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Compressive Strength of Concrete

Discussion:

The objective of this experiment is to determine the compressive strength of the


concrete, to observe the behavior and study the fracture of the concrete under
compressive loading

Essential Apparatus:

1. Testing machine with 200,000 lbs. capacity or compressive machine


2. Concrete cylinder
3. Capping Apparatus
4. Compressometer

Testing Machine Capping Apparatus

Compressometer Concrete Cylinder

Procedure:

1. Remove the concrete cylinder from the curing room.


2. Cap the concrete cylinder.
3. Attach the compressometer to the cylinder. Make sure that the compressometer is
properly positioned and the dial gage attached to the compressometer will
response properly.
4. Place the cylinder in the loading machine. Zero the load needle. Adjust the loading
head until a small load (about 50lbs.) is applied to the cylinder. Zero the dial gage
reading. For high strength concrete (above 4,000 psi compressive strength) it is
advisable to place the protecting shield between the cylinder and the observer.
5. Apply compressive load slowly and continuously until the maximum load (failure)
is reached. During the testing take simultaneous load readings from the load dial
and the defection readings from deflection gages at intervals indicated by
laboratory instructor. Record the loads and the corresponding deflection reading
on the data sheet. Failure of the cylinder is imminent during the test when the load
indicator is lowly down and finally stops while the deformations indicated in the
deflection gage continues an increasing rate. When the load indicator starts to drop
from the maximum value, stop and then release the compressive load then raise
the loading load. Record the maximum load in the data sheet.
6. Remove the cylinder from the testing machine, detach the compressometer from
the cylinder, put the cylinder back in the machine, and reapply the compressive
load until the cylinder is totally crushed. Release the load and raise the loading
head. Examine closely the type of failure of the cylinder.

Types of Failure in Compressive

Crushing

This term shall be used when the plane of rupture is approximately horizontal

Wedge Split

The direction of the split, that is whether radiator tangential shall be noted.

Shearing

This term shall be used when the plane rupture makes an angle of more than
45° with the top of the specimen.

Splitting

This type of failure usually occurs in specimen having internal defects prior
to test and shall be the basis for cutting the specimen.

Compressive and Shearing Parallel to Grain

This failure usually occurs in cross-grained pieces and shall be the basis for
cutting the specimen.

Brooming or End-Rolling

This type of failure is usually associated with either on excess moisture


content at the ends of the specimen improper cutting of the specimen or both.
This is not an acceptable type of failure and usually is associated with a
reduced load. Consideration should be given to remedial conditions when this type of
failure is observed.
TITLE : ______________Compressive Strength of Concrete________________
Objective : to determine the compressive strength of the concrete, to observe the__

behavior and study the fracture of the concrete under compressive loading

Figure:

B23
Compressive B11
Strength Test
B21 B23 B11
B21

Data:

Three specimens were tested the B11, B23 and B21, respectively.

Date of Casting: July 26, 2017 Curing condition: 50 days

Age of specimen: 68 days

Concrete Cylinder Cement Coarse Aggregate Type of Failure in


Compressive

Compressive
B11 Apo Cement From Mayon
and Shearing
Parallel to
Grain

This failure
usually occurs in cross-
grained pieces and shall
be the basis for cutting
the specimen.

B12 Apo Cement From Mayon

B13 Apo Cement From Mayon


Splitting
B21 Apo Cement Sedimentary rock
This type of
failure
usually
occurs in
specimen having
internal defects prior to
test and shall be the
basis for cutting the
specimen.

B22 Apo Cement Sedimentary rock

Splitting
B23 Apo Cement Sedimentary rock
This type of
failure
usually
occurs in
specimen having
internal defects prior to
test and shall be the
basis for cutting the
specimen.

NOTE: The Pink in shading are the ones tested on October 02, 2017 from B11, B23, and B21, respectively

Calculations:

For concrete cylinder specimen

𝜋𝐷 2 ℎ 3.1416(6")2 (12") 1𝑚3


Volume of mold = V = = = 339.29 𝑖𝑛3 × (39.37 𝑖𝑛)3 = 0.0056𝑚3
4 4

Let Volume of 1-cylinder mold with 25% volume allowance = V1

V1 = 0.0056 m3 (1.25) = 0.007 m3

Let k = constant = cement factor x volume = 9.1 x 0.007 m3 = 0 0637

Batch weight for 1-cylinder specimen with 25 % volume allowance

Cement = k x 40 = 0.0637 x 40 =2.55 kg

Fine Aggregate = k x 70.98 = 0.0637 x 70.98 = 4.52 kg

Coarse Aggregate = k x 135. 97 = 0. 0637 x 135.97 = 8.66 kg

Water (H2O) = k x 21. 76 = 0.0637 x 21. 76 = 1.39 kg


Since there should be 6 concrete samples therefore the total materials needed are:

Cement = 6 x 2.55 kg = 15.30 kg

Fine Aggregate = 6 x 4.52 kg = 27.12 kg

Coarse Aggregate = 6 x 8.66kg = 51. 96 kg

Water (H2O) = 6 x 1.39 kg = 8.34 kg


𝜋𝐷 2 3.1416(6"2 ) 1𝑚2
Area of cross section = = = 28.27 𝑖𝑛2 × (39.37 𝑖𝑛)2 = 0.0182𝑚2
4 4

Maximum load:

B11 = 41 tons = 408524.67 N

B23 = 16 tons = 159424.26 N

B21 = 19 tons = 189316.31 N


𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑
Compressive strength = 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎

408524.67 N 𝑁
Compressive strength B11= = 22446410.44 = 22.45 𝑀𝑃𝑎
0.0182𝑚2 𝑚2

159424.26 N 𝑁
Compressive strength B23= = 8759574. 73 = 8.76 MPa
0.0182𝑚2 𝑚2

189316.31 N 𝑁
Compressive strength B21= = 10401995.05 = 10.40 MPa
0.0182𝑚2 𝑚2

𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 22.45+8.76+10.40


Average Compressive Strength = = = 13.87 𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 3

𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ𝑖
𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ

B11 = 22.45 𝑀𝑃𝑎 > 13.87 𝑀𝑃𝑎

B23 = 8.76 MPa < 13.87 MPa

B21 = 10.40 MPa <13.87 MPa

Analysis/Conclusion:

The concrete cylinder B11 which has the rock from Mayon as its coarse aggregate,

has the highest compressive strength compared to B23 and B21 that has sedimentary

rock as its sedimentary rock. Therefore, the B11 was compacted thoroughly compared to

B23 and B21.