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# Project : Analysis of car front bumper and observing the effect of using different materials on the stress

## What kind of material is needed:

Function of a bumper is to absorb maximum energy gained during a collision, transmitting minimum
energy to the car and driver, and thus protect the rest of the car body. To fulfill this criteria bumper
material should have high shock or impact resistance.

## Fig. front bumper model

Research concentrates mainly on polymer composite material. It is considering their function, geometry,
and other parameters that influence the compatibility of the bumper.

## Different material I will be using in analysis:

Steel: TRIP 780(C: 0.12 – 0.55%; Mn: 0.20 – 2.5 %; Si: 0.40 – 1.8 %)

## 2. For analysis: Ansys

Steps to be followed while analyzing the front bumper for different materials:

1. Assigning material properties like density, youngs modulus, poisson ratio, etc

2. Defining properties of the model imported like 2D, elements (shell, quads, trias)

## 4. Applying loads and boundary conditions

5. Setting the type of analysis to be performed (eg. Linear static, modal, thermal)

## 7. Viewing the displacement and stress results.

Nonlinear analysis

1. Material Nonlinearity
When the materials move into the zone beyond it's yield strengths, it no longer behaves in a linear fashion. There are many things
that happen when material go into this zone:

 Permanent deformations: This means that when the material is unloaded it will not go back to it's original shape or
position. For example if you take a plastic bag and stretch it, after a certain point even if you release the bag you will see the
permanent stretch marks. This is called permanent deformation.
 Cracking: Generally this occurs in linear design as well, but we neglect the cracking of concrete, even though we still
consider the reduced stiffness of members while doing seismic design, but still it is an assumed value. While in nonlinear
analysis we monitor the cracking and so concrete will crack and member will start losing its stiffness.
 Beam rotations: When a beam is subjected to moments greater than it's capacity, it no longer resists the moments, instead
it rotates and forms a plastic hinge and start dissipating energy. This is a part of material nonlinearity but for beams it is
called backbone curve (aka F-D relationship). In case of linear design we do not case for anything greater than the capacity of
the member.
 Energy Dissipation: In linear analysis, energy dissipation is in the form of strain energy, while in case of nonlinear analysis
it is in the form of inelastic energy in addition to strain energy dissipation.

These were a few generalized things that came to my mind while looking at nonlinear analysis.

This is what happens in nonlinear analysis. If a member goes beyond its capacity (elastic limit), it will experience some sort of strain
hardening or cracking and it will start losing its stiffness which also means that the total stiffness of the structure or building is also
changing. Thus what you do is, you load the structure and see if it went into nonlinear stage, if it does then we see how much the
material has cracked also know as softening of structure. If the loss in stiffness is significant and the results or the energy balance do
not converge, we iterate the same process and do the analysis again. This cycle will go on till the desired accuracy is achieved. Thus a
nonlinear analysis takes longer than a linear analysis because of such loses in stiffness and its iterative nature. But this was talking
about a nonlinear static analysis.

As I mentioned before, a linear analysis cannot give a complete picture as what can happen to the structure if an earthquake hits.
Today we have the ability to create a mathematical model which to around 90% of the accuracy can give us results which again
depends on modelling assumptions and the detail at which it is done. But it gives us an idea whether everything is okay or not. But to
everyone's utmost surprise, the linear dynamic analysis gives a far off result. For example, in case of a beam which is subjected to
earthquake shakes. It will experience some force but that force is limited. And we design the beam to that limited force. When we
check the same beam for actual earthquake (The one which is not limited) and see check the beam, many times structural engineers
find that the beam is actually getting shattered. Now with increased load we definitely expect some rotations but shattering of beam
is just not acceptable.

## So this is the benefit of nonlinear analysis over linear analysis.

2. Geometric Nonlinearity

The most famous geometric nonlinearity is P-Delta analysis. A force follower approach. (I am copying the data from my other
answer over here)
8.1 What is Structural Nonlinearity?
You encounter structural nonlinearities on a routine basis. For instance, whenever you
staple two pieces of paper together, the metal staples are permanently bent into a
different shape. (See Figure 8-1(a).) If you heavily load a wooden shelf, it will sag
more and more as time passes. (See Figure 8-1(b).) As weight is added to a car or
truck, the contact surfaces between its pneumatic tires and the underlying pavement
change in response to the added load. (See Figure 8-1(c).) If you were to plot the load-
deflection curve for each of these examples, you would discover that they all exhibit
the fundamental characteristic of nonlinear structural behavior-a changing structural
stiffness.

## 8.1.1 Causes of Nonlinear Behavior

Nonlinear structural behavior arises from a number of causes, which can be grouped
into three principal categories:

## Many common structural features exhibit nonlinear behavior that is status-dependent.

For example, a tension-only cable is either slack or taut; a roller support is either in
contact or not in contact. Status changes might be directly related to load (as in the
case of the cable), or they might be determined by some external cause.
Situations in which contact occurs are common to many different nonlinear
applications. Contact forms a distinctive and important subset to the category of
changing-status nonlinearities.

See Chapter 9 for detailed information on performing contact analyses using ANSYS.

## If a structure experiences large deformations, its changing geometric configuration

can cause the structure to respond nonlinearly. An example would be the fishing rod
shown in Figure 8-2. Geometric nonlinearity is characterized by "large" displacements
and/or rotations.

## Nonlinear stress-strain relationships are a common cause of nonlinear structural

behavior. Many factors can influence a material's stress-strain properties, including
load history (as in elasto-plastic response), environmental conditions (such as
temperature), and the amount of time that a load is applied (as in creep response).

## 8.1.2 Basic Information About Nonlinear Analyses

ANSYS employs the "Newton-Raphson" approach to solve nonlinear problems. In
this approach, the load is subdivided into a series of load increments. The load
increments can be applied over several load steps. Figure 8-3 illustrates the use of
Newton-Raphson equilibrium iterations in a single DOF nonlinear analysis.

## Figure 8-3 Newton-Raphson approach

Before each solution, the Newton-Raphson method evaluates the out-of-balance load
vector, which is the difference between the restoring forces (the loads corresponding
to the element stresses) and the applied loads. The program then performs a linear
solution, using the out-of-balance loads, and checks for convergence. If convergence
criteria are not satisfied, the out-of-balance load vector is re-evaluated, the stiffness
matrix is updated, and a new solution is obtained. This iterative procedure continues
until the problem converges.

## A number of convergence-enhancement and recovery features, such as line search,

automatic load stepping, and bisection, can be activated to help the problem to
converge. If convergence cannot be achieved, then the program attempts to solve with
a smaller load increment.

In some nonlinear static analyses, if you use the Newton-Raphson method alone, the
tangent stiffness matrix may become singular (or non-unique), causing severe
convergence difficulties. Such occurrences include nonlinear buckling analyses in
which the structure either collapses completely or "snaps through" to another stable
configuration. For such situations, you can activate an alternative iteration scheme,
the arc-length method, to help avoid bifurcation points and track unloading.

## The arc-length method causes the Newton-Raphson equilibrium iterations to converge

along an arc, thereby often preventing divergence, even when the slope of the load vs.
deflection curve becomes zero or negative. This iteration method is represented
schematically in Figure 8-4.