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„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 1

Critical effects
of filters on engines
and on filters by engines

Dipl.Ing. HTL/STV François Jaussi


tecmot F. Jaussi
CH -1752 Villars-sur-Glâne
tecmot.f.jaussi@romandie.com

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 2

CONTENTS

ƒInteraction between Diesel engine and particle filter.

ƒInfluence of the exhaust back pressure on:


•Engine power & fuel consumption
•Supercharging
•Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
•Engine raw emissions
•Components temperatures

ƒUse of fuel additive (filter regeneration)


ƒLube oil consumption
ƒEngine damages caused by inappropriate DPF-Installation
ƒSystem monitoring
ƒSummary

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 3

CONTENTS

ƒInteraction between Diesel engine and particle filter.

ƒInfluence of the exhaust back pressure on:


•Engine power & fuel consumption
•Supercharging
•Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
•Engine raw emissions
•Components temperatures

ƒUse of fuel additive (filter regeneration)


ƒLube oil consumption
ƒEngine damages caused by inappropriate DPF-Installation
ƒSystem monitoring
ƒSummary

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 4

Interaction between Diesel engine and particle filter

•EXHAUST FLOW
•FILTER LOAD = f (TIME)
•SOOT CONCENTRATION

•O2 & NOX CONTENT •FILTER REGENERATION


•EXHAUST TEMPERATURE

BACK PRESSURE

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 5

CONTENTS

ƒInteraction between Diesel engine and particle filter.

ƒInfluence of the exhaust back pressure on:


•Engine power & fuel consumption
•Supercharging
•Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
•Engine raw emissions
•Components temperatures

ƒUse of fuel additive (filter regeneration)


ƒLube oil consumption
ƒEngine damages caused by inappropriate DPF-Installation
ƒSystem monitoring
ƒSummary

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 6

Influence of the back pressure on the fuel consumption


Representation of the four-stroke gas exchange process in the p-V diagram
(Naturally aspirated engine)

EO

IO IC
-
EC
TDC BTC
Gas-exchange work losses by:
Exhaust valve opening (EO) before BTC
(Expansion work loss )

Pump work against exhaust back-pressure

Pump work against inlet manifold vacuum

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 7

Influence of the back pressure on the fuel consumption


The fuel consumption increases depending on the ratio of the pressure loss to mean
indexed engine pressure. In duty-cycle, the mean effective pressure of utility vehicle
engines is in the range 8 – 12 bar: Hence the utmost increase in fuel consumption is
about 2% at a pressure loss of 200 mbar . Till a back pressure of 200-300 mbar, a
proportional influence can be assumed

∆be ∆pDPF
=
be pme + pmr

∆be = increase effective specific fuel consumption


be = effective specific fuel consumption
∆pDPF = filter pressure loss
pme = effective mean pressure
pmr = friction mean pressure

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 8

Influence of the back pressure on the fuel consumption


12 Liter / HD TCDI Diesel engine

∆be ∆pDPF
=
be pme + pmr A

Calculation examples @ 1800 rpm


With ∆pDPF = 200 [mbar] = constant

Duty pme pmr ∆pDPF


point [bar] [bar] [bar]
B
A 17 2 0.200 1.1%

B 10 2 0.200 1.7%
C

C
6 2 0.200 2.5%

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 9

Influence of the back pressure on turbocharging


compressed air
The turbine converts the energy
from the engine exhaust-gas to
p o w e r t h e c o m p r e s s o r . The
exhaust-gas has higher pressure
Intercooler turbine wheel
and temperature at turbine inlet
than at its outlet. The turbine
air inlet
uses those gradients to make
kinetic energy, which propels the
DPF
t u r b i n e w h e e l .
compressor wheel The compressed air pressure is
therefore proportional to the
engine exhaust pressure and temperature
gradient through the turbine.
P

Exhaust back pressure Charge air pressure Soot


Excess-air factor Fuel consumption
Power output

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 10

Influence of the back pressure on turbocharging

•Supercharged engines are more susceptible to back-pressure than


normally aspirated engines. The process is as follows. Increased back-
pressure diminishes the available pressure gradient in the turbine. Hence,
the compressor retards and delivers less air to the engine, which basically
responds with more particle emissions.

•The pressure loss is in the particle filter, which is located after the
turbocharger. The pressure ratio affects the engine. Hence, a back-
pressure that causes 1% fuel penalty in an aspirated engine, would cause
about 2% fuel penalty in a supercharged engine.

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 11

NOx Reduction by Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)

NOX is created when the oxygen and nitrogen in the air react in a high pressure and
temperature environment. Diesel engines operate at high compression ratios and with
lean fuel mixtures. This creates an oxygen and nitrogen rich atmosphere in the
combustion chamber that leads to NOX production. By drawing some of the exhaust
back into the combustion chamber (exhaust gas recirculation, EGR), the amount of
surplus air is reduced, creating a condition in which less oxygen and nitrogen
molecules are available for reaction into NOX. Exhaust gas recirculation can be
achieved in several ways.

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 12

Internal EGR External EGR

Internal EGR by additional cam

Outlet valve
Auspuff Einlass Inlet valve

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 13

Internal EGR (not shiftable) in industrial engines :


DEUTZ, Liebherr, Perkins, Iveco, etc

tappet Cam profile with


additional cam

Main cam
additional
cam

Main cam

The simplest method is to either open the outlet valve during the suction stroke or the
inlet valve during the exhaust stroke. Both methods are easily implemented by
modifying the camshaft. The disadvantage is the uncontrolled process. The EGR
occurs independent of the engine load and RPM. Also the rigid internal EGR cannot be
disabled during cold-start and acceleration.

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 14

Internal EGR (shiftable) in industrial engines : CAT, DEUTZ, VOLVO

CAT- Another EGR method uses electronic control for


ACERT timing the opening of the outlet valve. A magnet
valve in the open state facilitates hydraulically
activating a small piston, which slightly closes the
outlet valve. The engine management system
controls the process. This internal EGR is superior
to the cooled external EGR, which forms corrosive
substances. Further advantages are improved
drivability and rapid engine response.

VOLVO V-ACT
DEUTZ / VOLVO

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 15

DEUTZ TCD 2013 (97/68EG-Stage 3A / EPA Tier 3)


External EGR, cooled & controlled
The next method of EGR is achieved by passing a small amount of exhaust gas through an external
cooler and reintroducing it into the combustion system via a reed valve. This method is known as
externally cooled EGR. This system allows higher power density and better torque control as the
reed valve can be controlled electronically by the engine management system .

By reintroducing cooled exhaust gases,


the temperature of the intake air is
lowered, once again contributing to a
higher power density. The disadvantages
are increased cooling requirements and,
more importantly, the conversion of sulfur
from the fuel into corrosive sulfuric acid..

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 16

Influence of the back-pressure on the EGR rate

EGR valve EGR line

External EGR

inlet valve outlet valve

DPF

intake
exhaust
IR ER

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 17

Influence of the back-pressure on the EGR rate & the raw emissions
EURO 3 truck engine with switched but unregulated external EGR

Engines with exhaust-gas recirculation are specifically susceptible to


variations in the back-pressure. Higher back-pressures increase the exhaust-
gas recirculation. Consequently, the particle emissions increase and the
oxygen content decreases. Simultaneously, the NOx emission diminishes

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 18

Influence of the back-pressure on the EGR rate

•Engines with exhaust-gas recirculation are specifically susceptible to


variations in the back-pressure. Higher back-pressures increase the
exhaust-gas recirculation. Consequently, the particle emissions increase
and the oxygen content decreases. Simultaneously, the NOx emission
diminishes .

•The combination of these three factors is very unfavorable for the


regeneration response of particle filters. The filter then clogs, a mostly
irreversible process, and performance deteriorates noticeably.

•When the exhaust-gas recirculation is unregulated, then it is essential to


more meticulously monitor the exhaust-gas back-pressure to sustain it
below the limit value. Passive systems (CRT, CCRT) are very vulnerable
because the regeneration depends on the engine’s NOx emission or the
NOx / soot ratio.

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 19

Influence of the back-pressure on engine characteristics


(@ rated speed & full load)

14
12 100 mbar
10 150 mbar
variation inin%%

8 200 mbar
Relative Änderung

6 250 mbar
4 300 mbar
2
0
Relative

-2
-4
-6 Pe Beff Texhaust
Tabgas pLade

-8
-10
Average over approx. 10 off- & on-road HD Diesel engines (TC, without AGR)
Emissions levels : Tier 1 & 2 and EURO 2 & 3
source: Liebherr
CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 20

2-stroke Diesel engine :


High susceptibility to exhaust back-pressure (due to scavenging)

No suitable particle filters are available for the


following technical reasons:
•Exhaust-gas temperature lower (due to
scavenging) than 4-stroke engines.
•High susceptibility to back-pressure.
•Too much oil in the exhaust-gas.

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 21

Influence of the back pressure on the specific fuel consumption (be)

be
Relative variation in %

0 100 200 300 400 500


back-pressure [mbar]
Naturally aspirated engine
Turbocharged engine without EGR
Turbocharged engine with not shiftable EGR
2-stroke engine

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 22

The rise in exhaust-gas temperature, due to exhaust-gas


back-pressure, thermally stresses the engine components.
The following engine components are mainly affected:

Turbocharger:
Cylinder head:
•Turbine housing
•Exhaust valve
•Bearing
•Valve rib (crack)
•Connection with
•Injection nozzle exhaust manifold
•Cylinder head gasket (screws and gaskets)
•Connection with
exhaust-gas manifold
(screws and gaskets)

Piston:
•Cracks (overheating)
•Piston rings
(wear , coking)

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 23

CONTENTS

ƒInteraction between Diesel engine and particle filter.

ƒInfluence of the exhaust back pressure on:


•Engine power & fuel consumption
•Supercharging
•Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
•Engine raw emissions
•Components temperatures

ƒUse of fuel additive (filter regeneration)


ƒLube oil consumption
ƒEngine damages caused by inappropriate DPF-Installation
ƒSystem monitoring
ƒSummary

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 24

Passive Regeneration with Fuel Borne Catalyst (FBC)

Additiv
-Oxid

The additive is a fuel soluble catalyst precursor, which is


transformed into a metal oxide catalyst in the combustion
chamber. In the particulate filter, the catalyst is mixed with
and/or inside the soot particles. The prevalent reaction
mechanism is catalytic oxidation by oxygen Thus, excellent
contact is provided between the catalyst and the carbon
particles, resulting in filter regeneration temperatures that are
lower than those required in several other passive filters.

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 25

Damage symptom: Coking on the injection nozzle cone.


Can be caused by additive over dosing

light heavy

medium very heavy

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 26

CONTENTS

ƒInteraction between Diesel engine and particle filter.

ƒInfluence of the exhaust back pressure on:


•Engine power & fuel consumption
•Supercharging
•Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
•Engine raw emissions
•Components temperatures

ƒUse of fuel additive (filter regeneration)


ƒLube oil consumption
ƒEngine damages caused by inappropriate DPF-Installation
ƒSystem monitoring
ƒSummary

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 27

Interaction between Diesel engine and particle filter

LUBE OIL:
•CONSUMPTION •FILTER LOAD = f (TIME)
•ASH CONTENT
•EXHAUST FLOW
•FILTER LOAD = f (TIME)
•SOOT CONCENTRATION

•O2 & NOX CONTENT •FILTER REGENERATION


•EXHAUST TEMPERATURE

BACK PRESSURE

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 28

Probable aeras of excessive lube oil consumption

Turbocharger

Crankcase
ventilation
CCV Valve guide

Piston rings

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 29

CONTENTS

ƒInteraction between Diesel engine and particle filter.

ƒInfluence of the exhaust back pressure on:


•Engine power & fuel consumption
•Supercharging
•Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
•Engine raw emissions
•Components temperatures

ƒUse of fuel additive (filter regeneration)


ƒLube oil consumption
ƒEngine damages caused by inappropriate DPF-Installation
ƒSystem monitoring
ƒSummary

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 30

inappropriate DPF-Installation: Influence on cooling performance

DPF installation on plain panel instead of original aeration grid.


ÆObstructing the venting of hot air can cause the following problems:

¾Hot air stagnation and back-flow into the engine compartment


¾Bypass airflow in engine air inlet
¾Overheating (Engine cooling, components, cabin)

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 31

Engine damages caused by inappropriate DPF-Installation ?

Supplementary heat is released


during filter regeneration. the
heat radiated from the filter
casing must be considered.
( hoses or cables damages)

DPF support on engine


sufficiently resilient ?
The connection to the engine exhaust must be
isolated from vibrations to prevent stresses on the
exhaust manifold or the turbine casing.

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 32

CONTENTS

ƒInteraction between Diesel engine and particle filter.

ƒInfluence of the exhaust back pressure on:


•Engine power & fuel consumption
•Supercharging
•Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
•Engine raw emissions
•Components temperatures

ƒUse of fuel additive (filter regeneration)


ƒLube oil consumption
ƒEngine damages caused by inappropriate DPF-Installation
ƒSystem monitoring
ƒSummary

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 33

DPFS: Function monitoring with Data logger


Pressure & Temperature
sensors

Display:
Installed In
the driver
field of vision

Data logger

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 34

Example of useful DPF monitoring:


Back-pressure much too high…(please do not imitate!) ÆEngine (Tier 1) nonetheless not damaged

Additive concentration much too


high (in % range!).
DPF rapidly clogged by the ashes

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / DiamondFJ/
Bar,
21.05.2003/
NovemberHDT-
12, 13, 14 2008
München
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 35

CONTENTS

ƒInteraction between Diesel engine and particle filter.

ƒInfluence of the exhaust back pressure on:


•Engine power & fuel consumption
•Supercharging
•Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
•Engine raw emissions
•Components temperatures

ƒUse of fuel additive (filter regeneration)


ƒLube oil consumption
ƒEngine damages caused by inappropriate DPF-Installation
ƒSystem monitoring
ƒSummary

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 36

Summary (1)

ƒThe filter can impact the engine only through the back-pressure.

ƒProvided the back-pressure is small (VERT till about 200 mbar), the
operator does not sense the effect on the engine. It remains in the range of
2 - 3% power loss and increase in fuel consumption.

ƒWhen the pressure loss is significant (> 500 mbar), then its impact on the
engine combustion is over-proportional.

ƒRetrofits must comply with engine manufacturer’s prescribed maximum


back-pressure.

ƒFor new engines of Level 3A or Tier3, using exhaust-gas recirculation, it is


imperative to carefully verify the exhaust-gas back-pressure and comply
with the limit. Very vulnerable are passive systems, whose regeneration
depends on the engine’s NOx emission or NOx / soot ratio.

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 37

Summary (2)
Causes & effects

•Cylinder head
•Valves
•Piston
Back pressure too
•Piston rings
high
•Cylinder head gasket
increased •Injection nozzle
DPF installation component •Turbocharger
lead to limitations thermal stress
in the cooling air •Exhaust manifold
flow or/and
•Alternator
increased the
•Starter
temperature in the
•Wiring harness
engine
•Sensors
compartement
•Hoses

increased •TC (Turbine casing)


DPF not sufficiently •Exhaust manifold
isolated from component
mechanical •Crankcase
vibrations •Brackets
stress
•Threaded connection

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008
„DPF: effects on engines and effects by engines“ 38

Thank you for your attention !

Dipl.Ing. HTL/STV François Jaussi


tecmot F. Jaussi
CH -1752 Villars-sur-Glâne
tecmot.f.jaussi@romandie.com

CARB/AQMD Course on Ultrafine Diesel Particles and retrofit technologies for Diesel Engines / Diamond Bar, November 12, 13, 14 2008