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Job Sharing

Thesis Submitted to: Miss Amna Shahzadi

Submitted By: Durafshan Harram

Roll No: 1410620

Session: 2014-2018

Govt.Post Graduate Islamia College for Women,Cooper Road Lahore

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Acknowledgement

The accomplishment of this research project would not have been possible without the dedication, inventiveness
and guidance provided by a number of people all through the study.

First and foremost I want to express my appreciation to my Teacher; Miss Amna Shahzadi for the academic
guidance she accorded me in every stage of this research project. The wealth of knowledge in academic writing
attained through this collaboration is precious.

I also want to thank my good friends for proof reading this research. It is never easy to go through pages of
such writing in a field we are not familiar to. However as friends they made this happen while providing
positive feedback.

Finally, to my family for their continuous encouragement and support, without which I would not have been
able to concentrate and complete this research.

Thanks you

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Dedication

This research project has been moderately satisfying and delightful to conduct. However this would not have
been possible without the encouragement and sacrifices of time made available to myself by my family. I
therefore dedicate this research project to my whole family.

I also dedicate this research to my mother who taught me at a very tender age to always aim higher in my
academic searches. This research is an important innovation in this journey. To my mother also for the
discipline that came in convenient in keeping with the constricted timelines for this study.

Lastly, to my loving friends for their encouragement and feedback. May the completion of this study be an
inspiration to you to strive for success in all that you do in your life.

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Table of Contents

Chapter No. 1
Introduction
1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………..7
1.1.Problem Statement……………………………………………………………………………...8
1.2.Research Objectives……………………………………………………………………………..9
1.3.Definitions of Variables………………………………………………………………………...10
1.3.1. Flex Time………………………………………………………………..10
1.3.2. Employee Intension………………………………………………………………….10
1.4.Importance of the Study………………...……………………………………………………...10
1.5.Research Questions……………………………………………………………………………..11

Chapter No. 2
Literature Review
2. Literature Review……………………………………………………………………………….12
2.1.Background……………………………………………………………………………………..12

Chapter No. 3
Theoretical Framework
3. Theoretical Framework……………………………………………………………………….....16
3.1.Job sharing………………………...16
3.2.Hypothesis……………………………………………………………………………………….16

Chapter No. 4
Research Methodology
4. Research Methodology…………………………………………………………………………..17
4.1.Research Design……………………………………………………………………………….....17
4.2.Population…………………………………………………………………………………...........17
4.3.Sample……………………………………………………………………………………………17
4.4.Data Collection…………………………………………………………………………………...17
4.5.Data Analysis……………………………………………………………………………………..18

Chapter No. 5
Descriptive Statistics
5. Descriptive Statistics………………………………………………………………………………19
5.1.Demographic Statistics…………………………………………………………………………….19
5.1.1. Demographic Profile of Respondents………………………………………………………....19
5.2.Descriptive Summary……………………………………………………………………………....22
5.3.Reliability Analysis………………………………………………………………………………...22

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5.4.Correlation Analysis………………………………………………………………………………..23

Chapter No. 6
Conclusion
6. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………..24
6.1.Discussion………………………………………………………………………………………...24
6.2.Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………..24
6.3.Limitations………………………………………………………………………………………..24
6.4.Recommendations & Suggestions for future Research…………………………………………..25

References………………………………………………………………………………26
Appendix……………………………………………………………………………….27

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Abstract:

This study is an investigation of the career experiences of women primary teachers who job share. It explores
how job sharing fits into overall working patterns and examines whether it fulfils the personal and professional
needs of teachers. It investigates how successful job sharing is seen as being in practice and explores the
potential advantages and disadvantages of job sharing for teachers and for schools. The study examines the
claims made for job sharing as a means of advancing the cause of equality in the workplace.

Data were gathered through indepth interviews with twenty women primary teachers who job shared. The role
of job sharing in their careers was examined and the extent to which it satisfied personal and professional
expectations explored. The career experiences of job sharing teachers were further investigated through a
questionnaire sent to a sample of teachers who had previously job shared. This provided a retrospective and
longer term account. All of these experiences were then situated within the wider contexts in which teaching
operates. For this, documentary and policy analysis were undertaken, and semistructured interviews were
conducted with headteachers and parents, and key informants at local and national level.

The research found that job sharing is successful in meeting the personal needs of the women primary teachers.
Teachers spoke of the balance in their lives which this working arrangement helped them to achieve. In terms of
the professional dimension, the study found that experiences of job sharing in practice were positive. For
teachers the affective rewards of being with children and feeling competent and skilled in daily work were high.
Feelings of acceptance within the workplace culture were positive; building and sustaining relationships with
parents and, in particular, with colleagues, which was viewed as a salient part of the job of primary teaching,
was possible whilst job sharing. As a result, schools were seen to be gaining by employing experienced and
motivated individuals who were able to make positive contributions. However, some difficulties were found
with the professional and career development of job sharing teachers.

The study concludes that job sharing is not deleterious to women teachers' careers. It is far less harmful than
other forms of part-time teaching although, as yet, it is not challenging full-time teaching as the dominant work
model.

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Chapter 1

Introduction

Introduction:
Rendering to the Society for Human Resource Organization, job sharing is distinct as, “the exercise having
two different employees execution the tasks of one full-time locus” (Bliss & Thornton, 2010, Para. 18). Job
sharing is a form of freelance work, but fluctuates from what is usually thought of as portion time in insufficient
compliments. Parttime is often concomitant with trades such as food service, retail or redesigning. Job sharing,
on the other needle, allows for part-time hours in jobs not classically available as temporary situates, such as
proficient business loci (Bliss & Thornton). For example, in the humblest of arrangements, two employees
would share a characteristic forty hour locus by each working twenty hours. In some states, workers will each
work two and a half days and maybe encounter for lunch on the split day. Other routes include working two
days a week and swap working substitute Wednesdays, or working four hours a day, every day (Hirschman,
2008). In most gears, the salaries and welfares of the employees partaking in the job sharing would be prorated
built on the hours each employee worked (Bliss & Thornton). When hours are evenly riven, the salary and
welfares for the locus would be fragmented evenly between the two employees.

Job sharing is still a fairly unusual repetition in some trades. In a study done by the American Commercial
Teamwork, only 1% of defendants said that they used job sharing (American Commercial Teamwork, 2007).
In another study of therapist education’s section chairs and college of education deans, 11.1% of chairs and
15.8% of deans had ever contributed in job allocation (Miller, 2007). Part of the aim for its absence in
admiration may be due to some fallacies re the cost and possibility of job sharing. Some of the most mutual
fears are as tracked: job sharing expenses too much; job sharing bosses will have a tough time handling the
employees; if one person does it, everybody will want to; it is tough to employee for; and that it is hard to
continue responsibility (Miller). Job sharing boons a variation of paybacks both to employees and employers.
For employees, job sharing sanctions for springiness that can help mend their work-life steadiness. For parents
hovering children, job sharing can be extremely beneficial because it allows parents to retain their positions and
continue on their path professionally (Collins & Krause, 1984). Having time to spend with family, for women
or men, is becoming gradually important to workers. Where other working arrangements predominantly
rearrange time to make it more convenient to spend time with family, job sharing increases time spent with
family because it decreases working time. Leaving work midcareer to raise children could hinder future career
aspirations, but job sharing allows these aspirations to remain plausible (Hirschman, 2008). While the rate at
which ones career develops will likely slow, it is better than the other of a career being completely put on hold
or potentially lost. Retention of workers through job sharing benefits the employers as well because it
eliminates the need and cost of finding a replacement, which some studies estimate can cost 1.5 times salary
(Miller, 2007). When employees are allowed to engage in job sharing, they tend to be grateful for the
opportunity, leading to increased loyalty and increased productivity (Hirschman, 2008). In addition, when two
different minds are working together on something, there is more creativity and talent which can lead to better
results for both the employee and employer (Peek & McGee, 1989). The two employees can complement each
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other’s skills and knowledge and potentially solve difficulties that one person may not be able to solve. Another
benefit for the employer involves overtime pay. According to Collins and Krause (1984), job sharing for
positions that occasionally require overtime may potentially save the company from having to pay overtime,
assuming one of the individuals does not exceed 40 hours. For example, if position X using one worker
requires 50 hours of work one week, the company would owe that worker time-and-a-half for the extra ten
hours. However, if position X was a job sharing place, neither separate worker would exceed 40 hours,
meaning the employer is not legally obligatory to pay overtime. However, in some case the employees and
employer may agree upon a provision in the working contract allowing for extra rates for hours over the normal
amount.

1.1. Problem Statement:


It is also referred to, is a clear, precise, and succinct statement of the question or issue that is to
be investigated with the goal of finding an answer or solution.

“The work is clearly assigned and divided between employees. The work load
must be regularly monitored to ensure that on imbalance is work is not
occurring between two parties”.

1.2. Research Objective:

 In job sharing us post advertised in line with usual departmental vacancy filling procedure.
 In job sharing vast majority of post should be considered as suitable for job share. Where a
vacancy manager considers that rule would be suit job sharing agreement they must explain this
in business case, which they should summit to the relevant senior manager for approval.

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1.3. Definition of variables:

1.3.1. Job Enrichment:


Although generous them some duty and switch of the job. In other arguments, the
employees’services are extended. Job extension (which is increasing a worker’s projects to
comprise extra but comparable errands) can main to job Job improvement is extra process of
rousing employees by if them with diversity in their errands enhancement. Job reshape is a type
of job augmentation, where work is efficient in customs that evolution the worker-job matches.
This can be skilled by mixing tasks and/or by making work gangs, in order to show employees
how the work turns in the organization.

1.3.2. Behavior Modification:


Behavior alteration is an orderly package of strengthening to inspire wanted behavior. It
encompasses both loots and sentences. Loots for superiority, efficiency and devotion may
variation employees’ behavior in anticipated conducts and also increase incentive. This can be
skilled by managers if they associate mark behavior with present level and deliver rewards or
chastisements hence.

1.3.3. Flextime:
Permitting employees to work more supple hours is another way to build drive and job
fulfillment. Flextime is a scheme in which employees set their own work hours within employer-
determined limit. There are two types of time: essential time is when all employees must be at
work and flexible time is when employees take whether to work. This has to be in process under
a disorder that all employees must work a total of 8 hours per day. The stirring factor in using
flextime is the sense of liberation employees’ gain from saying when to work. However, this
method has the downside that elders find the job more thorny by having employees come and go
at altered times.

1.3.4. Part-Time Work and Job Sharing:


Part-time work is the enduring employment in which folks work less than a standard work week.
However, this method does not afford the benefits of a full-time job. Job sharing (also known as
work sharing) is the procedure where two people share one full-time job or site. It cartels the
safety of a full-time position with the flexibility of a part-time job. However, it will never be
actual if the two people complex does not link well.

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1.4 Importance of Study:
Employers and employees should ponder several factors before approving to job sharing.

 If the location is salaried, you need to digit out how the salary will be alienated between
the employees ironic the position.

 You will also need to choose how to gulf up the break days, sick days, and paid outings.

 Other employee doles such as fitness protection and departure fund similar has to be
allocated. In this state, the percentage of an employer's input can be alienated up. For
example, if an employer covers 100% of an employee's fitness cover top for the site, the
employer may only cover one-third of the top for each employee if three people share the
job. The inkling is to keep the costs for the employer the same, since we are selling with
one site.

 You will also essential to obviously express which employees will have duty for each
precise duty of the position.

 You and your employer will also have to have a good considerate how you will be
assessed in light of the fact that you are only doing part of the work.

A key thing to recollect is that you are allotment the job, which means that you are only allowed
a proportion of the salary and benefits that come with the site and your fellow employees are
eligible to their serving.

1.5. Research Question:


To address the problems mentioned in our problem statement, the following research questions
will be answered:

 What have been the masculinities of job share contributors?


 What is the steadfastness of research study?
 What is the co-relation amid the variables?
 What is the legitimacy of research study?

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Chapter 2

Literature Review

2. Literature Review:
2.1. Background:
The prose of job distribution within archives centers round numerous themes: the need for job
sharing, questions involved with job sharing, rewards and weaknesses, and case trainings of job
sharers. The prose is typically promising of job sharing. In order to make an precise depiction of
job sharing, both bad and confident features must be spoke.

Most of the trainings quoted in this unit were written from literature reviews (eg. Plant 1985,
Goddard 1991). Other trainings were private skill (Morris 1990, Wallis 1990) and
circumstance lessons (Sennett 1993). One portion was written erected on gen received from an
familiar study (Macmaster’s et al. 1991). Macmaster’s' study was intended to assemble
thoughts and styles in the part of job sharing. The gen composed would also be secondhand to fix
whether job sharing could be obtainable as a job another at Colorado State University Libraries.
The decision was that job sharing was a valuable another for some libraries' wants; it proposed
that concerned people should learn more about job sharing for a well empathetic of job sharing.
Lyon (1995) led another study by dialogue familiarly with job sharers regarding the fight that
they received from library direction. She create that there was more fighting when job sharing
was painstaking for higher librarian sites than lesser ones.

There are some details why job sharing is chosen. Employees tend to have more essentials for
job sharing than employers. Family obligations are a key reason. Whether it be to stay home
more with children or care for ageing parents, employees are appreciating that a forty-hour week
is not agreeing them to realize family vows. Some employees with health snags are not able to
bind to a forty-hour work week. Plant (1985), Morris (1990), and Goddard (1991) stated that job
sharing was a good occasion for females to keep career routes while taking time to raise young
families. Moreover raising families, Goddard (1991) and Macmaster’s et al. (1991) institute that
job sharing also bent spare time for employees to care for aged parents.

` Besides family pledges, other motives stated in these courses were employees who wanted to
luxury into departure or employees keen to pursue other safeties. Employees could ease into
leaving while training their proxies through a job share condition. This backings the employer by
tolerating the recent employee to train the additional without a pause in workflow. Job share
contestants are also able to pursue other goods (egg. education, business hobbies), which would
not ordinarily be feasible while working full time. Goddard (1991) and Macmaster’s et al. (1991)
also settled that job sharing helped lodge employees who could not bodily work full time.

Morris (1990) rib of how job sharing at Hertfordshire Library Service (England) was a good
way to recollect valuable workers while taking new employees with other services into the

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library. Another employee at Hertfordshire, Wallis (1990) specified that job sharing undid streets
for raise occasions. This occurs when two full period, current employees decide to job share one
place. A location is then open for additional employee to be permitted into or a new employee to
be borrowed. Job sharing also permissible employees to diminish their weekly hours either
provisionally (for a year or two) or enduringly.

A literature review showed by Plant (1985) start that job sharing could also be valuable for the
employer. Assistance to the employer is that job sharing helps libraries which may be enforced to
cut the low-priced. Slightly than lay off employees, the library can craft job share point in order
to retain trained employees. Job share also helps with the idleness rate by permitting the supply
of existing employment as widely as imaginable.

Rendering to McKee and Scott (1982) and Shanks (1984), job sharing can also be a way to
fortify agreeing exploit in a library. It can help lure subgroups into situations which they would
not generally ponder outstanding to other vows. By preserving grown-up employees, conveying
women into the workshop, and recalling women and sectors, libraries are able to keep Equal Hire
Opening Directive (EEOC) canons (McKee and Scott 1982). Later there is not a peculiarity
between part time and full time employees giving to the EEOC, libraries can reach these ideals
through the use of job division (Shanks 1984).

Yet it is regularly the employees who freshman job sharing, occasionally employers treasure a
basic to craft a job shared point. One object that employers form job share spots is due to the
want of practiced full time employees. There are times when people are not prepared to work full
time in a site. The employer may invention it meeker to fill the site with two capable people
instead of one. Job sharing may also be appealing when there are too many qualified claimants. It
allows the employer to hire two so capable interviewees and diminish the number of
unemployed. Job sharing is also a substitute to lay-offs. Rather than statement qualified staffs,
keeping two at half the time aids the employer and the employees (Macmaster’s et al. 1991,
Morris 1990, Shanks 1984).

As stated, employees and employers follow job sharing to satisfy their own separate wants. Since
employers do chase job sharing when it is expedient to the institute, it elevations an topic of
whether employers are open to job sharing when it is an employee's impression. Of the trainings
named, there was one review (Macmaster’s et al.), two individual practices (Morris and
Wallis), and the others were literature appraisals. The gossips of the trainings care one another,
but the common of the material is second hand. This survey has twisted a list of reasons why job
sharing was applied.

When scheming a job share location, there are many facts which must be functioned out. These
subjects variety from discovery well-matched partners to in-between errands and more. A public
library should generate a job share rule and discourse all of the subjects proceeding to letting a
location to be job shared. Macmaster’s et al. (1991) plan what subjects should be spoke in such a

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policy: aptness (which jobs, existing staff or new), claim procedure (should job sharers apply
composed or discrete), crushed instructions (who sets the agenda, how communiqué is to be
upheld), staffs issues (how are salary and welfares divided), disbanding and reversibility (what
should be done to end the job share), working out and costs (will there be extra costs and who
will salary for them).

Sennett (1993) spoke with job sharers and found a change of timetables used: divided days,
broken days, Monday-Wednesday/Wednesday-Friday (2 1/2 days each), and broken weeks.
Librarians correlated to Sennett that having a time where the job sharers touched kept statement
unblemished and cut down on the number of phone calls. Trust a daily log helped with letter, too.
Also discoursed was disunion of the work load. Disunion usually comprised of firm partition of
tasks, separation but shared, or addition. Severe separation means to twig to one's own task and
do not do the others. Separation but shared means to divide the tasks but switch at regular
intervals. If addition is used, whichever librarian is present does whatever needs to be done. The
type of division would depend on the nature of the position and librarians and involved.

Lyon (1995) spoke with librarians who had job shared or tried to set up a job share but were
twisted down. One issue deliberated was what type of locations could be job shared. Employers
were unwilling to allow guiding positions to be job shared. Employers had stated that sites with a
high level of accountability could not be shared due to the distress of discovery two employees
with the same level of know-how. Libraries must also choose how many locations are can job
shared. In some subdivisions, there may be glitches with too many job shared places (Goddard
1991).

The way in which welfares are dispersed is what splits job sharing from part time work giving to
Nitwits (1982). The prevailing welfares for the site are divided between the two contributors.
Employers are disinclined to pay full healthiness treatment for job sharers. Nitwits gathered her
information through her own practice as a job sharer and from conversing the issue with other
job share members. She also spoke of a Wisconsin state database, Plan Seam, which fashioned
qualified job shared locations. It found that the higher cost complex in job sharing is worth the
greater efficiency that job share partakers create due to less skiving and scarcer takings.

Goddard (1991) wrote an editorial from a general literature review and conversed at length the
matters of dissection of hours, when elevation befalls, and the partition of salary and aids. By
assessing the wants of the library and of the employees, a work agenda could be set so all wants
are met. The type of agendas comprises riven day, riven week, irregular weeks, or no fixed
agenda. A common rule about when one job share contributor greeneries is to give the current
job sharer the accidental to take the location full time or find a well-matched extra spouse. If the
place is not full within a judicious time, the library may find it required to fill the place full time
and residence the job sharer in another site. Being in a larger institute allows for greater
flexibility in settlement of employees. Being in a job share position means that contributors do

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not receive part time pay. The salary should be pro esteemed from the salary of the position and
by how much each contestant works.

Additional matter is discovery well-matched associates. Occasionally, a job share side smears for
the place calm. Other periods, one person advises to job portion then must exploration for a
attuned spouse. Once a well-suited spouse is found, they must rift the hours and errands. These
hours can be alienated built on the wants of the library, the needs of the of the folks complex, or
both. This can profit the library because there can be better attention at top times. The employees
must also decide what the best way for statement is. Over-lap time permits the employees to see
one another and debate issues. Keeping a daily record, advancing mails to one another, and
phoning each other keeps the communiqué full.

Drill chances and expert chances must also be deliberated. The job share employees may have
the same chances as the full time employees but have to pay a larger amount or partake or join
these events on their own time.

There are many matters of job sharing which should be deliberated, both managerially and task-
oriented. The gen usual in the works was met by literature reviews (Goddard; Sennett), through
interviews (Lyon; Nitwits), and own practice (Nitwits). There is no accord among these
trainings as to what are the chosen methods of commerce with agendas, salary, aids, and training
in job share condition. The study fallouts show how these facets were lectured at the review
members' libraries.

Once the job share is in place, the members soon find out what the rewards and disadvantages
can be. In Macmaster’s et al. (1991), both the optimistic and bad aspects of job sharing are
debated. Job sharing was talented to recall knowledgeable workers and entice fit new people to a
group. Some difficulties exposed in the survey were that members did not feel that they were
being treated as equally as their full time foils in footings of rate of pay increase and feat rank.
They felt that their tumor was gentler. The job sharers also felt that their full time counterparts
did not take them seriously.

In her literature review, Plant (1985) found that there was an advantage to the employee in being
able to retain his/her skill while having more time for other vows. A plus for employers was a
greater staffing pond is shaped however job allocation. Having two employees in one site can
mean having two authorities with two original notices for secondary regulars and unruly
cracking. Skiving is cheap because job sharers can cover one extra in time of virus and consent.
Part time staffs are said to be more dynamic than full time workers. Having two workers mean
that there are more alike to catch one another's errors. Shrub opinions out those employers saw a
larger managerial price intricate in job sharing as a difficulty.

In her estimation daily, Herald (1992) well-known that a lead of job sharing is the give of
forecast to meet both the archive and employee requirements. Other rewards famous by Herald
are a growth in construction, a cut in absence and a slighter casual of employee stress. There is a

14
surge of yield because the people in job share sites may be more motivated to prove the situation
a success. Job share participants also came to work new and fixed not become weary from long
days like their full-time pawn parts. Difficulties of job sharing involved the extra paperwork for
direction and that not all places could be job shared.

At Hertfordshire, job distribution permissible the library to entice and retain brilliant staff
(Morris 1990). Two employees with two diverse sets of skills and experience is advantageous
towards the employer. Job sharers can correct their lists to cover each other and can even binary
up and work at the same time if the collection desires. There may be a surge in the cost to the
employer, but Morris touches that the returns overshadow the charges.

Wallis (1990) drove at Hertfordshire during the job portion. Job sharing at Hertfordshire was
starting to be a virtuous way to hold very capable staff that was inept to stay to work full time.
Librarians are able to stay within the business while taking time to raise kin. Job sharing can also
aid release outside burdens that may be bent if one is working full time. In an lonely position, the
sense of expert separation can be summary by job sharing.

Bobby (1988) states that there is an apparent increase of job productivity by job sharers but it are
hard to prove. Because of the desire to make the job share arrangement work could mean that the
participants are highly motivated and their productivity may be higher. Job satisfaction is higher
and organizations are able to retain valued employees. Bombay found information regarding
these advantages in the results of Project JOIN conducted by the state of Wisconsin in 1976-78.
bobby found the disadvantages of job sharing to be increased costs to the employer due to
payroll taxes and personnel paperwork. Lack of continuity can be a disadvantage but there has
not been any research conducted in this area.

Not all is perfect with job sharing, there are some disadvantages. There is an increase of costs to
the employer in the areas of payroll taxes and administrative work (bobby 1988). Instead of one
personnel file for one position, there will be two set of files for one position. Job sharing may
retard professional advancement. A job share partner may not be considered for promotion
because the position may not be suitable for job share or a suitable partner may not be available.
There are also problems if one partner leaves the job. Finding a suitable partner may not be easy.
If there is not good communication, there may be a lack of continuity in job performance. Lack
of communication could reduce the quality of service and create delays in the work flow.

The advantages and disadvantages have been widely reported. Since the majority of the current
information available is second hand, it is hard to view it as reliable. A formal study will be able
to collect the information with confidence.

Employees who desire full time employment may view job sharing as a threat (Gilbert and
Gray 1985). Space can also be a problem. Should job sharers be allowed their own work area or
should they have to share the same area? (Stennett 1993). Reluctance of employers and unions is
also a disadvantage for perspective job sharers (Goddard 1991). The attitudes of co-workers

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may be a disadvantage. The co-workers may not view job sharers as equals. They may also feel
that job sharers are not as committed as they are (Notowitz 1982).

One researcher noted that there are two needs concerning job sharing: for job sharers to record
experiences and a greater awareness of job sharing (Sennett 1993). The literature that I have
encountered fulfilled both of these needs. The majority of case studies consisted of women who
wanted to job share in order to have more time to spend with their families. Articles written by
job share participants included those by Gilbert and Gray (1985), Marley (1990), and Respass
and Meola (1993). Gilbert and Gray successfully shared a librarian’s position at Queen Victoria
Medical Center in Australia. Marley had to try twice before being allowed to set up a job share
for her position as librarian at Shrewsbury College of Arts and Technology. Respass and Meoble
shared a reference librarian position at Georgian Court College (New Jersey). All three of these
job shares were set up due to the participants' desire to have more time to raise a family.

Articles which discussed case studies were written by Stennett (1993), Burrington (1982), and
Lyon (1995). Stennett discussed a job share that worked (the one that Marley participated in) and
one that was requested by a husband and wife but was not approved. Lyon's article presented
successful and unsuccessful cases. The successful job shares were at academic libraries. One
involved a weekend reference librarian position and the other a librarian position. The second
case spoke of how the participant had to try twice before having her request approved. Lyon
referenced that one job share request was approved, but did not develop because of delays. These
delays were due to library administrations' uncertainty of interview and hiring procedures of job
sharers. Barrington’s article was a report on the Symposium on Job-Sharing in Libraries in 1981.
A successful job share was discussed by the participants. The library director of Oldham
Borough discussed the negative and positive aspects of job sharing from the employers' view.

Knowing of the successful and unsuccessful cases helps both employers and employees create a
realistic picture of job sharing in libraries. Since the majority of case studies were reported from
the job share members' viewpoint, it would be helpful to hear more from the employers' view.
The study reported here explored job sharing from both the employer and employee viewpoints.

A 1977 study of sharers said the average job sharer was a white female, married with a bachelor's
degree (Bo bay p.62). A profile of Canadian job sharers found that the typical job sharer was a
white female, college cultured, and in the government or social services industries (Bo bay
1988). The study performed by Macmaster’s et al. (1991) found that few libraries were using job
sharing, but many study participants were interested in finding out more about job sharing and its
use. This study should fulfill that need.

Expert governments have aided in creating greater consciousness of job sharing. The Library
Association of Australia is on record to support job sharing as long as it is fair and does not
"down grade either the salaries or situations presently enjoyed by library employees" (Gilbert
and Gray 1985, 54). In 1976, the American Library Association issued a Part Time Employee

16
Resolution. This resolution called for pro-rated pay, fringe benefits and opportunities in
advancement. Though it was issued in 1976, it was not until 1984 that the ALA gave pro-rated
benefits to its own employees (Braudy and Tuckerman 1986). There is also an international
organization, New Ways to Work, which helps job shares and other in alternative work
situations.

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Chapter 3

Theoretical Frame Work

3. Theoretical Frame Work:


A group of linked notions that offers supervision to a research project or business endeavor. The
appropriateness of a theoretical agenda that a advertising department is using to promote its
commercial and product image to the intense civic can be an significant determinant of its
ultimate success.

Employee intension
Flex time Employee Intension

Independent variable Dependent Variable

3.1. Employee intension depends on flex time:


Employee intension is depending on the flex time.

3.2. Hypothesis:
𝑯𝒐 ; 𝑻𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 𝒓𝒆𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒉𝒊𝒑 𝒃𝒆𝒕𝒘𝒆𝒆𝒏 𝒇𝒍𝒆𝒙 𝒕𝒊𝒎𝒆 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒆𝒎𝒑𝒍𝒐𝒚𝒆𝒆 𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒐𝒏

𝑯𝟏 ; There is no relationship between flex time and employee intension

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Chapter 4

Research Methodology :

4. Reserch Methodology:
In this theme way of the study is conversed. The plan of this study; covering the earnings
selected for data gathering, have been stressed here. To complete the detached of the study, the
method of data analysis encompassing probable consequences are personal.

4.1. Research Design:


This is a unpremeditated descriptive arithmetical study intended at making the effect of
occupation sharing unpredictability in Punjab. The study secondhand time minor data for job
division for Punjab in 2017. This exploration selected acceptable us have a typical study of data
for job sharing. This is painstaking to be a fit data model to draw fair-minded inferences.

4.2. Population:
The target populace for this investigation is all the subdivisions of the Punjab budget for data
linking to job sharing. The job sharing used are yearly means while for it will be facts for net
outlays to Punjab.

4.3. Sample:
The sampling edging was centered on time shots annual data of the free and needy variables.
This sampled based on accessible data for nonexistent actual job sharing. The mockup is Lahore
city from the whole Punjab. The research is showed from all the colleges of Lahore.

4.4. Data Collection:


To be able to demeanor this research minor data of job sharing in Lahore are composed. The
research is considered to study the job sharing schedules both under the fixed rate rules, the
fastened rate administrations and in the free rate management which disables to date. Hence time
run data is together from Lahore to fear these changed job sharing managements. The real
operating job sharing data is removed from colleges of Lahore data documents while for
inflows, data is mined from stock exchange.

This research intense on perceiving associations and financial indicator growths, and obligatory
having a large amount of financial data. The selection process was considered to guarantee
maximum data obtainability in the sample, thus plummeting the probabilistic error from non-
respond error.

19
Chapter 5
Analysis and Results

5. Demographic Statistics:
Majority of our respondent are fall in the agr group of 20-23 years.it means that we have collected
most of our data from youngest.Mostly respondent’s is bachelors.80%of our respomdents are female
and remaining 90% are male.10% of our respomdent are single 80% and remaning 20% are married.

5.1 Demographic Profile of Respondent:

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21
22
5.2. Descriptive Summary:

makin
g making makin
makin them them fell making g the
g giving fell that they them fell making giving work
increasi them undesirabl like i have personal them them good difficul making
ng their fell e job appro commitme ly fell technical t work things
pay valued assignmen ve off nts to accepte importa suggestio for unpleasa
level. . ts. them. meet. d. nt ns. them. nt here

N Valid 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

Missi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ng
Mean 2.7600 3.060 2.3400 3.080 2.9000 3.1200 3.2400 3.5600 2.300 2.1200
0 0 0
Median 3.0000 3.000 2.0000 3.000 3.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 2.000 2.0000
0 0 0
Mode 4.00 2.00 1.00 3.00 2.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 2.00 1.00
Std. 1.46469 1.202 1.15370 1.065 1.23305 1.30368 1.4222 1.35767 1.073 1.04276
Deviatio 21 99 7 81
n
Variance 2.145 1.445 1.331 1.136 1.520 1.700 2.023 1.843 1.153 1.087
Range 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00

5.3. Reliability Analysis:

Variables No of items Reliability


Flex time and 10 0.702
employee intention

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5.4- correlation analysis:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 .1
2 .681 .1
3 .315 .308 .1
4 .182 .124 .26 .1
5 .088 -.010 -.076 .244 .1
6 .507 .412 .244 .184 .249 .1
7 .538 .397 .086 .216 .061 .100 .1
8 .521 .529 .215 .265 -.039 .469 .563 .1

9 -.031 -.236 .295 .210 -.208 -.099 -.155 .148 .1


10 -.141 -.234 .254 .028 .025 -.236 -.364 -.135 .459 .1
Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level(2-tailed).

Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level(2-tailed).

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Chapter 6
Conclusion, Limitations

6.1-Discussion:
In this chapter, conclusions are strained from the analytical results of the earlier
chapter and endorsements made to notify any future policy intended at appealing job
sharing while considering the dominant job sharing fluctuations in Punjab. The
boundaries to this research project are also emphasized with reference of areas for
further study to subsidize the knowledge on job sharing causes in Punjab and better
comprehend the relationship between flextime and employee intesion.

6.2. Conclusion:
job sharing, beaten workweeksand flextime, have their share of welfares as well as dangers.

arrangements should be utilized. However, if an employer judiciously observes the aids

and perils of an planning, and revenues the time to see how the prearrangement would

suitable with the society, job, and workers, the results can be very confident for companies.

They can understanding a boost in hand morale and approval, which in many cases

leads to greater loyalty. When employees are satisfied with their jobs, they incline to

work hard, often meaning more output and in turn, developed incomes for companies.

Alternative working preparations will only last to grow and, if used properly, both

staffs and bosses will be the patrons.

6.3. limitation:
This study did not aspect the consequence of time insulated data for job sharing in expressions
of how long it takes for flextime to answer of such employee intension. Investors are known to
be hypothetical and would want to attack when they can make proceeds. Depreciation in

25
currency would activate investor’s response seeking to exploit their profits. This study would
have influenced in macroeconomic displays to see their correlations in light job sharing.

6.4. Recommendation & Suggestion for Future Research:

Since we have recognized from this study that job sharing weakly influence on flex
time, other issues may play a more important role in fascinating foreign capital to
Punjab. These may include features like an unfavorable political environment,
inactivity in growth and progress of important and developing sectors in the country
like agriculture leisure industry and manufacturing. It would therefore be significant
for policy creators not to put a lot of exertion in manipulating exchange rates but
more on setting up strategies that influence the other causes of job sharing.
Policy creators should also be conscious to developing sectors that like the dynamism
sector that might central to growths in foreign capital flows from their multiplier
consequence on other sectors. Policy manufacturers should therefore focus on setting
up organization that will guarantee the spill-over possessions of the sector are
connected. For outsiders to invest into sectors like manufacturing, inexpensive energy
is vital hence the government can focus in developing the sectors and discovering the
different energy sources to branch economic growth and fascinate job sharing.
Finally now that this study has originate that exchange rate fluctuations unimportantly
influence on job sharing, the other macroeconomic gauges are the main focus in
developing strategies intended at generating a satisfactory economic environment that
can fascinate job sharing to Punjab. This contains inflation rates and real exchange
rates.

26
Reference:
 Acker, S. (1983) Women and Teaching: A Semi-Detached Sociology of a Semi-
Profession, in Walker, S. & Barton, L. (Eds) Gender, Class and Education, Lewes,
Falmer.
 Acker, S. (1992) Creating Careers: Women Teachers at Work, Curriculum Inquiry,
22,2,p141-163.
 Acker, S. (1995) Carry on Caring: the Work of Women Teachers, British Journal
ofSociology of Education, 16,1, p21-36.
 Adams, K. (1990) Divide and Rule: the Marriage Ban 1918-1945, in Paterson, F. &
Fewell,J. (Eds) Girls in their Prime: Scottish Education Revisited, Edinburgh, Scottish
Academic Press.
 Al-Khalifa, E. (1989) Management by Halves: Women Teachers and School
Management,in De Lyon, H. & Widdowson Migniuolo, F. (Eds)Women Teachers: Issues
and Experiences, Milton Keynes, Open University Press.
 Angier, M. (1984) Job Sharing in Schools. An Account of a Policy in Practice,
Sheffield,Sheffield City Polytechnic.
 Arney, N., Munn, P. & Holroyd, C. (1992) The Provision and Take-up of School
BoardTraining and Information, Edinburgh, SCRE.
 Aspinwall, K. (1986) Teacher Biography: the Inservice Potential, Cambridge Journal
ofEducation, 16,3, p210-215.
 Aspinwall, K. & Drummond, J. (1989) Socialised into Primary Teaching, in De Lyon,
H.& Widdowson Migniuolo, F. (Eds)Women Teachers: Issues and Experiences, Milton
Keynes, Open University Press.
 Atherley, C. (1989) Job Sharing in the Primary Classroom: a Case Study of a Process of
Negotiation, School Organisation, 9,1, p 131-142.
 Ball, S. (1990) Politics and Policy Making in Education, London, Routledge.
 Ball, S. & Goodson, I. (1985) Teachers' Lives and Careers, London, Falmer Press.
Bamford, C. 1995) Equal Treatment and the Law, Edinburgh, EOC.

27
Appendix:
Job sharing Questionnaire

Dear Sir/Madam,
I am the student of Govt. Post Graduate Islamia College for Women, Cooper Road Lahore, I
am conducting research on job sharing and we assure you that your information will be kept
personal. This survey is conducted to obtain information that will help my research on “job
sharing” and I also wanted to identify the wants and needs of organization’s employees.

Demographics:
Name: _______________________ Age: _____________Qualifications: ______________
Gender: _____________Marital Status: _____________ Experience: ________________

These options are provided for the following questions:


1. Strongly Disagree 2. Disagree 3.Neither Disagree nor Agree
4. Agree 5. Strongly Agree

Sr. No. Job sharing 1 2 3 4 5

1 Increasing their pay level.

2 Making them fell valued.

3 Giving undesirable job assignments.

4 Making them fell like I approve off them.

5 Making them fell that they have commitments to meet.

6 Making them fell personally accepted.


7 Making them feel important.

8 Giving them good technical suggestions.


9 Making the work difficult work for them

10 Making things unpleasant here.

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