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Dacians on the Southern Bank of the Danube Author(s): A. Alföldi Source: The Journal of

Dacians on the Southern Bank of the Danube Author(s): A. Alföldi Source: The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 29, Part 1 (1939), pp. 28-31 Published by: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies

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DACIANS

ON

THE

SOUTHERN

BANK

OF

THE

By A. ALFOLDI

(Plates ii, iii)

DANUBE

A new military diploma, acquired by the Hungarian National

Museum (pls. ii, iii, i), furnishes us with fresh evidence of Dacian settlements south of the Danube. We publish this new document

with the kind permission of Professor Paulovics, Keeper of Roman Antiquities in that museum. Only the front leaf of the diploma hias been discovered; the statement of the dealer, that it was found in the Danube near Nicopol in Bulgaria, is trustworthy.

The tablet is slightly damaged on the right top of the front side, but this does not obscure the reading; it measures 94 by i i 8

millimetres and is i

*5 millimetres thick. It weighs I I3*I 5 grammes.

The text runs on the front side as follows:

Domitianus I Augustus

Germanicus, pontifex max[imus], I tribunic. potestat. ViII., imp.

Imp.

Caesar, divi Vespasiani f.,

xvii.,

co[s. xIIII], I censor perpetuus, p.p.

I

equitibus et peditibus, qui militant in a[lis] (tribus et

cohortibus decem et septem, [quae] I appellantur ii. Pannoni-

orum, III. Augusta IThracum, veterana Gallica, civilum Romanorum, i. milliaria, i. Lucensium, I i.

Ascaloni-

tanorum, i. Sebastena, I. Ituraelorum, i. Numidarum, II.

Italica civium Rolmanorum, ii.

Callaecorum Lucen-

i.

Flavia

Thracum civium Romanolrum,

IThracum Syriaca, IIII.

ii.

classica, iII.

Augusta Thracum, iii.

Bracaraugustanorum, IIII.

silum, Augusta Pannoniorum, Musulamiorum, I et sunt in Syria sub P. Valerio Patruino, qui quilna et vicena stipendia aut plura meruerant, I quorum nomina subscripta sunt, ipsis libelris posterisque eorum civitatem dedit et colnubium cum

uxoribus quas tunc habuissent, I cum est civitas iis data, aut,

si qui caelibes

singuli singulas.

M. Otacilio Catulo,

Sex. Julio Sparso cos. cohort. Musulamiorum, cui praest M. Caecilius Sep-

quae fixa

cum iis, quas postea duxissent dumta(xat

Syriaca, IIII.

eslsent,

A.d. vi. idus Novembr.

tember, I pediti I Gorio, Stibi f., Dacus.

Descriptum

et

recognitum ex

tabula ae nea

est Romae in Capitolio in I latere

sinistro tabulari publici.

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DACIANS ON

THE SOUTHERN BANK OF THE DANUBE

29

On the inner side we read the first half of the same text:

Imp. Caesar,divi Vespasianif., Domitia nus Augustus Germani-

cus, pontifexImaximus, tribunic. potestat. viii.,

imp. Ixvii,

Cos. xiiiI.,

censor perpetuus, p.p. I

equitibus et peditibus, qui militant in alis I tribus et

cohortibusdecem et septem, quae I appellanturii. Pannoniorum,

iII.

Augusta IThracum,

veterana Gallica, i.

Flavia civilum

Romanorum,i. milliaria,i.

i. Sebastena,I. Romanorum,II.

III. Augusta Thracum, III.

augustanorum,IIII.

Augusta Panno I

Lucensium, I I. Ascalonitanorum,

I. Numidarum,II. Italica civilum

Itulraeorum,

Thracum civium I Romanorum,II.

Thracum Syriaca,

Syriaca, IIII.

IIII.

classica,

Bracarl

Callaecorum Lucensium,

The general contents of this document are not novel. We already knew the same imperial decree issued in A.D. 88 from another diploma (CIL xvi, 35). I. Welkow, R. Cagnat, and H. Nesselhauf, who dealt with this latter document, have already pointed out the new data which it contains: the names of the consulessuffecti and the ' ordre de bataille' of the Syrian army in that epoch. There is a slight differencebetween the two exempla of this decree: the formerly known copy is dated 7th November, the new one 8th. The difference is certainly due to an error of the copyist; as the Nicopol tablet is written very hurriedly, with irregularletters, and as the moreaccuratescriptof the otherdiploma inspires more confidence, the date of the latter is probablycorrect. It is a welcome coincidence that both examples of that decree are concerned with a soldier of the cohorsMusulamiorum. The other belonged pediti Bitho, Sevthi f., Besso, who left his diploma in his native Thracian soil. So it may be that both veterans came back from Syria together to the Danube lands or the Balkans, whence levies for the Africantroop of the Musulamii were drawn at the time of their enlistment (under Nero). The Dacian Gorio, Stibifilius, was not a native of Transylvania, the originalhome of his tribe : this country was not yet conquered, and in those early days free barbarianscould not yet be enlisted in the Auxilia, as centuries later. It is plain that Gorio came from the environs of Nicopol, where his certificate was found. Another Dacian who lived south of the Danube on Moesian soil

was already known from the diploma (CIL xvi, I3)

river Ciabrus (the modern Tzibritza in Bulgaria). In this country

must have been the home of Tutio, Buti f., Dacus, who was

discharged, A.D. 7I, from the fleet of Misenum. The

fleet of Ravenna, Q. Decimius Dacus (CIL

bears the Thracian name, Mocazio, also seems to have been one

of these Dacians of Moesia.

found by the

optio of the

xi, 28), whose wife

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30

A.

ALFOLDI

These

Dio 51,

22,

southern Dacians

are also

7:

oi

5?

(AaKoi)

Tfr caq"oTEpc

mentioned

by

Cassius

TOr

IcYTpOrp V?0oVTri,aAA'

oi

pEV

TL

TcE

Mucxiac

ovop

vopov

3ovTal,

oi

QUTOJ

TIAQUcY

KQ

Iir

&? ??KElVc'

T-pO'

TI

TpIPaA;iKfi

olKoUVTE&

Muaoi,

Aov

AQKOi K?K;rvT,

irapa6

?1T?

TOI& Tvur

Ei

F?Tai

'E

TE

TOV

TT1&

?rXopiOI,

TIVS

E?iTE Kai

Op6KES

TOXJ AaKiKOV-

YEVOVJ

TOV

TflV

Po50,V

TrOTE

EVOIKlc(aVTO&

OVTES.

How this people reached the southern bank of that great river,

we learnfrom Strabo 7, 303:

ETI

yaXp

?p'

ij8@vAI'2Aos

KaToro?ETCOKI(EV

?K T-fl

TrEpcaci

TOU "lo-Tpov

TrEVTE pUpi'aoaS

aYC1a`TCoV1Tcpa

T@CVFE-Trv,

opOy;kCOTTOU

TO&

OpGp(iv E'eVOVJ,

EL&TT)V Opq'KilV

K-Kl

VUV OiKoUCIxvaTO6eI

Moicol

Mucx

v

Ka6AokPEVO1,"-TOtKat1TCoVTrpOTEpOVO1JTcoKaAoUpvcov,

PEToVopa(UeE'VT, C)

OTiEp?

0KE?1oTEpOV

EOTI

T

;

Evv T8

icxTopia

'Acyfa

Kad

Trl

acTro0a(cEI TOV

TrOIrTOV,

TCOV EV TC OpfKl

Muxcrv

KaAOU vv

rp6TEpOV.

That the Getae of Strabo really are Dacians is the unanimous opinion of historians. It is an obvious fact that the Greeks classified foreign peoples after their ethnographical types and liked to name them after the main representative of the group; so in this case too. Aelius Catus might have transplanted the 5o,ooo Dacians to Moesia in the first years A.D., as R. Syme suggested.1 The purpose of this measure can be understood from a well-known passage of Florus (epit. ii, 28), which recounts the measures taken by Augustus to punish the Dacians for their raids: ' visum est Caesari Augusto gentem aditu difficillimam summovere. misso igitur Lentulo ultra ulteriorem perpulit ripam ; citra praesidia constituta. sic tum Dacia non victa, sed summota atque dilata est.' A. v. Premer-

stein

might have included

of the river through such compulsory migrations of its inhabitants to the south. By the same policy a hundred thousand barbarians were conducted under Nero from the Roumanian plains to what is now northern Bulgaria,2 no doubt a large number of Dacians among them. The distinguished and much regretted Roumanian scholar, Vasile Parvan, supposed that a native Dacian population existed also in the Dobrudja.3 But the Thracian topographical and personal names he quotes 4 did not belong to that people, but to the other

has already suggested

that summovere and differre Dacos

of the bordering zone north

the evacuation

_'YRS xxiv,

I934,

I26

f.,

I29.

 

I9I2, 24 ff.; ' Cetatea Ulmetum ' (Analele

79, 90); Inceputurile vietii romane la gurile

Dundrii I923,

io6 ff.

Cf. also ' I primordi

Cf. also d. Osterr. in the same

C. Patsch, Beitrage

A. v. Premerstein, j7ahreshefte

Arch. Inst. i, Beibl. I56 f., and

review xxix, I934,

70

f.

Acad. rom., mem. sect. istorice xxxiv, I9I2,

zur V7lkerkunde von Siidosteuropa V/i

(Sitzungsber., Akad. d. Wiss. in Wien, phil.-

della civiltI romana alle foci del Danubio'

(Ausonia x, I92I, I87 ff.).

hist.

E. Groag, PIR2 no. I57; F. Miltner, Klio

KI.,

Bd.

2I4,

Abh.

I),

I932,

I1I3;

XXX,

I937,

2 ILS

200

986.

ff.

 

The

modern literature is

'

xi,

I934,

85, n.

4.

noticed in CAH 3 V. Parvan,

tinul comisiunii monumentelor istorice iv,

Cetatea Tropaeum,' Bule-

4 Personal names such as Dasas, Dases, Dasianus, Dasius, Dasmus, Daza, Dazas, Dazanus, Dazios, Daziscos, etc., are very

common among Illyrians. Cf. H. Krahe,

Lexikon altillyrischer Personennamen (Indo-

germ. Bibl., Bd. 9, Abt. iii), 1929,

34 ff.

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DACIANS

ON

THE

SOUTHERN

BANK

OF

THE

DANUBE

31

branch of the Northern Thracians, the Getae, whose kingdoms between the Balkan range and the Danube had been established from a remote period. We can follow their history fairly well from the moment Dareios conquered them to their subjugation by M. Crassus in 29 B.C. and in the following year.5 Then the rich lands in the south of the Danube delta also were colonised with new settlers. They were Thracians from the south Bessi and Laae (Laiaioi).6 Yet also some Dacians must have been introduced sooner or later to the Dobrudja by Roman governors, as to Lower Moesia. This is proved by their mention on the inscription CIL ii, I44372 from the neighbourhood of Tropaeum Traiani, now in the National Museum, Bucharest. The preservation of the stone, however, is bad and the reconstruction given by Domaszewski hazardous; the photograph (pl. iii, 2) obtained by the kindness of Prof. P. Nicorescu does not allow much improvement in the reading. In any case, the demarcation of the territory of those Daci against a small romanised settlement shows that they should only represent a smaller group of consistenteson Roman soil. The names Tutio, Butif., and Gorio, Stibif., offer us a very

Dacian nomenclature:

in Dacia itself Thracian names are rare on inscriptions, owing to

valuable supplement to the meagre series of

the exterminationof that warliketribe by the Roman conquerors.7

5 E. Roesler, Die Geten und ihre Nachbarn (Sitzungsber., Akad. d. Wiss. in Wien, phil.-

Nordgriechenlandsi, I898,

Getica

1926,

77,

89

:230

62

ff.;

ff.;

V. Parvan,

C.

Patsch,

hist. K1., xliv, I863, 140 ff); G. Zippel, Die

op. cit.,

37 ff.,

77 ff.;

A.

v.

Domaszewski,

rom. Herrschaft in Illyricen, I877, 32 f.; W.

Neue Heidelberger

Jahrbiicher

i,

I90

ff.;

Tomaschek, Die alten Thraker i, I893, 89,

A. Alfoldi,

CAH

xi,

1936,

79 ff.

   

93 ff.; W. Millenhoff, Deutsche Altertum-

6 S.

Casson, JRS

XVii,

1927,

97 ff.

 

skunde iii,

Premerstein, Jahreshefte i,

I892,

131

ff.,

143

i898,

f.;

Beibl.

A.

v.

I52,

I74

f.,

I78 ff.;

B.

Pick,

Die

ant.

Miinzen

personal

names of the inscriptions of Dacia will be

published shortly by my pupil, A. Kerenyi.

7 A complete

list of the

c.

2300

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JRS vol. xxix (1939)

PLATE

II

'-ENsZesxg8i.al '- ; l~~~~~~~wrMo 11 | i [;f BUGAIAOUE SI OFRNLEFOFAMLTRE ILM ON NTERVRDNB NIOO,
'-ENsZesxg8i.al '-
; l~~~~~~~wrMo
11
|
i
[;f
BUGAIAOUE
SI
OFRNLEFOFAMLTRE
ILM
ON
NTERVRDNB
NIOO,
ANO INTHEHUGRANAIOAMUEUMBDPSTC. (SeeP8f.

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JRS vol. xxix (I93)

PLATE III

JRS vol. xxix ( I 9 3 ) PLATE III I. N_OPL BUGRA_NE IEO RN EFO

I.

N_OPL BUGRA_NE IEO RN EFO IIAYDPOA(LT i FON IN TH_IE AUEADNWI HEHNAINNTOA UEM BUDP_ +l(Sep
N_OPL
BUGRA_NE
IEO
RN
EFO
IIAYDPOA(LT
i
FON
IN TH_IE
AUEADNWI
HEHNAINNTOA
UEM
BUDP_
+l(Sep
8
TOAU
RIN:INCIE
TN,CLii
43
REODN
BONDR
_DE(U)DCO),6
.WD
IHLTES
67c.
HG,NWI
TENTOA
MUEM BUCHAET(e
.

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