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IATMI 2006-TS-27

PROSIDING, Simposium Nasional & Kongres IX Ikatan Ahli Teknik Perminyakan Indonesia (IATMI) 2006
Hotel The Ritz Carlton Jakarta, 15-17 November 2006



Taufan Marhaendrajana; Institut Teknologi Bandung, and

Isop Alliyah; Institut Teknologi Bandung

completion principle with separated production of oil

ABSTRACT and water by perforating both the top and bottom
completion in the oil zone.
Bottom hole water sink has been reported to be a
successful tool to increase oil production by Theoretical work on DWS was conducted by
minimizing water coning problem. The idea of this Wojtanowics et al.11-12 These works studied the
method is to create a pressure-sink in the water-zone mechanism and performance of DWS.
to provide a counter force balance opposing the one
caused by production through the well perforation in
the oil zone. This is done by same well producing the
water zone simultaneously with the oil zone. Then,
with appropriate design, it is expected the oil-water
contact stay stable and the water coning is prevented.

Although some applications have been successful,

others reported failures when implementing this
method. The opposing results may be explained by
our conclusion of literature study that there is a
missing link between the concept and the application
in the field. This work fills the missing link by
developing a general guideline for optimum design of
bottom-hole water sink. The guideline considers
interval perforation and reservoir anisotropy. The
important results are (i) optimum oil-water zone
production ratio, (ii) generalized inflow performance
window (IPW) that provide envelop for water coning,
reverse coning and segregated flow, and (iii) critical Figure. 1. Schematic of downhole water sink.8
rate for water coning.
To differentiate from the past researches, this paper is
INTRODUCTION intended to provide a unified graphical approach. It
Water coning is a major factor that reduces oil can be used by practical engineers as a simple
productivity and oil recovery. Some researches guideline for DWS design. This method incorporates
conducted study on the critical rates1-5 and water parameters affecting water coning such as
breakthrough time6-7 as parameter considerations to permeability anisotropy, and perforation interval.
control water coning. In some cases, producing oil
well below the critical rate is not considered MODEL DESCRIPTION
economical. Results are generated using numerical reservoir
simulator. As this is a single well problem, radial
Downhole (or bottom-hole) water sink (DWS) was coordinate is best to represent flow direction from
introduced to control water coning without limiting reservoir into the well. Smaller grid block size is used
the oil production rate below its critical rate (Fig. 1). near the well since fluid velocity increases near the
The first attempt to use DWS concept is suggested by well. Vertically, the model is divided into small
Driscoll9 with perforating the water zone to control thickness of layer to appropriately capture the water
water coning in addition to the perforation intervals coning.
in the oil zone. This is a modification of the earlier
patented method by Widmyer10 who proposed a well
The indicator used to evaluate the performance of of this study, we are currently investigating the effect
DWS is oil recovery factor at ten years of well life. of water-oil mobility).
Although one may have different argument on the
time span selection, it is more reasonable than using RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
ultimate recovery factor.
The performance of DWS compared to conventional
The preliminary analysis indicates that the maximum well is depicted by Fig. 2. Addition DWS (if
oil recovery using DWS is achieved if perforated designed appropriately) in water zone increases oil
zone water is closed to the water-oil contact and the recovery up to about 50% (equivalent to incremental
oil zone is perforated at the top. This is clearly recovery of 43%). For this case, the oil zone
explained as follows; (i) perforating oil zone at the production is 100 stb/d and the water zone production
top will delay coning breakthrough, (ii) draining is 22000 stb/d.
water closer to WOC requires less drawdown to
balance water coning induced by the oil zone Producing liquid of 22000 stb/d may be impossible
production. from a single well. If we use practical range, the
reasonable value is up to 5000 stb/d production from
In the evaluation of DWS performance, we use base water zone. This constraint still gives us oil recovery
case data presented by Inikori (2002)13 as in Tables 1 factor of 30% (incremental recovery of 23%).
and 2. Some well/reservoir and DWS design
parameters are varied and the optimum condition is
determined for every set of parameter combination.
Data range of the parameters mentioned above is
listed in Table 3.

Table 1. Rock Properties

Rock Characteristics Oil Zone Water Zone
Porosity, % 30 37
Vertical permeability, md 500 500
Horizontal permeability, md 1000 1000
-6 -6
Compressibility, psi-1 4x10 4x10

Table 2. Fluid Properties

Bubble point pressure, psia 1000 Figure. 2. Performance of DWS.
Compressibility, psi-1 1.5x10
Density, lbm/cuft 53.9 It is noted from Fig. 2 that for a particular oil zone
FVF, rb/stb 1.26 production rate, there is an optimum liquid
Viscosity, cp 1.25 production from water zone for a DWS completion.
Formation Water Oil recovery factor generally increases as the water
Compressibility, psi-1 3x10-5 zone production increases. This is because DWS
Density, lbm/cuft 62.47 prevent water coning, and at some point oil coning
FVF, rb/stb 1.02 occurs in the water zone perforation. The recovery
Viscosity, cp 0.46 factor shown in Fig. 2 is total oil recovery from both
top (oil zone) and bottom (water zone) completions.

Table 3. Data Range Used in Simulation Model The total recovery decreases as the water zone
Minimum Maximum production increases, after it has reached a maximum
recovery. During this region, the oil coning extremely
Vertical anisotropy (kv/kh), md 0.1 1
dominates as the reversal of water coning.
Liquid production in the oil zone, stb/d 100 1000
Liquid production in the water zone, stb/d 0 10000
Standoff (from top) 0 0.2
For a given reservoir and fluid characteristics, the
Perforation interval (hp/ho) 0.2 0.75
optimum DWS condition is determined from
simulation. In case of penetration ratio (interval
This paper does not vary water-oil mobility ratio, perforation) of 0.2, it is plotted in Fig. 3 for various
although this variable affect water coning. It is our vertical anisotropy kv/kh. Linear relationship between
first attempt to find whether the graphical approach is ratio of oil-water zone production and oil zone
possible for DWS design (however, as continuation production is observed for kv/kh from 0.1 to 1.
Inikori et al.13,14 uses Inflow Performance Window
(IPW) plot to identify flow regime during DWS
operation (Fig. 5). IPW correlate water zone
production (qbottom) and oil zone production (qtop) in
term of Water Breakthrough Line (WBL) and Oil
Breakthrough Line (OBL). Region below WBL
indicates water coning and above OBL indicates
reverse coning. Between the two lines, lower portion
is a region where segregated flow prevails; the upper
portion is unstable contact—water coning and reverse
coning may occur alternately.

Figure. 3. Optimum DWS for hp/ho = 0.2.

Fig. 3 shows different linear relationship for different

value of kv/kh. Different hp/ho also gives other linear
trends. It can be generalized using correlation in Eq.
1 to 3. This correlation is validated by the simulation
output, and it is reasonably accurate (Fig. 4).

Ropt = A qtop + B (1)

−0.0568 −0.0319
⎛k ⎞ ⎛ hp ⎞ (2) Figure. 5. Example of Inflow Performance Window.
A = 2.2511 × 10 −5 ⎜⎜ v ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ kh ⎠ ⎝ ho ⎠
−0.1409 0.3014
⎛k ⎞ ⎛ hp ⎞ (3) Because different combination of rock/fluid
B = 0.0048⎜⎜ v ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ kh ⎠ ⎝ ho ⎠ characteristics and well penetration/standoff produces
different set of IPW, it is helpful for practical
engineers to have a single IPW plot which unifies all
different sets of IPW. This is provided this study as
exhibited in Fig. 6.

Figure. 4. Validation of Eq. 1.

Optimum condition such as presented by Eq. 1 to 3

does not differentiate between stable (segregated) or Figure. 6. Unified Inflow Performance Window.
reverse coning flow. In some cases, the production
from bottom completion is re-injected into the The IPW show in Fig. 6 is obtained from various
reservoir. For this scenario, one prevents producing values of vertical permeability anisotropy,
oil from bottom completion. In other words, penetration ration, perforation standoff, and liquid
segregated flow should prevail and reverse coning rate of top and bottom completions. With this figure
flow is avoided. one can easily uses those data information to get
desired DWS production mode (i.e., reverse coning
or segregated flow). The definition of Qtop* and Q
bottom used in this plot is as follows.

α2 α3
⎡⎛ k v ⎞⎤ ⎡⎛ h p ⎞⎤
Q *
top (
= Qtop + 10 α1
⎢⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ ⎢⎜⎜ ⎟⎥
⎟ (4)
⎢⎣⎝ k h ⎠⎥⎦ ⎢⎣⎝ ho ⎠⎥⎦
β2 β3
⎡⎛ k v ⎞⎤ ⎡⎛ h p ⎞⎤
Q *
bottom =Q *
bottom (
+ 10 β1
⎢⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ ⎢⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ (5)
⎣⎝ k h ⎠⎦ ⎢⎣⎝ ho ⎠⎥⎦

Where: α1=2.401433, α2=0.518346, α3=1.283428;

and β1= 3.227316, β2=0.842945, β3=1.567493).

Further, combination of optimum DWS condition

(Eq. 1) and IPW plot yields a DWS Guideline Plot CONCLUSIONS
(DGP) which is shown in Fig. 7. This plot uses From this study we observe that:
semilog axes. The optimum line is generated for 1. The maximum total oil recovery for DWS
kv/kh = 0.5 and hp/ho = 0.2. Maximum recovery for well is generally obtained under reverse
DWS is achieved generally in reverse coning mode. coning mode.
This chart can be interpreted as above optimum line 2. Correlation relating the reservoir/well
DWS is over-designed and below water-breakthrough properties with optimum DWS design is
line DWS is under-designed. The white-color region proposed. The optimum condition is based
is the envelope for desired DWS condition (DWS on total oil recovery (top and bottom
Envelope). completions).
3. DWS Guideline Plot (DGP) is proposed as a
tool to evaluate and design DWS
4. For generalizing the applicability of DGP,
inclusion of water-oil mobility ration should
be studied further.

This work is partially from Master Thesis of Isop
Alliyah at Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB). We also
thank to CMG (Computer Modeling Group) that
provides ITB with educational license of reservoir
simulator used in this study.
Figure. 7. DWS Guideline Plot.
Figure 8 shows application of DWS Guideline Plot.
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For field A, the simulation showed that the original Applied Physics, 25, No. 11, (Nov., 1954), 1400-
DWS design produced water cone height above water 1406.
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performance for this field lies in the water-coning Oil/Water Coning,” SPE 14210, Proceeding of
mode or under-design (symbol labeled A). We found The SPE Annual Technical Conference and
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