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Flexural Analysis of RC Members

P P

ultimate
Ranges of behavior:
yielding → Elastic uncracked
→ Elastic cracked
elastic-cracked
→ Yield
cracking → Ultimate

→ In CE 4350, we will mainly focus on: ultimate behavior


→ Although this may seem backwards, the reason is simple:
 Safety of reinforced concrete structures is the primary focus of the design
 Safety is assured by providing reliable ultimate strength greater than the maximum load
effects
Basic Assumptions for Flexural Analysis and Design:
 Plane sections remain plane (i.e., strains vary linearly over the section, and steel and
concrete are perfectly bonded)
 For ultimate capacity calculations, tensile strength of concrete is neglected.
 Equilibrium holds (summation of forces are always equal to zero)
 Stress and strain are uniquely related:
For steel rebar:

if

if

Kai Li, EIT, LEED GA, Ph.D. Candidate


RC Flexural Members
Definitions:
b

b = width of cross section


h = height of section
d = effective depth of section which is measured
h d from steel centroid to extreme compression
location. (i.e., from top of cross section which
is in compression)
= total amount of steel in tension c

Statics:
P P

cut
P

P P
M

M
cut
R

C
M = T·jd = C·jd M jd
T
M = T·z= C·z

Mn = NT·z = Nc·z jd = moment arm


jd = distance between centroid of tension steel and location
(or centroid) of compressive force

Kai Li, EIT, LEED GA, Ph.D. Candidate


Cracking Stress and Cracking Moment

From elastic mechanics of beam with homogeneous material, axial stress at any point in the
beam due to bending , is

M = Moment at the cross section where stress is calculated.


y = Distance from neutral axis to the point where stress is calculated.
Neutral axis (N.A.) = Location on the cross section, where axial stress is zero. For a simply
supported beam under gravity (dead) load, part of the beam cross section below N.A.
is always in tension. Above N.A., section is in compression.
I = Moment of inertia of the cross section. For a rectangular section .
12

Maximum Stresses:

Stress in the outer fibers (or maximum stress) of a cross section is calculated from

distance from neutral axis to bottom or top face of the cross.

P P

b
b

c
h N.A.
h N.A.
c

According to ACI 318 Code, tensile strength (or cracking strength) of concrete is 7.5
Then, the moment resistance at cracking (or moment strength when the concrete reaches its
tensile strength and cracks):
2
Kai Li, EIT, LEED GA, Ph.D. Candidate
Example:
The bottom of the cross section shown below is subjected to tension. This is a plain
concrete section with a concrete compressive strength 4000 psi.
a) Calculate the cracking moment using the internal couple method.
b) Calculate the cracking moment using the flexure formula.

474 psi
C
14/3 = 4.67 in.

N.A. z = 28 2(4.67) = 18.67 in.


28 in.

12 in. 474 psi


Bending stress
distribution

a) 7.5 7.5 4000 474 psi

474 psi 14 in. 12 in.


39816 lb
2

474 psi
average stress area of beam stress acting 14 in. 12 in.
2

18.67 in. 39.82 kips


12

62 ft−kips

474 psi 21,952 in. 1


b) 62 ft−kips
14 in. 12 1000

12 in. 28 in.
21,952 in.
12 12

Kai Li, EIT, LEED GA, Ph.D. Candidate


Example
Calculate the cracking moment (moment resistance against cracking) for the U-shaped unreinforced
concrete beam shown. Assume normal-weight concrete with 3500 psi. Use the internal couple
method and check with the flexure formula.

7 in. 6 in. 7 in.


10.8 in.

20 in. N.A

9.2 in.

6 in.

a) Using flexure formula

7.5 3500 psi 444 psi

∑ 7 20 10 2 6 6 3
9.20 in.
∑ 20 7 2 6 6

444 psi
→ 521 psi
10.8 in. 9.2 in.


7 20 6 6
2 2 7 20 10 9.2 6 6 9.2 3
12 12

11,004 in.

0.444 11,004
531 k−in.
9.2

Kai Li, EIT, LEED GA, Ph.D. Candidate


b1) Using internal couple method

7 in. 6 in. 7 in. 521 psi

C 10.8/3 = 3.6 in.


10.8 in.

20 in. N.A z = 20 3.6 3.07


z = 13.33 in.

9.2 in.
T 9.2/3 = 3.07 in.
6 in.
444 psi
1
521 10.8 7 2 39.4 kips
2

39.4 13.33 525 k−in. 531 k−in.

b2)
N.A

444 psi
→ 154.4 psi
3.2 9.2

154 psi
3.2 7 2 3495 lbs 3.5 kips
2
154 psi 444 psi
6 20 35904 lbs
2
35.9 kips

35.9 kips 3.5 kips 39.4 kips

Kai Li, EIT, LEED GA, Ph.D. Candidate


b3)
7 in. 6 in. 7 in.
521 psi

C
154.4 psi

N.A
20 in.
3.2 in.

9.2 in.

6 in. 444 psi

Force magnitude, (kips) Moment arm, (in.) (in.-kips)

= (0.5)(0.1544)(7)(3.20)(2)=3.46 7.20+(2/3)(3.20)=9.33 32.3

= 0.1544(20)(6)=18.53 7.20+3.20+3=13.40 248.3

= 0.5(0.290)(20)(6)=17.40 7.20+3.20+(2/3)(6)=14.40 250.6

∑ = C = 39.40 kips = = ∑ = 531 in.-kips

Kai Li, EIT, LEED GA, Ph.D. Candidate