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The Role of Corporate Logo In Enhancing Corporate Image

Thesis Submitted to: Miss Amna Shahzadi

Submitted By: Rehana Latif

Roll No: 1410403

Session: 2014-2018

Govt. Post Graduate Islamia College for Women, Cooper Road Lahore
Acknowledgement
All praises to Almighty Allah, who bestowed us with courage and spirit to complete this task. And respect is
for Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) whose life is model guidance and knowledge for entire humanity
The accomplishment of this research project would not have been possible without the dedication,
inventiveness and guidance provided by a number of people all through the study.

First and foremost I want to express my appreciation to my Teacher; Miss Amna Shahzadi for the
academic guidance she accorded me in every stage of this research project. The wealth of knowledge in
academic writing attained through this collaboration is precious.

I also want to thank my good friends for proof reading this research. It is never easy to go through pages of
such writing in a field we are not familiar to. However as friends they made this happen while providing
positive feedback.

Finally to my family for their continuous encouragement and support without which I would not have been
able to concentrate and complete this research. I would also like to express my gratitude to my parents, for
their love and for their patience over my mistakes. I don't even remember a time when they were not there
when I am needed them. In short I am and what am i, is just because of them. I am also greatful to my sisters
and brothers for their moral support during this period.

Thanks you
Dedication

This research project has been moderately satisfying and delightful to conduct. However this would not have
been possible without the encouragement and sacrifices of time made available to myself by my family. I
therefore dedicate this research project to my whole family.

I also dedicate this research to my mother who taught me at a very tender age to always aim higher in my
academic searches. This research is an important innovation in this journey. To my mother also for the
discipline that came in convenient in keeping with the constricted timelines for this study.

Lastly to my loving friends for their encouragements and feedbacks. May the completion of this study be an
inspiration to you to strive for success in all that you do in your life.
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to analyze the use of company logos in corporate identity systems and their
contribution to corporate image. Logos-or trademarks-identify and differentiate companies and their
products, services Or ideas, While logos tell about a company's personality, they cannot work in a vacuum--
logos communicate along with other components of a corporate identity system. The researcher conducted a
survey study to measure consumers' attitudes toward company logos and the image contribution of the logo.
This study seeks to present an understanding of the background and results of corporate logo and places
interest to the impact of the corporate logo on corporate image. The principle of the study is to study the
independent and joint effects of corporate logo elements on consumers’ perception of the corporate image. It
seeks to contribute to academic literature and managerial practice in three ways. Firstly, this research
considers the role of corporate logo elements in logo design. Secondly, it examines the joint effect of
corporate logo elements along with independent effects on consumers’ perception. Thirdly, it focuses on
managerially related, corporate-related perception outcomes. This planned research is the first attempt to
investigate how corporate logos influence stakeholders’ corporate image perceptions. The outcome of
corporate logo assessment and corporate image are examined between those stakeholders’ strongly loyal to a
corporate entity against those weakly loyal to it. As stakeholders become attached to a corporate entity, the
corporate logos become more meaningful and help to connect them to the corporation. Corporate logo and
its elements help to raise the attachment between stakeholders and corporation to create an image in the
perception.

Keywords:
Corporate logo, corporate image, corporate communication, corporate culture, corporate advertising.
Table of Contents

1:- INTRODUCTION

1. Introduction
1.1. Problem Statement
1.2. Importance of the study
1.3. Research Question
1.4. Research Objectives
1.5. Definition of Key Term
1.5.1. Corporate Logo
1.5.2. Corporate Image
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Background
3. THEORATICAL FRAMEWORK
3.1. Corporate Image depends on corporate logo
3.2. Hypothesis
4. METHODOLOGY
4.1. Research Methodology
4.2. Research Design
4.2.1. Purpose of Study
4.2.1.1. Exploratory Study
4.2.1.2. Descriptive Study
4.2.1.3. Inferential Study
4.2.2. Types of Investigation
4.2.2.1. Causal relationship
4.2.2.2. Correlation
4.2.3. Extent of Researcher Interference
4.2.3.1. Minimal Interference

4.2.4. Study Setting

4.2.4.1. Non-contrived Setting


4.2.5. Measurement and Measures

4.2.5.1. Operational Definition


4.2.6. Unit of Analysis
4.2.6.1. Population
4.2.6.2. Sample
4.2.7. Sampling Design
4.2.7.1. Non Probability sampling
4.2.7.1.1. Convenience Sampling
4.2.8. Time Horizon
4.2.8.1. Cross sectional Studies

4.2.9. Data Collection Method

4.2.10. Data Analysis

5. NALYSIS AND RESULTS


5.1. Descriptive Statistics
5.1.1. Demographic Profile of Respondent
5.2. Descriptive Summary
5.3. Reliability Analysis
5.4. Correlation Analysis
6. CONCLUSION
6.1. Discussion
6.2. Conclusion
6.3. Limitation
6.4. Recommendation & Suggestion for Future

References

Appendix
Chapter 1
Introduction

1. INTRODUCTION:

This study pursues to give an understanding of prior reasons and results of corporate logo and
emphasize the influence of the corporate logo on the corporate image. The main purpose of this
study is to interrogate the self-reliant and collective outcome of the corporate logo elements on the
consumer's wisdom of the corporate image. This study pursue that it can be pitch in academic
literature and managerial practice by three ways. First of all, it looks at the role of corporate logo
elements in corporate logo design. After that, it also interrogates the collective outcomes of the
corporate logo elements and the self-reliant outcomes on the consumer's wisdom. Lastly, the study
based on managerially applicable corporate related insights results. This study is the first stab to
explore how corporate logos impact on the wisdom of corporate stakeholders about corporate image.
The results of corporate logo assessment are grilled between two types of stakeholders. First one are
those who are ruggedly prosecute to corporate design. Secondly, are those stakeholders who are
invalidly prosecuting to the corporate design? The corporate logos become more helpful and
meaningful to fix the corporation stakeholders when the stakeholders remain affected with the
corporate design. To enhance the devotedness between stakeholders and corporation, corporate logo
and its element are helpful in the creation of an image in their wisdom.
In the last fifty years , marketers and practitioners have made massive pace in the plot of corporate
logo and corporate design self sufficiently. However , there is quiet narrow compassionate between
corporate logo and corporate image. A logo is an important asset of the firms , because firms spend a
lot f time and money to promote them with the hope of achieving company's goals and attracting
their customers. A corporate logo can serve as a beneficial advantage to a corporate ' s reputation.
Therefore, a logo should be chosen with a lot of care and intention and must also be communicate to
the market by selecting from the number of designs with the help of a committee , a chief executive
and a marketing manager. Corporate logo plays an important role in attracting the stakeholders and a
public towards corporation. The corporate image is also a reputation of the firm with the various
audiences that are important to it. Melewar and Saunders (1999) explains that organizations use
design as a meaning of describing the powers and characteristics of the firm.
Corporate logo explain the image of a firm. It also represent their goals. A corporate logo can be
conduct productively if its stakeholders place the company in an applicable rank. There are seven
different types of images for a company that different authors perceive differently. These images are
the following :
 The corporate image
 The foundation image
 The product image
 The brand image
 The verbose image
 The customer claim image

This study however , is based on corporate image, that is an image which is interlink with the
corporate logo and corporate image that the managers of the organization wants to be perceived by
its stakeholders about the organization. (Dutton et al, 1994).

1.1- Problem Statement:


A problem statement is a concise explanation of the issues that need to be addressed by a problem
solving group and should be offered to them before they try to solve the problem. Corporate image is
the status of the firm with the various audiences that are important to it. with the course of time the world is
stepping further to globalization so the media is the best way to increase the value of product. corporate logo
plays an important role in attracting stakeholders and public. The problem statement describe the impact of
corporate logo on the corporate image. The logo color, design , size and all other elements have an impact on
the image of the corporation.

"How corporate logo influence the corporate image?"

1.2- Importance of the study:


A corporate logo is an basic element of the management device that can place the firm to equal the
desire self that a firm wants to talk with others. A corporate symbol should be used to communicate a
corporate image. A firm can get benefits by transfer meaningful and valuable logos to their
corporation. A corporate logo can provide as following:
 viable benefit
 great plan
 transfer energy
 separate between the firm and its competitors.
It also leads a customers or clients to think highly and convey the feeling of quality. Corporate logos
can create the positive things and are also the main vehicles of conveying the image of the
corporation. A corporate logo is an important real benefit in the word of the firm and used as the
“glue” in communication to the victim audience. A corporate logo with its graphical properties can
communicate who the firm is and what it stands for. A corporate logo map the environment that the
firm creates for its employees and its customers. moreover, corporate logo is an official graphical
design for a company and the particular design claims meaningful creativity which must match a
firm's plan and corporate culture. When the corporate plan is catches, the corporate chart identity
makes it impressive and organization becomes well known through its corporate logos. A corporate
logo , is a means of creating difference for a solid in order to attract customers in expected way.
Today however, there is no clear contract about what benefits the companies get with their respective
corporate logo. This study is precious and important because it gives near into the relationship
between corporate logo and corporate image. It complements and adds to open literature (Van den
Bosch, et al., 2005). By adding to existing theory, this study draws attention to the concept of
corporate logo, which is regularly relegated within corporate marketing studies.

1.3- Research Questions:

Following are the list of various research questions:


Q.1: How corporate culture's elements impact on the corporate logo?
Q.2 : To what level the corporate logo power the favorable corporate image?
Q.3 : How does corporate image increased by the corporate logos?
Q.4 : How does the corporate advertising plan creates the relationship between the corporate logo
and the corporate image?

1.4- Research Objectives:

 Focuses on corporate image


 Developing relations between corporate logo and its stakeholders
 Corporate culture’s fundamentals persuade encouraging corporate logo
 Corporate logo manipulate a positive corporate image
 Corporate logo basics boost corporate image
 Corporate publicity act as a go-between the corporate logo and corporate image.
1.5- Definitions of Variables:
1.5.1- Corporate Logo:
"Distinguishable arrangement, sign, or totem that particularly distinguish a firm. A corporate logo is
an important corporate image drive and a totem through which a public understands a firm. It is
sometimes becomes more important than the material assets of the firm."
(Business Dictionary)

1.5.2- Corporate Image:


" The way through which an organization is offered to the public or is felt by its members and the
public."
( Collins English Dictionary )
OR
"Corporate image" was once advertising shop but is today a common expression referring to a
company's reputation. The "image" is what the public is supposed to see the corporation is
mentioned.
( Encyclopedia )
OR
"Mental picture that springs up at the mention of a firm's name. It is a combined psychological
impression that continually changes with the firm's status, media coverage, performance, etc. Similar
to a firm's reputation or care, it is the public opinion of the firm pretty than a reflection of its real
state or position. Unlike corporate identity, it is solution and can change overnight from positive to
negative to neutral. Large firms use different corporate advertising techniques to develop their image
in order to improve their interest as a supplier, employer, customer, borrower, etc."
( Business Dictionary )
Chapter 2

Literature Review

2- LITERATURE REVIEW :
2.1- Background:
The study shows the effects of corporate logo on the corporate image. A thorough literature review
showed that company logos provide as essential communications equipment. They stand as a main
element of corporate personality and provider to corporate image. However, the study found that
many logos divert from consumers' perceptions of a company. The uniqueness of corporate culture
and its mechanism are the background to and main drivers of crafty a corporate logo. Different
studies show the crash of national culture on corporate marketing actions.
Corporate culture elements like , corporate attitude, corporate worth, corporate task, corporate rule,
corporate procedure, corporate olden times, organizer of the company and country of foundation.
According to scholars view, logo as an advanced level of generalization consisting of corporate
culture and one of the most appealing elements of the offered culture, is the company’s corporate
logo. Furthermore, with tough image, corporate logos should be used successfully to demand to a
large number of cultures in the aggressive market. However, the assessment of corporate logo
designs from corner to corner different cultures and the matter of how culture affects logo design has
received small consideration. Taken from accessible findings, the first research proposal included
into our structure is as follow:
proposal 1: Corporate traditions would positively or negatively persuade corporate logo design.
proposal 1a: Corporate attitude would positively or negatively persuade corporate logo design.
proposal 1b: Corporate worth would positively or negatively manipulate corporate logo design.
proposal 1c: Corporate task would positively or negatively pressure corporate logo design.
proposal 1d: Corporate rule would positively or negatively control corporate logo design.
proposal 1e: Corporate procedure would positively or negatively manipulate corporate logo design.
proposal 1f: Corporate record would positively or negatively persuade corporate logo design.
proposal 1g: Country of foundation would positively or negatively persuade corporate logo design.
proposal 1h: organizer of the company would positively or negatively manipulate corporate logo
design.
Corporate image as a result in the planned abstract structure initially, marketing text focuses on
customers and corporate image shows values, attitudes, replication and relations held by customers
and a corporate image could draw investors, workers and also improve sales through customer
happiness and soundness. Attitudes stimulating the image process contain product value, corporate
viewpoint, workers, corporate name, corporate logo, publicity and workers emerge. Therefore, the
key aspect is the force of corporate image that the stakeholders practice from the firm. . The present
day logo is plain, flexible, changeable to any type of media and really built to last for their brand.
( Days of Yore - 1800: Logo Habilis-) Going up above non-branded companies in the early days of
yore. The earliest logos were nothing more than a unique mark, symbol or honest brand to mark who
the maker of the product was. (1800-1900: Logo Erectus ) Complex logos mutating in all shapes and
sizes. In the Victorian era the logo started to become more complex, and the early stages of the first
brands were recognized by business owners like John Cadbury. Although a logo seldom had
anything similar from one to the next separately from the company name. (1900-1930: Logo
Antecessor ) The predecessor of the modern logo. Trade marking begins in deep. It was in the early
1900s that the associates of the modern logo were born, and it is during this time that you start to see
logos and corporate identities being trade marked for the first time. (1930-1980: Logo Rhodesiensis )
Strong ideas, figure out the brand . The graphic design giants like Paul Rand , Milton Glaser and
Alan Fletcher revolutionized the art of logo design and developed the principles of plainness that
most designers still work by.( 1980- present day: Logo Sapiens ) Modern day logos of the brand era.
The modern day logo is simple, flexible, adjustable to any kind of media and truly built to last for
their brand. Corporate logo as one of the key essential basics of corporate image identity building
method (Melewar and Saunders, 1998) is the essential gather in this study. Corporate logo is a
mixture of detailed and style elements gripped from word to image (Olins, 2003) to classify the
corporate. Corporate logos consist of elements, such as shade, language and style. Corporate logo
refers to the detailed design that a company uses, with or without its brand name, to be familiar with
itself or its products to target audiences (Henderson and Cote, 1998). Alongside with Henderson and
Cote’s (1998) confidence, corporate logos are responsible, exclusive signal for an organization and
should create the strongest reason of alertness to pick out and process recognition more quickly. In
addition, it serves as a feasible benefit and provides an organization with way of raising status (Olins,
1989).
Initially, marketing literature focuses on customers and corporate image represents beliefs, attitudes,
impressions and associations held by customers and a corporate image could attract investors,
employees (Dowling, 1986) and also increase sales through
customer satisfaction and loyalty. Attitudes motivating the image process include product quality,
corporate philosophy, employees, corporate name, corporate logo, advertising and staff approach
(Abratt and Mofokeng, 2001). Accordingly, the key factor is the influence of corporate image that
the stakeholders experience from the firm (Dowling, 1986). Corporate image created by corporate
identity (Gray and Balmer, 1998), is dependent on communication through the organization
(Kennedy, 1977) and can vary within different geographical marketplaces or in the same market
(Dowling, 1986). Corporate image is related to tangible and intangible characteristics, (Kennedy,
1977) for instance, the functional characteristics, physical characteristics and emotional
characteristics of the firm (Plummer, 1984). Moreover, it consists of functional quality and emotional
attributes (Martineau, 1958). Corporate image in a service organization includes attributes, functional
consequences and representative meaning (Padgett and Allen, 1997). Corporate logo influences a
company’s visual and verbal communications and has external influences. The assessment of
educational style informs that the concepts of corporate logo and corporate image have tired the
concern of authors. It also indicates that the two disciplines have been addressed individually of one
another. Therefore, there is no hint from the analysis of text that there is any connection between
these two disciplines. As a result, an effort will be made in this study to create the relationship
between these two disciplines.
Chapter 3
Theoretical Framework

3- THEORATICAL FRAMEWORK :

Corporate Corporate
Logo image

Independent Dependent
Variable Variable

3.1- Corporate image depends on Corporate Logo :


The corporate image is depend on the Corporate logo. If the logo of the corporate will be good it will
increase the corporate value. The colour , size , sign , words , etc of the logo are the factors that have
their impact on the corporate image. If all these factors are attractive and meaningfull these will
create positive picture in the minds of the customers or the public, about the company. This is all
about what consumer perceive about the company through its logo. The corporate logo also have
influence on the stakeholders of the company. The corporate logo is also helpful and meaningful in
binding the stakeholders with the company.

3.2- Hypothesis :
Ho ; There is a relationship between corporate logo and the corporate image.
H1 ; There is no relationship between corporate logo and the corporate image.
Chapter 4
Research Methodology

4-METHODOLOGY:
4.1- Research Methodology:
The procedure used to gather information and data for the reason of making decisions. The method
may contain periodical research, interviews, surveys and other research techniques, and could
comprise both present and past information. For example, the research methodology enabled the
team to arrange their hard work into one solid and theoretical product idea production mission for us.
( Business Dictionary )

4.2- Research Design:


The research design refers to the overall approach that you decide to join together the different
elements of the study in a sound and valid way, thus, ensuring you will successfully address the
research problem; it constitutes the design for the gathering, measurement, and study of data.
A thorough sketch of how an examination will take place. A research design usually contain how
data is to be composed, what instruments will be used and the planned means for analyzing data
collected.

4.2.1-Purpose Of The Study:


There may be three purposes of the study:
a- Exploratory Study
b- Descriptive Study
c- Inferential Study

4.2.1.1- Exploratory Study:


An exploratory study is undertaken when not much is known about the state at hand or no
information is on hand on how analogous problems or research issues have been solved.

4.2.1.2- Descriptive Study:


A descriptive study is undertaken in order to determine and be able to describes the uniqueness of the
variables of interest in a position.
4.2.1.3- Hypothesis Testing:
A hypothesis testing is a statistical test that is used to determine whether there is enough evidence in
a sample of data to infer that a certain condition is true for the entire population. Based on the sample
data , the test determines whether to reject the null hypothesis.

My study is based on exploration as not too much data is available at hand and I have no information
as how this study issues have been solved in past by others, it is descriptive as it describe the features
of the dependent and independent variables of the interest under study, it is also based on hypothesis
testing as I will conclude it through the testing of hypothesis by applying different statistical tests.

4.2.2-Types Of Investigation:
There are two forms of investigation:
I- Causal Relationship
II- Correlations

4.2.2.1- Causal Relationship:


The study in which the researcher wants to explain the cause of one or more problems is called
causal relationship.

4.2.2.2- correlation:
When the researcher is concerned in describe the important variables connected with the problems
the study is called co-relational study.
The type of investigation of my study is causal relationship as well as correlation. As in my study I
want to describe the cause of independent variable (corporate logo) on the dependent variable
(corporate image) and the relationship between dependent and independent variables.

4.2.3- Extent Of Researcher Interference:


The level of hindrance by the researcher with the normal course of work. The researcher tries to
direct variables so as to study its effects on dependent variables. It is a purposeful effort to change
definite variable and snooping with the dealings.
4.2.3.1- Minimal Interference:
The studies which are conducted in the natural environment of the organization with the least
interference by the researcher with the normal course of work is called minimal interference.
My study is based on minimal interference as I conducted my research study in natural environment
with minimum interference by me in the normal flow of work.

4.2.4- Study Setting:


4.2.4.1- Non Contrived Setting:
Non contrived settings are those settings in which the organizational research is done in natural
environment where work takings generally. Co-relational studies are typically conducted in non
contrived settings.
The setting of my study is non contrived as I conducted my research study in the natural environment
rather than artificial environment, where my work continued normally.

4.2.5- Measurement & Measures:


4.2.5.1- Operational Definition:
Definition of a construct in computable terms by reducing it from its level of generalization through
the explanation of its proportions and basics.
Items in my study are the dependent and independent variables. The dependent variable in my study
is corporate image and the independent variable in my study is corporate logo. I used ratio scale as a
measurement and in ratio scale I used 5-point likert scale. I categorized scale from strongly disagree
to strongly agree as, strongly disagree, disagree, neither disagree nor agree, agree, strongly agree. I
also gave these categories coding from 1 to 5 as, 1, 2 , 3, 4, 5.

4.2.6- Unit Of Analysis:


The unit of analysis refers to the level of aggregation of the data composed during the later data
analysis stage. If for example, the problem statement focuses on how to raise the motivational levels
of employees in common, then we are concerned in individual employees in the organization and
would have to ground out that we can do to raise their motivation. Here the unit of analysis is the
individual. We will be looking at the data gathered from each individual and treating each
employee's reply as an individual data source. If we study organization, the study of the processes
that differentiate all kinds of organization. e.g.; Business firm, government agencies etc.
The unit of analysis of my study is organization. I collected data from the members of the
organization for the analysis of my research study.

4.2.6.1- Population:
Population refers to the whole group of people, events, or things of interest the researcher wants to
explore. The target population for this research is all the sectors of the Punjab economy for data
relating to corporate logo and corporate image.

4.2.6.2- Sample:
The courier part of the population is called sample. The sampling frame was based on time series
annual data of the independent and dependent variables. This sampled based on available data for
corporate logo and corporate image. The sample is Lahore city from the whole Punjab. The
research is conducted from all the colleges of Lahore.

4.2.7- Sampling Design:


4.2.7.1- Non Probability Sampling:
A process in which the personal estimation determines which unit of the population are selected for
the sample is known as non probability sampling. It is also called non random sampling.
.

4.2.7.1.1- Convenience Sampling:


Convenience sampling refers to the gathering of information from the members of the population
who are straightforwardly accessible to provide information.
I used non probability sampling design in my study and I chose convenience sampling from non
probability sampling. The population of my study is the colleges of the Punjab and the sample of my
study is Lahore colleges for representing the whole population.

4.2.8- Time Horizon:


4.2.8.1- Cross Sectional Studies:
A study can be done in which data are gathered just once, maybe over a particular period of days or
weeks or months, in order to answer a research question. Such studies are called one shot or cross
sectional studies.
My study is cross sectional or one shot study as in my study I gathered data for my study just once
for answering my study's research questions.
.

4.2.9-Data Collection Method:


I select questionnaire method for collecting information on the role of corporate logo on the
corporate image. Questionnaire method is simple and useful for gathering data from number of
people in one time. Data is gathered from the students of the colleges of Lahore that are selected as a
sample.

4.2.10- Data Analysis:


"Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, refinement, transforming, and modeling data with
the aim of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision
making."(Wikipedia)
Of greater interest is how the best heights of input practice change in reaction to variations in the
effective environment. Comparative analysis was help to create the path of change in the
endogenous variables in reaction to variations in the exogenous variables. The endogenous
variables are the measures that are in the firm’s control. These variables contain the size, shape,
color, word mark of the logo etc.
Chapter 5
Analysis and Results
5- Descriptive Statistics:
Descriptive statistics are used to examine the records, all in purpose to inspect the control and relation
among corporate logo to corporate image in Punjab. The method for data collection is corporate logo in
enhancing corporate image to Punjab. The investigation used the Statistical Package for Social Sciences
(SPSS) to assessment the consequence of the correlation of the variables.

5.1- Demographic Statistics:

Age of Qualification of Gender of Marital Status of


Respondent Respondent Respondent Respondent
N Valid 50 50 50 50
Missing 0 0 0 0
Mean 1.3600 1.5600 2.0000 1.2400
Median 1.0000 1.0000 2.0000 1.0000
Mode 1.00 1.00 2.00 1.00
Std. Deviation .48487 .70450 .00000 .43142
Variance .235 .496 .000 .186
Range 1.00 2.00 .00 1.00

5.1.1- Demographic Profile of Respondent:


Majority of our respondents are fall in the age of 11-20 years. It means that we have collected
most of our data from youngsters. Mostly respondent's qualification is intermediate.
Respondents are all females. Approximately 25% of respondents are married and remaining
75% of respondents are single.
Figure 1

Figure 2
Figure 3

Figure 4
5.2- Descriptive Analysis:
Table 1
5.2.1- Descriptive Summary:

Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
N Valid 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50
Missing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Mean 3.2200 3.3200 3.1800 2.9000 2.7800 2.9400 2.6200 3.4200 2.9200 3.3600
Median 4.0000 3.0000 3.0000 3.0000 3.0000 3.0000 2.0000 4.0000 3.0000 3.0000
Mode 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 1.00 4.00 4.00 3.00
Std. Deviation 1.38932 .89077 1.27279 1.29756 1.16567 1.23569 1.46928 1.32619 1.14000 1.30556
Variance 1.930 .793 1.620 1.684 1.359 1.527 2.159 1.759 1.300 1.704
Range 4.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00

5.3- Reliability Coefficient Of All Variables


5.3.1- Reliability Analysis

Reliability Statistics
Cranach's Cranach's N of items
Alpha Alpha Based
On Standardized
Items

.469 .466 10

Cranach's Alpha is a Reliability Coefficient. Cranach's Alpha should be 0.7. But, in my research study
Cranach's Alpha is 0.5 after round off the values.
5.4- Correlation Analysis:
Correlation shows significance. Value of Pearson Correlation should be in between +1 to -1 to judge
the relation.

5.4.1- Correlation Matrix:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 1

2 .321 1

3 .277 .311 1

4 -.361 .942 .233 1

5 .823 .453 .391 .355 1

6 .493 -.297 .92 .193 .949 1

7 .414 .237 .190 .397 .632 .268 1

8 .237 .696 .208 .941 .220 .217 .886 1

9 .289 .488 .514 .257 .196 .981 .707 .556 1

10 .879 -.189 .230 .251 .714 .251 .835 .371 -.296 1

* Correlation analysis is significant at the 0.05 level (two- tailed)


** Correlation analysis is highly significant at the 0.01 level (two- tailed)
Chapter 6
Conclusion, Limitations
6- Conclusion:
6.1- Discussion:
In this chapter, conclusions are stressed from the systematic results of the earlier chapter and
supports made to inform any future policy planned at engaging corporate logo while taking into
account the corporate image in Punjab. The boundaries to this research project are also highlight with
reference of areas for further study to promote the knowledge on corporate logo causes in Punjab and
better understand the relationship between corporate logo and corporate image.

6.2- Conclusion:
From this research we conclude that that the influence of corporate logo on corporate image is
unimportant in Punjab. We also reminder that the relationship between the two variables is confident
hence we conclude that an improvement in the logos can enhance the the organization image though
the influence is weak. However other research procedures can be applied in future researches to see
if this conclusion is constant.

6.3- Limitations:
While this thesis focuses on the topics of company logos, identity and image, several other related
concentrations can come to mired. In the effort to keep on focused, the following information was
not included in the thesis study and research:
1) Throughout the literature, it is dearly stated that a logo is not the only component of a corporate
identity system. Olins said that everything the organization does-including its products, building, and
communication materials--must be an "affirmation of its identity." This thesis will not explore these
other components nor offer suggestions, information or examples of how important they are to the
identity systems It is limited to a discussion on how the logo works as an identifier and contributes to
image, among these components.
2) It is very important for companies to research the response that their logo evokes. "The foundation
of the behavioral sciences concerns itself with the study of the outward and visible symbols. It
follows then that graphic designers should familiarize themselves with the findings of psychologists
and zoologists." Most logos could be classified as symbols-something that represents or suggests
another thing. The Swiss psychologist Carl Jung asserted that symbols have an ancient deeply rooted
and powerful meaning. However, this thesis does not discuss semi logy or semiotics, which
"examines the correspondence between signs and symbols and their role in the assignment of
meaning." In addition, this thesis does not review the psychology behind using various elements of a
logo-color, typeface and graphics.
3) Advertisements usually illustrate meaning to consumers through certain signs or symbols. For
example, a cigarette ad showing a couple standing in clear blue water would perhaps associate that
brand of cigarettes with such ideas as sex, freshness, coolness -or paradise. This is referred to as
"product symbolism"--what a product or brand means to consumers and what they experience in
purchasing and using it. This kind of discussion goes beyond this discovery of a logo's contribution
to corporate image.
4) Many consumer package-goods companies use product packaging to communicate with
consumers and create an impression of the brand and the company.40 While the product is an
important part of corporate
identity, this thesis does not discuss treatment of the logo in product package design. For example, in
1991 Pepsi products appeared with a new logo and package design. The new logo ran the word
"Pepsi' vertically along cans and horizontally along bottles. One reason for the change was to make
Pepsi easily recognizable on the store shelf.
5) Finally, research for this thesis concentrated on the realm of corporate identity and image in the
United States. The researcher did not explore how logos can be tailored for international identity and
image considerations. Companies have to be concerned with the scope of their business
communications and products in other countries because the meaning of logos and images may not
be the same as they are in America.

6.4- Recommendations:
Several other studies might show how a company logo contributes to corporate image. However, a
general study like the thesis survey and Logo Value Survey does not account for such factors as an
individual's preconceived opinions about a company, a company's target audience, the saturation of
the logo in the marketplace and the length of lime that a logo has been used. The surveys also does
not account for the contribution of collateral marketing efforts such as point-of-purchase, advertising,
sales promotion and public relations. For future studies, a focus panel can help pinpoint hew people
feel about certain companies when they view the logo. Panel participants could be asked what they
think a certain logo conveys. They can be asked to identify icons company logos without the
company name--to see how well they recognize a company's identifier.
Another study similar to the thesis survey could test the use of color by presenting one group with
company logos in full color and another group with the same logos in black and white. The 1992
Logo Value Survey showed that color was a "big contributor to how a logo affected perceptions." If
other researchers desire to replicate the thesis survey, they should use a larger variety of logo style
types--typographic, descriptive or abstract--instead of mostly typographic styles such as those
presented in the thesis survey, This could perhaps show which types are better contributors to
corporate image.
Another study could test classic logos such as Ford, Kellogg's and Goodyear versus newer logos to
see whether logo longevity affects people's perceptions of a company. Den eve noted that some
designers feel a corporate identity system should be designed to last only a decade. While a number
of logo studies could be conducted in general, companies should conduct their own research to
ensure that their logo 'reflects the company's identity and helps to mold its image in a positive way."
Enter an organization's public relations department to the picture, Since public relations practitioners
are concerned with corporate-image building, it makes sense that they control the logo's
development, application and implementation. However, if public relations practitioners analyze the
results of the thesis survey and Logo Value Survey, they may wonder about the value of their
company logo. Often company logos will come under review when a change of management occurs,
or the chief executive officer tires of the logo. It's up to the public relations specialist to step in and
talk about how the current logo helps project the company's identity and contributes to the corporate
image. The public relations person should know if there is a match or mismatch between a company's
identity, logo and its public image.
References:
 Adler, E. W. (1993). Everymnes guide to sulccessfl publications Berkeley, CA:
Feachpit.
 Argyle, M. (1975). Bodily commnrncatHin. New York: International Universities.
 Austin, M. J., & Brumfield, L. (1991). P&G's run-in with the devil. BDuiness ad
sodet Reeview. 16-19.
 Baird, R, N., McDonald, D., Pitftan, R. K., & Turnbull, A. T. (1993). IE1
graphics of ornimmucatiion. Philadelphia: -arcourt Brace Jovanovich.

 Melewar, T.C., Saunders, J, (1999), “International corporate visual identity:


 standardization or localization?”, Journal of International Business Studies
Fall Vol. 30 i3 pp. 583(1).
 Melewar, T.C., Meadow, M. (2004), “The influence of culture on brand building in the
Chinese market: a brief insight”, Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 11 No.
6, pp. 449-61.
 Olins, W. (1989), “Corporate Identity: Making Business Strategy Visible through
Design”, Thames & Hudson, London.
 Padgett, D. and Allen, D, (1997), “Communicating experiences: a narrative approach to
creating service brand image”, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 49
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 Van den Bosch, A.L.M., De Jong, M.D.T. and Elving, W.J.L. (2005), “How corporate
visual identity supports reputation”, Corporate Communications: An
International Journal, Vol. 10 No.2, pp.108-16.
 Westwood, R.I., and Kirkbride, P.S, (1998), “International strategies of corporate culture
change: emulation, consumption and hybridity”, Journal of Organizational
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 Dutton, J.E., Dike rich, J.M., Marquis, V.V, (1994), " Organizational images and member
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Appendix:

The Role Of Corporate Logo Questionnaire

Dear Sir/Madam,
I am the student of Govt. Post Graduate Islamia College for Women, Cooper Road Lahore, I am
conducting research on The role of corporate Logo and i assure you that your information will be kept
personal. This survey is conducted to obtain information that will help my research on “The Role Of
Corporate Logo” and I also wanted to identify the wants and needs of organization’s employees.

Demographics:
Name: _______________________ Age: _____________Qualifications: ______________
Gender: _____________Marital Status: _____________

These options are provided for the following questions:


1. Strongly Disagree 2. Disagree 3.Neither Disagree nor Agree
4. Agree 5. Strongly Agree

Serial The Role Of Corporate Logo 1 2 3 4 5


No.
1 Would you like to appear the logo in its current design?

2 Do you have short tagline you will sometimes use, when


appropriate, with your logo?
3 Are there any well known logos that you particularly like?

4 Would you like to change your company's logo or its


design?
5 Are there any adjectives that describe what you hope to
communicate with your logo?
6 Do you have any particular point of emphasis you want to
see in the design?
7 Are there any images or concepts you DO NOT want to
see?
8 Will the logo be used in print, online, signs or other
materials?
9 Are there any colors that you DO NOT want to use?
10 Would you like any addition design services to be
packaged with your logo?