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Kurdistan Region Government - Iraq

Ministry Of Higher Education &


Scientific Research
Duhok Polytechnic University

Technical Engineering College


Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineering
Department

Report Of
Thermodynamic
(4)
Name of Experiment
“Determination of the COP and Tonnage Capacity of a Heat
Pump RAC System”

Name: Balen karim

2nd Class
Date : 7 / 5 /2017
Year : 2016-2017
Introduction
The coefficient of performance or COP (sometimes CP or
CoP) of a heat pump, refrigerator or air conditioning system is a
ratio of useful heating or cooling provided to work
required. Higher COPs equate to lower operating costs. The
COP usually exceeds 1, especially in heat pumps, because,
instead of just converting work to heat (which, if 100% efficient,
would be a COP_hp of 1), it pumps additional heat from a heat
source to where the heat is required. For complete systems, COP
calculations should include energy consumption of all power
consuming auxiliaries. COP is highly dependent on operating
conditions, especially absolute temperature and relative
temperature between sink and system, and is often graphed or
averaged against expected conditions
Heat pump:- is a device that transfers heat energy from a source
of heat to a destination called a "heat sink". Heat pumps are
designed to move thermal energy in the opposite direction of
spontaneous heat transfer by absorbing heat from a cold space
and releasing it to a warmer one. A heat pump uses a small
amount of external power to accomplish the work of transferring
energy from the heat source to the heat sink
Objective:-To study the air-to-air heat pump and its components
as well as to determine the COP and tonnage capacity of the
RAC system.

Theoretical Part:

The following equations can be used to determine the


components, capacity and COP of heat pump.
 For Compressor

P=ḿ ( h2−h1 )
(1)

where P=Compressor power , ¿ name plate , kW


h1 , h2=Enthalpies of R 22 refrigerant at inlet∧outlet of compressor
respectively ( ¿ tables∨chart of R 22 ) , kJ /kg
ḿ=refrigerant mass flowrate , kg /s

 For Evaporator

Qe =ḿ ( h1−h 4 )
(2)

where Qe =Evaporator capacity , kW


h4 =Enthalpy of R 22 at evaporator inlet ,
( ¿ tables∨chart of R 22 ) , kJ /kg

 For Condenser

Qc =ḿ ( h2−h 3 )
(3)

where Qc =Condenser capacity , kW


h3=Enthalpy of R 22 at condenser outlet ,
( ¿ tables∨chart of R 22 ) , kJ /kg

 The Coefficient of Performance COPHP, defined as


Desired output Q c ḿ ( h2−h3 )
COP HP= = =
Required input P ḿ ( h2−h1 )
(4)

which can also be expressed as

( h2−h3 )
COP HP=
( h2−h1 )
(5)

 The relation between COPRef & COPHP can be found as


follows:
Add and subtract h1 for the numerator of equation (5) we get
( h2−h1+ h1−h3 ) ( h1 −h3 )
COP HP= =1+
( h 2−h1 ) ( h 2−h1 )

( h 4=h3 ) For throttling process, so

COP HP=1+COPref

Most heat pumps in operation today have a seasonally averaged


COP of 2 to 3.

Procedure:

Switch on the compressor and let it run for a considerable


time, until thermostatic switch starts functioning. Then record
the readings of pressure gauges and thermometers together with
voltage and current. Repeat the last step until reach desired
value of evaporator temperature.
Discussion:

1- How to improve the COP of a vapor compression RAC


system.
Ans 3 / by increase in pressure and temperature of
evaporator and decrease in condenser pressure and
temperature…..
It means when we decrease pressure and temperature on
condenser so the refrigeration effect will increase also
cop will increase. And also increase in pressure and
temperature of evaporator the work input will decrease
and refrigeration effect will increase then cop will
increase for a vapor-compression refrigeration