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INCAS BULLETIN
(Print) ISSN 2066–8201
(Online) ISSN 2247–4528 Journal website: http://bulletin.incas.ro/
ISSN–L 2066–8201
DOI: 10.13111/2066–8201; https://doi.org/10.13111/2066-8201
Note: Both versions (online and print) are identical.
 INCAS BULLETIN is Open Access (OA).
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Publisher: INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”


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Phone: +4021 4340083, Fax: +4021 4340082;
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Contact person: Elena NEBANCEA
Copyright © INCAS, 2009-2017. All rights reserved.

Registration code: (Online) ISSN 2247-4528 http://bulletin.incas.ro/index.html


(Print) ISSN 2066-8201
ISSN–L 2066-8201
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201
Romanian National Library
ISSN National Center

INCAS – NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH “ELIE CARAFOLI”


B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, 061126 Bucharest, Romania
Phone: +4021 4340083; Fax: +4021 4340082
E-mail: incas@incas.ro; http://www.incas.ro
INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research under the aegis of The
“Elie Carafoli” Romanian Academy

INCAS BULLETIN
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201

VOLUME 9
ISSUE 3
July – September, 2017
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201.2017.9.3

BUCHAREST  ROMANIA

i
INCAS BULLETIN
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Copyright © INCAS, 2009-2017. All rights reserved.

ii
EDITORIAL BOARD

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
RUXANDRA BOTEZ  University of Quebec, Department of Automated Production
Engineering, H3C 1K3 Montreal, Quebec, Canada
E-mail: Ruxandra.Botez@etsmtl.ca

EXECUTIVE EDITORS
CORNELIU BERBENTE  University “Politehnica” of Bucharest, Department of Aerospace
Sciences “Elie Carafoli”, 010737 Bucharest, Romania
E-mail: berbente@yahoo.com
VICTOR GIURGIUTIU  University of South Carolina, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
SC 29208 Columbia, USA
E-mail: giurgiut@cec.sc.edu

HONORARY EDITOR
DAN PANTAZOPOL  Aerospace Consulting, 061126 Bucharest, Romania
E-mail: pantazopol.dan@incas.ro

EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS


MIHAI ARGHIR  Institut Pprime, Université de Poitiers, ENSMA, UPR CNRS 3346
SP2MI, 11 Bd. Pierre et Marie Curie, BP 30179
86962 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex, France
E-mail: mihai.arghir@univ-poitiers.fr
HAIM BARUH  Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University
98 Brett Road, Piscataway, N.J. 08854, USA
E-mail: baruh@jove.rutgers.edu
PAUL CIZMAS  Department of Aerospace Engineering, Texas A&M University
H. R. Bright Bldg., Room 631B, 3141 TAMU,
College Station, TX 77843-3141, USA
E-mail: cizmas@tamu.edu
GEORGE S. DULIKRAVICH  Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida
International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, EC 3462, Miami,
Florida 33174, USA
E-mail: dulikrav@fiu.edu
HORIA DUMITRESCU  Institute of Mathematical Statistics and Applied Mathematics “Gheorghe
Mihoc  Caius Iacob” of Romanian Academy, 050711 Bucharest,
Romania
E-mail: horiadumitrescu@yahoo.com
VICTOR MANOLIU  Aerospace Consulting, 061126 Bucharest, Romania
E-mail: manoliu.victor@incas.ro
JEAN-CHARLES MARÉ  Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Toulouse, Institut Clément
Ader (INSA de Toulouse), 135 Avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse,
France
E-mail: jean-charles.mare@insa-toulouse.fr
DAN MATEESCU  McGill University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, H3A 2K6
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
E-mail: dan.mateescu@mcgill.ca
ARUN MISRA  McGill University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, H3A 2K6
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
E-mail: arun.misra@mcgill.ca
FLORIN MUNTEANU  Aerospace Consulting, 061126 Bucharest, Romania
E-mail: munteanu.florin@incas.ro

iii
EDITORIAL BOARD

CATALIN NAE  INCAS  National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”,
061126 Bucharest, Romania
E-mail: nae.catalin@incas.ro
ILINCA NASTASE  Building Services Engineering Faculty, Technical University of Civil
Engineering, 020396 Bucharest, Romania
E-mail: ilinca.nastase@gmail.com
PAVEL NEČAS  Vysoká škola bezpeènostného manažérstva v Košiciach/ University of
Security Management in Kosice, Slovakia
E-mail: pavel.necas@vsbm.sk
TITUS PETRILA  Babes-Bolyai University, No.1 Mihail Kogalniceanu, 400084 Cluj-
Napoca, Romania
E-mail: aosrtransilvania@yahoo.com
CRISTIAN POSTOLACHE  Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering,
P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele, Romania
E-mail: cristip@nipne.ro
DIMITRIS SARAVANOS  University of Patras, Department of Mechanical Engineering &
Aeronautics, Applied Mechanics Laboratory, 26500 Patras, Greece
E-mail: saravanos@mech.upatras.gr
GEORGE SAVU  COMOTI  National Research and Development Institute for Gas
Turbines, 061126 Bucharest, Romania
E-mail: george.savu@comoti.ro
DIETER SCHOLZ  Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW), Department of
Automotive and Aeronautical Engineering, Aircraft Design and Systems
Group (AERO), Berliner Tor 9, 20099 Hamburg, Germany
E-mail: info@profscholz.de
TUDOR SIRETEANU  Institute of Solid Mechanics of the Romanian Academy, 10141
Bucharest, Romania
E-mail: siret@imsar.bu.edu.ro
IOAN URSU  INCAS  National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”,
061126 Bucharest, Romania
E-mail: ursu.ioan@incas.ro

EDITORIAL OFFICE
ELENA NEBANCEA  Editorial secretary and webmaster
INCAS  National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”,
061126 Bucharest, Romania
E-mail: nebancea.elena@incas.ro
LAVINIA BOSILCA  English translation
INCAS  National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”,
061126 Bucharest, Romania
E-mail: bosilca.lavinia@incas.ro
EMIL COSTEA  Graphic cover
INCAS  National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”,
061126 Bucharest, Romania
E-mail: costea.emil@incas.ro

iv
INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017

C ONTENTS

F ULL P APERS ………………………………………………………………. 1


 Irina-Carmen ANDREI, Determination of a Two Variable Approximation
Function with Application to the Fuel Combustion Charts ………………….. 3

 Alexandru-Mihai CISMILIANU, Camelia Elena MUNTEANU, Ionut-Cosmin


ONCESCU, Radu-Petru BIBIRE, Valentin STOENESCU, Mihai Victor
PRICOP, Elisabeth REY, Sébastien EYRIGNOUX, End-to-end process of
hollow spacecraft structures with high frequency and low mass obtained
with in-house structural optimization tool and additive manufacturing ……. 13

 Calin-Dumitru COMAN, Comparative study between 2D and 3D FEM


techniques in single bolt, single lap, composite bolted joints for space
structures ………………………………………………………………………… 21
 Horia DUMITRESCU, Vladimir CARDOS, Nearest Wall Flows – the Genuine
Turbulence ………………………………………………………………………. 37
 Alexandru IONEL, Performance evaluation of propulsion systems as LEO
deorbiting devices ……………………………………………………………….. 55
 Ishaan PRAKASH, Prithwish MUKHERJEE, Ravichandrakumar KB, Design
and analysis pertaining to the aerodynamic and stability characteristics of a
hybrid wing-body cargo aircraft ……………………………………………….. 71
 Vasile PRISACARIU, Flight Performance of the Biological Lifting Surface ... 87
 Adriana STEFAN, Cristina-Elisabeta PELIN, George PELIN, Oleg SMORYGO,
Vitali MIKUTSKI, Mechanical testing of CFRP materials for application as
skins of sandwich composites …………………………………………………... 97
 Gabriela STROE, Irina-Carmen ANDREI, Tiberiu Adrian SALAORU, Design
of Air Traffic Control Operation System ……………………………………… 105

 Gabriela STROE, Irina-Carmen ANDREI, Tiberiu Adrian SALAORU, Dynamic


Performances of the Automatic Flight Control System ……………………… 121

 Oliviu SUGAR-GABOR, Discrete Adjoint-Based Simultaneous Analysis and


Design Approach for Conceptual Aerodynamic Optimization ……………… 133
 Dan TURCANU, Laurentiu MORARU, A review of some basic aspects related
to integration of airplane’s equations of motion ……………………………… 149

v
Contents

T ECHNICAL -S CIENTIFIC N OTES AND R EPORTS ………………..... 157


 Tiberiu Adrian SALAORU, Irina-Carmen ANDREI, Gabriela STROE,
Mechanical guided waves for fuel level monitoring system ………………….. 159

I N D E X ….…………………………………………..…………………… ……. 167

I N S T RU CT I O NS AND E D I T I N G M O D E L ……………………………… ….. 171

P UBLICATION E THICS A ND P UBLICATION M ALPRACTICE S TATEMENT 176

vi
1 Full Papers

F ULL P APERS

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 1 – 2 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
Full Papers 2

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017


Determination of a Two Variable Approximation Function
with Application to the Fuel Combustion Charts

Irina-Carmen ANDREI*

*Corresponding author
INCAS ‒ National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”,
B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, Bucharest 061126, Romania,
andrei.irina@incas.ro, icandrei28178@gmail.com
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201.2017.9.3.1

Received: 22 May 2017/ Accepted: 20 July 2017/ Published: September 2017


Copyright©2017. Published by INCAS. This is an “open access” article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

5th International Workshop on Numerical Modelling in Aerospace Sciences, NMAS 2017,


17-18 May 2017, Bucharest, Romania, (held at INCAS, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, sector 6)
Section 1 – Launchers propulsion technologies and simulations of rocket engines

Abstract: Following the demands of the design and performance analysis in case of liquid fuel
propelled rocket engines, as well as the trajectory optimization, the development of efficient codes,
which frequently need to call the Fuel Combustion Charts, became an important matter. This paper
presents an efficient solution to the issue; the author has developed an original approach to determine
the non-linear approximation function of two variables: the chamber pressure and the nozzle exit
pressure ratio. The numerical algorithm based on this two variable approximation function is more
efficient due to its simplicity, capability to providing numerical accuracy and prospects for an
increased convergence rate of the optimization codes.
Key Words: approximation of two-variable functions, Propellant Combustion Charts, liquid
propulsion, rocket engines

1. INTRODUCTION
Thrust evaluation or thrust prediction at different flight regimes, as well as the analysis of
flight dynamics and trajectory optimization are important milestones for both the design and
performance analysis of liquid propelled rocket engines.
For a realistic and accurate prediction of the rocket engines global on- and off-design
performances, the Propellant Combustion Charts [1] are required which provide
graphically the correlations between the chamber pressure pc , exit pressure conditions pe
(i.e. burned gas expelled at ambient pressure or in vacuum) and mixture ratio r (which
expresses the ratio of Oxygen to Fuel O/F), adiabatic flame temperature Tc (also referred as
the Chamber Temperature), gas molecular weight M w and specific heat ratio  , (also
referred as the adiabatic power coefficient), for different types and combinations of fuel and
oxidizer, [1].
Fig. 1 ÷ Fig. 4 shows the Combustion Charts for the study case: Liquid Oxygen and
Kerosene (n-Dodecane, C12 H 26 ), [1].

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 3 – 11 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
End-to-end process of hollow spacecraft structures with
high frequency and low mass obtained with in-house
structural optimization tool and additive manufacturing

Alexandru-Mihai CISMILIANU*,1, Camelia Elena MUNTEANU1,


Ionut-Cosmin ONCESCU1, Radu-Petru BIBIRE1, Valentin STOENESCU1,
Mihai Victor PRICOP1, Elisabeth REY2, Sébastien EYRIGNOUX2

*Corresponding author
1
INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”,
B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, Bucharest 061126, Romania,
cismilianu.alexandru@incas.ro*, munteanu.camelia@incas.ro,
oncescu.ionut@incas.ro, bibire.radu@incas.ro, stoenescu.valentin@incas.ro,
pricop.victor@incas.ro,
2
LAAM - LISI AEROSPACE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING Powered by
POLY-SHAPE, 2, route Robert Algayon, Ayguemorte-les-Graves 33640, France,
elisabeth.rey@lisi-aerospace-am.com
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201.2017.9.3.2

Received: 12 June 2017/ Accepted: 03 July 2017/ Published: September 2017


Copyright©2017. Published by INCAS. This is an “open access” article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

5th International Workshop on Numerical Modelling in Aerospace Sciences, NMAS 2017,


17-18 May 2017, Bucharest, Romania, (held at INCAS, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, sector 6)
Section 1 – Launchers propulsion technologies and simulations of rocket engines

Abstract: In the space sector the most decisive elements are: mass reduction, cost saving and
minimum lead time; here, structural optimization and additive layer manufacturing (ALM) fit best.
The design must be driven by stiffness, because an important requirement for spacecraft (S/C)
structures is to reduce the dynamic coupling between the S/C and the launch vehicle. The objective is
to create an end-to-end process, from the input given by the customer to the manufacturing of an
aluminum part as light as possible but at the same time considerably stiffer while taking the full
advantage of the design flexibility given by ALM. To design and optimize the parts, a specialized in-
house tool was used, guaranteeing a load-sufficient material distribution. Using topological
optimization, the iterations between the design and the stress departments were diminished, thus
greatly reducing the lead time. In order to improve and lighten the obtained structure a design with
internal cavities and hollow beams was considered. This implied developing of a procedure for
powder evacuation through iterations with the manufacturer while optimizing the design for ALM.
The resulted part can be then manufactured via ALM with no need of further design adjustments. To
achieve a high-quality part with maximum efficiency, it is essential to have a loop between the design
team and the manufacturer. Topological optimization and ALM work hand in hand if used properly.
The team achieved a more efficient structure using topology optimization and ALM, than using
conventional design and manufacturing methods.
Key Words: end-to-end, in-house tool, structural optimization, topology optimization, 3D Printing,
additive manufacturing, ALM, hollow, powder removal, metal powders, high frequency, low mass,
space applications, mass reduction, cost saving, minimum lead time
INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 13 – 20 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
Comparative study between 2D and 3D FEM techniques in
single bolt, single lap, composite bolted joints for space
structures

Calin-Dumitru COMAN*

*Corresponding author
INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”,
B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, Bucharest 061126, Romania,
coman.calin@incas.ro
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201.2017.9.3.3

Received: 13 July 2017/ Accepted: 21 August 2017/ Published: September 2017


Copyright©2017. Published by INCAS. This is an “open access” article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

Abstract: Two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element models have been developed to study
the effects of bolt-hole clearance on the mechanical behavior of bolted composites (graphite/epoxy)
joints in space structures. The type of the studied joint was single bolt, single lap, and the geometry is
a standard type for these kind of composite joints space structures. In this study, two approaches, 2D
(linear analysis) and 3D (nonlinear analysis) were developed and the results were compared to
numerical and experiment results from literature. The contact between the parts affecting the
accuracy and efficiency of the models is detailed. The model’s capability to predict the three-
dimensional effects such as secondary bending and through-thickness variations of the stress and
stain tensor fields is presented.
Key Works: Composites, bolted joints, Finite Element Method (FEM), linear and nonlinear analysis,
von Mises stress

1. INTRODUCTION
The bolted joints are the most used type of joints in space structures and the most critical
elements in designing safe and efficient carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials
structures. Due to the fact that the joints represent the weakest points in the space structures,
the structural integrity and load-carrying capacity of the overall spec structure are deep
influenced by the design approach. The stress and strain fields in bolted joints are highly
three-dimensionally and the most important causes are bolt bending and tilting, bolt pre-load
and secondary bending. Regarding the composite joints, the stress field near the hole is truly
three-dimensional due to the interlaminar stresses at free edges influencing the bearing mode
of failure. The aim of this study is to compare two different FEM techniques, the 2D linear
and the 3D nonlinear solutions in MSC PATRAN-NASTRAN commercial software for
single bolt single lap composite joints with applicability in the space structures.
1.1 Problem Description
The joint geometry proposed for this study is a standard configuration related to the
characterization of mechanically fastened composite joints, MIL-HDBK-17, [1], [2] and
ASTM D 5961/D 5961M-96, [3], in which it states that single lap joint configuration is more

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 21 – 35 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
Nearest Wall Flows – the Genuine Turbulence

Horia DUMITRESCU1, Vladimir CARDOS*,1

*Corresponding author
1
“Gheorghe Mihoc – Caius Iacob” Institute of Mathematical Statistics and Applied
Mathematics of the Romanian Academy,
Calea 13 Septembrie no. 13, 050711 Bucharest, Romania,
dumitrescu.horia@yahoo.com, v_cardos@yahoo.ca*
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201.2017.9.3.4

Received: 31 May 2017/ Accepted: 3 July 2017/ Published: September 2017


Copyright©2017. Published by INCAS. This is an “open access” article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

Abstract: Traditionally, the wall-bounded flows are boundary-layer like flows where the velocity
gradients normal to the wall u/y are very large and the velocity monotonously increases from zero
to about the velocity free flow, Ue = 0.99 U. However, the instabilities of flow, resulting from the
reaction of the solid boundary against onset of flow, originate in the nearest-wall region where the
mean velocity varies around of the velocity Ub = 1m/s constituting the wavy microflow field
dominated by the boundary vorticity-viscosity mutual changes. The paper is aiming at presenting the
main features of the microflow field and a new vision of the turbulence phenomenon illustrated trough
canonical boundary-layer flows.
Key Words: Boundary layer, Vorticity waves, Laminar-turbulent transition

1. INTRODUCTION
The wall-bounded flow as boundary layer, pipe and channel flows present particular features
relative to those in the free shear flows far-away from their boundaries, i.e. are slower and a
little out of sync. Firstly, these flows are dominated by shear stresses everywhere in the flow
field, where the physical presence of solid boundaries, inevitable for fluid media with a non-
preferred shape, creates some restrictions and influences with important consequences on the
development of shear flow including its turbulent behavior. These concerns the effect of
initial and upstream conditions/starting conditions on the flow state when the motion starts
from rest and the boundary vorticity and viscosity mutually adjust themselves continuously
according to these conditions [1]. Secondly, the more-subtle issues relate to the effect of the
wall on the inherent flow dynamics at both macroflow/ velocity and microflow/ vorticity
scales. Such effects are non-perceptible at all scales in laminar flows, but they are easily
observable in both macroflow and microflow fields of turbulent flows through the steep
mean velocity gradients and the length and time scales of the local turbulence in the vicinity
of the surface. The latter are associated with the high frequencies and small scales of the
near-wall turbulence relative to free shear flows. Therefore, the scope of this paper is to
study the question of how initial and upstream conditions affect the laminar-turbulent
transition and what these might imply about understanding genuine turbulence. A holistic
approach proposed for the whole evolution of turbulence phenomenon, i.e. from origin to a
final state, is illustrated by the canonical Prandtl, Couette and Stokes flows [2]. They play a

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 37 – 54 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
Performance evaluation of propulsion systems as LEO
deorbiting devices

Alexandru IONEL*

*Corresponding author
INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”,
B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, Bucharest 061126, Romania,
alexandru.ionel@incas.ro
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201.2017.9.3.5

Received: 23 July 2017/ Accepted: 29 August 2017/ Published: September 2017


Copyright©2017. Published by INCAS. This is an “open access” article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

Abstract: This paper evaluates the possibility of deorbiting a launch vehicle upper-stage at end-of-
mission from low Earth orbit, by using an additional propulsion system as a means of achieving
deorbiting and complying with the “25 years” mitigation regulation. The deorbiting performances of
chemical and electrical propulsion are analyzed through a MATLAB code which integrates orbital
perturbations such as gravitational acceleration, atmospheric drag and rocket engine/motor thrust.
Additionally, the research is placed within a body of similar papers concerned with deorbiting by
means of propulsion, by performing a state of the art study.
Key Words: deorbit, chemical propulsion, electric propulsion, MATLAB simulation, Hohmann
transfer

1. INTRODUCTION
The Kessler Syndrome: in 1978, NASA scientists Burton Cour Palais and Donald Kessler
determined that LEO debris would eventually have its leading source from spent rocket
bodies and satellite collisions. They predicted that the debris from collisions would cause
more collisions and debris, expanding exponentially the risk of active satellites in certain
orbital regions. To define this chain reaction Kessler introduced the term of collision
cascades in a paper from 1991. February 2009 marked the prediction of the first catastrophic
collision between the Russian Cosmos 2251 satellite and the Iridium 33 satellite, event
which produced approximately 2200 trackable fragments, had a collision probability of one
in 500,000 and a predicted miss distance of 584 m. Also, 3400 trackable fragments were
produced by the 2007 Chinese antisatellite test. Cosmos 1934 collided in 1991 with the
debris from the Russian Cosmos 1275 navigation and communication satellite. This collision
took place in spite of a collision probability of one in 50,000, and a predicted miss distance
of 512 m. Cerise, an active French reconnaissance satellite, collided in 1996 with debris from
the launch of an Ariane 1 rocket, although the collision probability was one in 2,000,000 and
the predicted miss distance was 882 m. Remediation and mitigation are significant problems
besides establishing cause, number and risk of space debris. Remediation is concerned with
cleaning the space environment through the removal of debris. Mitigation is represented by
the methods and policies which will lower the expansion rate of debris populations in the
short term, and have been used for over 20 years. Mitigation methods include reducing or
INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 55 – 69 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
Design and analysis pertaining to the
aerodynamic and stability characteristics of a
hybrid wing-body cargo aircraft

Ishaan PRAKASH*,1, Prithwish MUKHERJEE1, Ravichandrakumar KB1,a

*Corresponding author
,1
* Department of Aerospace Engineering, SRM University,
Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu 603203, India,
i.shaan1594@gmail.com*, mukherjee.prithwish05@gmail.com,
ravichandrakumar.m@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201.2017.9.3.6

Received: 18 July 2017/ Accepted: 23 August 2017/ Published: September 2017


Copyright©2017. Published by INCAS. This is an “open access” article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

Abstract: Recent trends in aircraft design research have resulted in development of many
unconventional configurations mostly aimed at improving aerodynamic efficiency. The blended wing
body (BWB) is one such configuration that holds potential in this regard. In its current form the BWB
although promises a better lift to drag (L/D) ratio it is still not able to function to its maximum
capability due to design modifications such as twist and reflexed airfoils to overcome stability
problems in the absence of a tail. This work aims to maximize the impact of a BWB. A design
approach of morphing the BWB with a conventional aft fuselage is proposed. Such a configuration
intends to impart full freedom to the main wing and the blended forward fuselage to contribute in lift
production while the conventional tail makes up for stability. The aft fuselage, meanwhile, also
ensures that the aircraft is compatible with current loading and airdrop operations. This paper is the
culmination of obtained models results and inferences from the first phase of the project wherein
development of aerodynamic design and analysis methodologies and mission specific optimization
have been undertaken.
Key Words: Cargo Aircraft, Blended Wing Body, Hybrid Wing Body, Aircraft Design, Fuselage 

1. INTRODUCTION
Energy is fast becoming a critical constraint on operations so much so it could reshape
aircraft design in the near future. For cargo aircrafts which consume much of the aviation
fuel each year only near-term solutions such as formation flying, winglets and other drag-
reduction devices exist which do not provide the scale of savings sought in the long term.
Hence dramatic changes in aircraft design are required to achieve significant reductions in
fuel consumption. Previous work on design and analysis of blended wing body
configurations show remarkable improvements in aerodynamic efficiency [1]. The
performance improvement of Boeing BWBs over conventional subsonic transports based on
equivalent technology has increased beyond the predictions of the early NASA-sponsored
studies [2]. The following characteristics of the blended wing body design support its
potential for the next generation cargo mobility fleet:
a
Professor (O.G)

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 71 – 86 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
Flight Performance of the Biological Lifting Surface

Vasile PRISACARIU*

*Corresponding author
“Henri Coanda” Air Force Academy,
160 Mihai Viteazul Street, Braşov 5001833, Romania,
aerosavelli73@yahoo.com
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201.2017.9.3.7

Received: 24 June 2017/ Accepted: 24 July 2017/ Published: September 2017


Copyright©2017. Published by INCAS. This is an “open access” article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

Abstract: In the international research, biomimetic lifting surface are analyzed in various aspects:
construction, aerodynamics and energy. The specificity of the flying wings determined similarity
between the aeromechanical and the biomimetic concepts leading to numerous challenges in terms of
construction, aerodynamics and actuation. The Aeromechanics of the biological flight focuses both on
the various forms of lifting surfaces and the biomechanical aspects. This article contains a number of
references to the biological inspiration of the morphing concept, a brief introduction to the theoretical
area of the flying wings and a numerical analysis of biologically similar morphing geometry
completed by conclusions and future approaches.
Key Words: wing birds, morphing wing, VLM analysis, flying wing, XFLR5

ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS


G - weight (N) λ - aspect ratio (-) Vz - vertical speed (m/s)
S - surface (m2) α - incidence (0), AoA V, Vxy - horizontal speed (m/s)
L - lift AoA - angle of attack CL - lift coef.
Cm - pitch moment coef. Cn - yaw moment coef. Cl - roll moment coef.
 - kinematics viscosity BM - bending moment CD - drag coefficient
MAC - mean aerodynamic chord ISTAR - intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and
VLM - vortex lattice method reconnaissance

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Biological inspiration of flight. Flight types
Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most species of birds for feeding, breeding
and avoiding the predators. Researchers have been inspired by the basics of biological flight
in order to develop aerial machines in the concept of morphing.
Aeromechanical biological flight is based on three fundamental movements of the
wings: the swing movement, the twisting and the tilting movement, see Figure 1. In order to
control the flight according to morphing concept for the soaring and maneuvering flights our
approach only choose the wings movements of torsion and tilting along the span, transposed
to the mini UAV lifting surfaces.
Specialized references [1, 3, 22, 23] provide a number of instances of birds in flight float
and maneuver sequences, see Figure 2.

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 87 – 96 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
Mechanical testing of CFRP materials for application as
skins of sandwich composites

Adriana STEFAN*,1, Cristina-Elisabeta PELIN1, George PELIN1,


Oleg SMORYGO2, Vitali MIKUTSKI2

*Corresponding author
1
INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”,
Iuliu Maniu Blvd 220, Bucharest 061126, Romania,
stefan.adriana@incas.ro*, ban.cristina@incas.ro, pelin.george@incas.ro
2
Powder Metallurgy Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus,
41 Platonov str., 220005, Minsk, Belarus,
olegsmorygo@yahoo.com, mikutski@tut.by
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201.2017.9.3.8

Received: 31 May 2017/ Accepted: 3 July 2017/ Published: September 2017


Copyright©2017. Published by INCAS. This is an “open access” article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

Abstract: Sandwich structures are ultralight materials that are part of a special class and consist of
two face skins, that are thin, light and stiff. These materials are of great interest for aeronautical and
aerospace applications and they represent one of the important research directions in this field. As
skins, a large variety of materials can be used, i.e. aluminium, titanium or polymeric laminates. For
the evaluation of sandwich composites based on metallic foam core, a larger study is being currently
conducted, one of the objectives within this study being the evaluation of the sandwich system
components (CFRP skins developed by two different methods: manual lay-up/room temperature
curing and prepreg processing; as well as evaluation of core materials). This paper contains
technical work that presents the preliminary results regarding the evaluation of CFRP skins based on
CARP/T193 carbon fiber fabric and low viscosity L20 epoxy resin (Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A)
developed by manual lay-up/room temperature curing. The obtained materials were tested at different
mechanical loads and the failure mode was analyzed with the aim to evaluate their performances as
possible skins of the sandwich structure with metallic foam core.
Key Words: CFRP skins, manual lay-up, mechanical strength, elasticity modulus

1. INTRODUCTION
Sandwich composites represent a special class of materials that offer unique properties that
cannot be provided by the component materials individually used. Due to their specific
nature, these materials show increased flexural rigidity and low structural weight. Composite
sandwich structures are widely used in marine, ground transportation, aircraft, space and
other high-tech industries; as sandwich constructions used in these applications, they
typically consist of a lightweight foam core bonded to thin face sheets to achieve excellent
weight to strength and weight to stiffness ratios [1, 2].
Sandwich structures consisting of composite skins and core material (foams, honeycomb
structures etc.) are believed to have an added value for primary aircraft structures by
fulfilling mechanical and non-mechanical functions (such as thermal and acoustic
INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 97 – 104 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
Design of Air Traffic Control Operation System

Gabriela STROE*,1, Irina-Carmen ANDREI2, Tiberiu Adrian SALAORU2

*Corresponding author
*,1POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering,
Gh. Polizu Street 1-7, Sector 1, Bucharest, 011061, Romania,
ing.stroe@yahoo.com
2
INCAS ‒ National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”,
B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, Bucharest 061126, Romania,
andrei.irina@incas.ro, icandrei28178@gmail.com, salaoru.tiberiu@incas.ro
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201.2017.9.3.9

Received: 22 May 2017/ Accepted: 20 July 2017/ Published: September 2017


Copyright©2017. Published by INCAS. This is an “open access” article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

5th International Workshop on Numerical Modelling in Aerospace Sciences, NMAS 2017,


17-18 May 2017, Bucharest, Romania, (held at INCAS, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, sector 6)
Section 2 – Flight dynamics simulation

Abstract: This paper presents a numerical simulation for a different aircraft, based on the specific
aircraft data that can be incorporated in the model and the equations of motions which can be
consequently solved. The aircraft flight design involves various technical steps and requires the use of
sophisticated software having modeling and simulation capabilities. Within the flight simulation
model, the aerodynamic model can be regarded as the most complex and most important. With
appropriate aerodynamic modeling the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft's
center of gravity can be numerically solved with accuracy. These forces and moments are further used
to solve the equations of motion. The development of control and computing technology makes it
possible for advanced flight control strategy. The advanced control techniques tend to make the
control design and their implementation much more complicated with more control loops or channels;
in this line, the autopilot of modern aircrafts includes a variety of automatic control systems that aid
and support the flight navigation, flight management, and perform the enhancing and/or augmenting
of the stability characteristics of the airplane. Therefore in this context it is very important to choose
the dynamic that will satisfy the performance and robustness specifications.
Key Words: Air Traffic Control, control design, robustness, simulation capabilities.

1. INTRODUCTION
Aircrafts are usually controlled by basic control surfaces like ailerons, elevators and rudders,
supported by additional control surfaces: stabilizer, spoilers, flaps and by control of the
engine thrust. Aircraft motion for various degrees of freedom is controlled by single or
multiple control surfaces. The conventional operation of control surfaces has various design
limitations. Several methods and algorithms are available for the implementing
reconfiguration of automatic flight control system, [9, 11].
Navigation, communication, radar, and other special equipment are severely limited if the
pilot has to work continually on the physical manipulation of the controls. In high-

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 105 – 119 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
Dynamic Performances of the Automatic Flight Control
System

Gabriela STROE*,1, Irina-Carmen ANDREI2, Tiberiu Adrian SALAORU2

*Corresponding author
*,1POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering,
Gh. Polizu Street 1-7, Sector 1, Bucharest, 011061, Romania,
ing.stroe@yahoo.com
2
INCAS ‒ National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”,
B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, Bucharest 061126, Romania,
andrei.irina@incas.ro, icandrei28178@gmail.com, salaoru.tiberiu@incas.ro
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201.2017.9.3.10

Received: 22 May 2017/ Accepted: 20 July 2017/ Published: September 2017


Copyright©2017. Published by INCAS. This is an “open access” article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

5th International Workshop on Numerical Modelling in Aerospace Sciences, NMAS 2017,


17-18 May 2017, Bucharest, Romania, (held at INCAS, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, sector 6)
Section 2 – Flight dynamics simulation

Abstract: This paper explains why the combination of programming codes represents a true
engineering tool in aircraft systems investigating. Flight safety and flying quality are extremely
important to modern aviation industry. The aircraft responses, which are measured during real flight,
are compared to the responses that are obtained from the simulations. Typically, aircraft problems
consist in finding the solutions for basic work in all kind of areas, using knowledge from fields of
science such as physics, mathematics and computer science. The purpose is to present such problems
solved by computer simulations. Some of the advantages of performing numerical simulations are the
low risk and low cost involved as compared to performing aircraft experiments. Another major
advantage is the physical insight which one can gain in the behavior of the system subjected to
different conditions and different values of the characteristic parameters of the aircraft's dynamic
performances.
Key Words: Automatic Flight Control System, computer simulations, dynamic performances

1. INTRODUCTION
Digital Flight Control Systems are made possible by replacing the classical mechanical or
hydraulic linkages between the pilot’s controls and aircraft active control surfaces with
electrical signal connections, a new technology named Fly-By-Wire Flight Control. B-777
jetliner featuring its Digital Flight Control Systems, and the B-787, Boeing’s next
commercial aircraft, will use a similar system. With both the major commercial aircraft
manufacturers involved in the Fly-By-Wire Flight Control for the future, a careful
examination of the advantage and drawbacks of this technology is warranted, [16-17].
Fly-By-Wire Systems offer significant advantages over Mechanical and Hydraulic Flight
Control Systems. From the design perspective, the fact that Fly-By-Wire Systems use copper
wiring to convey pilot commands to control surfaces means that engineers are free to route
INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 121 – 132 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
Discrete Adjoint-Based Simultaneous Analysis and Design
Approach for Conceptual Aerodynamic Optimization

Oliviu SUGAR-GABOR*

*Corresponding author
Department of Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineering, School of Computing,
Science and Engineering, University of Salford,
The Crescent, M5 4WT, Salford, United Kingdom,
o.sugar-gabor@salford.ac.uk
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201.2017.9.3.11

Received: 13 July 2017/ Accepted: 18 August 2017/ Published: September 2017


Copyright©2017. Published by INCAS. This is an “open access” article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

Abstract: In this paper, a simultaneous analysis and design method is derived and applied for a non-
linear constrained aerodynamic optimization problem. The method is based on the approach of
defining a Lagrange functional based on the objective function and the aerodynamic model’s
equations, using two sets of multipliers. A fully-coupled, non-linear system of equations is derived by
requiring that the Gateaux variation of the Lagrange functional vanishes for arbitrary variations of
the aerodynamic model’s dependent variables and design parameters. The optimization problem is
approached using a one-shot technique, by solving the non-linear system in which all sensitivities and
problem constraints are included. The computational efficiency of the method is compared against a
gradient-based optimization algorithm using adjoint-provided gradient. A conceptual-stage
aerodynamic optimization problem is solved, based on a non-linear numerical lifting-line method with
viscous corrections.
Key Words: Simultaneous Analysis and Design, Adjoint-Based Optimization, Discrete Adjoint,
Aerodynamic Optimization, Non-linear Lifting-Line Method 

1. INTRODUCTION
Aerodynamic optimization represents a discipline at the crossroads of several scientific and
research areas such as geometry modelling, aerodynamic simulation, applied mathematics,
non-linear optimization and computer science [1]. Because the use of high-fidelity CFD
simulations in the aerodynamic design of aircraft has been steadily and rapidly increasing,
the application of various optimization algorithms has been attempted, in an attempt to
minimize the required number of CFD solutions and to increase the computational efficiency
of the design and optimization process.
Jameson approached aerodynamic design and optimization procedures as control theory
problems [2], and later popularized using the adjoint equation [3] for calculating the
objective function gradient. The advantage of the adjoint method is that the computational
effort required for evaluating the objective function gradient becomes independent of the
number of design variables. In addition, the adjoint equations are of the same mathematical
type as the equations governing the flow, and thus can be solved using the same numerical
algorithms as for the flow equations.

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 133 – 147 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
A review of some basic aspects related to integration of
airplane’s equations of motion
Dan TURCANU*,1, Laurentiu MORARU2

*Corresponding author
*,1“POLITEHNICA” University of Bucharest,
Faculty of Biotechnical Systems Engineering, Department of Mechanics,
Splaiul Independenţei 313, 060042, Bucharest, Romania,
dan.turcanu@gmail.com
2
“POLITEHNICA” University of Bucharest, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering,
Splaiul Independenţei 313, 060042, Bucharest, Romania,
laurentiu.moraru@gmail.com
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201.2017.9.3.12

Received: 14 July 2017/ Accepted: 23 August 2017/ Published: September 2017


Copyright©2017. Published by INCAS. This is an “open access” article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

5th International Workshop on Numerical Modelling in Aerospace Sciences, NMAS 2017,


17-18 May 2017, Bucharest, Romania, (held at INCAS, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, sector 6)
Section 2 – Flight dynamics simulation

Abstract: Numerical integration of the airplane’s equations of motion has long been considered
among the most fundamental calculations in airplane’s analysis. Numerical algorithms have been
implemented and experimentally validated. However, the need for superior speed and accuracy is still
very topical, as, nowadays, various optimization algorithms rely heavily on data generated from the
integration of the equations of motion and having access to larger amounts of data can increase the
quality of the optimization. Now, for a number of decades, engineers have relied heavily on
commercial codes based on automatically selected integration steps. However, optimally chosen
constant integration steps can save time and allows for larger numbers of integrations to be
performed. Yet, the basic papers that presented the fundamentals of numerical integration, as applied
to airplane’s equations of motion are nowadays not easy to locate. Consequently, this paper presents
a review of basic aspects related to the integration of airplane’s equation of motion. The discussion
covers fundamentals of longitudinal and lateral-directional motion as well as the implementation of
some numerical integration methods. The relation between numerical integration steps, accuracy,
computational resource usage, numerical stability and their relation with the parameters describing
the dynamic response of the airplane is considered and suggestions are presented for a faster yet
accurate numerical integration.
Key Words: Flight Dynamics Simulation, Controls 

1. INTRODUCTION
The equations of motion of an airplane (or rocket) that will be subsequently utilized within
this paper are written in the classical manner, presented, for example, in Ref. [1-3], and also
utilize d in Refs. [4] and [5].
Numerical integration of the airplane’s equations of motion has long been considered
among the most fundamental calculations in airplane’s analysis. Since the 1950s and, on a
INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 149 – 155 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
157 T E C H N I C A L -S C I E N T I F I C N O T E S a n d R E P O R T S

T ECHNICAL -S CIENTIFIC N OTES and R EPORTS

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 157 – 158 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
Mechanical guided waves for fuel level monitoring system

Tiberiu Adrian SALAORU*,1, Irina-Carmen ANDREI1, Gabriela STROE2

*Corresponding author
1
INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”,
B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, Bucharest 061126, Romania,
salaoru.tiberiu@incas.ro*, andrei.irina@incas.ro
2
“POLITEHNICA” University of Bucharest, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering,
Str. Gh. Polizu 1-7, Sector 1, Bucharest, 011061, Romania,
ing.stroe@yahoo.com
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201.2017.9.3.13

Received: 22 May 2017/ Accepted: 23 June 2017/ Published: September 2017


Copyright©2017. Published by INCAS. This is an “open access” article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

5th International Workshop on Numerical Modelling in Aerospace Sciences, NMAS 2017,


17-18 May 2017, Bucharest, Romania, (held at INCAS, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, sector 6)
Section 4 – System design for small satellites

Abstract: The mechanical guided waves have a wide range of applications in many types of equipment
and devices. The fuel level is an important parameter which needs to be monitored for a vehicle which
can be a space vehicle, an aircraft or any other. For this purpose mechanical guided waves can be
used as they have several major advantages over any other methods. There are a wide ultrasonic
sensors used for this purpose but in the most cases the mechanical waves are traveling through air or
fuel for measuring their level. In general the wave propagation through a single media at a time is
utilized. The method described in this work uses the propagation of the mechanical guided waves
through two different media in the same time. The propagating media is the container wall and the
other is the fuel. One of the advantages of this method is the reduction of the measurement errors
when the incident angle to the fuel level surface is different from 90 degree. These situations could
occur when the fuel tank is tilted or when the fuel surface is not flat. This measurement method will
not be affected by these conditions.
Key Words: fuel level monitoring, mechanical guided waves, magneto-resistive method, capacitive
method

1. INTRODUCTION
The fuel level is an important parameter for any vehicle and is extremely important
especially for space vehicles and aircrafts because their autonomy is an important safety
issue. Currently there are a number of classic methods for the fuel level monitoring. From
the point of view of the sensor position related to the fuel tank, these methods can be
grouped in two main categories: methods using sensors inside the fuel tank and methods
using sensors outside the fuel tank.
The first category of methods includes well-known methods such as resistive, magneto-
resistive and capacitive methods. One of the first method and maybe the oldest one uses a
floating device inside the fuel tank mechanically connected to a variable resistor cursor
(resistive method) or to a magnet placed near a magneto-resistive sensor (magneto-resistive
INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 159 – 166 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
167 INDEX

I NDEX

A
ANDREI Irina-Carmen, p. 3, 105, 121, – INCAS ‒ National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie
159 Carafoli”, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, Bucharest/ 061126,
Romania, andrei.irina@incas.ro, icandrei28178@gmail.com

B
BIBIRE Radu-Petru, p. 13 – INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie
Carafoli”, Iuliu Maniu Blvd 220, Bucharest 061126,
Romania, bibire.radu@incas.ro

C
CARDOS Vladimir, p. 37 – “Gheorghe Mihoc – Caius Iacob” Institute of Mathematical
Statistics and Applied Mathematics of the Romanian
Academy, Calea 13 Septembrie no. 13, 050711 Bucharest,
Romania, v_cardos@yahoo.ca
CISMILIANU Alexandru-Mihai, p. 13 – INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie
Carafoli”, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, Bucharest 061126,
Romania, cismilianu.alexandru@incas.ro
COMAN Calin-Dumitru, p. 21 – INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie
Carafoli”, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, Bucharest 061126,
Romania, coman.calin@incas.ro

D
DUMITRESCU Horia, p. 37 – “Gheorghe Mihoc – Caius Iacob” Institute of Mathematical
Statistics and Applied Mathematics of the Romanian
Academy, Calea 13 Septembrie no. 13, 050711 Bucharest,
Romania, dumitrescu.horia@yahoo.com

E
EYRIGNOUX Sébastien, p. 13 – LAAM - LISI AEROSPACE ADDITIVE
MANUFACTURING Powered by POLY-SHAPE, 2, route
Robert Algayon, Ayguemorte-les-Graves 33640, France

I
IONEL Alexandru, p. 55 – INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie
Carafoli”, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, Bucharest 061126,
Romania, alexandru.ionel@incas.ro

K
KB Ravichandrakumar, p. 71 – Department of Aerospace Engineering, SRM University,
Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu 603203, India
ravichandrakumar.m@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in

M
MIKUTSKI Vitali, p. 97 – Powder Metallurgy Institute, National Academy of Sciences
of Belarus, 41 Platonov str., 220005, Minsk, Belarus,
mikutski@tut.by

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017


INDEX 168

MORARU Laurentiu, p. 149 – “POLITEHNICA” University of Bucharest, Faculty of


Aerospace Engineering, Splaiul Independenţei 313, 060042,
Bucharest, Romania, laurentiu.moraru@gmail.com
MUKHERJEE Prithwish, p. 71 – Department of Aerospace Engineering, SRM University,
Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu 603203, India
mukherjee.prithwish05@gmail.com
MUNTEANU Camelia Elena, p. 13 – INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie
Carafoli”, Iuliu Maniu Blvd 220, Bucharest 061126,
Romania, munteanu.camelia@incas.ro

O
ONCESCU Ionut-Cosmin, p. 13 – INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie
Carafoli”, Iuliu Maniu Blvd 220, Bucharest 061126,
Romania, oncescu.ionut@incas.ro

P
PRAKASH Ishaan, p. 71 – Department of Aerospace Engineering, SRM University,
Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu 603203, India,
i.shaan1594@gmail.com
PELIN Cristina-Elisabeta, p. 97 – INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie
Carafoli”, Iuliu Maniu Blvd 220, Bucharest 061126,
Romania, ban.cristina@incas.ro
PELIN George, p. 97 – INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie
Carafoli”, Iuliu Maniu Blvd 220, Bucharest 061126,
Romania, pelin.george@incas.ro
PRICOP Mihai Victor, p. 13 – INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie
Carafoli”, Iuliu Maniu Blvd 220, Bucharest 061126,
Romania, pricop.victor@incas.ro
PRISACARIU Vasile, p. 87 – “Henri Coanda” Air Force Academy, 160 Mihai Viteazul
Street, Braşov 5001833, Romania, aerosavelli73@yahoo.com

R
REY Elisabeth, p. 13 – LAAM - LISI AEROSPACE ADDITIVE
MANUFACTURING Powered by POLY-SHAPE, 2, route
Robert Algayon, Ayguemorte-les-Graves 33640, France
elisabeth.rey@lisi-aerospace-am.com

S
SALAORU Tiberiu Adrian, p. 105, 121, – INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie
159 Carafoli”, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, Bucharest 061126,
Romania, salaoru.tiberiu@incas.ro
SMORYGO Oleg, p. 97 – Powder Metallurgy Institute, National Academy of Sciences
of Belarus, 41 Platonov str., 220005, Minsk, Belarus,
olegsmorygo@yahoo.com
STEFAN Adriana,p. 97 – INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie
Carafoli”, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, Bucharest 061126,
Romania, stefan.adriana@incas.ro
STOENESCU Valentin, p. 13 – INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie
Carafoli”, Iuliu Maniu Blvd 220, Bucharest 061126,
Romania, stoenescu.valentin@incas.ro

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017


169 INDEX

STROE Gabriela, p. 105, 121, 159 – “POLITEHNICA” University of Bucharest, Faculty of


Aerospace Engineering, Str. Gh. Polizu 1-7, Sector 1,
Bucharest, 011061, Romania, ing.stroe@yahoo.com
SUGAR-GABOR Oliviu, p. 133 – Department of Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineering,
School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University
of Salford, The Crescent, M5 4WT, Salford, United
Kingdom, o.sugar-gabor@salford.ac.uk

T
TURCANU Dan, p. 149 – “POLITEHNICA” University of Bucharest, Faculty of
Biotechnical Systems Engineering, Department of
Mechanics, Splaiul Independenţei 313, 060042, Bucharest,
Romania, dan.turcanu@gmail.com

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017


170

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017


INCAS BULLETIN
Instructions and editing model
The INCAS BULLETIN of the INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie
Carafoli” publishes:
1) FULL PAPERS. Presentation of significant researches, developments, or
applications in the aerospace field, namely:

■ Fluid mechanics, aerodynamics, theory of flight, gas dynamics,


aerothermodynamics, combustion, hydromechanics.

■ Rarefied atmosphere flight, optimization of space path, computing of orbits,


optimization of interorbital transfer, impact of space vehicles with meteorites,
astrorelativity.

■ Strength of materials, elasticity, plasticity, aeroelasticity, static and dynamic


analysis of structures, vibrations and impact.

■ Systems, mechatronics and control in aerospace.

■ Materials and tribology.

■ Kinematics and dynamics of mechanisms, friction, lubrication.

■ Measurement technique.

■ Aeroacoustics, ventilation, wind motors.

■ Management in Aerospace Activities.

2) TECHNICAL-SCIENTIFIC NOTES and REPORTS. Includes: case studies, technical-


scientific notes and reports on published areas (max. 16 pages, min. 4 pages in
the journal format).
3) INCAS NEWS. Promote and emphasise INCAS technical base and achievements.

4) BOOK REVIEWS.

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 171 – 175 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
INCAS BULLETIN
1. PAGE FORMAT
Page setup: Margins: Top – 2 cm, Bottom – 2 cm, Left – 1.5 cm, Right – 1.5 cm, apply to
whole document; Paper size: 17.525.5 cm; Orientation: Portrait; Layout: Section:
Continuous, Header and Footer: 1.27 cm, Different odd and even pages, Different first page,
Vertical Alignment: Top.

172
INCAS BULLETIN
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Font: Times New Roman, 16, bold, centred, spacing before: none.

3. THE AUTHORS

Names, style. Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt, regular, centred; first name − regular, family
name − all caps; alignment: centred; spacing: before − 18 pt, after − 12 pt. A comma
separates the names.
Affiliation with addresses, style. For a single affiliation, no superscript number is
necessary. In case of different authors, from different institutions, one marks every name by
a number of asterisks (like exponents). The legends of these asterisks (the affiliations with
addresses), will be indicated under authors lines. When there are several authors, note the
Corresponding author (affiliation, address, e-mail) under the author lines. Use the style:
Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt, regular, centred.

4. ABSTRACT AND KEYWORDS


Font: Times New Roman, 10 pt, italic. Paragraph: justify; spacing: before − 24 pt, line
spacing: single.
The Abstract is followed by the Key Words, the distance between them is 6 pt, and the
distance between Key Words and the first chapter is 18 pt.

5. CHAPTERS TITLES
The chapters are countered beginning with: 1. XXXX, using the style: font: Times New
Roman, 12 pt, bold, all caps; paragraph: alignment: centered; spacing: before − 18 pt, after −
6 pt.

6. PAPER’S TEXT
Font: Times New Roman, 11 pt. Paragraph: alignment: justified. The first paragraph in the
chapter is non indented. Indentation for the following paragraphs: first line 0,7 cm. Line
spacing: single.
Original and high-standard scientific papers shall be drawn up in a concise style,
avoiding any oversized introduction.

7. FIGURES, TABLES
Figures and Tables shall be introduced at their appropriate place in the text and shall not be
larger than a page width (17.5 cm) each. The legend of figures is included bellow the figure
(centered) and for tables before, both with the style: Font: Times New Roman, 9 pt, regular;
paragraph: spacing: before − 6 pt, after − 6 pt, alignment: centered.
Landscape tables are not accepted.

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INCAS BULLETIN
8. EQUATIONS AND FORMULAS
Table 1 – For formulas and equation, use only a Microsoft Equation Editor 3.0 with these settings:
Variable quantities and universal constants italic: x, y, z, c, h,
Variable Greek quantities regular: , , , , α, β, η, ω
Variable indexes italic: i, j, k, p, q, m, n
Numerical indexes regular: 1, 2, ...
Indexes arising from physical quantities italic: r, v, t, p, x, y, z
Indexes arising from the text regular: ext, int, e, i
Variable greek indexes regular
italic: c, k, …
Latin constants
regular: 0, 10, const., e, i =  1
Greek constants regular: π, ε, μ, σ, τ, α, β, η, ω
regular: div, grad, curl, log, exp, sin, cos, ln, lg, tan,
cotan; or, regular + italic, such as: J n  x  , K  k 
Well-known operators and functions

Generic functions italic: f(x), g(z)


Spatial vectors, matrices, tensors italic + bold: u, M
Transpose matrices italic + bold + regular: AT
dx
Differential regular: dx, dV,
dt
Partial derivative regular: 

It is strongly recommended to use a table with one row and two columns: in the first
column, one writes the equation and in the second, the equation’s number. Table: Insert
table: number of columns: 2; number of rows: 1; space between column s: 0 cm, alignment:
Centered; Width of Column 2: 1 cm. Spacing before: 6 pt; spacing after: 6 pt, format border:
none.
Table 2 –The following Setup instructions are recommended:
Line spacing 150%
Matrix row spacing 150%
Matrix column spacing 50%
Superscript height 35%
Format + Spacing Subscript height 25%
Limit height 25%
Limit depth 100%
Spacing adjustment 150%
Embellishment gap 1.5 pt
Text Times New Roman
Function Times New Roman
Style + Define Variable Times New Roman italic
LC. Greek Symbol
UC. Greek Symbol

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INCAS BULLETIN
Symbol Symbol
Matrix + Vector Times New Roman bold + italic
Number Times New Roman
Full 11
Sub + Superscript 7
Size + Define Sub-Sub + Superscript 6
Symbol 18
Sub-Symbol 12

9. REFERENCES LIST
The title, REFERENCES, will be printed as chapter title. Style: font: Times New Roman,
regular, 9 pt; paragraph: alignment: justified, special: hanging 1 cm; line spacing: single.
Numbered.
Inside the text, the books or the revues from REFERENCES List are referred between
square brackets: [1], [23].
The formats for references without authors and for referencing articles in journals,
books, articles in books and proceedings are:
[1] *** European Aviation Safety Agency. CS-25, Airworthiness codes for large aero-planes, October 2003.
Available at www.easa.eu.int.
[2] C. Ohtar, A. Fujita, P. N. Nikiforov and M. K. Santa, Active flutter suppression for two-dimensional airfoils,
Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 283-293, 1991.
[3] T. R. Nail, A disturbance-rejection problem for a 3-D airfoil exhibiting flutter, Thesis, Virginia Tech., 2000.
[4] J. J. Black and H. Rilliatt, Active control of a structure, AIAA Paper 99-0036.
[5] R. Sind and M. Krenner, Robust aeroservoelastic stability analysis, Springer, London, 2000.
[6] P. Santorini, Nonlinear Control Systems, London, UK, Springer-Verlag, 3rd ed., 2005.
[7] R. Ceaikovski and P. Soznovski, Neural approximation: a control perspective, in Neural Network
Engineering in Dynamic Control Systems, K. Runt, G. Irwin and F. Warwick (Eds.), Springer, 1995.
[8] F. Rudin, The method of statistical linearization for nonlinear stochastic vibration, in F. Ziegler and G. I.
Schuller (Eds), Nonlinear Stochastic Dynamic Engineering Systems, pp. 45-56, IUTAM Symposium on
Nonlinear stochastic dynamic engineering, Innsbruck, Austria, June 21-26, 1987, Springer Verlag, 1988.

10. RECEIVING DATE


It will be placed at the end of the article with the following style: Font: Times New Roman,
9 pt, italic; paragraph: alignment: right, line spacing: before: 12 pt.

11. THE FORWARDING


The whole responsibility for the accuracy of calculations, experimental data and scientific
interpretation belongs entirely to the authors.
The author declares on his own responsibility that the paper has not been previously
published elsewhere.
The manuscripts (at most 16 pages), edited using Microsoft Office Word 2010 and
Microsoft Equation Editor 3.0 or 3.1, must be sending by e-mail to the editorial secretary,
Elena NEBANCEA, e-mail: nebancea.elena@incas.ro / eneba@incas.ro
A model of paper editing can be found at the following web address:
http://bulletin.incas.ro/notes_for_authors.html (online) ISSN 2247-4528 or
http://www.incas.ro (Publications / INCAS BULLETIN)

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http://bulletin.incas.ro/
PUBLICATION ETHICS AND PUBLICATION MALPRACTICE STATEMENT

INCAS BULLETIN is dedicated to the dissemination of the results of original and innovative
research concerning the aerospace sciences.

INCAS BULLETIN subscribes to the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice for Scholarly
Publications of the Committee on Publication Ethics, the Directory of Open Access Journals, the
Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association.

This is an academic journal addressed to the local and international community and is committed to
the highest standards of publication ethics and quality of articles in publication. INCAS BULLETIN
takes all possible measures against any publication malpractices.

Thus, it is important to ensure that all parties involved in the act of publishing agree upon standards of
expected ethical behavior.

Responsibilities for the Authors:


 the Author(s) warrant that the article submitted is an original work and that has not been
published previously;
 the Authors(s) should ensure that the manuscript meets the terms of the Guidelines for Authors
regarding appropriate academic citation and transliteration and that no copyright infringement
occurs;
 the Authors(s) should inform the editors about any errors they subsequently discover in their
manuscript.

Responsibilities for the Editors and the Editorial Board:


 the Editors, together with the Editorial Board, are responsible for deciding upon the publication or
rejection of the submitted manuscripts based only on their originality, significance and relevance
to the domains of the journal;
 the Editors evaluate the manuscripts' compliance with academic criteria, the domains of the
journal and the guidelines (see Instruction and editing model for INCAS BULLETIN)
 the Editors must at all times respect the confidentiality of any information pertaining to the
submitted manuscripts;
 the Editors assign the review of each manuscript to two anonymous reviewers who are chosen
according to their domains of expertise;
 the Editors must take into account any conflict of interest reported by the authors and the
reviewers.

Responsibilities for the Reviewers:


 the Reviewers must objectively evaluate the manuscripts based only on their originality,
significance and relevance to the domains of the journal;
 the Reviewers must in due time supply clear, objective and relevant comments and
recommendations meant to improve the content of the submitted manuscript;
 the Reviewers must at all times respect the confidentiality of any information pertaining to the
submitted manuscripts;
 the Reviewers should inform the Editors about any conflict of interests.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 9, Issue 3/ 2017, pp. 176 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
http://bulletin.incas.ro/
 INCAS BULLETIN is Open Access (OA).
 INCAS BULLETIN is indexed in International Databases (BDI):

‒ Index Copernicus™ - Journals Master List

‒ ProQuest Advanced Technologies & Aerospace Journals,


‒ ProQuest Illustrata: Technology, ProQuest SciTech Journals, and
‒ ProQuest Technology Journals databases

Database WorldCat Library

 Publisher copyright policies & self-archiving in SHERPA/RoMEO


 Journal License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Visit the Journal webpage to:


 Find out more about the Journal
 Read the Instruction for Authors
 All submitted papers are peer-reviewed
 Submit your latest research to INCAS BULLETIN at:
http://bulletin.incas.ro/index.html

Contact Details
Editor –in –chief: Full Professor, PhD, Eng. BOTEZ Mihaela Ruxandra
University of Quebec, Department of Automated production Engineering,
H3C 1K3 Montreal, Quebec, Canada
E-mail: Ruxandra.Botez@etsmtl.ca
Canada
Publisher: INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”
B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, 061126 Bucharest,
Romania
Phone: +4021 4340083, Fax: +4021 4340082
E-mail: incas@incas.ro; http://www.incas.ro
Contact person: NEBANCEA Elena
Copyright © INCAS, 2009-2017. All rights reserved.
Editorial office: NEBANCEA Elena
Editorial secretary and webmaster
INCAS  National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”
B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, 061126 Bucharest, Romania
Phone: +4021 4340083, Fax: +4021 4340082
E-mail: nebancea.elena@incas.ro