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CVG3147 Structural Steel Design I

Introduction to Limit States Design

Introduction to Limit States Design

CVG3147 Text Books

Introduction to Limit States Design

CVG3147 Text Books

3

Introduction to Limit States Design

Additional Texts needed for Structural Design

Introduction to Limit States Design

Introduction to Limit States Design

Structural Design Process

Introduction to Limit States Design

Structural System Selection

Introduction to Limit States Design

Structural System Selection

Introduction to Limit States Design

Structural System Selection

Introduction to Limit States Design

Structural System Selection

Introduction to Limit States Design

Structural System Selection

Introduction to Limit States Design

Introduction to Limit States Design

Structure is to be designed according to Minimum Loads as given in the national building code of Canada (NBCC 2010)

(Division B Part 4 Structural Design)

Introduction to Limit States Design

Determine Internal Forces

Introduction to Limit States Design

Determine Internal Forces

Internal Forces:

In previous courses, you have learned how to obtain

- Bending moments

- Shearing forces

- Normal forces

- Twisting moments

How to obtain Internal Forces? Based on Elastic Analysis (covered in Theory of Structures such as (CVG3140, CVG4148) or

Based on Plastic Analysis (advanced topic) provided

that steel structure meets the requirements of Clause 8.3 in CAN/CSA S16 -2014: “Limit States Design for Steel Structures”

Introduction to Limit States Design
Determine Internal Forces
8.3.1 Elastic Analysis

Under a particular loading combination, the forces and moments throughout all or part of the structure may be determined by an analysis that assumes that individual members behave elastically.

8.3.2 Plastic Analysis

Under a particular loading combination, the forces and moments throughout all or part of the structure may be determined by a plastic analysis, provided that

(a) the steel used has Fy

moment redistribution;

(b) the width-to-thickness ratios meet the requirements

of Class 1 sections as given in Clause 11.2;

0.85Fu and exhibits the stress-strain characteristics necessary to achieve

(c) the members are braced laterally in accordance

with the requirements of Clause 13.7;

16

Introduction to Limit States Design

8.3.2 Plastic Analysis

(d) web stiffeners are supplied on a member at a point of load application where a plastic hinge

would form;

(e) splices in beams or columns are designed to

transmit 1.1 times the maximum calculated moment

under factored loads at the splice location or 0.25Mp , whichever is greater;

(f) members are not subject to repeated heavy impact or fatigue; and

(g) the influence of inelastic deformation on the strength of the structure is taken into account. **

Introduction to Limit States Design

Selection of Members

Introduction to Limit States Design

Propose Member Cross Sections

This is the objective of structural steel design courses such as

CVG3147

1- Select steel cross-sections 2- Use CAN/CSA S16-2014 provisions to calculate the resistance of steel components such as:

tension members, compression members, beams, connections

3- Compare the calculated resistance to the internal forces

(obtained from the analysis) and decide whether the proposed members are satisfactory. **

**The process is generally iterative**

Introduction to Limit States Design

Design Philosophy

Sources of Variability:

Resistance variability is due to:

Material properties

Differences in geometry and dimensions

Modelling approximations

Actual forces deviate from code specified values

Introduction to Limit States Design

Introduction to Limit States Design

Limit State Design

A better design philosophy

• Limit state design attempts to control (rather than eliminate) the probability of failure (the probability of forces exceeding the resistance) during the expected lifetime of the structure

• Limit states adopts “partial safety factors” which are based on statistical measures rather than subjective “experience”.

Introduction to Limit States Design

Limit State Design

Steel Structures should be safe and serviceable during their useful life

(CAN/CSA-S16 Cl. 6.1)

Limit States define various types of collapse and un-serviceablity to be avoided

• Ultimate Limit States relate to safety

Strength,

Overturning,

Sliding , and

Fatigue

• Serviceability Limit States relate to functionality

Deflections, Vibrations, and

Permanent deformation

Introduction to Limit States Design

Ultimate Limit States (ULS) Strength Design

• Basic design relationship:

FACTORED RESISTANCES

(PERFORMANCE)

NOTE: neither can be determined with absolute certainty.

Introduction to Limit States Design

Ultimate Limit States (ULS) Strength Design

R= Nominal Resistance of a structural element S i = Load effect under specified load**

these are the most likely values determined from engineering knowledge, but we accept that there will be some variability and uncertainty

Introduction to Limit States Design

Ultimate Limit States (ULS) Strength Design

variability and uncertainty accounted for by factoring load effects up and resistance down

factored resistance effect of factored loads

R

S

i

i

Clause 7.2.1

Resistance Factor

i

factored resistance accounts for:

- variability of material strengths

- variability of dimensions

- quality of work

- uncertainty in predicted resistance (approximations of equations)

Introduction to Limit States Design

Other Limit States