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Steel

Connections -II
Welding

Design of Steel Structures


Durgesh C. Rai
Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur
1
Basics
• Field welded truss

2
Basics…

• Welds seem simpler, but…


– Large welding required at each connection
– Need for following a predetermined weld sequence

3
Basics…

• Types of welded joints


Butt

Edge
Lap

Tee Corner

4
Basics…

• Types of welds

5
Basics…

• Types of Groove Welds

6
Basics…

• Types of Fillet welds

7
Basics…

• Types of welding technology


– Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)

Electrical
Electricalcircuit
circuit

8
Basics…

• Types of welding technology…


– Submerged arc welding (SAW)

9
Basics…

• Types of welding technology…


– Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
– Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding

10
Basics…

• Types of welding technology…


– Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)
– Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding

11
Basics…

• Welding machines …
– Manual to Fully Automatic Equipment

12
Basics…

• Choosing an Electrode

13
Basics…

• Positions of welding electrode

14
Basics…

• Welding Symbols

15
Basics…

• Welding Symbols 6 150

6 150

8 150
12 150

6 150

16
Process OF Welding
• Edge preparations for groove welds

17
Quality of WeldING
• Possible weld defects

18
Quality OF Welding…

• Preferred weld profile


– For better flow of forces

Poor
Poor

Good
Good
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Quality OF Welding…

• Weld profile…
Fillet
FilletWeld
Weld Groove
GrooveWeld
Weld

20
Quality OF Welding…

• Weld profile…

1.5-2mm

21
Quality OF Welding…

• Weld profile…

22
Quality OF Welding…

• Weld problems…

23
Quality OF Welding…

• Checking size of fillet welds


– Weld inspection gauge

Tolerance
24
Problems of welding
• Heat affected zone
– Material properties are changed

Base metal
Fusion zone

25 Heat affected zone


Problems of welding…

• Distortion and dimensional changes


– Unsymmetric welds

Angular distortion

26
Process OF Welding…

• Distortion due to welding

Curvature
Curvaturedeveloped
developedafter
afterwelding
welding

– Sequence of intermittent welds


to avoid weld-induced curvature

or or

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Problems of welding…

• Distortion and dimensional changes…


– Unsymmetric welds

28
Problems of welding…

• Internal stresses
– Weld restraints

29
Problems of welding…

• Internal stresses
– Weld restraints

30
Problems of welding…

• Internal stresses
– Weld restraints
• One solution

31
Problems of welding…

• Closing welds in indeterminate structures


– Weld and base metals contract on cooling
• Accompanied by yielding, cracking or elongation of
members

32
Problems of welding…

• Avoid problems of closing welds…


– Use proper weld sequence
– Adopt prescribed number of passes for a required
total weld size
– Allow the prescribed cooling time after each weld

33
Problems of welding…

• Lamellar tearing due to shrinkage of welds

34
Problems of welding…

• How to reduce lamellar tearing

35
Problems of welding…

• Residual stresses in welded sections


– Comparable to that in hot-rolled sections

36
Problems of welding…

• Beam bottom flange welding - a challenge


– Weld access hole, cope and backup bar required
– Un-fused interface at bottom of back-up bar
• Potential crack initiation of CJP weld

Weld Access
Hole
Cope
CJP
Weld
Beam

Column Detail A Backup Bar


Un-Fused Interface
Detail A
37
Problems of welding…

• Performance of Welds
– Tri-axial state of stress at column face
• Avoid high stresses in welds

Yield stress σy/2 is not reached


in shear; brittle fracture

τ τ

σu/2
σy/2
σ2 σy/2 τmax

σ σy σu σ
σ1 σ2 = σ3 = 0 σ 1 = σy σ1 = σu σ3 σ2 σ1
σ3

38 Uni-axial
Uni-axialStresses
Stresses Tri-axial
Tri-axialStresses
Stresses
Problems of welding…

• Welding is difficult in tapered sections


– Only obtuse-angled small-thickness weld possible
at tapered tip
• Use parallel flange sections

Cover plate Cover plate

I-section I-section

Only small thickness


weld possible Proper welds
possible

39
Structural welds
• Design of welds
Butt
ButtWeld
Weld

Fillet
Fillet
Weld
Weld

40
Structural Design of welds …

• Weld sizes
Cl. 10.5.8
– Fillet Welds
• Max. size:
‰smax = t-1.5 mm for square edges of t > 6 mm
‰smax = t for square edges of t < 6 mm
‰smax = 0.75t for the rounded edges of rolled sections

41
Structural Design of welds …

• Weld sizes …
[ Cl. 10.5.8.5 ]
– Fillet Welds
• Max. size:
End fillet weld normal to
force direction

Throat thickness not less


than 0.5t

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Structural Design of welds …

• Weld sizes…
[ Cl. 10.5.2.3 ]
– Fillet Welds Table 21
• Min. size:
‰ smin = 3 mm for tmax ≤ 10 mm
‰ smin = 5 mm for 10 mm ≤ tmax ≤ 20 mm
‰ smin = 6 mm for 20 mm ≤ tmax ≤ 32 mm
‰ smin = 8 mm for the first run and 10
mm for 32 mm ≤ tmax ≤ 40 mm

43
Structural Design of welds …

• Weld sizes …
– Butt Welds
• Min. groove depths for different situations applicable
– End returns: min of 2 times weld size
– Min length Lmin = max (4 s, 40 mm)
– Lap Joints: min. lap length Llap = 4t min or 40 mm

44
Structural Design of welds…

• Stresses in Fillet Welds


s
s
s

s lw

45
Structural Design of welds…

• Stresses in Fillet Welds … N

– Due to individual forces s


s
s =sK
f a = N /(lwtt ) Axial force
s
q = Q /(lwtt ) Shear force
[ Cl. 10.5.9 ] Q

s lw

46
Structural Design of welds…

• Stresses in Fillet Welds …


– Due to combination of stresses [ Cl. 10.5.10 ]

Combined normal and shear stresses

fu
fe = f + 3q ≤
a
2 2

3γ mw
[ Cl. 10.5.10.1.1 ]

Fillet
Fillet Weld
Weld
47
Structural Design of welds…

• Stresses in Butt Welds …


– Due to combination of stresses [ Cl. 10.5.10 ]

Butt
ButtWeld
Weld

Combined bearing, shear and bending

fe = f b2 + f br2 + f b f br + 3q 2

[ Cl. 10.5.10.1.1 ]

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Structural design of welds…

• Design of fillet weld connection


– Design strength
Rwdf = (lwtt ) f wdf β lw [ Cl. 10.5.7.1.1 ]

Effective Design stress


throat area
f wd = f wn γ mw
1.25 Shop welds
γ mf =
1.50 Field welds

fu
f wn = ; f u = m in( f uw , f up )
3
49
Structural design of welds…

• Design of fillet weld connection …


– Design strength
Rwdf = (lwtt ) f wdf β lw [ Cl. 10.5.7.3 ]

Reduction factor for long joints

0.2 l j
β lw = 1.2 − ≤ 1.0
150tt

50
Structural design of welds…

• Design of butt weld connection


– Design strength
Rwdb = (lwtt ) f wdb β lw [ Cl. 10.5.7.1.1 ]

Effective Design stress


throat area
With throat
thickness
f wdb = f wnb γ mw
equal to
tickness of 1.25 Shop welds
plate γ mf =
1.50 Field welds

f wn = f u = m in( f uw , f up )

51
Structural design of welds…

• Design Example of fillet weld connection


Design weld on face AB and GF with no eccentricity, plate thickness is 16mm
Strength per unit length for 6 mm weld Ex50xx and E250(Fe410) plates, shop welds
Rwdf = (lwtt ) f wdf β lw
410 MPa 160 kN
Rwdf = 1 × (0.7 × 6mm) × = 0.8 kN / mm
3 × 1.25

Eqm. requires

FAB + FGF = 160 kN


LAB + LGF = 160 kN /0.8kN / mm = 200mm A
0.8kN/mm LAB
Moment condition requires

FAB (75mm) = FGF (125mm) 75 mm 160 kN


LAB = (5 /3) LGF B 200 mm
125mm

Solving A and B
0.8kN/mm LGF
52 LAB = 125mm , LGF = 75mm
Eccentric connection
• Definition
– Resultant of applied forces does not pass through the c.g. of
weld group
– Two types
• Cause only shear in fasteners
• Cause shear + tension in fasteners

P P

M=Pe

Shear-only Weld Group Shear + Tension Weld Group


53
Eccentric connection …

• Shear-only weld group

P P y
tt

M=Pe

Resultant Direct Shear Rotation Effect


at point of interest
P ( Pe ) ri ( Pe ) ri ( Pe ) ri
fc = fm = = 2 =
f R t t = ( t t f m )2 + ( t t f c ) 2 lw t t J ∫ r dA I z + I y
A

Based on shaft
torsion analogy
54
Eccentric connection …

• Shear +Tension bolt group


e P
P
Pe
c
+
NA

Resultant Bending behaviour (elastic) Direct Shear


at a point of interest
Locate NA, i.e., c
P
fc =
f R t t = ( t t f m )2 + ( t t f c )2 ∫t xt wt dx = ∫ tt x wc dx lw t t
Tensile stress at a point
( Pe )y
fm =
55 I na
56