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SECTION I.1
r+2+3+...*r,:"'("jt). (1.1)
Proofs by rnathernatical irrduction break dowrr irrto three parts that we clearly iclentify in
this irrtroductory example.
Part A
It
is a simple matter to check that formula 1.1 is valid for the first few intesers:
1)
For n: 1, the "sun" is 1, ancl the forrmrla giu", {11 : 1.
1)
For n,:2, tlie surn is 1 * 2 : 3; the formula giu", l?1 : 3
a
Part B
In this part, we suppose that ft, is sorne irrteger for which the formula is valid; i.e., we
suppose that
t+2+3+...+k:r,(k 2+ 1) . (1.2)
At this point, there are orrly tluee irrtegers for which we know that this is a valid assurnptiorr,
narnely, k  L, 2, and 3. We now atternpt to show that formrrla 1.1 works for the rrext integer
k + 1; that is, we attempt to show that the sum of the first k * 1 positive integers is given
by forrnrrla 1.1 when we replace n, by k + l,
Since the sum of the first k + 1 integers is the sum of the first /c integers plus the mrmber
k + 1, we may write for the left side of 1.3,
But this is forrmrla 1.3. In otlter words, we have shown that if 1.1 is valid for some irrteger
k, therr it must also be valid for the next irrteger k + 1, and, becarrse ic was never specified,
this is irrdependent of the vahre of *;.
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SECTION 1.1
The argumerrts irr Part C of the above exarnples were identical. In fact, rro rnatter what
result we are to prove by mathernatical inductiorr, the argument in Part C is always tfe
same. This argurnent is called the "principle of mathernatical induction", an{ it is stabe6
forrnally a^s follows:
Example 1.1 Verify that the sum of the squares of the first 2n, positive integers is giverr by the forrmrla
n.(2n,r 1)(4n + 1)
t2+22 +32+.'.l(2n)2: , n) I. Ir.r /
Solution :
When n 1, the left side of this equation is the surn of two terrns, not just one,
12 + 22 : 5; the riglrt side is t(3)(5)/3 :
5. The required result is therefore tnre for l. n:
We now slrppose that k is some integer for which 1.7 is valid; that is, we suppose that
: k(2k+1x4k+1)
t2 +22 + 32 + . ..+ (2k)2 (1 8)
(Rernember, we write this down because we are going to need it.) Orrr objective now is to
f 1; that is, we rnust verify tliat
verify that the resrrlt is valid for k
(k + 1)[(2(k + 1) + r]14(k + 1) + 1l
12+22 +32+...(2k+2)2: (1 e)
Since the sum of the squares of the first 2k 12 integers is the sum of the squares of the first
2ft; integers plus (2*; *
1)2 and (2k + 2)2, it follows that
12 +22 +32 +...+ (2k+2)2 :p.2 +22 + 32 + ...+ (2D21+ Qh+r)2 + (2k+2)2
k(2k+1)(4k+1)
3
+(2k+t)2 +(zk+z)2 (by 1.8)
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SECTION 1.1
This is straightforward,
EXERCISES 1.1
In Exercises 115 rr"se mathernatical induction to establish the forrmrla for n ) 1.
^*
z. g+32 + J+'..fJ: 3n+r  3
2
r,
B. 13+23 f 33 +... l_ n," :n'\r' n ,
,1,
n(nJ
4.  +3 + 6+ 10 +... *'26 1) n(n+ r)(n+2)

5. 1+ 4+T+'..+(3n 2):n'(3n'r)
2
e. I _+ 1 1 .* n(n+J)
"' 1.2.s'2.9.434.5r"'r +Da@+t)(n+2)
10. 43 + 83 + I23 +. .. + (4n)3 : t6n,2(n, t L)2
n(n+ r)(n+2)
13. 1' 2+2'3+3'4+'.. + n(nr r) 
3
L4. r(2L) +2(22) + 3(zs; +...+ n(2^):2  (n+2)2.
15. 1(1!) +2(2t)+3(3!) +... + n,(nt) : (n+ 1)!  1
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SECTION 1.2
*49. Firrd the fallacy in the followirrg irrductive argument to prove that "all birds are the sarne coloru";
In a set of birds consisting of only one bird, all birds are clearly the same colour. Hence the resllt is
valid wherr the mrrnber of birds in a set is n : 1. Suppose now that the result is valid when a set of birds
contains ,4, birds; that is, ali k birds are the sarne colorrr. Consider any set of k * 1 bircls. Emrrnerate the
birds with labels 1, 2, . .., k * 1. The set of birds with tabels I,2,...,k rmrst a,11 be the sarne colour by the
irrductive hypothesis. The set of birds with labels 2,3,. ..,k * 1 rmrst also all be the sarne colour. Since
these two sets have A;  l birds irr comrnon (narnely the ones with labels 2,3,...,k), all ki l birds rnust
have the sarne colour. Thus, by rnathernatical indrrction, arry set of n bircls must all be the sarne co]o1r.
x50. Verify that wherr r f 1,
x52. Suppose that Carrada proposes a 2 cent coin and abolishes its 1 cerrt coirr. Show that arry amount of
money greater tha,rr 3 cents can be obtairred usirrg 2 cerrt coins arrd 5 cerrt coins.
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SECTION 1.2
This rrotation could have been used in Section 1.1 wherr many resrrlts on slrrns were
verified by mathematical induction. We preferred not to use it there in order that attention
be focused orr indrrction rather than sigma rrotation. We strongly suggest, however, that at
the end of this sectiorr, you return to Sectiorr 1.1 arrd verify results irrvolving sumrnatiorrs
incorporating sigma notation where appropriate.
There is no reason why *, rnttst be used as the irrdex of surnmation; other letters can
also be used. The rnost comrnorr are i, j, k;, m, arrd n.
t'n) I 4 9 16 169
\'"/ 2.3'* 3.4' 4.5 ' 5.6 ...
' ' 14.15
16 32 :*:*...l:
64 128 4096
\/ _
{h) I
rt th'rt \/5' '\/fr
Solution (a) If we use i as the variable of surnrnation, it is ofterr helpfirl to write the valrre
of i above each terrn,
;1 ;' ;e ;A :9
1,::
The sigrna notatiorr represerrtations for the surns irr Exarnple 1.4 are not unique. Irr
fact, there is an infinity of representations for each sum. Consider, for example, the sum
represented by
'' ,i+3
1t E'
LT
i:r Y L
? \frT1 Jt g J4 J5 '
_ l_
fio'
the sarne surn a^s that in Example 1.4(b). This surn can also be represented by
6 or*6
t :
,"\/J + 4
and
We can verify that these summations are the same by writing all terrns out. Alternatively,
we can make a charrge of variable of sumrnation. If we set m : j + 17 in the latter of these
surnmations, arrd substitute this irrto the general term, we obtain
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SECTION 1.2 11
(b) we can'ot third fo'nuta,"tr.t, o,r*u', o" ,rtr,. ,1,rl*". However, by addirrg
".";,"
arrd srrbtracting the terrns frorn n,: I to n: 13, we will be able to use this forrmrla.
45 45 13
\
L
(n3 +5)
\' 't : \
L\. ''/  \
r",.3 + F)
/2\'"
rr3 + x)
"t
n:I4 n:L n!
45 45 13 13
 \ t \ L"  \3
L',o  \
13 r s x,
L" Zu
n:l n:I n:l n=L
(45)2(46)2 ,.45(5)13(5)
,4</K\ (13)2(14)2
l 4
: 1063 104.r
We make one final remark. Sigma notation is simply that a notation. It does not
evaltrate sumsl it merely represerrts thern in a concise syrnbolisrn. When we encounter sigrna 
notation, we should visualize terrns written out separately.
EXERCISES 1.2
In Exercises 110 express the sum irr sigrna notatiorr. Initiate the surnrnation with the integer 1.
_12
1 3 4 5 
10
e
'' Lr;+f:r+...+
2' 4' B' 16' 32" 1024 ' e.a'3.4+4.b+...+99.100
a u'
B. 1+t/i+rt+2+\/B+rt+...+r2r 4.,,16,+,,17,,+ 18 +...+ 199
14+15 15+16 16+17 197+198
5. 2+s_ 4+b6+z8+...1020 6. 1+l*l+=f
'z' 2.J' 2.s.4'+... 2.g.4.516
1
 ,/,
\/1 !!!,
'/3 \m ^ 2.2 G.T 10.11 r4.rb' ' 4r4.4rb
2 1+22 1+32 l+2252 "' r.4 5.8 9.r2 13.16 413.416
v I
II!I
e. 0.9+0.99+0.999+...+0.999999999 10. 43+b2+6+1+1*]* 1
" r
d y, 25ta
For Exercises 1119 express the sums irr Exercises 3745 frorn Section 1.1 irr sigrna notation. Use *; as the
index of surnrnation begirrning with k : 1.
In Exercises 2023 verify that the surnrnatiorrs are identical.
24:2tq: 25;2 l
20. \ L: ancl \ ' ='
i't/t'+t \/i
oo t^ l3)3+b = .53 3 rr
21. \ t"  arro \ "', '
// cosn zz^ gsl (n * 13)
n:Llt n:2
14 18
22. Dsi+se 1a)t and  [ei*tjr]
.t\)
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SECTION 2.1 13
z::rlUi, (2.r)
wherer and g are real. The mrrnber r is cailed the real part of z, and. g is calle{ t}re
imaginary part of z. For exarnple, real and imaginary parts of 6  2i are 6 and
2.
Both real and irnagirrary parts of a cornplex rnrrnber are thernselves real rmrnbers. The real
number systern is a subset of the complex nurnber systern obtainecl when g : 0. we call
t: I'11i the Cartesiarr forrn for a cornpiex mrrnber. Cornplex mrrnbers of the forrn
37i are said
to be purely irnaginary.
Complex mrrnbers can be visualized geornetrically as points in the cornplex (Argand)
plane. Some fixed point O is chosen to represent the cornplex rurrnber 0 * 0i. Tlrrolgh O are
drawn two rmrtually perperrdicular axes (Figure 2.1), orre called the real axis, and the other
called the irnagirrary axis. The cornplex rmmber il + Ai is therr represerrted by the poirrt z
units in the real directiorr and 37 rrnits in the irnagirrary directiorr. For exarnple, the cornplex
rrrrrnbers  + 2i, l  i, 4  3i, and 2 l2i are showrr in Figure 2.2. The real rmmber
systern is represented by poirrts orr tlte real axis. Purely imagirrary rmrnbers are represerrted
by poirrts on the imaginay axis.
:L + Ai:0,+bi e x: a, and U: b. t, ,\
Geornetrically, two cornplex rmmbers are equal if they correspond to the sarne point irr the
cornplex plarre.
We add and subtract cornplex mrmbers zr: n 1 yi atd zz: a* bi a^s follows:
In words, complex ntrmbers are added arrd subtracted by adding and subtracting their real
arrd irnagirrary parts. For exa;rnpIe,
(3  2i)+ (6 + i) : : e  i,
(3 + 6) + (2 + r)i
(32i)  (6+i): (3  6) + (2r)i: 3  3i.
Complex numbers are multiplied according to the following definition . lf z1 : r* A,i
and z2: r.l *
bi, then
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SECTION 2.1 15
Z::n_Ai. (2 5)
t 2:xyi
Figure 2.3
If we rnultiply a cornplex rurmber z : n r gi by its cornplex conjugate, we obtain
This real ntrrnber represents the square of the lerrgth of the iine segrnent joirring the nurnbers
z : 0 and z : :L + gri in the cornplex plarre. We shall give it a name in the rrext section. We
rrse this property in otu procedure to divide cornplex mrrnbers. To divide z1 by 22, multiply
l1
21/ 22 o! 22/ 22,
2t _ zt 2Z _ ZtzZ
22 zZ 22 z2Z2
:r2+4:r_2:0
is 16 * 8: 24, arrd sohrtions of the equation are
n2 + l:0.
The complex rmrnber i is asolution, but so also is i sirrce (i)'+ 1: 1 * 1:0. The
quadratic equation
12+16:0
has two solrrtions n : L.4i. If we apply the quadratic equation formula to the equation
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SECTION 2.1 L7
EXERCISES 2.1
1. Show each of the followirrg complex mrrnbers in the complex plarre: 2
 i, 3 + 4i, I  bi, g + 2i, Si,
2(r + i)
In Exercises 226 write the cornplex expressiorr irr Cartesian forrn.
2. (2 + 4i)  (s  2i) s. (r + 2i)2
4. (2 + i)(3  4i) 5. 3i(4i _ r)2
6. i3 Bi2 +2i+4 r. 0+i\6
'li /Dt:\z
8' ' o \ofzl
3+2i 2i
ro.i243213+4 11.(i2)l(2+i)(1_i) +si_ 2)
t2.6i(lfti ',(i4\
3 B'
\2  )* (rc * lJ
(e + 4i)
'T1
zr3
r4.rTi2r[+iP tu.(;+r)

\ /
16. +z=)2 17 Qi+3)(4i)
(1
"' 13+ i;66 * 2n;
ft+i\22 i)
18. # P r oi)2 le. (1 iltzei+B)
*2a. ([t]z *zr. !(L*a\'*
2i \\/2 ,/2 )
1' I
*22. j= *Zg. ,3 i,
l* ' t (2i)' =
l+2i
*rn.Q+t3)2Qi)
45i .zb. (L*a)'(a:)'
\\/2 \/2) \r/z 12)
/ ); r4i\2
oo u
*26. I
\i+t 3+4i)
I
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SECTION 2.2 19
The real and irnagirrary parts of a cornplex mrrnber carr be expressed irr terrns of its
moduhrs and argurnerrt. The triangle in Figure 2.6 indicates that
z : :L + yi : r cos? * (rsind)i.
When r is factored frorn both terrns,
z:r(cos0isil:'0i). (2.11)
Sornetimes this is written in the fonn z: r(cos 0 +isitr?). Expressiorr 2.11 is called tire
polar representation of a cornplex mrrnber. Realize again that it is rrot unique. If 2.11 is
a polar representation of a complex rrumber, so also is
Cornplex nrmbers are ea^sily added arrd subtracted in Cartesian forrn. Everr rmrltipli<la
tion arrd divisiorr of any two cornplex illmbers is relatively ea^sy in Cartesiarr forrn. Orr the
other hand, multipiication and division in polar forrn exhibit properties that are not eviderrt
irr Cartesian forrn. Irr addition, to raise a complex rnrmber to a power, arrd take roots of
complex mrrnbers, it is irnperative to use polar, or even better, exponerrtial representatiorrs.
If z1 : 11 (cos d1 * sirr d1 i) and zz : rz(cos 0z * sirrt?z) are any two cornplex mrrnbers, their
oroduct is
2122 : [r1(cos 9r * sin d1 i)]lr2(cos 0z + sln?zi)l
: rtzl(cos01cos02  sin d1 sirr d2) 1 (sin d1 cos d2 * sirr d2 cos d1)i]
: r(zlcos(h + 0z) * sin (d1 + 02)i). (2.18)
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SECTION 2.2 27
zn:2, (2.18)
This is often called Euler's identity; we have used it to define eei. We have worked with
e' forreal ;u for many years. We have now defined what it means to take the exponential of
a purely imaginary rtrunber. For example,
(2.20)
This is called the exponential form of a complex nrunber. As for the polar forrn, it uses the
modrrlrrs and argurnerrt of z, but replaces cos 0 + sin d i with eei . In term,s of this exporrential
representation, notice that 2.13 and 2.15 can be expressed irr the forrns
z1z2 :  ,rrr"(otroz)i
(ryeo'd)(r2eozi1 , (2.2ra)
z1 _ rteori _rt.1orery
(2.2lb)
22 r2eozi rz"
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SECTION 2.2 23
. /o\
slnttJ: 1  cosO j_:__: and
z\/ b
/o\
costt/:
Figure 2.10
Tlms, the souare roots are
EXERCISES 2.2
In Exercises 16 express the cornplex mrrnber in exponerrtial forrn.
1. t+i 2. 2i s. \/5i
4.3+4i 5. L2i 6. 2[cos (" l3)  sin (zrl3) i]
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SECTION 3.1 25
wliere a,r I 0, o,nr, ... ,o,0 are constants. When Pr(r) is set equal to zero, the resulting
eouation
is called a polynomial equation of degree n. In this chapter, we are concerrred with the
rurrnber of solutiorrs of polyrromial equations, the rrature of these solutions (be they real or
complex, rational or irrational), and techniques for finding the solutions. We call values of
r that satisfy equation 3.25 roots or solutions of the equation. They are also called zeros
of the polynomial P,(z).
When n: 1, equatiorr 3.25 is called a linear equation (or equation of degree 1),
o,$2+br*c:0. (9.27)
Tlrey were solved in Section 2.1. In this chapter, we concentrate on polynornials of degree
three arrd higher.
The next sirnplest polynomial equatiorr after linear arrd quadratic is the cubic,
There are procedures that give roots for both of these equations, but they are of little
practical use in this day ofthe electrorric calculator arrd personal cornputer. A more rnodern
approach is to use the analytic rnethods of this chapter, if possible, or failirrg this, use
ntrrnerical rnethods to approximate sohrtions. It is interestirrg to rrote that rro algebraic
forrnttla^s carr be given for roots of polyrrornial equatiorrs that have degree greater than or
equal to five. For such equations, it is usually necessary to use numerical methods to
approxirnate roots.
When arr exact solution of a polynomial eqrration can be found, it can be rernoved frorn
the eqtration, yieldirrg a simpler equation to solve for the remaining roots. The process by
which this is dorre is a result of the rernainder and factor theorems.
Theorern 3.1 Remainder Theorern Wherr a polyrromial Pr(e;) is divided by bn  a,, the rernainder
is P"(o,lb); that is, Pn(t:) can be expressed irr the forrn
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SECTION 3.1 27
Thus quartic eqlration 3.31a ha"s two real solutions t; : ll arrd two complex sohrtiorrs
,1, _ 1r"'
L L.
L
A sohrtiorr of the equatiott 2n3  n2 + n  6:0 is r : 312 (we show how we folncl it
shortly). We therefore factor 2r:  3 from the cubic,
(2r  3)(n2 t :r r 2) : g.
*_r+JP=466 _r+rti
22
The factor theorern enables us to remove a krrowrr solutiorr frorn a polyrrornial equation,
theretry replacing tlie origirral polyrrornial with a polyrrornial of lower degree. This presup
poses two things. First that the equation has a solution, and secondly that we can find it.
The following theorem addresses the first question.
Theorem 3.3 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra 1 Every polynomial of degree n ) t ha^s exactly
n linear factors (which may not all be different).
For example, the quartic pollmomial in 3.31a has four different linear factors
.:r:4
+2:t3 l:r:2 2t:2: (n  1)(r+ 1)(:r+ 1+i)(z +iri,); (3.32)
tlre crrbic polyrrornial 13  3n2 * 3e;  1 has three linear factors all the sarne,
and the fbllowing eiglrth degree polyrromial has three distinct linear factors, but a total of
eight factors,
Our discussions will be confined to polynomials with real coefficients, but Theorems 3.3
and 3.4 are valid even when coemcients are complex numbers. What is difficult to prove
in Tlteorern 3.4 is the existence of one zero. (This is usually done with material frorn a
colrrse on compiex frrnction theory.) Orrce existence of orre zero is established, the fact;or
tlteorem immediately irnplies that there are precisely n, zeros, arrd that the polynornial carr
be factored irrto n linear factors.
When coefficients of a polynomial are real, complex zeros must occur in complex con
jugate pairs. This is proved in the rrext theorem.
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SECTION 3.i 29
11. If 1f i is azercofthe polyrrornialt:a I:t3 +Z:t;2 Brf 14, find its other zeros.
x12. Prove that a polynomial of odd degreee with real coefficients must have at least one real zero. Is this also
tnre for complex polyrromials?
*13. P"rove that if P(r) is a polyrrornial havirrg only even powers of r:, and p(o,) :0, then p(r) is clivisible by
In Exercises 1418, find k, in order that the first polynomial be a factor ofthe second.
*L4. r:  2, 13 + kn2 * 5z  10 *1b. e; * 1, n3 + 4t:2 l kn t g
*16. r*3, 14 +7t:3 I kn2 2lr 86 *lT. 2t:  3, 2na + k# 6t:2 ge;  15
d
\c) a1a2as: 
',27. (a) Wlrat are the equations in Exercise 26 for the cubic polyrromial P(z:) : c3 * 3x2 + 2x + 5.
(b) The equations irr (a) represerrt three equations in the three zeros of P(:r). If we solve them, we find
the three zeros. Eliminate two of the zeros to find a single equation in the remaining zero. How do
you like the eqrratiorr?
*28. This exercise generalizes the results of Exercise 26. Suppose that the zeros of a polyrrornial anir:n + ... +
o,1i[ I o,g o,r€ @1 , e2,. . ., o, (where sorne of the o7 rnay be repeated) .
Show that:
(t) *, + az  ... I an: +=
un
*29, Showthat the onlyway o,n:t:n 1e,n1!Lnr +.'. + o,r:D+(ro:0 can have nf l distinct zerosis for all
coefficients to be zero.
x3O. SrrpposethatPl(e) attdP2(x) arepoiyrromialsof degreen.. Usetheresultof Exercise2gtoshowthatif
Pr(r) : P2(t:) at n i 1 distirrct points, then P1(e;) : Pr(") for all r.
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SECTiON 3.2 31
By trarrsposing o,npn to the riglrt side of 3.36, and factoring q from the rernaining
terrns,
it is sirnilarly shown that q divides a,.
The rational root theorem is a powerful result. It narrows the field of possible
rational
sohrtions of polyrrornial equations very quickly. The list of possible
ratiorral roots is shortest
when any common factors in the coefflcients have been removed. For example,
Bt" +21:, i :
0 and gr3 r6t:2  solutiorrs. The ratiorral root theorern yields *1, 12,
t1/3 and r2/3 as the first equation, and t1, +2, +g, +a, +112, +21s,
rrf g, atd I2/9 us the second equatiorr. Clearly tien it is advantageorrs
to rernove the com re second equation.
We now consider tluee rnore exarnples.
Example 3.11 Firrd all sohrtiorrs of the cubic equation Er:B + n2 r n  4:0.
Solution Sirrce divisors of 4 are tl, i2, arrcl t4, arrcl those of b are t1 ancl *5, possible
ratiorral solutions are
0:(5r4)(*'*r+1).
The remainirrg two solutiorrs are cornplex conjugates,
(r  1)(e;3  Bx t 2) :0.
Because divisors of 2 are tl arrd t2, arrd divisors of 1 are tl, possible ratiorral zeros of the
cubic are+1, +2' Once againr: l isasohrtion, arrdwhenu isfactoredfrornthecubic, l
g : (r  1)(z  t)(r' t r 2) : (:r  r)2 (t: r 2)(:r  1) : (r  1)3(lr; * 2).
The orrly roots of the equatiorr are therefore z : 1 (rnultiplicity 3) arrcl r: 2.o
Example 3.13 Find allsolutiorrs of ,,t T20*' " + 43 l40
2l
: 0.
Sirrce the positive divisors of 21 are l,g,T,2r, and those of 40 are 1,2,4,s,g,L0,20,40, we obtain
a rather long list of possible ratiorral sohrtions
+1, +3, 17, I2l; +I/2, +312, +7f2, L2t/2; +I/4, +314, +Tf 4, I2tl4;
+115, +3/5, +7f 5, +2115; +1/8, +3/8, +Tf8, +2r18;
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SECTION 3.2 33
The quartic must still have one rregative zero, arrd Descartes' mle inclicates that it ha^s
exactly one positive zero. we search for rational zeros arnorrg
Proof l4
51rt."
Itt'",1
* 1 is always larger than 1, the theorem is certainly tme if the zero
satisfies le;l < 1. Corrsider then > 1. Sirrce z is a zero of P(n), we rnay write that
when le;l
anvnl...loa:t*a6:9,
oft
Hence,
lo.^llxl" < A,I + Mlnl+ Atll:r:12 +...* Mlt:1", : tW(t+ le;l+ l*1, +...* lrl'1).
In parentheses we have a finite geometric series that can be summed according to Example
1.3 irr Section 1.1,
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SECTION 3.2 35
Theorern 3'9 is also valid for complex zeros of a polyrromial;
we sirnply ilterpret tle
vertical bars as rnod*li rather than absohrte v^ahres For'exarnple, "r"ro,
all four 14, l/5,
ll2 + t/Uf 1Z of the polyrrornial in Example 3.16 satisfv
128 131
l:rl < 1+ *rnax{l4, 4J,I28.48}: 1+ 
r'33
EXERCISES 3.2
In Exercises I22 : (a) use Descartes' nrles of signs to state the rrrrr ive and negative
zeros of the polynomial; (b) use Theorem 3.9 to find bounds for
zeros use the rational
root theorern to list all possible rational zeros of the polynomial. Take
irr (c).
(b) i'to acco'nt
l. n3+3r;22:r+b 2. 2:r:3  3r:2  2n + b
3.2x4Jxs+n2 4. t:5 +3t:2
5. 4r5 f 3:ra 2r" + n2  :r  2 6, \r:a 2t} *3e;*b
7. 5x5 +I 8. 4rB  2n2 + 6:r  I
9.616r4n22r48 10. 6sF I2ra 1Tn3 + 2r2 *:r 1 6
t7. 6:rE  2r:a + 8#  2r2 l n  6 72.:t;a13:r2:t!
13. 13 l 3n2  2:r: I 4 14. 3n3 I 3n2  2t: + 4
15. 23 I 2n2 a 3t: I b 16.4raf 3lr32:t2+r+6
L7. n3+I 18. 423 + 1
19. z3+4 2O. 2r5 * 3r * 16
21. 27r3 l3r:2  2t: f I0 22. r6ra +5u3 24
In Exercises 2340 find all zeros of the polvnomial.
t023. 13
2t;2 l5z;  l0 *24. x3 + 4n2 + l2t: t g
,r25. :r3 I I2:t2 I48n f 64 ,126. na l7r3 1g:f 2lt:
x27. :r4  16
  36
*28. 2ra I gr3 6x2 gil    lb
*29. 6na + lr3 + b}:t2 I gn  g *3O. l2t:a + 1912 + 5
x31. z3  23n2  2It:  T2 *32. ra  4r:3  4412 + g6r I5T6
*33. 3za l 13 + b:t:2 +34. 6x3 +n2 +lgr:20
*35. lr5 I5r:a  gn  4b *86. f gbr3
e;5  Ibt:a  22bt:2 * 2T4n  120
,o37. 4xa I4n3 1I7:r2 + I6t: f 4 ,r1g. 2bna  l20t:B t I0gn2 S6u * 4
x39. z5 +g:ta +47:13 ll2br2 + 1gr200

*4o. ,:t;6 :_I6:t:a _gl:tr:2 _1296
*'41' Prove the following corollary to the ratiorral root theorem called t6e Irrteger Root Theorern:
If r is a
ratiorrai zero of a poiyrromial I (t:) : :r:,n I o,n_rxnr + . . . + a61 with integer coefficients,
where o,e f 0,
then r is an integer that divides o,6.
*42. Prove that when lnrl is greater than or equal to lo,n_j,
lonzl,. . ., lrrol, then every zero of the polynornial
P"(n) : annn l. . . * oo rnust satisfy lnl < 2.
*43. Prove that when a+b{Z is a zero of a pollmomial with rational coefficients, and. a, b, and c are ratiolals
with c not a perfect sqlra.re, then rz  b\/E is also a zeto.
*44' Show that when o,n : l, Theorem 3.9 elirninates none of the possibilities suggestecl by the Ratiolal Root
Theorern.
/o o\
\o o ) ' (lssl)
we often denote a zero rnatrix by o to clisti'g'ish it frorn the r'rrnber
0.
A square matrix is said to be upper triangular if all elernerrts below its
diagonal are
zero' It is lower trianglular if all entries above its diagonal are zero.
lhe first of the
following rnatrices is triang'lar and the secorrcl is lower trianqular
'pper
(i B' i)
Diagonal rnatrices are lrpper and lower triangular.
Equality of Matrices
Two rnatrices ,4 arrd B are said to be equal if they have the sarne dirnensiols
arrd if
correspondimg errtries are eq'al. Forrnally we say that A,r*n : Bpxqt if m": p, k : q, and
follows that
For exarnple,
,(i :): (1 T)
Addition and Subtraction of Matrices
We add and subtract rnatrices of eqrral dirnensions by adding and subtractirrg corre
sponding entries; that is, if A: (o4)*rn and B : (bii),,rn,then
A+B:kt,qIbrj),,,n. (4.3)
For example,
EXERCISES 4.1
/r\ /. ^\ /t 3
A: {i l, B:(l , c:lo  2
D:(r'B'o)'
\r/
?)
\u L/' \o o
4
o ;) ":(i, : g)
":(l 3 s') ":(i ll) ,":(B ss) ':(_+l s) ,*:(Ls)
In Exercises 18 identify which of the matrices are of the type specified
1. Sqrrare 2. Colurnrr 3. Row 4. Diagonal
5. Upper triarrgular 6. Lower triangular T. Zero 8. Identity
In Exercises 920 use the above ten rnatrices AK to calculate the given matrix, if it exists.
9. A+B ro. E 2F TI. B+4K t2. 2F 3J
13. GJ 14. H +2G 15. A DT t6. 2F 3Er
17. GBr 4K\r 13. 3C 2Fr 19. 4E2F+3G 20. 2J 3Er +4€
*21. Find the rnatrixX that satisfies 4x 2F  3J where F and J are as above.
*22. Find the matrix Y that satisfies 2Y 2JT :zE+ y where.E and J are a^s above.
i'23. Cornparries 1, 2, and 3 are beirrg purchased by Big company and the outstandirrg debts of each company
rnust be paid by Big. These debts are shown in the rnatrix,4. below
Due in 30 days 60 days
$60,ooo\ Cornpany 1
,4 : /$4o,ooo
$2b, oo0 $15,000  Cornpany 2
\$35,000 $58,000/ Company 3
(a) If Big pays 35% of the arnourrt owed on each debt, what rnatrix B gives the remainirrg clebts? Express
B irr the forrn B : ,\,4 for some vahre of ,\.
(b) Suppose instead that Big decides to pay 80% of all debts due irr 30 days and to increa^se debts clue
irr 60 days by 20%. Write the matrix C that gives the debts after these transactions are rnade. Carr
yorrexpressCintheformp'A?FindrnatricesDandEandscalars)arrdpsothatC:\D+rr,Il.
*24. In a government agency, paperwork constantly flows among five offices according to the following diagram.
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SECTION 4.2 47
entry of the product is the srrrn of the entries in
row 1 of 4 multiplied by the corresponding
entries in colurnn 2 of B, narnely, (f)(Z)+ (2)(0)+ (_3)(4)_ _iO.
Contirruirrg irr this way,
the product is
( t 10 18 e \
\20 24 le 5s).
Example 4,2 Evahrate the foilowing proclucts, if they exist:
(r z\(t\ /rr\
\a o/ \s ): \_s)
(b) This is not possible, the number of columns of the first
matrix is not the same as ttie
mrmber of rows of the secorrd.
(c) This is possible and the product is
(i ;: +) (i :):(:^;:)
Example 4.3 Evaluate AnT  gC tf
\o ,)\'4 6
lz 17 27 gZ\
:lr is
'; 16) ;;).
\+ 8 12
14 _511 36 25
:l_8 40 1
\4 2 $ _11
Some properties of rnatrix rmrltiplication are
AB + BA. (47)
c:l /zo\
sI
rv
naaio
\ 6 / Newspaper
Suppose the business ha^s three fernale target populations for
its product: teenagers, single wornen 20 to
35, and rnarried womerl 35 to 60' x'{atrix ? s}tows the mrmber of
ads per mont}r clirectecl at each of these
groups.
TV Radio Newspaper
/so 30 5\ Teenagers
r:140 60 30  Singte 203b
\45 40 60 / Marriecl3b60
Find the matrix 4 that gives the cost of advertising for each group of wornen.
Can you set 1p a prod'ct
of rnatrices to give A?
x26. Suppose,4 is a diagonai.matrix with diagonal entries arLt a22t
...t ann. Calcrrlate A2 artd.43, and
conject're the entries of Ar, , where m ) 2 is a positive irrteger. '
*27. Repeat Exercise 26 for lower arrd upper triarrgular rnatrices.
r:S:1(r,2,6).
\/9 + 4+ 36 7'
A vector of lerrgth 4 in the opposite clirection is
4i: {t,r,u7..
To add and sttbtract vectors algebraically, we acld and subtract their
u: (zr, u,g,u") arrd v: (ur,us,ur), then
comporre^ts. If
Example 5.4 Firrd the angle between the lirres :r l2A: 3 and 4:r _ 3y: 5 in the uy_plane.
Solution Since the slope of r 2A:3 ts _1f2, a vector along this line is :
sirnilarly, a vector along4n u (_2,1).
3y  5lr.r: (3,4).'rfd is the ung"I" t"t.";"rr these ou"to.r,
and therefore between the lines, then
ijk
'Il,r uu 112
ur ua uz
If we apply the nrles for expansiorr of a 3 x 3 determinant along its first row (namely,
i tir.r",
the 2 x 2 determinant obtained by deleting the row and cohrmn containing
i, ,nirur. j tt.r".
the 2 x 2 deterrninarrt obtained by deleting the row and column containing j, phrs
the 2 x 2 determinarrt obtained by deleting the row and cohrmrr corrtairrilg"flj,
f tiu,
*" Jt.irr"
a
I jk
u,u 11,a ',u,z :lA i"),l:: ';'):.1:: 'i,:)r
,UT
ua uz
lo bl
Lt:aaoc.
lc dl
Consequently,
jk
u,,, : (uou"  u"u)i I (u,"u,  u,u,)j I (u,*uo  urur)k,
lr
'11,.
ug 'uz
and this is the sarne as the right side of equatiorr 5.12. We may therefore write. as a
rnemorysavirrg device, that
Planes in Space
A plarre in space can be characterized irr
various ways: by two irrtersecting lines, by
a line and a point rrot on the line" or bv
three noncollinear points. For our p.eserrt
plrrposes, we llse the fact that given a
point P(e;e, ys, zs) and a vector (A, B , C)
(Figure 5.6), there is one and only orre
plane through P that is perpendicular
to (A,B,C). To find the equation of this
plane we note that 1f Q(:r,y,z) is any other
Figure 5.6
point in the plane, therr vector pe with
cornponents \:t  t:0, u  uo, ,
 ro) Iies in the plarre. But p Q rmrst tlen be perpendicrrlar
to (A,B,C); hence, their clot product rmrst be zero,
(4, B,C) . (*  ro,!/  Uo, z  zs) : g.
Because this equation must be satisfied by every point (r, y, z) inthe plane (and at the sarne
time is not satisfied by any point not in the plane), it musi be the equation of the plane
tlrrough P and perpendictilar to (A,B,C). If we expand the scalar pro61ct, we obtairr the
equation of the plane in the forrn
lL  lLn
\,
:_'lt 
o 'tt^
'\,
zzo
Ur u", uz
(5.le)
*11:!:3. z:r.
If weset rf L:2u,z:1,or nttl:l,z:l.werepresenttheLirrea^stheintersection
of the planes xt + A :1 and z : 1.o
Example 5'9 Findtheequationof theplanecontainingtheoriginandthelile2z tl)z:4,r+z:b.
points on the plane. Fo r,:0,
:5arrdg:9; andif :r::b
0), as well as 0(0,0,0), arre. It
: (5, 6,0) are vectors vector
li j kl
oP x oQ:
l0 9 5l : (30,25,_45).
15 6 0l
The vector (6,5, g) is also norrnal to the plane, and the equation of the plarre is
'*25' verify that the eqtation of the plane pasqing throrrgh the three points p1(21 pz(rz,g2,z2), attd.
ar,4) can be written in the form prF . prf, x prp, 0, ,h...'p( ,ar,zL), :
iiy, i"any poinr in rhe
fif:., "j'
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SECTION 6.1 oo
rl3U:4,
2rlSY:1.
3t l6Y: 15'
These tlrree lines intersect at the poirrt (23, g).
For large systerns of linear equatiorrs, the eliminatiorr rnethod is far easier to follow.
It can be described in a sequence of operations that can be incorporatecl into a cornpll;er
prograrn' In general terrns, the sequence of operations replaces the giverr systern
wiih arr
equivalent systern that is easier to solve, so easy irr fact, that we can sirnply
write down the
solution (or solutiorrs). We illustrate with system 6.2.
If we interchange the first two equations, the system is the same. Whatever values of
t:, y, amd z satisfy 6.2 also satisfy
2!lz:3,
:r1
2n3yl3z:6, (6 3)
,t,qtLz9
4/ A  4 \

and vice versa' We rrow elirninate z from the secorrd and third equations. We do
this by
multiplying the first equation by 2 arrd adding it to the second, and then rnuliiplyilg
the
first equation by 1 and addirrg it to the third equation. The res'lt is
n129z:3,
TA I 5z :0, (6.4)
3a l22: L.
This systern is equivalent to 6.2 irr that they have exactly the same sohrtions; systern
6.4 is,
however. sirnpler tharr system 6.2. II we rnultiply the secorrd arrd third eqrrations by
1, we
obtairr the equivalent svstem
n+2Az:3,
7y  5z:0, (6 5)
3922:1.
If we rmrltiply the third equation by 2 arrd add it to the secorrd equation, an eqlivalent
svstem is
rl 29z:3,
otry1 ., (6.6)
3y22:1.
Multiplyirrg the second equation by 3 arrd addirrg it to the thircl gives the equivalerrt systern
n)2y  z:3,
qt z _') 4,
  (6.7)
We now have a much sirnpler system of equations equivalerrt to 6.2; but becalse they are
equivalent, they have the same solutions. In fact, the third equation in 6.2 telis us that
z:7' rf we substit'te this into the second equatiorr in 6.2, we obtain y:5, and if these
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SECTION 6.1
ot
The augmented matrix for this systern is
!,
(i i'
In doing tl:is exarnple, we introduce notation that, in the future,
will elirninate the neces
sity of explaining in words what elernentary row operations
are being used. We begin by
interchanging the first two rows. we denote this
as foilows
(ii'i ,' \
+  Rz2RrtRz +
7 / R"r5r?r*fts (il'r
Were we to return to a systern of equations at this point, the second and tirird equations
would not contain z. we rrow add 2 tirnes the second row to the third row,
s\
(i :' 10 I
t ) n"
zz 2Rzt Rs  (it'+
Tlre tlrird row is rnost irrforrnative if we corrvert it back to an equation.
We obtain 0 :2, an
irnpossibility. Consequently the systern of equatiorrs ha^s no solrtions;
it is a' irrconsisterrt
systern.
we do one rnore exarnple usi'g the operationar notation, ornitting the
words.
n3y+22:6,
3:rt 2y  4z :7, (6.11)
7a  l}y i 4z: 31.
32 32
(i .tA
9) o, * 3Rr * Rz + ft 11 10
10 4 31f f,tTRt+Rt \o 11 Rs
10  Rzl Rs
2
_10 j') ., . Rz/tr
2
r0/rr
0 0 :')
when converted back to eq'atio's, we obtain the eq'ivalerrt system
r3y+22:6,
10
U
Uz: L'
two equations in three variables. What we have shown is that the third equation in
the
original system was a combination of the first two equations. The second equation in
the
redtrced systern tells us that y: l0z/ll 1, and ifthis is substituted into the
first equation.
ii
59
(i i)
Second row does not have leading 1
(:i; ;)
Leading 1 in row 2 is rrot to left of leading
1 in row 3
","*t.,f::"JTf:1"":*:f:ni.,ffiiiH:f:','J';:llf f ;".'J,i#E::ti.#:rnil:,,",'r;
step 1' Firrd the leftrnost variable cohrmn that
has a nonzero entry in it. choose a nonzero
entry i' this cohrrnn and intercha"nrge rows, if necessary, ," p..Jirrr,, entry in the
top row.
step 2' Divide the top row by the nonzero entry
found irr step 1 so that the leftrnost entry
irr the row is 1. This is the leading 1.
step 3' Add rnultiples of the top row to the rows beneath
it to create 0,s berreath the
leadirrg 1.
step 4' Pretend the top row is not there and repeat steps 1, 2, and,3 on the remaining
rows.
2niU32:6,
:tyl2z:4,
n 13U  z: I.
Solution The following sequence of ernentary row operations reduces the augmerrterl
matrix to row echelon forrn
6\Rl R2
4\
14R, R1 ___+ 6  R22RrrRz
) I / Reftr*fta
1 2
2 4\
(: rl 7 7 14  R2R3
4 _J Rs + Rzl Rs
9 / Rs+ ft2
/1
i2 1 2
T4 T4
o 0 19
l Rs
 SRz1_ Rs Rs
 Rs/r9
+ (i i'i
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SECTION 6,2 61
.t 16\ J
r2A*32:16,
328
a'":5
Variables r anrd g corresporrd to the leading 1's in the row echelorr forrn; they are called
leading variables. When the system has an infinity of solutions we always solve for leading
variables irr terrns of rrorrleading variabies. In this exarnple, the second equation gives 37 :
3z 12  28/5, which substituted into the first equation gives
EXERCISES 6.2
Use Gaussian elimination and the augmented matrix to find all solutions for the system of equations in
Exercises 122.
xl 2Y32:13, lDA+42:7,
1. 2x* ll  4z :73, t: f 39  6z : I3,
3:r.2y+z:5. 2x l tJ  4z : 10.
22:4,
lL+11 2:tlll32:4,
3. 2nI3y * z: 6, n!J 6,
h14Yz:2. 5:t:l!)62:14.
nlYz:0, 3n *4t  :0, 4z
5. 2:r'ly z:0, r +'!l + 3z :0,
3t:  4y I2z  0. :tIA :0.
rA+22:0,  z:0,
3x lU
7. 3x*A42:0, n *32 :0, 2Il
2n l2y  6z :0. 5n3y*52:0.
nYlz:4, 3n4ylz:1,
9. 2nI3y +22:6, 10. 2rUI4z:3,
6xUI6z:20. r3A32:2.
r+A22:4, 4rlU22:4,
11. rl 3ylz:6, 12. 2xt3yIz:6,
3ryf2z:7. 3rAI2z:7.
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63
This is called the reduced row echelon form for the augrnerrted rnatrix. If we use it to
write a systern of lirrear eqrrations equivalent to the original systern, we obtain
t::0, ll:b, z:7.
In other words, we have the solutiorr to the systern.
Let us repeat the procedure with system 6.11,
r3yI2z6,
3:r: I29  4z :7,
7n  l0g t 4z :31.
rnatrix is
6\ 6\
7  Rz3Rr I Ez
n) ns 7Ri+ Rt  (iliis ll
Il /
I
Rs  Rz l Rs
2
j') ", R2ttr
32
1 10l11
u \ n, BRzrRr
10
0
+
00 i')
+ (l
:
This is reduced row echelon form. When we recreate equatiorrs,
'{,1 +)
,rLr:3.
tt
,!":t.
ll
We now solve for the leading variables r and y in terrns of z,
Definition 6. 1 The rank r of the augmented matrix of a systern of linear equations is the mrrnber of leading
1's in its reduced row echelon forrn.
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SECTION 6.3 65
Nutrient B 10 o 30 10 20,000
Nutrierrt C LO 10 25 20,000
5t: :
t 5y t l0z l5Tr 10,000,
l\n I 5y l 302 * 10u : 20,000,
5n l I1y l L)z * 25ut :20,000.
041 Rt 4Rs l Rr
+(:
i+i
+
'' 3oo) € ft  2 0 ';1,') Rz + 2Rs I Rz
2,000 f \o 011
00 J
10 2
01 1 ''',')
500 /
Wherr we corrvert back to eouations.
C(ta) : 15(3u) + 16(1000  2u) * 19(500  T,) * 20w :25,500 I l4u, 0 ( tu < 500.
This is srnailest when 'ur : 0, irr which case the rnrrnber of bags of each plant food shorrld be
0 of type I, 1000 of type II, 500 of type III, arrd 0 of type IV.o
We have one last rernark, arr irnportant one, aborrt the reductiorr of an augrnerrted
rnatrix to reduced row ecltelon forrn by GaussJordan elirnirration. We can ofben be more
efficient in performing the calculations if we create 0's in a different order to that suggested
by GaussJordarr elirnination. We arrive at the same RREF (sirrce it is rufqre), but we get
there rnore qrickly and with less likelihood of error. To achieve RREF usirrg GaussJordan
elirnirratiorr, each time a leading 1 is created, 0's are created both above the leading 1 and
below it. We suggest an a.lterrrative. Create leadirrg 1's as usual, and 0's below thern, just
as is done in Gaussian elimination. This results in row echelon form. Once this is finished,
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SECTION 6.3 67
+ 00 01
.+fti,i 3\
zl
sf
Rr  2RzI Rr
+ l0
l0
lr 0
1
0
00
00
10
4/ \o o 01
EXERCISES 6.3
For Exercises 122 find the reduced row echelon form for the augmented matrix in exercises l22 of Exercises
6.2, arrd obtain all solutions of the systern.
23. What is the difference between an augmented matrix in row echelon form and one in reduced row echelon
forrn?
24. What is the advarrtage of having an augrnented rnatrix irr reduced row echelon forrn rather than row
echelorr form?
*25. A biologist hus a40To solution and a 10% solution of the sarne plant mrtrierrt. How rnarry cubic centirnetres
of each sohrtion should be mixed to obtairr 25 cc of a 28% sohrtion?
*26. Four one way streets feed into a traffic circle that must flow counterclockwise as in the left diagram below,
where traffic flows are measured in cars per minute. We must determine the flows fr, fz, fu, and fain
the circle.
(a) Use the fact that traffic flow into any intersection must equal the flow out of the intersection to set
up four equatiorts in f1, f2, fs, and fa.
(b) Solve the resultirrg equations.
(c) Which part of the circle carries the least amount of traffic, and which carries the most?
Out 200
In 300
0ut200 In200
*27. In the analysis of traffic flow, a city estimates the situation for an area of its downtown district in the
right figure above. The arrows indicate the flow of traffic on the four oneway streets. If /1 represents the
nurnber of cars travelling from intersection A to B, f2 the number from B to C, /3 the rnrrnber from C to
D, arrd /a the number frorn D to A, we can formulate equations based orr the principle that the mrmber
of cars enterirrg an intersection rmrst be equal to the mrrnber leavirrg the intersection.
(a) Forrnulate equations for each intersection.
(b) Solve the equatiorrs for fi, fz, fs, and fa.
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SECTION 6.4 69
AX: B. (6.15)
2rl 3y42tu10,
:t lyI3to:I5,
Az4lu:0,
is writterr a^s
It
(; ii i) (il t*l
is corrvenient to divide discttssions irrto two cases deperrding orr whether al1 the b; are
zeroj or at least one of thern is not zero.
Definition 6.2 System 6.14 of linear equations is said to be homogeneous if all the bi are eeual to zero.
If at least
one of the bi is notzeror the systern is said to be nonhomogeneous.
Nonhomogeneous Systems
There are three possibilities a^s far a^s the rrurnber of solutiorrs of a nonhornoseneous
system IS concerrled:
1. No sohrtion (when the systern is inconsistent)
2. Exactly one sohltion (wherr the system is corrsistent and r : n)
3. An infinity of solutions (when the system is consistent and r ( n)
This is rnost ea^sily seen if we consider the possible reduced row echelon forrns of augmented
rnatrices (and rernember that the reduced row echelorr form of a given systern is urrique).
A system has no solution if at any stage in the simplification of its augmented matrix to
reduced row echelorr form, a row is encountered consisting of all 0's except for the la^st entry.
We will take this last entry to be 1, but it could be any other rurrnber,
0 0 0 0 ... 0
nl2Y:6,
2rg3,
3t:+y:3.
:t l3Y : $,
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SECTION 6.4 7t
(r : :n
o\
7 to lr o R /11
\z 10 4 srl l0
\o o
r0lrr
0
We have 2 leading l's arrd 3 urrkrrowrrs (, < r,). There is an infinity of solutions, a 1
pararneter farnily r : 3 I 8z f ll, A :
l ) l0z f ll, w[ere again n  r : J  2 : 1.
The augrnerrted rnatrix for the systern
zt2A32:I,
2:r  3y + 4z :6,
3:rylz:7,
t*5YTz:5,
which has more equations tharr unknowns (nr. ) n), reduces frorn
lr 2
o 1\ /r0 r/7
I2 /l 6 La to r
lo o roll
t\1R3 3
I
r i Tl lo o
I
\ r o 7 b/ \o o o
Tlrere is 2 leading 1 's, one less than the mrrnber of unknowns (, < n,) . The system has a 1
parameter family of solutions r : l5l7+z17,A :
4lT+l0zlT. Once again nr : g2: L
ffomogeneous Systems
Systern 6.14 is hornogeneous when all rnrrnbers on the riglrt sides ofthe equations are zero;
ittakes the forrn
I 0,pn2 I
{111:I:1 . .. ! alnrn  0,
021:L1 I aZZiLz I ... ! a2nrn  0, (6.16)
nI2Y32:0,
2n3yl4z:0,
n+Az:01
3riz:0,
ha^s four equations with three rrnknowns. Its augmented rnatrix
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SECTION 6.4 73
Basic Solutions
The homogeneorrs systern of equatiorrs irr Example 6.4 ha^s a 2pararneter familv of
solrrtions n:2U *tu, z: 2u. Suppose we write the sohrtions as a colurrm vectoi. or
matrix.
Using the operatiorrs of matrix addition and scalar rmrltiplication in Section 4.1, we carr
write
(r 0 1 0 1\
\0 I 2 2l s )'
When we convert to equations,
,r_L ry _ _1rt 1
tt9zI9crr?
u U:222utl3,
a 2pa,rarneter fa"rnily of sohrtiorrs. We can write them in cohrrnn rnatrix form as follows:
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SECTION 6.4 ,D
EXERCISES 6.4
In Exercises 118 rrse GarrssJorda,rr elimination, or otherwise, to simplify the augmented matrix to redrrced
row echelon form and find all solutions of the system. For each consistent system, show that the number of
paxameters in the sohrtion is n  r where n is the mrmber of unknowns and r is the rank of the augmented
matrix.
I. r I29 :13, n2Y:7'
2n+Y:3' 2. 2r4Y:f,,'
r*3u:1. nu:7'
3.
2n!6Y:). 4. x f39 : 1,.
x*2932:1, nA+42:7,
5. 2r l !  4z:3, 6. 't*3962:13,
3u29+z:5. 2nf2y 22: 10.
nI2932:13, nA+421w:7,
7. 2rfA42:L3, xf39Bz2w:I3,
8. 2nfa422w:10,
3nI3yTz:26.
3n*Az2w:0.
re12y322w:13, rU+42*w:7,
9.
2u1A421.:t3i, rt3y622w:13,
10.
3n29Izro:5, 2r*A42:10,
n+A+z+w:2' 4r*3y62w:0.
nI2g3zIw:L3, LA+42*u:0,
2n*A422w:13, r*3y623u.r:0,
11.
3r29lzlw:5, 2n*A42:0,
6rlU6z:2L SrlU22u:0.
rl 2932w:13, :xA+4zl2w:7,
13. 2n*A4zlw:13, L4. n t3y  6z 2w: L3,
3n 29 * z 2w: 5. 3n*5A822u:1.
x12y32:13, nA+42:7,
2r*A42:13, n l3y  62 : 13,
3r2glz:5, 2rtU42:10,
6rIU62:2L 4x I3y  6z :2.
nI2932:13, nA+42:0,
L7.
2rlA42:L3,
18.
rl 39 62:0,
3r*3y Tz:26, 2rIA42:0,
n+Alz:0. 4n*3yGz:0.
*19. Prove that a nonhomogenous system has a unique solution if and only if ranks of coefficient and augmented
matrices are eqrral.
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SECTION 7.1 77
CHAPTER 7 DETERMINANTS
87.1 Determinants
The deterrninant of a sqlrare matrix A is a mrrnber denoted in one of two ways clet,A
or lAl. we define it in stages. The determinant of a 1 x 1 rnatrix A  (o,)vt is defined
as the vahre of the sirrgle entry det A : o. Herein is the only confrrsion with the rrotation
lAl: kt). The vertical bars could be rnisinterpreted as the absohrte value of n instead of
the deterrnirrant of the matrix A : ("). Sirrce we shall herrceforth rrever have the rreed to
mentiorr the determinarrt of a 1 by 1 matrix, rro confusion will arise. The cleterrninant of a
2 x 2 matrix is defined as
la

b
,l:40,oc.
I
(7.1)
lc 0l
For example,
13
oA  4 6: 10, I 9l: 1212:o
For matrices of higher dimensions we need two preliminary definitions.
Definition 7'1 The minor rnii of the (2, j)th errtry of asquare rnatrix A: (onj)nrn is the deterrninant of
the square matrix of size (tt  1) x (n  1) obtained by cleletirrg the row and cohrrnn of 4
containing r.r,1i.
r: (i
F'or exarnpre, ,, rl,e'
: i)
,rrr:11 o, l:ro:8, tl ,l
nr3s l; ;l26:4.
r I
(:; i; )
ft;:; ::)
(7.3)
Definition 7.3 The deterrnirrant of an n x n rnatrix A (n > 2) is the mrmber obtained by surnrnirrg the
entries irr any row or cohunrr each multiplied by its cofactor. If the sum is along the itlt row,
therr
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SECTION 7.1 79
30 0
02 0 :(3)(2x4): 24.
00 4
Findirrg tlte deterrninant of a square rnatrix rnay require the evaluatiorr of arr unwieldy
mrrnber of 2x2 deterrnirrarrts. F'or irrstance, evahration of the deterrninant of a b x b rnatrix
requires five 4 x 4 deterrninants, each of which involves four 3 x 3 determinamts, each of wlich
requires three 2 x 2 deterrninarrts. In all we would have 60 2 x 2 deterrninants. Forturrately,
there is a mtrch sirnpler way to evahrate deterrnirrants of large rnatrices. T[e main reslit
is the third of the following theorems. The theorems describe the effect of elementary row
operatiorrs on deterrninants, operations that can be performecl on cohrrnns as well as rows.
Theorem 73 If two parallel lines of a rnatrix ,4. are irrterchanged, the deterrninant of the 1ew rnatrix is
Al.
Proof This carr
of (
c
deterrnirrant
\(,
lh rr\.,
\a c)tsoco'a'
valid for determirrants of rnatrices of size ii x ll, ancl consider the deterrninant of a rnatrix,4
of size (Ai + 1) x (k + 1 ) We shall prove that interchanging the first two rows of 4 chariges
the sign of the deterrninant. The proof is similar when any other rows, or colurnrrs, ire
interchanged. Let B denote the matrix obtained by interchanging the first two rows of ,4..
Suppose we expand l,4l and lBl along the sarne row arrcl let that row be any row except the
first two' Cofactors of elements in this row of A are identical to corresponding cofactors
of elernents in this row of B, except that the first two rows are interchanged. Since these
cofactorsaredeterrninarrtsof sizekxk,they areoppositeinsigrr. HencelBl :l,al. This
proves the result for deterrninants of size (t+ + 1) x (k + 1), and hence by mathernatical
inductiorr, the resuit is valid for determirrants of all sizes.r
1 ls)
If we expand along the second row,
":(+ i l)
The determirrarit of this rnatrix, if we exparrd alorrg the secorrd row, is
Theorem 7.4 If all entries in a line of a matrix .4 are mrrltiplied by the sarne mrrnber k, then the determi
nant of the new matrix ha^s value kl,4l.
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SECTION 7.1 81
at Expanding once again along the first row gives
13 4 3 4t
Example 2.2 Evat'ate : l: ,' :
l" o _z
l,4l ?l
4l
14, 2 b 6l
Solution If we add multiples of row 2 to the other three rows, we can create three zeros
in the first column.
2 L2 _21
l0 _2 _3 2l
I,'r :10
t^t 11
7 4 0il.
lo 10 rT 21
If we now expand along the first column,
I z 12 _21
l,4l :(1)(_1)17 4 01.
 10 17 21
If we expa.nd this 3 x 3 determirrant along the second row,
lABl: lAllB (7 5)
Example 7.3 Ilhrstrate Theorern 7.6 by evahrating left and right sides of equatiorr 7.5 when
o 2\ lo 4
r:llIt 4l n:1, 1
3\
ol.
\2 5 rl _1
\r 4l
so,ution si^""A':1,l i 1'\(S : S) :f7 S ;i)
\z b 1/\1 1 4l \o 2 n)
lABl: 2(40)  6(285)  5(e3) : _2255.
On the other hand,
EXERCISES 7.1
In Exercises 112 find the determinant of the matrix.
1. (t g)
\2 r/
b
B. /tlz 1 2\
3l
\3 1 r/
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SECTION 7.2 83
o,+b a o, 0
o, o,Ib o ... u,
i i : '.. I
0 0 0, ..,
o,+b nxn
*21' The strm of the erttries of arry lirre of a sqlrare rnatrix each rmrltiplied by its cofactor is the d.eterrnina't
of the rnatrix' Show that the surn of the errtries of any line of u rqrrur" rnatrix each rmrltiplied
by the
cofactor of the corresponding entry in a parallel line is always zero.
Theorem 7.7 (Cramerts Rule) Consider the systern of n linear equatiorrs irr n urrknowrrs
lAdl
",,  A, (7.6)
We shall prove Crarner's nrle irr Sectiorr 8.4. It is ilhrstrated irr the following examples.
Example 7.4 Use Crarner's mle to solve
3r + 49:3,
2t:59:$.
A
Solution Since 23 + 0,
It
4l
13 51_ 3l lr
e 61: 24 12 24
"._l623 23, ,: =n 13: 23''
Example 7.5 use cramer's rule to find only the value of y satisfyirrg the systern
2':t: : 6,
t 3y  4z
:LA+z:51
3n1Y:4.
234
Solution Sirrce 1 1 1 : 3(1)  1(6) : e,
310
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SECTION 7.2 85
lB R
r)
I
l +tul
Rz Et(Rz t Rz) l EzRz
RrRz f ftrfts * RzRs RtRzt Erfia F RzRt'
lnt+ n, nrl
rz
t' R" E,l Ez(ht Rz)r &Rz
 RtRz t Rt Rs t RzRs RrRz l RrRs'l RzRs
The upward current through R2 is
Er(Rz+Rs)+EzRz Ez(h+R2)+ELR2 ErRt  EzRt
?'L
 1'2: RrRz t RrRs + RzRs RtRz RrRt
1 I RzRs RtRzl RtRt I RzRs
With the specified resistances and voltages,
xL1'2:
(2000)(3000)
20(1000)  40(2000)
+ (2000)(1000) + (3000)(1000)
:3o. bbu
The negative crtrrent irrdicates that it is downward through ,R2.o
Notice irnportantly that Crarner's mle applies orrly when the mrrnber of unkrrowns is
tlte sarne a^s the mrmber of equations. When this is the case, Cramer's nrle can be used
to give information about the number of solutions to expect, even without finding them.
Suppose first of all that the system is homogeneous. We have seen that there are only two
possibilities as far as the rlrmber of solutions is concerned, onlv the trivial solution or arr
infinity of solutions. If lAl + 0, then Crarner's nrle irrdicates that the orrly solution is the
trivial one. It follows that the system has an infinity of solutions when l,4l : 0. Cramer's
rule cannot find them, but the fact that l,4l : 0 tells us there is an infinity of solutions.
This gives the following theorern.
Theorem 7.8 A hornogeneorrs systern of n linear equatiorrs irr n unkrrowns, AX : 0, ha^s orrly the trivial
solution if and only rt lAl+ 0; it has nontrivial solutions if and orrly if l,4l : 0.
EXERCISES 7.2
ln Exercises 110 use Cramer's rule to find the solution of the system.
+ 2I) : 13, , :L2A:7,
1. :n2x+g:3'
2:r39:$.
:r*3u:1. iLU:7,
3. 4.
2nt5Y:)' nl 3Y:1,.
l2y  32 :1,
:r rll+42:7,
5. 2rtU42:3, 6. n+311 62:13,
3:r2ylz:5. 2x2942:10.
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SECTION 7.3 87
o,Lr + I
b:I:z bt:s 1 .'. I bnn : 1,
Definition 7.4 A vector v is said to be a lirrear combirration of vectors llr, n2, .. ., n/" if there exist scalars
Cr, Cz, .' ., Cn srrch that
We have already seen an extremely irnportarrt instance of this. To say that the components
of a vector v are (u,,'t)aluz) is to say that v: ,ri+ t4j+u"i. The vector v is a linear
cornbination of i, j, arrd i. Tlmt, every vector in space carr be written as a linear cornbinatiorr
of i, j, and k.
Vectors irr the :lgpla"rre carr be expressed irr terrns of i and j. th"." vectors i arrd j are
special being perpendicrrlar to each other and of lerrgth orre. Vectors in the ryplarre carr be
expressed in terrns of other pairs of vectors also, but not all pairs. We illustrate algebraically
and geometrically. Suppose ul : (2,I) and u2 : (1,3). Let v: (q,uz) be any vector in
the plane, and consider finding constants Cr and Cz such that
By equatirrg components, we obtain a pair of equatiorrs for Cr arrd Cz irr terrns of tr1 and 'u2,
C2: ur,
2Cr +
CrlSCz:uz'
Becarrse the determinant of this systern is not zero, there is a lrnique solutiorr for Cy and C2
for any given o1 and u2. Irr other words, there is a lrniqlre represerrtation of every vector v
in terrns of u1 and u2. We can see this geornetrically as well in Figure 7.2. We draw lines
through the tip of v parallel to u1 and u2 to intersect u2 arrd u1 at ,4. and B. It follows
then that v  OB + OA. Vector OB is a multiple of u1 arrd OA is a multipie of u2; that
is, OB : Crur and OA : Czvz. Hence, v : Gur I Czrtz.
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SECTION 7.3 89
this rnearrs thatq is in the plane defined by u1 and u2. Because v is not irr this plarre, it
carurot be expressed in terrns of u1, u2, and u3.
FinaJIy consider expressirrg t : (5, 2, 4) in terrns of u1 : \I,2,0), u2 : (0,3, 1),
and u3 : (2,5,3),
Although the determinant of the coefficient matrix is once again zero, there is an infinity of
solrrtions for C1, C2, and Cs. The rea^sorr is that v is in the same plane as nl, ll2, and u3.
There is an infinity of ways to express v in terrns of u1, u2, and u3.
Whether an arbitrary vector v irr the r3rplarre can be expressed irr terms of two given
vectors u1 arrd u2, ofld wltether arr arbitrary vector v in space can be expressed in terms of
three given vectors llt, rr2, and u3 is closely connected to whether the u vectors are what
are called linearly i,nde.pendent. This is defined as follows.
Definition 7.5 A set of k nonzero vectors u1, u2, . . ., u/r is said to be linearly dependent if one or more
of the vectors is a lirrear combinatiorr of the others. They are linearly independent if none
of the vectors is a lirrear combination of the others.
An equivalerrt characterizatiorr of lirrearly irrdeperrderrt and dependerrt vectors is corr
tained irr the followirrg theorem.
Theorem 7.10 A set of k nonzero vectors ul , u2r ..., uk is lirrearly deperrdent if there exist scalars Ct, Cz,
..., Ck, not ail zero, strch that
Crur * Cztz * "' I Cutp : g' (7.8)
The vectors are linearly independent if the only way to satisfy this eqrration is for C1 :
Cz: "' : Cu:0.
Proof Suppose that the k vectors are linearly dependerrt. Then, at lea^st one of thern is
a linear combination of the others. Without loss in generality assurne that
Then,
and we have satisfied equation 7.8, where the coefflcients are not all zero. Conversely,
slrppose there exist constants, rrot all zero, such that 7.8 is valid. If C j + 0, for sorne j, therr
divisiorr by Ci gives
o,: *o,
L:i Ui " 9#u,*,
!u,, ,,%un'
Ui
t
We have therefore expressed ui irr terrns of the other vectors, alrd the set is linearly
deperrderrt.o
The following facts are easily seen geometrically and easily verified algebraically.
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SECTION 7.3 91
This indicates that there is an infinity of nontrivial solutions, and therefore the vectors are
lirrearly deperrderrt. To express orre of thern irr terrns of the other two, we rreed one of these
solutions. we simplify the augrnented rnatrix to reduced row echelon forrn
Ctl2Cz*Cs:0,
2Ct t Cz  4Cs : g,
2Cr  Cz I 4Cg :0,
Cr2Cz+3C":0.
The augmented matrix is
01 /r 2 
0 l fiz
2RtlRz l 0 3 o
olRs+2Rr+Rr + [o 3 6
0/ R++RttRs \O 0 4
+ftii 3l 0\ Rr2BzfRr
o/
RsR+ ..+13'r? 's)"'2Rst
RqRs
/I 0 3 0\
\o o o
Er + 3Ra * Er
Rz
t)
Tlre only sohrtion is Cr : Cz : Cs: 0, and therefore the vectors are linearly independent.o
The following two results can simplify determirrirrg whether vectors are lirrearly depen
dent or irrdependerrt.
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SECTION 7.3 93
EXERCISES 7.3
In Exercises 110 deterrnine whether the vectors are lirrearly dependent or linearly irrclependerrt.
1. (1,2), (3,5) 2. (2,l), (4,2)
3. (1,3), (2, 3), (4,10) 4. (t, 2,4), (2, 5,0)
5. (2, 4,1), (1, 3,5), (5, 11, 7) 6. (3,2, 1), (3,5,9), (2,4, 1)
7. (3,2,1), (3,5,8), (2,4,1), (1,1,1) g. (1, 1, 1, 1), (1,3, 2,5), (4, 0,2, 5)
9. (2,0,3,4), (1, 3,5, 1), (l,0,0,3), (4, _3,9,9) LO. (2,0,3,4), (1, 1, 1, 2), (_2,4,1,3), (4,3,2,1)
11. Show that the vectors (2,1,4), (3,5,2), arrd (1,1,0) are Jirrearly indeperrdent. Express the vector
(3, 5,8) as a iinear cornbirration of these vectors.
12' Show that the vectors (2,1,4), (3,5, 2), arrd (I,7,10) are linearly dependerrt. Show that the vector
(3, 5,8) cannot be expressed as a linear cornbination of these vectors.
13. Show that the vectors (2,1,4), (3,5, 2), arrd (1,7,10) are linearly dependent. Show that the vecror
\4,1I,8) carr be expressed as a linear cornbination of these vectors.
14. Suppose the set of vectors vl, ..., v7, o,r€ linearly dependent. Does it follow that V1 can be expressed in
terrns of y2t . . .i v6. Explairr.
In differential equations we are concerned with whether n functiorrs y1(n), ,Uz(t:), . . ., An(:r) are linearly
irrdeperrdent or deperrderrt (rather than vectors). It turrrs out that the firrrctiorrs are lirrearly indeperrderrt on
an interval I if and only if there exists at least one point in I at which the foliowirrg Wronskiarr deterrninarrt
is not zero
AL Uz Un
W(at,ar,." ,!ln) 
ut ai aL
a\
,) aL"_ rt a*
_tt
In Exercises 1520 deterrnirre whether the firnctions are linea,rly indeperrderrt or linearly dependent orr the
interval 1,
x15. {1, n, t2) on oo < r < oo *16. {r, 2:r 3n2, 12} on oo < r < oo
*17. {sinr, cosr} on 0 <. n 12r *18. {z, t:et, t:2er} on 0 ( r ( 1
r19, {zsinr, e2') oL oo ( e; < oo *20. {sin r, cos r, 2 sirr e;  cos r} on 0 ( r I 2r
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SECTION 8.2 95
2. Suppose ,4 is a sqlrare matrix and there exists a nonzero rnatrix .B of the sarne size s'ch that AB : o.
Show that ,4 rmrst be sirrgular.
**10. Show that when A is square and there exists a rnatrix B srrch that AB: I, or BA: I, tSen B : Ar.
Theorem 8.3 If an n x n matrix 4 ha^s arr inverse, it can be fourrd by performing elernentary row operations
orr the rnatrix lAlI"l so as to reduce Ato In. In the process, I, becornes,4.1.
,o,rs: (L i l; ?)
to 12. The calculations are
tL o 1 o\ (t 3  1 o\
I
\3 r 2/
Solution We sirnplify A in
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SECTION 8.2 97
EXERCISES 8.2
In Exercises 116 find, if possible, the inverse of the matrix.
'n
'(l :' 3)
/z +\
[z s) ^ (; s)
(+ z\
\z r ) '(;
7.
'(,;
"(i
11. ,2(:ii)
34\
311
rl 13.
', i)
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SECTION 8.3
f1 I r
A  ,,,adj Al:;lA(adjA)l:
j L
Llfrl lnl
A similar proof shows that
tl I
A)A: I
LEI*j
Thus, ,4.r : $adj A..
val
Theorem 8.4 gives us a quick way to decide whether a rnatrix is singular (whether it
has an inverse). Since the adjoint of a square matrix always exists, we have
M: (mti),
where rnai is the determinant of the matrix obtained by deleting the row a.rrd cohrmn con
taining aii in A.
2. Forrn the rnatrix of cofactors
c: (qi);
this attaches the appropriate signs to the minors.
3. Form the inverse by taking the transpose of. C and dividing by 1,41,
 1 o: tr./r
A':
lal"aj Vl
We illustrate with the two examples frorn Section 8.2.
*: (t ?)
Next, the matrix of cofactors is
(:, ")
":
Firrally,
:AL : r (4 _3\
u,r_r_r.r_ t
r(_4 3\
z\z ):i\z r)t
/t 1 1\
Example 8.3 Find the inverse of ,q:  2 3 4 
\a r
.
21
Solution We are assrrredthat Ar exists since lAl : 1(2)+(1)(1)(16)1(11) : 25.
First we form the matrix of minors
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SECTION 8.4 101
Solution The coefficient matrix is,4 :(i i :) We fourrd its inverse in Exarnple
8.1,
O:*
The sohrti
3r2gl2z4w:5,
2:tl5A+6u:1,
nt3922:0,
6Y3zl4w:6,
we would use elementary row operations to reduce the first 4 x 4 block of
fi' \t
block of the augmented rnatrix
ooA
'':i)
to the identity. Solving the system by Gaussian elimination involves reducins the first 4 x 4
ouo
aon
(; o a v
634 ;')
to the iderrtity. Exactly tlte sarne row operatiorrs would by used, but they would be perforrned
on three less colurnns in the augrnented rnatrx.
The only time that it is advarrtageous to use inverse rnatrices to solve a nonhornogeneols
system is when the righLhand sides ofthe equations are unspecified constants. For instance,
slrppose we need to solve the systern
2,:t:Iy
32,
2:rI49lz:,
)+L9>
le  41
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strictly prohibited.
SECTION 8.4 103
o r l\ /r
(i i lo T
8 Rt + 7Rz t Rt
22 3lnr;R2lB 1 ,7, ih
x  2 0/ \0 e
b
_4 i) Ra + 9Rz * Rs
(i :i 1413
213
o
Lrlsa\
2ls r 
4 9/ R"+Rrl49
lt o 43
lo I
0
00 4rlr47 231r47
\0
b
1
R1 + 43Ra * R1
Rz + l&s + Rz
10 231r47 381r47
5/4e \
4l4s
01 5l4e 4l4s el4e
I
/
Tlns, ,4l : . It follows then that
1 ., l+t 2J rr\
: zm
[?l ?! :?)
+ \ : , f unt +23E2 + taar \
rr
;t" ) T.fr \'lut;,**t:r";,.'it: )
/"t\
l*'l 1
Il:l t_ _("djA)B_,^
1
\/ lAl' lAl
\:Ln '/
wlrere qi
is the cofactor of a,ii irr ,4. We prove Crarner's nile for t1; the proof is sirnilar for
the other urrknowns. When we equate entries irr the (1, 1) positiorr irr the above equation,
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SECTION 8.5 105
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SECTION 9.1 107
Example 9.3 Suppose forces F with cornponerrts (F,, Fa,F") act at the point (1,2,3) in space. The
rnornents (or torques) M ofthese forces about the origin are defined as M: (1,2,3) x F.
Set this up as a transforrnatiorr frorn vectors F to vectors M.
Solution Sirrce
ijk
M: (1,2,3) x F: 'lDa : (2F.  3Fr)i + (34  F,)j r (F,  2F*)t ,
trtrF,
rn describe the transforrnatiorr a^s follows if we set M  (Mr, Mu, A["),
IV' :2P"  3Fa,
T : ArIo :3P,  P,,
M":Fa2F,'o
(e.3)
un: tt'n1'tt1 ! o,n2tt2 + "'+ o,nn'Dn.
Notice that the transforrnatiorr irr ExampLe 9.1 is not of this form, but the trarrsformations
irr Exarnples 9.2 arrd 9.3 are.
solution T(1, 3, 5) : (3(1)  2(3),4(1)  2(3) + 5, 3(5)  4(1)) : (e, 15, 11)o
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SECTION 9.2 109
": (;)
Iirrear trarrsforrnation T in 9.3 can be written irr matrix forrn
v' : Av. (e 4)
Instead of using 9.3 to find the components of v/, we simply rnuitiply ,4 by v. Here are sorne
examples.
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SECTION 9.2 111
1\
+ (:I;# tJ lr or le 1 \ n, Rrt9na*Er
+ lo r4 r I  L4Rt t Rz
7 /n"Rsl80 \0 0 7180 / 1
srTso \
sl40 
7l8o /
Tlre reqrrired vector is v : (53/80, 91a0,7 180).t
A very important realizatiorr about the rnatrix associated with a linear transforrnation
comes from the following observatiorr. Suppose ? is the linear transformation of Example
9.6 with rnatrix
^:(+ t i)
The irnage of tire vector i  (1,0,0) is
Theorem 9.1 The ith colrrmrr of the rnatrix associated with a linear trarrsformation ? is the irnage of the
vector whose cornponents are all 0 except for a 1 irr the ith positiorr.
This turrrs out to be a very useful fact when linear trarrsforrnations a,re described by
their actions rather than giverr in comporrent form.
Example 9.8 Firrd the rnatrix associated with the linear transformation ? of R3 to ,R3 that rotates vectors
by angle d around the zaxis when 0 < 0 <2r. Then find T(1,3,2).
Solution Fipure 9.1 ilhrstrates that
 (cosd,sirrd,0) and  (sirrd,cosd,0).
"(i) "(j)
F\rrthermore, : k. Tlur., the rnatrix a^ssociated with the trarrsformation is
"(k)
f cosl sind 0\
A:lsind cos? 01.
\ o o t)
It is now easy to find ?(1,3 2)
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SECTION 9.3 113
*6. Find the rnatrix of of the lirrear transforrnation ? from R3 to R3 that rotates every vector around the
gaxis by arrgle a./3 radians, clockwise as viewed frorn the point (0,2, 0), arrd therr intercharrges its ri ancl
3rcornponents.
*7. A lirrear transforrnatiorr ? frorn R3 to ,?3 has matrix
^ (t. ?
A:lr t\
3 5I.
\o 4 6/
It rnaps vectors v to v/ :7("). A secorrd lirrear transforrnation ,S ha^s rnatrix
o
Blrlz 4 3\
2 
\5 2 r /
It rnaps vectors v' to vtt :f $').Let ,S? denote the transforrnation that combirres,S and ?,
v": (ST)(v) : S[r(")].
(a) Show that ,97 is a linear transformation by finding the components of v/' in terms of those of v.
(b) Show that the rnatrix a^ssociated with
^9? is BA.
*8. F act at a fixed point (re, !0,2(t) in space. Moments of these forces about the origin are defined
Forces
a^s M: r x F, where r::loi+Uoj+ H ? is the lirrear trarrsforrnation frorn F to M, find its matrix.
"ot.
x9. Repeat Exercise 5(a) but replace the plane ll: n wjth the plarre l):2tr:.
* 10. Repeat Exercise 5(a) but replace the plane g : z with the plane !) : o,x), o, > 0.
*11. Firrd the rnatrix of the linear trarrsforrnation T frorn ,R3 to R3 that projects every vector into the plarre
A:r''
*12. Repeat Exercise 11 but replace the plane : I with the plarre Il :2r;.
U
*13. Repeat Exercise 11 but replace the plarre Il: t: with the plane A: o,n, a> 0.
*14. Repeat Exercise 5(a) but replace the plane g : r with the piane z : n +A.
i.15. Repeat Exercise 11 but replace the plarre g : e; with the plarre z : n * A.
*x16. Repeat Exercise 5(a) but replace the plarre ?l : t: with the plane z : A:r I B3r, where A arrd B are
positive constants.
**17. RepeatExercisellbutreplacetheplarreU:t withtheplane z:An*By,where AatrdB arepositive
constants.
Every linear transformation of R' to R' ha^s arrnx n rnatrix associated with it. Corr
versely, n x n, matrices define linear transformations of R" to R". Lirrear transformations
define square matrices and square matrices deflne linear transformations. E'igermectors of
rnatrices (or lirrear transformations) are irnportant irr applicatiorrs of rnatrices (or linear
transformations). We first define them geometrically in R2 and .,?3; an algebraic definition
follows that carr be rrsed in R'.
Definition 9.3 Arr eigenvector v of a linear transformatiorr ? orr R2 or R3 is a rronzero vector that does
not charrge direction when mapped by ?.
An eigerrvector v rnay charrge its length, arrd even be irr the opposite directiorr, v, but
it canrrot bein any other directiorr. Sirrce all vectors irr the direction of v or v can be
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SECTION 9.3 115
Before making some general observations, we illustrate how the characteristic eqrration
gives eigenvalues in the earlier examples of this section. The matrix associated with the
linear transformation of Example 9.9 is
/z o o\
e:lo 2 ol.
0 2/
\0
Its eigenvalues are defined by the characteristic equation
2^ 0 0
0: lA _.\.rl : 0 2.\ 0 l:(2))2(2+)),
0 0 2^
Sohrtions are ): t2. These were the eigenvalues
found in Example 9.10.
The matrix associated with the linear transformation of Example 9.8 is
fcos0 sind 0\
,4:lsind cosO 01.
\ 0 0 rl
Eigenvalues are defined by the characteristic equation
lcosd,\ sind 0 I
, 2cosl+t@' :cosd+Vslnd'
^: 2
an impossibility. Thrrs, (cosg  l)2 +sin2 e +0, and the only eigenvalrre is.l: 1, as was
discovered in Example 9.11.
Here is another example.
Example 9.12 Find the eigenvalues of the linear transformation with matrix
,tl /s B B\
A:l_6 E 0 
\ 12 r2 r0 /
Solution Eigenvalues are given by the characteristic equation
o:lAr/l:l6 3
l5r 8l 3
6 
I.
I 12 r2 10^l
If we expand along the first row,
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SECTION 9.3 tL7
o
oo
J 0\ Rr Rtl3
66 0 I Rz  2Rt I Rz
r2 t2 0/ R"  4Rr tfts
+
(i B' I' t)
Thus, t,,1
'02  t/3 : Q, or, o1 : t)2  us. Eigenvectors are
/ "t\ /t\ / t\
":l "+1)z tl**lql
\ ,,r /l:,,1\o/ \1/
In this ca^se we have a 2parameter family of eigerrvectors, a plane of eigenvectors; every
vector in the plane deterrnirre by the vectors (1, 1,0) ancl (1,0, 1) is an eigenvector. ff"
corrld again check otu calculatiorrs by showirrg that for each of these vectors, Av:2v.o
Example 9.14 Find atl eigerrpairs of the linear transforrnation with matrix
/r o
o:(AI)v:10 0 +\ /,u1\
0ll,rl.
\z o r/ \us/
The augrnerrted rnatri XIS
(; ii 9\
9l
u/
Rz +
RsRz
2Rt i Rs
Rr 4Rz
)
+ Rt
(; lf 9\
3)
Rz + Rz/5
+ (: + 0 0
s; t)
0
0
1
0 t)
Thus, : : v: rr*0.
'u1 0 arrd ?/3 Q. Eigenvectors are
(+) provided
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SECTION 9,4 119
(t
I
IO i) (iis) (,',iir)
Real symrnetric rnatrices have many special properties. Irr particular, we shall see in this
section that eigerrvalues are always real. Arr irnportarrt property of eigerrvectors requires a
prel.irninary discussiorr.
The scalar product of two vectors v : (or, u2,us) atd u: (zr, ,u,2,,u,s) irr R3 is defined
as
Becarrse we do not have the geometry of R3 irr Rn, we irrtroduce a new word to replace
perpendicularity. Two nonzero vectors u and v in R' are said to be orthogonal if
U.V:0. (e.11)
(t  i) (",,) : o =+ v"u: 0.
(This would irnply that v and u are orthogorral if we knew that v and u were real, but this
ha^snot yet been established.)
With this fact, however, suppose that (.\, v) is arr eigenpair of ,4. where both ) arrd v
are cornplex. Then takirrg complex corrjugates of /v : .\v gives
(sirrce L is real).
Tlris equatiorr irnplies that (,\,v) is also arr eigerrpair of ,4. Sirrce it follows that v
and V rmrst satisfy ^+ ^,
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SECTION 9.4 tzl
0\ RrRr /t 1 110\
(r, + 0lRz+RrIRz + f O 0 0l0l
r, o) RsRr*Rs \o o olo/
Thus, u1  az I o3 : 0, and eigenvectors a,re
u v: (+)
1,,(i)
*,, (i)] : usu2(,1+0)+o3?,3(1+0+1):0
They are orthogonal. Notice that the scalar product of the eigenvectors (1, 1, 0) and ( 1, 0, 1)
corresponding to ,\:3, is not zero; it is (1, 1,0) .(1,0, 1): 1..
EXERCISES 9.4
ln Exercises 16 find eigenpairs of the syn'rmetric matrix. Verify that eigenvectors corresponding to distinct
eigenvalues a,re orthogonal.
1 (j, i,j)
s(+j,+)
b (+ t',+)
*7. If A is a,ny matrix, show that AAT and Ar A are both symmetric.
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Arrswers to Exercises I2B
74. 2 t5.12 16. I L7. g 18. I 19. 1 20. 2 2L. 5
22. 2, 3 23. 4,96 24. 85, 22b 2b. 0, 27. (b) gs+BBr+2g+S:O
31. P(e;) : (t:  c,,)kQ(") where e(o.) I 0 81
32. (n}  6n3 + 23n,2  rgn, * 24)/24, b7
Exercises 3.2
L. (a) 2,0;1 (b) l*l < O (") +1, +b 2. (a) 2,0;1 (b) <T/2 (c) +r, +r12,+512
lz;l
3. (a) 3,1; t (b) lrl < b/2 (c) +r, +2, +.rf 2 a. @) r;0 (b) lzl < + 1c1 r,z
5. (a) 3,1; 2,0 (b) lrl<Tla (c) f1, +r12,+r/4 o. (a) 2,0; 2,0 (b)
1ti1<z (c) +1, rllb
7. (a) 0; 1(b) lul <6/5 (c) r,_rlb s. (a) 2,0; r (b) l.r[ <rDGl+t,+ifz,+t1+
e. (a) 1; 1(b) lzl <4916 (c) 11, +r12,+rlg,+116,+4316
10. (a) 0; 5,3,1 (b) Irl < 13/6 (c)
r, 2,r12, _812, _rl}, _21g, _tl6
11. (a) 5,3,1; 0 (b) lrl < z /3 (c) 1,2, rf 2, 312, r/3, 2/3, r/6
12. (a) 1; 3,1 (b) lr'l<2 (c) +1 18. (a) 2,0; t (b)
lzl <5 (c) 11, +2,+4
14. (a) 2,0; 1(b) lt:l<TlZ (c) {1, +2,+tf},+2/3,+4/3
15. (a) 1; 2,0 (b) lzl < 6 (c) tl, 15
16. (a) 2,0;2,0 (b) lzl < b12 (c) +1, +2, +r12, +3/2, +114, +Sl4
L7. (a) 0; 1(b) l"l<2 (.) t
18. (a) 0; 1 (b) lrl<bla@) r, r12,
rl4 1e. (a) 0; 1 (b) lrl < 5 (.) _1, _2, _4
20. (a) 0; 1 (b) le;l < 9 (") r, 2, 4,_8, _tl2
2L. (a) 2,0; 1 (b) lr:l <tTl2T (c) tt, +rlB, +212, +ElS, +.rlg, +21g, +blg,+10/9, +rl2T,
+2/27, +5/27, +r0127
22. (u) t; ft) l"i < 5lz (c) +r, +2, +.r12, +312, +I14, +814, +r18, +518,
I
23. 2, +,,/5i
+rlL6, +gl16
_24. t, (3/2) r G\/3/2)i 25. _4 of mulriplicity 3
26. 3, 4, +\/3 27. +2, +2i
29. r/2, r13, +3i
_ 28. _5, 3/2, (_rl2) + (r/z/z)i
30. +(L/\/3)i, +(lE/2)i sr. 24, (_r/2) + (\/r5/2)i
32. 4, 6 botlr of multiplicity 2 83. 0 of rnuttipticity 2, (_116) + (\/fi16)i
34. 516, (rl2) + (fi512)i 35. _5, +t/5, +t[st 36. 1; 2:, 3,'4, 5
37. l12 of multiplicity 2, +2i 98. 2lb of rnulriplicity 2, 2 *. r/l
39. l, 2, 4, 2+\qi 40. +3, +3i, +4i,
Exercises 4.1
l. B,E,F,G,J,K 2. E,G,K 7. H
8. B 9. Not possible
,, f 'i it'!,) ,, (
\ 11 16 B I \zt1+
,!t !lL2 ,it
2T )
*l
lza,ooo 39,ooo\
28. (a) ro. zso
 22, 750
ez5o In: o.ast
\ 37,700 /
: o2o(ililrl
l) ", (l ili:::)
c
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Answers to Exercises
t25
: I+2t,!) : ll4t, z: 33rl; .,
+ :+ :
72. r ao
o
_D
13. t: : I+2t, U :3 Bt, z : 6; 1J I ==St3 z:o
2 {,
L4. :r : 2 + 3t, A : 3 l bt, z : t:2 _:_
A+3 z4
4  bt..
355
L5. n : 2, !/ : B +t, z: S *f; u: z, lL: 2
L6.:r:1, I/:B,z:4It
17. n : l+5t, U : S l_Jt, z : _ Uj] : Zl
2t; 153_2 E
18. r: 2+u,, lJ :0, z:32u.; :r _ 2:
4, r:O
19. t: : I1t, g  4bt. z :2*3t; n
I :yj:53:
2O. n: t, ll :2t =
 5, z :30  11t; ,, : LjS  z .30 2n
21. :r : 2+t, U :3 t, z : I _ St; x 12 : Y= : 1:l
22. No l 3
Exercises 6.2
L. :r:1,lJ:3, z:2 2. n: 1,!/:0, z:2 Z. x:lg+Zz,?): _14 Ez
4. n zII0/3,y:z813 5. :r:0,y:e,2:g 6. :r:0,y:0,2:0
7. n zl2, y : $2f 2 8. z: zl7,ll: I0zlT 9. No sohrtion 10. No
solutiorr
LI. x:lll4,g:31128, z: IlI4 t2. t:IIIT,.s:24149, z:68149
L3. n:l,a :3, z: 2 74. n: _I, U :4, z:5 15, t: :2g122,'A :IIl4, :31144
z
16.x 3/8,y:4, z:9/4 LT. t::I,ll: _1, z:2,ut:_S
18.r 0, U :2, z : 3, tu : I 19. No solutiorr
2O. r : 4lull4 + 617, A : 3tull4 + IT
lT, z : Sgut/I4_t 4lT
2I. r : 29/14, y : 67 l14, z : 61128, u : b/2
22. :r : 9/ 43, A : 781 43, z : 25/86, u : 801 43
Exercises 6.3
See answers for Section 3.2.
23. Irr reduced row echelon forrn 0's are created above leading l's a^s well as below them.
24. When solving equatiorrs using the reduced row echelon forrn, back substitutions are
unnecessaxy,
25. 15 cc of.407o solution and 10 cc of I0To soiutiorr
26. (a) fsr70: h, ft:60* fz, fzt 50:"fa, h: fq,+70, f2: f+1r0,
"fe:60+/+ (b)
f s f 60, where /a rmrst be a nonnegative integer (c) fi is largest ana'ff is srnatlest
fs:
27. (a) * 100: /r + 200, h* S00: fz1200, fzl_200: /s + rO0, /s + b00:.f+ + 800
(b) /t : /4  100, fz : fq, fs: fa. + 100, where
"f+
/a ) 100 rmrst be an integer
28. (a) hl f2:500,000, fi:50,000 I fst fs, fz:50,000 f fs, fzI
f+:i00,000,
.fr:200,000 Q)ft :250,000*/+, f2:250,000 fq, fs:200,000 fa,,fr: iOO,0OO,
where03fq3200,000
29. (a) For z pills of Brand 3,8z and z3 of Brands l arrd 2 should be taken where 3 1 z 1g
rnust be an integer. (b) $8.b0, $9.30, $9.60
30. 4 glasses of rnilk, 3/8 pourrds of meat, 6 slices of bread
Exercises 6.4
I. n: : T 13, A :23/3 2. No sohrtiorr B. .r :   3U, g arbitrary
4. n:2514,y : 314 5. r: l5l7,y : t3l, z: t6l 6. Nosotltiorr
7. n: (52 + 13)13, A: Qz + 13)/3, z arbitrary 8. :r : 5, A:4f B, z: t}f 3, u : _6
9. n : I, A :3, z: 2, ut :0 10. No sohrtion
LL. r :I  I0uf7, U :3 18uf7, z : 12. t: :0, A :0, z :0, :0
z: II3wf2,A:3+2u), z: 2l2I3ut/T
1t
13. 3tu/2 14. No solution
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Arrswers to Exercises L27
1o Noinverse
" t (l: t 1i) " * (1, ): 1,)
13. No irrverse
Exercises 8.3
See Exercises 8.2 for alrswers.
Exercises 8.4
7, r : 37, y :25 2. No solution S. x: I,lJ : J, z: 2
4. :r:2 3zf 2,a  5l 5zf2, z arbitrary 5. No sohrtiorr
6. r: 3zf2,a:5212, z arbitrary 7. :t,: 419,a:t619, z: Ilg
8. z : 1, U :2/3, z : 1316 9. r : 72137,A :77137, z : t9137, ut : t\2lBT
10. z : 813 + ut 13, a : 4tl9 t Twf9, z : 2019 t ttwltS, u arbitrary
Ir. n: (5o+3b .)18,y:(rro,+5b 7c)18, z: (Ta,l_bJc)18
12. n  (32o,tl8br5c4d,)/67,y: (29aIl3bI45ctI2d)167,2: (bo,Tb+t7c+g(D16T,
: (Ilo,  2b + 2ac  7d) /67
,11
Exercises 9.1
L. (a) (25,4,20) (b) Yes (c) (T13,113,413)
2. (a) (5,1, 3) (b) No (c) (1,1,5) and (1, 2,2)
3. (a) (13,20,33) (b) Yes (.) (3  3o,,I I a,2o,) 4. Not linear b. Not lirrear
6. (a) (14,21,11) (b) (10/9,1619,Ll3) 7. Not linear 8. Not linear
Exercises 9.2
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Sohrtiorrs to Evenmrrnbered Exercises 129
r+3+ 6+ 10 +... +
k(i{_+ 1) _ k(k + r)(k +2) .
26
We rnust rrow show that
1+3+6+10+ +
gflYL (k+ 1)(kl2)(k+3)
t2 + 82  +,\"
 b2 +... (2k  r),
/ : k(2k  1)(2k + 1).
3
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Sohrtiorrs to Everrrurrnbered Exercises 181
Tlms, the formula is valid for kl 1, a,rrd by the principle of mathematical. irrduction, it is valid for
alln)1.
16. Whenn,:1, thesumtsll2;wherrn:2,thesurnisll2+U6:213;whenn:3,thesurnis
I/2 + l16 + l/12: 314. We might suspect that the formula is
111 " 1rL
1.2+ 2.3+ 3.4+ +,"(n+1): n+l
The forrmrla is certairrly valid for n:1 (and 2 and 3). Suppose that,L is sorne integer for which
the result is valid; that is, suppose that
111 1k :
r .2+ z.g {s'" I k(k + 1) k + r'
We rntrst now show that
1 1 1 1 k+l
r.2+ 2i+ 3.4+"'+ (k+lxk+2) k+2'
We begirr with the left side,
lr
I s ..._,_L 1 I  1 I r I
8.4 "
_r_ r,
It.z' 2.s' a(k I t)j (k+1Xk+2)
kr,.
: ri.+ (bY suPPosition)
+ r1l, + 4
11,
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Sohrtions to Evenrnrrnbered Exercises 133
28. Suppose that k is sorne irrteger for which the result is valid; that is, suppose that
Thus, the inequality is valid for k * l, and by the prirrciple of rnathernatical irrduction, it is valid
foraUn)S.
/ 1\
34. (a) Whenn:l,theleftsirleis (t+ i) :r,andtheforrnulaontlterightgivesl*1:2. The
formula is therefore valid for n,: l. Suppose that ft; is sorne integer for which the result is valid;
that is, suppose that
/. t\/. r\/ ,\ / 1\
('*i) ('*;J ('*;,) ('* i):n*'
We rmrst now show that
/ r\/ (t+^)
(t+i) /
1\/(1+;1\ . (1+;,1\ :(a+r)+r:k+2.
\ I/\ z/\ r/ ) /f+r/) \
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Sohrtions to Evenrnunbered Exercises 135
We begirr with the left side. Because the base of each cube increa^ses by 2, it foltows that the terrn
before (44; + 4)3 ha^s ba^se 2 less, nameiy, (4k + 2)3. The terrn before that is (4k;)3. Hence,
riil,",t:#isi#i!:!ir::J..g,l"r;*''
Thus, the forrmrla is correct for k * 1, arrd by the principle of mathernatical inductiorr, it is correct
foralln)1.
40. Wherr n: I, the surn on the ieft is 2 .2:4, a.rrd the forrntrla on the right gives (I)2' :4. The
formula is therefore valid for n,: L Suppose that k is some integer for which the forrmrla is correct:
that is, suppose that
2.2+g22 + 4.23 +5.24 +...+ (2k)22kr : (2k r)z'k.
We rmrst rrow sltow that
We begin with the left side. Sirice increasing ic by 1 results in two extra terrns on the Left, it follows
that
We begin witli the lelt sicle. Irrcrea^sing i+ by orre results itt trvo extra terrns at the encl of the
slrnrnation, but one less at the beginrring. In order to use the supposition, we therefore add and
subtract the terrn 3k at the begiruring of the left side,
Tl1rs, te forrmrla is correct for k11, arrd by the prirrciple of mathernatical indrrction, it is correct
foralln)1'
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Sohrtions to Evenntrrnbered Exercises 137
Tlns, the forrmrla is correct for ,k + 1, arrd by the prirrciple of mathernatical induction, it is correct
foraljn)1.
b2. We mrrst show that any irrteger n ) 4 cant be expressed irr the forrn n,:2p * 5q where p and q
are rronrregative integers. Certairrly n 4cattbe expressed iIr this form (choose P2 attd S:0)'
Srrppose that some irrteger k ) 4 can be expressed in the forrn k
:2p * 5q where p and q are
rronnegative integers, We rmrst now show that k f 1 can be expressed irr the sarne forrn' We begin
by using t5e slpposition to express k+ 1 in the forrn k+I: (2p+5q)* 1. Sirrce 1:3(2) 5(1),
we can write that
Thisexpressesk*lirrthecorrectformwheneverq>t'Ifg:0,tiren/cisofthefortnk:2p'
ancl k* l:2pi 1. Irr this case, we express I irr the forrn 1:5(1) 2(2), and write
tl]
,.a.i,(i.3)':
i:l
>r utu*ri n:lt!+!l
i:l i:L iI
u ["("+tXz"+ t
l*Pl
r)
+ tg1:
n'(n r r)(n2 7n + t+)
 '(n' 4':
", lr,(n + 1)  4(2n+ 1)
,0. i_(3n,2)
n=21
:'(i"i')
\n=1 n:l /
., r1ru, :'Iry'ry)+b226Gs
33 33 33 33 /33 s \ /33 8 \
Br. ,(3k + 1)'z : et +al,o * Dt: n (E k' Do'' t (p k Dn)+zs
n'2
k=9 k:9 k:9 h:9 \t:1 k=l /)*
eslga, _
2 Pl
8(e)_(12)l
_e _
6 I +oL _r2b:114100
I o
f33(Bg(67) f
2)
1 r\ /1 1\
ti)\54) '
_1\,' 11 __1\
ntl)
",) \", parentheses,
Since the second term in each set of parentheses cancels the fi.rst term in the next set of
we have
$ t 1
:, nr1 n'
 n+1
?.:1k(k+r)
36. The iclentity is false. The left side ha^s n, terrnsl the right side has n2 terrts, n of which are the
terrns on the left. For exarnple, when n:2, I tltllat;l] : /(t)s(t) + f (2)g(2), whereas
z=L
f2 I f2 I
lf ft,ll lIg(,;)l : tftrr+/(z)l[e(t) +s(2)]:/(t)g(t)+/(t)s(z)+/(z)g(t) + f(z)g(z)'
Lr:r I Ll:t I
38. The forrmrla for the absohrte vahres of the mrrnbers is clear, Il2" If we begirr with n.:0. The
difflculty is a formula that gives the numbers 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, . ' " Think about the sirre
firnctiorr. Its sigrr in qladrants one, two, three, four, arrd repeatimg is *,t,,,*,*',,""
Now notice that vahres of the sine fiurctiorr at angles rf 4,3rf 4,\ttf 4,7rf 4,9nf 4, etc. are
I I \/r, I I ,/t, U Jr, U \/t, I f J2, etc. If these are rmrltiplie d by rt,
the sequence gerrerated is
1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, ' . " Hence the sum can be expressed in the form
k*k*
[(2n
3
40. If we sllm all sets of three consecutive rnrtnbers, the surn rnust be tlrree times the surn of the
iltegers from 1 to 36, silce each of these mrrnbers will appear three times. Using forrmrla 1.17,
this mrmber is
^ Itu{tl :1ee8.
"l't r
Sirrce there are 36 sets of three consecutive mrmbers, the average surn of three consecutive rmrnber
is 1g98/36: 55.5. Since at least orre of the surns of three consecutive rurrnbers rntrst be above the
average, it foliows that at least one of the surns rnust be larger tharr 55.
42. h sigma notation, the forrmrla reads
$  n(n+3)
? t(t + lxi + 2) a(n,+ r)(n,+2)
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prohibited'
Solutions to Evenrnrmbered Exercises l4l
Chapter 2 Complex Numbers
:o'\
^.
(t+3i\ . ^ (21 9i\ 18 t6i 6+27i
r /'"\ s ): b  5
: 'joo*90
14. T +7" + (1 + i)2 : (r  t)' +T, : zt  2i : 4i
16. (1 1z a1z : (1 + 2 + i)2 : (3 + i)2 : s+et
(r+i)2(2i) 2i(2i) 2+4i5r2i 584i 58 4.
B+2i\2 5tl2i 5+r2i5r2i 169 169 169
20. (4172 : (4+ i)2 :15T€t: 15  8i
1 1 L+2i22i 6+2i 3t 1.
.1L r r  2i+l 2+2i 22i 844  1,
30. z: : l+2\/,
32. :t::
t , Jrs.
l
44 
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Sohrtions to Evenrnrmbered Exercises 743
z : l4e(6k+r)rt
/ s1t / z : 2e(sk+r)ri / 6
.
z :
 a5r/+1cos (O/2) + sin (O/2) i] r: +(0.602 + I.3Ti).
tbL/aeot'/z
The square roots of 312  t/ttllZ lead to the sohrtiorrs z = t(0.607  1.37i). Alternatively,
because this is a real polynomial equation, the remaining roots rmrst be the complex conjugates of
+(0.607 + r.37i).
28. We write 1in exponential forrn
zn : l: leoi : le2kni,
'We
where k is an irrteser. rrow take ntlt roots
,n:("oo):enoi.
For n: 3. this becornes
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Solutions to Everrmrmbered Exercises I45
Chapter 3 Polynomial Equations
3.1 Roots of Polynomial Equations
2. Accordirrg to the Rernainder Theorern, the rernairrder is the vahre of the polyrrornial at r: 1,
namely, (1)t  2(l)' +4(t) :_5: 2.
4. According to tire Rernairrder Theorern, the rernainder is the value of the polyrrornial at z  1 /2
narnely, (1/3)3 + 3(r I B)2  2(r lB) + 2 : 46 l2T,
6. A polynornial is (r  2)2(x t 3)(r  4)3.
8. A polyrrornial is (z  1)(.r + 1)("  3)(n + 2)2.
10. Since r : 2 + 3i is a zero, and the polyrrornial is reai, a secorrcl zero is the complex conjugate
23i (Theorern 35). Factors of the poyrrornial arer+23iandt:+2l 3i, a^sis (n1 2
3i)(z; + 2 + 3i) : 12 + 4r f 13. This gradratic may be factored from the polyrrornial giving
13 + 7t:2 t 25r j 39 : (t:2 I 4n t i3)(r + 3). The third zero is r :
3.
t2. A polynornial of odd degree must have an odd mrmber of zeros. If the degree of a real polynornial
is 1, it will have orre real zero. Suppose tlten that the degree is greater tharr 1. Because te
polyriornial is rea1, its complex zeros rmrst occur irr cornplex conjugate pairs (Theorem 3.5). This
irnplies that at least one of the zeros rmrst be real. This is not true for cornplex polynornials since
cornplex zeros need not occur irr complex corrjugate pairs.
L4, :r2tsafactorof thepolynornialorrly rf n:2isazero;thatis,0: (2)3+k(2)2+b(2)10 4k+8.
Thus, *;: 2.
16. z*3isafactorofthepolyrromialorrlyifz:3isazero;thatis,0:(3)a+Z(3)3+k(3)2
2i(3)  36:9k  81. Thus, k:9.
18. 2n t I is a factor of the polyrrornial only if t: ll2 is a zero; that is, 0:6(112)4 + (tl2)3 +
53(rl2)2 + keVD  I : kl2 +912. Herrce, ft : 9.
20. Wlren the polynornial is divided by n 1, the rernairrder is 5(1)5 +4(t)4 +k(1)3 +2(D2 +(1)+ 1:
i{ + 13. T}re remainder is 15 w}rerr k + 13  15 k :2.
22. Wherrthepolynornialisdividedbyz*l,therernairrderis2(1)3(1)2+(k+1)(1)+10: k+6.
The remairrder is 7';2 w6err _k _t 6 : k2 3 Q : k2 + k _ 6 : (k+ 3)(k _ 2) :_+ k : _8,2.
24. For r  2 and :r  5 to be factors of the polynomial, r: 2 and r: 5 rnust be zeros,
o,t:3 +bt:2 rcrrd: o,[.r:3  (.. + o,2+ o,l)ftz I (a1a2r a2a3*o1o3)u a1a2as].
When we equate coeficients of ;t2 attd r, and the constant coefficients, we obtain
b  o,(ctl a2 I as), c: o,(ataz f a2as * o1o3), d,: o,(6t6zas).
These give the regrired results.
28. If ctrt(t2t...on are the zeros of the polynorialo,rt:n +..'+o,rjr+a0, then
an:L^ + o,n1,Lnt "'I oa:t: * o,o: o,n(L  o1)(:l  tr) "'(:r  an)'
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Solutiorrs to Evenmrrnbered Exercises r47
(c) Sirrce divisors of 4 are +I, +2, i4, and those of 1 are 11, possible rational zeros are tl,
+r/2, +r/4.
10. (a) Since coefficients of P(r) : 615 * 2na +7t:3 +2x2 I t:I6 have no sign changes, the polynomial
lra^s rro positive zeros. Becarrse P(r) :
6t:5 ! 2#  7n3 + 2r2  r * 6 has five sign changes, the
polyrrornial has either 5, 3, or 1 negative zero.
(b) Since rnax{2, 7,2,1,6) : 7, aII zeros satisfy lrl < (7 l6) + I : 1316.
(c) Since divisors of 6 are +1, +2, +3, +6, possible rational zeros are +\, +2, +3, +6, +112, +912,
+I13, +213, {1/6. We carr elirninate all positive r,ahres orr t}re basis of (a) and 3 arrd 6 on the
ba^sis of (b).
t2. (a) Since coefficients of P(r) : :I:4  n3  t:2  :t:,  I have orre sign cltange, the polyrrornial ha^s
exactly orre positive zero. Becalrse P(r) : xa lt:3 12 lnL ha^s three sign charrges, the
polyrrornial has eitlier 3 or 1 negative zeros.
(b) Since rnax{l,1,1,1}: 1, all zeros satisfy lrl < (t/t) ll:2.
(c) Since divisors of 1 are t1, possible rational zeros are tl.
r4. (a) Since coefficients of P(z) : 3n3 +3r2 2n14 have two sign changes, the polynornial ha^s either
two positive zeros or rro positive zeros. Becatrse P(r) : 3r3 +3n2 +2t:+4 has orre sign charrge,
the polynomial has exactly 1 negative zero.
(b) Since max{3, 2,4} : 4, al). zeros satisfy lnl < @13) + I : 713.
(c) Sirrcedivisorsof 3are+1,+S,arrdthose of 4are+.I,+2, t4,possiblerationalzerosare*1,
t2, +4, +113, +213, +4/3. We carr elirninate *4 on the basis of (b).
16. (a) Since coefficients of P(r) : 4ra + 3r3  2tt:2 l :r: l 6 have two sign changes, the polynornial has
eitlrer two positive zeros or rro positive zeros. Because P(r) : 4na  3x3  2t:2  x * 6 has two
sign charrges, the polyrromial has either two rregative zeros or rro rregative zeros.
(b) Sirrce max{3,2,L,6}: 6, all zeros satisfy lr'l < (614) * l:512.
(c) Since divisors of 4 are +I, X2, i4, and those of 6 are *1, 12, +3, i6, possible rational zeros
are +1, +2, +3, +6, +If 2, +312, +114, +3/4. We can elimirrate *3 arrd t6 orr the ba^sis of (b).
18. (a) Since coefficients of P(r) : 4:t:3 + 1 have rro sign changes, the polynornial has no positive zeros.
Becarrse P(") : 4r3 * t has one sigrr charrge, the polynomial has exactly 1 negative zero.
(b) Since max{l} : 1, all zeros satisfy lt:l < $l\ + I:514.
(c) Since divisors of 4 are +I, +2, t4, and those of 1 are t1, possible rational zeros are +I, +lf 2,
IIl4. We can eliminate the positive values orr the ba^sis of (a).
20. (a) Since coefficients of P(n) : 2r5 * 3r * 16 have no sign changes, the polynornial has no positive
zeros. Because P(e;) : 2n5  3a * 16 has one sign chalge, the polynornial has exactly 1 negative
zeto.
(b) Since rnax{3,16}: 16, all zeros satisfy lnl < (1612) * 1: 9.
(c) Sirrce divisors of 2 are +t, +2, and those of 16 are +I, +2, +4, +8, t16, possible ratiorral zeros
are +1, +2, +4, +8, +16, II12. We can eliminate positive vaLues on the ba^sis of (a), and 16 on
the ba^sis of (b).
22. (a) Since coefficients of P(r): I6na l5n3 24have one sign change, the polynornial ira^s exactly
one positive zero. Becarrse P(e;) : l6ra  5n3  24 has orre sign change, the polynornial }ia^s
exactly one negative zero.
(b) Sirrce rnax{5, 24} : 24, aII zeros satisfy lrl < Qalrc) +  : 512.
(c) Since divisors of 16 are +1, +2, +4, +8, f 16, and those of 24 are +I, +2, +3, +4, +6, +8,
+t2, +24, possible rational zeros are +1, +2, +3, +4, +6, +8, +12, +24, +112, +312, +I14,
+314, +118, +3/8, +ll16, +3116. We carr eliminate +3, +4, +6, +8, t12, arrd L24 on the ba^sis
of (b).
24. Descartes' rule indicates rro positive zeros, and with P(e;) : :r3 I 4t2  I2n f 9, there are
three rregative zeros or one rregative zero. Possible rational zeros are 1, 3,9 (and Theorem 3.9
eliminates rrorre of them). Since r:
1 is azeroln3 +4n2 Il2n: g: (r* 1)(r2 l3t:i_9). The
relnalnlng zeros are3+/9=6
2
: r.3 ' 3/3 ,.
2
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Sohrtiorrs to Evenrnrrnbered Exercises t49
that divide evenly into n61; that is, absohrte values of zeros a^s preclicted by the Ratiorral Root
Tlreorern are all less or equal to lo,sl. Since A,I +l > lr.rol, Theorern 3,9 elirninates none of these.
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Sohrtiorrs to Evennurnbered Exercises 151
fillii)
(c) Wherr we add the rnatrices irr parts (a) and (b), the result is Row 2 ha^s
the lareest sum so that office two has the most influence.
6.
"':(i zil (i;l) :(s
i s)
Sirrce B is an identity rnatrix 2KB:r": ('^ S)
":(+ i l) (s ; s) (+
22. The rrurnber assigrtrnent to the characters in the message is
i)
A t t ac k a t s i x a rn
r 20 20 1 3 11 27  20 27 19 I 24 27 1 28 13 28
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Solutions to Even_mrmbered
Exercises
L53
28. force evahtating matrices on borh
.Tiltl'i:.i: ffi}.Hi: sides of the eq'arion. However, the
ij kl (r6,2,3)
(I,2,4) x (1, 1, 6) : I2 : ttu 2' 3)
1 1 t 
si'ce 0,5) is a vector alo'g the seconcl li'e, the given lirres
(3'
are parallel To ens're that
:L:j'ffiTl:f:"i 2+3t,,?t_: a, a,,d
"::
f,',"0*,jli:":2r =+rf :1. Thisgivest'e poi't
giving (2+3t)+s+4(3+br)
_3*brr z:
'ot irrto :t:_2yr4z:2r
: (b",4;;;;;rff,;;;r::
* 6z 13' The lines there bre intersect at this point. A u".to, norrnal
i" ' to the required plane
a
I j kl
(16,2, 3) x (3,0,b) : 16
3
3 ;l : (10' 8e' 6)
Tlreequationof theplarreistherefore6:(10,gg,_6).(n_2,y_4,2*B)):102*g9g_
6z_Jg4.
10. (a) Sirrce the vectors (L,I,
4)
10, respectively, a vector along
and (2, S, b)
_ure
norrnal to the planes rlA_42: 6 and 2n1_3g+bz :
their lirre of intersectiorr is
ij kl
(r7,r3,1)xk: L7 13
00 ,tl:,tt,17,0).
sinceapointontheplaneis(g,2,0),theequatio'ofthepraneisg:(13,
13:r*l7ll  70. sirnilar derivations give the other two eqratiorrs.
rT,0).(:rg,y12,z):
12. Para"rnetric equations of the line are
)
We now convert this augrnerrted matrix to an equivalent system of eqlations,
:r  y l 4z:7,
ttt2z:4.
z:2.
When we s'bstitute z:2 into the second eq'ation, we obtain
Y+2(2):a + a:0.
When we strbstitute U : 0 arrd z : 2 into the first equation, we get
n0r4(2):7 =+ r:r.
4' We present a sequence of elernerftary row operations that leacl to a row echelon forrn
fbr the
augmented matrix of the given system. You may, however, use a different sequence
of operations,
resulting in a different row echelon form. The solution of the system, however, must
be the same.
lz 1 3o_l.u.
1+\R,n, # /t _t
I
ol6\
t1 .t 6114/
\5 L lRr_.R, lz 1 _6lu)
_3 lnlnr_2Rrttz
\s n"__rn,+ns
(r 1 0 6\ /t 1 o
€ l0 3 _3
a  + lo 3 _3 Rz/3
\0 6 6 r6f fuu 2Rz*Rs \o 0 0 *) "' 
t:U:6,^
d
a_z:_3.
When we solve the second of these for y irr terrns of z, we obtain
!! : z  B/8. We now substitute
this into the first equatiorr,
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Solutions to Evenrnrrnberecl Exercises
159
2\
+ (t l'il 7 1
(: ild
.l\
"l
5/ RstRz*Rs  ;')
When we corrvert the last row to an equation, we get 0 :
2, an irnpossibility . The systern has no
solutions; it is inconsisterrr.
12' We present a seqlrence of elernentary row operations that leacl to a row eclelon
forrn for the
augmented matrix of the given system. You may, however, use
a different sequence of operations,
resulting in a different row echelon form. The solution of ihe system,
however, must be the same.
ki, i ;)
"..+
Es * Rr
) (i ':' a\
u o,  2Rr* Rz
': 7 /I Rs3fir*fis
4
(; j,
I Rz + Rz
3\
t4
+
r r2 
16/ RsTRzlRs
2 4 24
1
9 19
0 49 *) r,  Rz/4e + (: 0l
'We
rrow convert this augrnerrted rnatrix to an equivalerrt systern of equations,
t1 21t42:3,
ASz12,
68
": N'
wlren we s'bstitute z:68/4g i'to the secorrd eq'ation, we obtairr
,ef9):n
\4e /  u:r2*W:21
49 49'
Wlren we substit'te y :2ala9 and z : 6814g into the first equation, we get
,*t(y\_r/68\__" 48.272
r:3*+ 11
'\n)4(4eJ:3 *:,
14. We present a seqlrence of elernentary row operatiorrs that lead to a row echelon form fbr
the
augmented matrix of the given system. You may, however, use a different sequence of operations,
resulting in a different row echelon form. The solution of the system, howevei, must be
the same.
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Sohrtions to Evenmrrnbered Exercises 161
/r 3 I 0 0
Io 41 o
+
fii+
2 2
lo g 3 Rs + I Rs
4Rz o Rz + 2Rt+ R'J
\o 4 z l Ra  4Rzl Ra 9
/L 3 r 0 0
f0 1 0 2 2
0 1
fi i'i

 [0
\0 0 2 23 23
9 DT Rq  R+/37
_o\
;'l
26 
I/
We now corrvert this arrgrnented matrix to an equivalent systern of eqrrations,
t:39lz:9,
g l2u:4,
z23u:26
w:L
Wren we substitute ur : 1 into the third eqrratiorr, we get
z  23(L): 26 + z: 3.
When we substitute rl : 1 into the second equation, we find
v+2$):a + v:2'
Finally, substitutirrg A :2, and z : 3 into the first equation gives
t:3(2)3:g + :r:0.
We preserrt a sequence of elernerrtary row operations that lead to a row echelon forrn for the
augmented matrix of the given system. You may, however, use a different sequence of operations,
resulting in a different row echelon form. The solution of the system, however, must be the same.
4\ /1 2 3 1
G i !tt 5 lRz2Rt+Rz
t I Reftr*Re
l0
Io
7
1
7 4
l b
0 / R44RrlRq \0 8 6 1
/I 2 3 1
5 lo l 1 b
4 Rt + 7Rz f Rs
 [o o 14 39
1 Rs + 8Rz l R+ \0 0 14 39 i) Rs t Rs I R+
23 1 1
I r o
0 14 39
000
We now convert this augrnented rnatrix to an equivalent systern of equations,
ftiT 3elL4
0
rI2y3zIw:4,
A+zbto:3,
394
147
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Sohrtions to Evenmrrnbered Exercises 168
(3'1  *: u
ur s"\86/+3u + u:b+ loo  80:
n'+g 784J'
a: 78143, z: 25186, and rr.r:80/43 into the first equation gives
Firrally, substituting
/r 1 4 7\ /t r 4 I\
+
Uit 13lRzRr;'Rz
10/ fu.2Rt1 Rs lO 4
\O 3
10 20 
_r2 24 /
Rz Rz1r Rz
Rs + Rsl3
+ (: l' 1^
;l
o/
Rt  Rzl Rt
+
(::j, :l')
Rs  Rz] Rs
Rst6
^,...+
06
I2
01 T)
Rr6Ra*Rr
Rz + 2Rt I Rz .+(iri r)
The solutiorr of the systern is r : 1, !/ 
0, z :2.
4. We present a sequence of elemerrtary row operations that lead to the reduced row echelon forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
since the redtrced row echelon forrn is unique, you must arrive at the same augrnerrtecl rnatrix.
Ir 1 o
# l0 3 3
\o 6 6 Rs2Rz*Rs
+
(; B'+ Rz + Rz/3
1 0 6 \ Rl +RztRt
1 1 8l3 + (ii,1
00 o/ I
Ar:i.
When we solve tltese for :r: and g irr terms of z, we obtain the infinity of solutions
:tzI 10 A:z 8 ,.
zarbifiary.
,, 3,
6. We present a sequence of elernentary row operations that lead to the reduced row echelorr forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
since the reduced row echelon forrn is unique, you rmrst arrive at the same augmerrted rnatrix.
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Further reproduction, in part or in full, is shictly prohibited,
Sohrtions to Evenmrrnbered Exercises 16b
12. We present a sequence of elernentary row operatiorrs that lead to the reduced row echelon forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
sirrce the reduced row echelorr forrn is unique, you rmrst arrive at the same augmerrted rnatrix.
4 Rr +
2Rz I Rt
a
1A
Rz +
Rz +
(: l, r
Rs + 7Rz * Rs
I4 Rr +
14Ra f Rr
9
49 Rs  Rtl49
(: rT Rz + 9RB, f Rz
lr 0 0 rrlz \
+ z+i+s
l: ;? 6814s /
I
4 15\t_ Rr 
_Rz 1 Rt 15 tc \
1
al rl (, 11 7  Rz  2Rrl Rz
t
2 2 / R" Rsl2 1 1 I / R"  2p,rl Rs
1 1
o 22 \ Rt +
Rz I Rr
I 5r I
1
,f
11
11
(r J
11
11 43/ Rs + 3Rz * Rs
o 6 29\ Rr*6Rs*Rr
11 11 g' I
R2 + llRs I R2
22 R3+ R3122 I o/
(ir? t)
The solutiorr of the system is r : 1, U : 4, z : 5.
16. We preserrt a seqlrence of elernerrtary row operations that lead to the reduced row echelon forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
since the reduced row echelon forrn is uni<lre. vou rmrst arrive at the same augmented rnatrix.
(z t\ t nr RztRr
1
4l\
1
l4 3 2 6 lnr+2R1 Rz €
\o 1 1 a/ Rt  3Rr Rs 7/ Rt4RzfRs
+ Ra * Rr
(: :il Rs "+ R3f 4
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Sohrtions to Evenrnrrnbered Exercises 167
/ro 0I 0o 4rlr4
f
' l0 Jrlrl
0 1 3elr4
\0 0 0 0
We now convert this augmented rnatrix to an equivalerrt systern of equatiorrs,
1)
4lw 6
t4 7',
JL'U I I
a t+ 7'
 39tu
147'
4
22. We present a sequence of elernentary row operations that lead to the reduced row eclielon forrn
for the augmented matrix of the given system. You may, however, use a different sequence of
operations, resulting in a different row echelon form. The solution of the system, however, must
be the sarne.
/3 r 2 1 RrRzlRr /r 4 6 2
lz 3 4 r l2 3 4 r Rz +
2Rr + Rz
[3 1 0 4 [3 1 0 4 Rs*3Rr*fts
\0 3 2 1 \0 3 2 I
4O , 62 Rr +
4Rz + Rr
11 16 6 r
11 18 o 18 2 l1Rz  Rs
fi 32 'I
2 1 ,i) Rs
Rs
+
 3Rzt Rq
0 38 o 0 o
1B 1 J
r838 1
0 106 13 Rs + 4RtI Rs 02 J
fi 0 26 4 fi 0 26 4 ,{) R+ + l3Rt f Rq
o 0 38 6 Rr + 38Re * Rr
6 Rz  8Re]_ Rz
Rs' Rsl2 #
1 1
t
J 0 r 312
+J ft 0 043
0 063 ftr63r?tlR1
I 0 13 Rz > ISRt l Rz
0 t 312 Rs + 3Raf 2 l Rs
Rt  Rtl43 0 01
+
Tlte sohrtion of tlte systern is
fii:r
r: gl43,A: z:
78143, 25186,u:80143.
24. No back substitutions are necessary when the augmented rnatrix is in reduced row ecltelon form.
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Sohrtions to Evennurnbered Exercises 169
ft I f2:500,000,
fr  fq,: 250,000,
fz  fs: 50,000,
fs * fa: 200,000.
/I 0 0 250,000\ 00 1
lo I o 11
250,000
r  25o.ooo I 101 250,000
\
o
lo\o o 1 rlzoo,ooof RsRr 011 200, 000

l r 2oo,ooo / Ra,RsrRq
 00 0 /
Wrerr we corrvert back to equations, we obtain
'n::iSilii:::i:,;
The augrnented rnatrix associated with these equations is
/ o.t J.4 2.2 rz.r\ Rr fts € / t 20 12 70\
97 f Rrt0^R1 lt J4 22 12llt RzRrtRz
f'l iz ii 70 / Rs+ 2R2 \ rz 44 20 194/ h + 17Rr * Rs
+ /t 20 12 70 \ /r 20 12 70\
lo 14 10 51 I lo 14 10 51
996/ RtRsl4 
I
\0 2e6 r84 \0 74 46 249/ P' .5ft2*Ra
/t 20 12 70\ /r 20 12 70
# lo M 10 srf nrRs/2 2 2
{o 14 _J
\o 4 4 6/ RtRz  \0 10 51 )
+ /t o 82 + (g 100
lo 2 2 ;#) Rst24
!3 J
\0024 + Z J )
",
+ (i 3? i) ",Rzt2 + (: ll ,1,)
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Solrrtions to Evenmrrnbered Exercises t77
/r 0 6 2
+ l0
[0
\0
r 2
0 3 2
0 21 9
/r 0 0
1
Rr 2R+t Rr
fiiii R+'+ Raf 5
2 +
+ ll s;+
Rz
Rs+
+ Rs
2R+l Rs
€I Rz
fi''i q) Rs + Rs/3
/I 0 0 0
+ I € for oo
ft;;i
Rz +
2Rs Rz
\3 3r?
Tlre sohrtion of the system is :l: 3, A:4/3, z:1313, a1{ ur : 6. The rnrnber of variables is
n : 4 and the rank of the augrnented rnatrix is r : 4, arrd therefor e n  r: 0. This is the mrrnber
of parameters irr the solution.
L0. We present a sequence of elernentary row operatiorrs that lead to the redrrced row echelon form for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
sirrce the reduced row echelon form is rrnique, yorr rmrst arrive at the same augrnented rnatrix.
4L 7\ /r 1 4l
(il' 6 2 tSlRzRttRz
40 10 , R3 + 2art Rs
6 1 0 / R4+4RrlR+
lO
Io
\0
4
B
7
10 3 zofnrRstRz
t2 2 24 
22 5 28 /
1 Rt + Rz I Rr /I 0 6 0
j,, lo  2
+
fit 1
2 Rs
R+
+
3Rz
 TRzI R+
* Rs I0 0
l" lR I
\0 0 36 2
1
60
2 1
_18 I
0 0 +)
The systern is consistent; there is rro solution.
12. We preserrt a sequence of elementary row operatiorrs that lead to the reduced row ecelorr forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
since the redrrced row ecltelorr forrn is urrique, yorr rmrst arrive at the sarne augrnerrted rnatrix.
4I

1
1
J
0 :) *t ,:rl;: fi
A
J
10 4
r2 2
Rz
 Rs* Rz
4I Rr :Rz*Rt 06 1
22 Io t2 2
12 2 Rs'+ * Rs t0 0 18 4 Re  Rsl2
7 2 i) Rn 3Rz
2Rz t R+ \0 0 11 2 t)
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Sohrtions to Evennurnbered Exercises 773
/r 1 4
RzRtIRz la
t;
n
GT 2 i) Rq +
4Rt t Rt \0 7 t2
22 il Rs  RslS
+fti'1 t) Rr
Rs
+
+
Rz
Rz I Rs
I Rr
+
ft; _i
0\
s) Rs  Rs/6
R+
 7Rz l Rs 0/ R+
 R+/36
/l 0 6 Rr6Ra*Rr /l 0 0
# [o  2 Rz2RzlRz + lo 1 o
20. We present a sequence of elementary row operations that lead to the reduced row echelon forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
sirrce the reduced row echelon forrn is unique, you rnust arrive at the sarne augmerrtecl rnatrix.
0\ R1+ ft2
(;ir, 3)
o''
^'
......+
(iir t)
Rz
Ea
+
+
2Rr I
5Rr *
Rz
Bs
1 Rt + I Rr
_J
6 t) Rs
Rz
+
 Rz
2Rz* Rz
+
(iis t)
2Rz
uo
IO
00 t)
Wherr we convert back to eouations. we obtairr
t:5z:0, ylJz:0,
from which n:52, lJ: 32, where z is arbitrary. We write the sohrtions in the form
22. We present a seqlrence of elernentary row operations that lead to the reduced row echelon forrn for
the augmented matrix of the given system. You might use a different sequence of operations, but
since the reduced row echelon form js unique, you must arrive at the same augrnented rnatrix.
R1 + Rs
Rz + SRt I Rz
fi r !::,
+
t)
Rs + Rr
fi :,'i+, t) Re + 2Rt
R+  Rtl
I Rs
R+
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Sohrtions to Evennumbered Exercises L75
n 26. Tbue
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Solutions to Evenmrrnbered Exercises t77
we factor 1 frorn each row, and then expand alorrg the bottorn row,
lr 5 ro rl
D :al5 2 l:412(20_5)_1(14_5)_5(35_50)l:3s4.
12 1 _51
n 11 1
0: 111  r(r  3)  y(t + 2) + 1(3 + 2) : 2r  3y r b,
2 31
or,2nl3A:5.
18. A determinant defining the equation of the parabola is
0:
20. If we add negative 1 tirnes col runrr 1 to every other colurnrr, we obtain
a,l b b b A
b0 0
0 0b
I
a 00 h
nxn
We now add every row to row one,
nxn
Sirrce the rnatrix is now lower triangular, its determinant is the product of its diagonal entries
(na * b)bT.
7.2 Cramer's Rule
Ir cl
Z. Since
lj _;l: 3+4:1, we rnayuse Cramer'snrle to calculate
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Sohrtions to Evennurnbered Exercises
179
2 lr 6 31
l1
46 t, 10
lr 2 21
l1 2 4 rl
t1
l 0 6 31
t?
4 4 0l o
4 rl
'n: t,t 0 r ,I 0 6 31
0 4 2l
0 _, _91
Ir
., lr
ti
r2g
46 1: 23[1(8
+ +) + 6(8  6)  3(8 _ r2)]: _+,
lr
l1
l1 3
123
13 1
l1 1
rl1 3 2 1l
0 31
naln I 0 2l
13 1 0 21
1D ol
gro
ol
2^l:  2)  3(_8 _ 6) _ 3(4 _ 3)l :
1
40o1
OI _9 1
;le2
a 
35
231
'l
r1 1 4 21
tr
I
3 6 0l
t,
I
4l 4
le
e
4 l1 1
3 _6 0l
_21
1
2 0l 111
*ln rr 4 ol
lB 2 o
2lr 3 _61:
I
: *II
'13 Ir 1l
,
ritt e24)_B(_8 _12)_6(4_3)t :
2ll 'u #
t2. (a) Sirrce the direction of current h
 iz tlrrough R2 is determirrecl by the sigl of EtRs
the vahre of R2 does not affect the direction.  EzRt,
(b) The sign of EtRs E2R1 deterrnines the direction of c'rrent through
82.
L4. (a) Equations determirring the loop currents are
lE' E, Rzr
R2
, _  E2

Rsl @, + ns)(El 
,t:f, _ Ez) + EzRz
&(Rz*RiEzRs
RtRz l RzRs t RsRt'
12. Since lz r rl
,1 t^ .:l:2(50  14)  3(10 + 28)+ I(2 _20):
. l4 _2 10
 0, rhe vecrors are linearty ctepen_
I
dent. Consider solvirig the equatiorr
(3,5, 8) : Cr(2, I,4) + C2(3,b, 2) + Cs(t, _7,I0),
for c1, c2, arrd Cs. wiren we equate cornponents, we
obtain the scalar eq'ations
2Ct*3Cz*Cs:8,
Cr I 5C2  lQ3: g,
4Ct2Cz+10C3:8.
The augrnented matrix is
3\ nt  Rz tr
7
(,^, ':, ; 5 Rz Rt
8/ RtRs/2
+ + .l 1 Rz +
2Rr I Rz
G _l
Rs +
2Rt * Rs
0 0
This shows that the systern ha^s no solutions.
14. Not necessarily. For example, the vectors i, j, and i +j u1. lilearly dependent, and the first of
lh:tt.Tt^P"
expressed in terms of the other two, i: ti+ jl  j. On tn" otfier !ouu,
harrd, the
llrE vectors
VEUUUI!
i, j, and 2j are Iinearlydependent, but i cannot be expressed in terrns of j arrd zj wt
a set of
vectors is linearly deperrdent, at least one of the vectors is expressible "r,
in terrns of the otlers, but
every vector rreed not be expressible irr terrns of the others.
16. Since
lr 2r3tP *rl
W(r,2t:J*',:r21 :lI 26r. Z,t:l
:
lo _ 6 2l
n[2(2 6r) + r2:l _ r[2(2t: _ grr) * 622] : g,
0 0 1\
(t;? s ; l) ", ::", (':,i 0 1 OfRz4RrtRz
i 1 0 0/ Rs+2R11Rs
0 0 1\
(i i + I: +)^'.+Rzt"'(i +; r 1 2lnrRz 10 2/
0 0 t\
2 2 3\
 2RzIRt  /t 0
R,
(i ;+ r 1 zl lo 1 11 2l
1 0 2/ Rr, 6&zt Rs \O 0
7 6 r0/
T
_3
2g P'aRsl23
2 2 3 \ ft, , TRs*Rr
_:
T/23 6l2s ro/23 )
00 3/23 4l2s rTzs \
10 2123 5/23 16/23 I
01 /23 6123 10123 /
7
712
1
/.) 2 _3/2
L _rl2 _rl2
13150 rl5 e150
Rz
R1 +
Re
+

4TRa/2I Rr
I7Rql2 + R2
TRtl2t Rs
/I J 2 0 10 0 0\
Rz + 2Rr l _ lo T b
i;*i)
Rz
+ Rs f Rz
ft
1
, 1
Rz
t0 2 
Rt '+
3Rt I R+ \0860
1 00
30 :il
lL 3 2 0 Rr + I Rt lL 0 1 _3
2 3 0 3\
1
i;;i)
SRz
____ l0 1 1
__ l0 1 1 1 I o 1 
2 
[0 1 Rs +
2Rz f Rs 0
1
\0860 R+8Rzi_Rq [0
\0 0 1
2
_1
8
: : :,)
ReRa
c
2 3 0 ,, Rr * Er
1 "
(i; I'
+ Ra o
(i;:
0
1 110 \ 0 1
221 1
1
bUU ;l RzRs, Rz 1
a
2 2
8
T +/ Rq 2Rs t Ra o A
2 0 1 1 1\ Rt I r/3
(i;:
+ 2Rq Rr 0 0 r/3
0 1 r 1 I
1 2 2 1 _2 I  Rs  R+l Rs
0
1
0
0
1
Lu6 413
1
I rl6 2/s r/J r1z/ 0 1 1/6 2/3
rlre rnatrix'.
inverse
; (lt
i $ i)
18. Tlre coded message was 88, g1,2I,4,Ig,20,T1,31, 66,6, 10g,26, _82,I32, _I,4b,g0, 21. We triple
the nurnbers in cohrrrur vectors:
2 z\
/_s _5
M:l4 _6 I
\r 16 _rc)
Next, the matrix of cofactors is
": ( ,; _i
{,)
Firrally,
n^I
fr,c': * (t ,: i,)
14. If we derrote the matrix by ,4, then
tAt:
t__l
ls
:(1)13 6
2 sl
1 l:5(_12+1)+6(_18_3)_e(_3_6):_100.
l3 1 61
The rnatrix therefore ha^s an inverse. First we forrn the matrix of mirrors. We shall not show the
calculatiorrs of the 25 3 x 3 deterrninantsl they are
/ rI 2r 9 26 \
no_l20 20 20 20 I
"':r, 3 r3 18J'
\ 12 32 28 8 /
Next, the rnatrix of cofactors is
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Solutions to Evennurnbered Exercises
189
si'ce the inverse rnatrix does not exist, we consider the a'grnented rnatrix.
7\ /t
trf R2Rr+R2*10 1
4
4 ro :lz) R2t2
4/ n"*RrFRa \O 2 E "..+
(i z' i 7\ I
r0 
10/ fu z' +
RztRs (i
Rz  Rzl2
7\ /r o
 (i i' :{'
;)
o' Rzt o'
 [3 t
s/2
tJ'
We now convert this arrgrnerttecl rnatrix to an equivalent systern of equatiorrs,
,r,
,tz
L
2 ,
,T:r'
The system therefore has an infinity of solutions,
r:znt
^Jz5z U:T5, arbitr v.
6. :(i
Consider finding the inverse of the coefficient matrix ,,A
?' i)
/tt l 4lr oo\ /r
f s olo t olRzRr+.R2f o
\r 1 110 0 r/ Rs*Rr*Ra \o
4
2
10
4
jr :?) Rz
 2RsI Rz
o
Since the inverse rnatrix does not exist, we corrsider the augrnented matrix.
o\ lr 1 4
olRzEr+Rz10 4 t0
0/ R"RrfRs 2 \O b
06
L2
4
2
0 18 11
2
1
1
1 t'
o
ft 0 36 22 11 t
3J
i) Rt  2Rsl Rq
lL 1 4 2
.7
42
3
l1  6 1 o Rz + Rt I Rz
10 3
12 4 Rs + 2Rr + R, * Rz
 Rs]_ Rz
\4 3 6
1
0
1
11 Rs  4Rr t Ra
r2 5
22 8
/L 1 4 2 Rt  Rz* Rr 06
_., lo r
4o
2 2 t2
3
[0 r2 o Rs 3Rzl Re 0 18 11
\0 7 22 8 R+ 7Rzl R+ 0 36 22 R+ + 2Rsl Rq
/1
(t ;i' 2
11
0
rLl18
0
Rz + 2Rs I Rz
0 rl3
0 7/e
1 11118
00
When we corrvert this augmented matrix to an equivalent systern of equations, we obtain
u) 8
.) ^l
J
7u 4I
v g g'
?__
llut 20
I6 9'
The system has an infinitv of solutions
": 3*i,,:T*t,,:t#*T,,u,arbitrary
/2 1 3 1\
fi 3, i
12. Consider finding the inverse of the coefficient matrix .4 :
!^)
 :3ut  2uz,
l: u?, 2 :2t\ l u2  us.
There are two sorutions to these equations t : (1, 1, b) and v : (1,
2, 2).
4. The trarrsformation is rrot linear. We carr prove this as follows. Let v be the vector (1, 2, 4) . T1e',
T(2v):T(2,4,8) : (2 ]_u1,4lu,2,gl u.s).
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Solutions to Evenrnunbered Exercises 195
^1r"(",:, o).
T(i) DD
By a sirnilar calculation, ' : (?,!,0).
'o o
: "(j)
Since , the rnatrix of the trarrsforrnation is
"(ft)
iti :; (i
^: (ti r) t l)
14. Flom the figure, we can say that
: i+ 2PQ, where Q is the
"(i) at which a perpedicular
poirrt
frorn P to the plarre irits the plarre
A vector irr direction PQ is (1, 1, 1),
so that q, unit vector in this direction is
PQ: *(t, 1,1). Parametric
v,t
equations for the line throrrgh P and Q a.re
x :   t, ?J : t, z  t Wlnen we substitute
t:   f  f frorn which rl : I/3.
these into the equation of the plane, we obtairr Herrce, the coor
dirratesofQarc(2l3,l3,1/3)'T}reIengthofPQis:
1/f. Hence,
: i+ zrq: i+ 3tr. 'i'/ :
J ^t1.1)
l.?.'z=1.
,3' 3'3
"(i)
Sirnilar calculatiorrs give
,1r
^ (;,;,;), ^ ,r1
76) 7(k)  (;,;,;).
The rnatrix a"ssociated with the trarrsforrnation is therefore
^:i(+ i )
9.3 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
2. Eigenvahres are giverr by the characteristic eqrratiorr
5l 2 2
0:lA^11: 3 6) 3
6 6 9.\
 6(6  ))l
I f^;ili!l,Jill*'jr,it1'3r,i',lil+2118
Eigervalues are ): 3 and .\: 14. Eigerrvectors corresporrdirrg to .\: 3 satisfy
0(A31)v: (iii)(ti)
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Sohrtions to Evenmrmbered Exercises L97
('rr") :rr, (
 *t).r, (lt)
Tlrrrs, r.,1 D2tr3. Eigerrvecrorsare
": ur
\ / \0,, \r/
Eigerlectors corresponding to .\ : 2 satisfy
lzr I 1lo\R,a,
1 lol RzRr € 2 1
I 2  _210/
11
r2 t)
R2 + 2Rt f Rz
\1 Rs t rBr * Rs
[r 2 1 1 Rt + 2RzI Rr
+ l0 3 3 Rz
+ RsfS
Rz/S _I 1
\0 3 3 t) Rs 1 t) Bsft2*fts
#ft\o 0
1
0
1
1
0 t)
/rr\
Tltus, u1 : ?a and u2:'u1. Eigenvectors .." .t, :  ,s I
:(i)
\'rs ,/
6. Eigerrvahres are given by the characteristic equatiorr
4 7 16
0: 1,4  III : 5^ 82
2
2 5^
: (7 ))[(5  ])(5 )) + 161 _ 412(_5_ )) + 161 _ 16[4 _ 2(5 _ ))]
: )3 +z^2  lbl+9: (,\ 3)r(^  1).
Eigenvalues are ): 3 and ,\ : 1. Eigenvectors corresporrding to ,\ : 3 satisfy
+ +
0:(.431)v:12 2 16\ /or\
B ll*1.
\z 2 8/\,,/
The arrgrnented matri xis
+ (t; ,'I
\oo ol
Thrrs, u1 : uzl4o3. Eigenvectors are (';
":
\ r.ts
Eigerrvectors corresponding to I: 1 satisfy
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ful1, is strictly prohibited.
Solutions to Everrmrrnbered Exercises 199
/^\
t)
Tlttrs, rr1 : 0 ancl uq:o.Eigerrvectors u""
"
:
(r]
:,,(i)..(:)
)
Eigenvectors correspondirrg to ,\:2 satisfy
o: (,4 2r)v:
fr;'
j,ilfi;)
The augmented rnatr ix is
;\ /r 0 0 0
\0 0 0 0
,? + jJfii)
o:(,431)v:
ft?+i t) Rs'R+
R'+
 Rr
l3
\o t)
1 /r. 00
0 10
0 01
0 00
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Sohrtions to Evennurnbered Exercises ZOI
Tlrrrs, o1 : u3 arrd ?,2 u3. Eigerrvectors are : (i:) : ,, r l) tt we take the scalar prod'cr
"
of any eigenvector u u,2(lj 1,0) + rs(1,0, 1) correspondirrg to
\,'/ \t/
): 0, ancl arry eigerrvector
v 'u3(1,1, 1), corrsporrdirrg to l:3, we obtairr
^ 1 1l
0:lA^11 : 1 .\ 1l
1 1 )l
: )()2  1)  1[l  1) + 1(1 + ))
: _)B + 3^ + 2: _(^+ 1)r(^ _ 2).
Eigenvalues are ,\: 1 arrd ): 2. Eigenvectors correspondirrg to ) : 1 satisfy
/r rl r\
o:(A+I)v:It /,ur \
lllurl.
ql r r/ \us)
The augrnerrted rnatrix is
(r 1 1
3)  Rr
tl I I 0/ ",
RtRr (:
o:(.42t)v:(: :, i) (ti)
\r r 2)
The augmented rnatrix is
o1
+ (: i i o\
o
o/
l nr
Rs
Rz/3
> Rsl3
/t
t
lo
\o
2
1
1
1
1
1 t)
Rt +
RsRz*Re
2Rz + Rt
1
1
0
/,'\ /t\
Tlrrrs,trl:usarrd'02D3. Eigerrvectorsarev: lrr l:rs I l l.Ifwetakethescalarproduct
\,'/ \t/
of a.rry eigenvector u: u,z\I,l,0) + ?/3(1,0, 1) correspondirrg to ,\ : 1, and any eigenvector
v : oe(1,1,1), corrsporrdirrg to tr: 2, we obtain
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Solutions to Evenrnunbered Exercises z}g
/.r\
u v: ..,(?)] .r, II t'l  :rrr(2,,r)+(2q*2u,3)(r.'3) Iu,s(2ts):g.
[.'(+) \2 /
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74 SECTION 6.4
Chemical Balancing
The followirrg discussion is a nice application of homogerreous systems of linear equatiorrs
irr chernistry. When chernicals react with each other to produce other chernicals, there rmrst
be a balarrce between atorrs ofelernerrts that errter the reaction arrd those that resuit frorn the
reaction. For exa,rnple, corsider the following reaction where rnethane and oxygen cornbine
to give carbon dioxide and water,
Carborr
N{et}rarre Oxygerr Dioxide Water
What is irnportant to realize at this point is that this is not, as yet, a quantitative "equatiorr".
For exarnple, notice that there are two atoms of oxygen on the left arrd three on the riglrt;
there are four atoms of hydrogerr orr the left and orrly two on the right. We can determine
possible mrrnbers of rnolecules of each of the four cornpourrds if it is reqrrired that aII methane
arrd oxygerr be used up. This is called balancing the equatiorr. Suppose we let z, g, z, anrd
,rr.r be the rmrnbers of molecules of rnethane, oxygen, carborr dioxide, and water. We then
write
r(CHa) + s(Oz) + z(COz) + u,,(H2O)
The expression on the ieft shows 2y atons of oxygerr entering tlte reaction, and tire expression
on the right shows 2z I u oxygen atorns being trsed trp. It follows that 2y  2z I rtl. Wherr
similar cornparisons are made for hydrogen arrd carborr, we obtain the foliowirrg systern of
hornogerreous equations for n, y, z, antd ut,
n.r:,Zi,
2Y  2z  ttt :0.
(i 3, ;,:
/t o 1 0
4Rt*Rz  lo o 42
t)
R2 "+ R3
Rzl2
\02 2 1 Rs
Ir o2 1 o 0\
ol
0
(') 1
0 RrRs*Rr
*
l0 2
(>
+
1 1 Rz + 2Rs Rz
t)
Rz  Rzl2 01
 rl2 t)
When we convert back to equations, we obtain an infinity of solutions
Altlrough we can rnathernatically give any vahre to ur and find corresponding values for x, y,
and z, the fact that x, ?J, z, and u rmrst be positive integers restricts choices for u.,. Clearly,
,r.r.r
would have to be a positive even integer. Usually choserr for balarrcirrg is the smallest set
of positive irrteger sohrtions. In this case, we worrld set w :2, from which r : l, U : 2, a,nd
z : 1. Tire balanced equation is therr
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72 SECTION 6.4
ll
fti il
Tlre orrly solution is the trivial orle j, : A
redrces'1o
: z :0.
fti:lr)
A homogeneous system has an infinity of nontrivial solutions whenever the number of
leadirrg 1's in tire reduced row echelon forrn is less than the rmrnber of unknowns. This can
occur for any number of equations and any number of unknowns, but will definitely occur
if the mrrnber of equations is less tharr the rnrrnber of unknowns. For exarnple, the systern
t 2y  3z :0,
:t:
2t39l4z:0,
has rnore unknowns tharr equations (nr, < n). The arigmented matrix
(r 2 3 lo\ reo.cesLo
(t o 1lzlo\
\z 3 +lo) [o  _rolllo)
It has a lpararneter farnily of solutiorrs n : zl7, U : l0zl7. The ntrrnber of parameters is
n,r:32:1.
The systern
rI2932:0,
2n2Yl4z:0,
5nI4U52:0,
ha^s equal rurrnbers of equations and unknowrrs (nl : n). Its augrnented matrix
(i :r t, l) rec,'ces to (: i :'i' l)
It also has a lpararneter farnily of solutions :r : z 13, A
: 5z 13. The mrmber of pararneters
isnr:32:L
Finaily, the systern
t:2yf 2zftl:0,
3t: ly4zf2u:0,
4;rg2zl3ro:0,
2t:3yt6zur:0,
7n62*5u:0,
ha^s more equations than trnknowns (m, > n,). Its augmerrted rnatrix
/t 0 617 517
{ o r roll
1 ln
reducesto  0 0 0 0
[0 o 0 0
\0 0 0 0 l)
It has a 2parameter farnily of soltrtions, r: 6z 17  \ut f 7 , y : l0z l7 ) w l7 ' The number
of parameters is n r  :
4 2 2. :
In surnmary, then, nonhomogeneous systerns can have no solution, one sohrtion, or an
infinity of solutions; homogeneous systems can have one solution (the trivial one), or an
infinitv of solutions.
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SECTION 6.4
has rnore equations (m. : 4) than unknowns (n : 2). Its augrnented matrix
to
rJ reduces
ft i
The two lines of zeros indicate that the last two equations depend on the first two. In
fact, the third equation is the sum of the first two equations, and the last equation is the
difference of the first two equations. The reduced row echelon form has 2 leading 1's, the
sarne as the mrrnber of trnknowns (, : ,). The sohrtion of the system is r: 0 , IJ  3'
The systern
:t:  6z : 21,
t 29
2t:U32:5,
3riU42:ll,
has the sarne ruInber of trnknowns as equations (nl: n). Its allgmented rnatrix
lt 2 61zt\ reducesto l0 1
/t o o
lz l 3 15  0
\a 1 41tt) \o o 1
The reduced row echelorr forrn has 3 leading 1's, the sarne as the rrurnber of unknowrrs
(r : n). Tlre sohrtiorr is z : 1, U : 2, z :3.
The system has an infinite number of solutions if the number of leading 1's in the
reduced row echelon forrn is iess than the number of unknowns (that is, if r < n)' This
carr happen for arry nlmber of equations and arry mrrnber of trnknowns. We corrsider the
three possibilities wherr the rmrnber of equations is greater than, equal to, and less than the
number of unknowns. We shall also illustrate that the number of parameters in the infinity
of sohrtions is n  r. The svstern
:tt2Y62:2,
2nA22:6,
ha^s rnore unknowns tha^n equatiorrs (n > nz). Its augmented rnatrix
n3Al2z:6,
3n*2Y42:7,
7n  l0g l 4z :3I.
where there is eqrral uunbers of equations and unknowrrs (rru : n), redtrces from
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68 SECTION 6.4
*29. A wornarl mtrst take 5 units of vitamin A, 13 units of vitamin B, and 23 rurits of vitamirr C each day.
Tlrree brarrds of vitamin pills are available and the mrrnber of units of each vitarnin per pill are given irr
the followirrg table.
Vitarnirr A 1 10
Vitarnirr B 2 1i
Vitarnirr C 4 31
(a) Find all combirrations of pills that provide the exact daily requirement (no partiat piils).
(b) Ifbrands 1,2, and 3 cost $1.50, $0.90, and $0.50 per pill respectively, find the least expensive
treatment. What if the cost of brarrd 3 is $0.60 and $0.70?
*30. Agla^ssof skimrnilksupplies0.lmgof iron,8.5gof protein?andlgof carbohydrates. Aquarterpound
of learr red rneat provides 3.4 rng of iron, 22 g of protein, and 20 g of carboirydrates. Two slices of whole
wheat bread supply 2.2 ng of iron, 10 g of proteirr, arrd 12 g of carbohydrates. If a persorr orr a special
diet rmrst have 12.1 mg of iron, 97 g of proteirr, arrd 70 g of carbohydrates, how rmrch rnilk, rneat, and
bread supply these needs.
Ifwe define the coefficient matrix A of this system, a collrmn matrix of unknowns X, and a
column matrix of coefficients B by
A: X: B:
itis straightforward to show, using definitions of matrix equality and multiplication, that
systern 6.14 can be expressed very compactly a^s
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66 SECTION 6.3
create 0's above the leadirrg l's but proceed frorn the rightrnost leading 1to the leftrnost
one. The advantage of this procedure, as you will see, is that in creating 0's above the
leading 1's, you witl be doing calculations with rnany 0's, thereby rnaking your calculatiotts
easier arrd less prone to error. As an exarnple to ilhrstrate otrr point, corrsider reducing the
augmented matrix for the followirrg systeln of equations to RREF.
n*2Y3zf4ut:4,
:r*!/t2z 3rr.r 9,
2:t3'11 +z+u):151
3n!211 22ttt:ll,
The followinrg seqlrence of operations creates 0's above arrd below each leadirrg 1 as it is
created.
34
OD
4
1
11
2 1
7
 r.t ,;,)"^:x''
,) 'I
A
1 2
l
1 1 1
q
t 1 2 R3 + Rsl2
,7 13 J _q Ra + Raf3
0 1 2 "t\
Rrfte*Rr /r 0 0 1
1 1
01 1
01 .1
1
_il
R2+Rs_R2
_u / Ra +
+ l:\o Io ? 1
0
Rsl Ra o 2
/r 0 0 0
+ft;: 1
I
I
0
+lli:i
Tlnrs,thesohrtionofthesysternisr:l,A2,2:3,antdut:4.Hereisthesequerrce
of augmented matrices that creates 0's in the order that we suggest as a modification to
GalssJorda,rr elirnination. Once you have calculations clear in your mind, cornpare the
arithrnetic irr creating 0's above leadirrg I's here cornpared to that in the above reduction.
lr 2
3
2
4 4\ ll 2 34
l1 3 9\ Rz,RttRz lo 3 1 I
[2 1 3 1 lb l*r_2RriRs Io 7
nn
\3 2 2 1 ll/ Ra3Br]_R.a \0 4 7 t3
234 4
1 1 1
3 1 1
4 / rJ ftii I
2
9
23 4 /r 2 3
+ll
A
1 1 1 1
0 I 1
013 si l
2
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64 SECTION 6.3
Example 6.4 Find the reduced row echelon forrn for the augrnented matrix associated with the systern of
eqrrations
:r2ylzlu:0,
rl 2Y*ttt:0,
2:t:4ylz0,
and use it to flnd all solutions of the system.
Solution The following sequence of augrnented rnatrices restrlts irr reduced row echelon
form:
/t 2 l 1lo\ /r 2 r 1
/r 2 o r
+ lo o 1 2
\oooo t)
When we recreate eqtrations,
r2Au:O, zl2to0.
We now solve for the leadirrg variables :t amd z,
a 2pararneter farnily of solutions, g and ut beirrg the parameters. Notice that the mrmber
of parameters is n  r : 4  2 : 2, wltere n, : 4 isthe mrrnber of unknowns and r : 2 is
the rank of the augrnented rnatrix.o
Example 6.5 Four different types of plant food can be purchased, each of which comes in the same size
bag, and the following table surnmarizes the rnrmber of grarns of each of tlrree mrtrients irr
each bae.
Nutrierrt B 10 5 30 10
Nutrierrt C 5 i5 10 25
Solution We let the rmmber of bags of each type be fr, !/, z and u,, and incorporate these
arrd the total reqrrirernerrts into the table.
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62 SECTION 6.3
2n+A
42:13,  4z: 15,
3:tt2A
13. 4t:  + 22 : 3,
'11 14. 2:r l A * z :7,
o\R1 ft, /t 2 r
(i !,,' 3  R2  Rt
2/
+  2 3
\1 1
3
1
3)
2/ Re
 Rr *Rs
1
,l
7 \ RtRs*Rr
2 RzRslRz
7/
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60 SECTION 6.2
Suppose we interchange rows 1 arrd 3 in the original augmentecl rnatrix to create the
first leading 1. The following sequence of steps, then leads to a different row echelon form.
6\ Rt4r /r 3 1 t\
(i +!, 4 # lr 1 2 +l l Rc+Rt R
rf RsR, \z I 3 6 / Rz + 2Rr Rs
+(i 1r +) ",
+RstRz , (l i l,
+) ..+ bRz.t Rz
",
+ (: I Ir 3 rl r \ lt 3 1
+ (: t\
Ii 9 l.
'1 llr) ^,Rstte +t1ts /
Example 6.2 Firrd a row echelon form for the augrnented rnatrix a^ssociated with the system
2:r  3'u, : 5,
l3y I 4z
4r3ylz6tu:2.
6nIU3zl u:I.
Solution The beginning augmerrted matrix is
(z 3 4 3
l4 3 r 6
\6 1 3 1
To create the first Ieading 1 by dividing row 1 by 2 leads to fractional calculations, and
there is no other obvious way to create a leadirrg 1. Since it is sirnple to create 0's below
the leadirrg 2, we do so, and ternporarily leave the 2,
/z 3 4 1 3 s\
2lnr2at+az € /z s 4 3 5\
l+ g
1
6
r 1/Rs3nrrr?e
lo 9 T o 8  Rz  Rzl Rz
\6 3 \0 8 15 10 :I4)
+ (l jr
D
r\
6lRr.,Rz +
/zsI 4 3 jr)
10 lo 8 to
q, 10 t+) ntftr \o 8 1b 10 14/ P6tBRz*,?s
Solution The following seqllence of arrgmented rnatrices leads to row echelorr forrn
16\ /t 2 3
(i t r af nrBRttRz +
8/ nt+ 4Rt t Rs
lo to
\0 10
lb
15 R2 f Rs
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58 SECTION 6.2
/10 \ + R
x'3{ zlll2z:6 r: UzI3.
\II /
Wrat we are saying is that given arry val.ue of z, 1f n and y are calculated according to
n : 8z I ll 13 and y : I0z I ll 1, therr these values of n, y, arrd z satisfy 6. 11. For instance,
if z: ll, then r : 11 arrd A:9. It is straiglrtforward to check that these satisfy 6.11.
When z : 0, we obtain the sohrtiorr r : 3 and I): 1.
The eouatiorrs
8 t0
r::213,
1l A:z1, zarbitrarY
represent an infinite number of solutions of 6.11, one for each value of z. We say that we
have a 1parameter farnily of sohrtiorrs, z beirrg the pararneter. Geometrically, the three
planes irrtersect in a line, pararnetric equations for the J.irre beirrg
R
" t Ie
10
. ", :t1, zt.
"11
We have becorne farniliar witli the operations used to sirnplify the augrnented rnatrix of
a systern of lirrear eqrations. We now discuss what is corrsidered to be one of two ultirnate
forrns for all augmerrted rnatrices, arrd a systematic procedure by which to achieve it.
An augrnented rnatrix is said to be irr row echelon form if it satisfies the following
properties:
1. the lefbmost nonzero entry in every row is a 1 (called its leading 1);
2. the leadirrg I for each row is to the left of the leading 1 irr every row below it;
3. the entries below every leadirrg 1 are all 0's;
4. atry rows of all 0's are below all rows that have leading 1's'
Inactualfact3. isaresultof 1. arrd2.,butweirrcludeitforernphasis. Arowof zerosinthe
row echelon forrn of an augrnented matrix irrdicates that one of the equatiorrs irr the original
systern was a cornbination of others. Two rows of zeros irrdicate that two of the original
equations were cornbinations of others. When this happerrs, we say that the equations in
the origirral system are dependent. If no row of zeros appears, then no equation in the
original. system is a cornbirration of others, and we say that the equatiorrs in the systern are
independent.
Tire followirrg augrnented rnatrices are in row echelon forrn.
/r225
fl si t ?) (; ;+ i)(is;
The next four augmerrted matrices are not irr row echelon forrn:
J I 3\
1 I Errtry below secorrd leadirrg 1 is rrot
(r 1
2
2
0 2/
0
2 1
(i 0
1
0
2 i)
Row of 0's is not at the bottorn
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56 SECTION 6.1
are substituted into the first of 6.7, t:: 0. Tllrs, the only solution of systern 6.2 is r : 0,
U:5, arrd z:7. Geotnetrically, the three planes irr 6.2 irrtersect at tire poirrt (0,5,7).
It is irnportant to note tirat irr reducing systern 6.2 to 6.7, we performed three elemen
tary operations:
1. Intercha.rrge the order of equations.
2. Nluitiply arr equatiorr by a rronzero corrstarrt. (6 8)
3. Add a nonzero mrrltiple of one equatiorr to arrother.
That these operations always yield an egrivalerrt systern is stated irr the followirrg the
oreln.
Theorem 6.1 If elernerrtary operatiorrs are performed orr a systern of linear eqlrations, the resultirrg system
is equivalent to the original systern; both systems ]rave the sarne solutions.
The rrarnes t:, g, antd z of tirre unkrrowrrs in systern 6.2 are irrelevant. We would have
perforrned the sarne operatiorrs had they been eqrrations in o,, b, arrd c, or in r, s, arrd f. It
is the coefficients of n, y, and z that dictated the sequence of operatiorrs that we followed
in reducing system 6.2 to 6.7. With this in mind, we define what is called the augmented
matrix of svstern 6.2: it is
;)
The first 3 x 3 block contains the coefflcients of the unknowns; it is separated by a vertical
Iirre frorn the constants orr the right sides of the equatiorrs. At each stage of the reductiorr
of systern 6.2 to 6.7, we could write arr arrgmented matrix of the systern; they would be
o1
;) (i t i'
.1
J
o1
(i 1 I ;)(:
t
D.)
u
!,)
2l
(: 75
32 i) (i i_i +) (i i
These augrnerrted rnatrices represent systerns of equations equivalent to systern 6.2. We carr
1
1
1
return to equations at any time by multiplying the fi.rst three coefficients in each row by r,
y, and z, addirrg, and equating to the last ntrrnber in the row.
Instead of using elementary operatiorrs 6.8 orr the eqrtatiorrs in systern 6.2 to reduce
the system to 6.7, we cotrld operate orr the augmerrted rnatrix for 6.2 to reduce it to the
augmerrted rnatrix for 6.7. The operations on augmerrted rnatrices equivalent to 6.8 are:
1. Interchange rows.
2. Ivtultiply a row by a nonzero constarrt. (6.e)
3. Add a nonzero mrrltirrle of one row to another.
These are called elementary row operations. Perforrnirrg any of thern orr the augrnented
rnatrix of a system of linear equations yields the augmented matrix of an equivalent systern.
In practice, we use elementary row operations to find simplified augmented matrices. Before
discussirrg the forrn to which we reduce augrnerrted rnatrices, corrsider solving the followirrg
svstern
2't:Iy22:4,
x:ll+z:3, (6.r0)
5nI?/32:7.
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54 SECTION 6.1
We are farniliar with linear equations Ar I By * C :0 irr the r3rplane; they represent
straiglrt lines. Wherr we consider solvirrg two or rnore linea.r equatiorrs irr :l and y such as
n*3Y!,
2r I\Y : 1, (6'1)
3r + 69: 6,
 3Y l3z  G
2:t
nI2yz:3 (62)
:L! lz:2,
may again have one solution, no solutions, or an infinity of solutions. Solutions represent
poirrts of irrtersection of the planes.
When a systern of lirrear equations ha^s one or rnore sohrtions, the systern is said to be
consistent. Wherr the system ha^s no sohrtiorrs, it is said to be inconsistent. It is easily
seen that the svstern
x;l!:9,
x:+a:4t
is incorrsistent; two mrmbers carrnot sirmrltaneously add to 6 arrd to 4. The systern
n + A:6'
ru4'
is consistent; it ha^s one soltrtion z : 5 and g: 1. Tlie systern
xlY:$'
2r+2?):l2i
is consistent. It has an infinite number of solutions. Since the second equation represents
the sarne restriction on r arrd y as the first equation, we really have only one equation. Any
pair of values of :r and g that satisfies the first equation, and there are an infinite number
of them, also satisfies the second.
There are two ba^sic rnethods for solvirrg systerns of lirrear equations, substitution and
elimination. We illustrate substitution on systern 6.1, but the rnethod will not be used
agairr. It does not generalize ea^sily to systerns with large mrmbers of variables. If we solve
the first equation for r in terms of gr, we obtain x:4 337. If this is substituted into the
secorrd eqtration, an eqtratiorr in only g results
2@3y)'r5ar + y:9.
Substitrrtiorr of this into:l :4 3grgives r:4 3(9) : 23. Becausezi: 23 and
iry
: 9 do not satisfy the third equatiorr 3:r I 6y: 6, the systern does rrot ]rave a sohrtiorr.
Geornetrically, t e three lines do rrot have a common point of irrtersection.
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52 SECTION 5.2
z : 14. Corrsegrerrtly, (0,22, 14) is a point on the line. To find a vector along the line, we
:
could find another point on the line, say, by setting z 0 and solving L +I) 6,2n 3y le  :
for t 2815, y :215.A vector alo.g the line is therefore (281b,2b,0) (0,22,14)  :
(2815,r1215,14), arrd so too is (blt4)(2Blb,tt2lb, 14) (2,8, b).
Alternatively) we know that (1, 1, 2) and

(2, 3,4) are vectors that are riorrnal to the
plarres :r I y  2z : 6 and 2r 3U f 4z : I0, 1+y22:6

and a vector alorrg the lirre of irrtersection of
the planes rmrst be perpendicular to both of 2x3y+42:10
these vectors (Figure 5.8). Corrsequerrtly, a
vector along the line of irrtersection is
i j kl
1 1 21: (2, 8, 5).
2 3 4l
Syrnrnetric equations for the lirre are therefore Figure 5.8
!u+zz  zf14
28 o
a
EXERCISES 5.2
In Exercises 1 10 find the equation for the plane.
1. Tlrrough the poirrt (1, 1,3) and normal to the vector (4,3,2)
2. Tlrrorrgh the poirrt (2,1,5) arrd rrorrnal to the vector joirring (2,1,5) and (4,2,3)
3. Corrtainirrg the poirrts (1,3,2), (2,0,2), (I,4,3)
4. Contairrirrg the poirrt (2, 4,3) and the lirre (r  t) l3 : (A + 5) la : z + 2
5. Corrtainimg the lirres n:2U  Q+I)14atd r t, !/:2t, z:6t  1
6. Containirrg the lirres (r I)16:a18: (z+2)12 and (r+ 1)/3 : (a 2)la z+5
7. Corrtainimg the lirre n g l2z:4,2riA i32:6 and the point (1,2,4)
8. Corrtainirrgthe lirres rl2yl4z:2I,:rlt*62: 13 arrd n2I3t,y:4, z 3 l5t
9. Corrtairrirrg the lirres 3:tI4y: 6, rI2y f z:2 attd2yI3z:19,3r 2y 92: 58
l0.Contairrirrgthelirrer*g42:6,2n*3y*52I0and(a) perpendiculartothergplarre,(b)
perpendicular to the :rzplane, and (c) perpendicular to the yzplane
11. The acute angle between two intersecting planes is defined as the acute angle between their normals.
Find the acute angle betweerr the planes :r  2y l 4z : 6 and 2n f ll : z l 4.
In Exercises l22I find parametric and symmetric (if possible) equations for the straight line.
12. Tlrrough the point (1,
1,3) and parallel to the vector (2,4, 3)
13. Through the point (1,3, 6) arrd parallel to the vector (2, 3,0)
14. Tlrrough the points(2,3,4) and (5,2,1)
15. Through the points (2,3,3) arrd (2, 3, 3)
16. Through the points (1,3, 4) arrd (1,3, 5)
17. Tlrrough the point (1, 3,5) and parallel to the lirre
:A 2 _ zt4
'"
532
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50 SECTION 5.2
where D : (AnoI BIlotC zs), and this equation is said to be linear in t, y, and z. We have
shown then that every plane has a linear equation, and the coefficients A, B, and C of r, y,
and z in the equation are the cornporrents of a vector (A, B, C) that is perperrdicular to the
plarre. Irrsteadof sayingthat (,4., B,C)isperpendiculartotireplarre At:'tBglCzlD:0,
we ofben say that (A,B,C) is normal to the plarre or that (A,B,C) is a norrnal vector
to the plane.
Example 5.6 Find arr equation for the plane tlrrough the poirrt (4,3,5) arrd normal to the vector
(4, 9,3).
Solution According to eqrration 5.15, the equation of the plarre is
Example 5.7 Deterrnine whether the planes nt2y 42:10 and 2nI4y82:11 are parallel.
Solution Norrnal vectors to these plarres are N1 : (!,2,4) and N2: (2,4,8) ' Since
Nz :2Nr, the rrorrnal vectors are in the sarne direction, a,rrd therefore tlte planes are
parallel.o
Lines
A plarre in space was characterized by a
point on it and a vector perperrdicular to
it. A straight lirre in space is characterized
by a poirrt on it and a vector parallel to it.
There is one and only one lirre tr through
tlre poirrt P(t:6,ys, z0) arrd irr the direction
v  (u,,uo,u.) in Figrrre 5.7. If Q(t,y,z)
is any point orr this line, therr the vector r
joinirrg the origirr to Q has cornporrerrts Figure 5.7
r : (r, y, z). Now this vector can be expressed
as the surn of 161, the vector frorn O to P, arrd
vector PQ:
rro*Pe.
But PQ is in the same direction a^s v; therefore, it rmrst be sorne scalar multiple of v, (i.e.,
PQ : tv). Consequerrtly, the vector joinirrg O to any point on .L ca,rr be writterr irr the forrn
rr0+tv, (5.17)
for an appropriate vahre of t. Because the cornponerrts of r : (:1,'!J,z) are also the coordirrates
of the poirrt (t:,y, z) on L, this equation is called the vector equation of the line tr through
(*o,Ao,zs) in directiorr v. If we substittrte cornponerrts for r, rs, and v, then
(t:, y, z) : (:r:s, A0, z0) + t(ur, Dy t u : (t:n I tun, yc) + t'ua, zo I ttt
") ").
Since two vectors are equal if and only if corresporrding cornponerrts are identicai, we can
write that
n:nolurtt (5.18a)
A:Ao+uyt, (5.185)
z:zoltt"t. (5.18c)
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48 SECTION 5.1
(5.13)
so long as we evaluate the right side rrsing the general nrles for expansion of a deterrninant
along its first row. For example, if u: (1, 1,2) and v : (2,3, 5), therr
li 1 j kl
uxv:11 2 l:(56)i (54)j+(3+2)k:i+ej+5k.
lz 3 bl
To show that u x v is perpendicular to u we calculate
u'(u x v): ur(uuu" urtto)lu,n(u""u, u*u') ru',(u'*tto uott,):g'
A sirnilar calculation shows that u x v is also perpendicular to v. There are two directions
perpendicrilar to two given vectors u and v, one irr the opposite directiorr to the other. The
cross product u x v always points in the direction determirred by the riglrthand nrle; curl
the fingers of the right hand from u towards v, and the tlnrrnb therr poirrts irr the directiorr
of the cross product.
The lerrgth of the cross product is
Example 5.5 Firrd avector of lerrgth S perpendicular to both thevectors o:i+2j and v:3iZj+t '
Since the lerrgth of this vector is I/TTTTTA: r/65, a vector of length S perperrdicular to
uandvis
*e,1,8).
v69' ',
The negative of this vector also has lerrgth 3 and is perpendicular to u and v.o
EXERCISES 5.1
If u: 2i  Sj + k, .1n : j  k, and w: 6i a+ 3f, evaluate the scalar or find the components of the vector
in Exercises 110.
1. u.v 2. (v'w)u
3. (2u  3v) . w 4. 2i'n
5. l2ulv'w 6. (3u  4*) '(zi + au  zv)
(105u + 210v) ' (105u+ 2a0v)
7. w 'w ,. t 240v12 1105u
9. lrv+kl(j+w) .k 10. u'v+v'w(utw)'v
If u : (3, 1,4), v : (1,2,0), and w : (2, 3,5), evaluate the scalar or find the components of the vector
in Exercises II20.
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46 SECTION 5,1
.....=*
v:r;i+1),,i+u.k. (5.6)
If the vectors are placed tail to tail, and 0 is the angle between thern, the scaiar product
can also be calculated with
This expression leads to an easy test to deterrnine whether two vectors are perpendicular.
Two nonzero vectors u and v are perpendicular if and orrly if
u.v: 0. (5.e)
For exarnple, the vectors u: (1,2,1) arrd v : (4,2,8) are perpendicula,r since u.v :
(1)(4)+ (2)(2) + (1)(8)  o.
Expression 5.8 doesrr't just tell us whether or rrot the arrgle between two vectors is n f 2
radians; it can be used to determirre the angle between any two nonzero vectors u and v,
when they are placed tail to tail. We first solve 5.8 for cos d:
cosd^: iii ,.
u.v (5.10)
lullvl
Since principal values of the inverse cosine firrrction lie between 0 and zr, precisely the range
for d, we carr write that
d: cosl(:+) (5.11)
\ lullvl /
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44 SECTION 5,1
Vectors
We begirr with a review of irnportant features about vectors; further details carr be fourrd irr
Section 11.3 of your calculus text. Vectors which are derroted irr boldface type, such as v,
are directed lirre segrnents. We have shown a few vectors in Figure 5.1. The direction of the
vector is frorn its tail to its tip; for vector v, the direction is frorn P to Q. A vector is known
once its direction and length are specified; where the line segment is drawn is irrelevant.
Tlre vectors in Figure 5.2 arc the same; they have the sarne lerrgth arrd the sarne direction,
only the point at which they are drawn is different.
u?+u?,+p7. (5.r)
A vector v is said to be a unit vector if its length is one, arrd this will be the ca^se when
u]+ul+ul:t. (5.2)
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42 SECTION 4.2
First of al., AB and BA are both deflned only when A and B are both square arrd have tite
sarne size. Even when this is tme, the products are usually unequal' For exa,rnple,
ls o\ /r 2\ (zs 34\
(l '^) (1 s)  (i3 ?3) whereas
[z e/\s a/:\sr 46)
Encoding Messages
IVlessages carr be encoded and decoded usirrg rnatrices. We sltow how to errcode thern
here and decode thern in Section 8.2. We begirr by assignirrg each letter of the alphabet a
rlrmber frorn 1 to 26 arrd a blank the mrrnber 27, a^s shown below, but any other assigrrmerrt
of letters and syrnbols to numbers is acceptable.
abcdefgh ijklmnopq rstuvwxyz
12345678 9 10 11 12l3r4 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
To encode a rnessage such as "Meet rne at noon", we replace each letter arrd space by its
mrrnber accordins to the above list,
N4eetrneat n oon
1355202713527r2027 L4 15 15 14
( l' 4
Tlre sirnplest encodirrg wotrlcl use a2x2 tnatt'
rtx,say . We divide the rmrnbers into
\3 2 )
pairs beginnirrg frorn the left and form colurnn matrices'
/rr\ /s\ (zz\ /s\ / r t (27\ /ts\ /t+\
\ r /' lro/' \tr/' \r, )' \ro/'\r+/'\ts/ \rr)
We have added an extra blank to pair with the last rr. (For a 3 x 3 rnatrix, we would use
triples; for a 4 x 4 rnatrix, we would use quadmples, etc.) We now multiply each coltlmrt
rnatrix bv A
( t +\ /rs\ /rs\ lr 4\/b\ : /as\
[s z/[s ):\ns)' \s z/ \ttl' \zol
/t 4\(27\ : /zs\ lt 4\/b\ /tts\
\s z/ \rsi \ nr )' \a z)\zz):\un )'
(r 4\/1\ /ar\ (r 41 /zz\ / as \
\a z)\zo): \nrl' \r z)\u/:\ns)'
(t a\/rs\ /zs\ /r +\/ra\ /nz\
\s z)\s): \ru/' \: z)\zzl:\goi '
EXERCISES 4.2
Let AK be the ten matrices at the beginning of Exercises 4.1. In Exercises 120 find entries in the matrix,
if it is defined.
L, AD , DA 3. EA 4. AE
5. EF 6. FE 7. 2BK 8. 2KB
g. A1: E 10. DG rL. (EF)G 12. E(FG)
t3. J2 L4. FC 15. cF L6. CT J
T7. AAT 18. 3AT A I9. FJ 20. JF
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40 SECTION 4.2
: I f. it i cleteated j
(1
rhi
10; otherwise.
then,
P
^"\2\ 4 bi/ I 3 o
\2 4
The (1,1) entry of the product is the surn of the entries irr row I of A multiplied by the
corresponding entries in columr I of B, narnely, (1X1)+ (2)(3)+ (3)(2) : 1' The (1' 2)
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38 SECTION 4.1
/'t c o\
/t 8 2\ /O 5
(t 3\/2 1\_ /t "'),
o/ {'';;){i; ; ):{,
\2 o/ \5 6) It \o 2 o) \o 2l \o
3
2
1 t)
We can combile operations of scalar mrrltiplication, addition, and subtract iorr,
te
provided of corrse that all matrices have the sarne dirnerrsiorrs. For exarnple,
^(t 2
o\, 3\ ^(z 3 5\  / 5 6 11\
b o)"\+ o 2)\to 15 ro)'
Example 4.1 Find the matrix X that satisfies the equation
'",({ i) :(i i)
Solution First we write
(a z\ (t o\
3x18 4llo 11.
\a 2/ \1 r/
If we move t'e the matrix ( ') to the right side of t'e eq'ation,
'ow f
(t (6 o\ 2\ (5 2\
3x:lo tlrl8 nl:19 ll
\t rl \+ 2/ \5 3/
 sls 2/3\
Multiplication by 1/3 now gives X:  81.3 5/3 1..
\s/a I I
Tbanspose of a Matrix
In many applications of matrices, we find it necessary to interchange the rows and
colurnns of a matrix. This is called transposing the matrix, arrd the rrew rnatrix is called
tfue transpose of the origirral rnatrix. If A is t]re original matrix, its transpose is derroted
by A'.For instance, if
prohibited'
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36 SECTION 4'1
(t 3 \ , (2,3, 4)'
\z 2Bi)'
The first is a 2 x 2 rnatrix; it is saicl to be cornplex because its errtries are cornplex mrrnbers.
The rernaining tlrree matrices are real; the secorr<I is 4 x 1, 4 rows and 1 colurnn; the third
is 3x4,8 rowsan<I 4cohrrnns; andthefourthis 1x3, l rowand3 colurnrrs. Irr the la^st
rnatrix we have inserted comrnas so that rro confusiorr can arise as to the mrrnber of errtries'
In general, we denote an rrl X n rnatrix by Arrrn and its rnn errtries a^s follows
l\^r:':.. I.)
Colurrurs of a rnatrix are mrrnbere<I left to righ.t and rows are nurnbered top to bottorn. The
:
entry irr the itl' row arrd jtl' cohrrnn is derroted by ati' For the third_ example above, azs 4,
: :
*sz I and, o.14 10. The mrrnbers m and n that represent the nrrrnbers of rows and
cohrrnns of a matrix are called its dimensions'
Special Matrices
Tlre exarnple (2,3, 4) is ofterr called a row matrix, there beirrg only one row'
folrth
In a sirnilar way, the second example is ofterr ca"lIed a column matrix, there beirrg only
one cohrmn.
Wlren the climerrsions of a matrix are equal (m : n,), the rnatrix has the sarne rrumber
of rows as collmrrs. Such a rnatrix is said to be square. Three exarnples are showrr below.
l1 2
6
3 4l
7 Bl
lz 4)',
1l 15e 10 11 r2l
L3 I
Ll 2  3l
Tlre errtries o,rrt a22t a31t . .. of a square matrix are said to corrstitute its diagonal'
In the event that all entries other tharr the diagorral are zerol the rnatrix is said to be a
diagonal matrix. Exarnples of diagonal rnatrices are
(r [1 0 0
0
0l
o\ l0 1 0l
[o o)' l0 o 3 0l
Lo o o2l
Wlerr eltries on the diagonal of a diagorral rnatrix are aII equal to 1, the matrix is said
to be an identity matrix. The identity rnatrices of orders 2 and 3 are
":(l ?),
^:(ll?)
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prohibited
34 SECTiON 3'2
Example B.lb Firrd maximrrrn antl rninirmrm values for the real zeros of P(t:) :3t:3  2n2 l 5n  9'
Solution Since M: rnax{2,5,9}:9, all zeros rmrst satisfy l:rl < (9/3)* 1:4; that is,
4<n<4'o
Example 3.16 Find ail zeros of P(") :3na + l4n3 l 43n2 l l28n  48'
Solution According to Descartes' mles of signs, there is exactly 1 positive zero, and either
1 or 3 neqative zeros. The rationai root theorern restricts ratiorrai zeros to
*l 3, *!
3' *? 3, *9
3: *16
 3
SirrceM:rnax{l4,43,128,48}:l2S,allzerosrmrstsatisfylrl<(12813)+1:131/3'
We rnay therefore eiirninate i48 from tire above list. Substitution quickly shows that r
:
+1, +2, f3, 4 are not zeros, but r : 4 is. we factor it frorn the quartic,
We rnay elirninate +1, +2, :E3, 4 on the ba^sis of previous calculations. Sirrce the rnaximrun
of {2, 3b, 12} is 35, all zeros of the cubic must satisfy lrl < (35/3)+ 1 : 38/3' This eliminates
none of the possibilities. We find that r: ll3 is a zero, and therefore
P(*) : @ + a)Qr  1)(22 *:t r 12).
l+\/ry=4
:  , \/n.
r= 
't
2 2 '''
The rational root theorem defines a finite set of rational numbers that could be roots
of a polynomial equation with integer coeffrcients. (No other rationals are possible.) Each
candidaie (lsrrally begirrrring with the integers), is substituted irrto the polynornial' Orrce
a sohrtiol is folird, it is factored frorn the polynornial, and the process is repeated orr
a polynomial of one less degree. A result narned after tire FYench rnathernatician Rene
Descartes can sometirnes shorten the mrrnber of triai and error substitutions that rntrst be
made'
Theorem 3.8 Descartest Rules of Signs Wherr P(e;) is a pollmomial with real coefficients written in
descerrding (or a^scerrdirrg) powers of z:
(a) the rlrrnber of positive (real) zeros (courrtirrg multiplicities) is equal to the rrurnber of
sign changes in the coefficients, or equal to the number ofsign changes decreased by an even
irrteger;
(b) the mrrnber of rregative (real) zeros (courrting multiplicities) is equai to the ntrrnber of
sign changes in the coefficients of P(t:), or equal to the nurnber of sigrr charrges decreased
by an even integer'
To ilhrstrate, corrsider the quartic equation
P(t:) : xa  3n3 * 3:r2  lTn l 16:0'
Since the coefficients change sign 4 times, the equation has 4 positive roots, 2 positive roots,
or no positive roots. F\rrthermore, since the coefficients in
P(*): :x,4 + 3rf + 3n2 l l7x t 16
experience no sign charrges, the eqration has no rregative roots. Becatrse positive divisors
of 16 are 1,2,4,8,16, and that of 1 (the coefficient of za) is 1, the rational root theorern
indicates that the only possible rational roots are the irrtegers 1,2,4,8,16 (Descartes' nrles of
signs eliminated their negatives). We find that r : I is a root, and when it is factored frorn
the equation
(r  1)(r3  2:r2 +r  16) : Q.
T5e remaining cubic cannot have negative zeros (since the origirral quartic did not), and
corrsistent with tfie prediction of either 4, 2, or rro positive roots of the origirral equation,
Descartes' lrle predicts either 3 or 1 positive zero for the cubic. Orrce agairr the trial set is
I,2,4,8,16, rrorre of which satisfy the cubic. The rernairrirrg positive solution (or sohrtions)
rmrst therefore be irrational'
Example 3.14 Firrd all sohrtions for P(:r) : x)5 + 2:t:a  l3n3 l6t:2  l2:r t 40 :0'
Solution According to Descartes' nrles of signs, the equatiorr hus 4,2, or 0 positive roots,
and with
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30 SECTION 3.2
*31. Give a formal definition of what it means for z : n to be a zero of rmrltiplicity k for a polynornial P(:r).
*32. Slppose n,) 2 poilts are chosen on the circurnference of a circle. Each point is joirred to every other
point. 1.ni. rlivi{es the irrterior of t}re circle into various parts, Let ,V(n) be the rnaxirmrm mmber of
parts so forrned. Drawings inclicate that N(1) : 1, N(2) :2, ,Af(3) :4, N(4): B, and AI(5) : 16' One
inight be led to believe that l/(n) :2n 7. This is however irrcorrect since ltr(6) : 31. It is knowrr that
the forrntrla for N(n) is a quartic polynomial' Find it. 'Mrat is ,n/(7)?
Theorem 3.2 Rational Root Theorem Suppose that r : pf q is a rational root (in lowest terms) of a
polyrrornialequatiorr an:rn 1...1o,1n*oe:0 withinteger coefficients, andns f 0' Then,
p divides o,s arld q divides n,'
To ilhrstrate this resrrlt before giving a proof, consider the polynornial eqtratiorr
2:f+4n5:0.
The theorern states that if this equation is to have a solution which is a rational rllrrnber
r: ple,wlere p and q have no corilnon divisors, therr p rmnt divide 5 and q rnust divide
2. Since the clivisors of 5 are il and t5, and those of 2 are tl and t2, it follows that the
only possible rational mrrnbers are +1, +5, +lf 2, arrd t5f2.It is straightforward to check
where coefficients ar,...,os d,r€ integers, and that pf qltas been reduced to lowest terrns'
Then,
Wherr te la^st term is transposed to the other side of the equatiorr , p rnay be factored frorn
the rernaining terrns,
p(rrnpnr I o'n tpn2Q+ ' '' + olq"r)  aoqn'
Sirrce the quantity in brackets is an irrteger, p divides the left side of this equation' It rmnt
therefore divide the right side also. Sirrce rro factor of p carr divide q ot Qn, P must divide oe'
prohibited.
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28 SECTION 3.1
Theorem 3'5 rf z is a complex zero of a polynomial with real coefficients,
then so also is z.
Proof s'ppose z is azero of PQ:): o'nnn +'.,+ .,r:L+r,ltwhere coefficients
are real. Then.
0,,r,...,as
we show that P(z): 0' If w9 ilke cornnlex conjugates of both sicles of this eq'atio', a'cl
use the results ofExercise 3Z in Sectiorr 2.1,
u:anz'.+...+e,72+aO
: dnid + ' . . + d,Lz + oo (part (a) of the exercise)
: anzn + . ' . + arz I o,o (part (c) of the exercise)
: anzn + ' . . + ar7 I o,o (part (e) of the exercise)
: P(z).
EXERCISES 3.1
In Exercises 14, what is the remainder when the first polynomial
is divided by the second?
7.:ra+3r32:111, x2 2.:t:s_2:r2++r+b, rII
3.:r43:r3 12xPizf 10, B:r+4 4. t:B+Sr2_2x+2, Br_l
In Exercises 58, find a polynomial with as low a degree as possible with the given zeros. Assume each zero
has multiplicity 1 unless otherwise specified.
5. 3, 2,4 6. 2 (rnultiplicity 2), 3, 4 (rnulripliciry B)
7. 1 (multiplicity 3), 4 8. 1, 1, 3, 2 (rmrltiplicity 2)
9. Can :r4 l5z:2 * 2 have a real zero?
10. If 2 + 3i is a zero of the polyrrornial z3 I Tn2 a 2bx _f 3g, find its other zeros.
Example 3.10 Deterrnine the rernainder when P(r) : ir3  3n + 4 + i is divided by ix * 2'
The factor theorem is very useful in solving polynomial equations. It does not find
sohrtions, however. What it does do is simpJify the problem each tilne a solution is found'
To ilhrstrate, consider tire quartic equation
A moment's reflection indicates that r  1 satisfies the equation. The factor theorem then
irnplies that n  1 is a factor of the quartic. The rernairring cubic factor can be obtairred by
Iong divisiorr or synthetic division (if you have learned it). The division carr also be done
rnerrtally. The result is
P(r) : na + 2:r3 I t:2  2x  2: (:r  t)(23 + 3r2 + 4t: + 2).
What this rneans is that equation 3.31a can be replaced by
PQ) :(:r  1)(r3 + 3n2 + 4r + 2) : g. (3.31b)
To find further solutions of quartic equation 3.31a, we need only examine the cubic z3 *
3n2 + 4:r: l 2 itr 3.31b for its zeros. Once we rrotice that a zero is n  1, we may factor
r t 1 from the cubic arrd replace 3.31b with
P(") : (z;  1)(r + 1)(r2 121 1 2) :0. (3.31c)
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SECTION 2.2
".
(t='\=
\r/a+17
ftf)'
\1il
(3e" i / a 1 12e rr i / 4 (6
) eir i'
I 3
)
19.
( eznt'/s1z
In Exercises 2027 find all solutions of the equation.
tr2o. z3 : I : i *21. za
*22. 2+2{si
z2 : 32 t023. z5
*24. :43i
z3 *25. z6 : I
*26. za + 322 + 5:0 ,027. z6  223 + 4: 0
x28. Therootsof theequation zn:I,wherenisapositiveinteger,arecalledtherootsof unity. Findthern.
In Exercises 2934 use De\,foivre's theorern to verifv the identitv.
*29. :
cos3d cos3 d  3cos0sirr2 0
x3O. sin3d : 3cos2 dsind  sin3 d
**35. If Z is a given complex mrrnber and rn and n are relatively prime, positive integers, flnd all solutions of
tlre eqrratiorr zn : Zn'.
*36. Show that for any real number p arrd any even, positive integer rn,
(*,*'\^ : r.
"2micoLLP \pt) ''
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,, SECTION 2.2
But this is exactly what we would expect if the cornplex exporrerrtial eoi were to obey the
usual nrles for real exponerrtials, namely tltat e'rer2 : srrtt2 and errf er2 : srtzz. lt
other words, if we define eqi by 2.19, write cornplex mrmbers in form 2.20, a:nd. dernand that
e9i obey the usual rmrltiplication and divisiorr nrles, then equatiotts 2.2lfollow immediately,
and we can forget about 2.13 and 2.15. DeN{oivre's t}reorern is even rnore eviderrt wit}r
exporrential rrotatiorr; it states that
n)to
Example 2.2 Firrd the irnaginary part of jtJ .
\',8  i)5'
Solution Sirrce
If we a^ssrrrne that complex exponentials obey the usual rule ("")o : e"b (at lea^st when b is
real), then
(S;;tU s : gr /3 /z)t'/3 : 2"@k l)ri'/6 .
"(ztenr
If we set k : 0, 1 and 2, we obtairr the three cornplex rnrrnbers
These are the cube roots of 8i , the cube of each cornplex nurnber is equal to 8i. Other values
of k sirnply repeat these cube roots. It is interesting to plot the cube roots in the complex
plane (Figure 2.8). All tlrree lie on a circle cerrtred at the origin with radius 2 (the cube root
of the rnoduhrs of 8i ) . They are equally spaced around the circle with angle 2n f 3 between
each pair. The argurnent of z9 is orrethird the principal argrrrnent of 8i.
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20 SECTION 2.2
Since the last expression is the polar representation of zyz2, we have the following facts:
1. The modullffi of the prodrrct of two complex ilrmbers is the product of their rnoduli,
2. Arr argumerrt of the product of two cornplex mrrnbers is tlte surn of their argumerrts,
Be wary of how you irrterpret equatiorr 2.I4b; it is not an equatiorr in the norrnal serrse
of equation. Each of the three terms has an infinity of possible values (since the argument
of a cornplex mrmber is deterrnined orrly to rmrltiples of 2r). What this "equation" says
is tlrat given arry two terrns, there is a vahre of the third that rnakes 2.14b an equatiorr.
For exarnple, positive argrrrnents of z1  1 *i and zz:   i are rf4 andTrf4; therc are
others. Theproductof thesecomplexmrmbersrszlz2:(1 +i)(1 i) :2. Arrargtrrnent
for tlre cornplex mrrnber 2 is 0, but certainly the argtrrnents argzl : rl4, aryz2:7Tf 4.
and arg zrzz:0 do rrot satisfy 2.14b. On the other hand, the argurnents argzl: vf!,
arg22:7nf 4, andatgzlz2:2n do satisfy 2'14b'
Arr arralysis sirnilar to the above shows that
: (d1  e) t sin (tu  o2) il. (2.15)
Z Tfcos
Orrce again property 2.16b rmrst be interpreted in the same way a^s 2.14b.
Eqlation 2.13 can be used to derive a simple formtrla for z' wherr n is a positive integer'
When z:r(cosd+sindi),
,z : lr(cosd + sirr 0 i)][r(cos d + sin 0 i,)] : 12 (cos20 1 sin20 i);
,3 : r12: [r(cosd + sindi)][r2(cos2d + sirr 20i)]: r3(cos3d t sin30i)'
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18 SECTION 2.2
*39. Prove thai if zrz2:0, titen at least orre of 21 arld 22 rnmt be zero'
*40. We have rnacle the agreernerrt that wherr a ) 0 is a real number, tFo,denotes a cornplex mlmber with
positive irnaginary part. Show that with this agreeme nt , ,f zyz2 is not always equal to .J 4 .J b
*41. Explain the failacy irr
r:lzl:6TF l,t o\
Figure 2.4 indicates that the rnodulus of a cornplex rlrrnber is the lerrgth of the iirre segrnerrt
joining the cornplex rn mber z :0 to z : 'r + yi. It is uniqtre' For example,
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16 SECTION 2.1
:f +2r * 5:0,
everr though we have no authority for doirrg so, the result is
,L
 2+ \/q n  2 + JG
22
By /:TB we wotrld seern to rnean the mrrnber that rmrltiplied by itself is
are two strch ntrrnbers, narnely L4i. Let us rnake the agreernent that
16. But there
/16 shall 4enote
that complex ntrrnber whose square is and which has a positive irnagirrary part. By
16,
this agreernent,
r:2+4':r+2i.
It is straiglrtforward to verify that these two complex conjugates do irrcleed satisfy n2 +2n+
5:0.
The agreernent rnade in this last exarnple is worth reiterating as a general principle:
Wherr n > 0 (is a real mrrnber),
t/=": rt,t,. (27)
we call ,/aithe principal square root of o,; the other sq'are root is \fii.
The above exarnples lead us to state that every real quadratic equatiorr
ar2+b:r*c:0 (2.8a)
has two sohrtiorrs
b+\/F+* (2.8b)
2o,
(b) This quadratic can be factored, 0: n2 6:r1_g: (:r: 3)2, arrd therefore has a dolble
root z : 3.
(c) By 2.8b,
n_17+\/?FFT:r
Ali
_rT+/tob
two real roots.
(d) If we set y : r:2, then
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74 SECTION 2.1
For exarnple,
With addition, subtraction, arrd rmrltiplication taken care of, it is rratlral to trrrn to
divisiorr of cornplex ntrrnbers. If we accept that division of arry nonzero cornplex mrrnber
by itself should be equal to 1, and ordinary rules of algebra should prevail, a definition of
divisiorr of complex mrmbers is not necessary; it follows frorn equation 2.4. Wherr zr : n
IlJi
anrd z2 : o, I bi, we calculate
zr :L + lJi
22 o, l bi,
by multiplying mrrnerator and denornirrator by a bi. This resurts irr

zt _ r t yi _ (t; + yi)(o,  bi)
22 o+ bi (a+bi)(a  bi)
_ (no, f Ab) + (fir uo.\i (trcing 2'4)
a2 ) b2
_ (m,+yb\ (yarb\.
 \e4 1 \o,16, 1''
For exarnple,
32i _ (32i)(6i) _ 16_15i _ 16 15.
6+i (6+i)(6  i) 37 JI 1
'J(
In strrrunary, addition, subtraction, rmrltiplication, and clivisiorr of cornplex rrumbers are
perforrned rrsirrg ordirrary mles of algebra with the extra conditiorr that i2 is always replaced
bv 1.
Example 21 write the following cornplex nurnbers in cartesian forrn:
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L2 SECTION 1.2
723 r25
*zJ. I (t t 6nf r t2nt* 9) and ! {t + r)
nt=2L m:22
In Exercises 2433 use iderrtities 1.16 arrd formulas 1.17 to evaluate the surn.
2lI22gn
24.DQ/+zi) 2".D@n,+2) ,6. D @s rk2) ,r.t@m_2)2
J=L n:I k=2 m:l
n2b4623
28.fi(iq2 2s.D@+s)@a) Bo.ten+2) ,r.tei_4)
i=l n:l n=21 x:I4
33 2rt
32. D(3*i + 1)2 33. ti:7 Qj  r)'
h:9
*34.Findaforrmrlato.S,,1,.
* Hi.r, 1 :1 1
*37' If /(r) is a firnction of z, defined for all nonnegative integers, simplify the sum
t ttirl  /(i  1)].
i':L
*88. Expressinsigrnanotation:1+:11*l*l
. """,".,. '
I 1 1
For Exercises 4245 verify the results in Exercises 9,13,4I, and Exarnple 1.1 frorn Sectiorr 1.1 using sigma
notation and rnathematical irrductiorr.
**46. Find a simplified formula for
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10 SECTiON 1.2
2U+17)LL 2i+6
\/ATfi:n \nTz
Wherr rn:15 and m:23, the correspondirrg vahres for j are j: 2 and j:6. In other
words, we can write that
23 qnr71 0 or*6
o _\
\
"?i\fr;E j?_,^n+A
Orrce you make a few of these charrges, you realize that there is a rmrch faster way to change
variables in sigrna rrotation. For exarnple, consider the surnrnatiorr
23 / .\,
1 (n  +J'
?Jn_4i n'
For obvious reasons, it would be preferable if each of the n's irr the general terrn were raised
by 4. We can do this if we compensate by lowering each of the lirnits by 4. The result is
23/r\tL9,
1: In+J _\u. n
f,;3n 1, 3" * nr 1'
Ifwe lower each of the n's by 2 in the gerreral term of the followirrg summatior, we compen
sate by raising limits by 2,
iK("+2)2ts: gn,2+J
1 ,1"(") 2) k "1""
Every strmrnatiorr represented in sigrna notatiorr is of the form
n
D /(,'1,
L:NL
(1.1b)
where nl arrd n are irrtegers (n>nt), and /(i) is some furrctiorr of the variable of surrunatiorr
i. InExample 1.4(a), f (i):12llQ+ 1)(i+2)], rzr:1and n:13. T6efollowirrgproperties
of sigrna notatiorr are easily proved by writirrg out ali terrns in the summations.
i,Vra + +io(il,
s(i)l:i rra (1.16a)
=zb.:r
We ilhmtrate in the followirrg exarnple.
Example 1.5 Use Theorern 1.1 arrd forrmrla^s 1. L7 to evahrate the foilowing srrrrunations:
22 45
(") \1zr? tn1 (b)  i"'+ s)
n:14
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8 SECTION 1.2
Orre of the rnost important notations in mathernatics, sigma notation, is used to represent
the surn of a number of quarrtities, all of which are sirnilar in forrn. For exarnple, the six
terms in the surn
123456
l+2r 1*g" I+42t l+b2 l+6r l+?
are all formed in the sarne way each is arr integer divided by orre phrs the square of the rrext
 fnrrn n
integer. If k represents arr irrteger, can say that every term has rha
1+(k+l)2'
The first term is obtained by setting k : 1, the second by settirrg k:2, and so on' Becarrse
k
renrcscnts each and every
t + (kj + 1)2 "r^""""
'"" in the sum, we can describe the sum in words,
r term
by saying, "Add rogether all the numbers obtained by settirrg lr iII to the
1+#+ 1p eqrral
positive integers between 1 and 6 inclusively". The notation used to represent this staternent
is
6,
3t*(k+t1z'
The E symbol is the Greek letter sigma, and in this case means "sum". What is summed are
expressions of the forrn arrd the tLk  Ilt and "6" irrdicate that every integer
r+trctr, r,
==:,
fromlto6issubstitutedinto
I+(Aj+I)"
Wecall , !, tt 1\rthegeneraltermof the
I+lKj+r/'
j*.thereirr. The letter *, is called the index of summation
surn, since it represents each terrn
or variable of summation, and the 1 and 6 are called the limits of summation.
L2
Tlnrs, if we see a sigrna sigrr wi h lirnits, say we krtow that every irrteger from 5 to
t,
k:5
12 is slbstituted irrto the gerreral terrn, and all such rnmbers are then added together. For
t2
instance, the rrotatiorr ) kt ."pt"rents the sum of the cubes of the irrtegers from 5 to 12:
k:5
L2
It is ofterr necessary to surn a large ilrmber of terms, and tlurs very inconvenient to
write them all down. In such cases, we often write a few terms to indicate the pattern by
w[ich t]rey are forrned, t]rree dots, and t]re last tenn. For exa,rnple, to indicate the surn of
the cubes of the ositive integers less than or equal to 100, we write
13 +23 + 33 + 43 +...+ 1003.
The dots indicate that all mrrnbers between 43 arrd 1003 are to be filled in according to the
pattern suggested. Clearly, it is preferable to write
100
\ t3.
7=,
The rrotation is more compact and there ca^n be no qllestion as to the pattern.
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SECTiON 1.1
*24. Use the result of Exarnple 1.3 to verify the formula^s in Exercises 2,B,Il, and 12.
*26. Show that when n is a positive irrteger, so also is (n3 * An,z + Zn) lZ.
x27. Yefiy that the srun of the interior arrgles of a polygorr with n sides is (n  2)r radians.
*28. Prove that if the proposition 1 * 2 + 3 + ' . . I n : (n,+ 2)(",  l) 12 is valid for some integer k, therr it is
also valid for k + 1. Is the result valid for all n ) 1?
29. Provethat if the propositiorr 1*3+5+...+(2n 1): n,2 +4is validfor some irrteger /c, then it is also
va[d for k + 1. Is the result valid for a]l.n) L?
*30. Verif,i that1*3+5+ ...t(2n  1) < n2 +n for n ) 1.
x36. Suppose n points are drawn irr the plane, no three of which are collirrear (, > 3). If a lirre is drawrt
through each pair of points, find and verify a formula for the number of such lines.
In Exercises 3745 1se mathernatical induction to establish the result for positive integer n. In Exercises
115, irrcrea^sing n by 1 orr the Ieft side of the identity resulted in one additiorral terrn. This is rrot the case
in Exercises 3745; increa^sing n by I results irr rnore than orre rrew term. Pay careful attention to this wherl
proceeding frorn P1, to Paa1.
*37. l+4+7 +...+ (6n,2):n(6nl)
*38. 23 + 43 + 63 + ... + (4n)3 : 8n2 (2n + l)2
2n(4n + r)(8n+ r)
*39. 12 +22 + g2 + ... t (4n)2 
*4o. 2.2+3.22 +4.23 +5.24 +...+ 1zi1z'': (znr)2'n
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SECTION 1.1
which is 1.9. We have therefore verified that the result is valid for k + 1. Consequently,
by
the prirrciple of mathematical induction the forrnula is correct for all n ) 1.o
to realize that wherr n is increased by 1 in 1.2,
the this to formula 1.1 where an increase in n by
1 re n the lookout for this in sumrnatiorr formulas.
Example 1.2 Verify that if n lines are drawrr in the plane, rro two of which are iderrtical, then the rnaxirnurn
mrmber of points of intersectiorr of these lines is n(n _ L)/2.
Solution If we draw two lirres in the plarre, there can be at rnost one point of intersectiorr,
and this is precisely what is predicted by n(n_ I)12 when n:2. Tlie result is therefore
correct fot n,:2.
Suppose that the propositiorr is tnre for sorne integer k; that is, suppose that when k
Iirres are drawn in the plane, the ma;rirmrrn mrrnber of points of intersectiorr is
k(k  r)
(1.10)
2
We must now show that wherr ic + 1 lines are drawn in the plane, the maxirmrrn mrrnber of
points of intersectiorr is
(k + r)k
2 \r.rr/
To do this we rernove one of the k+ 1 lirres, leavirrg k lirres. But for these k lirres the rnaximlrn
mrrnber of points of intersection is k(k l)12 (by t.10). If the lirre that was rernoved is rrow

replaced' it can add at most ft; rnore points of intersection, orre with each of the ft, lirres. The
maxirmrrn mrrnber of poirrts of irrtersection of the *; + 1 lirres is therefore
ry+k:t@r+z)rrr{rr,
and this is 1.11. We have therefore verified that the result is valid for k+ 1. Consequently,
by the principle of rnathematical inductiorr the formula is correct for all, n ) 2.o
Irr the next exarnple we verify a forrmrla that will be very usefrrl in iater work.
Example 1.3 When o arrd r are constants, the sum
a+ar) ar2+...Io,rn 1
is called a finite geometric series. Tire vahre of r is called the cornrnon ratio for tlte
geornetric series; it is the factor by which each term is rmrltiplied to give the next terrn.
Show that for n ) 1, its surn is
( o,(I  r")
rt l o,r I o,r2 a... I arnL: I) #,rr r+I (1.r2)
lna, r: I.
Solution When r : 1, the series reduces to the surn of n o,'s, and therefore is equal to na.
Considerrrowthecasewhenrll. Whertnl,theleftsideof l.l2isa,,arrdtheforrnlla
on tlre riglrt also gives r.r,. Hence, the formula is valid for n :1. Suppose ,k is some integer
for which 1.12 is valid; that is, suppose that
a, + ar + ar2 + .. .r ark 
o'(l . rk+r) (1.14)
Ir
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SECTION 1.1
Part C
we rrow put Parts A and B together to verify that 1.r is varid for air n ) 1. Irr part A,
1.1 was verified for n':1.2, and 3. But accordingto Part B, if 1.1 is valid for the integer
3, then it must be vatid for the next irrteger 4. But if it is tnre for 4, then it is true for 5.
If it is tnre for 5, it is tme for 6; and so on, and so on. Corrsequerrtly, 1.1 rnust be valid for
every positive irrteger n.
Part B
Next, we suppose that 1.4 is valid for sorne irrteger k;that is, we suppose that
We now try to show that the result is valid for the next integer Aj + 1; that is, we try to show
that
233(krr)  1: (233k)(283)  1.
To prove that this is divisible by 7, we rnust use 1.5 (otherwise why would we have rnade
this a^ssurnption). This carr be done by writing
283(/s+1) _ 1 : (283k _ 1)(233) + (233 _ 1).
We.have artificially added and subtracted 233, but in so doirrg, we have created the qua.rrtity
233k  1in 1.5. Because 7 divides 233k
 1 (by suppositioir), and z also divides2gB l
(Part A), it
follows that 7 divides the right side of this equation. Consequently, Z divides
23s(t+t)  1. Thus, based on the srrpposition that 1.4 is valid for sorne integer i<;, it has beerr
shown to be valid for the next integer lc f 1.
Part C
We now put Parts A and B together to verify that 1.4 is valid for all n ) l. In Part
A, 1.4 was verified for n:1. But accordirrg to Part B, if 1.4 is valid for the irrteger 1, therr
it rmrst be valid for the next integer 2. Brrt if it is true for 2, therr it is tnre for 3. If it is
tnre for 3, it is trtre for 4; and so on, and so on. Corrseqtrently, 1.4 mrrst be valid for every
positive integer n.
These two exarnples contain the essential parts of every proof by rnathernatical irrduc
tion:
A Verify the result for the smallest integer.
B Prove that whenever the result is valid for some (unspecified) integer *;, then it rmrst
also be valid for the next irrteger k f 1.
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L26 Arrswers to Exercises
15' z:7,lJ:3,2:
r:0,y:Q.2:Q 2
16. Nosol'tion tT. x:(Eztr3)lB,y: (2zl 13)13,zarbitrary
18. 20. n:b,y:_B,z:I 21. t::I, I):0,2:I,tp:2
fiil;;) fi;i)
24. @) (b) (c) Office 2
25. (a)
Exercises 4.2
.Notdenne. , f 3 ? ;t)
\3 2  I
s. (_1,6,6) 10. (1, 0,0)
)
I re 32 38\
13.  _58 98
65 60 
\_88 87 I
ls 11 14
fr\ lb N"denned /:?. t"\ lt32\
" (3 a s s/ " [_i ilii] " (i i il
2 1\
; ;l ,r.
''\o o\ (o o\
(t o),
; ;l \o t)
33,132,_92, 1 13, _5g, 125
32,L,45,90,71
/ so 30 s \ / zo\ /rsoo\
zs. l+o 60
40 :gl
( ? I : { ll:q I
26. A'L is diagonal with entries o,Ti, oib, ..., o,In.
\+s ao / \ a
/ \ rozo/
27' rf ,4. is lower triangular, therr so aiso is,4" #iih
aiugonut entries aiir, a!r, ..., o;n. A sirnilar
staternent holds for an upper triangular rnatrix.
Exercises 5.1
r. 4 2. (r0,1b, 5) s.
!. qrtn s. _to{u 6. _178 r. T
s. sA 10. 0 rr. roi^ + bj17
+ zr. tz. sei + z+1 _ +zf, ,r. us
8. 1
1^
r+. rr. asi_zsj_ rar. ro. _ari+ rrj+zsk
;571(rzizz1zt1
t . frerzi+zsj+zr.) rs. rzi zz1rfi, rs. i+26j+roft
20' 13i+ rgj + st< 21. Perpenclicular 22. Perpenclicular 23. Not perpendicular
24. Perpe'dicular 28. 2.r2 radiarrs 26. 0.6}4radians 27.
0.T,6radians
28. 2.20 radians 29. r 12 radians 80. zr radians 31. )(1, _2,
33. l(3, I,t7)
1) 82. l(g, 0, 1)
Exercises 5.2
1.4:rl3y22 f 5:0 2.2:rltl2"*5:0 B. r* Zy_ 32_4:0
4. I9rl4az9L:0 b. t}:rt4U _32_3:0 A. i*_tl_2r_6:0
7,8r]_I3y]_gz18:0 8. 10r*89y 62394:g g. Z*+69_Ezf 34:0
10. (a) l3n+r7v 20:0 (b) r
r7z9:0 (c) u: r}z+2:0 11. 1.206radians
Exercises 1.1
76. n/(n+r) rZ. n2 86. n,(n_r)12
Exercises 1.2
{. jl r464t r84
".
{,rr, n=L n:l \. ..
r 16 r 225 _
5. I (1)"(n+ 1) 6. t + z. )] !+ s.
lO4
i (an2)@n,r)
n:7 o:, nl .
I 1 n.t *", @n,  3)@n)
O
22 2n
e. j10"t
2n
Lff 10.f (n+3)4" 11.f (3A;_2) D.teDJ
n:t k:l /r=l
4n 2n_t n+7 n+l
13. tk2 14. D g:+1)2k tu.t (k+nt)
tu.t'3a*n1
l_:1, /r:1 Lr
k:l
h Xn.l
12. f 22kF2n2 18.D en, r3k_2) tn.
k:1 k:r
tk:L en,+k_r)
24. 7315 25. 2bB 26. 16g562 27. 4n(4n2 _t)/S
28. n(n,*L)(n2 7n+L4)/4 29. 5350 30. 2665 31. 330 32. 114100
33. 32223 84. nl@,lr) 86. Fatse sr. f@)f (o) 33. i
rtsinl(2!L+r)r/+l
n:0
46. n(n, + 1)(n + 2)/6
Exercises 2.1
2.t+6i 3.3+4i 4._2+tri, 5.24_45i, 6.7+i, 7._8i
8. 1/13  (51r3)i s. 2 + 4i, 10. 5  3i rr. 4  3i 12. 2415+ (33/5)i
13. 1 + 3i 14. _4i 15. _1 16. 8 + 6i L7. _7110 _ (rl4);
18. 58/169 (41169)i 7s. r92r28i 20. r58i 2r. rl2' ' 22. 314+(114)i
23. 91250+(r31250)i 24. 2814r(614r)i 25. r 26. _672/625_(',r0541625)i
27. (5 + \h3)/2 28. (3/2) + (r/njZ)t 2s. 4 do'bre roor 30. 1 +;a '
3r. r+ \/6i 32. (rl4) + (\/fi14)i #. (_5/(2\/5D +l/l%E _ 25/(2,/g)li
24. +r,+\[bi sE. +it+\/Ji s6. +\,Q*6t,+t/{fii Bs.
42. 3 + i, 44. +l1l,/r) + 01rt)il ":0,i
as. @) +(B  4i) (b) +K\/6 +21rt) + (\/fi _ 21rt)il
Exercises 2.2
I. t/is3"t/a 2. 2rri/2 g. 2" ri'/6 4. 5"o.ezTi 5. l5"t.zor 6, 2"2ni./J
z. s\/5/2+(g/2)i 8. 1 s.4i LL. _4
Lo.4i 12. r rs. _r/64
14. 3/5i/5 L5. il32 16. _1.66_0.654i 17. _rl2+\/3i/2 18. _{3/2_i/2
Ls. 94/89\f2il8 20. r, r12+\/5i12 2L. +(0'.s24+0.383i), +(0.383
22. +(\/5 + i,) 0.s24i)
2s. 2, L62 +.1.18i, 0.618 + 1.90i
24. t.67 0.364i, 0.520 +r.63i, _r.t'_t.26i 25. +i, \/312+i12, _rtp+tlz
26. +(0.607 +r.37i), +(0.607 r.37i) 27. r.r}+.0.43ri,
0.965+ 0.810i, _0.2rg+.r.24i
28. cos (2ktr ln) I sin(2kr fn) t, n : 0, 1,...,n  I
tU. p' / "lcos (m@ / n, + 2kr / n) * sin (mO I n + 2kn / n) i], k : 0, 1, . . ., n 1 arrd
ZR(coso+sinOi) 
Exercises 3.1
I. 37 2. 2 3. 486 4. 46127 5. (t:  3)(r + z)@  a)
6. (r2)2(n 3)(ra)3 r. (r*r)3@a) s. (z_rjir+1j(r _3)(x+2)2
e. No Io. 2  gi, 3 11. 1  i, (Sl2) + (\/r912)i 12. No
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T2O SECTION 9.4
2^ 1 1
0: 1,4  :  2^ 1
^11
 _1 r 2_^
: (2^)[(2  _ 1] _ [(2 _ + rl
 [1 +(2 : (2 _))' _ (2_)) _ (3_^) _ (3_))
: )3 + 6)2  9) : _l(^ _ 3)2.
^), ^ ^)]
0:(A01)vAv:
(i j) (;i)
Rr + Rz 2I
Rz + Rr +
(i, I 1
L2 t)
Rz+
2Rt I Rz
Rs +Rr*Re
Rr *
+ (s + + i) Rz  Rzl3 ) (s;i
'+
2Rz Rt
Rs + Rzl Rs t)
t)
Consequently, ur  r)s :0, u2 * r,'3 : 0. Eigelvectors corresponding to ): 0 are
(:;,)  ,, (" )
\,'/ \t/
Eigenvectors correspondirrg to ,\ : 3 satisfy
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118
SECTION 9.3
o\
(i ,!,0 t :0. oI
0/
n,  Rz/(r2i) + (i; ri
0
0 i)
Thus, ,r,'1
+ (1  i)us:0, u2 Eigenvectors are
('l ')
provided us I 0. Eigerrvectors corresponcling to .\ : _2i are_ the cornplex
conjrrgate of eigenvectors corresponding to ),:2i.c
EXERCISES 9.3
In Exercises 16 find all eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors
lbr the matrix.
*7' Prove that ,\ : 0 is an eigerrvar'e of a rnatrix 4 if, and only if, .4. is si'g*rar.
r'8' Prove that if (), v) is an eigenpair of a rnatrix ,4 which has an inverse. then (,\r, v) is an eigenpair for
A1.
x9. (a) Prove that if (.\, v) is an eigerrpair of a rear rnatrix ,4, therr (), v) is eigenpair.
1];" T,
(b) Use the resurt in (a) to aid in finding alr eigenpairs of the matrix
I _g ; i I .
\s E 2)
/3 0 0 01
*10. Find atl eigenpairs of the rnarrix I t I ? I I
\o o o ;l
*11. show that if (), v) is an eige'pair for ,4., therr ()', t) is a' eige'pai r fot An.
*12' Suppose a square rnatrix 4 satisfies the equation A2 : A. Show that if ) is an eigenvalue for the matrix,
then ,\ rnust be 0 or 1.
\0 r 2/
o:(A.',": (j,f
The augrnented matrix is
_?, i) (;i)
le 3e
0\ Rt  Rrl3
3 /z 1 1 Y\I
l6 0l R2Rz/3
6 + t2 32 tJ
\12 r2 9 0/ RtRsl3 \+ 4 3 ;t Rz
Rs
+
 2Rri_
Rr]_ Rz
Rs
l r
1
1
1
1
l) ..+Rz.Rs (i 2
0
1
0 t)
Rz  Rzl2
" ..+
1 Rzt Rt _'t /, Rt + Rt12
l) " (sr
L12 r/2
0 0 t)
+ (i
i ''f t)
When we convert to equatiorrs,
'lta U3
ur uz)
i:0, i:0.
Eigerrvecrors are rherefore : ( ::!ir\ : + (],) n, orher words, a corrsranr rirnes
"
v : (1, 2.4) isan eiger.ect", J.rJ;"t,", ," ):n !r, *uhave a ii'e of eigerrvectors. To
check our calcrrlations, we could multiply,
_*) (
:):(i)  1 (+) : )v.
Eigenvectors corresporrding to ,\ : 2 are giverr by
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tL4 SECTION 9.3
expressed in the form )v for some scalar ), it foltows that v is an eigenvector of a linear
transforrnation ? if
lengtlm doubled.
T(v) : 2v' In other words, vectors perpendicirlar to tlre nzplane for arry such vector,
Hence,
are eigelvectors with
eigenvahre ),:
2.c
Example 9.11 what are the eigenpairs of the rinear tra'sforrnatio'
of Example 9.g when 0 < 0 < r /2?
Solution Wlten vectors along the zaxis are rotatecl arourrd the zaxis,
they are
changed' Irr other words, such vectors are eigenvectors 'n
wiilr eigenvalue .\ : 1.o
In general, it is irnpossible to spot eigenvectors as we clid irr the last
two exarnples.
I\Iatrices associated with linear trarrsforrnattns provide an alternative.
An eigenval'e ) a'6
arr eigenvector v of & satisfy : )v. But associated with every
linear transforrnation t r(v) :"(v)
Av. We can say therr that (,\, v) is an
eigenpair for a linear a^ssociated rnatrix ,4 if and onlv if
Av:.\v. (e.6)
lA)11 :0.
We have just established the followirrg theorern.
Theorem 9'2 A is an eigenvalue of a lirrear transformatiorr T if arrd only if it is a root of the eq'ation
l1 )rl : 0, /o R\
Equation 9'8 is called the characteristic equation of the rnatrix ,4 represerrting t6e
Iinear transforrnation.
r&):zt
,:(i + i)
With this rnatrix,
T(r,2,5) :
(; + l) (?) :(.?)
EXERCISES 9.2
1' Firrd the matrix a^ssociated with the linear transforrnation in Exercise
6 of Section 9.1 and use it to solve
part (a).
*2' A linear transforrnation ? frorn Rn to R! has a^ssociatecl rnatrix A with nonzero determinant .
be the transformation defined as follows:
Let Tr
g' (u) Find the matrix A of the linear transforrnation ? frorn R3 to ,t3 that reflects
every vector in the
e;grplane arrd then triples
its length.
(b) Find the irnage of the vector v :2i
 Sj + f uncler ?.
(c) Firrd the matrix a^ssociated with ?r
4' (a) Firrd the rnatrix 4 of the linear transforrnation ? from R3 to R3 that projects
every vector i'to the
t:zplane.
(b) Find the image of the vector v :
3i + 2j + rt urrder ?.
(c) Does ? have an inverse?.
x5' (a) Find the rnatrix ,4 of the lirrear transformation ? frorn R3 to R3 that reflects every vector in the
Plane y :2;.
(b) Find the irnage of the vector ., : i Zj + gf
 under ?.
(c) Find the matrix a^ssociated with Z1.
^:(+ t i)
we obtain
v' : Av:
(+ t l) (t) :(*) '
This hat both represerrtatiorrs of vectors as row vectors (or row
rnatrices) or colrrrnrr rnatrices) are usefirl. Mlhen workirrg with i itJf,
it is often vectors; wherea^s when workirrg with its rnatrix represeltatiori
A, lhe cohrrnn forrn of the vector is appropriate. Context illvuy. rnakes it clear which is
to be used; sometimes it makes no difference. For instance, v/ : Z(v) could be written irr
either of the followirrg forrns,
,' : (u'r,r,L,r'"):
"(")
: T(q,p2,q) or
':('ii)
:"*, :'&)
On the other hand for v/ : ,4v,
Example 9.7 Find the vector v that has irnage v' : (1, I,2) for the linear trarrsforrnatiorr in Exa,rnple
9.6.
+ (+ t' r +)
:3Rr I Rz
Rz '
Rs + 2Rt I Rz
+ ft 1 5 0 \
L I4 1 I
510
I
Rt + Rzr Rr
\0 2/ Rt ' 5Rz F Rs
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108 SECTION 9.i
Example e'5 linear transformation of Example 9.4,
find the vecror v rhat maps ro v/ :
il,ii:r;"
Solution For ?(v) : (1, _1,2)), we mrrst have
1:3u1  2u2,
:
I 4ur  2uz l us,
2: 4ut*Jus.
If we use augmented rnatrices to soive this systern,
R'l'RzrR'l
(l^ i;l;) € (!^ + r' +)"'R'l
+ ( L^ + t?
, (; + ;' !,)
, )o;"1ni,lf: Rs_RstT
._, 'i
+
,:l
:,, ?;:,f;if; _ + (i
+ ,):_) Rz_Rzt2
Thrrs, v : (817,3llt4,6/T).o
EXERCISES 9.1
1' A linear tra^nsforrnation ? frorn R3 to R3 rnaps vectors v: u2,us) tor, :
(,ur, (u,1,,1,,!) according to
ul:3q2u2a4us,
T: ,L: ur+uz,
u't :2q  2uz lSus.
(a) Find the irnage of v : (1, _9,4).
(b) Is T linear?
(c) Find tlre vector v that maps to vt : (_7,2,0).
2. Atransformation?fromR3toR3rnapsvectorsv:(r.,r,u2,us)tou,:(u,1,utr,ut")accordi'gto
tt'r: 3u,  2r,r,
T : ,L: u?,
u5:2qlu2us.
(a) Find the irnage of v: (1,1,2).
(b) Is lirrear?
" the vector v, or vectors, that rnap to
(c) Find v/: (1,I,_2).
u'n:fn(q,u2,.'.,un).
Fot I'i'near transformations, which are yet to be defined, we find g.1b more useful
than 9.la.
Here is an abstract trarrsformation.
Example 9.1 A trarrsforrnation of vectors v: (or, u2,usl in RB to vectors vr: (u,r,rL,o!) is defined as
follows:
H*: ffl'U*,
T : Ho: nlDst
H,  mlt",o
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LO4 SECTION 8.5
'": AIA'(B)1,
and establishes Cramer's nrle for r.,,.
EXERCISES 8.4
In Exercises 110 use the inverse matrix to find the solution
of the system of linear equations. If the inverse
matrix does not exist, find solutions otherwise.
1. rt2u:13, r 2A:7,
2n+3y:1. ^
2'
2x4y:/'.
rI2g32:\5, x)_A+42:7,
3. 2t:*a42:73, 4. n*3g_62:_13,
3u2gi z: 5. t;l!) _ z: _J.
r:l2y32:I}, il_A+42:0,
5. 2nI!l42:I3, 6. n_f 3y_62:0,
3rI3yTz:5. nlA_z:,.
2xl 32:3,
29
x _ l/ + 4z:7,
7. 2rlaz:r, g. 2:t*J!l_62:_ll,
3n 2yt z: 5.
2r_ly _ 4z: _10.
n+2tl 32 lw: l, x) _ lJ + 4z _2tu:7,
g. 2t:la42u):3, n+Su62*ut:8,
1^
10'
3r2yIz2ta:_ b, 2nly42tw:L,
3A  z +,u) : 4.
4r _l3g _ 6z: lL
11. Use an inverse matrix to find the solution of the system
:LtJ+22:a,
:r:l!J32:b,
3:t;  2y I z: c,
 g l 3z +,rr : e,j
2r
n+2U32u:b,
.r L 9q J 9",
.L t..T.u)C,
tJi3z4ut:d,,
:
(;):*(=
32lIg, g : 2T lIg, z : 6llg.
tlrat is, n
i ;) (:):*(,r) :(,:J;#)
Example 8.b Wlrerr voltages E1, E2, and E3 are applied
to the
circrrit in Figure 8.1, currents i1, i,2, and. f3 in the
loops satisfy the equations
60i130i220h:ErtEs,
30ir + 60i2  10i3 : Ez  Es,
20irI0i2+70is:9.
Find forrmrla^s for ,1, i2, and i3 in terms of
Er, Ez, and E3.
Figure 8.1
Solution We could find the inverse .t f t30 30 20 \
60 10 I , bur it ea^sier to deal with
\ zo 10 70 /
_J
l
and adjust the factor of 10 later Using the direct methocl,
3 2 10 /a t
2 1 Rr + Ra
61 01 .*
1 7 00 i) Rs
 Rz* R, \;t
o
l
1
8
0
0 1i) Rz + Rt
Rs + Rz
R 0
2 I
1
0
8 0 !,
50 1 Rz :2Rs t Rz
1 0 23 0 +)
7 8 0
7 8
I
1K
 !u 23
/ 1
0 3
q
IO
I
i;'i) Rz
Rs
+ Rs
Rz
EXERCISES 8.3
For Exercises 116 use the adjoint method to find, if possible, the
inverse of the matrix in Exercises 116 of
Sectiorr 8.2.
*17' Suppose '4 is a sqllare rnatrix such that An : o for sorne positive irrteger n.
singular.
Show that A rmrst be
X: ALB. (8.7)
Before making cornrnents orr the advisability of usirrg inverse matrices to solve
linear
systems, let us ilhrstrate with arr exarnple.
Example 8'4 Solve the following system using the inverse matrix of its coefficient matrix.
:t:yz:3.
2:r  39 I 4z :5,
3:rly22:2.
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SECTION 8.3
/2 3 1 Qr
15
(i;+ l 16
ft ;'i i)
*17. Decode tlre rnessage in Exercises 22 in Section 4.2.
*18. Decode the message in Exercises 23 in Section 4.2.
x19' The tl.rtlut" that corrtains only letters and spaces wa^s receivecl using the encodirrg
?lt*Tt rnatrix
I
A:12 1 0 
\3 2 r /
22,29,6,46,35, _30, 16, 45,69,43,69,65, 62,79,46,32,61,52,52,34, _32,24,45,2g
Decode the rnessage. Was there an error irr the rnessase?
wltere. C : (qi) is the rnatrix of cofactors of 4; that is, each enfiy aii of ,4 is
replaced by
its cofactor.
Theorem 8.4 If lAl + 0, then .4 has an irrverse, ancl
A':#,0,, (8.6)
a
[fr*:,] lfr*,
: of o:,
Corrsider
0t2
/o'"
A(adiA) : l"?' "i'
o',
\ o,n2
This is the surn of the errtries in the ztl' row of ,4 each multiplied by its cofactor. Consequently,
the srrm is l,4l; that is, errtries on the diagonal of ,A(adj A) are all equal to
lAl. on thl other
harrd, if i f j, then, this is the surn of the entries in the ith row of ,4 each mlltipliecl by the
cofactor of the correspondirrg errtry in row j. According to Exercise 21 in Section Z.i, the
srrrn is zero. Thus, all nondiagonal entries in ,4(adj 4) are zero. It now follows that
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96
SECTION 8.2
/r _1 _l
(A I'): 12 3 4
1 1 I
+ft
\o 4
1
6 2
4Rz t Rs
(;;
7
6
25 i,.nl i) Rs  Rs/25
7 .J Rr :7Rs I
6
1
,1
rrl25
t
4125
Rz + 6Rz I
Rr
Rz
+(i;i 2125 3125
16125 r125 6/25 
rrl25 't
4125
7 /25\
/o< 
The inverse matrix is
Ar(,!iA:i#
ii):*('1 + i) .
singular matrices do not have inverses. If we attempt
to use the direct method to find
the inverse of a singular matrix, we will not succeed
in ieducing ,4 to the identity matrix.
A row of zeros will appear to the reft of the vertical line.
For instance, corrsider
/t _1 e\
A: l? ll
\1 _8 5/
Using the direct method, in an attempt to find Ar gives
1 0 o\
(i i o t olnr2RrtRz )
t 0 0 I/ fts*Rr*Rr (i
1
7
7
J
2 2
2 1
1
:?) Rs+RzlRa
with the
1 3
72
00 tii)
three zeros in the iast row, it is impossible to achieve the iderrtity.
This means
that A does not have an inversel it is sirrgular.
Decoding Messages
In Sectiorr 4'2,we showed how to encode messages using matrix
mrritip[catiorr. To decode
a message we reverse the process with the inverse rnatrix.
In particulai, the coded message
for "]Vleet rne at noon" using the matrix A 1 4 \ .
 \e 2)'"
33, 49,95, 55, 79, r07,113, 69, g1, 43, g3, 10g, 75, 75, 122, 96.
I:.t:."u*"t of this message decodes it by forrning cohrmn matrices frorn pairs of tSese
nrllnDers.
Definition 8'1 A t9'at" rnatrix A is said to be invertible if there exists a rnatrix derroted by.41 srrch
BA: AB: I.
We can show that B must be _41 by multiplying
AB: I by A_r,
AAB: ArI =+ IB: Ar =+ B: Ar.
rf Ar is the inverse of .4, the' 4. is the i'verse of AL; that is,
EXERCISES 8.1
1' Srrppose,4isaninvertiblernatrixandthat CA:I forsornesquarematrixC. Show thatAC:1,and
therefore C is the inverse of ,4. Irr Exercise 10 we remove the invertibility
corrditiol,
Cru,rlCz\ICsutl:Q,
C1t,2 lC2u2!Csus2:g.
The augrnented matrix is
(rrr'u1 ,rl0\
\zz 1)2 utzl0)'
Simplification to row reduced echelon form
always yields an infinity of solutions; that
vectors are iinearly dependent. is, the
Cru,r*Czur*Cs1q:Q.
Ctuz I C2u2  Cs1a2: Q.
Cru,ttCzusICsus:Q.
There are rrontrivial solutions of this hornogeneous system
if a14 onlv if
l rt, t)1 ,u)1
,r)z u)z
lrr, us ws n
ltt,s
and this finishes the proof.o
Example 7.10 Deterrnine whether the following sets of vectors
are Iinearly dependent or linearly indepen_
dent.