o 8 1b -10 14/ P6t-BRz*,?s

/2 3 4 -3 s \ Rt - Rtl2 + lr 312 2 -312


l -8 ro -al
lo 0 1
lo 0 -8 ro
\o 7e -eo 62/tu/ -R3l7s \0 1 -s0l7s
Example 6,3 Firrd arr augrnerrted rnatrix in row echelon forrn for the systern
r- 2A :16,
-f 3z
3n -l 49 - 6z: -8,
4x*2Y-32:8,
and use it to find all solutions of the system.

Solution The following seqllence of arrgmented rnatrices leads to row echelorr forrn
16\ /t -2 3
(i t r -af nr--BRttRz +
8/ nt---+ -4Rt t Rs
lo to
\0 10
-lb
-15 -R2 -f Rs

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58 SECTION 6.2

/10 \ -+ R
x'-3{ -z-lll2z:6 r: UzI3.
\II /
Wrat we are saying is that given arry val.ue of z, 1f n and y are calculated according to
n : 8z I ll 13 and y : I0z I ll- 1, therr these values of n, y, arrd z satisfy 6. 11. For instance,
if z: ll, then r : 11 arrd A:9. It is straiglrtforward to check that these satisfy 6.11.
When z : 0, we obtain the sohrtiorr r : 3 and I): -1.
The eouatiorrs
8 t0
r::213,
1l A:-z-1, zarbitrarY

represent an infinite number of solutions of 6.11, one for each value of z. We say that we
have a 1-parameter farnily of sohrtiorrs, z beirrg the pararneter. Geometrically, the three
planes irrtersect in a line, pararnetric equations for the J.irre beirrg
R
" t Ie
10
-.- ", --:t-1, z-t.
"-11

$6.2 Gaussian Elimination and Row Echelon Form

We have becorne farniliar witli the operations used to sirnplify the augrnented rnatrix of
a systern of lirrear eqrations. We now discuss what is corrsidered to be one of two ultirnate
forrns for all augmerrted rnatrices, arrd a systematic procedure by which to achieve it.
An augrnented rnatrix is said to be irr row echelon form if it satisfies the following
properties:

1. the lefbmost nonzero entry in every row is a 1 (called its leading 1);
2. the leadirrg I for each row is to the left of the leading 1 irr every row below it;
3. the entries below every leadirrg 1 are all 0's;
4. atry rows of all 0's are below all rows that have leading 1's'
Inactualfact3. isaresultof 1. arrd2.,butweirrcludeitforernphasis. Arowof zerosinthe
row echelon forrn of an augrnented matrix irrdicates that one of the equatiorrs irr the original
systern was a cornbination of others. Two rows of zeros irrdicate that two of the original
equations were cornbinations of others. When this happerrs, we say that the equations in
the origirral system are dependent. If no row of zeros appears, then no equation in the
original. system is a cornbirration of others, and we say that the equatiorrs in the systern are
independent.
Tire followirrg augrnented rnatrices are in row echelon forrn.
/r2-2-5

fl si t ?) (; ;+ i)(is;
The next four augmerrted matrices are not irr row echelon forrn:

J I 3\
-1 I Errtry below secorrd leadirrg 1 is rrot
(r 1
2
2
0 2/
0

2 -1
(i 0
1
0
2 i)
Row of 0's is not at the bottorn

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56 SECTION 6.1

are substituted into the first of 6.7, t:: 0. Tllrs, the only solution of systern 6.2 is r : 0,
U:5, arrd z:7. Geotnetrically, the three planes irr 6.2 irrtersect at tire poirrt (0,5,7).
It is irnportant to note tirat irr reducing systern 6.2 to 6.7, we performed three elemen-
tary operations:
1. Intercha.rrge the order of equations.
2. Nluitiply arr equatiorr by a rronzero corrstarrt. (6 8)
3. Add a nonzero mrrltiple of one equatiorr to arrother.
That these operations always yield an egrivalerrt systern is stated irr the followirrg the-
oreln.

Theorem 6.1 If elernerrtary operatiorrs are performed orr a systern of linear eqlrations, the resultirrg system
is equivalent to the original systern; both systems ]rave the sarne solutions.
The rrarnes t:, g, antd z of tirre unkrrowrrs in systern 6.2 are irrelevant. We would have
perforrned the sarne operatiorrs had they been eqrrations in o,, b, arrd c, or in r, s, arrd f. It
is the coefficients of n, y, and z that dictated the sequence of operatiorrs that we followed
in reducing system 6.2 to 6.7. With this in mind, we define what is called the augmented
matrix of svstern 6.2: it is

;)
The first 3 x 3 block contains the coefflcients of the unknowns; it is separated by a vertical
Iirre frorn the constants orr the right sides of the equatiorrs. At each stage of the reductiorr
of systern 6.2 to 6.7, we could write arr arrgmented matrix of the systern; they would be
o1

;) (i -t i'
.1
-J
o1
(i -1 I ;)(:
-t
D.)
u
!,)
2-l
(: 7-5
3-2 i) (i i_i +) (i i
These augrnerrted rnatrices represent systerns of equations equivalent to systern 6.2. We carr
-1
-1
1

return to equations at any time by multiplying the fi.rst three coefficients in each row by r,
y, and z, addirrg, and equating to the last ntrrnber in the row.
Instead of using elementary operatiorrs 6.8 orr the eqrtatiorrs in systern 6.2 to reduce
the system to 6.7, we cotrld operate orr the augmerrted rnatrix for 6.2 to reduce it to the
augmerrted rnatrix for 6.7. The operations on augmerrted rnatrices equivalent to 6.8 are:
1. Interchange rows.
2. Ivtultiply a row by a nonzero constarrt. (6.e)
3. Add a nonzero mrrltirrle of one row to another.
These are called elementary row operations. Perforrnirrg any of thern orr the augrnented
rnatrix of a system of linear equations yields the augmented matrix of an equivalent systern.
In practice, we use elementary row operations to find simplified augmented matrices. Before
discussirrg the forrn to which we reduce augrnerrted rnatrices, corrsider solving the followirrg
svstern
2't:Iy-22:4,
x:-ll+z:-3, (6.r0)
5nI?/-32:7.

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54 SECTION 6.1

CHAPTER 6 SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

$6.1 Systems of Linear Equations

We are farniliar with linear equations Ar I By * C :0 irr the r3rplane; they represent
straiglrt lines. Wherr we consider solvirrg two or rnore linea.r equatiorrs irr :l and y such as
n*3Y-!,
2r I\Y : -1, (6'1)
3r + 69: -6,

linear equations. There rnay be one solution, no soltrtion,


etc., we are solving a system of
or infinitely many solutions. Geometrically, we are finding point(s) of intersection of the
lines; there may be one point, no points, or infinitely many points.
Lirrear equations irr space Ar-t By -lCzI D - 0 describe planes. A systern of two or
more such eotrations

- 3Y -l3z - G
2:t
nI2y-z:3 (62)
:L-! lz:2,
may again have one solution, no solutions, or an infinity of solutions. Solutions represent
poirrts of irrtersection of the planes.
When a systern of lirrear equations ha^s one or rnore sohrtions, the systern is said to be
consistent. Wherr the system ha^s no sohrtiorrs, it is said to be inconsistent. It is easily
seen that the svstern

x;l!:9,
x:+a:4t
is incorrsistent; two mrmbers carrnot sirmrltaneously add to 6 arrd to 4. The systern

n + A:6'
r-u-4'
is consistent; it ha^s one soltrtion z : 5 and g: 1. Tlie systern
xlY:$'
2r+2?):l2i
is consistent. It has an infinite number of solutions. Since the second equation represents
the sarne restriction on r arrd y as the first equation, we really have only one equation. Any
pair of values of :r and g that satisfies the first equation, and there are an infinite number
of them, also satisfies the second.
There are two ba^sic rnethods for solvirrg systerns of lirrear equations, substitution and
elimination. We illustrate substitution on systern 6.1, but the rnethod will not be used
agairr. It does not generalize ea^sily to systerns with large mrmbers of variables. If we solve
the first equation for r in terms of gr, we obtain x:4- 337. If this is substituted into the
secorrd eqtration, an eqtratiorr in only g results

2@-3y)'r5a--r + y:9.
Substitrrtiorr of this into:l :4- 3grgives r:4 3(9) : -23. Becausezi: -23 and
iry
: 9 do not satisfy the third equatiorr 3:r I 6y: -6, the systern does rrot ]rave a sohrtiorr.
Geornetrically, t e three lines do rrot have a common point of irrtersection.

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52 SECTION 5.2

z : -14. Corrsegrerrtly, (0,-22, -14) is a point on the line. To find a vector along the line, we
:
could find another point on the line, say, by setting z 0 and solving L +I) 6,2n -3y le - :
for t- 2815, y :215.A vector alo.g the line is therefore (281b,2|b,0) (0,-22,-14) - :
(2815,r1215,14), arrd so too is (blt4)(2Blb,tt2lb, 14) (2,8, b).
Alternatively) we know that (1, 1, -2) and
-
(2, -3,4) are vectors that are riorrnal to the
plarres :r I y - 2z : 6 and 2r 3U -f 4z : I0, 1+y-22:6
-
and a vector alorrg the lirre of irrtersection of
the planes rmrst be perpendicular to both of 2x-3y+42:10
these vectors (Figure 5.8). Corrsequerrtly, a
vector along the line of irrtersection is
i j kl
1 1 -21: (-2, -8, -5).
2 -3 4l
Syrnrnetric equations for the lirre are therefore Figure 5.8

!-u+zz - z-f14
28 o

--a

EXERCISES 5.2
In Exercises 1 10 find the equation for the plane.
1. Tlrrough the poirrt (1, -1,3) and normal to the vector (4,3,-2)
2. Tlrrorrgh the poirrt (2,1,5) arrd rrorrnal to the vector joirring (2,1,5) and (4,2,3)
3. Corrtainirrg the poirrts (1,3,2), (-2,0,-2), (I,4,3)
4. Contairrirrg the poirrt (2, -4,3) and the lirre (r - t) l3 : (A + 5) la : z + 2
5. Corrtainimg the lirres n:2U - Q+I)14atd r -t, !/:2t, z:6t - 1
6. Containirrg the lirres (r -I)16:a18: (z+2)12 and (r+ 1)/3 : (a -2)la- z+5
7. Corrtainimg the lirre n -g l2z:4,2riA i-32:6 and the point (1,-2,4)
8. Corrtainirrgthe lirres rl2yl4z:2I,:r-lt*62: 13 arrd n-2I3t,y:4, z- -3 l5t
9. Corrtairrirrg the lirres 3:tI4y: -6, rI2y -f z:2 attd2yI3z:19,3r -2y -92: -58
l0.Contairrirrgthelirrer*g-42:6,2n*3y*52-I0and(a) perpendiculartotherg-plarre,(b)
perpendicular to the :rz-plane, and (c) perpendicular to the yz-plane
11. The acute angle between two intersecting planes is defined as the acute angle between their normals.
Find the acute angle betweerr the planes :r - 2y -l 4z : 6 and 2n -f ll : z -l 4.
In Exercises l2-2I find parametric and symmetric (if possible) equations for the straight line.
12. Tlrrough the point (1,
-1,3) and parallel to the vector (2,4, -3)
13. Through the point (-1,3, 6) arrd parallel to the vector (2, -3,0)
14. Tlrrough the points(2,-3,4) and (5,2,-1)
15. Through the points (-2,3,3) arrd (-2, -3, -3)
16. Through the points (1,3, 4) arrd (1,3, 5)
17. Tlrrough the point (1, -3,5) and parallel to the lirre

:A -2 _ z-t4
'"
53-2

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50 SECTION 5.2

Equation 5.15 can also be written in the fbrrn

A:r I By -l Cz -l D :0, (5. i6)

where D : -(AnoI BIlo-tC zs), and this equation is said to be linear in t, y, and z. We have
shown then that every plane has a linear equation, and the coefficients A, B, and C of r, y,
and z in the equation are the cornporrents of a vector (A, B, C) that is perperrdicular to the
plarre. Irrsteadof sayingthat (,4., B,C)isperpendiculartotireplarre At:'tBg-lCzlD:0,
we ofben say that (A,B,C) is normal to the plarre or that (A,B,C) is a norrnal vector
to the plane.
Example 5.6 Find arr equation for the plane tlrrough the poirrt (4,-3,5) arrd normal to the vector
(4, -9,3).
Solution According to eqrration 5.15, the equation of the plarre is

-Q-8(s+3)+3(z-5) -0' or 4r: -8v*32:55'o


a@

Example 5.7 Deterrnine whether the planes n-t2y -42:10 and 2nI4y-82:11 are parallel.
Solution Norrnal vectors to these plarres are N1 : (!,2,-4) and N2: (2,4,-8) ' Since
Nz :2Nr, the rrorrnal vectors are in the sarne direction, a,rrd therefore tlte planes are
parallel.o

Lines
A plarre in space was characterized by a
point on it and a vector perperrdicular to
it. A straight lirre in space is characterized
by a poirrt on it and a vector parallel to it.
There is one and only one lirre tr through
tlre poirrt P(t:6,ys, z0) arrd irr the direction
v - (u,,uo,u.) in Figrrre 5.7. If Q(t,y,z)
is any point orr this line, therr the vector r
joinirrg the origirr to Q has cornporrerrts Figure 5.7
r : (r, y, z). Now this vector can be expressed
as the surn of 161, the vector frorn O to P, arrd
vector PQ:
r-ro*Pe.
But PQ is in the same direction a^s v; therefore, it rmrst be sorne scalar multiple of v, (i.e.,

PQ : tv). Consequerrtly, the vector joinirrg O to any point on .L ca,rr be writterr irr the forrn

r-r0+tv, (5.17)

for an appropriate vahre of t. Because the cornponerrts of r : (:1,'!J,z) are also the coordirrates
of the poirrt (t:,y, z) on -L, this equation is called the vector equation of the line tr through
(*o,Ao,zs) in directiorr v. If we substittrte cornponerrts for r, rs, and v, then
(t:, y, z) : (:r:s, A0, z0) + t(ur, Dy t u : (t:n I tun, yc) + t'ua, zo I ttt
") ").
Since two vectors are equal if and only if corresporrding cornponerrts are identicai, we can
write that

n:nolurtt (5.18a)

A:Ao+uyt, (5.185)
z:zoltt"t. (5.18c)

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48 SECTION 5.1

(5.13)

so long as we evaluate the right side rrsing the general nrles for expansion of a deterrninant
along its first row. For example, if u: (1, -1,2) and v : (2,3, -5), therr

li -1 j kl
uxv:11 2 l:(5-6)i (-5-4)j+(3+2)k:-i+ej+5k.
lz 3 -bl
To show that u x v is perpendicular to u we calculate
u'(u x v): ur(uuu" -urtto)-lu,n(u""u, -u*u') ru',(u'*tto -uott,):g'
A sirnilar calculation shows that u x v is also perpendicular to v. There are two directions
perpendicrilar to two given vectors u and v, one irr the opposite directiorr to the other. The
cross product u x v always points in the direction determirred by the riglrt-hand nrle; curl
the fingers of the right hand from u towards v, and the tlnrrnb therr poirrts irr the directiorr
of the cross product.
The lerrgth of the cross product is

lu x vl : lullvl sin d, lo. 14,

where d is the arrgle between the vectors.

Example 5.5 Firrd avector of lerrgth S perpendicular to both thevectors o:i+2j and v:3i-Zj+t '

Solution A vector perperrdictrlar to u a^nd v is

: (2, _1, -g).

Since the lerrgth of this vector is I/TTTTTA: r/65, a vector of length S perperrdicular to
uandvis
*e,-1,-8).
v69' ',

The negative of this vector also has lerrgth 3 and is perpendicular to u and v.o

EXERCISES 5.1
If u: 2i - Sj + k, .1n : j - k, and w: 6i -a+ 3f, evaluate the scalar or find the components of the vector
in Exercises 1-10.
1. u.v 2. (v'w)u
3. (2u - 3v) . w 4. 2i'n
5. l2ulv'w 6. (3u - 4*) '(zi + au - zv)
(105u + 21-0v) ' (10-5u-+ 2a0v)
7. w 'w ,. t 240v12 1105u
9. lr-v+kl(j+w) .k 10. u'v+v'w-(utw)'v
If u : (3, 1,4), v : (-1,2,0), and w : (-2, -3,5), evaluate the scalar or find the components of the vector
in Exercises II-20.

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46 SECTION 5,1

--..-...--=*

Figure 5.5a Figure 5.5b


Example 5.2 If u : (2, -4, -5) and v : (0, 2, -3), find (a) 3u - 4v and (b) 2lvlu * 4l.
Solution (a) 3u - 4v : - 4(0, 2, -3) - (6, -20, -3)
3(2, -4, -5)
(b) 2lvlu + 4i :2\/4+g(2,-4, -5) + 4\0'?' , :)
\/4+9
: (4\/n,-8/1s +' +. -10/13
rvv !u- 4l
.,g,
,re,
: +(b2, -s6, -t42) : |pa, -48. -Tr).o
V13' \/13'
j,
Unit vectors irr the x.-^, a-, arrd z-directions are denoted by i, arrd k. They have
cornponents i: (r,0,0), j : (0,1,0), and t : 1O,O,t;. They are called ba^sis vectors
becarrse every vector v : (ur,ua,uz) cat be expressed in terrns of thern

v:r;-i+1),,i+u.k. (5.6)

Scalar and Cross Products of Vectors


For rnore detail on the rnaterial irr this sectiorr, see Section 11.4 of the calculus text. The
scalar product (dot product or inner product) of two vectors u : (zr, u,s,u,z) and
v : (t'r, urru"l is
U'v : U.,r,U," -f- u.1tUil +'ll,zUz, (5 7)

If the vectors are placed tail to tail, and 0 is the angle between thern, the scaiar product
can also be calculated with

u.v: lullvlcosd. (5,8)

This expression leads to an easy test to deterrnine whether two vectors are perpendicular.
Two nonzero vectors u and v are perpendicular if and orrly if
u.v: 0. (5.e)

For exarnple, the vectors u: (1,2,-1) arrd v : (4,2,8) are perpendicula,r since u.v :
(1)(4)+ (2)(2) + (-1)(8) - o.
Expression 5.8 doesrr't just tell us whether or rrot the arrgle between two vectors is n f 2
radians; it can be used to determirre the angle between any two nonzero vectors u and v,
when they are placed tail to tail. We first solve 5.8 for cos d:

cosd^: i--ii ,.
u.v (5.10)
lullvl
Since principal values of the inverse cosine firrrction lie between 0 and zr, precisely the range
for d, we carr write that

d: cos-l(:+) (5.11)
\ lullvl /

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44 SECTION 5,1

CHAPTER 5 VECTORS, PLANES, AND LINES

$5.1 Vectors, Scalar and Vector Products


Irr this section, we give a quick review ofvectors and their properties, arrd then use thern in
Section 5,2 to find equations for lines and planes in space.

Vectors
We begirr with a review of irnportant features about vectors; further details carr be fourrd irr
Section 11.3 of your calculus text. Vectors which are derroted irr boldface type, such as v,
are directed lirre segrnents. We have shown a few vectors in Figure 5.1. The direction of the
vector is frorn its tail to its tip; for vector v, the direction is frorn P to Q. A vector is known
once its direction and length are specified; where the line segment is drawn is irrelevant.
Tlre vectors in Figure 5.2 arc the same; they have the sarne lerrgth arrd the sarne direction,
only the point at which they are drawn is different.

Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2


Vectors are represented algebraically by three mrrnbers 'nL,'uut antdu", called their(Cartesian)
/"r\
cornponents. We sornetirres write thern as a column vector or rnatrix v: I r,, | , uttd
\u" /
sornetimes as a row vector or matrix v : (ur,uy,uz). We have used "angle" riotation rather
tharr parerrtheses for row forrnat so as not to confuse comporrerrts of vectors with coordirrates
of poirrts. If a vector is drawrr frorn a point P(r1,lhjzr) to a point Q(nz,Az,z2), therr the
cornponents of the vector are (r2-nr,!)z-Ur,zz-z). h particular, if P(I,2,3) is the poirrt
in Figure 5.3, therr the vector frorn the
origirr to P is denoted by OP, and its
components are (1,2,3). They are the
sarne as the coordirrates of P; but nota-
tion indicates whether we are talking
about the point P or the vector from O
to P. The point is (1,2,3) and the
vector is (1,2,3).
Figure 5.3
Two vectors are equal if they have the sarne length arrd direction, but this can be
difficult to check depending on how the vectors are specified. If the components of the
vectors are given, it is simple to check whether they are equal; they are eqtral if arrd only if
they have the same cornporrerrts.
The length of a vector v : ('u,,'us,uz) is derroted by lvl. Sirrce the cornponents of v
can be regarded as the differences in the coordinates of its tip and tail, it follows that

u?+u?,+p7. (5.r)

A vector v is said to be a unit vector if its length is one, arrd this will be the ca^se when

u]+ul+ul:t. (5.2)

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42 SECTION 4.2

First of al., AB and BA are both deflned only when A and B are both square arrd have tite
sarne size. Even when this is tme, the products are usually unequal' For exa,rnple,

ls o\ /r 2\ (zs 34\
(l '^) (1 s) - (i3 ?3) whereas
[z e/\s a/:\sr 46)
Encoding Messages
IVlessages carr be encoded and decoded usirrg rnatrices. We sltow how to errcode thern
here and decode thern in Section 8.2. We begirr by assignirrg each letter of the alphabet a
rlrmber frorn 1 to 26 arrd a blank the mrrnber 27, a^s shown below, but any other assigrrmerrt
of letters and syrnbols to numbers is acceptable.
abcdefgh ijklmnopq rstuvwxyz
12345678 9 10 11 12l3r4 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
To encode a rnessage such as "Meet rne at noon", we replace each letter arrd space by its
mrrnber accordins to the above list,
N4eetrneat n oon
1355202713527r2027 L4 15 15 14
( l' 4
Tlre sirnplest encodirrg wotrlcl use a2x2 tnatt'
rtx,say . We divide the rmrnbers into
\3 2 )
pairs beginnirrg frorn the left and form colurnn matrices'
/rr\ /s\ (zz\ /s\ / r t (27\ /ts\ /t+\
\ r /' lro/' \tr/' \r, )' \ro/'\r+/'\ts/ \rr)
We have added an extra blank to pair with the last rr. (For a 3 x 3 rnatrix, we would use
triples; for a 4 x 4 rnatrix, we would use quadmples, etc.) We now multiply each coltlmrt
rnatrix bv A
( t +\ /rs\ /rs\ lr 4\/b\ : /as\
[s z/[s ):\ns)' \s z/ \ttl' \zol
/t 4\(27\ : /zs\ lt 4\/b\ /tts\
\s z/ \rsi \ nr )' \a z)\zz):\un )'
(r 4\/1\ /ar\ (r 41 /zz\ / as \
\a z)\zo): \nrl' \r z)\u/:\ns)'
(t a\/rs\ /zs\ /r +\/ra\ /nz\
\s z)\s): \ru/' \: z)\zzl:\goi '

The coded message sent is


33, 49,85, 55, 79, L07, 113, 69, 81, 43, 83, 109, 75, 75, 122, 96.

EXERCISES 4.2
Let A-K be the ten matrices at the beginning of Exercises 4.1. In Exercises 1-20 find entries in the matrix,
if it is defined.
L, AD , DA 3. EA 4. AE
5. EF 6. FE 7. 2BK 8. 2KB
g. A1: E 10. DG rL. (EF)G 12. E(FG)
t3. J2 L4. FC 15. -cF L6. CT J
T7. AAT 18. 3AT A I9. FJ 20. JF

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40 SECTION 4.2

o . _ 'lIl, if paperwork can flow from i to y through at rnost one interrnedtary,with il j


"r: - 0, if r,his is rrot tnre.
(c) The person in office i has the most power to influence others if the sum of the entries of row z in the
rnatrix A+ B is the largest. What is the office number of this person?
*25. In order to rank the five members of its chess team for play against another school, the coach draws the
followirrg diagrarn. An arrow from 1 to 2 rneans that player t has defeated player 2.

(a) Constnrct matrix -4 with entries

: I f. it i cleteated j
(1

rhi
10; otherwise.

(b) Constnrct rnatri B with entries


_ I, if i defeated sorneone who defeated j iI j
^ - II0, otherwise.
attd
""
(c) Theplayeriisthetop-rankedplayerif thesrmof rowiinthernatrix A+B isthelargest. Whatis
the nrrmber of this player?

54.2 Matrix Multiplic tion


There are many ways that we might thirrk of rmrltiplying two rnatrices together. The
most useful is not the most obvious. We define matrix multiplication here; we illustrate its
rrsefirlness irr applications later. Two rnatrices A and B can be mrrltiplied together only if
the mrrnber of cohrmns of A is equal to the rrurnber of rows of B. This means that if ,4 is
nL x pj tlren B mrrst be p x n. Wherr this is the ca^se, the size of the product Arry,pBpxn
is rn x n. Its (i,j)t}' element is defined to be the sum of the elements of the itr' row of ,4
rnultiplied by the corresponcling elernerrts of the jtl' cohrrnn of B. Forma,lly, we rnay write
that wherr
Crrxn - A^ypBpxn, (4.5a)

then,
P

c"j: \-l,Ldikokj. (4.5b)


A:T

Let us ilhrstrate with the product

oo:(r 2 -3\l /_r 2

^"-\2\ 4 bi/ I 3 o
\2 4

The (1,1) entry of the product is the surn of the entries irr row I of A multiplied by the
corresponding entries in columr I of B, narnely, (1X-1)+ (2)(3)+ (-3)(2) : -1' The (1' 2)

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38 SECTION 4.1

/'t c o\
/t 8 2\ /-O -5
(t -3\-/-2 1\_ /-t -"'),
o/ {-'';;)-{i; ; ):{-,
\2 o/ \5 6) It \o 2 o) \o -2l \o
3
2

-1 t)
We can combile operations of scalar mrrltiplication, addition, and subtract iorr,
t|e
provided of corrse that all matrices have the sarne dirnerrsiorrs. For exarnple,

^(t -2
o\, 3\ ^(z -3 5\ - / -5 6 -11\
b o)-"\+ o 2)-\-to 15 ro)'
Example 4.1- Find the matrix X that satisfies the equation

'"-,(-{ i) :(i i)
Solution First we write
(-a z\ (t o\
3x-18 4l-lo 11.
\a 2/ \1 r/
If we move t'e the matrix ( ') to the right side of t'e eq'ation,
'ow f
(t (-6 o\ 2\ (-5 2\
3x:lo tlrl8 nl:19 ll
\t rl \+ 2/ \5 3/
| -sls 2/3\
Multiplication by 1/3 now gives X: | 81.3 5/3 1..
\s/a I I
Tbanspose of a Matrix
In many applications of matrices, we find it necessary to interchange the rows and
colurnns of a matrix. This is called transposing the matrix, arrd the rrew rnatrix is called
tfue transpose of the origirral rnatrix. If A is t]re original matrix, its transpose is derroted
by A'.For instance, if

tlren o' : (-r' ,n ?)

Sorne obvious properties of the above operations are

A+ B : B + A, (Cornmutativity of addition) @'aa)


A+ (B + C): (A+ B) + C, (Associativitv of addition) (4'4b)
: (\p)A, @'ac)
(^ + p),4 : ),A1- prA,
^0'A) (4.4d)
.\(,4 + B) -- (a.ae)
A+O: ^A+A, (0^8,
the zero rnatrix with sarne dirnerrsiorrs a^s A) (4'4f)
(Ar\r :,q,. (+.+e)

prohibited'
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36 SECTION 4'1

CHAPTER 4 MATRICES AND THEIR ELEMENTARY PROPEHTIES


fi4.1 Matrices
An r4 x n matrix is a rectangular array of rnn, mrrnbers arrarrged in nl rows arrd n
cohrrnrrs. They are usually surrourrrled by parentheses or brackets. Four exarnples are shown
below.

(t 3 \ , (2,3, -4)'
\-z 2-Bi)'
The first is a 2 x 2 rnatrix; it is saicl to be cornplex because its errtries are cornplex mrrnbers.
The rernaining tlrree matrices are real; the secorr<I is 4 x 1, 4 rows and 1 colurnn; the third
is 3x4,8 rowsan<I 4cohrrnns; andthefourthis 1x3, l rowand3 colurnrrs. Irr the la^st
rnatrix we have inserted comrnas so that rro confusiorr can arise as to the mrrnber of errtries'
In general, we denote an rrl X n rnatrix by Arrrn and its rnn errtries a^s follows

A*xn : (aii),,xn: (4.1)

l\^r:':.. I.-)
Colurrurs of a rnatrix are mrrnbere<I left to righ.t and rows are nurnbered top to bottorn. The
:
entry irr the itl' row arrd jtl' cohrrnn is derroted by ati' For the third_ example above, azs 4,
: :
*sz I and, o.14 10. The mrrnbers m and n that represent the nrrrnbers of rows and
cohrrnns of a matrix are called its dimensions'

Special Matrices
Tlre exarnple (2,3, -4) is ofterr called a row matrix, there beirrg only one row'
folrth
In a sirnilar way, the second example is ofterr ca"lIed a column matrix, there beirrg only
one cohrmn.
Wlren the climerrsions of a matrix are equal (m : n,), the rnatrix has the sarne rrumber
of rows as collmrrs. Such a rnatrix is said to be square. Three exarnples are showrr below.

l-1 2
6
3 4l
7 Bl
lz 4)',
1l 15e 10 11 r2l
L3 I
L-l 2 | 3l
Tlre errtries o,rrt a22t a31t . .. of a square matrix are said to corrstitute its diagonal'
In the event that all entries other tharr the diagorral are zerol the rnatrix is said to be a
diagonal matrix. Exarnples of diagonal rnatrices are

(r [1 0 0
0
0l
o\ l0 -1 0l
[o o)' l0 o 3 0l
Lo o o2l
Wlerr eltries on the diagonal of a diagorral rnatrix are aII equal to 1, the matrix is said
to be an identity matrix. The identity rnatrices of orders 2 and 3 are

":(l ?),
^:(ll?)

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prohibited
34 SECTiON 3'2

(1-b)\ r,",(l*1" I \ .Ivtlt:\"


lo,"llrl < M (T+- ) -- (E= - F1-). l,l--
Divirling both sides of this inequality by l'rl' gives

b'^lt#' or l'l -1tffi'


and the Proof is cornPlete.

To ilhrstrate, consider the polynornial eqration


37n4+3x3-5x2*40:0.
The ratiolal root theorern yields the following munbers as possible rational zeros,
+1, +2, +.4, +5, +8, +10, r20, *40;

1 2 ,4 5 8 ,r0 ,20 ,40


=
ZT, = 37,
-- g7, = BT' = JTt -- 3Tt = 37' ='37'

Theorern 3.9 elirnirrates sorne of these possibilities. Since M


: max{3, 5,40) :40, all zeros
must satisfy <l:rl @0137)+ :
t 77137. This eliminates t4, +5, +8, +10, +20, *40 frorn
the above list'

Example B.lb Firrd maximrrrn antl rninirmrm values for the real zeros of P(t:) :3t:3 - 2n2 -l 5n - 9'

Solution Since M: rnax{2,5,9}:9, all zeros rmrst satisfy l:rl < (9/3)* 1:4; that is,
-4<n<4'o
Example 3.16 Find ail zeros of P(") :3na + l4n3 -l 43n2 -l l28n - 48'

Solution According to Descartes' mles of signs, there is exactly 1 positive zero, and either
1 or 3 neqative zeros. The rationai root theorern restricts ratiorrai zeros to

+ r, +2, +g, +4, +6, +8, +12, +16, I24, 1_:48;

*l -3, *!
-3' *? -3, *9
-3: *16
- 3

SirrceM:rnax{l4,43,128,48}:l2S,allzerosrmrstsatisfylrl<(12813)+1:131/3'
We rnay therefore eiirninate i48 from tire above list. Substitution quickly shows that r
:
+1, +2, f3, 4 are not zeros, but r : -4 is. we factor it frorn the quartic,

P(") : (Lr * 4)(3e;3 + 2x2 + 35n - l2)'


The clbic rmrst have a positive zero, and either 2 or 0 rregative zeros. Possible rational zeros
are

+1, +2, +3, +4, +6, +12, +|, +f , +f .

We rnay elirninate +1, +2, :E3, 4 on the ba^sis of previous calculations. Sirrce the rnaximrun
of {2, 3b, 12} is 35, all zeros of the cubic must satisfy lrl < (35/3)+ 1 : 38/3' This eliminates
none of the possibilities. We find that r: ll3 is a zero, and therefore
P(*) : @ + a)Qr - 1)(22 *:t -r 12).

The rernaining two zeros axe complex,

---l+\/ry=4
: | , \/n.
-r= -
't-
2- 2 '''

part or in full, is strictly prohibited'


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32 SECTION 3.2

We find that r: 7/2 satisfies the cubic equation, and therefore


g : (2x- :r -
- 7)(2Ot:2 7 3) : (2t: - 7)(5n - 3) (ar + 1)'

The sohrtions are i, :712,315, -Il4'.

The rational root theorem defines a finite set of rational numbers that could be roots
of a polynomial equation with integer coeffrcients. (No other rationals are possible.) Each
candidaie (lsrrally begirrrring with the integers), is substituted irrto the polynornial' Orrce
a sohrtiol is folird, it is factored frorn the polynornial, and the process is repeated orr
a polynomial of one less degree. A result narned after tire FYench rnathernatician Rene
Descartes can sometirnes shorten the mrrnber of triai and error substitutions that rntrst be
made'

Theorem 3.8 Descartest Rules of Signs Wherr P(e;) is a pollmomial with real coefficients written in
descerrding (or a^scerrdirrg) powers of z:

(a) the rlrrnber of positive (real) zeros (courrtirrg multiplicities) is equal to the rrurnber of
sign changes in the coefficients, or equal to the number ofsign changes decreased by an even
irrteger;
(b) the mrrnber of rregative (real) zeros (courrting multiplicities) is equai to the ntrrnber of
sign changes in the coefficients of P(-t:), or equal to the nurnber of sigrr charrges decreased
by an even integer'
To ilhrstrate, corrsider the quartic equation
P(t:) : xa - 3n3 * 3:r2 - lTn -l 16:0'
Since the coefficients change sign 4 times, the equation has 4 positive roots, 2 positive roots,
or no positive roots. F\rrthermore, since the coefficients in
P(-*): :x,4 + 3rf + 3n2 -l l7x -t 16

experience no sign charrges, the eqration has no rregative roots. Becatrse positive divisors
of 16 are 1,2,4,8,16, and that of 1 (the coefficient of za) is 1, the rational root theorern
indicates that the only possible rational roots are the irrtegers 1,2,4,8,16 (Descartes' nrles of
signs eliminated their negatives). We find that r : I is a root, and when it is factored frorn
the equation
(r - 1)(r3 - 2:r2 +r - 16) : Q.

T5e remaining cubic cannot have negative zeros (since the origirral quartic did not), and
corrsistent with tfie prediction of either 4, 2, or rro positive roots of the origirral equation,
Descartes' lrle predicts either 3 or 1 positive zero for the cubic. Orrce agairr the trial set is
I,2,4,8,16, rrorre of which satisfy the cubic. The rernairrirrg positive solution (or sohrtions)
rmrst therefore be irrational'

Example 3.14 Firrd all sohrtions for P(:r) : x)5 + 2:t:a - l3n3 l6t:2 - l2:r -t 40 :0'
Solution According to Descartes' nrles of signs, the equatiorr hus 4,2, or 0 positive roots,
and with

P(-*) : -x5 + 2:ra + I3r2 + 6112 + l2t: + 40,


there is exactly one negative root. Possible rational roots are
+L, t2, +.4, +5, t8, +10, +20, +40.
Slbstitution qrrickly shows that e; : il are not solutiorrs, but r: 2 is. We factor it frorn
the quirrtic,

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30 SECTION 3.2

*31. Give a formal definition of what it means for z : n to be a zero of rmrltiplicity k for a polynornial P(:r).

*32. Slppose n,) 2 poilts are chosen on the circurnference of a circle. Each point is joirred to every other
point. 1.ni. rlivi{es the irrterior of t}re circle into various parts, Let ,V(n) be the rnaxirmrm mmber of
parts so forrned. Drawings inclicate that N(1) : 1, N(2) :2, ,Af(3) :4, N(4): B, and AI(5) : 16' One
inight be led to believe that l/(n) :2n 7. This is however irrcorrect since ltr(6) : 31. It is knowrr that
the forrntrla for N(n) is a quartic polynomial' Find it. 'Mrat is ,n/(7)?

$3.2 R^ational Roots, Bounds, and Descartes' Rules of Signs

In that every polyrrornial equation of degree n has exactly n solutions


Sectiorr 3.1 we stateri
(co11ting rnultiplicities). As solutions are found they rnay be rernoved frorn the equatiorr
by the factor theorem. But we still do not know how to find these solutions. In this section
we show that it is relatively easy to find all rational roots of a pollnomial equation when its
coefficients are rational numbers. In addition, we find ways to predict the number of positive
and negative roots of equations with real coefficients as well as to establish a largest possible
root size. When t|ese techniques fail to give the required sohrtiorrs, mrrnerical tecltrriqtres
are brought into play. Our first result is contained in the following theorem.

Theorem 3.2 Rational Root Theorem Suppose that r : pf q is a rational root (in lowest terms) of a
polyrrornialequatiorr an:rn 1...1o,1n*oe:0 withinteger coefficients, andns f 0' Then,
p divides o,s arld q divides n,'
To ilhrstrate this resrrlt before giving a proof, consider the polynornial eqtratiorr
2:f+4n-5:0.
The theorern states that if this equation is to have a solution which is a rational rllrrnber
r: ple,wlere p and q have no corilnon divisors, therr p rmnt divide -5 and q rnust divide
2. Since the clivisors of -5 are il and t5, and those of 2 are tl and t2, it follows that the
only possible rational mrrnbers are +1, +5, +lf 2, arrd t5f2.It is straightforward to check

:,l1J,:ffJ :ffi ""::'i:#:i :Ti*Tl'll'n:i:l,:l:L?1,"l:H:",:"#;.:fi h";,:*?:


and/or cornPlex mrmbers
Proof of theorem Suppose r : p I a is a sohrtion of the polyrromial equation

o,nnn I o,n-1:Ln-r +' " + o4:n I o'g : 0,

where coefficients ar,...,os d,r€ integers, and that pf qltas been reduced to lowest terrns'
Then,

--" (P\n * ,,--,


'" ' (2\"-' r . + ,,- (q) * a,s - s
\s/ \q) \s/
and if this equation is rmrltiplied by q",

anlf I on-rpn-r Q+ . . . + o,tpen-L I o,sqn : g' (3.36)

Wherr t|e la^st term is transposed to the other side of the equatiorr , p rnay be factored frorn
the rernaining terrns,
p(rrnpn-r I o'n tpn-2Q+ ' '' + olq"-r) - -aoqn'
Sirrce the quantity in brackets is an irrteger, p divides the left side of this equation' It rmnt
therefore divide the right side also. Sirrce rro factor of p carr divide q ot Qn, P must divide oe'

prohibited.
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28 SECTION 3.1
Theorem 3'5 rf z is a complex zero of a polynomial with real coefficients,
then so also is z.
Proof s'ppose z is azero of PQ:): o'nnn +'.,+ .,r:L+r,ltwhere coefficients
are real. Then.
0,,r,...,as

dnzn I ... I a1z-f r-r,s : g.

we show that P(z): 0' If w9 ilke cornnlex conjugates of both sicles of this eq'atio', a'cl
use the results ofExercise 3Z in Sectiorr 2.1,

u:anz'.+...+e,72+aO
: dnid + ' . . + d,Lz + oo (part (a) of the exercise)
: anzn + . ' . + arz I o,o (part (c) of the exercise)
: anzn + ' . . + ar7 I o,o (part (e) of the exercise)
: P(z).

we have seen a ntrrnber of exarnples of this result. The quartic


equation 3.31 ha^s two
real sohrtions z : *1 and two complex conjugate solutions :
t: -l*i. The qlartic equation
ra + 5r2 + 4: (u2 + 7)(n2 + 4) :0 has two"pair. of .or.rpl"*
corrjugate roots, z : *i and
n: I2i.
When a real polynornial P(r) has a pair of cornplex zeros, say :L : af bf the' two
linear factors of p(e;) are r_ ,
o,_hi and,i _a+bi;ihat is, p(z) can be expresserl irr the
form

P(r) : (t: - o, - bi)(x - a + bi)e@). (3.35a)


where Q(e;) is apolynomialof degree twoless that
P(r). If the complexfactors aremrrltiplied
together the result is

P(") : ln2 - %m-r (o,2 a b2)le(n), (3.35b)


where -2o' and r.t2 rb2 are reai' In other words, the pair
of complex ljnear factors in 3.35a
is equivalent to the real quadratic factor in 3.35b. Since this
can Le done for each and every
pair of cornplex conjrrgate roots, we rave the folrowi'g res'rt.
Theorem 3'6 Every real polynornial can be factored into the product of real
linear arrd irreducible real
qrradratic factors.

W-hat we mean by irredrrcible is that the quadratic factor


carrnot be factored into real
lirrear factors. For irrstarrce, iLz 1. 7 is an irreducible quadratic,
n2 _T i, ,rot.

EXERCISES 3.1
In Exercises 1-4, what is the remainder when the first polynomial
is divided by the second?
7.:ra+3r3-2:111, x-2 2.:t:s_2:r2++r+b, rII
3.:r4-3:r3 12xPizf 10, B:r+4 4. t:B+Sr2_2x+2, Br_l
In Exercises 5-8, find a polynomial with as low a degree as possible with the given zeros. Assume each zero
has multiplicity 1 unless otherwise specified.
5. 3, -2,4 6. 2 (rnultiplicity 2), -3, 4 (rnulripliciry B)
7. -1 (multiplicity 3), 4 8. 1, -1, 3, -2 (rmrltiplicity 2)
9. Can :r4 l5z:2 * 2 have a real zero?
10. If -2 + 3i is a zero of the polyrrornial z3 I Tn2 a 2bx _f 3g, find its other zeros.

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26 SECTION 3.1

wirere Q',-1(r) is a polynornial of degree n - 1'

Proof There is no questiorr that when a polynornial of degree n is divided by br - o, the


quotient is a polynomial of degree n - 1 and the rernainder is a constant,
P^(*) - (bn - o,)Q^-r(z)+ R,
(lorrg divisiorr tells us ttris). Srrbstitrrtion of :r: n/b irnrnediately yields R- P^(alb)
Example 3.9 Find therernairiderswhenP(:r) :x! -2:r:2 +t:*5is dividedby (a) z*3 and (b) 2r+3.
Solution (a) According to the remairrder theorern,
the rernairrder is x3 3x2+7x-20
P(-3): (-3)n -2(-3)' + (-3)* 5:65.
*+tWiW
x+l3xJ
This is much easier than using the long divisiorr -3x3-2x2
to the riglrt. -3x3-gx2
(b) Theorern 3.1 indicates that the remainder is 7x2+x
7x2+2lx
P (-3 I 2) : (-3 I 2)n - 2(-3 I 2)2 + (-3 I 2) -r 5 : 65 I 16.o -20x+5
-20x-60
Polyrrornial P'(z)
and divisor br - u in the remainder
65
theorern need not be real; they carr be complex' We illustrate
irr the following example.

Example 3.10 Deterrnine the rernainder when P(r) : ir3 - 3n + 4 + i is divided by ix * 2'

Solution The remainder is


P (-2 I i) : P (2i) : i(2il3 - 3Qi) + 4 + i : 8 - 6i + 4 + i: 12 - \i.o
Arr irnrnediate conseqlrence of the rernairrder theorern is the factor theorem.
Theorem 3.2 Factor Theorem b:t - o, is a factor of PnQ:) if and only tf P"(o,lb) : 0.

The factor theorem is very useful in solving polynomial equations. It does not find
sohrtions, however. What it does do is simpJify the problem each tilne a solution is found'
To ilhrstrate, consider tire quartic equation

P(d: x4 +2:r3 :- t:2 -2r -2--0. (3.31a)

A moment's reflection indicates that r - 1 satisfies the equation. The factor theorem then
irnplies that n - 1 is a factor of the quartic. The rernairring cubic factor can be obtairred by
Iong divisiorr or synthetic division (if you have learned it). The division carr also be done
rnerrtally. The result is
P(r) : na + 2:r3 I t:2 - 2x - 2: (:r - t)(23 + 3r2 + 4t: + 2).
What this rneans is that equation 3.31a can be replaced by
PQ) :(:r - 1)(r3 + 3n2 + 4r + 2) : g. (3.31b)

To find further solutions of quartic equation 3.31a, we need only examine the cubic z3 *
3n2 + 4:r: -l 2 itr 3.31b for its zeros. Once we rrotice that a zero is n - -1, we may factor
r t 1 from the cubic arrd replace 3.31b with
P(") : (z; - 1)(r + 1)(r2 121 1- 2) :0. (3.31c)

The remaining two solutions are given by the quadratic formula,

-2+\/T=8 -2+\/=4 -2+2i_ 1r;


*222
.L_-___:-

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SECTION 2.2

ln Exercises 7-19 express the complex number in simplified Cartesian form


7. 3e"i/6 8.en'
4.l:0,:
9. l2e^i/+12 n. eTa/ o
11. (1 - i)4 12. [cos (n + sin (r/5)i]10
15)
("
^ -2[cos l3)6 -t?'
sin (zrl3) i]3
13. -:l-
(/3 + i)o
1
--.-
ru. (r+;\5
/9 r .i\6
16. -\----'l
\2-2i)
z
\4 - z)"
/ - r4
n. (r+{y\
\t - t/sz/
-r10

".
(t='\=
\r/a+17
ftf)'
\1-il
(3e" i / a 1 12e- rr i / 4 (6
) eir i'
I 3
)
19.
( eznt'/s1z
In Exercises 20-27 find all solutions of the equation.
tr2o. z3 : I : i *21. za
*22. -2+2{si
z2 : -32 t023. z5
*24. :4-3i
z3 *25. z6 : -I
*26. za + 322 + 5:0 ,027. z6 - 223 + 4: 0
x28. Therootsof theequation zn:I,wherenisapositiveinteger,arecalledtherootsof unity. Findthern.
In Exercises 29-34 use De\,foivre's theorern to verifv the identitv.
*29. :
cos3d cos3 d - 3cos0sirr2 0
x3O. sin3d : 3cos2 dsind - sin3 d

*31. cos4d : cos4 0 - 6 cos2 0 sin2 0 + sirra d

*32. sirt4l: 4cos3 0sin7 - 4cos0sin3 0


*33. cos50 : coss 0 - ncos3 dsin2 d + 5cos 0 s:|Ita 0
*34. sin 5d : 5 cosa d sirr 0 - 10 cos2 0 sirr3 d + sirrs d

**35. If Z is a given complex mrrnber and rn and n are relatively prime, positive integers, flnd all solutions of
tlre eqrratiorr zn : Zn'.
*36. Show that for any real number p arrd any even, positive integer rn,

(*,*'\^ : r.
"2micoL-LP \p-t) -''

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,, SECTION 2.2

But this is exactly what we would expect if the cornplex exporrerrtial eoi were to obey the
usual nrles for real exponerrtials, namely tltat e'rer2 : srrtt2 and errf er2 : srt-zz. lt
other words, if we define eqi by 2.19, write cornplex mrmbers in form 2.20, a:nd. dernand that
e9i obey the usual rmrltiplication and divisiorr nrles, then equatiotts 2.2lfollow immediately,
and we can forget about 2.13 and 2.15. DeN{oivre's t}reorern is even rnore eviderrt wit}r
exporrential rrotatiorr; it states that

: (reod)n : rnenoi. (2.22)


"n
Example 2.6 would rrow read a^s follows: Since 1 + J3i :2e"i/3,
(1 + va&)8 : (2e^t/t1a -- 28r\ni/3 :28e2ri'13
/ . n.\
:2b6lcos(2trl3)l+sin (2rls)il:2b6 {-* *+',2)I :128(-l +,[Ji).
\2
We have replaced 6t un;1 two sirnple argurnents justify this. The easiest is
to realize that 8r/3"8ni/3 "2ri/3
and 2trf3 are argurnerrts of a cornplex rmmber arrd as such they are
equivalent, 8n 13 : 2n i %r 13. Alternatively,

- : : lcos (2r) * sirr (2n.) i]e2nt/s - ,2ni/3.


"(2n-t2n/3)i "2ri.2rifs
"8ri/3
What we are clairning here is stated rnore generally as
e@+2kr)i - e9i. whenever fr is an integer. (2.22)

n)to
Example 2.2 Firrd the irnaginary part of jtJ .

\',8 - i)5'
Solution Sirrce

(l + i)10 (J2e."i/a)to 25r,5ri/2 _


^Gr/2tbr/6\i _ ^Leni/J ^4ri/3
(t/3-i)5- (2r--ril675 - 2s.-nl16-'' -c

the imaginary part is sirr (azr/S) : -t/512..


We now use 2.23 to find roots of complex numbers. We begin by finding the three cube
roots of 8i. To do this we write 8i in exponerrtial form Si : 8e"i/2 . According to 2.23, we
carr add arry rmrltiple of 2n to the argurnent, 8i : g"(2kt*r /2)i . To find cube roots, we no\ry
write
(Ar; tlr : /2)i'lr /3
l8e(2n"+" .

If we a^ssrrrne that complex exponentials obey the usual rule ("")o : e"b (at lea^st when b is
real), then
(S;;tU s : gr /3 /z)t'/3 : 2"@k- l)ri'/6 .
"(zten-r
If we set k : 0, 1 and 2, we obtairr the three cornplex rnrrnbers

zo: )sri/6: 2[cos (nl6) + sin (n/6) i]: t/5 + t,


z1 - )s5nd/6 : 2[cos (5r 16) + sin (5n/6) i]: -rt + L
z2 - )s3ri' /2 : 2 [cos (3tr 12) + sin (Zr 12) i] : -2i .

These are the cube roots of 8i , the cube of each cornplex nurnber is equal to 8i. Other values
of k sirnply repeat these cube roots. It is interesting to plot the cube roots in the complex
plane (Figure 2.8). All tlrree lie on a circle cerrtred at the origin with radius 2 (the cube root
of the rnoduhrs of 8i ) . They are equally spaced around the circle with angle 2n f 3 between
each pair. The argurnent of z9 is orre-third the principal argrrrnent of 8i.

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20 SECTION 2.2

Since the last expression is the polar representation of zyz2, we have the following facts:
1. The modullffi of the prodrrct of two complex ilrmbers is the product of their rnoduli,

l"rrzl: l"rllrrl. QMa)

2. Arr argumerrt of the product of two cornplex mrrnbers is tlte surn of their argumerrts,

arg\422) : ar3 zr I arg 22. (2.r4b)

Be wary of how you irrterpret equatiorr 2.I4b; it is not an equatiorr in the norrnal serrse
of equation. Each of the three terms has an infinity of possible values (since the argument
of a cornplex mrmber is deterrnined orrly to rmrltiples of 2r). What this "equation" says
is tlrat given arry two terrns, there is a vahre of the third that rnakes 2.14b an equatiorr.
For exarnple, positive argrrrnents of z1 - 1 *i and zz: | - i are rf4 andTrf4; therc are
others. Theproductof thesecomplexmrmbersrszlz2:(1 +i)(1 -i) :2. Arrargtrrnent
for tlre cornplex mrrnber 2 is 0, but certainly the argtrrnents argzl : rl4, aryz2:7Tf 4.
and arg zrzz:0 do rrot satisfy 2.14b. On the other hand, the argurnents argzl: vf!,
arg22:7nf 4, andatgzlz2:2n do satisfy 2'14b'
Arr arralysis sirnilar to the above shows that
: (d1 - e) t sin (tu - o2) il. (2.15)
Z Tfcos

Irr otlrer words, we have the following facts corresponding to 2'14:


1. The moduhrs of the quotient of two cornplex nurnbers is tire quotient of their rnodtrli,

lrtl l"tl (2.16a)


lr"l lrrl'
2. An argument of the quotient of two complex numbers is the difference of their arguments,

*t (;) : arszr - argz2. (2.16b)

Orrce again property 2.16b rmrst be interpreted in the same way a^s 2.14b.

Example2.S Findzzzand,zlfz2wherrzl:6(cos1.1*sirr1.1i) and zz:3(cos2.4+sui.2.4i).


Solution According to eqrratiorrs 2-13 an'd 2.15,

z1z2 : 18(cos3.5 1 sirr3.5i), a :21.o"(-1 3) + sirr (-1.3) zl.o

Eqlation 2.13 can be used to derive a simple formtrla for z' wherr n is a positive integer'
When z:r(cosd+sindi),
,z : lr(cosd + sirr 0 i)][r(cos d + sin 0 i,)] : 12 (cos20 1- sin20 i);
,3 : r12: [r(cosd + sindi)][r2(cos2d + sirr 20i)]: r3(cos3d t sin30i)'

The patterrr ernergiug is

zn : rn(cosn0 + sinn? i'). (2.r7)

It can be proved by rnathernatical irrductiorr. The result is called DeMoivre's Theorem'

Example 2.6 Evaluate (1+ /3i)8.

Solution Tire modulrrs of 1* /el is 1t + \nil: t/t' * ($)' : 2, and an argumerrt is

ran-1(i/5; : rl3' It follows that

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18 SECTION 2.2

*39. Prove thai if zrz2:0, titen at least orre of 21 arld 22 rnmt be zero'
*40. We have rnacle the agreernerrt that wherr a ) 0 is a real number, tFo,denotes a cornplex mlmber with
positive irnaginary part. Show that with this agreeme nt , ,f zyz2 is not always equal to .J 4 .J b
*41. Explain the failacy irr

-r: 1+li: vGTXrt : '/T: r.


x42. Firrd two mrmbers whose surn is 6 and whose product is 10.
*43. Verify tirat the vahres of :r in 2.8b satis$z 2'8a.
*44. To flnd the square roots of a complex number, say i, we could set (:rt -l yi)2: i, and solve the equatiorr
for r and 37. Do this by usirrg 2.2 for equaiity of cornplex mrmbers'
*45. use the technique of Exercise 44 to find square roots for (u) -7 - 24i (b) 2 + i.

52.2 Polar and Exponential Forms of Complex Numbers


Polar Form of ComPIex Numbers
In t|e previous section we worked with cornplex rlrrnbers in Cartesiarr form, and this proved
sufficient to solve quadratic equations. For other applications, including solving pollmomial
eqrrations of order higher tharr two, it is ofterr advarrtageous to have what are called tlle
Ttolar and erponen,tial representatiort of a complex number. To find these
representations,
we define the modttlus ald of a complex rmrnber.
argu,rnert,f

The modulus of a cornplex mrrnber 2 : v 1yi is

r:lzl:6TF l,t o\

Figure 2.4 indicates that the rnodulus of a cornplex rlrrnber is the lerrgth of the iirre segrnerrt
joining the cornplex rn mber z :0 to z : 'r + yi. It is uniqtre' For example,

12+Bil: t7z'+g': \/rg, l-3+ 4il: \FV +4:5'


When z is real, say z : r, therr ltl: t/A: lzl, where lzl is the absohrte value of z. In
other words, when z is real, rnodtrhrs bars are absohrte valtre bars'
Arr argument of a nonzero complex mrrnber n I yi, ofterr denoted by d or arg z, is tlte
angle of rotation of the positive real axis in a courrterclockwise direction to the line segrnent
joinirrg arrd z: nlgi. Clockwise rotatiorrs are accepted, but they are regardedas
z:0
tregutiue. Argurnerrts are rrot rurique. For the cornplex mrtnber z: | - i (Figure 2'5), one
possible vahre for 0 tsTnf 4, but so alr;ois -rf 4. In fact, there is an infinity of possibilities
lor d, rramely,0: -rl4+2kn,where k is an integer. That value of the argurnent in the
interval -r I g ( zr is called tire principal value of the argument. Fot z:1 - i, it is
-1r /4.

Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6

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16 SECTION 2.1

:f +2r * 5:0,
everr though we have no authority for doirrg so, the result is

,L
- -2+ \/q -n - -2 + J-G
22
By /:TB we wotrld seern to rnean the mrrnber that rmrltiplied by itself is
are two strch ntrrnbers, narnely L4i. Let us rnake the agreernent that
-16. But there
/-16- shall 4enote
that complex ntrrnber whose square is and which has a positive irnagirrary part. By
-16,
this agreernent,

J-ta: +t ancl - J-G - -4i.


Tlre qrradratic forrmrla applied to n2 +2r: -t5: 0 therefore gives two cornplex mrmbers

r:-2+4'-:-r+2i.
It is straiglrtforward to verify that these two complex conjugates do irrcleed satisfy n2 +2n+
5:0.
The agreernent rnade in this last exarnple is worth reiterating as a general principle:
Wherr n > 0 (is a real mrrnber),
t/=": rt,t,. (2-7)
we call ,/aithe principal square root of -o,; the other sq'are root is -\fii.
The above exarnples lead us to state that every real quadratic equatiorr
ar2+b:r*c:0 (2.8a)
has two sohrtiorrs

-b+\/F-+* (2.8b)
2o,

Whenb2 -4o'c) 0,rootsarerealanddistinct; whenb2 -4ac:0,rootsarerealandequal;


and when h2 - 4o'c ( 0, roots are complex conjugates. Veriflcation of this is a matter of
substituting 2.8b into 2.8a (see Exercise 43).

Example 2.2 Find all solutiorrs of the foliowing equations:


(a) 12 +z*3: 0 (b) x2 -6,r+9: 0 (c) 2u2 :_IT:r _ 2:0 (ct) za + Sr2 + 4:0
Solution (u) By quadratic eqrration forrmrla 2.8b,

.,_-r+\F=n _ -1+1:Tf :_1*4o


2 2 2- 2

(b) This quadratic can be factored, 0: n2 -6:r1_g: (:r: -3)2, arrd therefore has a dolble
root z : 3.
(c) By 2.8b,

n_-17+\/?FFT:r-
Ali
_-rT+/tob
two real roots.
(d) If we set y : r:2, then

0: t:a tbr2 14:t)2 * b37* a: (a +4XU + r).


Conseqtrently, 3r is equal to -1 or -4. Sirrce U : 12, we set n2 : -l and:r2: -4, These
eqrrations lrave roots :r : ti alr.d n : t2i,c

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74 SECTION 2.1

Zyz2 : Q: + yi)(o, + bi) : (:ro, - yb) -t (ub + ya)i,. (2.4)

For exarnple,

(3 - 2i)(6 + i) : (-2X1)] + [(3)(1) + (_2)(6)]i :20 _ ei,.


[(BX6) -
It is not necessary to memorize 2.4 when we note that this definition is precisely what
we would expect if the usual laws for rnultiplying binornials were applied, together *itl,
tl
fact tlrat i2 : -l: "
(z - 2i)(6 + i) : (s) (6) + (i) + (_2,) (6) + (_2i)(i)
(3)
: 18 + 3i - r2i -2i2
: 18 - 9i - 2(-r)
:20 - 9i.

With addition, subtraction, arrd rmrltiplication taken care of, it is rratlral to trrrn to
divisiorr of cornplex ntrrnbers. If we accept that division of arry nonzero cornplex mrrnber
by itself should be equal to 1, and ordinary rules of algebra should prevail, a definition of
divisiorr of complex mrmbers is not necessary; it follows frorn equation 2.4. Wherr zr : n
IlJi
anrd z2 : o, I bi, we calculate

zr :L + lJi
22 o, -l bi,
by multiplying mrrnerator and denornirrator by a bi. This resurts irr
-
zt _ r t yi _ (t; + yi)(o, - bi)
22 o+ bi (a+bi)(a - bi)
_ (no, -f Ab) + (-fi-r uo.\i (trcing 2'4)
a2 ) b2
_ (m,+yb\ (ya-rb\.
- \e4 1- \o,16, 1''
For exarnple,
3-2i _ (3-2i)(6-i) _ 16_15i _ 16 15.
6+i (6+i)(6 - i) 37 JI -1
'J(
In strrrunary, addition, subtraction, rmrltiplication, and clivisiorr of cornplex rrumbers are
perforrned rrsirrg ordirrary mles of algebra with the extra conditiorr that i2 is always replaced
bv -1.
Example 2-1 write the following cornplex nurnbers in cartesian forrn:

(u) (b) 4-3i2 +2i


(3 + i)(2 - i)' - i 2+x
(c)
(2 - ztzlz
Solution
(u) (3+r)(2-i), - i: (3+ i)(3-4i) -i: (13 _ei) - i:13_L}i
/L\ 1s -ie-i) -t-2i r 2.
2+i (2+i)(2-i) 5 5 5"
(^\ 7+2i (7+2i)(-i)
:-(&n:t-: 2-7i :4-8i, | 7.
\c/ !-3ir+2i _4+3+2i
T-frY:O+W: & 8
Notice in part (c) of this example that we rnultiplied rurmerator and {errorninator by
-i rather than -8i; the resuit is the sarne irr either case. Both lead to a rea.l denominator.

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L2 SECTION 1.2

723 r25
*zJ. I (-t t 6nf -r t2nt* 9) and ! {-t + r)
nt=2L m:22
In Exercises 24-33 use iderrtities 1.16 arrd formulas 1.17 to evaluate the surn.
2lI22gn
24.DQ/+zi) 2".D@n,+2) ,6. D @s -rk2) ,r.t@m_2)2
J=L n:I k=2 m:l
n2b4623
28.fi(i-q2 2s.D@+s)@-a) Bo.ten+2) ,r.tei_4)
i=l n:l n=21 x:I4
33 2rt
32. D(3*i + 1)2 33. ti:7 Qj - r)'
h:9

*34.Findaforrmrlato.S,,1,.
*- Hi.r, 1 :1- 1

?,k(k+r) k@+D- E- n+r


*35. Verify the results irr equations 1.16.
n ln I ["
x36. Isthefollowingidencitytrrreorfalse: fL utffli q(i)l:: ll- J^,''l
\L ) s\L )t
ls- ,.'lI
\'.) sVl
l2_ ) lL 1

*37' If /(r) is a firnction of z, defined for all nonnegative integers, simplify the sum
t ttirl - /(i - 1)].
i':L
*88. Expressinsigrnanotation:1+:-1-1*l*l-
.- --""-",".,. -'
I 1 1

2 4 g, 16' 32- 64_- I2g-...- 4096


ln I n
xB9. Prove thar It rrlrl
tLrr \-/l: . i
zrtJ trrtrt.
\"Jt,
I t':r I t:r
x40- A wheel of forturre ha^s the mrrnbers 1 to 36 on it in a randorn order. Show that regarclless of how the
rrurnbers are situated, there are tlrree consecutive mrrnbers that total at teast 55.
*41. Show that if the mrmbers 1 to 100 are placed on the wheel in Exercise 40, there are folr colsecutive
mrmbers that suln to at lea^st 202.

For Exercises 42-45 verify the results in Exercises 9,13,4I, and Exarnple 1.1 frorn Sectiorr 1.1 using sigma
notation and rnathematical irrductiorr.
**46. Find a simplified formula for

(1)n + 2(n - r) -r 3(n, - 2) + a(n- 3) + . .. r (n- 1)(2) +n(1).

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10 SECTiON 1.2

2U+17)-LL 2i+6

\/ATfi-:n \nTz
Wherr rn:15 and m:23, the correspondirrg vahres for j are j: -2 and j:6. In other
words, we can write that
23 qnr-71 0 or*6
o _\-
\-

"?i|\fr;E j?_,^n+A
Orrce you make a few of these charrges, you realize that there is a rmrch faster way to change
variables in sigrna rrotation. For exarnple, consider the surnrnatiorr
23 / .\,
1- (n - +J'
?Jn_4i n'
For obvious reasons, it would be preferable if each of the n's irr the general terrn were raised
by 4. We can do this if we compensate by lowering each of the lirnits by 4. The result is
23/r\tL9,
1: In-+J- _\-u. n-
f,;3-n 1, 3" * nr 1'
Ifwe lower each of the n's by 2 in the gerreral term of the followirrg summatior, we compen-
sate by raising limits by 2,

iK("+2)2ts: gn,2+J
1 ,1"(") 2) k "1""
Every strmrnatiorr represented in sigrna notatiorr is of the form
n

D /(,'1,
L:NL
(1.1b)

where nl arrd n are irrtegers (n>nt), and /(i) is some furrctiorr of the variable of surrunatiorr
i. InExample 1.4(a), f (i):12llQ+ 1)(i+2)], rzr:1and n:13. T6efollowirrgproperties
of sigrna notatiorr are easily proved by writirrg out ali terrns in the summations.

Theorem 1.1 Sigrna notation obeys the following properties:

i,Vra + +io(il,
s(i)l:i rra (1.16a)

f,.tta:"f, r{t, (r.16b)

if c is a constant (indeperrdent of i).


When /(i) in 1.15 is a polyrrornial, formula^s such a^s the followirrg can be used to evahrate
the surnrnation. These were rrroved in Section 1.1.

3$, - n(n,-rr) $,, - n,(n-r7)(2n.+1) $,, - n,2(n-rl)2 t1 1,7\

=z-b.:r
We ilhmtrate in the followirrg exarnple.

Example 1.5 Use Theorern 1.1 arrd forrmrla^s 1. L7 to evahrate the foilowing srrrrunations:
22 45
(") \1zr? -tn1 (b) | i"'+ s)
n:14

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8 SECTION 1.2

$1.2 Sigma Notation

Orre of the rnost important notations in mathernatics, sigma notation, is used to represent
the surn of a number of quarrtities, all of which are sirnilar in forrn. For exarnple, the six
terms in the surn
123456
l+2r- 1*g"- I+42t l+b2 l+6r- l+?
are all formed in the sarne way each is arr integer divided by orre phrs the square of the rrext
- fnrrn n
integer. If k represents arr irrteger, can say that every term has rha
1+(k+l)2'
The first term is obtained by setting k : 1, the second by settirrg k:2, and so on' Becarrse
k
renrcscnts each and every
t + (kj + 1)2 "r^""""
'-"" in the sum, we can describe the sum in words,
--r term
by saying, "Add rogether all the numbers obtained by settirrg lr iII to the
1+#+ 1p eqrral
positive integers between 1 and 6 inclusively". The notation used to represent this staternent
is
6,

3t*(k+t1z'
The E symbol is the Greek letter sigma, and in this case means "sum". What is summed are
expressions of the forrn arrd the tLk - Ilt and "6" irrdicate that every integer
r+trctr,- r,
==:-,-
fromlto6issubstitutedinto
I+(Aj+I)"
Wecall , --!-, tt- 1\rthegeneraltermof the
I+lKj+r/'
-j*.thereirr. The letter *, is called the index of summation
surn, since it represents each terrn
or variable of summation, and the 1 and 6 are called the limits of summation.
L2

Tlnrs, if we see a sigrna sigrr wi h lirnits, say we krtow that every irrteger from 5 to
t,
k:5
12 is slbstituted irrto the gerreral terrn, and all such rnmbers are then added together. For
t2
instance, the rrotatiorr )- kt ."pt"rents the sum of the cubes of the irrtegers from 5 to 12:
k:5
L2

D*t :53 + 63 +73 + 83 + 93 + 103 + 113 + 123.


k:5

It is ofterr necessary to surn a large ilrmber of terms, and tlurs very inconvenient to
write them all down. In such cases, we often write a few terms to indicate the pattern by
w[ich t]rey are forrned, t]rree dots, and t]re last tenn. For exa,rnple, to indicate the surn of
the cubes of the ositive integers less than or equal to 100, we write
13 +23 + 33 + 43 +...+ 1003.

The dots indicate that all mrrnbers between 43 arrd 1003 are to be filled in according to the
pattern suggested. Clearly, it is preferable to write
100

\- t3.
7=,

The rrotation is more compact and there ca^n be no qllestion as to the pattern.

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SECTiON 1.1

111 "'+n(n+1)' n> L' 1

r.2+ 2.g+ 2.4+


17. Find a^rrd verify aforrmrlafor the sum 1*3+5+...+(2n - 1) of the first nodd integers.
18. Prove that 7 divides 8" - 1 for n ) 1.

19. Prove that - I for n ) 1.


15 divides 42n

20. Prove that 4 divides 3(7'- - 1) for n ) l.


21. Prove that 5 divides 42n - 1 for n 2 1.
*22. Prove that z - y divides tn - An for n 2 1.
*23. Prove that 576 divides 52n*2 - 24n, - 25 for n ) ]-

*24. Use the result of Exarnple 1.3 to verify the formula^s in Exercises 2,B,Il, and 12.

*25. Prove that rf y divides l'2niL 1U2n+L for n, > 0

*26. Show that when n is a positive irrteger, so also is (n3 * An,z + Zn) lZ.

x27. Yefiy that the srun of the interior arrgles of a polygorr with n sides is (n - 2)r radians.
*28. Prove that if the proposition 1 * 2 + 3 + ' . . I n : (n,+ 2)(", - l) 12 is valid for some integer k, therr it is
also valid for k + 1. Is the result valid for all n ) 1?

29. Provethat if the propositiorr 1*3+5+...+(2n- 1): n,2 +4is validfor some irrteger /c, then it is also
va[d for k + 1. Is the result valid for a]l.n) L?
*30. Verif,i that1*3+5+ ...-t(2n - 1) < n2 +n for n ) 1.

x31. Verify that 2+4+6 +...+ (2",) <n,2 +2nfor n,) L


*32. Prove that 9(nl) > 22" for n> 5.
*33. Verify that when n ) 0 arrd n,) 2is apositive integer, therr (l -la) ) I+n,o,.
*34. Verifu that:
1\/ 1\/. 1\
./ (t++){1+;)(t+i) /.'\
(")
'-'\- 1/\ '/\
(1*-l-n+r.
,. n/
n.)r

tur (r-1)('-1\('-r) ('-+):


e/\^ 16) \- n2)
n)2
\ +./\ 2n,'
x35. Suppose n people stand in line at a ticket counter. Show that if the first person in line is a woman, and
the last person is a rnan, then sornewhere in the line, there rntrst be a man imrnediately behirrd a woman'

x36. Suppose n points are drawn irr the plane, no three of which are collirrear (, > 3). If a lirre is drawrt
through each pair of points, find and verify a formula for the number of such lines.
In Exercises 37-45 1se mathernatical induction to establish the result for positive integer n. In Exercises
1-15, irrcrea^sing n by 1 orr the Ieft side of the identity resulted in one additiorral terrn. This is rrot the case
in Exercises 37-45; increa^sing n by I results irr rnore than orre rrew term. Pay careful attention to this wherl
proceeding frorn P1, to Paa1.
*37. l+4+7 +...+ (6n,-2):n(6n-l)
*38. 23 + 43 + 63 + ... + (4n)3 : 8n2 (2n + l)2
2n(4n + r-)(8n+ r)
*39. 12 +22 + g2 + ... -t (4n)2 -
*4o. 2.2+3.22 +4.23 +5.24 +...+ 1zi1z'--': (zn-r)2'n

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SECTION 1.1

which is 1.9. We have therefore verified that the result is valid for k + 1. Consequently,
by
the prirrciple of mathematical induction the forrnula is correct for all n ) 1.o
to realize that wherr n is increased by 1 in 1.2,
the this to formula 1.1 where an increase in n by
1 re n the lookout for this in sumrnatiorr formulas.
Example 1.2 Verify that if n lines are drawrr in the plane, rro two of which are iderrtical, then the rnaxirnurn
mrmber of points of intersectiorr of these lines is n(n _ L)/2.

Solution If we draw two lirres in the plarre, there can be at rnost one point of intersectiorr,
and this is precisely what is predicted by n(n_ I)12 when n:2. Tlie result is therefore
correct fot n,:2.
Suppose that the propositiorr is tnre for sorne integer k; that is, suppose that when k
Iirres are drawn in the plane, the ma;rirmrrn mrrnber of points of intersectiorr is

k(k - r)
(1.10)
2

We must now show that wherr ic + 1 lines are drawn in the plane, the maxirmrrn mrrnber of
points of intersectiorr is
(k + r)k
2 \r.rr/
To do this we rernove one of the k+ 1 lirres, leavirrg k lirres. But for these k lirres the rnaximlrn
mrrnber of points of intersection is k(k l)12 (by t.10). If the lirre that was rernoved is rrow
-
replaced' it can add at most ft; rnore points of intersection, orre with each of the ft, lirres. The
maxirmrrn mrrnber of poirrts of irrtersection of the *; + 1 lirres is therefore

ry+k:t@-r+z)-rrr{rr,
and this is 1.11. We have therefore verified that the result is valid for k+ 1. Consequently,
by the principle of rnathematical inductiorr the formula is correct for all, n ) 2.o
Irr the next exarnple we verify a forrmrla that will be very usefrrl in iater work.
Example 1.3 When o arrd r are constants, the sum
a+ar) ar2+...Io,rn 1

is called a finite geometric series. Tire vahre of r is called the cornrnon ratio for tlte
geornetric series; it is the factor by which each term is rmrltiplied to give the next terrn.
Show that for n ) 1, its surn is
( o,(I - r")
rt l o,r I o,r2 a... I arn-L:- I) #,r-r r+I (1.r2)
lna, r: I.

Solution When r : 1, the series reduces to the surn of n o,'s, and therefore is equal to na.
Considerrrowthecasewhenrll. Whertn-l,theleftsideof l.l2isa,,arrdtheforrnlla
on tlre riglrt also gives r.r,. Hence, the formula is valid for n :1. Suppose ,k is some integer
for which 1.12 is valid; that is, suppose that

d+ (ff + ar2 + .. .l a,rk-r :'+P (1.13)

We rmrst rrow show that

a, + ar + ar2 + .. .r ark -
o'(l .- rk+r) (1.14)
I-r

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SECTION 1.1

Part C
we rrow put Parts A and B together to verify that 1.r is varid for air n ) 1. Irr part A,
1.1 was verified for n':1.2, and 3. But accordingto Part B, if 1.1 is valid for the integer
3, then it must be vatid for the next irrteger 4. But if it is tnre for 4, then it is true for 5.
If it is tnre for 5, it is tme for 6; and so on, and so on. Corrsequerrtly, 1.1 rnust be valid for
every positive irrteger n.

Before forrnalizirrg a prirrciple of mathernatical irrductiorr, we consider a secorrd example


to illustrate the versa,tility of the techriique and further soliclify the essence of the argumeirt.
Suppose we want to prove that

7 divides 2J3" -I (i.4)


for all integers n ) 1. orrce again we divide the discussion into three parts.
Part A
Wlren n : 1, we find that 233n - |:
7. Result 1.4 is therefore valid for n:
233 - I: 12166 and this rlrrnber is divisible bv
1.

Part B
Next, we suppose that 1.4 is valid for sorne irrteger k;that is, we suppose that

7 divides 2g3k - L. (1.5)

We now try to show that the result is valid for the next integer Aj + 1; that is, we try to show
that

7 divides 233(rc+1) - 1 (1.6)

To verify this we write

233(krr) - 1: (233k)(283) - 1.

To prove that this is divisible by 7, we rnust use 1.5 (otherwise why would we have rnade
this a^ssurnption). This carr be done by writing
283(/s+1) _ 1 : (283k _ 1)(233) + (233 _ 1).
We.have artificially added and subtracted 233, but in so doirrg, we have created the qua.rrtity
233k - 1in 1.5. Because 7 divides 233k
- 1 (by suppositioir), and z also divides-2gB -l
(Part A), it
follows that 7 divides the right side of this equation. Consequently, Z divides
23s(t+t) - 1. Thus, based on the srrpposition that 1.4 is valid for sorne integer i<;, it has beerr
shown to be valid for the next integer lc f 1.
Part C
We now put Parts A and B together to verify that 1.4 is valid for all n ) l. In Part
A, 1.4 was verified for n:1. But accordirrg to Part B, if 1.4 is valid for the irrteger 1, therr
it rmrst be valid for the next integer 2. Brrt if it is true for 2, therr it is tnre for 3. If it is
tnre for 3, it is trtre for 4; and so on, and so on. Corrseqtrently, 1.4 mrrst be valid for every
positive integer n.
These two exarnples contain the essential parts of every proof by rnathernatical irrduc-
tion:
A Verify the result for the smallest integer.
B Prove that whenever the result is valid for some (unspecified) integer *;, then it rmrst
also be valid for the next irrteger k f 1.

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L26 Arrswers to Exercises

15' z:7,lJ:3,2:
r:0,y:Q.2:Q -2
16. Nosol'tion tT. x:-(Ez-tr3)lB,y: (2zl 13)13,zarbitrary
18. 20. n:b,y:_B,z:I 21. t::I, I):0,2:I,tp:2

24. 2NH3*3CuO -) Nz*3Cu+3HzO


25. 2CsH18 +25C,2 --+ 16CO2 + lBH2O
27. Fatse 28. Farse 2e. Farse 30. Farse
31. ffill 81. Tlue 32. Farse 83. Tl'e
Exercises 7.1
1' 13 2' 0 3' 69 4' 2 5. 90
Ir. 77 Lz. 884 7s. r, _\/2 t5. 6- -g2 7. -322 8. 273 s. _37 10. 648
(y _ t:)(z _ ile _-r)- 16. (b) 2:t ly : g
|
17. (b) 2b(:r2 1u2)-eet:r2,by-r32:, ,,
lr3,
lt 4 _2 1l
0
T : jl
,...2, 2 !r:+ !)q, ll
1,ri+ui
* l':i+'ri :.: 'r; ii : r 20. bn-r(an+b)
tt3+A5 )is tls tl
Exercises 7.2
l. r::-7/3,A:2313 2. r:_lI,y: _g B. n:1, g:0 4. r:2b/4,g:_314
5. r -I5l7,a: -l3l7,z:-16lZ 6. :r:: _l,U:0,
7. r
z:2
?91a, a:
r}f 2,_z: Igl4 8. z: _tllfi,;: _16115, z:28/15
9. r l,U :3, z: -2,u :0 10. r: t8l2:,!: _281;i,;: _ZS,IZZ,ut :48123
17. . ? L2. (a) No (b) The sigrr of ErRs _ EzRt
13' (l) (P--t Rz)h - Rziz -
-Er, -R t, + (R, i n :16: -Ez
(b) i r : -lEr (Rz + Rs) + Ez Rzv (h Rz + ri Rs+ ar'
ar),tr : -]nr 14 -r Rz) + Er Rzl / (Rr Rz
*RrRs + RzRs) (c) Downwarcl
14. (-") (h * Rz)it - Et - E2, -R2\ + (Rz + Rs)i2 : B,
(b) ir : [Et(Rz
lziz: EzRs]l(hRz
t {r) . + Rrn'a + nrir)-, tr: larRr-t EzRt)l(RrRz
*Erfis + R2&) (c) Upwarcl
15. (a) (furRz*,?3)r1 -R2i2:
ir tr(RztRa)i2:8,
.-[Ez(R, + Ra) +
(b) + R+)-t RzRai
. .i? [Er(Rt + &) - E nD + nrCn] (c) Downwarcl
16. (a) [n (n - r)b](a, - b)"- l)bl
Exercises 7.3
1. Independent 2. Dependerrt B. rdependent b. Dependent
6. Indeperrderrt 7. Deperrdent 8. Dependent 10. Indepenclerrt
11. 10(2, -I,4) + 16(3,5, -2) - 6b(1, of possibilities 14. Not necessarily
15. Irrdependent 16. Dependent 1g. Irrclepe'dent 19. Irrdependent
20. Dependerrt
Exercises 8.1
3. 1 4. No 5. Notnecessarily S. (c) (I
-A)-t:I-lA+A2+...+An-r
Exercises 8.2
LI _J) (o
7\ :,
1. No inverse 2. No inverse B. -I 4
r 3 \ 5. No irrverse
o \, -r)
6. No inverse 7.
*(j i {)
:,,i\
6
9. No inverse
-n)

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L24
Answers to Exercises

fiil;;) fi;i)
24. @) (b) (c) Office 2

25. (a)

ffi!i;) ffil l;)


(b) (c) P1ayer 4

Exercises 4.2

.Notdenne. , f 3 ? ;t)
\-3 -2 | I
s. (_1,6,6) 10. (1, 0,0)
)
I -re 32 38\
13. | _58 98
65 60 |
\_88 87 I
ls 11 14
fr\ lb N"denned /-:?. t"\ lt32\
" (3 a s s/ " [_-i ilii] " (i i il
2 1\
; ;l ,r.
'-'\o o\ (o o\
(t o),
; ;l \o t)
-33,132,_92, 1 13, _5g, 125
32,-L,45,90,71
/ so 30 s \ / zo\ /rsoo\
zs. l+o 60
40 :gl
( ? I : { ll:q I
26. A'L is diagonal with entries o,Ti, oib, ..., o,In.
\+s ao / \ a
/ \ rozo/
27' rf ,4. is lower triangular, therr so aiso is,4" #iih
aiugonut entries aiir, a!r, ..., o;n. A sirnilar
staternent holds for an upper triangular rnatrix.

Exercises 5.1
r. -4 2. (-r0,1b, -5) s.
!. qrtn s. _to{u 6. _178 r. T
s. sA| 10. 0 rr. roi^ + bj17
+ zr. tz. sei + z+1 _ +zf, ,r. us
8. 1
1^
r+. rr. asi_zsj_ rar. ro. _ari+ rrj+zsk
;571(rzi-zz1-zt1
t . frerzi+zsj+zr.) rs. rzi -zz1-rfi, rs. i+26j+roft
20' -13i+ rgj + st< 21. Perpenclicular 22. Perpenclicular 23. Not perpendicular
24. Perpe'dicular 28. 2.r2 radiarrs 26. 0.6}4radians 27.
0.T|,6radians
28. 2.20 radians 29. r 12 radians 80. zr radians 31. )(1, _2,
33. l(3, -I,t7)
1) 82. l(g, 0, 1)
Exercises 5.2
1.4:r-l3y-22 f 5:0 2.2:rltl-2"*5:0 B. r* Zy_ 32_4:0
4. I9r-l4a-z-9L:0 b. t}:rt4U _32_3:0 A. i*_tl_2r_6:0
7,8r]_I3y]_gz-18:0 8. 10r*89y -62-394:g g. Z*+69_Ezf 34:0
10. (a) l3n+r7v -20:0 (b) r
-r7z-9:0 (c) u: r}z+2:0 11. 1.206radians

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L22 Answers to Exercises

Appendix A Answers to Exercises

Exercises 1.1
76. n/(n+r) rZ. n2 86. n,(n_r)12
Exercises 1.2
{. jl r464t r84
".
{,rr, n=L n:l \. ..
r 16 r 225 _
5. I (-1)"(n+ 1) 6. t + z. )] !+ s.
lO4
i (an-2)@n,-r)
n:7 o-:, nl -.
I 1 n.t *"-, @n, - 3)@n)
O
22 2n
e. -j-10"-t
2n
Lff 10.f (n+3)4-" 11.f (3A;_2) D.teDJ
n:t k:l /r=l
4n 2n_t n+7 n+l
13. tk2 14. D g:+1)2k tu.t (k+n-t)
tu.t'3a*n-1
l_:1, /r:1 Lr
k:l
h Xn.-l
12. f 22kF2n-2 18.D en, r3k_2) t-n.
k:1 k:r
tk:L en,+k_r)
24. 7315 25. 2bB 26. 16g562 27. 4n(4n2 _t)/S
28. n(n,*L)(n2 -7n+L4)/4 29. 5350 30. 2665 31. 330 32. 114100
33. 32223 84. nl@,lr) 86. Fatse sr. f@)-f (o) 33. i
rtsinl(2!L-+r)r/+l
n:0
46. n(n, + 1)(n + 2)/6
Exercises 2.1
2.-t+6i 3.-3+4i 4._2+tri, 5.24_45i, 6.7+i, 7._8i
8. 1/13 - (51r3)i s. 2 + 4i, 10. 5 - 3i rr. -4 - 3i 12. -2415+ (33/5)i
13. -1 + 3i 14. _4i 15. _1 16. 8 + 6i L7. _7110 _ (rl4);
18. 58/169 -(41169)i 7s. -r92-r28i 20. r5-8i 2r. rl2' ' 22. 314+(114)i
23. -91250+(r31250)i 24. -2814r-(614r)i 25. r 26. _672/625_(',r0541625)i
27. (-5 + \h3)/2 28. (-3/2) + (r/njZ)t 2s. -4 do'bre roor 30. -1 +;a '
3r. -r+ \/6i 32. (rl4) + (\/fi14)i #. (_5/(2\/5D +l/l%E _ 25/(2,/g)li
24. +r,+\[bi sE. +it+\/Ji s6. +\,Q*6t,+t/{fii Bs.
42. 3 + i, 44. +l1l,/r) + 01rt)il ":0,i
as. @) +(B - 4i) (b) +K\/6 +21rt) + (\/fi _ 21rt)il
Exercises 2.2
I. t/is3"t/a 2. 2r-ri/2 g. 2" ri'/6 4. 5"o.ezTi 5. l5"t.zor 6, 2"2ni./J
z. s\/5/2+(g/2)i 8. -1 s.4i LL. _4
Lo.4i 12. r rs. _r/64
14. 3/5-i/5 L5. il32 16. _1.66_0.654i 17. _rl2+\/3i/2 18. _{3/2_i/2
Ls. -94/8-9\f2il8 20. r, -r12+\/5i12 2L. +(0'.s24+0.383i), +(0.383
22. +(\/5 + i,) -0.s24i)
2s. -2, L62 +.1.18i, -0.618 + 1.90i
24. t.67 -0.364i, -0.520 +r.63i, _r.t'_t.26i 25. +i, \/312+i12, _rtp+tlz
26. +(0.607 +r.37i), +(0.607 -r.37i) 27. r.r}+.0.43ri,
-0.965+ 0.810i, _0.2rg+.r.24i
28. cos (2ktr ln) I sin(2kr fn) t, n : 0, 1,...,n - I
tU. p' / "lcos (m@ / n, + 2kr / n) * sin (mO I n + 2kn / n) i], k : 0, 1, . . ., n 1 arrd
Z-R(coso+sinOi) -
Exercises 3.1
I. 37 2. 2 3. 486 4. 46127 5. (t: - 3)(r + z)@ - a)
6. (r-2)2(n 3)(r-a)3 r. (r*r)3@-a) s. (z_rjir+1j(r _3)(x+2)2
e. No Io. -2 - gi, -3 11. 1 - i, (-Sl2) + (\/r912)i 12. No

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T2O SECTION 9.4

0: V"v :TjturIDzl)zl...Tnun: lp1l2 +lurl, _t..._flu.l2.


Butt :"':'t)n:0.acontracliction,sinceeigenvectorsarenonzero
vecto t be real, ancl so also is v. The fact that v and u in v?u: 0
must s irnplies that they are orthogonal.o

It is important to realize that eigenvectors cor e sarne eigenvalue of


a real, symmetric matrix need. n_ot be orthogonal; e
sponding to different
eigenvalues rmrst be orthogonal. We illustrate irr the
".
Exampleg'15 Findaueigenpairsforthesyrnrnetricrnut.i"A:{ r ; -1\ | 2 1
t ),andverifytheort}rogo-
narity of rheorem 9.8. \ -1 r 2/

Solution Eigerivaiues are giverr by

2-^ 1 -1
0: 1,4 - : | 2-^ 1
^11
| _1 r 2_^
: (2-^)[(2 - _ 1] _ [(2 _ + rl
- [1 +(2- : (2 _))' _ (2_)) _ (3_^) _ (3_))
: -)3 + 6)2 - 9) : _l(^ _ 3)2.
^), ^ ^)]

Thus, ): 0 and ): 3 are the eigenvaiues. For eigerrvectors corresponding to ): 0, we


solve

0:(A-01)v-Av:
(i j) (;i)
Rr --+ Rz 2I
Rz -+ Rr -----+
(i, I -1
L2 t)
Rz--+
-2Rt I Rz
Rs -+Rr*Re

Rr *
-+ (s + + i) Rz - -Rzl3 --) (s;i
'--+
-2Rz Rt

Rs -+ Rzl Rs t)

t)
Consequently, ur - r)s :0, u2 * r,'3 : 0. Eigelvectors corresponding to ): 0 are

(:;,) - ,, (-" )
\,'/ \t/
Eigenvectors correspondirrg to ,\ : 3 satisfy

o:(.4-31)v:^: (:, + rl) (;i)


The augrnented matrix is

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118
SECTION 9.3

o\
(i ,!,0 t :0. oI
0/
n, - Rz/(r-2i) + (i; -r-i
0
0 i)
Thus, ,r,'1
+ (-1 - i)us:0, u2 Eigenvectors are

": (.';,j,") :- ('i') ,

('l ')
provided us I 0. Eigerrvectors corresponcling to .\ : _2i are_ the cornplex
conjrrgate of eigenvectors corresponding to ),:2i.c

EXERCISES 9.3
In Exercises 1-6 find all eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors
lbr the matrix.

*7' Prove that ,\ : 0 is an eigerrvar'e of a rnatrix -4 if, and only if, .4. is si'g*rar.
r'8' Prove that if (), v) is an eigenpair of a rnatrix ,4 which has an inverse. then (,\-r, v) is an eigenpair for
A-1.
x9. (a) Prove that if (.\, v) is an eigerrpair of a rear rnatrix ,4, therr (), v) is eigenpair.
1];" T,
(b) Use the resurt in (a) to aid in finding alr eigenpairs of the matrix
I _g ; i I .

\-s E 2)
/3 0 0 01
*10. Find atl eigenpairs of the rnarrix I t I ? I I
\o o o ;l
*11. show that if (), v) is an eige'pair for ,4., therr ()', t) is a' eige'pai r fot An.
*12' Suppose a square rnatrix -4 satisfies the equation A2 : A. Show that if ) is an eigenvalue for the matrix,
then ,\ rnust be 0 or 1.

**13. Find all


/r 2 18\
eigerrpairs of the rnatrix I Z 1 0 | .

\0 r 2/

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116 SECTION 9.3

lhese exarnples irrdicate that characteristic equation


9.8 for a linear transfbrrnation
frorn -Rt to 'B' is am r*t' degree polyrrornial equation in ,\. Its sohrtions
are ilre eige'vahres
of the lirrear transformatiorr.
now tttrn our atteritiorr to the eigenvectors correspondirrg to
-rr,.'* the known eigenvalues.
With '\ known, equation 9'7 represents a systern of n hornogen"iur, linear
equatiorrs in tle
7} compo nvector v. Because the determinarrt of the systern
is zero, t
is always
1n other words, eigenvectors
"r"
;;; ;;*";'";;;
orresponding to every eigenvalue.
Example 9'13 Find eigenvectors correspondirrg to the eigenvalues.\: ):2 irr Example g.12.
-1 arrcl
Solution Eigerrvectors corresponding to ,\: _1 satisfy

o:(A.',": (j,f
The augrnented matrix is
_?, i) (;i)
le -3e
0\ Rt - Rrl3
-3 /z -1 -1 Y\I
l-6 0l R2-Rz/3
6 + t-2 32 tJ
\12 -r2 -9 0/ Rt-Rsl3 \+ -4 -3 ;t Rz
Rs
---+

- -2Rri_
Rr]_ Rz
Rs

-l -r
1
-1
-1
1

l) ..+Rz.Rs (i 2
0
1

0 t)
Rz - Rzl2

" ..+
-1 Rzt Rt _'t /, Rt --+ Rt12

l) " (sr
L12 r/2
0 0 t)
+ (i
i ''f t)
When we convert to equatiorrs,
'lta U3
ur- uz)
i:0, i:0.
Eigerrvecrors are rherefore : ( ::!ir\ : + (],) n, orher words, a corrsranr rirnes
"
v : (1, -2.4) isan eiger.ect", J.rJ;"t,", ," ):n !r, *uhave a ii'e of eigerrvectors. To
check our calcrrlations, we could multiply,

_*) (
:):(i) - -1 (+) : )v.
Eigenvectors corresporrding to ,\ : 2 are giverr by

o:(.4 -2r)v: (; :" _,,) (;i)


The augrnented matrix is

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tL4 SECTION 9.3

expressed in the form )v for some scalar ), it foltows that v is an eigenvector of a linear
transforrnation ? if

?(v) : try /o <\


for sorne ,\' The value of ,\ is caled the eigenvalue for the eigenvector. Together
cailed arr eigenpair.
(,\, v) is

Sornetirnes the action of a lirrear transformation rnakes


its eigenpairs clear. Two i'-
stances of this are the rinear transformatiorrs irr
Exarnpres g.a and b.g.
Example 9.10 what are the eigenpairs of the rinear tra'sforrnation
i' Exarnpre 9.g?
Solution The linear transformation reflects vectors in the zz-plarre
and then clo'bles their

lengtlm doubled.
T(v) : -2v' In other words, vectors perpendicirlar to tlre nz-plane for arry such vector,
Hence,
are eigelvectors with
eigenvahre ),:
-2.c
Example 9.11 what are the eigenpairs of the rinear tra'sforrnatio'
of Example 9.g when 0 < 0 < r /2?
Solution Wlten vectors along the z-axis are rotatecl arourrd the z-axis,
they are
changed' Irr other words, such vectors are eigenvectors 'n-
wiilr eigenvalue .\ : 1.o
In general, it is irnp-ossible to spot eigenvectors as we clid irr the last
two exarnples.
I\Iatrices associated with linear trarrsforrnattns provide an alternative.
An eigenval'e ) a'6
arr eigenvector v of & satisfy : )v. But associated with every
linear transforrnation t r(v) :"(v)
Av. We can say therr that (,\, v) is an
eigenpair for a linear a^ssociated rnatrix ,4 if and onlv if
Av:.\v. (e.6)

Each side of this equation is a colurnn vector. If we equate cornponents,


we obtain a systern
of n lirrear equatiorrs for ) and the n cornponents of v. Alterriatively,
suppose we rewrite
the systern in the followirrg equivalent wavs:

Av: )Jv (I the n, x n identity)


,4v -.\1v: 0 (O tlre n x L zerornatrix)
(A - Ir)v :0 (e 7)

What we now have is a systern-of n linear, homogeneous equations in the n cornponerfts


of
v. Such a system has nontrivial solutions if and only if

lA-)11 :0.
We have just established the followirrg theorern.
Theorem 9'2 A is an eigenvalue of a lirrear transformatiorr T if arrd only if it is a root of the eq'ation

l1- )rl : 0, /o R\

where,4. is the rnatrix a^ssociated with ?.

Equation 9'8 is called the characteristic equation of the rnatrix ,4 represerrting t6e
Iinear transforrnation.

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TT2
SECTION 9.2

r&):zt

Figure 9.1 Figure 9.2


Example 9'9 what is the rnatrix associatecl with the lirrear transforrnatiorr ? that reflects vectors in the
t:z-plame and then doubles their iengths? Find T(_I,2,b).

Solution Since"(i) :Zi,f$) :_2i,ancl"(k) :2t(Fig'reg.2),thereq'iredrnatrix


is

,:(i + i)
With this rnatrix,

T(-r,2,5) :
(; + l) (?) :(.?)

EXERCISES 9.2
1' Firrd the matrix a^ssociated with the linear transforrnation in Exercise
6 of Section 9.1 and use it to solve
part (a).
*2' A linear transforrnation ? frorn Rn to R! has a^ssociatecl rnatrix A with nonzero determinant .
be the transformation defined as follows:
Let T-r

v: ?-1(v') if v' : ?(v).


We cali 7-1 the irrverse transformatiorr of ?. It reverses the action of ?.
trarrsformation. What is its a^ssociated matrix?
Show that ?-r is a linear

g' (u) Find the matrix A of the linear transforrnation ? frorn R3 to ,t3 that reflects
every vector in the
e;gr-plane arrd then triples
its length.
(b) Find the irnage of the vector v :2i
- Sj + f uncler ?.
(c) Firrd the matrix a^ssociated with ?-r

4' (a) Firrd the rnatrix -4 of the linear transforrnation ? from -R3 to R3 that projects
every vector i'to the
t:z-plane.
(b) Find the image of the vector v :
-3i + 2j + rt urrder ?.
(c) Does ? have an inverse?.
x5' (a) Find the rnatrix ,4 of the lirrear transformation ? frorn R3 to R3 that reflects every vector in the
Plane y :2;.
(b) Find the irnage of the vector ., : i Zj + gf
- under ?.
(c) Find the matrix a^ssociated with Z-1.

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110 SECTION 9.2
Example 9'6 Find the irnage of the vector v : (-3, 2,4) under the linear transformation defined by

Dl: 2ur - Suz I 4us,


T : u'2: -Sut. l4u2 a u",
tt't :2r,t * 3rr'

Solution Since u,r:2(-J) -B(2) +4(4):4, u,r: _B(_B) +4(2)I4:2L, and


u5:2(-z) + g(2) :0, the irnage vector is v/': T(-8,i.4): (4,zi,o;. Rit".rarivery, since
the matrix a^ssociated with ? is

^:(+ t i)
we obtain

v' : Av:
(+ t l) (t) :(*) '
This hat both represerrtatiorrs of vectors as row vectors (or row
rnatrices) or colrrrnrr rnatrices) are usefirl. Mlhen workirrg with i itJf,
it is often vectors; wherea^s when workirrg with its rnatrix represeltatiori
A, lhe cohrrnn forrn of the vector is appropriate. Context illvuy. rnakes it clear which is
to be used; sometimes it makes no difference. For instance, v/ : Z(v) could be written irr
either of the followirrg forrns,

,' : (u'r,r,L,r'"):
"(")
: T(q,p2,q) or
':('ii)
:"*, :'&)
On the other hand for v/ : ,4v,

Example 9.7 Find the vector v that has irnage v' : (1, -I,2) for the linear trarrsforrnatiorr in Exa,rnple
9.6.

Solution We must solve the system of equations

for u1 u2, and


(+ i ;) ('i) : ( j')
o3. If we use augrnented rnatrices
t nt --->RztRt t'l
(+{
4 IO
I -1 \| + 4l
0 ,l (tt 30

+ (+ t' r +)
:3Rr I Rz
Rz '
Rs --+ -2Rt I Rz
----+ ft -1 -5 0 \
L -I4 -1 I
510
I
Rt --+ Rz-r Rr

\0 2/ Rt -' -5Rz -F Rs

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108 SECTION 9.i
Example e'5 linear transformation of Example 9.4,
find the vecror v rhat maps ro v/ :
il,ii:r;"
Solution For ?(v) : (1, _1,2)), we mrrst have

1:3u1 - 2u2,
:
-I 4ur - 2uz -l us,
2: -4ut*Jus.
If we use augmented rnatrices to soive this systern,

R'l'-RzrR'l
(l^ i;l;) € (!^ + r' +)"-'-R'l
-+ ( L^ + t?
-, (; + ;' !,)
, )o;"-1ni,lf: Rs_RstT

._, 'i
+
,:l
:,, ?;:,f;if; _ + (i
+ ,):_) Rz-_Rzt2

Thrrs, v : (-817,-3llt4,-6/T).o

EXERCISES 9.1
1' A linear tra^nsforrnation ? frorn R3 to R3 rnaps vectors v: u2,us) tor, :
(,ur, (u,1,,1,,!) according to
ul:3q-2u2a4us,
T: ,L: -ur+uz,
u't :2q - 2uz lSus.
(a) Find the irnage of v : (1, _9,4).
(b) Is T linear?
(c) Find tlre vector v that maps to vt : (_7,2,0).
2. Atransformation?fromR3toR3rnapsvectorsv:(r.,r,u2,us)tou,:(u,1,utr,ut")accordi'gto
tt'r: 3u, - 2r,r,
T : ,L: u?,
u5:2qlu2-us.
(a) Find the irnage of v: (-1,1,2).
(b) Is lirrear?
" the vector v, or vectors, that rnap to
(c) Find v/: (1,I,_2).

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106 SECTION 9.1

CHAPTER 9 LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS AND EIGENPAIRS

$9.1 Linear Tbansformations


Vectors in space can be expressed in terrns of their cornporrerrts
v _ (,1,uz,zs). (This
is equivalent to the representatiorr v: uri+r,rj+,u3t<.)
We denote the space of all s'ch
vectors by R3; it is the space of a1l vectors, or, equivalently,
the space of all ordere6 triples
of real mrrnbers.
By R we mearr the set of all ordered n-tuples (u1,1t2,...,un).
11 t]ris case we rmrst
think abstractly; we cannot regard such vectors u"t ai.".t"Jim"
,.grn"ot.. we rnay still call
n-tuples vectors with n cornponents, but visualization is gone.
l,trlJr oi what we do in this
we co'lcl be worklng in R2. R3. R4, ;tc.-W; ;;;;;;
:l31"l
wr$[ tro
, but rnost of otrr exarnpies wi]l be frorn R2 arrcl R3
because
A transforrnation ? frorn rR' to B" is a mappirrg or function that
with each
".":t9.
v: ('u1 ,'D2,...tor) arrother vector deno[ecl b], v, : (ul,oL,.. associates
,t,i) We
tiris irr many ways' The rnost cornpact, but rrot the most irrfo.rna{irre,
is to "-.;;;;
fir'ctional
notation 'se
v' : ?(v). (e.1a)
In general, each cornporrerrt of v' is a functiorr of all cornponents of v. We co1ld irrdicate
this by writing
ul: f1(t4,u2,...,un),
uL : fz(ur,,u2, .. ., 1)n),
T: (e.1b)

u'n:fn(q,u2,.'.,un).
Fot I'i'near transformations, which are yet to be defined, we find g.1b more useful
than 9.la.
Here is an abstract trarrsformation.
Example 9.1 A trarrsforrnation of vectors v: (or, u2,usl in RB to vectors vr: (u,r,rL,o!) is defined as
follows:

''r: '? | 2u2 - tts,


T: uL:3q14u1u2,
utg: ulu2tlg'
Firrd ?(1,9,-2).
Solution Since ,r.,1 : 12 +2(B)-(-2) : 9, u|:3(1)+4(1)(3) : 15, ?,5 : (i)(3)(_ 2) _ _6,
we obtain T(I,3,-2) : (9,15, -6).o
The foilowing exarnple is frorn physrcs.
Example 9-2 The momenturn H of a rnass m moving with velocity v is defined as H : mv. Set this
equation up in form 9.1b a^s a transforrnation frorn vectors v to vectors H.
Solution If H: (IIr, Hn,!:)
lndv: (ua,us,u"),then (H,,Ha,H"):m(u.a,.us,u").H
the trarrsforrnation is derroted by ?. therr

H*: ffl'U*,
T : Ho: nlDst
H, - mlt",o

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LO4 SECTION 8.5

lh@)l: b1(Cofactor of b1) f b2(Cofacto r of b2)+


+ b,(Cofactor of b^)....

Brrt the cofactor of bl in Ar(B) is the same


as the of all in ,4; the cofactor of
A{B) is the sarne as the coiactor of a,21in ,4, and cofactor
so on. In otir., *o.ar,
b2 i'
lAt(B)l: br(Cofactor of oa1)* b2(Cofactor of ,,21)+...+ b.(cofactor of a,n1)
: hrcn I b2c21 l ... I bncn1.

This shows that


1

'": AIA'(B)1,
and establishes Cramer's nrle for r.,,.

EXERCISES 8.4
In Exercises 1-10 use the inverse matrix to find the solution
of the system of linear equations. If the inverse
matrix does not exist, find solutions otherwise.
-1. r-t2u:13, r -2A:7,
2n+3y:1. ^
2'
2x-4y:/'.
rI2g-32:\5, x)_A+42:7,
3. 2t:*a-42:73, 4. n*3g_62:_13,
3u-2gi z: -5. t;l!) _ z: _J.
r:l2y-32:I}, il_A+42:0,
5. 2nI!l-42:I3, 6. n_f 3y_62:0,
3rI3y-Tz:-5. nlA_z:,.
2x-l -32:3,
29
x _ l/ + 4z:7,
7. 2r-la-z:r, g. 2:t*J!l_62:_ll,
3n -2yt z: -5.
2r_ly _ 4z: _10.
n+2tl -32 -lw: l, x) _ lJ + 4z _2tu:7,

g. 2t:la-42-u):3, n+Su-62*ut:8,
1^
10'
3r-2yIz-2ta:_ b, 2nly-42-tw:L,
3A - z +,u) : 4.
4r _l3g _ 6z: lL
11. Use an inverse matrix to find the solution of the system
:L-tJ+22:a,
:r:-l!J-32:b,
3:t; - 2y I z: c,

for r, y, and z in terms of a, b, anrd. c.

12. Use an inverse matrix to find the solution of the system

- g -l 3z +,rr : e,j
2r
n+2U-32-u:b,
.r -L 9q -J- 9",
.L t..T.u)-C,

tJi3z-4ut:d,,

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702
SECTION 8.4
for various right-hand sides which we
have omitted. what we could do is
flnd the inverse
, /g _2 ie\
A-L -X ( -l T -r )
--\_8 2 6/
We then write the system with unspecified
of its coefficienr matrix A _
(ii ;)
right sides,
2r:ly-32:o,,
2t+4Atz:b,
2n | 27 : s'
and express its sol'tion i' the forrn

(;,) : * (r"): * (i; ,: _l) (l)


For any o', b, antd c, we simpry multipry the matrices on the right
if a: I, b: -2,
to find e;, y, antd. z.
instance, and c : 4, tirerr

:
(;):*(=
32lIg, g : -2T lIg, z : 6llg.
tlrat is, n
i ;) (:):*(,r) :(,:J;#)
Example 8.b Wlrerr voltages E1, E2, and E3 are applied
to the
circrrit in Figure 8.1, currents i1, i,2, and. f3 in the
loops satisfy the equations
60i1-30i2-20h:ErtEs,
-30ir + 60i2 - 10i3 : Ez - Es,
-20ir-I0i2+70is:9.
Find forrmrla^s for ,1, i2, and i3 in terms of
Er, Ez, and E3.

Figure 8.1
Solution We could find the inverse .t f -t30 -30 -20 \
60 -10 I , bur it ea^sier to deal with
\ -zo -10 70 /
_J

-l
and adjust the factor of 10 later Using the direct methocl,

-3 -2 10 /a t
-2 1 Rr -+ Ra
6-1 01 .*
-1 7 00 i) Rs
- -Rz* R, \;t
o
-l
-1
8
0
0 1i) Rz -+ Rt
Rs --+ Rz

R 0
-2 I
-1
0
8 0 -!,
-50 1 Rz -:2Rs -t Rz
-1 0 23 0 +)
-7 8 0
-7 8
I
1K
- !u 23
/ 1
0 3
q

IO
I

i;'i) Rz
Rs-
---+ Rs
Rz

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100

Next, the rnatrix of cofactors is

': (-t i _?)


Finally,

A'|:|rc,:+(i'l' -i) : *(,ig ', ;)


tAl -zr\ii _a _L/ \_rr 4 i)
For rnatrices of size 4x 4 or larger, we do not recommend
the adjoint method for finding
inverses' The direct method is far more efficient, For
example, notice that for a 5 x b matrix.
tlre adjoint method would require evaluation of 25 determinirrats
would that take?
.t'J."-i- i.";.;;il
"

EXERCISES 8.3
For Exercises 1-16 use the adjoint method to find, if possible, the
inverse of the matrix in Exercises 1-16 of
Sectiorr 8.2.

*17' Suppose '4 is a sqllare rnatrix such that An : o for sorne positive irrteger n.
singular.
Show that A rmrst be

$8.4 Solving Systems of Linea Equations with rnverse Matri es

When the coefficient matrix A of a linear system of n equations in n lrrknowns


has a1
inverse,it can be used to solve the systern. This is easy to see. If the systern is
AX: B,
and A r exists, we rnultiply both sicles by A-1 ,

A-rAx: A-rB :> IX: A-rB + x: A-rB.


Let us state this as a theorem.
Theorem 8.6 If the coefficient matrix A of a lirrear systern AX : B of n equatiorrs in n unknowrrs ha^s an
inverse, the solution of the system is

X: A-LB. (8.7)

Before making cornrnents orr the advisability of usirrg inverse matrices to solve
linear
systems, let us ilhrstrate with arr exarnple.

Example 8'4 Solve the following system using the inverse matrix of its coefficient matrix.

:t:-y-z:3.
2:r - 39 I 4z :5,
3:rly-22:-2.

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SECTION 8.3

/2 3 1 Qr

15
(i;+ l 16
ft ;'i i)
*17. Decode tlre rnessage in Exercises 22 in Section 4.2.
*18. Decode the message in Exercises 23 in Section 4.2.
x19' The tl.rtlut" that corrtains only letters and spaces wa^s receivecl using the encodirrg
?lt*Tt rnatrix
I-
A:12 1 0 |
\3 -2 r /
22,29,6,46,35, _30, 16, 45,69,43,69,65, 62,79,46,32,61,52,52,34, _32,24,45,2g
Decode the rnessage. Was there an error irr the rnessase?

!i8.3 Adjoint Method for Matrix Inversion


Determinants can also be used to find inverses of invertible matrices; the
method is
called the adjoint method.
Definition 8.2 The adjoint of a square rnatrix _4 is

adjA: Cr, (8.5)

wltere. C : (qi) is the rnatrix of cofactors of -4; that is, each enfiy aii of ,4 is
replaced by
its cofactor.
Theorem 8.4 If lAl + 0, then .4 has an irrverse, ancl
A-':#,0,, (8.6)

Proof We rmrst verifv that

a
[fr*:,] lfr*,
: of o:,
Corrsider
0t2
/o'"
A(adiA) : l"?' "i'
o',
\ o,n2

The (i j)th entry of this prorluct is

o,x1ci1 -l ai2ciz I ... + a,incjn.


If i : j, the srrm is

AifCil + A,iZCtZ I ... + 0,,incin.

This is the surn of the errtries in the ztl' row of ,4 each multiplied by its cofactor. Consequently,
the srrm is l,4l; that is, errtries on the diagonal of ,A(adj A) are all equal to
lAl. on thl other
harrd, if i f j, then, this is the surn of the entries in the ith row of ,4 each mlltipliecl by the
cofactor of the correspondirrg errtry in row j. According to Exercise 21 in Section Z.i, the
srrrn is zero. Thus, all nondiagonal entries in ,4(adj -4) are zero. It now follows that

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96
SECTION 8.2

/r _1 _l
(A I'): 12 -3 4

to Is Tire calc ulations are


1
\3 -2 s;i)
/r -r
11
-j 1 0 0\
-1
1 ol Rz--2RrlRz #
t;
-o+
1.)
0
0 0 I/ Es - -3Rr *Rs (i 'nl 1: 6
1 ?)
Rz --+ -Rz

-1 -1 I
-+ft
\o 4
1
-6 2

-.) ;' i) Rs-


Rr-+Rz]_Rr

-4Rz -t Rs
(;;
-7
-6
25 i,.nl i) Rs - Rs/25

-7 .J Rr -:7Rs I
-6
1
,1

-rrl25
-t
4125
Rz --+ 6Rz I
Rr
Rz
-+(i;i -2125 3125
-16125 -r125 6/25 |
-rrl25 't
4125
7 /25\
/o< |
The inverse matrix is

A-r-(--,!iA:i#
ii):*(-'1 + i) .
singular matrices do not have inverses. If we attempt
to use the direct method to find
the inverse of a singular matrix, we will not succeed
in ieducing ,4 to the identity matrix.
A row of zeros will appear to the reft of the vertical line.
For instance, corrsider

/t _1 e\
A: l? ll
\1 _8 5/
Using the direct method, in an attempt to find A-r gives
1 0 o\
(i i o t olnr--2RrtRz --)
t 0 0 I/ fts*-Rr*Rr (i
-1
-7
7
J

-2 -2
2 -1
1

:?) Rs-+RzlRa

with the
-1 3
7-2
00 tii)
three zeros in the iast row, it is impossible to achieve the iderrtity.
This means
that A does not have an inversel it is sirrgular.
Decoding Messages
In Sectiorr 4'2,we showed how to encode messages using matrix
mrritip[catiorr. To decode
a message we reverse the process with the inverse rnatrix.
In particulai, the coded message
for "]Vleet rne at noon" using the matrix A |1 4 \ .
- \e 2)'"
33, 49,95, 55, 79, r07,113, 69, g1, 43, g3, 10g, 75, 75, 122, 96.

I|:.t:."u*"t of this message decodes it by forrning cohrmn matrices frorn pairs of tSese
nrllnDers.

f?:) fg:) ( zs\ /rrs\ /er\ / as \


\sg), \ri/, \roz/' \un/, [nr/, t*/, /ru\ ( rzz\
\zbl, \e6l,

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s4 SECTION 8.1

CHAPTER 8 INVERSE MATRICES


1i8.1 Inverse Matrices
Irr tlris chapter we introduce what are called inuerse
rnatrices arrd use thern to solve
systems of linear equations.

Definition 8'1 A t9'at" rnatrix -A is said to be invertible if there exists a rnatrix derroted by.4-1 srrch

A-r A: AA-r : 1. (g.1)


Nlatrix '4-r is called the inverse of ,4.. If -4 does not have
an inverse, it is said to be
singular.
It is easy to prove that if a matrix ha^s an inverse, it carr have only one.
for instance, that in acldition to a rnatrix A-1 satisfying S'ppose,
equation g.1, a second rnatrix B
satisfies

BA: AB: I.
We can show that B must be _4-1 by multiplying
AB: I by A_r,
A-|AB: A-rI =+ IB: A-r =+ B: A-r.
rf A-r is the inverse of .4, the' -4. is the i'verse of A-L; that is,

14-r1-r : tr. (8.2)

Here are two additiorral properties of inverse rnatrices.


Theorem 8' 1 If .4 and B are invertible rnatrices of the same size,
then AB is invertible arrd
(,+A1-t : g-t4-r. (notice the order) (8.3)
Proof The followirrg two calculatiorrs verify the result:

(B-LA-L)(AB): B-r(l-rA)A: B-LIB: B-rB: I,


(AB)(B-rA-t): A(nn-r1g-r : AIA-L : AA-L : Lc
Theorern 8.2 If ,4 is irrvertible, then
(Ar1-r : (rr)r. (8.4)

Proof We prove this using property 4.6f of trarrsposes.

A-LA: I =a (A-r41r : Ir : J :+ Ar 1A_r,r _ ,


Similarlv.

AA-':I (AA-\L:Ir:J ==+ (A-\r4r-t


These show that (Az;-t : (A-\T..

EXERCISES 8.1
1' Srrppose,4isaninvertiblernatrixandthat CA:I forsornesquarematrixC. Show thatAC:1,and
therefore C is the inverse of ,4. Irr Exercise 10 we remove the invertibility
corrditiol,

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92 SECTION 7.3
Theorem 7'13 A set of nl vectors each with n cornponents,
where nt ) ,,tis always linearly depencre't;
that is' if we have rnore vectors than cornponen*,
ilr. vectors are linearly depe'de't.
Let cortvirrce otrrselves of this with a sirnple
u: 's Y :- exarnple. s'ppose we have three vectors
(tt1,u2), andT: (rur, ,urf
,(ut,uz),
whether they are linearly dependent, r. nna-.*r.ts
,."^t with two cornponents. To deterrni'e
c1, c2,and c3 s'ch that
Cru+Czv+C3w:0.
Taking cornponents gives

Cru,rlCz\ICsutl:Q,
C1t,2 lC2u2!Csus2:g.
The augrnented matrix is

(rrr'u1 ,rl0\
\zz 1)2 utzl0)'
Simplification to row reduced echelon form
always yields an infinity of solutions; that
vectors are iinearly dependent. is, the

Theorem 7' 14 A set of n' vectors each with n components


is lirrearly dependent if a'd orily if the determi'a^t
of the n x n matrix whose colurnrrs are the
.o-fon"nt, of the vectors has vahre zero.
cornponerrts. The proof is sirnitar for any
l;":t",,r#;i? ether u : (ut'u2'u's)' v: ("' u2'us)' and'
w: (u1 , 1D2,u)s)
O: Cru lCzv l_ Csw : C1(u,1,1t,2,1fi) lC2(u1,uz,us) tCs(u\,u2,us).
When we equate cornponents,

Cru,r*Czur*Cs1q:Q.
Ctuz I C2u2 | Cs1a2: Q.

Cru,ttCzusICsus:Q.
There are rrontrivial solutions of this hornogeneous system
if a14 onlv if
l rt, t)1 ,u)1

,r)z u)z
lrr, us ws -n
ltt,s
and this finishes the proof.o
Example 7.10 Deterrnine whether the following sets of vectors
are Iinearly dependent or linearly indepen_
dent.

(r) (I,2, -t), (2,9,4), (_1,0,1) (b)