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Windows Server 2012 has only four editions

Foundation

Esssentials

Standard

Datacenter

Windows Server 2008

Windows Server 2008 Standard

Windows Server 2008 Enterprise

Windows Server 2008 Datacenter

Windows Web Server 2008

Windows Server 2008 Server Core

Server 2008 version had both 32 bit and 64 bit releases, however Server 2008 R2 started with migrating to
completely 64 bit operating system releases for better performance and scalability, and Server 2012 completely
is a 64 bit operating system. That’s where the future is heading in Microsoft Windows Server Operating systems.

IIS 8: Windows Server 2012 features IIS 8 which brings its latest version with features like script pre-compilation,
granular process throttling, centralized certificate management, etc.

Power Shell 3.0: Power Shell is going to be the future of Microsoft. With Command line interfaces being less
popular over the last decade, Microsoft is building up with newer versions of power shell with more advanced
features and that’s where IT Professionals have to keep in mind and keep learning the new cmdlets.
Server Core: Server core was introduced in Windows Server 2008 as a competitor to Linux/Unix operating
systems but with limited features. Microsoft is coming up with advanced features and with Server 2012
installation, it gives an option to switch to Server Core and vice-versa after the installation.

Direct Access: Direct Access was considered to be a replacement to VPN and was introduced with Windows
Server 2008 but with Server 2012, it is much easier to use.

Hyper-V 3.0: Hyper-V introduces a new version 3.0 which offers an extensible virtual switch and live storage
migration which is a step up from Server 2008 R2’s Quick Storage Migration to prevent downtime. It is also
capable of migrating virtual machines (VMs) without shared storage.

SMB 3.0: SMB 3.0 provides improved performance of SMB Direct (SMB over RDMA), improved SMB event
messages, helps Hyper-V live migration over SMB, and other new features which makes it a robust feature in
Server 2012 R2.

What is Global Catalog.?

A catalog server provides a single point of access that allows users to centrally search for
information across a distributed network. In other words, it indexes databases, files and
information across large network and allows keywords, Boolean and other searches.

What is contained in the Sysvol folder?

The System Volume (Sysvol) is a shared directory that stores the server copy of the
domain's public files that must be shared for common access and replication throughout a
domain. The Sysvol folder on a domain controller contains the following items: Net Logon
shares.

To find the in GC from the command line you can try using DSQUERY command.

How will you take Active Directory backup

Active Directory is backed up along with System State data. System state data includes Local
registry, COM+, Boot files, NTDS.DIT and SYSVOL folder. System state can be backed up either
using Microsoft's default NTBACKUP tool or third party tools such as Symantech NetBackup, IBM
Tivoli Storage Manager etc.
Tell me one easiest way to check all the 5 FSMO roles ?

Use netdom query /domain:YourDomain FSMO command. It will list all the FSMO role handling
domain controllers.

Where is the AD database held? What other folders are related to AD?
The AD data base is store in c:\windows\ntds\NTDS.DIT.

What is the SYSVOL folder?


The sysVOL folder stores the server's copy of the domain's public files. The contents such as group
policy, users etc of the sysvol folder are replicated to all domain controllers in the domain.

>How do I determine if user accounts have local administrative access?


You can use the net localgroup administrators command on each workstation (probably in a login
script so that it records its information to a central file for later review). This command will enumerate
the members of the Administrators group on each machine you run it on. Alternately, you can use the
Restricted Groups feature of Group Policy to restrict the membership of Administrators to only those
users you want to belong.

What is RsOP
RsOP is the resultant set of policy applied on the object (Group Policy).

What is OU ?
Organization Unit is a container object in which you can keep objects such as user accounts, groups,
computer, printer . applications and other (OU).
In organization unit you can assign specific permission to the user's. organization unit can also be
used to create departmental limitation.

Explain patch, hotfix and service pack?

Patch: Microsoft Patch contain the updates for the application and improve the performance and clear
the bugs

Hot fix: this is also same like patch but the hot fill comes along with the new future and bugs
clearance.

Service Pack: Latest service pack contain the host fix and patch and the latest updates
What is SYSVOL Folder?

It contain policy setting ,shared information.

What Is Mixed Mode?


Allows domain controllers running both Windows 2000 and earlier versions of Windows NT to co-
exist in the domain. In mixed mode, the domain features from previous versions of Windows NT
Server are still enabled, while some Windows 2000 features are disabled. Windows 2000 Server
domains are installed in mixed mode by default. In mixed mode the domain may have Windows
NT 4.0 backup domain controllers present. Nested groups are not supported in mixed mode.

What Is Native Mode?


When all the domain controllers in a given domain are running Windows 2000 Server. This mode
allows organizations to take advantage of new Active Directory features such as Universal
groups, nested group membership, and inter-domain group membership

What Is Netdom?
NETDOM is a command-line tool that allows management of Windows domains and trust
relationships

What Is Replmon?
Replmon is the first tool you should use when troubleshooting Active Directory replication issues

How To Find Fsmo Roles?


Netdom query fsmo OR Replmon.exe

Mention What Is The Difference Between Domain Admin Groups And Enterprise Admins Group In
Ad?

Enterprise Admin Group :

 Members of this group have complete control of all domains in the forest

 By default, this group belongs to the administrators group on all domain controllers in the

forest

 As such this group has full control of the forest, add users with caution
Domain Admin Group :

 Members of this group have complete control of the domain

 By default, this group is a member of the administrators group on all domain controllers,

workstations and member servers at the time they are linked to the domain

 As such the group has full control in the domain, add users with caution

Where Is Gpt Stored?


%SystemRoot%SYSVOLsysvoldomainnamePoliciesGUID

Why We Need Netlogon?


Maintains a secure channel between this computer and the domain controller for authenticating
users and services. If this service is stopped, the computer may not authenticate users and
services, and the domain controller cannot register DNS records."

What Is Dns Scavenging?


Scavenging will help you clean up old unused records in DNS.

Abbreviate Gpt And Gpc?


GPT : Group policy template.
GPC : Group policy container.

Tell Me What If My Windows 2000 Or Windows Server 2003 Dns Server Is Behind A Proxy Server
Or Firewall?
If you are able to query the ISP's DNS servers from behind the proxy server or firewall, Windows
2000 and Windows Server 2003 DNS server is able to query the root hint servers. UDP and TCP
Port 53 should be open on the proxy server or firewall.

Explain What Is The Difference Between Local, Global And Universal Groups?
Domain local groups assign access permissions to global domain groups for local domain
resources. Global groups provide access to resources in other trusted domains. Universal groups
grant access to resources in all trusted domains.
Group policy:

What is group policy

We can control user experience

Configure security - configure password policies in entire domain.

Configure systems – what proxy server they use, what printer installed on them, Specify who use
firewall.

Install software:

Go to Tools – Click on Group policy Management


GPO Processing: