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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that HIMANSHU, a student


of class XII-A ,roll no has
successfully completed the research on the
below mentioned project under my guidance
during the session 2017-18 in partial
fulfillment of chemistry practical examination
conducted by C.B.S.E New Delhi in
Kendriya Vidyalaya A.F.S ARJANGARH
NEW DELHI

STUDENT SUBJECT TEACHER


SIGNATURE SIGNATURE

(MR. SUMAN KUMAR)

(PGT-CHEMISTRY)\
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the accomplishment of this project successfully, many
people have best owned upon me their blessings and the
heart pledged support, this time I am utilizing to thank
all the people who have been concerned with project.
Primarily I would thank god for being able to complete
this project with success. Then I would like to thank my
CHEMISTRY teacher MR. SUMAN KUMAR, whose valuable
guidance has been the ones that helped me patch this
project and make it full proof success his suggestions
and his instructions has served as the major contributor
towards the completion of the project.
Then I would like to thank my parents and friends who
have helped me with their valuable suggestions and
guidance has been helpful in various phases of the
completion of the project.
Last but not the least I would like to thank my
classmates who have helped me a lot.

- HIMANSHU

SIGNATURE:-
INDEX
S CONTENT PAGE
NO. NO
1 PURPOSE 1
2 INTRODUCTION 2
3 THEORY 3
4 PROCESS OF MAKING OF COLD DRINKS 4
5 APPARATUS REQUIRED 5
6 CHEMICALS REQUIRED 6
7 EXPERIMENT 1: DETECTION OF pH 7-8
VALUE
8 EXPERIMENT 2: TEST FOR CARBON 9-10
DIOXIDE (CO2)
9 EXPERIMENT 3: TEST FOR GLUCOSE 11-14
10 EXPERIMENT 4: TEST FOR PHOSPHATE 15-16
11 EXPERIMENT 5: TEST FOR ALCOHOL 17-18
12 EXPERIMENT 6: TEST FOR SUCROSE 19-20
13 RESULT 21
14 CONCLUSION 22-23
15 PRECAUTIONS 24
16 BIBLOBRAPHY 25
PURPOSE
In recent days, soft drink brands were put into
various questions regarding their purity. News
flashed that they Contain harmful pesticide, which
arouse many interest in knowing its contents
because I have been drinking them for years I
wanted to confirm that whether the charge
imposed on these brands are true or not.
Another fact which inspired me to do
this project is that I am in touch with
qualitative analysis whose knowledge
with other factors helped me to do so.
INTRODUCTION
The era of cold drinks began in 1952 but the
Industrialization in India marked its beginning
With launching of Limca and Goldspot by
Parley Group of Companies. Since the
beginning of cold drinks was highly profitable
and luring, many multinational companies
launched their brands in India like Pepsi and
Coke-Cola.

Now days, it is observed in general that


majority of people viewed Sprite, Miranda,
and Limca to give feeling of lightness, while
Pepsi and Thumps Up to activate Pulse and
Brain.
Cold drinks of different brands are composed of alcohol carbohydrates, carbon dioxide, phosphate ions etc. These
soft drinks give feeling of warmth, lightness and have a tangy taste which is liked by everyone. Carbon dioxide is
responsible for the formation of froth on shaking the bottle.

The carbon dioxide gas is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid which is also responsible for the tangy taste.
Carbohydrates are the naturally organic compounds and are major source of energy to our body. General formula
of Carbohydrate is Cx (H2O) Y.
On the basis of their molecule size carbohydrates are classifies as:
Monosaccharide, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides. Glucose is a monosaccharide with formula C6H12O6 .It
occurs in Free State in the ripen grapes in bones and also in many sweet fruits. It is also present in human
blood to the extent of about 0.1%. Sucrose is one of the most useful disaccharides in our daily life. It is widely
distributed in nature in juices, seeds and also in flowers of many plants. The main source of sucrose is
sugar cane juice which contain 15-20 % sucrose and sugar beet which has about 10-17 % sucrose. The molecular
formula o f sucrose i s C12H22O11. It i s produced by a mixture of glucose and fructose. It is non-reducing in
nature whereas glucose is reducing. Cold drinks are a bit acidic in nature and their acidity can be measured
by finding their pH value. The pH values also depend upon the acidic contents such as citric acid and phosphoric
acid
PROCESS OF MAKING OF COLD DRINKS
Apparatus
required
1. TEST TUBE
2. TEST TUBE HOLDER
3. TEST TUBE STAND
4. STOPWATCH
5. BEAKER
6. BURNER
7. pH PAPER
8. TRIPOD STAND
9. CHINA DISH
10. WIRE GAUGE
11. WATER BATH
Chemicals
required
1. IODINE SOLUTION
2. POTTASIUM IODIDE
3. SODIUM HYDROXIDE
4. FEHLING’S A AND B SOLUTION
5. LIME WATER
6. CONCENTRATED HNO3
7. BENEDICT’S SOLUTION
8. AMMONIUM MOLYBDATE
EXPERIMENT 1:
DETECTION OF pH VALUE
PROCEDURE:-
Small samples of cold drinks of different brands were taken
in a test tube and put on the pH paper. The change in the
color of pH paper was noticed and was compared with the
standard pH scale.

pH VALUE IS
3-4
OBSERVATION
SR. NO. Name of Color pH value
the drink change obtained
1. Pepsi LIGHT 3-4
ORANGE
2. SPRITE LIGHT 3-4
ORANGE
3. THUMPS UP LIGHT 3-4
ORANGE
4. FANTA LIGHT 3-4
ORANGE

INFERENCE
Soft drinks are generally acidic because of the presence of
citric acid and phosphoric acid. pH values of cold drink of
different brands are different due to the variation in amount
of acidic contents.
EXPERIMENT 2:
TEST FOR CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)
PROCEDURE:-
As soon as the bottles were opened, one by one the sample was
passed through lime water. The lime water turned milky.

CHEMICAL REACTION INVOLVED


Ca(OH)2 (s) + CO2(g) ———–CaCO3 (s) + H2O(s)
OBSERVATION

S No Name of the Time Taken Conclusion


Drink (s)
1 PEPSI 26.5 Co2
Present
2 SPRITE 21 Co2
Present
3 THUMPS UP 35 Co2
Present
4 FANTA 36 Co2
Present

INFERENCE
All the soft drinks contain dissolved carbon dioxide in water. The
carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves in water to form carbonic acid,
which is responsible for its tangy taste.
EXPERIMENT 3:
TEST FOR GLUCOSE
PROCEDURE:-
Glucose is a reducing sugar acid. Its presence is detected by the
following test:-
1.BENEDICT’S REAGENT TEST
A small sample of cold drink of different brands was taken in a test
tube and a few drops of Benedict’s reagent were added. The test
tube was heated for few seconds. Formation of reddish color
confirms the presence of glucose in cold drinks.
OBSERVATION

S no Name of the drink Observation Conclusion


1 PEPSI Reddish Glucose is
Color PPT Present
2 SPRITE Reddish Glucose is
Color PPT Present
3 THUMPS UP Reddish Glucose is
Color PPT Present
4 FANTA Reddish Glucose is
Color PPT Present

INFERENCE
All the samples gave positive test for glucose with Benedict’s
reagent. Hence all the drinks contain glucose.
1.FEHLING’S SOLUTION TEST
A small sample of cold drink of different brands was taken in a test
tube and a few drops of Fehling’s A solution and Fehling’s B
solution was added in equal amount. The test tube was heated in a
water bath for 10 minutes. Appearance of brown precipitate
confirms the presence of glucose in cold drinks.
OBSERVATION

S no Name of the drink Observation Conclusion


1 PEPSI Reddish Glucose is
Color PPT Present
2 SPRITE Reddish Glucose is
Color PPT Present
3 THUMPS UP Reddish Glucose is
Color PPT Present
4 FANTA Reddish Glucose is
Color PPT Present

INFERENCE
All the samples give positive test for glucose with Fehling’s solutions
(A&B).Hence all the cold drinks contain glucose.
EXPERIMENT 4:
TEST FOR PHOSPHATE
PROCEDURE:-
Sample of each brand of cold drink was taken in a separate test tube
and ammonium molybdate followed by concentrated nitric acid
(HNO3) was added to it, the solution was taken heated and the
color of the precipitate confirms the presence of phosphate ions.

CHEMICAL REACTION INVOLVED


NaHPO4 + 12 (NH4)2MoO4 + 21HNO3 +3H+———–>
(NH4)3PO4.12MoO3 +21HN4NO3 +12H2O
OBSERVATION

S no Name of the Observation Conclusion


drink
1 PEPSI Yellow Color Phosphate is
PPT Present
2 SPRITE White/transparent Phosphate is
Color PPT Present
3 THUMPS UP Yellow Color Phosphate is
PPT Present
4 FANTA White/transparent Phosphate is
Color PPT Present

INFERENCE
All the soft drinks contain phosphate ions which are detected by
the presence of phosphate when canary yellow obtained.
EXPERIMENT 5:
TEST FOR ALCOHOL
PROCEDURE:-
Samples of each brand of cold drinks are taken in sample test tube
and iodine followed by potassium iodide and sodium hydroxide
(NaOH) solution is added to each test tube. Then the test tube are
heated in hot water bath for 30 minutes yellow colored precipitate
confirmed the presence of alcohol in cold drinks

CHEMICAL REACTION INVOLVED


CH3CH2OH +4I2+ 6NaOH——>CHI3 + HCOONa +5NaI +5H2O
OBSERVATION

S no Name of the Observation Conclusion


drink
1 PEPSI Yellow Color Alcohol is
PPT Present
2 SPRITE Yellow Color Alcohol is
PPT Present
3 THUMPS UP Yellow Color Alcohol is
PPT Present
4 FANTA Yellow Color Alcohol is
PPT Present

INFERENCE
All the cold drinks samples gave positive test for alcohol. Hence
all the cold drinks have alcohol in them.
EXPERIMENT 6:
TEST FOR SUCROSE
PROCEDURE:-
5 ml samples of each brand of cold drinks was taken in a china dish
and heated very strongly until changes occur. Black colored residue
left confirms the presence of sucrose in cold drinks.
OBSERVATION

S no Name of the Observation Conclusion


drink
1 PEPSI Black Residue Sucrose is
Present
2 SPRITE Black Residue Sucrose is
Present
3 THUMPS UP Black Residue Sucrose is
Present
4 FANTA Black Residue Sucrose is
Present

INFERENCE
All the brands of cold drinks contain sucrose. But amount of
sucrose varies in each brand of drink. Fanta contained highest
amount of sucrose
RESULT
After conducting several tests, it was concluded that the different
brands of cold drinks namely
1. PEPSI
2. SPRITE
3. THUMPS UP
4. FANTA
All contain glucose, alcohol sucrose, phosphate, ions and carbon
dioxide. All are acidic in nature. On comparing the pH value of
different brands thumps up is most acidic and Fanta is least acidic
of all the four brands taken. pH value of coca cola is nearly equal
to disinfectant which is harmful for body.
CARBON DIOXIDE
Among the four samples of cold drinks taken sprite has maximum
amount of dissolved carbon dioxide and Fanta has minimum
amount of dissolved carbon dioxide. Conclusion
CONCLUSION:-
DISADVANTAGES OF COLD DRINKS
1. Soft Drinks are acidic which corrodes teeth by eroding its enamel. The high
amount of sugar present in it leads to development of bacteria that leads to
dental problems (by attacking teeth).If u have 2 or 3 glasses of aerated gaseous
drinks higher the chances of dental decay, fillings and teeth loss
2. Soft drinks contain filtered H2O, artificial additives and refined sugar. Acids
present in them are citric, phosphoric, malic/tartaric acids. Gas present is carbon
dioxide.
3. Phosphoric acid present upsets calcium-phosphorous ratio's hence dissolving
calcium resulting in premature osteoporosis (bones loosing Calcium).
4. Lack nutritional value, add up calories and make u gain weight (For Obese
people).
5. Aspartame is 200 times sweeter than sugar which is used to sweeten it.This
sweeter makes u hungrier n crave (addiction) for food.
6. Leads to Diseases like migraine, memory loss, emotional disorders, blurred
vision, ringing in ears, heart palpitations and shortness of breath.
7. It consists of soft drinks Ace-K (100-200 sweeter than sugar) which contains
carcinogenic (which is not used on animals as they increase cancerous tumors)
8. Saccharin is proven to cause bladder cancer and is banned i some of foreign
countries which is present in pepsi diet, diet coke.
9. The sweetener results in High B.P., Giddiness and increased heartbeat.
10. It has a stimulant (Caffeine) that makes us an addict to it.
11. It makes a person infertile and impacts a harsh nature.
12. Frequent use may result in gastrointestinal troubles followed by insomnia.
13. You may also observe a drop in your body weight (For Mal-nutritious and
underweight people) and disturbed sleep & much more
ADVANTAGES OF COLD DRINKS
1. "Caffeine Benefits"
Caffeine is a stimulant that is found in soft drinks.
In large amounts can have detrimental effects on your health but it
also has numerous benefits. Caffeine stimulates your central
nervous system, helps breakdown fatty acids in your liver, boost
your mood and alleviate headaches. People who regularly ingest
caffeine are less likely to develop Parkinson's disease, colon cancer,
gallstones, and cirrhosis of the liver.

2. "Carbonated Water"
Carbonated water is a primary ingredient of soft
drinks. Carbonated water was created by Joseph Priestly in the year
1767 and has since proven to have many benefits for the
gastrointestinal tract. Carbonated water eases stomachaches, quells
nausea and has been proven to alleviate constipation.

3. "Sodium Benefits"
Sodium is another product found in soft drinks.
Sodium is an important mineral found in almost all natural foods.
Sodium helps your body retain water, helps avoid and treat muscle
cramps, keeps electrolyte balance, prevents the effects of aging of
your skin and prevents you’re the drop of your blood pressure.
PRECAUTIONS
1. Do not use any equipment unless you are trained and approved as a user by
your supervisor.
2. Wear safety glasses or face shields when working with hazardous materials
and/or equipment.
3. Wear gloves when using any hazardous or toxic agent.
4. Keep the work area clear of all materials except those needed for your work.
Coats should be hung in your room or placed in a locker. Extra books, purses,
etc. should be kept away from equipment that requires air flow or ventilation to
prevent overheating.
5. Disposal - Students are responsible for the proper disposal of used material if
any in appropriate containers.
6. Equipment Failure - If a piece of equipment fails while being used, report it
immediately a technician. Never try to fix the problem yourself because you
could harm yourself and others.
7. Do not leave an on-going experiment unattended.
8. Never taste anything. Never pipette by mouth; use a bulb.
9. Never use open flames in laboratory unless instructed by TA.
10. Check your glassware for cracks and chips each time you use it. Cracks could
cause the glassware to fail during use and cause serious injury to you or lab
mates.
11. Never return chemicals to reagent bottles. (Try for the correct amount and
share any excess.)
12. Never allow a solvent to come in contact with your skin. Always use gloves.
13. Never "smell" a solvent!! Read the label on the solvent bottle to identify its
contents.
14. Treat every chemical as if it were hazardous.
15. Clean your lab bench and equipment, and lock the door before you leave the
laboratory.
BIBLOGRAPHY
1. http://www.comeforlearn.com
2. http://healthyeating.sfgate.com
3. https://nutriheal.weebly.com/
4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soft_drink
5. https://www.google.co.in
6. https://priskajp.wordpress.com