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Paper Title
Importance of Dimensionality Reduction in Image Processing
Authors
Jigna J. Patel
Abstract
This paper presents a survey on various techniques of compression methods. Linear Discriminant analysis (LDA) is a method used in statistics, pattern recognition and machine learning to find a linear combination of features that classifies an object into two or more classes. This results in a dimensionality reduction before later classification.Principal component analysis (PCA) uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components. The purpose of the review is to explore the possibility of image compression for multiple images.
Keywords
Principal Component Analysis,Linear Discriminant Analysis,Image Compression,Redundancy,lossy compression,lossless compression
Citation/Export
MLA
Jigna J. Patel, “Importance of Dimensionality Reduction in Image Processing”, August 17 Volume 5 Issue 8 , International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 21 – 24
APA
Jigna J. Patel, August 17 Volume 5 Issue 8, “Importance of Dimensionality Reduction in Image Processing”, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 21 – 24

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Volume: 5 Issue: 8 21 – 24

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Jigna J. Patel

Asst.Prof.

Dr. S &S.S.Ghandhy GEC, Surat

jigna2012me@gmail.com

Abstract: This paper presents a survey on various techniques of compression methods. Linear Discriminant analysis (LDA) is a method used in

statistics, pattern recognition and machine learning to find a linear combination of features that classifies an object into two or more classes. This

results in a dimensionality reduction before later classification.Principal component analysis (PCA) uses an orthogonal transformation to convert

a set of correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components. The purpose of the review is to

explore the possibility of image compression for multiple images.

compression

__________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________.

An image is formed by several pixels i.e. picture in an image. By applying the compression techniques

elements that are arranged sequentially in the form of they can be reduced, types of redundant data are as

rectangular matrix i.e. rows and columns. These pixels follows:

represent the color intensity of the image. In Image 1. Coding Redundancy: Coding redundancy is associated

processing, the processing of images is carried out on their with the representation of information i.e. if the gray levels

physical and mathematical parameters by mathematical of an image are coded in a way that uses more code symbols

equations. We may get as an output of image processing than needed to represent each gray level then the resulting

either an enhanced image or a set of characteristics related image is said to contain coding redundancy. Here, the image

to that image. Nowadays, the mode of communication is data is encoded in such a manner that resultant bits are less

digital therefore much storage space is required to store than the actual image bits.

large amount of digital data of an image.Before transferring

the image, image compression is required because of the 2. Inter Pixel Redundancy: Inter-pixel Redundancy is also

problem of limited bandwidth .Several techniques have been called spatial redundancy, inter frame redundancy, or

developed in image processingto overcome these kinds of geometric redundancy where the intensity of a pixel may be

situations. As image editing softwares are easily available in greatly correlated to its neighbor’s intensity value. We can

the market, image compression has become a necessity for predict the intensity value of any given pixel by its neighbor

data transfer and storage. in inter-pixel redundancy. So, we don’t need to store the

To transmit data efficiently, image compression absolute intensity values, instead we can use changes

can be applied to images in image processing. Image present in the intensity values.

compression uses use various mathematical models in order

to reduce irrelevance and redundancy of image data. 3. Psycho Visual Redundancy: Psychovisual redundancies

Image can be compressed in two ways using, exist due to the human perception as human eye does not

i) Lossless compression: lossless compression is respond to all visual information with equal sensitivity. This

mostly required for text and data files, such as means, eye is less sensitive to the higher frequencies and

bank records and text articles .e.g. medical more to the lower frequencies. Therefore, it can be reduced

imaging, technical drawings, clip art, or without making any significant difference to the human eye.

comics.

ii) Lossy compression: Lossy compression is II. Image Compression

acceptable in many imaging application such We have already discussed two types of Image

as audio, video, and images. In this type of compression techniques as follows:

compression imperceptible loss of fidelity is 1. Lossless-Compression Method

acceptable to achieve a substantial reduction in 2. Lossy-Compression Method

bit rate.

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International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 5 Issue: 8 21 – 24

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Lossless Compression Method –In this method, The resultant value obtained after the computation of

the image data is encoded in such a manner that it coefficients values are then quantized and encoded.

does not lose its quality. Original image can be

restored from the reduced data after 3. Fractal Coding: This lossy compression method used

decompression. for digital images is based on fractals.Different attributes of

Following are the methods that can be used as lossless an image e.g. color separation; edge detection and texture

compression modes are: are used to decompose the image into segments.

1. Variable Length Coding: Variable length code

words are used for encoding different symbol of 4. Wavelet Coding: Here, the coefficients of a transform

image. In this method, shorter code words are that de-correlates the pixels of an image are coded more

assigned to the most frequent symbols. efficiently than the original pixels.

2. Run Length Encoding: RLE is a simple form of

lossless compression technique where runs of data III. Dimensionality Reduction

(i.e. sequences in which the same data value occurs The process of minimizing or reducing the number

in many consecutive data elements) are stored as a of random variables under consideration by obtaining a set

single data value. It is most useful on data that of principal variables is known as Dimensionality Reduction

contains many such runs but not useful with files or Dimension Reduction in statistics and machine learning.

that don't have many runs as it could greatly It is further divided into feature selection and feature

increase the file size. extraction. In statistics feature selection is the process of

3. Differential Coding: It explores the inter pixel selecting a subset of relevant features or variables for use in

redundancy in images where data is represented by model construction. It is also known as variable selection,

storing the only the first value in the data stream, attribute selection or variable subset selection. Feature

all other values are represented by the difference selection is useful for simplification of models so that the

between the value and the preceding value. researchers can easily interpret them. Feature

4. Predictive Coding: It also explores the inter pixel extraction starts from an initial set of measured data

redundancy of near located pixels in digital images. in machine learning, pattern recognition and in image

In this type of coding only the new information processing. It than builds derived values or features that is

included in the new pixel is extracted and intended to be informative and non-redundant. This leads to

stored.The difference of the pixel and the predicted subsequent learning and generalization steps which help in

value of that pixelwill be used to define this better human interpretations. When we have to process a

information. Here, the prediction is based on the large amount of input data which is redundant, then it can be

known values of the closely located pixels. transformed into a reduced set of features. This

transformation process is called feature extraction. The

Lossy Compression Method -lossy compression methods extracted features contain relevant information from the

can be used where some amount of deterioration in the input data, so that the desired task can be performed by

image visual quality is acceptable because here the actual using this reduced representation instead of the complete

image cannot be reformed after decompression. Lossy initial data.

compression techniques introduces a certain amount of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is

distortion to the encoded image but there must be an accomplished using mathematical formulation used in the

appropriate relation between the amount of error (loss) and reduction of data dimensions. Using PCA formulation the

the resulting bit savings otherwise the purpose cannot be digital image may be compressed with a low level of loss.

achieved. Such a reduction is advantageous for image compression,

The different types of lossy compression methods are: data representation; calculation reduction necessary in

1. Quantization: Quantization is the process of mapping a subsequent processing, etc.PCA is an unsupervised

continuous or discrete scalar or vector, produced by a dimensionality reduction method as it does not require

source, into a range of smaller set of values. Scalar classes or variables to be known in advance.PCA reduces

quantization and Vectorquantization are the two types of the dimension of the data by finding a few orthogonal linear

quantization methods. combinations i.e. the principal components PCs of the

original variables with the largest variance. The first several

2. Transform Coding: It works on the pixel values of Principal Component’s explain most of the variance, so that

image data where it uses a reversible-linear mathematical even if the rest are of minimal loss of information, for many

transform to map the pixel values onto a set of coefficients. datasets to reduce the dimensionality of the huge data and

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IJRITCC | August 2017, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 5 Issue: 8 21 – 24

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

retaining as much information as possible in the original utilized in parallel mode to increase the compression speed.

dataset. They also found that more precise method for selecting the

Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a supervised bands of image can be utilized to improve the performance

technique for classification , used in statistics, pattern of compression.

recognition and machine learning to find a linear In 2015, Shereena V. B. and Julie M. David[6]

combination of features that characterizes or separates two presented a comparative study of dimension reduction

or more classes of objects or events. The resultant may be methods namely Principal Component Analysis and Linear

used as a linear classifier, or for dimensionality Discriminant Analysis. The authors had computed

reduction before later classification. eigenvectors from their dataset and collected them in

scatter-matrices, the between-class scatter matrix and

IV. Related Work: within-class scatter matrix in LDA. They had trained the

In 2013, Steven Fernandes and Josemin[2] had network about the reduced feature set (using PCA or LDA)

reported performance analysis of Principal Component of all the images from the training dataset in Neural

Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) Network based PCA/LDA. They had used Levenberg-

for face recognition. They had carried out the analysis on Marquardt back propagation training algorithm with 3

various current PCA and LDA based face recognition hidden layers. From the experimental analysis done by

algorithms using standard public databases. They authors them, they found that the rates are high for all the cases of

used ORL and SHEFFIELD database consisting of 100 PCA when compared to the LDA.

components and find it the best. Illumination Adaptive

Linear V. Discussion

Discriminant Analysis (IALDA) gave them the best face From the study of PCA and LDA, it can be found

recognition rate of 98.9% on CMU PIE database, and they that both PCA and LDA can be applied to images in many

got 98.125% recognition rate using Fuzzy Fisherface different ways to get the better classification of image and in

through genetic algorithm on ORL database.By the order to achieve better compression performance. Until now

experiments carried out by the authors they find out that the many methods have been proposed for the image

best algorithm to recognize image without disturbance ,but compression but still there is no study has been done to

to recognize image with disturbances, LDA is better and in compress multiple images, large amount of redundant data

terms of time taken, PCA tends to be much better than LDA, can be found in the form of pixel values from multiple

especially to recognize images with background disturbance images which can be reduced in order to get maximum

. compression ratio.

In 2013, Ms. Pallavi M. Sune Prof. Vijaya K.

Shandilya[3] discussed about the image classification, VI. Conclusion

wavelet compression and convert an image into an array An image can be pre-processed or compressed

using Delphi image control tool. They had proposed a before it can be used further such as storage, transmission,

method created in Delphi to implement Huffman coding. In etc. PCA can increase the efficiency of image compression

their experimental analysis, they found that Huffman coding while LDA can be used as classifier. Also, we can improve

of compression technique is the best technique in lossless the performance of various compression techniques as a

compression and the process is complete in two passes to combined approach using PCA and LDA.

compress any file. The Wavelet Compression technique was

used in this study. References:

In 2014, Hang Su and Xuansheng Wang [4], [1] Khushboo Kumar Sahu, Prof. K. J. Satao,” Image

proposed a new PCA method based on the linear Compression Methods using Dimension Reduction and

discriminant analysis (LDA) space. They further derived Classification through PCA and LDA: A Review”,

IJSR’2013.

from their theoretic analysis and numerical experiments that

[2] Steven Fernandes and Josemin Bala, “Performance

their new PCA method (PCA-LDA) can worked more

Analysis of PCA-based and LDA based Algorithms for

effectively and efficiently. In PCA-LDA algorithm that they Face Recognition”, IJSPS’2013.

used, the principal components were obtained from the LDA [3] Ms. Pallavi M. Sune Prof. Vijaya K. Shandilya,”Image

space. Compared with original PCA, the PCA-LDA they got Compression Techniques based On Wavelet and Huffman

higher recognition rates. Coding “, IJARCSSE’2013.

In 2015, Md. Mofarreh et al.[5] found that by [4] Hang Su and Xuansheng Wang,”Principal Component

using PCA method ,High compression ratios can be Analysis in Linear Discriminant Analysis Space for Face

obtained. Authors proposed a new PCA based (Extended Recognition”, DOI 10.1109/ICDH.2014.13 IEEE’2014.

PCA) method to compress color image, which can be

23

IJRITCC | August 2017, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 5 Issue: 8 21 – 24

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

[5] Mostafa Mofarreh,” Color Image Compression using

PCA”, International Journal of Computer Applications

(0975 – 8887) Volume 111 – No 5’ February 2015.

[6] Shereena V. B.and Julie M. David,”Significance of

dimensionality reduction in image processing”, SIPIJ’2015.

[7] Mohammad Mofarreh Bonab and Mostafa Mofarreh-

Bonab,” A New Technique for Image Compression Using

PCA, “International Journal of Computer Science &

Communication Networks,Vol 2(1), 111-116.

[8] Amritpal Kaur, Sarabjit Singh and Taqdir,” Face

Recognition Using PCA (Principal

Component Analysis) and LDA (Linear Discriminant

Analysis) Techniques”, IJARCCE’ 2015.

[9] Chiyuan Zhang, Xiaofei He,” Image Compression by

Learning to Minimize the total Error”,IEEE, Vol.23, No.

4’2013.

[10] Telgaonkar Archana H.,” Dimensionality Reduction and

Classification through PCA and LDA”,IJCA (0975- 8887),

Volume 122 - No.17, P.P. 04-08’2015.

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