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University of Education

Reconstructionism
Ma’am Samina Shaheen

Submitted by:

Rashid Hussain Roll # BBA737

Yussra Qayum Roll # BBA739

Rashid Hussain
12/15/2016
Table of Contents
Definitions: ...................................................................................................................................... 3
Essentials for educational Reconstructionism philosophy: ............................................................ 3
Assumptions................................................................................................................................ 3
Curriculum: ................................................................................................................................. 4
Role of teacher and student: (Agent of change and reform) ..................................................... 4
Classroom management and evaluation: ................................................................................... 5
Practical Example: ........................................................................................................................... 5
System of Pakistan Education: .................................................................................................... 5
Problems Leading To Pakistan Educational System: .................................................................. 5
Lack of Proper Planning: ......................................................................................................... 6
Social Constraints: ................................................................................................................... 6
Cost of Education: ................................................................................................................... 6
War on Terror: ........................................................................................................................ 6
Funds for Education: ............................................................................................................... 6
Technical Education: ............................................................................................................... 6
Gender Gap: ............................................................................................................................ 6
Solution: ...................................................................................................................................... 6
Conclusion: ...................................................................................................................................... 7
RECONSTRUCTIONISM
Theodore Brameld was the founder of social Reconstructionism (1904-1987)

Definitions:
“Social reconstructionism refers to the beliefs that schools in a democracy can and should
prepare citizens to work actively and collectively on problems facing society. It refers to an
approach to teaching that strives to bring about a change in society and encourage the students
to question social inequalities”.

OR

“Reconstructionism as a philosophy of education stands for change. It draws its strength in the
fact that society is not static. In most societies it is common knowledge that schools and the
education sectors are pioneers to change and development. The question therefore is “what is
the purpose of school to the reconstructionists theory?”

Reconstructionism is the student centered philosophy. That is an individual growing which leads
to social grow and overall it boosts the organization/institute/state.

Reconstructionism believes that education should give immediate attention to social problems
and seek change within society. Teachers therefore give students real world problems and ask
them to solve the problems”.

“The purpose of education, according to the philosophy of Social Reconstructionism, is to


reconstruct society”.

Essentials for educational Reconstructionism philosophy:


Society is in need of social reconstruction or change such social change involves a
reconstruction of education and the use of education in reconstructing the society.

Assumptions:

Reconstructionists thinkers have been some of the greatest contributors to learning. Concepts
such as multiple intelligence or alternative learning (e.g. industrial tours, workshop, seminars,
practical assignment) procedures have come from Reconstructionism education and the use of
educational methods to make a social change.
Curriculum:
Reconstructionists believes that curriculum focuses on student experience and talking social
action on real problems such as violence, hunger, international terrorism, inflation and
inequality. Strategies for dealing with controversial issues (particularly social studies and
literature), inquiry, dialogue and multiple perspectives are the focus. Curriculum emphasizes
truth, fellowship and justice. They believe in incorporating world issues and stepping outside
local community ideas. Rather than the teaching as banking in which the educator deposits
information to the students head. Teaching and learning should be a process of inquiry in which
the child must invent or reinvent the world. This philosophy emphasis on social science and
social research methods. These philosophy present and future as well as global issues.
Curriculum reflects democratic ideals and emphasis civic education it provide opportunities to
students to gain firsthand experience in studying real social problems and controversial issues.
Curriculum emphases cultural pluralism, equality and futurism.

Role of teacher and student: (Agent of change and reform)


Under Social Reconstructionism teachers have specific roles they are to fulfill. One main role of
a teacher is, as noted by Barakett, Sacca, and Freedman (2001), to “take an active leadership
role in helping students clarify their own social concerns and look toward social change”.
Furthermore, they “argue that teachers should assume this kind of leadership role and that this
assumption of leadership ultimately will lead to changes in society”.

Another role of a teacher is to “create lessons that both intellectually inform and emotionally
stir students about the inequities that surround them” (Sadker & Zittleman, 2010. Knowledge is
power, and as mentioned before, misconceptions and ignorance are eliminated when
knowledge is gained. It is a teacher’s duty to provide his or her students with knowledge and to
present it in a way that causes students to think critically. A teacher must be fearless and bold,
unafraid to present their students with material that may be controversial or may cause
students to become uncomfortable or emotional. The role of the teacher is also to create a
democratic environment so that lessons and topics may be discussed, debated, and student
voices will be heard. In order for students to end up changing their society, they have to believe
that their voice matters and that they can make a difference in the world. It is the role of a
teacher to make sure his or her students know that they can make a difference, their opinions
matter, and their voices can and will be heard. Barakett, Sacca, and Freedman (2001) observed
“the classroom is a community or culture in its own right” and students should feel “they are an
important member of that community, and that they can freely voice their ideas and opinions,
in a safe environment”. It is a teacher’s job to make their students feel this way within their
classrooms. Murrow emphasizes this expectation for teachers to create a safe environment for
their students by saying it is their responsibility to “promote careful thinking by concern for free
discussion, respect for personality, self-reliance, and vision”. Free discussions and democratic
principles should be in effect when teachers present their students with material that makes
students aware of social inequities surrounding them. The teacher must present students with
material that looks into these social injustices so that his or her students will learn they exist. It
is a teacher’s role to create lessons that will inform his or her students as well as demand
emotional responses from them, to be fearless presenting material, to create a democratic
environment within their classroom, to inspire their students to be the change they wish to see
in the world, and to help bring awareness to social inequities.

Teachers who use social Reconstructionism challenge their students to think and feel and to
acquire strong moral values. Teacher need to incorporate the world issues into his/her
teachings. Teachers are essential in informing the students of the problems, giving possible
solutions, and assisting the students in trying to solve possible issues. Teachers need to
motivate students to use their education in solving the problems of society. Teacher explores
social problems, suggest alternative perspectives and facilitate student analysis of these
problems

It places the learner at the center of the educational process. Students must select educational
objects and social priorities. Students experiences and take social action on real problems such
as violence, hunger, international terrorism, inflection, inequality, racism, environmental
pollution, homelessness, poverty etc.

Classroom management and evaluation:


Teachers and students expected to learn and live in democratic culture. Teachers and students
work together on determining what should be learned and how best to learn it.

School is not seen as an institution that control and directs the youth, but as an institution that
works with youth to improve society.

Practical Example:

System of Pakistan Education:


The education system of Pakistan is comprised of 260,903 institutions and is facilitating
41,018,384 students with the help of 1,535,461 teachers. The system includes 180,846 public
institutions and 80,057 private institutions. Hence 31% educational institutes are run by private
sector while 69% are public institutes.

Problems Leading To Pakistan Educational System:


The issues lead to the comprehension of the problems which are faced in the development of
education system and promotion of literacy problems such as:
Lack of Proper Planning:
Pakistan is a signatory to MDGs and EFA goals. However it seems that it will not be able to
achieve these international commitments because of financial management issues and
constraints to achieve the MDGs and EFA goals.

Social Constraints:
Overcoming the latter is difficult and would require a change in attitude of the people, until
then universal primary education is difficult to achieve.

Cost of Education:
The economic cost is higher in private schools, but these are located in richer settlements
only. The paradox is that private schools are better but not everywhere and government
schools ensure equitable access but do not provide quality education.

War on Terror:
Pakistan’s engagement in war against terrorism also affected the promotion of literacy
campaign. Pakistan’s engagement in war against terrorism also affected the promotion of
literacy campaign.

Funds for Education:


Pakistan spends 2.4% GDP on education. At national level, 89% education expenditure
comprises of current expenses such as teachers’ salaries, while only 11% comprises of
development expenditure which is not sufficient to raise quality of education.

Technical Education:
Sufficient attention has not been paid to the technical and vocational education in Pakistan.
The number of technical and vocational training institutes is not sufficient and many are
deprived of infrastructure, teachers and tools for training.

Gender Gap:
Major factors that hinder enrolment rates of girls include poverty, cultural constraints,
illiteracy of parents and parental concerns about safety and mobility of their daughters.
Society’s emphasis on girl’s modesty, protection and early marriages may limit family’s
willingness to send them to school. Enrolment of rural girls is 45% lower than that of urban
girls; while for boys the difference is 10% only, showing that gender gap is an important factor.

Solution:
Since education is a provincial subject, the provincial education secretariats need to be
strengthened.

 There should be take proper steps to permote the education of girls in the society
 Funds for education system should be increased
 Government as well as non-government sector should work together to promote
education in rural areas.
 The government should take measures to get school buildings vacated which are
occupied by feudal lords of Sind, Baluchistan and Punjab.

Conclusion:
Social Reconstructionism is a philosophy of education that I believe is the most
beneficial to our teachers, students, and our world. Under Social Reconstructionism there are
specific ideas as to what the purpose of education is, and certain principles that are in place
when it comes to what the role of the teacher is, what the nature of curriculum and assessment
should be, and what the method of instruction should be. The purpose of education is to
reconstruct society. The role of the teacher is to take a leadership role in which he or she
provides a safe environment for his or her students to participate in a democratic classroom.
The teacher must inform, challenge, and work to inspire his or her students. The nature of the
curriculum and assessment should be material that will bring awareness to social inequities and
improve students’ communication skills. The method of instruction under Social
Reconstructionism is a student-centered way of teaching in which teachers and students work
together to make educational decisions. Social Reconstructionism is an educational philosophy
that pushes for the reconstruction of society by eliminating social injustices.
Reference
 https://www.reference.com/education/meant-social-reconstructionism-education-
823417861de95563
 http://oregonstate.edu/instruction/ed416/PP3.html
 http://www.slideshare.net/gigilumbremondelo07/educational-theories-social-
reconstructionism
 http://0search.proquest.com.athens.iii.com/education/docview/881045986/13D6FDF7

599D524E93/1?accountid=8411>.

 http://www.ipripak.org/education-system-of-pakistan-issues-problems-and-solutions/