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East Asia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


For other uses, see East Asia (disambiguation).
Northeast Asia
Location of Northeast Asia
States
China
Japan
Mongolia
South Korea
North Korea
Taiwan[1][2]
Dependencies
Hong Kong
Macau
Major cities
List[show]
Area[note 1]
� Total 11,839,074 km2 (4,571,092 sq mi)
Population (2016)[note 2]
� Total 1,641,908,531
� Density 140/km2 (360/sq mi)
Time zone
UTC+7 (Mongolia)
UTC+8 (Mongolia, China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan)
UTC+8:30 (North Korea)
UTC+9 (Japan, South Korea)
Languages and language families
Chinese Japanese Korean Mongolian Tibetan Others
East Asia
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese ??/????
Traditional Chinese ??/????
[show]Transcriptions
Tibetan name
Tibetan ????????????
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabet ��ng �
Ch? H�n ??
Korean name
Hangul ????/????/??
Hanja ????/????/??
[show]Transcriptions
Mongolian name
Mongolian ???? ???
????? ???
[show]Transcriptions
Japanese name
Kana ??????/???
Kyujitai ????/??
Shinjitai ????(????)/??
[show]Transcriptions
Uyghur name
Uyghur
?????? ?????
Russian name
Russian ????????? ????
Romanization Vostochnaja Azija
Northeast Asia or East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which
can be defined in either geographical[3] or pan-ethno-cultural[4] terms.
Geographically and geopolitically, it includes Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau,
Taiwan, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea and South Korea; it covers about 12,000,000
km2 (4,600,000 sq mi), or about 28% of the Asian continent. GDP(PPP) of East Asia
is 32.4 trillion while Nominal GDP is 19.1 trillion USD.

East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people. About 38% of the population of Asia
and 22%, or over one fifth, of world's population lives in East Asia. Although the
coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated
places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is
very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of a
sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants
per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2
(120/sq mi).

Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere,
and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and
Chinese script. Major religions include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana[5]), Confucianism
or Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese folk religion in Mainland China, Hong Kong,
Macau and Taiwan, Shinto in Japan, Korean shamanism in Korea. Shamanism is also
prevalent among Mongolians and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia
such as the Manchus and Ewenki.[6][7] Islam is popular in Northwest China and
Kazaks in Mongolia. The Chinese calendar is the root from which many other East
Asian calendars are derived.

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 United Nations Statistics Division
2.1 Alternative definitions
3 Economy
4 Territorial and regional data
4.1 Etymology
4.2 Demographics
4.3 Major ethnic groups
5 Culture
5.1 Overview
5.2 Religions
5.3 Festivals
6 Collaboration
6.1 East Asian Youth Games
6.2 Free trade agreements
6.3 Military alliances
7 Major cities and towns
8 See also
9 Notes
10 References
11 External links
History[edit]
Main article: History of East Asia
In comparison with the profound influence of the Ancient Greeks and Romans on
Europe and the Western World, China would already possess an advanced civilization
nearly half a millennia before Japan and Korea.[8] Subsequent Chinese Dynasties
exerted enormous influence across East Asia culturally, economically, politically
and militarily for over two millennia.[9] Cultural and religious interaction
between the Chinese and other regional East Asian dynasties and kingdoms occurred.
As Chinese civilization existed for about 1500 years before other East Asian
civilizations emerged into history, China would exert enormous cultural, economic,
technological, and political muscle on its neighbors.[10][11][12] The Imperial
Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over 2000 years due
to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus
played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular.[13][14] The
transmission of advanced Chinese cultural practices and ways of thinking greatly
shaped the region up until the 19th century.[15]

As East Asia's connections with Europe and the Western world strengthened during
the late 19th century, China's power began to decline. U.S.Commodore Matthew C.
Perry would open Japan to Western ways, and the country would expand in earnest
after the 1860s.[16] Around the same time, Japan with its rush to modernity
transformed itself from an isolated feudal samurai state into East Asia's first
industrialized nation.[17] The modern and powerful Japan would galvanize it's
position in the Orient as East Asia's greatest power with a global mission poised
to advance to lead the entire world.[18] With its newly found international status,
Japan would begin to inextricably take a more active and leading role in world
affairs. Flexing its nascent political and military might, Japan would soundly
defeat the stagnant Qing Dynasty during the First Sino-Japanese War as well as
vanquishing imperial rival Russia in 1905, the first major military victory in the
modern era of an East Asian power over a European one.[19][20] It's hegemony was
the heart of an empire that would include Taiwan and Korea.[21] During World War
II, Japanese expansionism with its imperialist aspirations through the Greater East
Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere would incorporate Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China
and Manchuria, Hong Kong, and Southeast Asia under its control.[22] Following
Japan's defeat in the war, the Korean peninsula became independent but then it was
divided into two rival states, while Taiwan became the main territory of de facto
state Republic of China after the latter lost mainland China to the People's
Republic of China in the Chinese Civil War.

United Nations Statistics Division[edit]

East Asia map of K�ppen climate classification.

UNSD geoscheme for Asia based on statistic convenience rather than implying any
assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories:
[23]
North Asia
Central Asia
Western Asia
South Asia
East Asia
Southeast Asia
The UNSD definition of East Asia is based on statistical convenience,[23] but also
other common definitions of East Asia contain the entirety of China (including
Mainland, Hong Kong, Macau), Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan.
[3][24]

Culturally, China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam are commonly seen as being
encompassed by cultural East Asia (East Asian cultural sphere).[4][25][26][27]

Alternative definitions[edit]
There are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should
be considered in East Asia or not.

Vietnam (officially part of Southeast Asia geographically, although culturally it


is a part of the East Asian cultural sphere, politically, it is related to both
Southeast Asia and East Asia)
Siberia in Russia (often described as North Asia due to its location, although this
part of Russia is often seen as more closely related to its East Asian neighbours)
Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China Sea.
In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to a wide
geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, People's
Republic of China, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea. However, in this context, the
term "Far East" is often more appropriate which covers ASEAN countries and the
countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the
region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location
within Asia. Alternatively, the term "Asia Pacific Region" is often used in
describing East Asia, Southeast Asia as well as Oceania.

Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term
Northeast Asia to refer to the greater China area, Taiwan, the Korean Peninsula,
and Japan, with Southeast Asia covering the ten ASEAN countries. This usage, which
is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical
meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia".[28][29][30] The Council on
Foreign Relations defines Northeast Asia as Japan and Korea.[31]

Economy[edit]
Main article: Economy of East Asia
State/Territory GDP nominal
billions of USD (2017)[32] GDP nominal per capita
USD (2017)[32] GDP PPP
billions of USD (2017)[32] GDP PPP per capita
USD (2017)[32]
China 11,937.562 8,583 23,122.027 16,624
Hong Kong 334.104 44,999 453.019 61,015
Macau 51.160 79,563 73.579 114,430
Japan 4,884.489 38,550 5,405.072 42,659
North Korea N/A N/A N/A N/A
South Korea 1,529.743 29,730 2,026.651 39,387
Mongolia 10.869 3,553 38.395 12,551
Taiwan 571.453 24,227 1,175.308 49,827
Territorial and regional data[edit]
Etymology[edit]
Flag Common Name Official Name
Exonym Endonym Exonym Endonym
China China ?? People�s Republic of China ???????
Hong Kong Hong Kong ?? Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
of the People�s Republic of China ??????????????
Macau Macau ?? Macao Special Administrative Region
of the People�s Republic of China ??????????????
Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau
da Rep�blica da China
Japan Japan ?? State of Japan ???
Mongolia Mongolia ?????? ??? Mongolia ?????? ???(??????
???? )
North Korea North Korea ?? Democratic People�s Republic of Korea ???????????
(???????????)
South Korea South Korea ?? Republic of Korea ???? (????)
Taiwan Taiwan[33] ?? / ?? Republic of China ????
Demographics[edit]
State/Territory Area km2 Population[34]
(2016) Population density
per km2 HDI Capital
China 9,640,011[35] 1,403,500,365 138 0.727 Beijing
Hong Kong 1,104 7,302,843 6,390 0.912 Hong Kong
Macau 30 612,167 18,662 0.892 Macau
Japan 377,930 127,748,513 337 0.891 Tokyo
North Korea 120,538 25,368,620 198 0.595 Pyongyang[36]
South Korea 100,210 50,791,919 500 0.898 Seoul
Mongolia 1,564,100 3,027,398 2 0.698 Ulaanbaatar
Taiwan 36,188 23,556,706 639 0.884 Taipei[37]
Major ethnic groups[edit]
Main articles: East Asians and Ethnic groups of East Asia
Ethnicity Native name Population Language(s) Writing system(s) Major
states/territories* Physical Appearance
Han/Chinese ?? or ??, ?? or ?? 1,220,000,000[38] Mandarin, Cantonese,
Shanghainese, Hokkien, Hakka, Gan, Hsiang, etc. Simplified Han characters,
Traditional Han characters China (Hong KongMacau) TaiwanJapanSouth Korea
Yellow and green hanfu.jpg
Yamato/Japanese ??? (?????)
???? (???????) 125,117,000[39] Japanese Han characters (Kanji), Katakana,
Hiragana Japan
Kimono lady at Gion, Kyoto.jpg
Joseon/Korean ??? (???)
??? (???) 79,432,225[40] Korean Hangul, Han characters (Hanja) South
KoreaNorth KoreaChinaJapan
KOCIS Korea Hanbok-AoDai FashionShow 43 (9766406474).jpg
Mongols ??????????/??????????
??????/??????? 8,942,528 Mongolian Mongol script, Cyrillic script
ChinaMongolia
Hamtdaa Mongolian Arts Culture Masks - 0064 (5568565844).jpg
Zhuang ??/Bouxcuengh 18,000,000[41] Zhuang, Cantonese, Southwestern
Mandarin, etc. Simplified Han characters, Latin script China
Zhuang's beautiful maiden in Chongzuo Fusui.jpg
Manchus ??/????? 10,422,873[42] Northeastern Mandarin, Manchurian
(endangered), etc. Simplified Han characters, Mongol script China
Manchu bride. John Thomson. China, 1871-1872. The Wellcome Collection, London.jpg
Hui ??/?? 10,586,087[43] Northwestern Mandarin, other Chinese Dialects, Huihui
language, etc. Simplified Han characters China
HuiChineseMuslim3.jpg
Uyghurs ?????? 10,069,346[44] Uyghur Arabic script,Latin
script(auxiliary)[45] China[46]
Khotan-mercado-gente-uigur-d01.jpg
Hmong/Miao Ghaob Xongb/Hmub/Mongb 9,426,007[47] Hmong, Southwestern Mandarin
Latin script, Simplified Han characters China
?????????(a Miao woman in Qiandongnan,Guizhou).jpg
Tibetans ?????? 6,500,000 Tibetan, Rgyal Rong, Rgu, etc. Tibetan
script China
People of Tibet46.jpg
Bai ?? 1,858,063 Bai, Southwestern Mandarin Latin script, Simplified Han
characters China
Bai 5.JPG
Yi ??/?? 8,714,393 Various Loloish, Southwestern Mandarin Yi script,
Simplified Han characters China
Ethnic Yi China Costume.jpg
Tujia ??? 8,353,912 Northern Tujia, Southern Tujia Simplified Han
characters China
Tujia women.jpg
Kam Gaeml 2,879,974 Gaeml Simplified Han characters, Latin script China
Ethic Dong Liping Guizhou China.jpg
Tu ??/Monguor 289,565 Tu, Northwestern Mandarin Simplified Han
characters China
Nadun Picture 1.jpg
Daur ????/????? 131,992 Daur, Northeastern Mandarin Mongol script,
Simplified Han characters ChinaMongolia
Daur woman smiling.jpg
Russians ??????? 15,393 Russian, Northwestern Mandarin Cyrillic
script, Simplified Han characters China
Three different nationalities on Kitaiskaia Street.JPG
Mountain Tajiks ????? 3,556 Sarikoli, Wakhi Arabic script China
Taiwanese Aborigines Pangcah, etc. 533,600 Austronesian languages (Amis,
Yami), etc. Latin script, Traditional Han characters Taiwan
Tao1.jpg
*Note: The order of states/territories follows the population ranking of each
ethnicity, within East Asia only.

Culture[edit]
Main article: East Asian cultural sphere
Overview[edit]
The culture of East Asia has largely been influenced by China, as it was the
civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages
that ultimately laid the foundation for East Asian civilization.[48] The vast
knowledge and ingenuity of Chinese civilization and the classics of Chinese
literature and culture were seen as the foundations for a civilized life in East
Asia. China served as a vehicle through which the adoption of Confucian ethical
philosophy, Chinese calendar system, political and legal systems, architectural
style, diet, terminology, institutions, religious beliefs, imperial examinations
that emphasized a knowledge of Chinese classics, political philosophy and culture,
as well as historically sharing a common writing system reflected in the histories
of Japan and Korea.[49][50][51][52][53][54][55] The Imperial Chinese tributary
system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China and
its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during
the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties
of Imperial China facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that
influenced the cultures of Japan and Korea and drew them into a Chinese
international order.[56][57] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of
East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over 2000 years due to Imperial China's
economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the
history of East Asia in particular.[58][59] The relationship between China and it's
cultural influence on East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of
Greco-Roman civilization on Europe and the Western World.[54][60][61][62]

Religions[edit]
Religion Native name Denomination Major book Type Est. Followers Major
ethnicities Major states/territories
Chinese religion none, various classifications including ????, ??/??, etc.
Taoism, Confucianism, folk salvationist sects, Wuism, Nuo Chinese classics,
Huangdi Sijing, precious scrolls, etc. Pantheism/polytheism ~900,000,000[63]
[64] Han, Hmong, Qiang, Tujia (worship of the same ancestor-gods) China (Hong
Kong Macau) Taiwan
Taoism ?? Zhengyi, Quanzhen Tao Te Ching Pantheism/polytheism
~20,000,000[64] Han, Zhuang, Hmong, Yao, Qiang, Tujia China (Hong Kong
Macau) Taiwan
Confucianism ?? Cheng-Zhu, Lu-Wang Four Books and Five Classics
Immanent transcendence/pantheism N/A Han, Joseon / Korean, Yamato etc.
China (Hong Kong Macau) Japan South Korea Taiwan
East Asian Buddhism ???? or ???? Mahayana Diamond Sutra Non-God
~300,000,000 Han, Joseon / Korean, Yamato, Manchus etc. China (Hong
Kong Macau) Japan South Korea Taiwan
Tibetan Buddhism ??????????????????? Mahayana Anuttarayoga Tantra Non-
God ~10,000,000 Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols, Han etc. China Mongolia
Shamanism[65] and Bon, etc ??? ?????? , ??? N/A N/A Polytheism/pantheism
N/A Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols, Oroqen, Han etc. China Mongolia
Shinto ?? Shinto sects Kojiki, Nihon Shoki Polytheism/pantheism
N/A Yamato Japan
Sindo/Muism ?? or ?? Sindo sects N/A Polytheism/pantheism N/A Joseon /
Korean South Korea
Festivals[edit]
Festival Native Name Other name Calendar Date Gregorian date Activity
Religious practices Food Major ethnicities Major states/territories
Chinese New Year ?? or ?? Spring Festival Chinese Month 1 Day 1 21
Jan�20 Feb Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, FireworksWorship the
King of Gods Jiaozi Han, Joseon, Manchus etc. China(Hong KongMacau)
North Korea South Korea Mongolia Taiwan
New Year ?? Yuan Dan Gregorian 1 Jan 1 Jan Fireworks N/A N/A N/A
China(Hong KongMacau) Japan North Korea South Korea Mongolia Taiwan
Losar or Tsagaan Sar ??????? or ?????? ??? White Moon Tibetan, Mongolian
Month 1 Day 1 25 Jan�2 Mar Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb
Sweeping, Fireworks N/A Chhaang or Buuz Tibetans, Mongols, Tu etc.
ChinaMongolia
Lantern Festival ??? or ??? Upper Yuan Festival (???) Chinese Month 1 Day
15 4 Feb�6 Mar Lanterns Expo, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the
God of Sky-officer Yuanxiao Han, Joseon, Yamato China(Hong KongMacau)
North Korea South Korea Japan Taiwan*
Qingming Festival ??? or ??? Tomb Sweeping Day Solar 15th day since March equinox
4 Apr�6 April Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Burning Hell money
Cold Food Han, Joseon, Mongols China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea South
Korea Taiwan
Dragon Boat Festival ??? or ??? Duanwu Festival Chinese Month 5 Day 5
Driving poisons & plague away, Dragon Boat Race, Wearing colored lines,
Hanging felon herb on the front door. Worship various Gods Zongzi Han,
Joseon, Yamato China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea South Korea Japan Taiwan*
Ghost Festival ??? or ??? Mid Yuan Festival Chinese Month 7 Day 15
Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Earth-officer
Han, Joseon, Yamato China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea South Korea Japan
Taiwan*
Mid-Autumn Festival ??? or ??? ??? Chinese Month 8 Day 15 Family
Reunion, Enjoying Moon view Worship the Moon Goddess Mooncake Han, Joseon,
Yamato China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea South Korea Japan Taiwan*
Double Ninth Festival ??? or ??? Double Positive Festival Chinese Month
9 Day 09 Climbing Mountain, Taking care of elderly, Wearing Cornus.
Worship various Gods Han, Joseon, Yamato China(Hong KongMacau)
North Korea South Korea Japan Taiwan*
Lower Yuan Festival ??? or ??? N/A Chinese Month 10 Day 15
Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Water-officer
Ciba Han China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea South Korea Taiwan
Small New Year ?? Jizao (??) Chinese Month 12 Day 23 Cleaning
Houses Worship the God of Hearth tanggua Han, Mongols China(Hong
KongMacau) Mongolia Taiwan
International Labor Day N/A N/A Gregorian 1 May 1 May N/A N/A N/A N/A
China(Hong KongMacau) Mongolia Taiwan
International Women's Day N/A N/A Gregorian 8 Mar 8 Mar Taking care of
women N/A N/A N/A China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea Mongolia Taiwan
*Japan switched the date to the Gregorian calendar after the Meiji Restoration.

*Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4.

Collaboration[edit]
East Asian Youth Games[edit]
Formerly the East Asian Games is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian
Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from
East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), as well
as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of the Oceania National Olympic
Committees.

The East Asian Games is 1 of 5 Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the East
Asian Games, the Central Asian Games, the South Asian Games, the Southeast Asian
Games (SEA Games), and the West Asian Games. All nigh East Asian States/Territories
join this Game.

Free trade agreements[edit]


Name of agreement Parties Leaders at the time Negotiation begins
Signing date Starting time Current status
China�South Korea FTA China South Korea Xi Jinping, Park Geun-hye May, 2012
Jun 01, 2015 Dec 30, 2015 Enforced
China�Japan�South Korea FTA China Japan South Korea Xi Jinping, Shinzo Abe, Park
Geun-hye Mar 26, 2013 N/A N/A 10 round negotiation
Japan-Mongolia EPA Japan Mongolia Shinzo Abe, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj -
Feb 10, 2015 - Enforced
China-Mongolia FTA China Mongolia Xi Jinping, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj N/A
N/A N/A Officially proposed
Mainland-HK CEPA China Hong Kong Jiang Zemin, Tung Chee-hwa - Jun 29, 2003
- Enforced
Mainland-Macau CEPA China Macau Jiang Zemin, Edmund Ho Hau-wah - Oct
18, 2003 - Enforced
Hong Kong-Macau CEPA Hong Kong Macau Carrie Lam, Fernando Chui Oct 09, 2015
N/A N/A Negotiating
ECFA China Taiwan Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Jan 26, 2010 Jun 29, 2010
Aug 17, 2010 Enforced
CSSTA (Based on ECFA) China Taiwan Xi Jinping, Ma Ying-jeou Mar, 2011
Jun 21, 2013 N/A Abolished
CSGTA (Based on ECFA) China Taiwan Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Feb 22, 2011
N/A N/A Suspended
Military alliances[edit]
Name Abbr. Parties within the region
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SCO China(Hong KongMacau)
General Security of Military Information Agreement GSOMIA JapanSouth Korea
Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty - China(Hong
KongMacau) North Korea
Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan
- United States(GuamNorthern Mariana Islands) Japan
Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea -
United States(GuamNorthern Mariana Islands) South Korea
Taiwan Relations Act (Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty before 1980) TRA (SAMDT)
United States(GuamNorthern Mariana Islands) Taiwan
Major non-NATO ally (Global Partners of NATO) - NATOUnited
States(GuamNorthern Mariana Islands)AustraliaJapanSouth KoreaTaiwan[66]
Major cities and towns[edit]
Main article: Cities of East Asia

Tokyo is the largest city in the world, both in metropolitan population and
economy.

Seoul is the capital of South Korea, one of the largest cities in the world and a
leading global technology hub.

Pyongyang is the capital of North Korea (DPRK), and is a significant metropolis on


the Korean Peninsula.
Shanghai is the largest city in China (People's Republic of China) and one of the
largest in the world, and is the leading business and financial centre of Mainland
China.

Taipei is the de facto capital of Taiwan (formally known as the Republic of China),
and is one of the world's leading technical centres in East Asia, and is the
location of the Taipei 101.

Hong Kong, enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, is one of the
world's leading global financial centres and is known as a cosmopolitan metropolis.

File:Pass over Eastern Asia to Philippine Sea and Guam.ogv


Pass of the ISS over Mongolia, looking out west towards the Pacific Ocean, China,
and Japan. As the video progresses, you can see major cities along the coast and
the Japanese islands on the Philippine Sea. The island of Guam can be seen further
down the pass into the Philippine Sea, and the pass ends just to the east of New
Zealand. A lightning storm can be seen as light pulses near the end of the video.
See also[edit]
icon Geography portal
icon Asia portal
East Asia Summit
East Asian Community
East Asian languages
East Asian studies
Economy of East Asia
Four Asian Tigers
China�Japan�South Korea trilateral summit
Chinese calligraphy
Japanese calligraphy
Korean calligraphy
Mongolian calligraphy
Notes[edit]
Jump up ^ The area figure is based on the combined areas of China (including Hong
Kong and Macau), Mongolia, North Korea & South Korea, Taiwan and Japan as listed at
List of countries and outlying territories by total area.
Jump up ^ The population figure is the combined populations of China (including
Hong Kong and Macau), Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Japan and Republic of
China (Taiwan) as listed at the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects
References[edit]
Jump up ^ Officially known as the Republic of China
Jump up ^ Non-United Nations member state
^ Jump up to: a b "East Asia". Encarta. Microsoft. Archived from the original on
2009-10-31. Retrieved 2008-01-12. the countries and regions of Mainland China, Hong
Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Mongolia, South Korea, North Korea and Japan.
^ Jump up to: a b Columbia University � "East Asian cultural sphere" Archived 2008-
02-27 at the Wayback Machine. "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan,
Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization
of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social
and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system."
Jump up ^ include Tibetan Buddhism
Jump up ^ Chongho Kim, "Korean Shamanism", 2003 Ashgate Publishing
Jump up ^ Andreas Anangguru Yewangoe, "Theologia crucis in Asia", 1987 Rodopi
Jump up ^ Ellington, Lucien (2009). Japan (Nations in Focus). p. 21.
Jump up ^ Kang, David C. (2012). East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade
and Tribute. Columbia University Press. pp. 33�34. ISBN 978-0231153195.
Jump up ^ Walker, Hugh Dyson (2012). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. p. 119.
Jump up ^ Amy Chua, Jed Rubenfeld (2014). The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely
Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America. Penguin Press HC.
p. 121. ISBN 978-1594205460.
Jump up ^ Kang, David C. (2012). East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade
and Tribute. Columbia University Press. pp. 33�34. ISBN 978-0231153195.
Jump up ^ Warren I. Cohen. East Asia at the Center : Four Thousand Years of
Engagement with the World. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000. ISBN
0231101082
Jump up ^ Amy Chua, Jed Rubenfeld (2014). The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely
Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America. Penguin Press HC.
p. 121. ISBN 978-1594205460.
Jump up ^ Ellington, Lucien (2009). Japan (Nations in Focus). p. 21.
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(1st ed.). W. W. Norton & Company (published November 16, 2009). p. 926. ISBN 978-
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TWI.
Jump up ^ Batty, David (January 17, 2005). Japan's War in Colour (Documentary).
TWI.
Jump up ^ "The Japanese Economy". Walk Japan.
Jump up ^ Tindall, George Brown; Shi, David E. (2009). America: A Narrative History
(1st ed.). W. W. Norton & Company (published November 16, 2009). p. 926. ISBN 978-
0393934083.
Jump up ^ Batty, David (January 17, 2005). Japan's War in Colour (Documentary).
TWI.
Jump up ^ Tindall, George Brown; Shi, David E. (2009). America: A Narrative History
(1st ed.). W. W. Norton & Company (published November 16, 2009). p. 1147. ISBN 978-
0393934083.
^ Jump up to: a b "United Nations Statistics Division � Standard Country and Area
Codes Classifications (M49)". United Nations Statistics Division. 6 May 2015.
Retrieved 2010-07-24.
Jump up ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical
sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations Statistics
Division. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
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