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reversed), showing early draft of some of the Songs of Experience
written circa 1793.
.See p. 149, Index to Rossetti M.S.

and other poems.

THE POETICAL WORKS
OF

WILLIAM BLAKE
A NEW AND VERBATIM TEXT FROM
THE MANUSCRIPT ENGRAVED AND
LETTERPRESS ORIGINALS
WITH

VARIORUM READINGS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL
NOTES AND PREFACES
BY

JOHN SAMPSON
LIBRARIAN IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL

OXFORD
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
1905

V

HENRY FROWDE,

M.A.

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

LONDON, EDINBURGH

NEW YORK AND TORONTO

4/40

P05
J UN 2

1366

1086280

/./ Memoriam FREDERICK TORK POWELL .

.

there desire to refer to his itself to their be some so curious as to form which commended restoration of text should be necessary at modern writer whose works have passed the case of a through The still in the author. poetry. This edition furnishes readers with a new text. during Blake's lifetime few of his poems were either N . First should be specified the difficulties encountered in It should be remembered that referring to the originals. and The present work is a complete the prophetic books. it may perhaps be pertinent no writer would have more strongly resented to recall that interference with his held that ' own mode of expression than he and that is holy ' every minute particular who ' no one can high as the original inventor. that what he styles a disservice is done to the poet by reprinting his works finish so ' ' without correction. prose. with one of these critics. literally reproduced from the original manuscript.GENERAL PREFACE TEXT I. however. reasons. The literary remains of William Blake fall into three broad and generally recognized divisions. natural question whether most editors of Blake are competent to effect improvement in the works of a man of singular and individual genius. engraved. The primary object has been to recover and present Blake's own version of his poetry without the Apart from the customary attempts at emendation. of Blake's poems. and printed sources. on the surface.' Even if we assume. including all lyrical and metrical pieces scattered throughout his prose works and collection visionary writings. That such a all in may poems many editions may seem lie to require explanation.

followed by all later editors. originating in this way errors which tend to become fixed. these are found have always been private possessions.' though the latter is clearly engraved in the original impressions of The Keys of the Gates. the Poetical Sketches. accounts for a number of errors which have crept into the published texts. was indeed produced in ordinary typography. but only a few copies were issued to friends. mode of indicating his successive rearrangeand additions. Again several pieces are left by their rough draft.General Preface vi printed or published in the usual manner. and Blake's various changes. and since the various impressions of the same in V^ book often \ '""'^ differ from one another in contents arrangement.' ' ' A and more important source of error is to be changes which some of Blake's editors have It is comprehensible that Dante introduced. and the little volume remained so rare. in which self never engraved or published. deliberately further found in the Gabriel Rossetti. His first work. Many of the poems are hastily or not over legibly written. and unfamiliarity with Blake's hand of. are still very deficient in Our great first national libraries Most editions of Blake. that until its recent acquisition by the British Museum it might be regarded as generally inaccessible. to the be attributed inability of editors readings must also author in to decipher their own transcripts. the collation of several copies if incorrect conclusions are to be avoided. in his desire to present an almost unknown poet to the public in as favourable a light as . and even when the courtesy of owners has permitted them to difficulties exist in be made use the case of the work of transcription is full of pitfalls for the copyist. Thus we find Gilchrist. ments of lines and stanzas. examples of the engraved works are widely scattered the libraries of private collectors in this country and in America. is and necessary Still greater poems which Blake himThe MSS. ' ' misreading icy dungeons for my dungeons. exact careful study before his A few misfinal intention can be accurately determined.

while he introduces and ' the five short stanzas quoted no less than seven emendations of his own. involving additions of syllables and important changes of meaning. . stanzas are transposed or omitted. syntax. of sort become a poor palimpsest where each new short. in the ingenious and modest editor. changed.' poet and critic extolling Blake for the 'glory of metre' ' sonorous beauty of lyrical work in the two opening into lyrics of the Songs of Experience. new readings. suffered scarcely a single poem or even epigram has been Words and phrases are to remain as Blake wrote it. Liberties such as no one would venture on with Burns or Shelley. Two or more lyrics In one instance a new are printed as one. and readings destructive of sense. and vice versa. possible. which can hardly be regarded especially if as improvements. this case. ' welded piece has been created out of three shorter poems together by a line which is apparently the composition of Blake's text has. which. and prosody are introduced Unauthorized titles are added without obvious reason. as in the case of Broken Love/ impart to the poem a meaning undreamt of by its author. the variorum readings given in the footnotes to the which this passion present edition will show the extent to It will be seen that for emendation has been carried.General Preface vii have considered himself justified in making grammatical and other changes in the endeavour Yet. even in to remove what he regarded as blemishes. but are often destructive of the happy grace and artless No equally valid defence can simplicity of the original. every lover of Blake must feel that the intended emendations not only are made on no consistent principle. are everywhere taken with Blake by those who still profess their admiration for his 'exquisite metrical gift and rightness It is not a little bewildering to find one great of form. owner has overwritten his own poetry. be made should for the perversions of more recent editors. are found in conjunction with professions Reference to of scrupulous regard for textual fidelity.

they would only serve to confuse the reader. has been taken into consideration. I have accordingly supplied my own punctuation though Blake's pointing. "d practice the final have thought it of books using the be syllable better to preto vent any misconception on this point by retaining the 'd in the former case. as in the third stanza of 'The Tyger. if reproduced. while those in the engraved books are inserted in such a haphazard manner that. as a rule.' tyger. are. is apparent from the careful manner in which he has added them as corrections in the revised versions of several of his MS.' in contemporary I the arbitrary. In my retention of Blake's orthography I have been influenced not only by the desire to preserve as far as possible the colour of the original in such pleasant archaisms as desart. The spelling and capitalization of the original are adhered to throughout. without points of any kind. or in the engraved form of songs found also in rough draft. in his .Ge7teral Preface viii In the present edition Blake's final version is uniformly adopted as the text. while all earlier or cancelled readings are supplied in footnotes. and. by supplying an accent which is not in the original. That Blake himself attached some importance to the use of capitals for the sake of emphasis or artistic effect.' is an indication of the in which a particular passage was intended to Blake omitted apostrophes and inverted commas way be read. in the latter.' and lilly. and occasionally. Blake's autograph MSS. In all existing editions the melody of many of the has been marred songs by ignoring the fact that Blake's use of participle or preterite. and . he followed latter the was never ' or ' ed. In the matter of punctuation the poet has left his editors almost entirely to their own resources. Both in his system. but based on manuscript and engraved only when he intended separately pronounced. poems. where it occurs.' but also the ' ' ' by fact that in some instances his own spelling is a valuable aid to the just reading of lines or stanzas. engraved as well as in his manuscript writings.

These are followed by the variant readings editors who have not merely reprinted some existing text. In the first place. All Blake's earlier or cancelled readings are given in footnotes in the order of composition. add also. for example.' and ' emanation. capitals. this who it necessarily print no part of MS. The detail is not a purely trivial one.General Preface ix ./ it should be understood that when these are found in the text they have been added at the discretion of the editor. or in the poem beginning ' My me night and day.' in course in his own person spectre around persons of the his ' . Differences are noted in all cases except where they consist only of trivial variations of spelling. the page or folio of the printed. fusion arising from cause this may be noted The ' in which it is sometimes not apparent where quoted speeches end and Blake resumes the disEverlasting Gospel. of all 3.' — characters whose respective parts are not immediately obvious to those who with the visionary writings. II. or punctuation. In every case where a poem has been left in rough draft. or has been subjected to repeated alterations. since Blake's omission of quotation marks contributes to the difficulty of obscure poems by leaving it questionable to whom particular Instances of possible conspeeches should be assigned.. or manuscript 1. phrase all editors must of course be understood to refer to those only who print some version of a particular poem. the source of every poem is stated. reference to with precise book from which each is taken.' where the untabulated drama are the narrator. where necessary. 4. engraved. 2. I have . his spectre. excludes Wilkinson and Shepherd. the names of the editors or The commentators by whom the poem has been printed. The notes to the poems will have no dealings NOTES are of several kinds. I ' ' In the case of the Rossetti MS.

could only be ascertained after considerable study. M. and the absolute uniformity with which definite symbolical figures are used to express definite conceptions. coupled occasionally with brief explanations of what I conceive to have been his meaning.' ' ' ' supply the student with data which.' or bolic meanings in the writings of Blake. Readers of Blake's simpler poetry only who. with Mr.' natural religion of sym' hermaphrodite.' will be ignorant of the consistency with which his self-invented system of mythology is expounded.' or 'parallel' are not more absolutely descriptive of certain mathematical figures or relations.Ge7teral Preface endeavoured to explain the author's mode of composition by longer prefatory or appended notes.' spectre. were the actual MS. indicating the successive changes by which he arrived at his final version. before him. turn from the visionary writings after a hasty and half-shuddering glance.' 'pentagon. where the key to obscure mystical allusions is generally to be found. emanation. While Blake has been at little pains to supply the world with a chart of his mental 5. as 'radius. than are such locutions as ' ' ' ' ' Jerusalem.' I have therefore endeavoured to make the poet his own interpreter by appending to these poems elucidatory passages from the Prophetic Books. Rossetti. but enable him to follow for himself the reasons that have led the editor to arrange lines or stanzas in the order in which they appear in the text. for the light ' voyagings. it is impossible to study the prophetical writings without becoming aware of the extreme precision of his In the books of Euclid such terms mystical terminology. Interesting examples of the pains taken by Blake in perfecting his verses will be found in the notes to The Tyger.' and The Everlasting Gospel. W. ' ' or 'The Mental Traveller' in the Pickering MS. The value of these references in the interpretation of difficult poems like My spectre around me in the Rossetti MS.' 'equal. Many poems would prove unintelligible were it not thrown upon them by the Prophetic Books. will not .' These not only Fayette.

' the allusion to the ' rock ' and ' cave in 1. has a line been transferred from one printed nor was it ' ' and as I have elsewhere explained. Blake never seems to have regarded the privately printed Poetical Sketches as one of his actual publications. 7. that of the ever see the light. work to another.' If to make out the parts. Blake's of these repetitions have been adduced as evidence poverty of thought and language in Mr. Mad Song' {Poetical Sketches) and Infant Sorrow' {Songs of Experience). ' While interpretation is here restricted to passages in the seem to require explanation. And even in such comparatively simple With happiness lines as the verses to Butts beginning ' stretch'd across the hills. ARRANGEMENT most of the existing have fallen under the would groupings of Blake's poems are to blend and poet's lash for those whose chiefest arts not define the parts. I As ences to lines or passages repeated in different pieces.General Preface xi pass unnoticed. I have similarly illustrated Blake's epigrams on art and artists by quotations from prose writings where his opinions or prejudices are expressed with his customary energy and conviction. 40 may only be understood through the associations of the same figures in The Four Zoas and Jerusalem.' as he assures There is some reason to suppose that ' ' ' ' . the editor lyrical poems which may claim that the parallelisms from the Prophetic Books have been selected after many readings of the visionary chief literature writings. 6. III. and with some knowledge of the written around them. at give also occasional indications of the date or place referwell as cross as were which particular poems written. probably contemplated by him that they would In only a single instance. it may exfrom which identical the that to out writings point proper pressions are borrowed were not published by their author. Henry Gay Hewlett's be ingenious article in the Contemporary Review.

whether letterpress. which were . drafts of certain lyrics afterwards transcribed into the Pickering MS. during which Blake wrote and engraved the shorter Prophetic Books.Xll us. While the contents of the Pickering MS. It is also in cases a valuable aid to the dating of many particular pieces.* is Geiteral Preface the wise man's aim. extend over a period of more than twenty years and are of the most diverse character. including the original drafts of many of the Songs of Between the first and second section interExperience. the earliest poetic entries in which antedate the publication of the Songs of Experience and the latest postdate most of the Prophetic Books. or in manu- The script. vened a period of about seven years. engraved.' culty when such editorial it becomes a task of no titles as ' Ideas of little diffi- Good and Evil.. The latter is indeed of the nature of a notebook. The earlier pieces in the second section include a few poems written in a strain of among them first Jerusalem. about 1793. a plan which has the advantage of illustrating how poems found in juxtaposition have often been suggested by or grown out of one another. 'everyone in its own identity. are obviously all of a kind and written about the same time.' or Later Poems. This arrangement is of course a bibliographical. Before more highly developed mysticism. or engraved as part of we reach the epigrams. rather than a purely historical one. written The first of these.' In each of these groups the poetical contents are printed in the order in which they occur in the original. The three broad sections into which its contents fall are however clearly marked and occasion no confusion. those of the larger Rossetti MS.' are arbitrarily used to comprehend pieces collected from a number of undefined sources belonging to widely different periods. consists chiefly of lyrical poems. present arrangement conserves the integrity of the various books. In one case at least the heading Later Poems is made to include a ' * song written in Blake's early youth.' ' 'Miscellaneous Poems.

fragments of Lastly.' In the bibliographical prefaces to the various sections I have tried to give fairly full and accurate accounts of hitherto been printed books or manuscripts which have somewhat slightly or incorrectly described.' This may of course have been merely an experimental draft of a notice for insertion in the newspapers in case he thought fit to publish as a pamphlet with this down in his paragraphs jotted hand. and some had been written. complete index of the contents of the Rossetti MS.' * notes to this book I have drawn attention to a hitherto ignored publication of Blake. his History of Ettgland for Children.. and possibly the list of its contents recovered from the MS. also supplied brief bibliographical descriptions of the manuscript and engraved Prophetic Books. ' ' The — the latest of Blake's surviving Everlasting Gospel poems with the possible exception of The Keys of the ' ' Gates. is given. portion at least of Jerusalem and Milton have the we third as the section. 56) that • This day is Publish'd Advertizements to Blake's Canter- bury Pilgrims from Chaucer.' I have is described for the first time. the two later only including the In my verses which distinguish the issue For the Sexes. and the Pickering MS.. it On title the the other may have been printed . or A * smaller autograph collection. Book may be the means of bringing this lost work The attention of the curious bibliophile may also to light. (p. the letters to Butts.General Preface xiii an overflow from Blake's marginalia to Reynolds' Discoursesl the Pickering MS. a companion volume to The Gates of Paradise . All accessible have copies of the Songs of Innocence and of Experience been collated. and have made some corrections in the dates of their composition or Comparison of a number of copies has publication. established the fact that there were three several editions of The Gates of Paradise. and Blake's successive arrangements tabulated and classified. be directed to the entry in the Rossetti MS. it is not improbable that notebook. containing anecdotes of Artists.

case. but of which no trace is known. and Barry : a Poem.' a detail of but little relevance when it is remembered that the engraving. preserved perhaps. N. and of his extreme indigence which prohibited him from bringing out the book in letterpress at his own cost. BLAKE'S ILLUMINATED PRINTING It is to Blake's singular mode of publication that must attribute the scanty recognition accorded we to his lifetime. IV. as is so often the by being bound up with contemporary tracts. Among other lost works of Blake may be mentioned the first book of the French Revohition. and the engraved Book of Outhoon. that Blake to resort to the laborious expedient of was driven engraving and Verisimilitude is printing the Songs by his own hand. printing. I believe this story. Shury.' The circumstances under which he first conceived the idea ' of producing his books by his invention of relief engraving possess therefore much more than the merely technical interest attaching to a new and curious art process. as his public restricted to the few friends or patrons who necessarily was had poetic genius during his own obtained copies of his works from the Author and Printer.General Preface xiv for him possibly same manner as the Descriptive Catalogue. and that a copy in the may still be discovered. which may be traced to a loose statement of Gilchrist's. Works referred to by Blake himself. are The Book of Moonlight. In the first place it may be observed that the supposition . by the same printer. D. added by the picture of the poet's wife going out with their last half-crown to buy the necessary materials. According to the commonly received account it was in consequence of his failure to secure a publisher for the Songs of Innocence in the ordinary way. said to have been published by Johnson in 1 791. to be without foundation. and colouring of the first issue ' occupied an entire year.

while that of Blake interwove text. as Smith tells us. Blake. type and colouring into one harmonious whole with the happiest only in the shape of and most exquisite effect. it must be remembered. rather in the it . the sheets of which. design. handed to the author to publish or sell privately as he saw no attempt to dispose of the fit. Relating the story of the invention Blake's biographers have represented of this process. printed in letterpress at the expense of Mathew and Flaxman. he seems to have made or even to sell them personally. because no for him the new publisher or printer could have produced kind of illustrated work which he had in his mind. and the same attitude of mind which caused him on being shown ' a number of the Mechanic's Magazine to exclaim these doubtless led him to regard as things we artists HATE in which his conceptions were him book of a unworthy ' ! inadequately presented by a merely mechanical and somewhat unlovely process. a bookseller copies through While there is no positive evidence that such was the case it is not improbable that he himself may have destroyed the greater part of this small edition. was an artist as well as a poet. stiffly or clumsily placed in juxtaposition to the surrounding of the text. regardless of toil which he loved. and disdainful of external In the case of Blake's earlier work. the Poetical assistance. Sketches.xv General Preface that Blake desired to put his Songs into circulation through the medium of a publisher is altogether at variance with that characteristic independence which led him throughout his life to do most things for himself in his own way. His deliberate exclusion of the Poetical Sketches from the catalogue of his works offered a list which includes books produced by for sale in 1793 — ordinary engraving as well as seems to It is me by * ' illuminated printing — to support this view. to conclude that Blake brought more reasonable out his books himself by his own process. The method then in vogue admitted of artistic embellishments steel or wood engravings. were.

. This passage begins. & at have every other leaf a high finished print. I would the writing Engraved instead of Printed. In the preface to that popular book Watts . Sicknakers. and there is no particular reason to doubt that.General Preface xvi a happy accident than as a deliberate attempt Accord- light of to deal with a clearly realized artistic difificulty. Blake that may have had already unlikely Innoce^ice appear in Songs of seems not in view the it perhaps completion of a series of songs for children and Dr. They all would Print off two thousand. that would be excellent. Blake may have solved a problem which had long occupied his to in Striking confirmation of the fact that at least thoughts. this engraving was revealed him mode of a vision by the spirit of his favourite brother Robert." " " Then. me my my abilities. entirely. ing to the account derived from Smith.. " who- ever will not have them. known as An Island m the Moon." " Then. five years before the publication of the — he had contemplated and not without a view to the superior Songs of Linocetice it may be noted. will be ignorant fools & will not deserve to live. " . characteristic of the rough draft in this MS." said he." said — ' : she." said she. profits of such a work — some new kind of illuminated printing is found in the early MS. & I was my speaking of the Women who people but their nasty hearts. . in a dream or daydream. and sell them a hundred pounds a piece. at the head of the recto of the ninth " " " leaf Illuminating the Manuscript Ay. poor devils." . Watts' Divine Moral Songs for suggested by . all in three Volumes folio. Children." The the last unfortunate loss of one or more leaves preceding page may have deprived us of a description of the literary contents of the Cynic But (or book which the speaker Quid the Blake) designed since three of the most to bring out in this manner. dear & all they hate . ." I was at Mrs.. are eat up with envy —they envy your envy abilities. are of higher abilities than their nasty filthy ' Selves. imperfectly. abilities.

provided that it exceeds in elegance all former methods.Ge7ieral Preface xvii ' modestly refers to his songs as a slight specimen. and than grand. such as I could wish some happy and condescending genius would undertake for the use of children. it probably means that plate of the Songs was engraved in the year preceding the publication of the completed book.' prototype.' parative require Blake's observation as to the com- mode cheapness of this some explanation. we have no grounds for questioning Smith's statement was the that the Songs of Innocefice in engraved this A manner. that the subjects of several of Blake's songs felt ' are identical with those of Watts. more ornamental.' while noted that the moral it with which may the also be ' Chimney songs somewhat tags ' Holy Thursday. If a method of Engraving Printing which combines the Painter and the Poet is a phenomenon worthy of public attention. Blake's Original Stereotype was 1788'.' and other abruptly conclude. the last of Blake's Prophetic Books. In Blake's prospectus 'To the Public' of October. uniform. and perform much better. 1793. he styles this process illuminated printing. while it produces works at less than one-fourth of the expense. Though nowhere definitely stated by the poet himself. as suggest that this illuminated SAMPSON it of printing seems to cannot be intended to printing was cheaper than . the Author is sure of his reward. any before discovered. as I find. Hewlett. anticipated me in this conjecture. informs us that W. has invented a method of Printing both Letter-press and ' ' in a style.' says Blake. The Author. who. but since this statement cannot possibly refer to an earlier ' issue of the same sibylline leaflet. recall the manner of Blake's didactic Sweeper. It has been pointed out by Mr.' and it is likely enough that Blake may have rightly himself to be this destined genius.' a phrase the first ' evidently suggested by the passage quoted above from the Island in the Moon. first of his works colophon to the Ghost of Abel^ 1822.

or in a spirit of condescension towards ' our good Blake. and a larger visionary endowment his than that which he esteemed the merely deceptive faculty We need too of seeing with. LIFE V. as he was. though our comfortably veiled from us in several existing It may be confessed at once that with regard biographies. To some of those who have . was printed separately by two different processes. engraver. To understand him. The quali- be understood. and later. of course. the eye. rather than petty contemporary gossip.General Preface xviii ordinary typography.' was capable now and then of happy flights of fancy which are to be sought for as oases in the Sahara of his writings. although the very opposite of reactionary. was antagonistic to the scientific spirit in all its works and ways. his own artist. are made the foundation of an endeavour to trace this mental and spiritual development. to what Blake called his vegetative existence we are ignorance is * almost wholly in the dark. that to produce books in Blake's manner the author must be. Probably what he meant was that the engraving and printing of lettering and design simultaneously less expensive than intaglio engraving and letterpress. and printer. And the only true biography must be that in which own writings. who. his precise debt to Swedenborg. fication should. some degree of intellectual sympathy with an uncommon mind and temper is desirable. the manner in which the doctrines of the French Revolution affected one who.' the somewhat illiterate. and not through. though 'slightly touched. Blake's real life was a mental and spiritual one. ' The slightness of the events of his material career is. Little is known of the life of William Blake.' ' some deeper study than has yet been attempted of the sources from which he received and absorbed his ideas — notably the influence of the Wesleyan revival. of little consequence. Such a task should not be undertaken with slight equipment. of our knowledge however. but amiable enthusiast.

every sand becomes a Gem Reflected in the beams Divine. poet. in the fullest sense. has been carried further by Swinburne in that Essay which. published and unpublished writings. letters. grasping at such pieces of self-revelation as the writings afford. borrowing the phrase which Shelley applied to his own. and mystic. MS. studying the influences which touched him and the degree in which they were modified by a naturally heretical mind and tracing step by step through the surviving Prophetic Books the evolution of the extraordinary system of mythology created . much autobiographical material greater part survives in his pictures. the converse is rather the case. marginalia. and finely expressed with entire insight and sympathy by the author of The City of Dreadful Night. an impassioned pursuit of virtue. as also in his engraved works or in various facsimiles. Autobiographical. still remain a sufficing monument to his genius. This true line of investigation first apprehended by Wilkinson.' to himself a clear that it harmony was also is undoubted. by him for the expression of his philosophical and religious views. Book. Blown back they blind the mocking eye 'And But still That Blake's nor is it less in Israel's life was paths they shine. and criticisms examples preserved ba . Despite the destruction of the of the MSS. ' moral. His views on the province of art. were Blake's remaining works destroyed by a new Tatham. and artistic harmony is the difficult work awaiting him who would present Blake aright. ' ' Blake's pictorial art may be studied at in the British first Museum hand from or in private collections.General Preface xix essayed to follow with more or less success Blake's almost untrodden path. would The chief sources of our knowledge of Blake's life are particularized below.' To represent this mental. delineating Blake in his threefold character of artist. and I.

as in the opening lines of Ezirope. the Barry: « P^^w must unfortunately be numbered lost works.' or may century in the contemptuous reference to tinkling rhymes and tells us.' of 1810. In the of literature Blake's early study. which. the grotesque Hudibrastic lilt of The Everlasting Gospel. ' ' We ' elegances terse in the youthful Poetical Sketches. in the jottings ' copy of Reynolds' Discourses. Even Blake's phrases and subject-matter. the shorter rhythms being evidently suggested by the choruses in Samson. are expounded at length in his Descriptive Catalogne of his exhibition of 1809. except in the purely imitative Poetical Sketches. in his Advertisement or Public Address. It is in the message. thro' the orient gates of the eternal day. reminiscent of the Ode on the may ' Morning * of Christ's Nativity The deep What : — came . continued but a more lasting and potent influence was that of Milton. fled to their abodes. meet here also with the imitations of Macpherson. time the secret child Descended War of winter ' ceas'd. and in TiricI dj\d Thel\ the preface to Jeriisalem showing that in this attempt at a new cadence Blake was deliberately following the example set by the author of Paradise Lost. Book.XX Geiieral Preface of schools of painters. and in .' Blake's Prophetic Books tell us what is known of his ' mystical religion and philosophy. . as Malkin field was of the Elizabethans. like shadows. & all the troops. occasionally be traced to the same source. and Laocoon. His attitude to eighteenthin lines To the verse be noted his Muses. and epigrams in his MS. among in the aphorisms in the in his sibylline leaflet.' Minor influences may be detected in the epigrams in the manner of Wolcot in the lyrics from the Prophetic Books which often recall the hymns of Charles Wesley. to which may be attributed the metrical experiments of the Prophetic Books. are almost entirely his own.

and thenceforward remained Blake's steadfast friend and supporter. for whose book Blake designed the frontispiece. 1809. Johnes. John Linnell. in 1818 (not 1813 as stated by Gilchrist).General Preface rather than in the xxi manner of its delivery. September 17. assistance his * we owe the Inventions to the been executed great To work of Blake's old his age. John Linnell. was written when Blake was forty-nine years of age. George Cumberland. The value of Blake's letters to Butts. referring to the poet. Book illustrate Blake's and patrons while certain of them (as perhaps cxiv) throw light upon his private life. 2. behalf. was introduced to Blake by Mr. The facts there given were evidently derived from the poet himself. This attack in several of the is epigrams 4. terms. and Doctor Malkin. little whom written to a friend to he could speak without fear of misconception. is enhanced by the fact that they belong to the period when he conceived and in part produced his J ertisalem. portrait and landscape painter.' impugning * the artist's sanity offensive in indignantly referred to by Blake written in the Rossetti MS. while among other entries in his private journal are notes of several transactions made on Blake's These documents are now Mr. Paul's Epistle to the Romans can they be regarded as the practice of literature for its own sake. great works Milton and Most of the epigrams in the MS. of which almost nothing is known. This 1806. dated January 4. 3. junior. Blake's Exhibition. instance of his friend. that their chief as S. twelve years his junior. Book of Job/ designs which had but were only engraved at the Mr. in the possession of . Hunt's Examiner for Sunday. A short but valuable account of Blake's early life and literary and artistic predilections is given by Malkin in his Father's Memoirs of His Child. of Hafod. Linnell left certain memoranda for Butts. of Bristol. in an introductory letter to relations with his Thomas friends . contains a critique of Mr. obviously worth As lies.

architect. Blake's acquaintance through Linnell. interesting and valuable both as to his mystical opinions (not very clearly or sympathetically apprehended . which I have not been able to see. or appropriated. Frederick Tatham. My knowledge of Tatham's Memoir. His diary and letters contain accounts of Blake in his last years. has been used and quoted by Swinburne. and fruitlessly sought by Gilchrist. for a short time before her death. 1887. to a London dealer. is limited to the extracts quoted therefrom by Swinburne and others. The copy of Jeriisalem with which it is bound up was re-sold at Sotheby's in June. who. of Charles Heathcote Tatham. 1831. the whole of Blake's literary remains. possess the interest of having been derived from Catherine Blake. had been an of real inmate of the miniature painter's household. became one of made the small group of neophytes. Aders on December 10. however. presumably importance. which no one seems to have j^'jo passim). Ellis and Yeats. on religious grounds/ This person wrote a memoir of Blake which he appears to ' have parted with for purely secular reasons. 6. 1862This MS. when a youth of twenty or twenty-one. life. Tatham acquired. unfortunately for the world. sculptor and miniature painter. Henry Crabb Robinson. 1825. who met him later in life. Tatham 's misstatement of the date of Blake's birth (which misled and Swinburne) does not suggest habits of accuracy . who was the son About 1825. and others. bound in with an illuminated copy of Jerusalem (see Rossetti Papers. then in his fiftieth year. though they do not appear to have gleaned from this source any new facts Those given. it reappeared in the Blamire sale in 1863. On the death of the poet's wife in October. and is now the property of an owner who prefers that no description of its contents be given. refers to him as a man on whose word no reliance could be placed. the younger Tatham met Blake and. thought worth printing in full.General Preface xxii 5. as we are told. which he afterwards destroyed. first met Blake at the home of Mr. Richard Garnett. Lost sight of for some time.

Most Eminent British Painters. 142-150). and Blake. Alexander Gilchrist began his Life " Pictor Lgnoitts. Flaxman. published his Nollekins and his Times. when Linnell. sanity. Memoir ( Works. most candid biography written in the English lan- as the title-page states. of Blake. Allan In published his Lives of tJie Cunningham 1830 9. the Gentle- Yeats' mans Magazine. This contemporary one who knew picture drawn with intelligent sympathy by him well is of the utmost value and Smith's tribute to . and a few other friends and contemporaries of About Richmond. the poet were still living. In 1828 John Thomas Smith. Smith's first acquaintance with Blake dates from his early days at the Mathews' to the close of the poet's life. Sculptors. Keeper of the Prints and Drawings in the British Museum.' been done to this admirable little life.Ge7ieral Preface by xxiii the diarist) and as to his views on the poetry of WordsThese passages are reprinted together in Ellis and worth. Short notices of his Blake 7. in Rossetti's words. prehends Memoirs the time of Roubiliac. Hogarth. i. i860. comof several contemporary Artists from The second volume. and lofty character. which gives for the ' time the greater part of the material upon which Cunningham and Gilchrist based their biographies. life and works appeared in the Literary Gazette. 10. and while it shows no particular research or regard for accuracy has preserved a few anecdotes of Blake which probably would have otherwise disappeared. which has been not inaptly described 8. Samuel Palmer. sufficient refutation of among which is This gaily and mainly derived from a biography of Blake. lived next door to Carlyle and was as near him in other ' . Tatham. is the contrary view. to that of Scant justice has hitherto Fuseli. and the Annual Register for the same year. coming from the pen of one who was the reverse of a hero-worshipper. died August 12. as the guage. 1827. and Architects. and Reynolds. Blake's genius." Gilchrist. rather irreverently written little life is Smith's Nollekins.

' There influence of his model. . is at variance with another. Alfred T. substantiable on good evidence. where he became the father of the poet. most of the material drawn from the preceding sources. 1 800-1 803. as the editors state. G. and is his style betrays the also a tendency to dwell ' unduly upon unimportant incidents such as the Visionary Heads. with some new letters. however. and in preparing the way for SwinGilchrist incorporates burne's great critical appreciation. daughters . This account. handsomely produced. was published in 1880. the former supplying a supplementary ' and editing the Selections from ' chapter to the biography. published in the same year. 1 86 1 The book. and the first eight chapters printed. prose and verse. 1893. The letters to Blake's Butts. second This edition. and W. to supply new facts. when Gilchrist died on the 30th of November. Life. and settled in the took previous union. or to discuss in greater detail aspects of Blake's life which they consider unsatisOf much importance. on the authority of two ladies. was completed by his widow. aided by D.' which gives the portrait a lack of proportion. if factorily dealt with by Gilchrist. II. James O'Neill. having assumed the name of Blake borne by his second wife. where. Rossetti. a certain John O'Neill.General Preface xxiv respects as he could manage. his son by a name of Blake. his grandfather. is the discovery that Blake was of Irish ancestry. and the latter contributing a serviceable list of his pictures and engravings. of Rathmines. appear here A for the first time. and embellished with facsimiles of Blake's own glorious designs. Storey's William Blake. Practically the whole of the first volume had been written. prefixed to their large edition of the Works. is especially intended. M. also London. which was published two years later. though his manner of writing sometimes leaves it doubtful whether he is embroidering supplementing our knowledge or merely more simply narrated by earlier bio- facts graphers. achieved its main purpose in popularizing the poet. first given in Mr. Ellis and Yeats' Memoir. Dublin.

M. of Southampton. in also be noticed. more concisely stated. Henry G. In pure aesthetic criticism D. difficult task of reconciling these rival claims. and Genius. Hewlett's curious essay in depreciation. Yeats to their editions of the poems. Maclagan and Russell's Introduction to their reprint of Jerusalem. vol. it may be pointed out that Blake's father was certainly a Protestant. and that the English poet. and Swinburne's masterpiece hold the first place. but of interest as embodying personal appreciations of Blake's work. 1905.xxv Geiieral Preface John Blake. Blake's descent is traced to the Somersetshire family with which the Commonwealth Without attempting the Admiral was connected. 1895. who in one instance describes himself as ' Blake. claiming to be of William second cousins of the poet. in the of the author article ' hired a villain to bereave my life. will be found in Alfred T. 1^93. The notes. and in the introductions of W. his Life. Ellis reference to mysterious and Yeats Hayley's having the sense of his having Blake of his means of Flaxman with to deprive conspired villain with Hunt. following I is a list EDITIONS of the editions quoted in the footwhere use has been made of the refer to those only original printed and manuscript sources. Biographies of Blake derived from the above sources. and. VI. Willimn Blake. Messrs. B. the hired the and livelihood. Rossetti^ Laurence Housman and W.' in to these editors' interpretation of Blake's mystical writings. G. in Richard Garnett's monograph in the Portfolio. identify I refer elsewhere Examiner.' nowhere claims interpret the Irish descent. 28). Storey's la. entitled Imperfect Genius {^Contemporary Review. Rossetti's prefatory notes to the in Selections Gilchrist. Character. should ' ' An elaborate attempt to expound Blake's symbolic system in detail is contained in Ellis and Yeats' edition of the Works. James Thompson's printed ' ' Essay. and where the .

. Newbery. Pictor Ignotus. Vol. J. Gilchrist in the first own works volume of the Life. excellent preface by J. a portion of Rossetti's original transcript of MS. Pickering and 3. furnished me by Mr. 1806.General Preface xxvi given might for this reason be understood readings possess some to authority. Edited with a short but Songs. Macmillan. the text of this edition is described as 'much altered. In the Dictionary of National Biography and elsewhere. Ctmn.' with Selections from his poems and other writings by the late 5. in Photolithography with In two volumes.S. Life of William Blake. Benj. The Lives of the most eminent British Painters. Esq. in facsimile by W. . London.' a youth. . i. Murray. Heath Malkin. and Orme. These readings. printed presumably from copies supplied by Blake to the author. London. 6 vols. the translator of Swedenborg. Sculptors. and Architects. 12. 1839. Rossetti MS. 1829-1833. A Father's Memoirs of his Child. (Dedication of the Poem of the Grave.A. Rees. Book. Contains five songs from Poetical Sketches and Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Shewing the two Contrary States of the Human Soul. Garth Wilkinson. Poems quoted by 1863. 16°. To Cunningham's corrupt version of The Tyger may on MS. Alexander Gilchrist. 8°. ' See Bibliographical This transcript was still Rossetti when 1847. many Songs of Innocence and of Experience. authority. Volume ii contains poems from Poetical Sketches and Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Hurst. F. 8°. Wilk. John 2. 1. M. R"^. 8°. are here quoted for the first time.. . London. Malk. Malkin's version of 'The Tyger' contains an interesting variant reading of 1. .A. J.) W.' but as a matter of fact Wilkinson's The first letterpress edition of the emendations are somewhat fewer than those of Dante Gabriel 4.' which has be traced the second or later version ' ' ' deceived so of Blake's editors. White. . London. Blake's Poems from the was probably made about Preface to later editors. ' Gil. W. Illustrated from Blake's Linton and a few of Blake's original plates. By Longman. by Allan Cunningham.

Pickering. Book. Comprising So7tgs of Innocence and of Experience^ together with Poetical Sketches. Memoir by William Michael Rossetti. all of which were Songs of Innocence and [q/"] (reprinted in 1868) published by B. M. London. but retains others. if the work were ' before him to be done. and some copyright poems not in any other edition. The Poems of William Blake. by far the most accurate . given by D. 8°. With reference other attempts at emendation introduced by him into Blake's text we may note Rossetti's later statement that he would not now. DGR. including the greater portion of The ' Everlasting Gospel. Charles Alp-ernon alterations. Shepherd was not able to print in his edition any of the poems from the Rossetti MS. Basil Montague Pickering. however. coloured and plain. Lyrical in This popular edition has been frequently reprinted. Contains poems quoted by Swinburne from Blake's published works and from the Rossetti MS. 1874. [Aldine Edition. London.) 7. in the second volume of Gilchrist's Life. Gabriel Rossetti. William Muir's coloured facsimiles of the Songs of Innocence and the Songs of In the footnotes to The Gates of Paradise Experience. London.] George Bell and Sons. WMR. with other poems. G. 165.xxvH General Preface 6. The readings quoted my footnotes are taken from a copy of the fourth edition. By illustrations from Critical With WMR's Blake's designs in facsimile. and not ' to these and infrequently adopts the readings of Wilkinson. 9. 1868. J. Shep. 8°. Rossetti rejects some Rossetti. 1874. I refer also to facsim. of the changes made in his earlier transcript. The Poetical Works of William Blake. ii.' 8. Hotten. Muir's text of the prologue and of the . 8". p. Mr. Edited with a Prefatory and Miscellaneous. Szvinh.' A i^See Dante Essay. make so many William Blake: Swinburne. 1866 and that of the Poetical Sketches. 1883. ' Poems printed in the Selections from Blake's works. ID. C. is. From the latter source Swinburne prints several poems omitted by Rossetti. 1868. This edition collects in a single volume Richard text of the Heme Shepherd's earlier Experience. W. His text of the poems included of any hitherto published. The Volume same. Muirs Mr.

B.General Preface xxviii ' of the Gates Keys ' prefixed in ordinary typography to The Gates of Paradise. Paul. and passim) 12. Book and The Four Zoas. Housman's hands. Russell and E. Ellis and Yeats have trusted to the Aldine edition. Russell The and Maclagan. The Poems Yeats.' ' . R. D. B. Jerusalem. left by himself. of William Blake. volumes. Trench. In three Bernard Quaritch. Apparently intended as the first of a series of typographical reprints of Blake's Prophetic Books. ' EY. and Co. Poetic. and some of their remarks WBY. Ellis somewhat confusing arrangement In this edition the of the Poems may perhaps be due to the editors' scheme of interpretation. 11. since this 14. while part has been derived from Mr.' and a Memoir and Interpretation by and Critical. G. Ellis' transcripts of the MS. LH. Selections from the writings of William Blake with an introductory essay by Lawrence Housman. 8°. D. Bullen. The Works of William Blake. In 1893. Russell \on cover A. . 13. Reprinted by Routledge (1905). (e. G. Edited with Lithographs of the Illustrated Prophetic Books. Edwin John and William Butler Yeats. Muses' Library. I An Kegan quote this edition only for the variant reading in the song taken from MS. For some of their text apparently Messrs. 288 ' ' 299) would seem to suggest their belief that the possession of these occult powers enables them to produce a text through which Blake's mind is reflected more accurately than in the MSS. William Blake. London. These editors. Large 8°.' and By his own hand ' shall surely die' for ' By his own law ' ' shall surely die. 4°. B. Maclagan and A. in expounding Blake's system. some respects a more ii. Maclagan]. Purports to be a verbatim and literatim reprint. g. Island in the Moon. 1893. lay claim to special knowledge produced by the evocations of symbolic magic (i. but contains such misreadings as course for race. R. London. Prophetic Books of Edited by E. these reproductions cannot be followed with any certainty for the text of the poems. 1904.] [The Bullen. Symbolic. Triibner. London. 1893. Edited by Lawrence and 8°. was in Mr. his facsimile of Admirable as facsimiles of Blake's coloured illustrations. correct text than the preceding. W.

White has for the past three years collaborated with tion of his share in the work. Book. as well as the description of this MS. White's conjecture that The Gates of Paradise belonged to a later date than had been previously supposed. and other Blake originals. Book given in this edition. White the correct text of the smaller Pickering MS. Linnell has also furnished me with Linnell family. junior. John Linnell. The Ghost of Abel. New York. White. the owner of the Rossetti MS. I am indebted to Mr. Lastly. endeavour by furnishing me with exact transcripts of the poems in the MS. White for the two facsimiles of the MS. t>ut somewhere nearer 1810. of Brooklyn. of obscurely written lines in The Four Zoas.. photographs . I owe also to Mr. To Mr. which led me. W. after a study of the symbolic references in the couplets explanatory of the plates. to form the conclusion that the two issues For the Sexes. and answering a very great number of questions of detail. not in 1793.. I owe the correct text of the songs. must have been ' produced. can best be made clear by an explana- Entering into my desire to final text of Blake's poems.xxix Gene7^al Preface VII much In a work involving reference to material not any public library an editor is dependent upon the goodwill and co-operation lying ready to hand in necessarily It is of the owners of precious books and manuscripts. A. which after me in this a disappearance of over thirty years was opportunely I should rediscovered while this edition was in the press. and passages quoted in the footnotes from The Four Zoas. My debt to Mr.. and other Blake originals in the possession of the Mr. with gratitude that I acknowledge the invaluable aid rendered me in various ways by collectors and students of the works of Blake. and an accurate produce Mr.. the Pickering MS. not omit to explain that it was Mr.' in which the poems first appear. and details of copies of The Gates of Paradise.

as well as extracts from original letters of Flaxman throwing light upon the cause of Blake's estranged attitude towards his A former friend. C. I owe to the kindness of Mr. Russell illustrates the me by and happier relationship between the two artists. earlier I Quaritch for lending me the MS. Beach for research work in the British Museum in the early stages of this book. to Mr. the artist's I am obliged to Mr. My thanks are also due to Miss Isabelle Linnell and Mr. and also MS. . courteously sent hitherto unprinted poem (see p. I am indebted to Mrs.Frederick Macmillan has taken which great pains to clear up the question of the process by reprints of the plates of the Songs were reproduced in Gilchrist's Life. the of the Pickering me with his re- French Revolution. B. and my Rossetti kindly furnished collection of the lost book. Mr. for collations Mr. known as An Island in the Moon. Mr. Mr. Experience^ enumerated in 72-77). which has since come to light. To Signora of Tiriel. in the to Mr. Cowley of the Bodleian Library for a grateful courteous response to questions submitted by me. G. since presented by him to the Fitzwilliam Museum. Fairfax Murray the loan of the autograph MS. I am Mr. William Linnell. have to thank Captain Butts for the loan of Blake's letters to his grandfather. details of the several impressions.General Preface XXX and has replied with great minuteness to several questions of mine relating to different works of Blake. John Lawler has been good enough to supply me with information as to Blake originals sold by auction. A. Bernard lifelong friend and patron. thanks for her kindness Helen Rossetti Angeli I tender my in sending me from Italy the early and curious Blake MS. and Mr. Thomas Butts. W. M. Fortescue of the British first place. John Pearson in several communications has given me the benefit of his expert knowledge of original issues and works of Blake. I have to acknowledge the courtesy of the various owners of copies of the Songs of hmocence and the Songs of ' ' Bibliographical Preface (pp. Madan to . 218) Mr. containing The Passions and another piece.

am favourite poets. I wish to thank the authorities of the Press.Ge7teral Preface xxxi Museum for personal replies to like inquiries and to Mr. has contributed greatly to the ac- curacy of this edition. To Mr. imperfect memory. and robs me now of much of the pleasure with which I bring to completion this edition though of one of his it be. for the care and patience with which they have texts ' ' minute particulars of this book. in a somewhat light-hearted mood. and the aid in Wilberforce various ways given me by Miss May Allen. H. 20. of the Press. given by carried out the generously at the outset of my task. without preliminary collation of the original engraved and manuThis view was accepted by the Delegates script sources. Peter Cowell of the Liverpool Public Library for obtaining for me the loan of certain rare books. Nov. . In concluding this long list of obligations I desire to add that it was at the suggestion of the late Professor York to read certain of my Powell that I undertook. I have pleasure in acknowledging the help of Mr. especially by Miss M. Harkness Graham. S. and especially Mr. fain to dedicate to his which. even in the form of selections. in the reading and correction of the proofs. E. T. E. Librarian to the Biological Library. Lyster and Miss D. and the present critical edition undertaken besides the smaller work at first proposed. 1905. assistant in the University Library. Professor John Macdonald Mackay has been good enough proofs and prefaces. cursory comparison of existing A showed me the impossibility of giving a reliable version of Blake. The of death Professor York Powell me of untimely deprived of advice and him so advantages encouragement. Eames I owe information regarding the unique example of Blake's Milton in the Astor-Lenox Library. . JOHN SAMPSON. the preparation of a small edition of Blake's Lyrical Poems for the Clarendon Press. The help rendered by the members of my class in bibliography. Yates. Milford. I Liverpool.

. .... 7 8 . .... . .. Morning Fair Elenor How sweet . .. . I roam'd from .... ....... ... . 17 ... . Mad Song 8 ii . . . Imitation of Spencer Blind-man's Buff .. I2 . .14 14 Song: Fresh from the dewy hill.. . ... intended for a Dramatic Piece of King Edward the Fourth Prologue to King John Song to Englishmen The Couch of Death A War Contemplation Samson . . .21 23 26 40 40 41 42 43 44 . la 13 .CONTENTS PAGE . ... the merry year Song When early morn walks forth in sober grey 15 16 To ^7 : the Muses Gwin. . ..... Appendix I King Edward the Third Prologue. • ...... 6 Winter 7 the Evening Star . hither come I . King An of . .... '5 .. . . .. .. Poems from the Poetical Sketches 2 Bibliographical Preface To To To To To To 5 Spring Summer Autumn . Norway .... . field to field Song: Song: My silks and fine array Song: Love and harmony combine Song Song : : love the jocund dance Memory..

.xxxiu Contents page II Appendix Song by a Shepherd Song by an old Shepherd .. first 47 47 begun 53 . . 65 .. The Song of Phebe and Jellicoe Hail Matrimony. Moon Island in the Bibliographical Preface When old corruption ' 50 . . 57 5« 59 Songs of Innocence and of Experience Bibliographical Preface Songs of Innocence . O leave [me] to my sorrows Appendix 55 56 . made of Love To be or not to be This city and this country Leave.. Songs from ' An ..

Songs of Experience Introduction .XXXIV Contents PAGE ....

...273 ... . of Illustrations Blake's 305 . : 326 344 344 The 345 . 311 . .XXXV Contents PAGE . 264 . .282 • ...283 . . . .. . The Pickering Manuscript Preface The Smile The Golden Net The Mental Traveller The Land of Dreams Mary The Crystal Cabinet The Grey Monk ..... Anna Flaxman To my Friend Butts I write To Mrs. . . . . the Queen ..302 ... . . fairy leapt 301 ..296 . . Blair's Grave' Preface To . 286 295 .... . . With happiness stretch'd across the hills why was I born with a different face ? Dedication upon ' of my knee . • • S^^ 320 Poems from the 'Prophetic Books' Bibliographical Preface From The Book of Thel Thel's Motto From The Marriage of Heaven and Hell From Visions of the Daughters of Albion . 3^4 316 Epigrams from Blake's Annotated Copy of Reynolds' Works Preface Epigrams . 269 • . Poems from Letters Preface To my dear Friend. Auguries of Innocence Long John Brown and Little Mary Bell William Bond • . ..279 280 . . .... . ... . : Argument . .. . .... • ..310 .. . . . Mrs.. 300 .. Butts -304 .. O h. . 270 ...

.. ... 52 . Bibliographical Preface Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice of the Gates .. . .Contents xxxvi PAGE From The Four Zoas At the first Sound the Golden Sun Ah how shall Urizen the King : ! Till thou dost [conquer] the distrest From Milton And From Jerusalem To the Public : To visions . .. Each Man is in his To the Deists To the Christians To the Christians Spectre's power . . p. ... . To the Accuser who is The God From the Legends to the Plates Index of First Lines - ZS?.. 366 yjl 373 377 378 379 ILLUSTRATIONS Facsimile of Rossetti MS.. . 358 359 361 363 364 The Gates of Verses from 'For the Sexes. .. have appear'd to the Jews . ... . . 242 .. p. . . did those feet in ancient time : Such . .. .... 109 Facsimile of Rossetti MS. .. . Especially to the Female The Keys . Paradise ' . Frontispiece To face p. .. . of this World . . 345 347 350 351 me ^^^ 353 .. . .

POEMS from the POETICAL SKETCHES (Privately Printed. SAMPSON B 1783) .

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE POETICAL SKETCHES The Poetical Sketches. . ' fine array II . which SI 58 60 63 64 exceedingly rare. LONDON: Printed The first quire of two leaves in the Year MDCCLXXXIII. is a slender volume of 38 leaves. 29 Prologue intended for a dramatic piece of King Edward the Fourth 56 . signed are no half-titles There the section 'Miscellaneous Poems' or to 'King Edward the Third.. The title-page reads POETICAL SKETCHES. 3 . King of Norway Song — ' : ' . Prologue to King John A War Song to Englishmen The Couch of Death Contemplation Samson The little book.' The book is without index or table of literary contents. which are as follows to : Miscellaneous Poems To To To To To To PAGE I Spring Summer Autumn 1 .. Blake's earliest work. . Song: 'Love and harmony combine' I love the jocund dance Song 12 ' ' . hither come Mad Song Fresh from the dewy hill Song When early morn walks forth Song To the Muses Gwin. ByW. fours. privately issued. : . : .. is the only one of Blake's poetical writings. . except the first book of the French Revolution^ which made its appearance in is . 17 18 19 24 36 King Edward the Third.' 10 .. withoctavo demy out publisher's or printer's name.' 14 15 16 ' : . Winter the Evening Star Morning 4 5 6 . 13 * Memory. Fair Elenor Song: Song . B. An Imitation of Spencer Blind-man's Bufif . How ' ' : My 7 sweet silks I and roam'd . then nine quires in contains the title and advertisement : I | | [ ' ' B — K (K^ blank) and paginated 1-70. .

See ' Gwin. and supplied his own yet its ' ' ' ' y ' punctuation. or perhaps Mathew. to which Blake. as might have rendered them less unfit to meet the public eye.Poetical Sketches 3 ordinary type. respect the text of the original edition is exactly reproduced. In every other.' dented B % / . The size of the edition is not stated but it was probably a small one. Norway. his friends have still believed that they possessed a poetical originality. come rolling o'er ' ! are printed : 'Arouse thyself! the nations black. come rolling o'er ' ! In the present edition punctuation is amended and the inlines of the printer abandoned in favour of Blake's own invariable and more artistic alinement. and by no means warrants such violent changes as D. who handed the unbound sheets to the author to dispose of for his own advantage. his ' . G. King of 'Arouse thyself! the nations.' and in the fourth stanza of the Song on p.' The printer. and of it Blake seems to have issued a few copies only. omitted capitals.. The Preface. to be now reproved or confirmed by a less partial public' While the book contains a few obvious as ' ' her ' cares ' for for ' ' his ' ' ears ' misprints. which merited some respite from oblivion. 1-28. Like clouds. has evidently corrected Blake's spelling. The other pieces gives the title 'Miscellaneous Poems. frequently a faulty one. These their opinions remain. such An Imitation of Spencer. and occasionally resumed by the author till his twentieth year since which time. in ' ' general inaccuracy is far less than has been represented. : — 'Advertisement The following Sketches were the production of untutored youth. he has been deprived of the leisure requisite to such a revisal of these sheets. As we learn from Cunningham.' where the lines. 13 . talents having excellence in been wholly directed to the attainment of his profession. it was printed at the expense of Flaxman and Mathew. which was the composition of Mathew. Rossetti's rustling birds of dawn for rustling beds of dawn in the Mad Song. commenced in his twelfth. black Like clouds. ' Conscious of the irregularities and defects to be found in almost every page. while generally respecting Blake's use of 'd or ed where the latter is to be pronounced as a separate syllable. however. The lyrics in Poetical Sketches include the whole of the poems on pp. runs .

with the exception of the Prologue fall ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' * ' ' . W. about 1868. the whole contents of the book. Shepherd in Pickering's editions of 1868 and 1874. 1890). iii. Yeats omits Fair Elinor.' to ' King John verse. The Poems from the Poetical Sketches together with the pieces in the first Appendix give therefore. They clearly belong to the same period as the Poetical Sketches. H. Shepherd makes a few trifling corrections he omits Blake's general heading 'Miscellaneous Poems' and inserts a half-title to King Edward the Third which is not in the original. G. ' ' ' ' ' and Samson which he prints as blank and Yeats follow the Aldine edition. but are supplied in an appendix in order that the reader may be enabled to judge of Blake's first volume in its entirety. they were apparently unknown to D. B.' To Spring. M. Rossetti's Aldine edition. though all Blake's editors arrange them among poems written in a different manner and at a much later date. v.' Gwin of Samson. the publisher.' and Samson. Shepherd the whole book with his customary accuracy. Song by a Shepherd and Song by an Old Shepherd. (fifty copies printed . W. the former printing How sweet I roam'd from field to field. Griggs in May. omitting W. In a second Appendix I have placed two short poems. H.' D. G. Rossetti.Poetical Sketches 4 somewhat outside the scope of this edition.' and the latter the Address to the Muses.' To the Evening Star.' To Summer.' ConThere is an excellent facsimile templation. Basil Montague Pickering.' and selections from scenes i. M.' with a few passages from King Edward the Third. To the Muses. prints separately in 1868 as a supplementary volume to the Songs of Innocence and of Experience. and (as Pickering's copyright) could not be included in W. Rossetti places the pieces in an order of his own and omits the prose. Rossetti. prints six of the eight songs (excluding the two last).' These songs are not printed am.' Blind-man's Buff. First printed by R..' R. where they are placed at the end of the poems from the Pickering MS. in their proper order. in the selection given in Gilchrist's Life. Ellis * ' ' ' ' ' reproduction of the Poetical Sketches by W. and vi of King Edward the Third. Selections from the Poetical Sketches were first given by Malkin and Cunningham. Rossetti and later editors have availed themselves of this excellent text.' the two prologues^ The Couch of Death. M. but were found in Blake's handwriting on the fly-leaves of a copy which was lent to Mr. and together with that work in the edition of 1874.ong the poems in the Poetical Sketches.' Norway.

who lookest down Thro' the clear windows of the morning. pp. curb thy fierce steeds. pour Thy soft kisses on her bosom and put 13 . all our longing eyes are turned Up to thy bright pavillions issue forth. 2. and let our winds let us taste Kiss thy perfumed garments Thy mom and evening breath scatter thy pearls Upon our love-sick land that mourns for thee. Summer. 5 : And let our clime. xxv. hair] Cp. p. 2. O i Spring! The hills tell each other. feet visit thy holy Come o'er the eastern hills. . 9 . . Poetical Sketches. while we beheld With joy thy ruddy limbs and flourishing hair. tell each DGR : 14 soft] softest to each tell EY. 'Abstinence sows sand The ruddy limbs & all over flaming hair. 6 ruddy . ! r. That flames from ! O Oft pitched'st here thy golden tent. Which in full choir hails thy approach. 5 tell pavilion each] do DGR.' 5 . allay the heat their large nostrils thou. O deck her forth with thy fair fingers. To Summer O thou Thy who passest thro' our vallies in i strength. Thy golden crown upon her languish'd head. Book. 7 pavillions] DGR. and oft Beneath our oaks hast slept. MS.POEMS FROM POETICAL SKETCHES To Spring O thou with dewy locks. and the list'ning Vallies hear. turn Thine angel eyes upon our western isle. Whose modest tresses were bound up for thee Poetical Sketches. .

all ! 5 Sing now The narrow bud opens The sun. when noon upon his fervid car Rode o'er the deep of heaven beside our springs Sit down. nor waters clear as heaven. 12 Silk] Thy DGR. Till clust'ring The spirits of the air live on the smells Of fruit and joy. 15 . on Some bank beside a river clear. with pinions light. nor instruments of joy. pass not. Nor laurel wreaths against the sultry heat. And 10 Summer breaks forth into singing. p. . lo : Our vallies love the Summer in his pride. II thy] all DGR. 15 youth] youths DGR. there thou may'st And tune thy jolly voice to my fresh pipe. laden with With the blood of the fruit. and Flourish down the bright cheek of modest eve.' Thus sang the jolly Autumn as he sat Then rose. the daughters of the year shall dance the lusty song of fruits and flowers. and love runs ' her beauties to in her thrilling veins . and rush into the stream . 3. throw thy Silk draperies off. but left his golden load. but Beneath my shady roof. or sits singing in the trees. and stained grape. and o'er the bleak ' . Blossoms hang round the brows of morning. Hills fled from our sight. Our bards are fam'd who strike the silver wire Our youth are bolder than the southern swains Our maidens fairer in the sprightly dance : 15 : : We lack not songs. and in our mossy valHes. feather'd clouds strew flowers round her head.6 Poetical Sketches Beneath our thickest shades we oft have heard Thy voice. Nor echoes sweet. To Autumn O Autumn. girded himself. roves round The gardens. And i sit rest. Poetical Sketches.

. whilst the sun rests angel of the evening. . DGR. 5. Winter Nor bend thy He hears me Rides heavy . Swinb. the mariner Poor little wretch. The curtains of the sky. mount Hecla] and drives the monster Yelling beneath To Mount Hecla to his caves. on the mountains. pillars not. whose skin clings groaning rocks his strong bones.Poetical Sketches To Winter * O bar thine adamantine doors The north is thine. the direful monster. sheathed In ribbed steel For he hath Lo To i : ! Unclothes the earth. there hast thou built thy dark Deep-founded habitation.] whilst thou drawest round dew. 4. . 5. the Evening Star Thou fair-hair'd Now. . and freezes up 9 : hand frail life. 3 bright] brilliant DGR. EY. scatter silver dew.' but o'er the yawning deep I dare not lift mine eyes. light Thy bright torch of love thy radiant crown Put on. — He takes his seat upon the cliffs. ! 13 — Poetical Sketches. and while thou drawest the i . scatter thy 5 . and the monster With storms Is driv'n yelling to his caves beneath mount Hecla. . 1-4 no quotation marks in original. rear'd his sceptre o'er the world. and smile upon our evening bed Smile on our loves. dew. strides o'er the withers all in silence. p. while thou drawest round The sky's blue curtains. and in his He 5 his storms are unchain'd. p. EY. that deal'st Cries in vain. 16 and the monster 15. Shake not thy roofs. . ! now with thine iron car. till heaven smiles. ! Poetical Sketches. 6 while .

DGR. WBY. 7-10. hollow groan ran thro' the dreary vaults. Compare the incident in the first chapter. Soon. silver. and shrieks on meeting what she believes to be the ghost of Conrad.' The Castle of Otranto. . 14 protect . and bring Awake the . And wash the dusk with lo . evidently suggested published in 1765. and looked in. bell struck one. p. full soon. Fair Elenor The The and shook the silent tower. 7 shuts] closes DGR. And The Thy 6 silver] And the lion glares thro' the dun forest with sacred dew: protect them with thine influence. radiant morning. Unlock heav'n's golden gates. Let thy west wind sleep on The speak silence with thy glimmering eyes. r : A The theme of this very juvenile poem was by Walpole's 'Gothic story. Poetical Sketches. and with Thy buskin'd feet appear upon our hills. first . EY. . salute the sun Rouz'd like a huntsman to the chace. where Isabella descends into the vaults of the Castle. that O cometh on waking day. lake. pp. : fleeces of our flocks are cover'd EY then the omit. 12 And the] influence] protect with influence EY. To Morning O holy virgin ! clad in purest white. fair Elenor graves give up their dead Walk'd by the castle gate. scatter thy silver dew On every flower that shuts its sweet eyes In timely sleep. and issue forth that sleeps in heaven let light Rise from the chambers of the east. dawn The honied dew .8 Poetical Sketches Blue curtains of the sky. Swinb. Poetical Sketches. 6. EY.. Dost thou withdraw then the wolf rages wide.

and sunk upon the steps. and strikes in darkness. Sickly smells death issue as from a sepulchre. Stifling in mud. 9 . They And As The By She . 33 . Ellen stood Like a dumb statue. feeling the cold walls with her hands. She On Of And 5 but the sighing vaults.Poetical Sketches 9 shriek'd aloud. Fancy And returns. crying Take this. Howling. like a ghost. Ellen flew over pathless plain . froze to stone with fear. as the arrows that fly night. : the wretch pass'd swift thro' the outer gate wall the o'er the into moat. and howling after Take : — me . and the feet A 17 — Of one that fled. till at her 6 cheeks] cheek house all edd. At length. howling Pale death. . The deed is done The wretch approaches. 13 grinning skulls.' he cry'd wet napkin. all is silent and she revives Chill death withdraws his hand. destruction flies. fled from fear. And. heard a gloomy voice cry ' Is it done ' ? the deer wounded. and follow'd on the wings of fear. 29 arriv'd. leap'd Fair Ellen pass'd the bridge. Amaz'd. and now she thinks of bones and corruptible death and now fancies she hears shroud in his Wrap'd and sees pale sickly ghosts gliding. wrap'd about then rush'd she receiv'd into her arms Past. no fancy but reality Distracts her. approaches. rushing sound. for blood ! and thrust into her arms this. . . A 21 25 . the cold stone her pale cheeks. she finds herself upon her feet. Deep sighs. and send it by whom thou wilt send ' : my It is He 's ' life — send to Elenor it dead. thro' narrow passages Walking.

tenfold 53 And saw Which More terrified. she raised up her head.' 61 I am] 47 eyes] eye Swinb. where erst her lord hath press'd she cry'd Ah. The O 45 and wickedness.] This line is repeated by Blake . yj falls. coward.lo Poetical Sketches Her maids await her on her bed she . cut down breath of heaven dwelt among his leaves. behold all edd. Elenor. sleep to death beware the cursed duke seeks thy love Hired a my it 57 dead . am who. That bed of joy. Disclosing to her sight the murder'd head Of her dear lord. fall'n like weak woman. But he Clouded ' darken'd is like the . summer's noon the stately tree. groan'd. . in her arms she brought and now. . and thus it *0 Elenor. wretched Elenor ' ' ' ! . ' ! Thus having spoke. Her eyes were fix'd the bloody cloth unfolds. the bloody napkin by her side. Who. cursed duke Ah. saw . ! ' : My Of O was ! ! a flower upon the brows Ah. in the night. woe with fill'd 49 . woman's fear Ah. ghastly death lord May lusty like ! 41 ! ! Seek'st thou that flow'r to deck thy horrid temples? ' My was lord like a star in highest heav'n Drawn down to earth My like was lord When spells western winds creep softly o'er the flowers. I am thy husband's head. the opening eyes of day by . sleeping on the stones of yonder Was A 'reft of O Elenor. it unfold itself. all ghastly pale. life. life as frail as flower withdraw thy cruel hand. 68 Hired life. With gory blood. O give not ' He life by the accursed duke hired villain turn'd him thy hand. . bereave spake: tower. 49 summer's] summer Swinb. my dear lord ah. clotted . I 6r ! my ! 65 . now villain to .

is perhaps imitative of the line quoted by him. With sweet May dews my wings And Phoebus fir'd my vocal rage He caught me in his silken net.* Song How sweet And tasted 'Till I Who roam'd from field to the summer's pride. 1 69 . And shut me in his golden cage. golden wing. lo. were wet. And blushing roses for my brow He led me through his gardens fair 5 . Island in the Moon (c. 12 golden cage] Cp. cured of all your pains In Matrimony's Golden cage. According to Malkin (pp. Then. sports and plays with Then stretches out And mocks my my 13 me . xxxvi). the prince of love beheld in the I field i all sunny beams did glide ! He shew'd me lilies for my hair. laughing.' who . . 1785) iii : ' Come & be 9 . Ixxviii). p. in his Descriptive Catalogue : in ' one of bereave ' his as a transitive verb Hath me ' bireft my beauty and my pith. Book. .Poetical Sketches 1 She sat with dead cold limbs. it was written by Blake before the age of fourteen. Poetical Sketches. quotes this poem. and groan'd her last. Blake's use of epigrams on Hayley (MS. stiffen'd to stone She took the gory head up in her arms She kiss'd the pale lips she had no tears to shed She hugg'd it to her breast. loss of liberty. Where all his golden pleasures grow. He loves to sit and hear me sing. xxxiv. from Chaucer. .

2 intwine] entwine all except Shep. 11. 12. p.5 : as cold as clay. an axe and spade. giv'n wintry cold lo ? love's all worship'd all love's pilgrims come. True love doth pass away ! Poetical Sketches. a winding sheet my grave have . And around our souls intwine While thy branches mix with mine. Where Bring Bring is me me When I 6 : is tomb. i smiles and languish'd love are driv'n away By And air. . Chirping loud and singing sweet Like gentle streams beneath our feet Innocence and virtue meet. . .Poetical Sketches 12 Song My My and silks fine array. made Let winds and tempests beat Then down I'll lie 1. Joys upon our branches sit. His face fair is as heav'n When springing buds O why to him was't Whose heart His breast unfold . Song Love and harmony combine. And our roots together join. mournful lean Despair Brings me yew to deck my grave Such end true lovers have. p. Poetical Sketches.

does never 5 fail. All Blake's editors . lay. Poetical Sketches.] make the charm'd nest he doth lay. Beneath the oaken tree. . p. I love the oaken seat. the echoing hill. 5 vale] gale Malk. the jolly swain laughs his fill. And thy lovely leaves among. 9 lot. And among our branches doth 16 her] An obvious misprint for 'his. laugh our sports to see. . air. Where And all 13 the old villagers meet. There There his charming nest doth lay. 13. And where I love I love lisps the laughing vale. play. Where white and brown is our Or fruit in the mid-day hour. 4 And where] Where DGR.' 17 charming necessary correction. is love. There she sits and feeds her young. 9 am clad in flowers fair Thy sweet boughs perfume the And the turtle buildeth there. 17 . r The softly-breathing song. I love the innocent bow'r. . Where innocent eyes do glance. Song I love the jocund dance. There he sleeps the night away There he sports along the day.Thou Poetical Sketches 13 the golden fruit dost bear. I love the pleasant cot. I hear her tongue. DGR. I . Sweet I hear her mournful song 13 . Where mirth And the maiden's tongue.

But. 4 unfold] infold Shep. there The day lie I'll along and dream : And when night To places fit for I'll comes. 14. Sleep. EY. Walking along the darken'd valley With silent Melancholy. I'll pore upon the stream i Memory. WBY. 7 beds] birds . I better love thee And love them I ever shall . . go woe. i And the night is a-cold Come hither. 15 Poetical Sketches. And : 5 Where sighing lovers dream. I'll drink of the clear stream. 15. Poetical Sketches.Poetical Sketches 14 I love our neighbours 17 all. : But lo the morning peeps Over the eastern steeps. Kitty. But thou art all to me. WBY. hear the linnet's song And And 10 . p. p. DGR. And fish for fancies as they pass Within the watery glass. tune your merry notes And. Mad Song The wild winds weep. Son g hither come. And my griefs unfold . while upon the wind Your music floats. enfold WMR. . 5 ! And The the rustling beds of dawn earth do scorn.

haked. 5 like] with Gil.' Mac- ' pherson's Song i Fresh from the dewy hill. Like a fiend in a cloud. Poetical Sketches. 17 Like . feet are wing'd. the merry year car his Smiles on my head and mounts flaming Round my young brows the laurel wreathes a shade. 6 angels'] angel's Gil. Like as an angel glitt'ring in the To 9 sky In times of innocence and holy joy The 5 : . Make weep the eyes of day. p. With howling woe After night I do croud. 16. with night will go I turn my back to the east And 30 . like angels' feet bless those limbs. piping loud. Ossian. . light doth seize With frantic pain. ! lo With sorrow fraught My notes are driven : They strike the ear of night. cloud] Cp. And 15 with tempests play. . joyful shepherd stops his grateful song hear the music of an angel's tongue.' The in picture was probably suggested in Blake's mind by passages 22 From whence] Whence DGR. Gil. . They make mad the roaring winds. while o'er the dewy lawn. beaming with heav'nly light. maiden risen like the morn I meet My my Oh Oh bless those holy feet. . ' Infant Sorrow' in the Songs of Experience: 'Helpless.Poetical Sketches 15 Lo to the vault Of paved heaven. From whence For comforts have increas'd my brain . 12 an] that Gil. 9 Like as] As when . Like a fiend hid in a cloud. And rising glories beam around my head.

where my black ey'd maid tear beneath the silent shade. away the vale darkens at pensive woe. and pensive as I go and bless my pleasing woe. The And To I go. more than mortal fire But that sweet Burns in my soul. Each field seems Eden.1 Poetical Sketches 6 So when she speaks. i When evening sits beneath her dusky bow'r. round if at her side A youth doth walk in stolen joy and pride. Whene'er I enter. breeze. and does my song 13 17 inspire. maid village where my black-ey'd Closes her eyes in sleep beneath night's shade. That made my love so high and me so low. p. to my black ey'd maid I haste away. Each village seems the haunt of holy feet. forgot. Doth drop a I turn Curse my eyes my black Oft when the Whisp'ring . And gently sighs away the silent hour. his limbs I'd tear pity on the burning air e'er I'd curse bright fortune for then I'd die in peace And Poetical Sketches. the voice of Heaven I hear So when we walk. ao . village bell alarms. nothing impure comes near. 15 prove false. and each calm retreat. I curse my stars in bitter grief and woe. . my mixed and be lot. stars summer sleeps among the murmurs to the scanty faint trees. I O walk the village should she And throw all 10 . Song When Then early morn walks forth in sober grey. 17. 5 my that sweet village. .

Or in the chambers of the East. Poetical Sketches. and The needy from their door. 13 you] ye Cunn. and When listen to my song : Gwin. pp. forsaking Poetry! How have you left the antient love That bards of old enjoy 'd in you The languid strings do scarcely move The sound is forc'd.Poetical Sketches To the 1 7 Muses Whether on Ida's shady brow. Whether on chrystal rocks ye rove. Or the green corners of the earth. Over the nations of the North His cruel sceptre bore . 19-23. 15 do] now Cunn. Or the blue regions of the air Where 5 the melodious winds have birth. Gwin. Whether in Heav'n ye wander fair. Kings. Beneath the bosom of the sea Wand'ring in 9 a coral grove. i The chambers of the sun. SAMPSON C drive . i8. that now From antient melody have ceas'd . many Fair Nine. p. the notes are few 13 ! ! ! Poetical Sketches. The Nobles of the land did feed Upon the hungry Poor They tear the poor man's lamb. the son of Nore. 12 Poetry] poesie Cunn. . King of Norway Come.

furious as wolves In the bleak wintry day. the son of Nore. Arouse thyself! the nations. Seeking their nightly food. voice of solemn sound With 9-12 The hill EY. weeping loud. Follow in wild array.1 8 Poetical Sketches The ' land is desolate our wives . ' down Pull the tyrant to the dust. his palace shakes. .' They cry. 33 Gwin. 'and let ten thousand Pay for the tyrant's head. humbled] No quotation marks in original.' From ' O tow'r to tow'r the lives watchmen cry. And children cry for bread Arise. Let Gwin be humbled ! ' ! Gordred the giant rous'd himself From 13 sleeping in his cave shook the hills. and pull the tyrant down 9 . whelps. : . Each. like an awful thunder cloud. come rolling Gwin His o'er * ! rear'd his shield. . Howling like ghosts. roaring abroad. 21 hills] . 25 29 Let Gwin be humbled. black Like clouds. Their cry ascends the clouds The trampling horse and clanging arms Like rushing mighty floods 21 . and in the clouds He The . 17 . troubl'd banners wave. Beneath them roll'd. The num'rous sons of blood Like lions' like tempests black. chiefs come rushing round 37 . ! Their wives and children. Down Bleron's hills they dreadful rush.

C 2 . clashing steel does ring. Like the tall ghost of Barraton 53 Who sports in Gwin leads his host. mellow pipe. Like clouds around him roll'd.Poetical Sketches 19 Like reared stones around a grave They stand around the King Then suddenly each seiz'd his 41 . And spear.' in th' . Gwin all his — hand the nations halt war he cries Prepare Gordred appears his frowning brow ' lifts his ! ! — Troubles our northern The armies Held — ' for 6r . pestilence does fly. thou hast fiU'd thy measure up Thou'rt swept from out the land. 45 . as black as night When With And stormy sky. . a piece from which Blake would also seem to have borrowed the name 'Leutha' in the Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793). ' 53 Barraton] Probably a reminiscence of 'Berrathon' in : Macpherson's Ossian. like balances 65 — Almighty's hand Gwin. horses and with chariots — 57 spearmen bold March to the sound of mournful song. The husbandman does leave his plow To wade thro' fields of gore The merchant binds his brows in steel. stand. And 49 sounds the trumpet shrill The workman throws his hammer down To heave the bloody bill. And leaves the trading shore The shepherd leaves his . skies.

69 . ! The god of war is drunk with blood The earth doth faint and fail The stench of blood makes sick the 93 . seen raging afar. 81 . sea of blood nor can the eye See to the trembling shore A . '&' like sheep they die. rolls sick. ! ! EY. ! And on the verge of this wild sea Famine and death doth cry The women and cries of Over the field The King With doth of babes fly. Ghosts glut the throat of hell O what have Kings to heav'ns answer for Before that awful throne When thousand deaths for vengeance cry. of might is men all his 77 . and groans and shakes 73 To drink her children's gore.20 Poetical Sketches And now the raging armies rush'd Like warring mighty seas The Heav'ns are shook with roaring war. The dust ascends the skies ! Earth smokes with blood. . . . Like blazing comets scattering death Thro' the red fev'rous Beneath arm his nierht. 80 doth] do WMR. And Now death is Labour and Steed Sunk 85 . and shield on in this sea 89 . and riven men toil for life on steed. groan upon the plain The battle faints. of strife shield. and bloody men Fight upon hills of slain. And ghosts accusing groan 78. 97 .

ababbcbcB. roll'd their Into the northern sea Who fled. Blake's successive attempts are: ababbcbcc. to Spenser. . This piece has not the air of being one of Blake's earUest efforts. aiabbcbB. Like these did Gwin and Gordred meet. blood 113 . that thro' i And wash my earthy mind in thy clear streams. Title] All edd. Golden Apollo. and truth's beams. 24-26. and overwhelm'd pleasant south country. Poetical Sketches. For them the eagles The river Dorman The An mourn'd strive. ababbcbcb. And the first blow decides Down from the brow unto the breast Gordred his head divides 105 Gwin fell the Sons of All that remain'd alive 109 . Representing the Spenserian stanza by the formula ababbcbcC. and ababbcbcbB—aW different all wrong. 2 truth's] truth his alledd.Poetical Sketches Like blazing comets That shake the 21 the sky in loi stars of light. his sons. ababbabb. In lucent words my darkling verses dight. Imitation of Spencer heaven wide Scatter'st the rays of light. . That wisdom may descend in fairy dreams. And when thou yields to night thy wide domain. pp. Which drop like fruit unto the earth Thro' the fierce burning night . 8 yields] yield'st correct Spencer all edd. 5 All while the jocund hours in thy train Scatter their fancies at thy poet's feet . Let rays of truth enlight his sleeping brain. in spite of its metrical faults. ! Norway : The rest did fill the vale of death.

one 13 leesing nurse] Read. yet in his rude affray. around Plumes his wide wings. of the sky. And o'er the surface of the silent deep dost fly 25 : thou arrivest at the sandy shore Where nought but envious hissing adders dwell. lo might thee assay to dash thy nervous verse. 15 20 Dost mount And thro' Heav'n's halls thy airy flight dost throw. Can charm to harmony with potent spell.e. correct who this ndsprinifor ears. assist my lab'ring sense That round the circle of the world wou'd As the wing'd eagle scorns the Of Alpine hills round his high And searches thro' the corners 35 fly. And judge of tinkling rhimes and elegances terse. and seeks Sol's palace high. 15 C2X&%\ All edd. thrown on the dusty floor. like a falling star. that with winged brow aloft into the yielding sky. i. from autumn sky. Such is sweet Eloquence.Poetical Sketches 22 For brutish Pan in vain With tinkling sounds Sound without sense . bosom'd in an amber cloud. with all holds her charge in a lease or leash. O Mercury. And cause in sweet society to dwell Vile savage minds that lurk in lonely cell. Mercurius. tow'ry fence aery. . laden with eternal fate. Then. is And And thou. Sports in the clouds to hear the And see the winged lightnings as they fly. 19 brow] bow all edd. Entering with holy feet to where on high Jove weighs the counsel of futurity. thunder's sound. For which himself might deem him ne'er the worse To sit in council with his modern peers. Thy golden rod. leasing nurse. dost go Down. Blake's editors. 40 Then. Folly's leesing nurse (For ignorance love of Folly needs none other's curse) Midas the praise hath gain'd of lengthen'd cares. that does dispel If Envy and Hate that thirst for 30 human gore.

kiss'd the ground. blear-ey'd Will the black lot holds. the waves of battle move? Where. 50 Or have thy soft piteous eyes beheld The weary wanderer thro' the desert rove? Or does th' afflicted man thy heav'nly bosom move? Blind-man's BufF When silver Snow decks Susan's cloaths. Shepherd' (Appendix * II) : — When And 15 griev'd the chance. Minerva. heap The oaken log lay on the fire it . ' . silver snow decks Sylvia's clothes. The blushing bank is all With hearth so red. 26-28. the terrors of Almighty Jove. like the sea. for Jenny her ! red. I. jewel hangs at shepherd's nose.Poetical Sketches And O thou. tir'd of chat. falling. with side-long glance hob-nail Dick. 2 nose] Compare the opening lines of When . She blush'd so At Of poor fool who Blind-man's Buff they each incumbrance clear the hall And call — . The well-wash'd stools. maiden terrible. silken 'kerchief folds. The laughing jest. . Roger from Dolly twitch'd the She. Lov'st thou to walk the peaceful solemn grove. and my i care. a circling row. Arm'd with 23 warrior maid invincible. The lasses prick the lads with pins ! 10 . 45 Pallas. ' 20 Song by an Old . And jewel hangs at th' shepherd's nose. the love-sick tale. But now stool. come. In solemn gloom of branches interwove? Or bear'st thy Egis o'er the burning field. how fair the show The merry can of nut-brown ale. walls so fair * Heap the sea-coal. With lad and lass.' 3 blushing bank] chimney nook DGR. . 5 higher. the game begins. 'Till. Poetical Sketches. pp.

Kitty. 40 Roger. to be the sense intended by the faulty : Kitty. and WBY . repeats the rhymes. Must.Poetical Sketches 24 Now laughing stops. now Roger so near thee She catches him — WMR. arms. extended wide. between O woe betide slips : — ' — ' but titt'ring Kate Thee. For thro' the slender cloth he sees. now! what chance Roger so near thee trips. surer bound. I vow ! ' : 'Now. with And Peggy Pout gives The Blind-man's Sam ' Silence Sam hush ! ' ! a push. I vow hast thou. unskill'd in art. dodging round. now what chance hast thou. I vow She catches him then Roger ties His own head up but not his eyes. Roger so near thee. Kitty. — ! — ' : * " Now. now! what chance hast thou! I vow Roger so near thee trips She catches him ! Shep. '' ! ' : Kitty. . pursues the chace. Now. ' ! 29-31 Now . Roger so near thee Trips. go thro' thy part Now Kitty. EY. still he sees ' O — Grace cries softly thou. him] This seems punctuation of the original ' Now. . I vow She catches him '"Now. who slips with ease ' ! — ! — — ' ! His clumsy hold and. . pert. And Roger turns him round three times. now what chance hast thou.' is. . And runs at Sam. ! ! . clumsy Will Is pen'd up in the corner strait ! 25 ! And now Will's eyes beheld the play He thought his face was t'other way. Sukey is tumbled on the ground See what it is to play unfair . Kitty. Trips She catches him — DGR reads . what chance trips. — I ' hast thou? " . ! 30 35 — ' ! Where cheating But Roger ' ' He sees there's mischief there.

around. Who Stand 60 of the game. and ran With hood-wink'd chance sure of his man ' ' ! But down he came. But Kitty hasted with a key. 70 . Such are the fortunes And those who play By wholesome laws should stop the same such as all those . And down his back they strait convey The cold relief. Then cries out Hem Hodge heard. — —Alas. on the blinded man impose in his stead When men were . how soon they fail With crimson drops he stains the ground ! Confusion startles .Poetical Sketches Then pauses ere he starts — but 25 Dick Was mischief bent upon a trick Down on his hands and knees he 45 . And And 65 . fain would cure the hurt he made And 55 . a nation grown. . till wantonness liberty began t' increase. the blood is stay'd. first Lawless they liv'd. as. 57 hasted] hastens DGR. long a-gone. one man lay in another's way Then laws were made to keep fair play. all Poor piteous Dick supports his head. And Hodge again holds up his head. 65 as] So DGR. how 50 frail Our best of hopes. lay- Directly in the Blind-man's way.

Lord Percy. the twisted mail. Let Liberty. That death can never ravish from thy brow. common Peter Blunt. And yelling death runs up and down the ranks. PERSONS. but without variorum readings in footnotes. Sir Thomas Dagworth. Soldier. King Edward. We And like the fetter'd. spring to battle o'er the floods of death these fair youths. Enerve my soldiers let Liberty Blaze in each countenance. Queen Philippa. i ! And forged helm. thou. The enemy fight in chains. my son. invisible chains. King Edward and Nobles O before it. 29-70) containing the blank verse and prose pieces following the Miscellaneous Poems. William. be strong thou fightest for a crown 17 21 . A crown of glory but from thy very dust — beam a radiance. a Sir Walter Manny. ! Vent'ring their lives in my most righteous cause. 13 ? mounting flame.' Reprinted from the original edition. whose fury the nations are King. the charter'd right of Englishmen. Sir John Chandos. the cries of blood tear horror from heav'n. when the field is in a flame. the flow'r of England. Won by our fathers in many a glorious field. Dagworth's Man. 9 . how then but heavy can they be free . and shield of seven times beaten brass. The Black Prince. to fire the breasts Of youth unborn. And thou.APPENDIX I TO THE POETICAL SKETCHES [The latter portion of Poetical Sketches (pp. and fire the battle. Duke of Clarence. The letters. But as dust. The Coast of France. and spear. Bishop. SCENE. that they May emulate their fathers' virtues. Are idle trophies of the vanquisher. Lord Audley. maintain thy servant's right Without thine aid. When When 5 confusion rages. O sheathe their hearts with triple steel. to The Army.] ' KING EDWARD THE THIRD. Their minds are While. and to make them shine with gold 25 . Our names are written equal 'tis ours to gild In fame's wide trophied hall Shall .

\He here knights the Prince. Is in his hand to whom all men are equal. [^Exeunt. The world of men are like the num'rous stars That beam and twinkle in the depth of night. Whom . Queen Philippa I And my My My task . My Lords. Or ev'n the least by birth. let Brave Lords. And where And separate march. while my father Toils in his wars. perhaps home. 49 I i Sovereign. At By A 45 country not yet sown with destruction. noble Harcourt. throng'd with shining spires 9 With And corded ships. and turns his eyes on this 5 His native shore. and those that once were bright. the arts of peace are great. her merchants buzzing round Like summer bees. may so advance advance 37 : at twinkle in their That the astonish'd world. Bishop .Appendix I That never tarnishes 27 whether Third Edward. Ditke of Clarence . Lords. Regardless of the moon. my burden heavier than is unfledg'd years . 41 Stand only for to gaze upon their splendor. Each clad in glory according to his sphere But we. the fiery whirlwind of swift war Has not yet swept its desolating wing. Yet. with uptum'd eyes. Thanks. but join again at night Each knows his rank. all. : 29 33 . Glory may not be dimm'd with clouds of care. Grow larger as we The most obscure To and some. call'd you together. Lords . you would recommend us agriculture? And Sweet Prince.l Now us take a just revenge for those who fell beneath the bloody axe Paris. Or the Prince of Wales. and all the golden cities In his land overflowing with honey. for 'twas your advice we landed here in Brittany. Lords. 13 ? 17 . or Mortimer. no less glorious than those of war. and sees commerce fly round his white wings. that scarce were seen sphere. with your kind assistance. and other young Nobles. Say. my Parent Clarence. have by the advice of her am doubly bound to obey. or Montacute. and Heav'n marshal English Court. that. shall gain the brightest fame. great. I hope England shall dwell in peace . should not our thoughts be first to commerce My Lord Bishop. ifc. SCENE. and sees his golden London And her silver Thames. Bishop. that wander from our native seats And beam forth lustre on a darkling world. Lionel. Into three parties we divide by day.

which is the favour of your company. I hope their Lordships will excuse your giddiness. I ask your leave To If dine to-morrow with the I obtain your leave. My 29 tho' the child of Agriculture. And England is the land favour'd by Commerce . a private man. These are my thoughts yet it were best But keep a proper dignity. the French have fitted out many ! Small ships of war. Infest our English seas. as I man's heart 25 will bring forth fruit. Clar. 'tis sometimes with princes as o'er. that lacketh bread. my dear Lord. My thoughts are on my gardens and my How employ the hand to 21 fields. And gain but scanty fare. true wisdom drops From your tongue. Religion will flourish . Or they are never rightly valued. like to ravening wolves. Pick'd up. My Lords. Lordi Thou hast a gallant which fear 57 Will be imposed on by the closer sort. thoughts take in the gen'ral good of the whole. And grant his favours with a sparing hand. 33 like honey as from a worship'd oak. Fie. \Aside. fear Lord Percy will not give me leave. my If Industry is in diocese. When I sit at my home. Forgive. Then you will give Clar. devouring all Our burden'd vessels. Then. and beg our aid. Percy. Sir. I Mayor of London 41 : have another boon To I ask. Clar. Well. Looking to the gain of this O my Clar. private duty and council with my my sit in pleasure. For Commerce. who else must sweat and toil. each and Is cultivated This is my But. Now. My me leave to shine sometimes. spirit. Lord. we grow weary 53 Of his officious glory. and we. as tradesmen. that. Dear 45 a prince should always keep his state. The merchants do complain. Fie. Lord Clarence you proceed not But speak of your own pleasures. Fosters his parent. for now : You to go 49 : represent the sacred person of Your If not father.clouded. Be England's trade our care . good Lord. 6r to business. but what I have concluded from your lessons. that speaks what my narrow observation has Lords.Poetical Sketches 28 Perhaps more glorious in the philosophic mind. I'll endeavour to take Lord Percy's advice I have been used so much To dignity that I'm sick on't. by the Queen's advice. I . 'tis with the sun. 37 my talkative youth. my Not merely our native land. 65 69 . Queen Phil. spoiling our naval flocks. prince.

brave Sir Thomas Smiles on our army. These rovers : defend themselves against this is a noble scheme. Did you ere see him fear? At Blanchetaque. and the gallant sun Springs from the hills like a young hero . fear that made him fight so. me your hand. Aud. I I 5 : Why. Good morrow. Lord Percy cannot mean that we should suffer This disgrace if so. By the same reason That makes you fight. Audley. is wise 93 Quickly to the Lord Mayor. the merchants She was seated His mighty in the 81 . shaking his golden locks this is a promising day. 97 Queen Phil. Yes. Aud. brave Lord Percy you have the thanks Of England's Queen. that Heaven gave Bish. Exultingly Dagw. on which cast I'll set But my whole we estate. — Aud. Thanks. Lord Audley. I might say 'tis 9 13 fear . roar. . and you shall see They 73 will bestir themselves. and as worthy His generous aid to put it into practice. ere long. and may but how to gain 29 . Ha. and work him onward To this most glorious voyage . and now I'll tell you what think you do not know. my Lord. if the heart is sick. and will. Requires our countenance and help. my Lord. will bring these Gallic rovers under. I dare not own the plan. Can they not help themselves ? Bish. the brave Lord Percy. they will: Percy. Edward 's afraid of Philip. Let them but suffer awhile. Must be aggriev'd The heart doth fail. we are not sovereigns Of the sea our right. When almost singly he drove six thousand French from the ford. of England. 'Tis not Mine. the head if but one member suffer. Can. Yet will I. 77 : — To England. their will . You say. In you . 85 . At Sir Cressey. my Lord morn don't know. when at the birth of nature deep the Ocean ceas'd and fawning play'd around Her snowy feet. SCENE. did he fear then? Dagw. They can. if you please. if they will. Ha. \Exeunt. what was rash in me Percy. Thomas Dagworth and meeting. the bright Into the battle. and own'd his awful Queen. When that they find they must. 89 Worthy Lord Bishop.I Appeitdix The merchants are rich enough Percy. Sir Thomas you but joke Give I ! . Lord Percy.

then I will say He is afraid : : it he makes us cannot bear the Now here we are I enemy at face. have not heard. . 'tis very catching. For. fears to turn his face. Chand. And this. Sir Thomas. : 29 . you are a wise man. . Lord Audley. Welcome And wait Dagw. : 45 for Philip. know you understand me a distemper ! ? . Sir Thomas. brave man totters. Aud. O I have seen him fight And give command. His back. and lightning has flashed From his eyes across the field I have seen him Shake hands with death. perhaps he takes it by fits. Generals I give you joy Here we stop. at Cressy my . noble Chandos. 17 to his face. Dagw. like the youth at morrice play. till we shall burn our skirts. Enter Sir John Chandos. That Edward runs away from Philip. bell-weather is tainted. To-morrow we shall know. and you to turn your back. fear a different kind then from the King's. He is a young lion. and strike a bargain for The enemy he has danc'd in the field Of battle. Chandos. Good morrow. Is of He do not think. what distemper Distemper. No one can say he fears. And.Poetical Sketches 30 look upon Edward's But -when he turns Mayhap you may Dagw. so I is 61 the cause. Sir Thomas The Prince may I Chand. you say you have caught it too. Of having my back laid open we turn Our backs to the fire. Why. There. I say. One rotten And if the sheep spoils the whole flock 49 . nor none. to the fields of Cressy. And so will the whole army. Sir Thomas. Attd. I hope so. I Dagw. and I am very much afraid. Dagw. look you here. when the coward runs. Perhaps you think the Prince too is afraid? Dagw. Sir Thomas. do you call that fear? I don't know. Aud. None of us but me. France of running away. Are you afraid too. Sir Thomas? I believe that as much as I believe The King's afraid but what are you afraid of? 25 ! . No God forbid I'm sure he is not. 21 where to-morrow. I'm sure he's not afraid. you call fear? Your 37 . strive against 57 it . nor Warwick. I wish not catch the distemper too. 33 : Dagw. Why. the The King caught here 53 in Perhaps the air of the country I feel it coming upon me. you I know what fear 41 is. all afraid. back. And.

65 Here comes the King himself: tell him your thoughts Thomas. while you can fight as you did at Sir King. Therefore King. Makes him Enter King Edward and Black Good morrow. my courage shrunk and wither'd. Down goes But we are our right to when . Chand. And in each countenance the soul of war Curb'd by the manliest reason. I 93 have a small petition to your Majesty. Dagw. The Ford. and my voice scarce heard. but. refuse? 97 hope your Majesty cannot refuse so great A trifle I've gilt your cause with my best blood. Dagw. Ne'er shouted to the Heav'ns. That 10 r Thomas. To be plain. my still 'tis glory. Can 89 Your Grace had Dagw. were I not forbid By him whom I am bound to obey: my hands Are tied up. Sir would not have sooner parted with Than such a soldier as you have been. And would again. When I have seen the field glow. nor shook the field. was I 85 have been wing'd inspir'd these brave troops. with respect and deference I look 8r Upon such noble souls. friend : 109 . I . what you could have ask'd. and wish myself Worthy the high command that Heaven and you Have given me. Sire. Generals King. I think retreating Too often takes away a soldier's courage. . Edward. I I beg know I may not return to England. Plainly. all Thomas Dagworth. My sinews slacken'd. Them better make Generals.Appendix I You yet are whole we Retreats. Prince. Sir Thomas Dagworth ask that Edward What can King. With And By certain victory be shall and . I will know the most remote particulars Of this your strange petition that if I can I still may keep you here. Prince. and such a Nay. having such examples. France. Such an army of heroes 73 . 69 deaf. I've told him before. I my boast. English courage fails. you must have your joke. but his disorder Sir Dagw. nothing conquerors every where Can stand our soldiers each man is worthy Of a triumph. my son. . having such command the man 77 * : Were who were base not fir'd to deeds Above heroic. 105 I . And shall. after a few more know how to retreat all shall — 31 Better than fight. thou art Most happy.

astonish'd at the clam'rous Cock . fearful Crane springs from the splashy fen. Now. Crane o'ertaken fighteth with the Hawk.' Last night. 153 me . The The The The The The 125 shining Snake glides o'er the bending grass. Then I can never be afraid of Philip. Else he would never dare to attack us. King. Eagle. plum'd. the fields of Cressy we are settled Philip springs the tim'rous covey again.' Welchman with I pass'd by 157 . your Majesty's afraid of Philip. reap rich harvest Then go And 129 if to England. that doth gaze upon the sun. Snake doth turn. and I am as light As the young bridegroom going to be married. And You I : hope And and see us you'll stay. undone by such the effect : 121 flight. and thinks we flee from him. Sir Thomas. are more like a Lion than a Crane Therefore I beg I may return to England. And we will sing like the young housewives busied must flight. us. tim'rous Stag starts from the thicket wild. Negro in the crevice of the rock at this The The Doth seize the soaring Eagle They tame submit . If all my soldiers are as pleas'd as you. Which often plays with Wisdom for its pastime. has flight Now hear its opposite. And brings good counsel from the breast of laughter. for another battle. Dagw. The If. Now my heart dances. Dog doth seize the Wolf. Now the quarry's set! and Death doth sport is Philip 141 In the bright sunshine of this fatal day. the Forester the Lion. Wolf is hunted down by causeless fear. but not an please your grace. candle half Burn'd out he answer'd. Startled. get my feet are wing'd. 'Twill be a gallant thing to fight or die . hearts on set all in tell fight this battle. Fears the small fire that plays about the fen. new plume our helms. my soldiers. 117 moment of their idle fear. now I understand your mirth. he was ' pig enough To light another pattle. A raw-bon'd fellow t'other day told him to put off his hungry looks — He answer'd me. Furbish our armours bright. beneath . On noble souls. and fear usurps 113 his heart. I Dagw. and bite the padding foot.Poetical Sketches 32 Here on Dagw. 'Till The The Lion flees. Now 145 them ready. ' I saw a I told him he look'd little hunger like a a fiery face . fight. the fields of Cressy them how fire to 133 be with we 137 . In the dairy For to I 149 : King. Stag turns head and bays the crying Hounds.

and build himself a hut. Thy heart richer than the vales of France is with such a man as thee. ! I 205 Lead them on to battle I see thee blow thy golden trumpet. . he'll shake Off sloth. in hope still 'Til! . into ardour. to think he's a free agent. glory fires his breast to enlarge his castle While the poor slave drudges all day. And hath the is a genuine Englishman. And wing their brows with hope and expectation Then to our tent return. 197 . Thou'dst laugh his fury into nerveless shame I 169 . and wish'd health to his father. and meet to council. face of the earth. Give but a slave his liberty. I chid them both. the weak inspire. Sir John I think Englishmen the bravest people on Forgive My The . and all were still I heard a blooming youth singing a song He had compos'd. and hedge A spot of ground this he'll defend 'tis his By right of nature thus set in action. Teach man 193 my Lord. : 173 ! 177 will not part Go now. That man's a hero in his closet.Appendix I The moon walk'd abroad. These are the minds that glory in the battle. O Liberty. that see what's done within. Thomas Dagworth. : He will move onward to plan conveniences. 185 . sons shout the strong shout of victory ! noble Chandos. with Thy wide-stretch'd plumes . And leap and dance to hear the trumpet sound. . Courage. ' 165 Another wept. Liberty within him. be thou near our person Sir King. how glorious art thou see thee hov'ring o'er my army. proceeds from self-dependence. And shook his mortal dart against my head. all May He Prince. think thyself a gardener. and Confirm the strong with strength. In that enlarged breast of his. when 33 had pitch' d Their tents. my Chandos. 189 spirit of my prejudice. and more A hero to the servants of his house Than to the gaping world he carries windows 181 : \ExH Dagworth.' I all i6i . but gave them noble hopes. Chand. he should wed a maiden Fairer than snow. while . if he Return'd victorious. Chand. enflame the timorous. The ditty was. and rich as midsummer. Thy O SAMPSON D 209 . I see thee King. for thou art suited to the Throughout the camp Blow up the sluggish work. If Philip came arm'd in the ribs of death. To 20I rest at night. and at each pause he wip'd His dropping eyes.

and guide Th' ambitious tendrils in the paths of wisdom My Thy : . 221 into the burning air. Methinks I see them perch on English crests. thou seest my weakness strong nature Will bend or break us my blood. are posting up and down. in her Frail bark. dear son learn to think lowly of ! — Thyself. Chandos. Seizes the fruits of time. 245 : Or but expected as a Age is contemplative Brings forth fruit to thing of course. And may our duty. Come. as we may all each prefer other Tis the best policy. You are a man. and want of use Use makes the armed field and noisy war Pass over as a summer cloud. and 'tis our duty. It is my In truth I am too full 229 . \Exeunt Prince. us down. 233 : . Chandos. sin to love the noise of war. 253 of thought. arm my gallant soldiers. . son a vine. Are tir'd set. swOrd upon each thigh. room. Roams round vast Nature's forest. and string each stubborn bow. Does rise so high to overflow all bounds Of moderation while Reason. till may have tir'd at length. Chand. 1 . Commission'd to this fatal f^eld of Cressy. I will unburden. the strongest sated and tired the changing sameness. the swiftest Find prey With We . take the helm. where no bounds Then. my Edward. Methinks the shout begins. old variety. attacks experience. and findeth discontent. 249 each rolling year the mind's treasure-house: While vacant youth doth crave and seek about Within itself. which I commit unto care prune all extravagant shoots. impatient takes the wing. 237 : 241 : am a coward in my reason. That plays with danger as the inndcent child Unthinking plays upon the viper's den . . my prince. That my full-blown sails overset me not In the wild tempest condemn my 'ventrous youth. And breathe my hopes Where thousand deaths 217 King Edward. Sir John. Now we are alone. and a brave man. like a springtide. And roar the wild flame of fierce war upon The thronged enemy. unregarded. but your heat If I can judge of actions Is the effect of youth. can see no shore or bound for vast Ambition. And. 213 Water him with thy advice and Heav'n Rain fresh'ning dew upon his branches. the battle burns. Methinks And see them I gird the 225 And dance to the neighing of our steeds. and fit Each shining helm. my Chandos. and view our former joys sit 257 .Poetical Sketches 34. be our pleasure. Chandos.

We And oft the stander-by Of th' other's labour. It is it. and keep Sweet symphony to feather'd angels. Sir? Dagw. William a root that grows in every breast . Shall warble round the snowy head. and leave them all forlorn Yet not forlorn if Conscience is his friend.Appendix I With and distaste Prince. What is the tree you mentioned ? I don't think Dagw. tn Sir Thomas Dagworth' s Tent. dislike. nor pleasure sits With trembling age. the growth of ev'ry clime. beat round Nature's wilds. if Then. but the oaks are not. I shall with pleasure view a glorious action . . and cut a path into the heaven of glory. But do you not think. Are finer than any we have in England. I know That youth has need of age to point fit prey. and taste and touch and sight and sound and smell. Will. D 2 ? . 269 shall steal the fruit This is philosophy. Dagw. Let us not fear to And rouze the strongest prey then if fall with glory. Dagw. 293 \Exeunt. Sir John. that if it please Th' Almighty to stretch out my span of life. Chandos. I ever saw Dagw. I know the wolf : we fall. 289 pulse Beat slow. Is it a little creeping root that grows in ditches Thou dost not understand me. good Nor is the hide a comely vestment so have our battle for our pains. Aye. These are the tricks of the world but the pure soul Shall mount on native wings. Will. 26t we must tug for experience. Then it grows most in France the vines here Will. the voice of Conscience 385 then. Will. Does it grow in England. Leaving a track of light for men to wonder 373 at. Shall flee away. views motives. it grows most in lands most cultivated. 377 when 38t my Lord. Dagworth and Bring hither my armour. . not dangerous 35 265 for food. . neither warbling voice Nor trilling pipe is heard. Williayn his Man. Which my youth Chand. sitting As guardians round your chair then shall the . We Is to fight. not acts . And master'd? Considerate age. Sweeter than music in a summer's eve. I'm glad my father does not hear me talk You can find friendly excuses for me. SCENE. Ambition is . disdaining Little sport. That sing and dance round Reason's fine-wrought throne. William. Ambition. Aye.

and to know that little wrong of course . Now Will. Dagw. art there's a story you'll give me come into my head. . there's as . if ambition is a sin. have a great ambition to . yet I you that it was ambition. guilty in in fighting for him. Then. William. an endless moralist. William. in any pursuit after glory I don't thinlc you have any of it. And who is this minstrel. set in rich gold. Peter. Peter. Tho' the knowledge of that will not profit thee much. and fitted to the finger of an emperor. Sir. and the Prince has made the minstrel a 'squire. O — thank you. your information. . for all our blood and bones are in France and a great deal more that we shall all hear by and by and I came to tell your honour. Then. . song about the French and English. as we have run our argument. and given him I don't know what. without knowing Thou Dagw. William. dost know? aye. And whoever Will. Sir. that we may be remembered in Old England. such is that worthy Chandos. Dagw. Will. . tell . Will. what follows must all be 'tis best to know a little. Will. have I I . he has got the same name as Sir John Chandos. But when our first ideas are wrong. Dagw. Yes. Only remember. all have it in their power to know the motives of their own actions. war-songs. honour if acts without reason may do a great deal of harm it. only e'nt so good natur'd. guilt being an act of the mind. I should be glad to know if it was not ambition that brought over our King to France to fight for his right? Dagw. will tell Will. Thou art a natural philosopher. that I will tell j'our leave.Poetical Sketches 36 Ambition Has But is the desire or passion that one man to get before another. this is no time for No. . and I can't tell whether he don't mention us all one by one and he is to write another about all us that are to die. that the prince is always with the wise man that knows us all as well as your honour. Now. Enter Peter Blunt. but not for your much difference between him or shining glass and me as between glittering sand and fruitful mold and a wrought diamond. none are guilty but those whose minds are prompted by that same ambition. and 'tis a sin to act without some reason. know every thing. Yonder 's a musician going to play before the King it's a new Peter. I forgot to tell that . which is for not true. and we are all coming with him. thou dost thrust the question home but I must you that. Dagw. save it till another time but here comes one who is as entertaining as a good Dagw. because you love to hear . I always thought that a man might be guilty of doing wrong without knowing it was wrong. Peter. Now. aright. I compliment. Dagw. story-telling : story. while reason runs aground. and knowest truth by instinct .

you or Sir Walter. Peter. even from the lips of a babbler. palms of victory. seems to me as pale As the pale fainting man on his death-bed. lie and rot. destruction How many 9 is sleep 13 In earth. terrors are round The curtains of their Ready at the door. answering his hard demands. flattery is delicious. Sir Thomas Dagworth^ s Dagworih — Filter Sir Walter Sir Walter. you ask'd me if he did not look well when he fell and I said No. \Exeunt. Thousands of souls must leave this prison-house. I Dagw. when we were in England. at . Talking with death. SCENE. beds. have been weeping i Over the men Dagw. Will.Appendix I Peter. but every body else does. he look'd very foolish . Yet death is terrible. It To be exalted to those heavenly 25 fields. Where peace and joy and love and calm content. You mean that I was angry with you for not flattering the Earl of Warwick. \E. in cities' Turning themselves upon their beds. Why you Will. Go.xit Peter. France is sick. I know this I may breathing flesh must fall. and the Earl of Warwick was tumbled over. Where songs of triumph. know your honour I 37. flatter don't know that. Sit singing in the azure clouds. that are to die to-day. and strew Flowers of heaven's growth over the banquet-table. know. does not think any thing of yourself. brave Sir Walter. Dagw. and you was very angry with me for not flattering you. When men sleep in their beds. ai Whose face is shewn by light of sickly taper. get you gone . Cover'd with silence and forgelfulness. Thousands must fall to-day. Where And shake is the gates of hell. How many in walled cities lie and groan. Dagw. Tho' sunshine light it. Sir Thomas Dagworth. Thomas to hint I Manny. at the tournament Windsor. How terrible then 17 the field of death. Dagw. he doth rend the vault of heaven. makes me sad and sick at very heart. walketh about. Sir Tent. O Dagworth. 29 . Sir. and in still night. Death wons 5 smoke. whose spirits walk Upon the clouds of heaven to die no more. How many walk in darkness. cover'd with stones and deathy dust. tho' borne on angels' wings. Resting in quietness. Why. the very sky. never I your honour.

as fire Threatening as the red brow of storms. till this fatal day of Cressy. And blood shall flow like streams across the meadows. In navies black. Heated with war. I'll fight and weep. by light'ning from their dens. \Exeunt. . fall Sir Walter. 4^ soul fainted with these views of death. rattling guns. and the 57 And Let war stain the blue heavens with bloody banners it up I'll draw my sword. 49 53 : smile. Well. Sir Walter. cloath'd in war. The flowers of immortality are blown Let those that And those that fight fight in . of death. her fields shall Her ships shall sing across the foaming sea. That murmur down their pebbly channels. the sun Rolling dark clouds o'er France. I've often seen the burning often heard the dismal clang of arms But never. 'tis in my country's cause. shall rise in victory. nor ever sheath 'Till Or I 6r drum beat. Whose voices are the thunder of the field. And Has my I seem 37 good stedfastness. Her mariners shall use the flute and viol. Whose eyes do glare against the stormy fires).Poetical Sketches 38 33 Bind ardent Hope upon your feet like shoes. seem to hear the dismal yells of death. brave Sir Walter let me drop Then let the clarion of war begin. lay stretch'd upon the field SCENE. to scent the rotten carcases. Stop. let the trumpet sound. Several of the Warriors meet at the King's Tent with a Minstrel. Dagw. service Spend their sweet lives to do their country Then shall England's verdure shoot. Burning up nations in Song: i O 5 your wrath and fury! Your ancestors came from the fires of Troy. Shall be no more. field of war. and shields covered with gore. in the Camp. 65 England blow the trump of victory. broken with wind and tide (Like lions rouz'd : 9 . — ! ! . who sings the following sons of Trojan Brutus. decked in tears. I'll weep and shout for glorious liberty. The table is prepar'd in shining heaven. and black and dreary war. While the black gore drops from his horrid jaws Yet I not fear the monster in his pride But O the souls that are to die to-day a tear. fill'd with the blood of Greeks. With helmets hewn. and I 45 . to And seem be in one great charnel-house. muffling In sickly darkness like a dim eclipse. . Put on the robe of preparation. Grim war shall laugh and shout.

. In the prospectus of 'Works now published and on sale at Mr. Blake's. No. Giants ancient inhabitants of giant bodies] Cp. lean on their spears.' 13 .' October 10. for plenty shall bring forth. inspir'd . . our fathers sit 37 Attentive on the melancholy shore Hear ye the voice of Brutus 'The flowing waves Of time come rolling o'er my breast. Cities shall sing. but they shall roam nor shall the young Like eagles for the prey Crave or be heard. . Dread visages frowning in silent death. . Rain fire into 29 the molten raging sea." he said . 35 Giant voices England.' the first entry in Blake's list of subjects for a history of England (MS. ' This work. and awful pow'rs. The sepulchre of ancient Troy. Price 3s. : — And my Our sons * heart labours with futurity : shall rule the empire of the sea. borne by furious storms. 116). Lambeth. and vales whose in rich fruitful laps 45 array bend down with fulness. no copy of which is known to exist. . and arms. the enormous sons Of Ocean run from rocks and caves wild men. hurling rocks.' is included ' 19. the red lightning. forest. .Appendix I 39 They landed in firm array upon the rocks Of Albion they kiss'd the rocky shore Be thou our mother and our nurse. like oaks entangled Thick as a ready for the axe. p. Like as a forest roars with crackling flames. and thrones. Naked and roaring like lions. the parched heavens Lights on some woody shore When . 41 ' Their mighty wings shall stretch from east to west. And 17 wielding knotty clubs. from whence Shall rise cities. O how oft have they Spoil'd of their verdure. Defy'd the storm that howled o'er their heads 33 ! Our fathers. sweating. Book. would seem to show that Blake engraved these subjects as a companion volume to The Gates of Paradise. 1793. ' Our fathers swarm from the ships. The History of England. and thou shalt be our grave. Giant voices Are heard from the hills. The smoaking trees are strewn upon the shore. 21 . Hercules Buildings. Our fathers move in firm array to battle The savage monsters rush like roaring fire 25 . .' they said Our children's mother. 13. Shall laugh. a small book of Engravings. and view The mighty dead giant bodies streaming blood. Their nest is in the sea. which is described in the same leaflet in identical terms. * . : Then Brutus spoke.

surrounded with shining spears. the flood of Death. families. The stars of heaven tremble the roaring voice of war. stand upon the roaring waves. O land most hapless O beauteous island. how forsaken Weep from thy silver . and her all 57 . and the red scourge follows her desolate sons. Heaven. Round his majestic feet deep thunders roll each heart does tremble. thy Land have done it ! Ministers have done it ! the Prologue to King John Justice hath heaved a sword to plunge in Albion's breast . ' 49 . rivers of death. and the Who can stand of soul When ? and a tongue war When ! l the senses driven to madness. : 53 Their daughters shall sing. Or. Each one buckling on his armour Morning Shall be prevented by their swords gleaming. And Evening hear their song of victory Their towers shall be built upon the rocks. Then Patriot rose full oft did Patriot rise. tow'ring. Albion's breast with her own children's gore. is the souls of the oppressed Fight in the troubled air that rages. Brother in brother's blood must bathe. Stretching her mighty spear o'er distant lands While. O who can stand O who hath caused this O who can answer at the throne of God ? ? 13 ? The Kings and Nobles of Hear it not. she covereth Fair Albion's shore.' Prologue. with her eagle wngs. And fiends of Hell rejoice upon the slain. for Albion's sins are crimson dy'd. . when Tyranny hath stain'd fair .Poetical Sketches 40 Our sons shall rise from thrones in joy. who can stand? 5 When the whirlwind of fury comes from the Throne of God. To drown the throat Are shaken. who can stand Sin claps his broad wings over the When And sails rejoicing in When ? 9 battle. when the frowns of his countenance Drive the nations together. and each knee grows slack. Casting her blue eyes over the green ocean . the trumpet. intended for a Dramatic Piece of King Edward the Fourth O for a voice like thunder. ' Liberty shall stand upon the cliffs of Albion. ! ! . souls are torn to everlasting fire. calls to battle.

that are to fall to-day ! Prepare. . her mariners shall sing upon the sea. 15 Prepare. weep from thy gentle rivers Thy widowed virgins weep beneath thy shades Thy aged fathers gird ! ! ! themselves for war The sucking ! infant lives to die in battle . over the well-fought ? I field. the weeping The husbandman doth leave his Blood cries afar! The land doth sow itself! The bending harvest! The aged senators their glittering youth of courts must gleam in arms ancient swords assume The trembling sinews of old age must work the work of death against their progeny. prepare the iron helm of war. Prepare your arms for glorious victory Prepare your eyes to meet a holy God ! Your ! ! 10 Prepare. prepare. and myriads shall to her temples crowd Her sons shall joy as in the morning Her . I'd die in such a cause. Th' Angel of Fate turns them with mighty hands. O Proud. Bring forth the lots. the noise of shout. ! ! ! daughters sing as to the rising year A War Song to ! Englishmen Prepare. prepare Prepare to meet our fathers in the sky ! . prepare.I Appendix 41 The angel of the island weeps fountains. ? why Methinks faultereth 'tis my mine ! tongue three lives. 5 Prepare your hearts for Death's cold hand prepare souls for flight. though O yet may Albion smile again. and raise her golden head exultingly throng about her gates. prepare. The arrows of Almighty God are drawn ! Angels of Death stand in the low'ring heavens Thousands of souls must seek the realms of light. Her citizens shall peaceful arms. arm. prepare ! Our cause is Heaven's cause Be worthy of our cause Soldiers. And walk together on the clouds of heaven ! ! 20 Prepare. "Whose Why Had And fatal scroll is that sinks my heart. is smitten. with ghosts. for Tyranny hath stretch'd his purple mother feeds him for the slaughter! ! ! 'the chariots and the horses. Soldiers. thou shalt be humbled thy cruel brow. : : Prepare. 25 . thine iron heart. your bodies for the earth . and stretch her lingering Fate is slow. O troops. cast in the spacious orb . rise. And casts them out upon the darken'd earth i ! Prepare. prepare. and 'blood' he cries and dreadful thunder of the battle heard afar I' Beware. prepare.

Clerk. trees such an evening. I know but little of the path thou goest. how should I raise mine eyes ? My voice hath used deceit. O my child." steps. alone and comfortless wind the is Parting valley. when ' is asleep. and black-brow'd Edward. and said.Poetical Sketches 42 Alfred shall smile. I stretch it out ? My ways are sinful. His voice was low as the whisperings . far . where no fall thick ! ! . when the cold clay breathed with life. of the woods drops trickle down. there is Horrors stare me in the face upon me no returning Death follows after me. without a lantern to direct Thus he laments through the still my me. by the brooks is thy of water. . breath infected? So is mine. ' O my son. rustling and the owl and bat flew round the darkening in brakes and thickets In former times. As the deer wounded. : youth. and the visions of Heaven unfold their visitation. man's voice to his friends. I walk in regions of Death. and the learned rejoice . with His loyal queen shall rise. ! I look behind. there stretch out thy hand to Him. like lilies dropping tears in each other's bosom. who made the world how should a from heard a voice like sepulchre. . when the few inhabitants cling trembling together as the voice of the Angel of Death. when the evening they stood by the bed like reeds bending over a lake. replied. between the O for a hand to pluck Beneath me burns eternal fire world and is ! ! eternity As the voice of an ! ! me forth ' ! omen heard in the silent valley. sin covers me as a O my dear friends. Like the sound of a broken pipe. and our ancestors. ' face in the dust. walked on the stedfast globe. who now sleep in their graves. I loathsome. and welcome us And ! 30 Prepare. tree is . my son. that dwellest in my breast. pray ye for me Stretch forth your hands that cloak. Like the bubbling waters of the brook in the dead of night. how should he not be offended ? If lay my the grave opens its mouth for me . on all is silent when Nature takes her repose.' The youth is a God. how should I call on Him who is Truth ? My breath drawn. the aged woman raised her cry. the remains of a family of the tribes of Earth. sinful my helper may come Through the void space I viralk. so the arrows of sin stick in my flesh . can I not cry. and Silence reposed in the valley the birds of day were heard in their nests. and make his harp The Norman William. the aged woman raised her voice. prepare. when the thin beams of the moon give a faint light such was this young . . But lo. my child. Lion Heart. without a staff to support till the curtains of darkness were evening. I seem to walk through a deep hard and death is terrible The damps of death from the light of day. a mother and a sister. another's necks alternately. The Couch The veiled of Death Evening walked solitary down the western hills. the poison hath entered . My hand is feeble. 'O Voice. if I lift up my head. were gathered to Sorrow linked them together leaning on one the sick bed of a . and lift my eyes to Heaven? Thinking of this my spirit is turned within me into confusion.

that with unerring step dares tempt the wilds. Even in childhood. my flesh is a prison.' and down house steps and in the when I grew up : . where. ! lofty rocks. he was like a cloud tossed by the winds. eyes the distant country with joy. and with her pure quill on every flower writeth lowly bending. where only 'Tis Contemplation. season follows season. and the stars faintly glimmered in the summer sky the breath of night slept among the leaves of the forest the bosom of the lofty hill drank in the silent dew. . was in my I walked through dreary places with him. youthful sun joys like a hunter rouzed to the chace. hovering Angels are around night. arm was under his head . whispers in mine ear. how little thou seest thou where Mirth sits ! ! . The traveller that hath taken shelter under an oak. is grown into a giant Lo. and I oft found myself sitting by Sorrow on a tomb-stone. while the airy jingling trappings. The youth lay silent. they covered their faces and wept. 'cause his garments are swoln with wind. sighs succeeded his mother's sighs.Appendix I 43 marrow. and wear it in thine Clamour brawls along the lord of thyself. he rushes up and lays hold on the immortal coursers of day. and the youth . Misery builds over our cottage roofs. take it. and the nimble air kisses the leaves . its silver inhabitants sport and play the sky. : . . I answered. daughter of the grey Morning » ? Nature's foot hath trod Majestical she steppeth. 'O man. a visionary hand wiped away his tears. All was still. till the into my sun shine. then. . my bones the bars of death.' in mortality. slave of each moment. and in church-yards . he was my schoolfellow thus he in my play. thou then art lord of all. the sky glitters with the Like a triumph. Sorrow slept with me in my cradle he followed me up music I fills am wrapped .' Like rolling waves upon a desert shore. that roams on it is a flower that grows in every vale. The moon hung not out her lamp. how O man. 'Heavenly goddess ! the world with joyful sounds. Humility. them. and the drops of rain glisten. and the thankful eyes of the villagers are turned up in smiles. and Discontent runs like a brook. and streets. and a ray of light beamed around his head. and grow immoderate to brave it out? Those who want Happiness must stoop to find it garb true Joy puts on Vain foolish man. the its arms along the velvet meadow. Staff . and destruction hovers in the city's here build thy nest here fix thy in these silent woods. Such smiles were seen upon the face of the youth. voices of comfort are heard over the Couch of Death. blow the green grass delights blossom around . the yellow harvest breathes. numberless beauties the brook stretches springs in joy. Now great. smoak but on these plains. he fancies he Wisdom's name. till he became to me as my brother. . true joys descend heart ! . Contemplation Who is this. while on his majestic brow the voice of Angels is heard. . and stringed sounds ride upon the wings of The sorrowful pair lift up their heads. lord of eternity on the painted cheek? doth it not seem ashamed O what an humble of such a place. breathes out his soul with joy into eternity.

black thoughts Their helmed youth and aged warriors in dust together ly. from his secret and wrest unconquerable. and upon her sumptuous couch reclined in gorgeous pride. a false woman's gates brought arts. thy young hands tore human limbs. in and. darkened. his Though was troubled his soul was distressed. by by that shinest with propitious beams. hold me not thou lovest about. and let thy master thy . By night I am deceived. O whiterobed Angel. Night. ere once again the changing moon her do thy guileful work traitress force circuit hath performed. ' the sky I should secret of . guide my timorous hand to write as on a lofty rock with iron day. For Dalila's fair arts have long been ambush lay. Thou lov'st me not still she grasps his vigorous knees with her fair arms. do the deed : one blow of master's wife no.' For now. and Desolation spreads his wings over the land of Palestine from side to side the land groans. fair in vain she wept in many a treacherous tear. my Lord. Shut up. thou shalt overcome. and seeks to hide her bruised head under the mists of night. all . and conquer him by Call thine alluring arts and him. I sing how he was death. and pierce the ears o' th' gods Thou wouldst my Look not upon me with those deathful eyes me not Thus. eyes of love decked in mild sorrow and sell thy she still intreats. what am I calling thee ? My days are covered I pour my tears for sacrifice morning and evening. arm would ease my pain Pity forsook thee at thy birth .' and thus she day by day oppressed his soul he seemed a mountain. that all who pass may of damned spirits. Dark thoughts rolled to and fro in his mind. that strong rest. deceit and Lord for gold. presence with blessed feet. ! \ . Come hither. his brow among the clouds she seemed a silver stream. bringing good news of Sin and Death destroyed. noon-tide while in dark pavilion. art thou not Samson's servant ? 'Tis Dalila that calls .' visage tell her my birth. like thunder clouds troubling Palestine. . purple and silver neglect thy hair. . and thou hast been incircled in his arms! To thee Thou art my God Alas. death. I am I withdraw your hand I'll run I will go mad. I'm thine .Poetical Sketches 44 Samson foiled Samson. with sorrow. O foolish Dalila O weak woman it is thou'rt war. his feet embracing. and all ye gods of am but a weak woman. and gorged human flesh. stay. . . her prowess lost. and thus resumes her wiles. in false tears. ' Samson. what can I fear? the utmost may be warded off as well when told as now. she bath'd his feet. . Though I should tell this heart. and the transparent on fair linen that with the lily vies. a lioness that thou wast born of mortal kind ? ' tried in vain . where strength failed. : Go on. over the silent earth spreads her Now read. to seem more lovely in thy loose attire put on thy country's pride. ! ! : . Death. ' ! ! ! ! ! suckled thee. and death approaches fast. turning our earthly night to heavenly of the Almighty Father thou visitest our darkling world from . . council sat Philista's lords . O of the to wife Truth. tear put honest-seeming brow. Alas. my She saw him moved. wedded ! to . breeding dark plots. the strongest of the children of men. thou art not love death cloathed in flesh thou lovest. and tear my crisped hair your enemy O Samson. Who saj's Destruction was thy father. . pens the words of truth. the holy kiss of love. ! then should I lay at quiet and have O Dagon furious. do .

Thrice hast thou mocked me and grieved my soul." Then. " The Then did suspicion wake thee. shall spring. and calm evening. and he shall be called Israel's Deliverer. Didst thou not tell me with green withs to bind thy nervous arms. . me a son. rose from and thought on east. nor could conceal aught that might Hear. with new ropes to bind thee fast ? I knew thou didst but mock me. and silent prayed to Israel's God His form was manhood in the prime. Ten thousand spears are brass. time for contemplation. O Dalila ! appease her then. : : : . and labour is my lot of all of woman born nor matchless might. In solitude." Manoa cried but Heaven refused. drink no wine. and heart of man hide sorrow. can from the Twice was my birth foretold from heaven. and in Israel he lived. and. what shouldst thou didst thou rend the feeble ties fear ? Thy power is more than mortal. Alas. after that. She saw the maidens play. and blessed their innocent mirth . nor knew he so seemed he to depart was an angel. Samson!" Thou fearest nought. when busy day was the forsaken fading. but thought his God knew best. . " Hail. when lo. and despised my joy is given into the hands of him who hates me. nor every gift enjoyed. where it shall lie at rest for sorrow is the lot for care was I brought forth. to shame my over-fond inquiry. alone she sat within the house. nor wisdom. using deceit to the wife of his bosom. nor eat of any unclean thing. Is burdened Israel his grief? The son of his old age shall set it free. therefore. . thus he spoke. for holy unto Israel's God I am. she wondered with exceeding jo}'. and eat not any unclean thing. But God joys in store. I cried. and drew the curtains of heaven : pensive she sat. . Pensive. He . conceive. a Nazarite even from my " Grant mother's womb. when his evening tale is told. ! and lov'd the beauteous suppliant. when I had found thy falsehood.' He sat. mourned. till venerable age came on hath other plenty crowned his board beloved.Appendix I 45 I am with me what thou wilt my friends are enemies ray life is death a traitor to my nation. ! . an army of mighty men are as flocks in the vallies what canst thou fear? O worse than wolves and I live upon sorrow I drink my tears like water But O at tygers. and inward griev'd. an angel from Israel's grief. the fields of light entered the house. Twice was it told. kind Heaven. leaning on her bosom. ! . she blessed each new-joined pair but from her the long-wished deliverer : : . though not obscure. none can hurt thee thy bones are . what canst thou give when such a trifle is denied me ? Thou toldest me to last thou mockest me. thy sinews are iron. as a neighbour. thou shalt said he mild he hailed her. when I cried upon thee to bewail that Samson loved me not. like the summer grass. for he shall be a Nazarite to God. Manoa left his fields to sit in the house. doubt no more of Samson's love for that fair breast was made the ivory palace of my inmost heart. weave thee to the beam by thy strong hair. . and from his spacious brow shot terrors through the evening shade. he saw . his blessing leaving. how Philistines be upon thee. and take his evening's : rest from labour — the sweetest time that God has allotted mortal man. that it might not be broken. departs. son. Childless he ' : . I did even that to try thy truth " " The Philistines be then didst thou leave me but. ! . revered of man. when in thy sleep I bound thee with them to try thy truth. highly favoured! Israel's and and bear a strength shall be upon his shoulders. But " "for lo. Now. twice a sacred vow enjoined me that I should drink no wine. his flocks increased. The venerable sweet'ner of his life receives the promise first from Heaven.

and was ready to give place to Lord. we may honour thee. and save. that thou mayest sit and eat. our vintage is gathered by bands of enemies. comest from far. The aged woman walked into the field. Oppression stretches his rod over our land. our The echoes of country is plowed with swords. . feeble." he. and lo. offer an offering unto the Lord. hill." Thus prayed Manoa. Clad as a traveller fresh risen on his journey. The time rolled on. seeing it is a secret but. and praised God. : ." The Angel answered. if thou ' wilt.Poetical Sketches 46 and heard with joy." . who came and talked with him. The wolf teareth them. thy flock is scattered on the hills. and reaped in blood. the plow-share rusted. is God. and tell us of thy name and warfare that. who Israel still doth keep. while sat. Let us detain thee while I make ready a kid. Stretch forth thy hand. when thy " sayings come to pass. and Israel groaned oppressed. again the angel came. O when shall our Deliverer come? The Philistine riots on our flocks. My name is wonderful enquire not after it. The sword was bright. doubting : then prayed till hope grew Manoa slaughter reach from hill to bears a sword. she ran and called her " O man of " thou said husband. the ox goad : " O Instead of peaceful pipe the shepherd turned into a spear.

154. . Paleness We flies . 11. 9 So clad. . 154. We can abide life's i pelting storm. . if our hearts be warm. to this place. . vi. That makes our limbs quake. p.APPENDIX II [The two songs referred to in editor's introduction. Innocence is a Winter's gown. if our hearts be warm. also his Introduction to that edition. Cp. Innocence doth like a rose Bloom on every maiden's cheek Honour twines around her brows. 5 And Truth a lantern to our path.] Song by a Shepherd Welcome. 1-2. found in Blake's autograph on the fly-leaves of a copy of the original edition of Poetical See Sketches. 8 That] Which EY. Blind-man's Buff {Poetical Sketches). and here reprinted from Shepherd's text (ed. 154). Song by an Old Shepherd When silver snow decks Sylvia's clothes. I stranger] little stranger EY. I. The jewel health adorns her neck. Whilst Virtue is our walking-staff. nose]. That makes our limbs quake. And jewel hangs at shepherd's nose. 2 When p. 1874. from every face reap not what we do not sow. stern Winter frown. Blow. Shepherd. . Shepherd. we'll abide life's pelting storm. if our hearts be warm. p. We can abide life's pelting storm. boisterous wind. Where joy doth sit on every bough. stranger. p. That makes our limbs quake.

.

. E circa 1784) .SONGS from ^^ ISLAND (an untitled SAMPSOM IJ^ THE MO 03^ Autograph MS.

in this Island you so much alike. which small island seems to have some affinity : — ' 'to England.' or rather is left unfinished by the It ends abruptly author on line nineteen of the recto of the leaf following the lacuna in the text. and the vanities are the same. The remaining pages are blank. Suction the Epicurean. among them Blake's signature — — The written backwards as if engraved on copper-plate. the three Philo. Etruscan Column. with the exception of the verso of the last leaf. volume of sixteen folio MOON leaves. names of those sects tho' the sects are not ever mention'd however the things still there. as being quite out of date. The autograph is in Blake's early hand. as . were employ 'd when Mrs. in comes sophers sat together thinking of nothing. that think was would you among your friends.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO AN ISLAND IN THE The Blake MS. & what & is more extraordinary the people are language so much the same. but which. remain. and Sipsop the Pythagorean. near by a mighty continent. which is scribbled over with rough sketches and pen-trials. & after an abundance of Enquiries to no purpose sat himself down & so they described something that nobody listen'd to. Quid the I call them by the Cynic. Gimblet came in. now the seventeenth page. and begins at the head of the first page (recto of first leaf) In the Moon is a certain Island. must have been page 21 or 25. their dwells three Philosophers. the Antiquarian. and since it is also. lacking is two perhaps four) leaves through the loss of one (or two) sheets from the centre of the single quire of which it is (or composed.. known a thin foolscap as An Island in the Moon. soiled appearance of this last verso proves it to have been the original outer leaf of the MS. when the book was complete.

This is to attach a to trifle unnecessary importance evidently dashed off by Blake for his own amusement without thought of publication nor.' The work has never been printed as a whole nor. when Blake wrote. circa 1789. tainty. has reprinted three chapters as specimens of his prose. . who . which reached its height in 1782. and that Blake's gratitude for Mr. Messrs. date it between the publication of the Poetical Sketches in 1783.Island in the Moo7t 5 1 the watermarks show.' and had these beautiful lyrics been written in 17H3 it is difficult to believe that Blake would not have included them in his first The doggerel lines on Dr. was perhaps intended by the author as a satire on the little coterie of distinguished personages which met at Mrs. with copious though rather inaccurately printed extracts. in their edition of Blake's works. T. vol. though Quid the Cynic may possibly stand for Blake himself. The MS. . The brochure itself. and would seem. probably in the latter year. which may be described as a somewhat incoherent and pointless precursor of the Headlong Hall type of novel. as we know from the epigrams in the MS. was it the poet's wont to allow social patronage or material assistance to interfere with his Celtic privilege of free satire. as J. and December 20. placing one of the songs among the Later Poems. were this done. from this MS. to have been still a . Blake's relations with the Mathews and their circle had become somewhat In chapters 5 and 7 there are references to the strained. dates the MS. Ellis and Yeats have given a synopsis of the chapters. 186-201 and Mr. Mathews' share in defraying the cost of printing the little volume caused the author to leave the present work unfinished. Yeats' surmise that An Island in the Moon preceded and even led to the publication of the Poetical Sketches in 1783. when. if so. the other half of the sheet on which the work begins. the originals of the portraits are not now to be identified. Smith tells us. there are no grounds for Messrs. ' ' ' We topic of conversation. would it £% ' . i. while. Chatterton controversy. I am unable to agree with Mr. at one time possessed a first leaf containing a title-page. Lawrence Housman. Mathews' salon in Rathbone Place but. contains the first drafts of Holy Thursday and the Nurse's Song. moreover. ElHs and Yeats' conjecture that the MS.. with tolerable cerJohnson's death. Book. strangely. Johnson published work. are more likely to have been written before than after may therefore. 1784. pp.

Bibliographical Preface 52 Its chief interest to literary reputation. kindly lent to me by Mr. Ellis and Yeats. which all lovers of Blake may pass over. of Blake's rooted antipathy to science add to Blake's in its foreshadowing. Charles Fairfax Murray. . trivialities or doggerel sung by children or drunken boon-companions. the first drafts general readers must lie in its giving us of three of the Songs of Innocence. Cambridge. as the writer intended them.' are plainly not Blake's at all while others are. ' the early versions of Holy Nurse's Song. who has since presented it to the Fitzwilliam ' street-cry.' variant readings to which are given in the footnotes to the Songs of Innocence. the mouths of several of the characters. in its evidence. and ' * Books.' or The Little Boy Lost. I have thought it necessary to print the whole of them in an Appendix. even at this early date. the illuminated printing which he afterwards employed in the Songs of Innocence and in the Prophetic and experiment. a number of choruses and nonsense verses are placed in Some of these. some years beforehand. such as This frog he would a wooing ride and the London I do not repeat here ' ' ' ' I cry my matches as far as Guildhall. My text of these poems is taken from my transcript of the original MS. Since these pieces have been referred to and partly quoted by Messrs.' the Thursday. Museum.. . Besides the six songs which follow.

t^ . — p. what a wicked beast — ! From then a callow babe did spring. ' . that have it done for nothing. 13 in] on EY. & keep them down with his fist. t>» And old To think For now corruption smil'd his race should never end." Then the Cynic sang ' . and all in the space of a Quarter of an hour he does not mind their crj'ing — tho' they cry ever so. in Moon. he had a child. 5 then] there EY. song. he'll Swear at them.FROM THE ISLAND IN THE MOON When old corruption first begun. 3 He call'd The babe him Surgery with his & fed own milk y . Adorn'd in yellow vest. : — : Only printed by EY i. He committed on flesh a whoredom O. . make such a piece of work fori" "Hang that!" said " let us have a Suction. — Isl. 193. vi "Ah !" said Sipsop. chap. and thrust his fist in. For flesh & he could ne'er agree She would not let him suck. And ran about with bloody hands To seek his mother's life. : 4 And this he always kept in mind And form'd a crooked knife. "I only wish Jack Tearguts had had the cutting of Plutarch he understands anatomy better than any of the Ancients he'll plunge his knife up to the hilt in a single drive. & tell them that he'll scrape their bones if they don't lay still & be quiet What the devil should the people in the hospital.

said I'm made for ever 1 Scurvy The & 17 I have procured these imps 25 I'll try experiments. 33 . He fell in love & married her — A deed which is not common She soon grew pregnant. father grinn'd skipt about.' With that he tied poor scurvy down. & 8 And when the child began He shouted out aloud — * I've found the dropsy out.' He took up fever by the And cut out all its spots And. . And brought forth 21 & & ' For now ' ! spott'd fever. Shall do the world He thro' the holes first & 29 soon more good. stopt up all its vents. to swell neck. discover'd guts. ao which] that EY.Moon Island in the 54 And as he ran to seek his mother He met with a dead woman. which he had made.

" said The subject and metre of Quid. viii the song of 'Phebe and Jellicoe'?'' "No. . p. "English Genius for ever— here I go—. WBY. in Hail Matrimony. do you Moon. 18. 144. Lightly tripping on a row. & Joe. p. Maidens dancing.' Pills to this song were perhaps suggested by 11. chap. in Moon. toe. Isl. Bob. " Mr. purge Melancholy.' 5 loves a sporting] lovers sporting EY. ix '"Hang Italian songs! let 's have English. 198) print ' ' . who can be In happiness compar'd with ye? The Pilgrim with his crook & hat Happy 9 Sees your happiness compleat. Where the lambkins little trot.Moon Island in the 55 11 [The Song of Phebe and Phebe drest like beautie's Jellicoe] i Queen. people. Susan. she repeated these verses. 13. 7 Bob] Bab LH. — Then ' Then said Miss Gittipin. in WBY p. LH WBY. Jellicoe in faint peagreen. 7. 196. iii. Scopprell. Sitting all beneath a grot. That Or on beauty's on beauty's bum. loves a sporting. 95 with — title ' The Pilgrim. 106. 8. lightly trip sit — Isl. EY (i.' EY p. made of Love i ! To thy wide gates how great a drove On purpose to be yok'd do come Widows & maids & Youths also. while steelyard walk'd about the room." said Scopprell." He that intends to take a wife. Miss. Johnny. p. 5 All the country folks a courting. and 25-7. chap. know i. 10 with] to EY.

: — ' . (? friend) or EY. is tender lover she shall find That panteth The is 13 frame. or Doctor South. Or Nature's hand has crooked her For Or if Yet. universal Poultice this. " said " Go and be " how can Scopprell. or 's her heart To . 25 maidens] maids. looking on the corner of the cieling. Tis you that come in time of need. makes them Like Birds. iv To be or not to be Of great capacity. 6 Sutton] Thomas Sutton. in Printed here for the first ' & Then Quid called upon Obtuse Angle for a Song. i Like Sir Isaac Newton. ! makes them skip it . and EY. Or Sherlock upon death I'd rather be Sutton — ! Isl. just cured of the pip. hanged you have the face to make " The phrase in the last line. & he. explains game of matrimony ? the ' golden cage in the third stanza of How sweet I roam'd from field to ' ! ' ' ' field'. chap. ix wiping his face. sang time. as EY point out. Without you we shoud never Breed. 27] Here the song abruptly breaks off. 1783. is 19 amiss Widow gay smile. ye maidens come. Then come. if a Damsel 's blind or lame. she if Some deaf. Or Locke.5 Moon Island in the 6 Hail fingerfooted lovely Creatures! 7 The females of our human Natures. founder of the Charterhouse (1532-1611). Or any Comfort find. — MooH. Formed to suckle all Mankind. They chirp & hop away. p. 10. ye Come & be cured of all your pains ! swains 25 ! — 7 In Matrimony's Golden cage 17 Some tender lover] Some Hail] EY omit. for a Bride. cure whatever In damsel or in It wall-eyed well inclined. s^e Poetical Sketches.

13 And sent his servant To Green the Bricklayer. He sinks & gutters made. He furnish'd it 7 within With whatever he could win.Moon Island in the S7 For he did build a house For aged men & youth. The chimneys were three The windows many more And. And to the Carpenter He was so fervent. And all his own. Moon. With brown face as ale — Good English Isl. sit & give forth laws out of their old oak chairs. chap. Or Sir Isaac Newton ? This city & this country has forth brought many mayors To i in state. Whose name was Sutton As 25 Locke. 19 . or Doctor South. in & any nut with drinking of strong hospitality. score. Or Sherlock upon Death. And all the way he pav'd To hinder pestilence. preceding song] as ix — * O then it did not The Lawgiver was very beg'd to have it sung over again fail ! attentive & again . — — Was not this a good man Whose life was but a span. [to the till the . With walls of brick & stone. He drew out of the Stocks His money in a box. . for convenience.

With stockings roll'd above their knees as jet With eating & shoes as black . I ' WBY. i . WBY. and Miss Gittipin sung — EY p. with which work Blake appears to me to have been familiar. ' WBY EY i. (p. has] have laws EY.' following the inaccurate version given of the refrain in the first and second stanza by EY. Here Till And O leave [me] to my sorrows & fade away. they were stout & haleGood English Thus the at sitting O hospitality. sorrows] sorrow EY. insisted which he readily complied with : on the Lawgiver singing a song — himself. ' Cp. xi — Here a laugh began. 198-9. Any if 5 walk Hear my voice upon the Breeze. in Moon. . WBY. 10 law] VI Leave. WBY. each eat as much as : The hungry poor enter'd the hall to eat good & aleGood English hospitality. 4 and 8 Good] Old EY. 135) entitles this song Old English Hospitality. 102) prints as a single stanza. WBY. me EY.Moon Islaiid in the 58 With scarlet a gowns & yeoman sweat broad gold lace. 200. make would 5 .' in Chatterton's Antiquity of Christmas Games. chap. with A Song of ' Isl. ' Sorrow. table then it wide did not fail ! Mayor & Alder- the men Were fit 9 to give law to the city ten . EY. 'Old English hospitality is long since deceased.' title i.' I me] omitted in orig.' an essay reprinted in the Miscellanies of 1778. WBY. I lose this form of clay. 4 lose] love . Then chance along this forest in pathless ways. WBY (p. pp. sit I'll I'm nothing but a spirit. O then it did not fail beef ! company were & tired. . & beef O drinking beer. Thro' the gloom he'll see my shadow.

O ho ' ! said Dr. No more No more f ! ! Isl. p. i blinking. ask the Gods no more! No more! No mox&\\ the three Philosophers bear chorus. iii. 'If you don't own me a Philosopher ^ •^ '^ *<^ ^ ^Ir ^X* ^L« •1' Is/. 6 Johnson To Scipio Africanus.U. in Moon. & Genius is all I ask. ' Quid. & his mizen. 190. chap. Not in the Bat with Leathern wing. EY i. chap. in Moon. Honour And I let go at only so it & Sung by Quid the Cynic. is it you would please to have? Little With his fat belly What Ho! Ho! I won't IsL in Moon. the Lawgiver. blinking. fore sail. Hear then the pride & knowledge of a Sailor His sprit sail. Steelyard. I know no greater sinner than John Taylor. ! Winking Winking Winking & & & EY. I say. . & his round chin. chap. iii. i8g.v. Like Dr. i ! — A Isl. p. main sail. ^X* •>!' *4' say. Johnson. chap. ix — '"I •4' ^l' . poor frail man god wot I know none frailer. blinking.APPENDIX TO AN ISLAND IN THE MOON a Phebus came strutting in. Sung by Quid the Cynic. ht Moon. Lo ! Sung by viii. 5 so & so] so so EY. so EY ! i. this evening we'll "4^ all f get drunk. •X* sl^ .

196) print this . dash. an Anthem! an Anthem stanza. 'A ha ' to Dr. p. Johnson Said Scipio Africanus. \st Vo. *T» *X* 'i^ 'I* And lo ! ** *!* vv ^ vT '^ y\ the Cellar goes •rgi 'T* *(^?^^^*l>^?J^»I>'f»^ down with a step {Grand Chorus).' EY (i.6o Moon Island in the Suction. !" said Suction — .

Moon Island in the 6i This frog he would a wooing ride. let O. He does not know how to handle a bat Any more than a dog or a cat He has knock 'd down the wicket.' Not in EY. chap. xi — ' The Lawgiver all ! the while sat delighted to see . He has given me a black eye. variant of this song. us the ball i say. ix your bounty descend to our fair ears. xi Lally pluck'd up a spirit. in Moon. I cary. Kitty alone Kitty alone This frog he would a wooing ride. with same refrain. Kitty alone Kitty Alone! Kitty alone! Cock I cary Kitty alone. 1842. And broke the stumps. : 1st. in Moon. That Bill a foolish fellow 's 9 . chord tn . * — I you Joe. Throw ! good mind to go you all. you sing like a harpsiMoon. — & ' Here nobody could sing any longer. Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes of England (Percy Society)." Then she sung w' Cp. Kitty alone & I ! ! ! ! ! — " " Miss Gittipin. chap. Kitty alone & I Ting cock. And runs without shoes to save his pumps. he sung . they sweep in the cash Into their purse hole Fa me la sol La me fa Sol O ! Isl.'' said he. and favour us with a fine song. I never saw such a bowler To bowl the ball in a tansey. — There's Doctor Clash. jn Not in EY. chap. Isl. I've a And And leave to clean it with my 5 hankercher Without saying a word. 13 till Tilly i And Sinior Falalasole.

his trumpets sounding. the shout of his thousands fills his heart with rejoicing And the ! & shout rejoicing Victory . victory. Bouncing B Play away. And Long fingers & thumbs." Then Sipsop sung . of his thousands fills his heart with & victory.' Not in EY. On a white horse sitting. "funny enough. dear sir. them Jn such a serious humour. 6 little A. in Moon. ix have handel's waterpiece. 'twas Victory I William the prince of Orange. & he was forced to sing himself." They all declined. chap. 1 A crowned king. And not like clumsy bears.62 Island in the Moon Great A. ii A Fa me La me la sol Gentlemen fa sol Gentlemen ! ! i6 ! Rap! Rap! Rap! Fiddle! Fiddle! Fiddle! Clap! Clap! Clap! Fa me La me la sol fa sol ! " Mr. With And And Banners flying Thro' the clouds of smoke he makes his way.' Not in EY. — 'Then said the Lawgiver. who refer to it as a song in praise of William the Conqueror." said he. you must be " O. — . Ho Ho Ho! I am no singer I must beg of one of these tender hearted ladies to sing for me. You'r out of the key ! ! Fa me La me la sol fa sol ! Musicians should have pair of very good ears. acquainted with a great many songs?" ! ! . Play away. let's Isl. " Scropprell.

SONGS OF INNOCENCE and OF EXPERIENCE .

J. .

ii. From these plates. and a third drawing called 'An Ideal Hell. P. or he would undoubtedly have included them in his exhaustive 'Annotated Catalogue of Blake's Pictures and Drawings' (Gilchrist. . 201-64). and it is evident that no such sketches were known to Mr. in the ordinary manner. In the dexterous interweaving of text and design Blake anticipates the modern school of book illustration. which are described as being in Blake's usual rich style of colouring and as differing considerably from the published engravings. Gilchrist's statement {Life. upon small copper plates about 5" by 3''. which to economize copper were in many cases engraved upon both sides. the illustrated had been executed conveys the imdesigns in colour pression that before engraving Blake had completed an entire series of coloured illustrations to the Songs of Innocence.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE AND OF SONGS OF INNOCENCE EXPERIENCE The Song's of Inriocence (1789) was the first of Blake's works produced by the novel method which. in tints meant to harmonize with the colour scheme afterwards applied in water-colours by the artist.' These designs.' The text and surrounding design were written in reverse. The only original i. .' are the Piper frontispiece. in a medium impervious to acid. ' . the Introduction ('Piping down the valleys wild').' which is probably attributed by a cataloguer's error to the Songs of Innocence. — designs known to the present writer are the following (i) In Quaritch's General Catalogue (1887. 68) that 'by the end of 1788 . : ' ' ' SAMrSO!* F ... M. in his prospectus of 1793. which were then etched in a bath of aqua fortis until the work stood in relief as on a stereotype. he styles 'illuminated printing.935) there is an entry of three coloured sketches for the Songs of Innocence 'from the collection of a friend of Blake's. Rossetti. impressions were printed. W. This would seem to be pure assumption.

Songs.' are evidently the first rough draft. complete copies of the little book in its original form — These include five The The Little Girl Found. the plates in this earliest issue were printed upon both sides of octavo paper. The Songs of Innocence was at first issued as a separate work. transcribed. from an earlier notebook or from loose scraps of paper. Manuscript versions of eighteen of the twenty-six Songs of Experience form some of the first entries in the Rossetti MS. Original autograph versions of three of the Songs of Innocence are found in the unpublished Blake manuscript known as An Island in the Moon. Several of the latter have the appearance of being fair copies. issued by the author without change during a period of nearly forty years. The engraved version of the Songs. though the two last were still sometimes placed by him among the Songs of Innocence. dated Oct. With the exception of the frontispiece. the earlier manuscript readings seem preferable. such as 'The Tyger. In 1793 Blake completed the engraving of the Sottgs of His prospectus. Probably many of the originals were merely pencil draw' to quote Blake's own phrase ings with nothing to seek ' ' ' ' — We ' — — engraving on pewter which would recipe naturally be destroyed in the process of rubbing off on to in his for the copper.' and giving a list of ten year. as in a few cases. To the Public.' The Voice of the Ancient Bard. addressed ' . Blake into paper covers.' a cord being laced through holes punctured an inch or two apart. the thirty-one plates occupying seventeen leaves. must of course be regarded as the only authoritative text even where. Book the original designs for two of the Songs of Expei'ience^ The Angel and The Sick Rose the latter different in many respects from the version subsequently engraved.66 Bibliographical Pi^eface (2) There are besides in the Rossetti MS. ' ' ' Little Girl Lost.' ' ' — generally transferred by Blake to the So?tgs of Experience. Book. 10 of the same Experience. title-page. have no reason to believe that Blake first executed for all the songs coloured sketches which have since disappeared. All these variant readings are here given in the footnotes to the .' and The School Boy which were afterwards containing thirty-one plates. and introduction. at one time. in most cases by the rough process known as * stabbing. These loose leaves were then stitched by Mrs. while others.

each being priced at ^s. were printed from electrotypes which have every appearance of having been made from the actual plates engraved by Blake. series fifty-four. yielding sixteen impressions (six being engraved on both sides of the copper). of this or of any other of Blake's engraved works. as the watermark shows. It should be noted that there was never any true edition. The outline designs there. Gilchrist in the second volume of his Life of Blake. Blake here. One of these is in the uncoloured co'py of the Songs in the Reading Room of the British Museum.Songs of hmocence works ' 67 now published and on Sale at Mr. The plate Blake in this ' it is not found in any authentic copy of the So7igs issued in the lifetime of the artist or his wife. in other cases. and the other is a proof impression in the possession of Mr. the plates printed on one side of the leaf only and numbered by hand consecutively one to fifty-four. were still in existence. F a i. no. as I learn from Mr. Frederick Macmillan. and is known to us by only two examples. In 1863 ten of the original plates. it would seem to have been deliberately rejected by the poet himself. the issue of the Songs extending from the completion of the Songs of Innocence in 1789 to the close of Blake's life. prospectus must have reckoned 'A Divine Image (' Cruelty has a Human Heart ') among the number. The present whereabouts of these plates I have been unable to trace. including the general title-page which had not then been engraved. William Muir. according to his practice twenty-five designs. Though this poem is inserted without question in all editions of Blake since Shepherd's. was containing printed not earlier than 1832.' advertises the Songs of Innocence and the Songs of Experie7ice as two separate books. in the ordinary sense of the term. As this is the full number in a perfect copy of the Songs of Innocoice atid of Experience. which would make the entire number of plates in the two. which he has reproduced at the end of his facsimile of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. In 1794 Blake added a general title-page to both series. This is the form in which most copies of the Songs occur. does not include either frontispiece or titlepage. Blake's. and were used by Mr. 125) a few copies were . and described as containing Hercules Buildings. According to Gilchrist {Life. which. which thenceforward were issued by him as one work. Sets of impressions were struck off as required. 13 Lambeth.

These frames. These last issues are printed upon larger paper and upon one side of the leaf only. This is a made-up copy. Tatham. 1864. and. reprodiiced in facsimile from the original editions (100 copies printed for private circulation)^ This has evidently been prepared from the very 1876. D. perhaps F. The only uncoloured copy of the Songs of Innocence and of Experience known to the present writer is the very unworthy example. is coarsely executed and exceedingly inaccurate as to the text.' This agrees with the modest price {^s. already referred to. In a copy exhibited at the Grolier Club at New York in 1905. 124) tells us the artist received for the first issue of the collected Songs probably refers to coloured impressions. which are not more than a quarter of an inch in width. each) at which Blake advertises the Songs of Injiocence and the Songs of Ex^ '^^^ thirty shillings perience in his Prospectus of 1793. produced after 18 18.68 Bibliographical Preface ' issued plain in black and white. were added with a fine brush. vines. and each plate has the additional embellishment of a wide wash border instead of the simple red line with which Blake ordinarily surrounded the designs. which. and in lacking the superadded water-colour tinting there are three modern The first of these is given in The facsimiles of the Songs. the edition being limited to fifty copies. and even drapery. the plates are sur- rounded by delicate borders of trees. — Works of William Blake. contrasting in this respect with some of the later more elaborately illuminated copies of the Songs of Innocence ajid by Mr. in which part of the plates at least were printed after the death of Blake and his wife. into whose possession they passed after Catherine Blake's death in October. Rossetti points out. The second is the very beautiful reproduction made by Mr. as Mr. The earlier examples of the Songs of htnocence are distinguished by the simplicity and delicacy of their colouring. Besides the sixteen plates reprinted by Gilchrist. while it affords a fairly good general idea of Blake's designs. in the Reading Room of the British Museum. or blue and white. are as absolutely the originals as those appearing in the copies printed by ' Blake ' — except of course in having been printed from electros instead of direct from the plates. The out- . of Experience. or two guineas which Gilchrist (i. 1831. G. The Monckton Milnes copy. William Muir in 1884 and 1885. uncoloured poor copy of the So?igs acquired by the British Museum in January. measures 13'' x lof".

as the editor points out. Ellis (Quaritch. Edwards.Songs of Iiinoceiice 69 drawings are here facsimilized by lithography. printed upon one side of the leaf only. Muir fails in the difficult technical feat of reproducing the grace. There is also a useful facsimile of the outlines of the line — — by Mr. beauty. however. July 4. A. a sharpness and definiteness of outline impossible to achieve by printing from stone. originally belonging to a Mr. The early issues of the Songs of Innocence are without manuscript pagination or border lines. 'The Tyger. The plates are without engraved foliation or pagination. tinted impressions. to Flaxman copied from the volume which Blake gave it may be noted. In the Songs of Experience.' being written in the former style of lettering. These exquisite facsimiles leave little to be Blake's desired in their general fidelity to the originals. as in the first ' issue. fails to represent the clearness of the originals where the copies have been made from Neither of these facsimiles. are arranged in a different the plates. 1882. The Little Girl Lost.' with the introductory stanza to 'A Little Girl Lost. purchased by Mr. and delicacy of Blake's lettering. and partly no doubt for this reason Mr. Later issues of the two series. White of Brooklyn. however. much more accurate than the reproduction of 1876. edited The though a trustworthy guide for Blake's text. with the exception of The Voice of the Ancient Bard. cameo plates have. There is no engraved Table of Contents.' *Ah Poison Tree. plates are here reproduced by a photographic process. are foliated at the top rightis ' ' ' ! . only Sunflower.' and The School Boy ') the body of the text is in minuscule roman. Songs. 1903). which. Quaritch at the Hamilton Palace sale. Blake substituted for roman the more easily formed italic characters which he first adopted in the Book of Thel four (1789) and used in all his subsequent works.' 'London. and the colouring added by hand from the finest examples accessible The tinting of the Songs of Innocence is to the artist. and a collation of various copies of the Songs shows that the order in which the plates are arranged varies in almost every instance. Edwin J. though order that of the Songs of Experience from the famous Beckford Library copy. and catchwords are only used where one of the longer songs is continued on to a second plate.' which is in italic. and now the property of Mr.' and 'A songs. In Blake's Songs of Innocence (including. W. on the contrary.' The Little Girl Found.

may be dated approximately . B. In a sale at Sotheby's of the library of J. must have disappeared These coincidences of arrangement. which Mr. the Songs of Innocence and in Table II of one copy of the Songs of Innocence a7id of Experience. and C. Muir has given in facsimile at the end of his reproduction of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. The Ecchoing Green (two plates) and the Nurse's Song and Holy Thursday are printed upon either side of the same leaf. Ditchfield. however. Some copies bearing Blake's own foliation seem to be arranged regardless of system. M. so that the two missing leaves. bound by C. at an early date. among the books sold is recorded an incomplete copy of the Songs of Innocence This volume was in which these four plates are wanting. and Introduction. This is evidently a made-up copy.Bibliographical Preface 70 corner. and it was probably with the intention of rectifying this defect that Blake compiled. which is written on two opposite leaves of quarto paper. as if printed on the verso. A ' ' ' ' ' ' which we may reasonably conjecture have gone to supply the lacunae in the Print Room copy. It will be seen from these tables that although the order of plates is not identical in any of these six copies. The first three plates of the Songs of Innocejice. April 24. of the same juxtaposition is the example in the Print Room of the British Museum. in the same brown or red ink with which Blake added the border lines surrounding the plates. This index. title-page. plates printed upon the same leaf being bracketed together and those on hand the recto being placed first. are printed upon one side of the leaf only the frontispiece was generally bound. in which. B. Blake's earliest arrangement is found in the extremelyrare first issue of the Songs printed upon both sides of the In Table I I give the collations of five copies of leaf. to face the title-page. Lewis in 1782.D. either for his own guidance or that of his wife. the table showing the order in which the songs should be paged and arranged. as from any deliberate intention on the part of the author.. are as likely to have arisen from the fact of a number of impressions having been printed at one time. 1H93. . as in A. the deficiency of the original being supplied by two leaves of the earlier issue. yet in four of these the same designs are invariably found further instance either as recto or verso of the same leaf. the frontispiece.

&c. 14. Little 8. dream. Title-page to ^t'w^. Ancient Bard. 2. The Little Boy Found. Title Page of Songs of Experience. 30. 16. 46. Experie7ice. II. The Angel. The Voice of the 43. The Chimney Sweeper. Laughing Song. Nurse's 20. Ditto. 5. 48. it *The Order & of Page I. 47. 27. 11. 37. End of Softgs of Lmocence : then Begins ' So?tgs of [page] 28. Cradle Song. Infant Sorrow. 51. 36. 20. Ditto. 25. 13. The Little Boy Lost. Holy Thursday. Nurse's Song. 10. Introduction Piping down the Valleys. 18. 8. A 52. Ditto. &c. 53. however. 26. 6. The Garden Little Boy Lost. Night. with which coincides in arrangement. Ecchoing Green. On .Songs of Innocence 7 1 by the watermark (1818) of the Monckton Milnes copy. Ditto. five copies (N. Poison Tree.. 17. The Little 26. is followed in the present edition. — '>. Dream. Chimney Sweeper. and others approximating closely to the same standard. 5. On 27. General Title. Infant Joy. 38. Ditto. This later arrangement of the Songs is as follows: I. Spring. 34. 12. 4. Boy 25. show an entirely different order. Night. 14. issues. The Ecchoing Green. The Shepherd.f Later — of Innocence. 6. Title page to Songs of Imiocence. 18. A The Little Boy Found. London. Introduction The Fly. [2nd leaf of index begins] page 24. The Blossom. 7. 3. 41. ' — Black Boy. Introduction. The Blossom. 32. 21. A 24. Ditto. The Chimney Sweeper. 49. 40. A A 50. 22. 3. Cradle Song. 0. The Divine Image. Lost.'>. Nurse's Song. 23. Little Girl Lost. Earth's Answer. pretty Rose Tree.R) placing the plates in identical sequence. 39. Laughing Song. 15. The Little Black Boy. 42. The Tyger. Another's Sorrow. 4. General Title. Ditto. The Shepherd. To Tirzah. Infant Joy. 7.P. 12. 45. &c. 2. A Little Girl little Black thing. 16. The Little Vagabond. The Clod & Pebble. 22. 9. 21. 19. 17. Spring. The Sick Rose. as the only one in which Blake is known to have laid down explicit instructions regarding the order of the songs. Song.' This arrangement. 13. Holy Thursday. 54. Lost. Hear the voice of the Bard. of Love. The Divine Image. Frontispiece of Piper. in which the Songs of Innocence Experience ought to be paged & placed. The 19. 29. Holy Thursday. Frontispiece. Frontispiece of Child on the Shepherd's head. 35. 44. The Human Abstract. The Lamb. 15. 31. 10. 9.Q. The Lamb. 23. My The School Boy.

printed upon 17 leaves.' In earlier copies these two songs are included in the So7igs of Imioccnce. predominating tone of yellow brown. Boy. Printed in golden brown. The Clod and 31. printed upon one side of the leaf only. Poison Tree. The Chimney Sweeper. Holy Thursday. 43. New York. In the original blue-grey paper binding. 41. Title-page to So?igs of Experience. Bound Size 61^^ x 5 inches. The same. The Tyger. Simple colouring. The Sick Rose. Little Little Boy Lost. Size 7^ x ^\ inches. 40. No dated watermark. Frontispiece. : 31 plates. Voice of the Ancient Bard. The Little Girl Lost. printed upon 17 leaves. B. 42. No dated watermark. The copies described in this and in the two preceding tables are A. [End of Songs of Innocence?^ 29. pagination. 30. The property of Robert Hoe. 28. Coloured very beautifully with extreme finish. The Angel. New York. Earth's Answer. now re-bound in red Size 7| x 5x\ inches. 37. [End of Songs of Experience. in citron morocco by Bedford. The Without sa7ne. The School Boy is retained among the Songs of Experience and The Voice of the Ancient Bard is retransferred to the end of A A A A ' ' ' . 50.53. in two of the very last copies produced. The Nurse's Song. 46.72 Bibliographical Preface Another's Sorrow. 51. 34-6. In Table III I give the collation of the sixteen examples known to me.. 48. Little Girl Found.'] fairly satisfactory test of the date of a copy of the later issue of the Songs of Innocence and of Experience. The The To Tirzah. The Little Vagabond. . George Barclay Moffat. Now . Sold at Sotheby's. Now in the possession of Mrs. Pebble. The Garden of Love. C. 39. with autograph of his sister. Without pagination. 47. Without No dated watermark. Flaxman's copy. 52. Songs of Innocence. Infant Sorrow. Introduction. may be obtained by noting the positions of The School Boy and The Voice of the Ancient Bard. Printed in yellow. 33. ' ' ' ' the Songs of Innocence. 49. levant morocco. Coloured with pagination. as in Blake's in later first impression printed upon recto and verso issues both are placed among the Songs of Experience while. 31 plates. 32. School Girl Lost. printed upon 17 leaves. London. 44. 31 plates. The Human Abstract. 38. . 45. Originally in worn-out red leather binding. Esq. My pretty Rose Tree. The Fly. 54.

printed upon 17 leaves. representing a woman and copy. An incomplete copy forming part of a miscellaneous collection sold at Sotheby's. H. Locker-Lampson.Songs of Innocence t^ the property of J. No dated watermark. Foliated consecutively by Blake. The same. No dated watermark. William Muir his coloured facsimile of the Songs of Innocence.. America. The probably error -^ in mistake. Bound in cloth. Formerly in the possession of Mr. Coloured. as may have nude boy. Pagi31 plates. Size 7 inches in height. Butts. There are duplicate impressions of The Laughing Song. Copy presented by Blake to his physician. Perry of Providence. Without border lines. Sold Now the property of at Sotheby's. this copy. Library. Nov. Foliated consecutively by Blake. Feb. printed on one side of the leaf only. E. ^ . Printed in sepia. in D.. SydenThis was the copy used by Mr. Watermarks dated 1802 and 1804. 28 plates. Paginated consecutively throughout. though not bound up with. Esq. Printed in golden brown. Pasted upon a fly-leaf at the end of the book is a pen and ink sketch by Blake. about 1830. Purchased in 1900 from Quaritch. nated in pencil. New York. Bound in original mottled calf. The same. Songs of Innocence. it. Size 7i x 5 inches. F. 22.' one being placed among the Songs of Experience. from the covers of which it was rescued Now in the Rowfant by Mr. 1897. in the possession of Mr. ' Coloured. by Linnell. 54 plates. and an autograph letter of Blake's to the same friend were inserted in. each on separate leaf. Robert Hoe. 1900. In olive green calf binding. Size Coloured. G. Esq. 20. Cecil House. Blake's The volume was cut down by a later friend. Pearson. Bound in green morocco by Bedford. Songs of lujiocence and of Experience. ham. 6yf X 4y| inches. who Copy describes John Linnell's originated through the fact that a pen and ink portrait of Blake. Songs of Innocence and of Experience. ^^ plates on 32 leaves. owner to meet the dimensions of an old weekly washing book. Coloured in green tone throughout.

but no bibliographical details are available. in ink. Now the property of Mr. of the Songs of Innocence is Whatman 1808. which was bought from Blake by Mr. and later. of Gerald Massey the poet. beautifully coloured. Songs of Innocence. New John R. however. Modern binding. have taken from the posthumously printed copy in the British Museum Reading Room. The same. is ' Following the general title-page the Songs of Experiby an error of the binder. A sheet of brown paper is inserted between the two series. Bound in the original white vellum binding. of H. K. Foliated by Blake 1-54. with wide wash borders. 1868. Monckton Milnes. Plates are printed in brown. York. Coloured. are placed before the ence. in Brooklyn. and 1874. Printed in greenish grey. 13 X io| inches. 1903. Watermark without date. 181 9. and sold at the Crewe sale. Linnell. in the same sepia as the border lines. August 27. Size John M. 54 plates. Delicately coloured. The same. Presumably a copy followed by Shepherd Copy Phillips the painter. 54 on one side of the leaf plates. is now in the possession of William Linnell. separately foliated. the possession of Mrs.' which he may. each printed on a separate leaf. printed upon one side of General title-page without foliation and the remaining leaves numbered by Blake 1-53. . Dated watermark 1818. Formerly the property of Mr. Shepherd includes among the Songs of Experience the rare poem *A Divine Image.' Very In old calf binding circa 1830. I. the general The watermark title-page being without foliation. Size 12x8^ the leaf inches. The same.74 Bibliographical Preface bearing the autographs. 54 plates. possibly part of the original binding. afterwards Lord Houghton. This copy. Bernard Quaritch. Wade. printed Each book only. The same. March 30. W. Esq. R. in Pickering's three editions of 1866. The inclusion of ' The School Boy among ' the Songs of Innocence points to the original having been rather an earlier than a later issue. in pencil. Size 5 x 7^^ inches. Copy L.

1797. 54 plates. Linnell. Watermark 18 15. A pencil note in this copy reads Edwards May 1828 [? R. in the library the possession of John Subsequently now in whose father purchased it Dec. Aders in July.. of James Weales. Aders. Wainewright (' Janus Weathercock ') bought from Blake. from Blake by Mr. Richly and elaborately coloured. Esq. Linnell. sold at the Hamilton Palace sale.() inches. drawing paper. Foliated consecutively by Blake 1-54.Songs of Innocence N. of Brooklyn. and in width from 4^ to 5 inches. and now in the possession of James T. probably during his connexion with the London Magazine 1830-3. 13. Esq. White. Linnell from Mr. These sheets were originally bound in boards covered with light green calico. This was the copy which T. Printed in reddish orange. Size 8| x ^-^^ inches. Foliated by Blake. Linnell. 1836. Printed in red. 54 plates. from a Mr. New York. through Mr. Muir in his reproduction of the So7igs of Experience. They are now mounted in a book of white consecutively ' ' O. Lewis. . The size of the drawing paper upon which the plates are printed is io| x 8| inches.. with added border lines of same Richly and splendidly coloured. with added border lines of same colour. These sheets are mounted on white paper \\\y. 54 plates. Bound in green morocco by C. P. W. Esq. Esq. printed upon one side of the leaf only. Edwards the publisher of Young's Night Afterwards Thotig/its. The same. A. Coloured with extreme finish and beauty. and now the property of W. or Mrs. printed on one side of the leaf only. which was then considered to be a somewhat enhanced price for a coloured copy of the Songs. 1843. The same. in this covered with unglazed calico or holland of a warm red colour. j or shortly afterwards. This is the copy bought. 1883.. This copy was used by Mr. White. J. Half-bound in morocco. Acquired by Mr. Foliated by Blake 1-54 consecutively. G. for the sum of five guineas. on separate 75 leaves. Printed in dull orange-red. who considered it the best he had seen. The plates copy are printed upon pieces of drawing paper varying in height from 6 to 7^ inches. The same. illustrated by Blake]. the Beckford copy. and bound in boards colour. 3 x 10 inches.

Watermark dated 182. belong to a copy which. . printed on recto only. N. 54 plates. 47. Bound in morocco circa 1830. 28. for the sum of five guineas. These. Fairfax R. and the copy. Field. printed upon one side of the leaf Foliated consecutively in ink 1-54. 40. Supplied from the early issue of the Songs of Innocence. 33. who had received it from Mrs. Size 8i X 5| inches. 54 ' : Edwin W. Linnell to Blake at the same date. Formerly the property of the artist Edward Calvert. and coloured gilt. 38 in number. Printed in orange. all printed in a reddish brown. ' ' ' Songs of Experience. H. Wateronly. paid through the elder Mr. ' are the second plate of The Ecchoing Green printed as recto to The Lamb (verso) and The ' Chimney Sweeper' recto with The Blossom' verso. printed upon both sides ot The same. The same. to whom it was bequeathed by Sir F.. S. note I received from Blake himself and coloured by his own hand. In modern binding. C. This set of impressions is apparently made up from three different copies. printed upon 52 leaves. 49. was issued not earlier than 1825. as Rossetti points out. is a very poor one. which lack the border lines. Linnell informs me. 50. These plates. Richly coloured and gilt. 54 plates. Supplied from a third copy are twelve plates of the the ' leaf. The majority of the plates. binding. This copy Crabb Robinson's copy. of Providence. W. viz. 51. 1863. Bibliographical Preface plates. of tints.(last figure wanting). Paginated consecutively by Blake in red. Now in the possession of C. and are foliated in pencil. Robinson. are printed in a variety : The colouring of some of the plates is rather muddy. Murray. with MS. which I present with great pleasure to The same. Printed in golden brown. as Mr. with added borders of Brilliantly Size 6-^^^ x ^\ inches. mark dated 1825.' Crabb Robinson. as the watermark shows. 1826.76 Q. are foliated by Blake between the outer and inner borders with which he surrounded the designs. Field as a gift in memory of her husband. 43. Size 7I x 4^ inches. 38. Y. 41. bought this copy in April. Burton. Perry Blake's friend. Esq. 32. Now in the possession of Mr. 42. March 1 1. Modern mount floral tracery.

1864. 41. The same. Ff. Haviland Burke. sepia upon large thin paper. but. each leaf separately mounted on a guard. printed on recto only.' to whom the author copies It is issued by Blake much exceeded ' . smaller paper 9-| X ']\ inches. to any engraved original.. Songs of Experience only. Under this heading I give the order of the Songs as they occur in the first letterpress edition This is not traceable edited by Wilkinson in 1839. Jebb. Obviously printed on recto only. 1-40 and 42 printed with leaden grey ink upon thick paper. It was sent by Mrs. Esq. Foliated in pencil. Copy in the Reading Room of the British Museum. 1825. Watermark dated ' V. Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Now in the possession of Robert Hoe. Bound Size 7| x ^\ in modern English maroon morocco. not probable that the whole impression of the Songs in number the twenty-two above. 54 plates. T. Size. side of the leaf only. Ff. X. Y. marked Blake's own. purchased January 7. 25 plates. some sheets of which bear the watermark somewhat darker ink and thinner paper. This is the copy followed by Gilchrist and most later editors in the arrangement of the So?igs. on one inches. 44. as the foliation shows. printed No Foliated 30-54. as not is to Gilchrist. Ff. as a return for a sum of twenty guineas which he had handed to her through Mr. 45-54 are printed in reddish In a Uncoloured. In 1863 this copy was in the possession of the Rev.Songs of Innocence Purchased by the British Museum (Print 77 Room) in 1836. Bishop of Limerick. 54 plates. f. The described Public. modern binding. delicately executed according or as harmonious as some of the earlier examples. Richly coloured and gilt. dated watermark. and may be the editor's 1831. having at one time formed part of a copy which conby Blake. 43. larger paper io| x 7^. Blake. printed in own arrangement. printed from the original plates after Blake's death. 43 bearing the upon larger watermark 1832. New York. tained the Sofigs of Innocence also. The sa7ne. Foliated The colour. Charles Forster.' to Dr.

who make greater pretensions to literal fidelity. it is most improbable that so faithful take ' ' A ' ' In Malkin's Fathers Memoirs of His Child (1806). 1812-99). v. Nat. . but. 184) speak son's text as 'much altered. and such changes as ta'en for took in the lines ' ' ' ' ' — ' fields and happy groves have took delight' Farewell green Where flocks away something of the charm of the original. in 1874. that the Songs of Innocence and of Experience were printed for the first time in ordinary types. and Diet. the correction of some few glaring grammatical blemishes These alone excepted. and from the same source prefixes two stanzas. This little volume. had thus only the remotest opportunity of becoming acquainted with his poems save by the two or three examples quoted by Malkin and Cunningham ^ It was not until 1839. 124.Bibliographical Preface 78 appeals in his Prospectus and elsewhere. i. twelve years after Blake's death. and in others introduced new readings of his own which cannot always be commended. D. published by Pickering and edited by James John Garth Wilkinson (Swedenborgian. and was reprinted. was published by Pickering in 1866. volume of Gilchrist's Life of Blake.. while the particular copy from which this arrangement is borrowed has not been traced by me. Book. in themselves a complete poem. and only a very small edition can have been printed. the biographer states the poems are now given in strict fidelity to the original. who has in several instances retained Wilkinson's alterations. His text of 'The Tyger' is based upon the corrupt version of Cunningham. passed into a second edition two years later. which seemed a pious duty. together with other of Blake's poems.' In reality his reprint compares not unfavourably in this respect with those of later editors. He introduces into the Songs of Experiejtce the Cradle Song taken from the MS. G.' 'corrections' are the work of Mr. Wilkinson omits The Little Vagabond. and Cunningham's Lives of British Painters (1830). The Gilchrists of Wilkin{Life. Rossetti.' and prints the poems in an ' order which apparently is not derivable from any engraved In 1863 the Songs were reprinted in the second authority. The order of the songs in this edition differs from that of Wilkinson or Rossetti. to far more accurate edition of the The Garden of Love. with the Poetical Sketches. is now itself somewhat of a bibliographical rarity.' Songs. Biog.

among others. Ellis and Yeats. if better. taken perhaps from the copy in the British Museum. Prefatory Memoirmayhavegiven rise to some misconception.' renders it sufficiently clear that Blake's text has been restored only in the case of the Poetical Sketches. B. an editor as Mr. R. D. Since 1874 the Aldine edition appears to have been generally accepted as the standard text of Blake's Poems. and they rectify various annoying and inexcusable laxities in point It is of metre or syntax. G. and has been frequently The editor's remarks on the last pages of his reprinted. edited by Mr. in the large Collected Works of William Blake edited by Messrs. Yeats in his smaller Muses' Library' edition of Blake. D. Rossetti. M. : : — — ' ' This explanation hardly also less absolutely exact. different and more accurate text is given by Mr. Rossetti These into the poems printed in Gilchrist's Life. is A ' . and do Blake the disservice of again presenting him without At any rate. or here and there of expression. as it assuredly is. W. therefore with considerable reluctance that I abandon them. and that the Songs of Innocence and of Experience are still printed with Mr. It is followed in most of the subsequent editions and selections. Rossetti's emendatory readings. as the compositions in their aid. The Song of Experience with the title 'A Divine Image' ('Cruelty has a Human Heart') appears in Shepherd's edition for the first time. Referring to the changes introduced by Mr. I have not form of the same poems. was published in 1874.Songs of Innocence 79 Heme Shepherd would have rearranged the poems in a way of his own. he says emendations were indeed great improvements. W. The Aldine edition of Blake's Poems. with a few fresh changes.' and later question have been already reproduced at a date intermediate between that of my brother's editing and of the present volume. G. which. and were then printed in their original shape (which term includes their occasional original shapefelt justified in recurring to another lessness).

8o Bibliographical Preface .

Little Girl Lost To Tirzah The Clod and the Pebble ! . Frontispiece Title-page to Songs of Inno- 2.3. General Title-page I. I On Another's Sorrow Spring Spring . The Lilly. The Sick Rose Nurse's Song 9The Angel The Little Vagabond 10. II. A IS- Holy Thursday My Pretty Rose Tree. Frontispiece to Songs of Ex- 2. The Ecchoing Green (2 plates) II.8i Songs of Innocence TABLE II FIRST ISSUE OF SONGS OF INNOCENCE AND OF EXPERIENCE (Printed upon both sides of leaf) F LEAF LEAF I. Night (2 plates) A Dream SAMPSON Laughing Song The The The 14. Little Girl A Little A Poison Tree Infant Sorrow 12.1 The School Boy Nurse's Song "•! H-l Holy Thursday -! i6. The Human Abstract The Fly 6.1 The Voice of the Ancient Bard The Divine Image The Chimney Sweeper Cradle Song (a plates) lO. Ah Sunflower. 17- The The Little Little Boy Lost Boy Found 3- 4- 5- Little Girl Little Girl Lost Lost Found Boy Lost The Chimney Sweeper The Tyger 7 •1 London The Garden of Love 8. Title-page Introduction Earth's Answer 3- perience cence 4- Introduction A The Shepherd Infant Joy The Blossom The Lamb Laughing Song 7Little Black Boy Little Black Boy 8.

82 .^ < Bibliographical Preface .

o 00 covo w <i-T)-iO'<i-iO'*-mcO"iJ-> CO CO en o coovOwmcot^'^ c« c c< cOjq ov o " n CO ^ 10 cococococOu.5co"> <*•^OT^lD>*•S t~oo irno W C« comr^'^'^ON-'i-ONO'O •*« CO CO O M tlO C» >1- « CJ •- CO CO CO « lOvO o\ o\ ** * CO '^ '^ oovO O N ON o ** 10 vO^ f'^'^COiOvCO'^i./.J 10 VO CO CO NlOC0MMO\C«rl- bo Tj--<«-io-<riO'^ir)cO'*> CO >* OvOO co»0 :u^co-^coirt'^coio>o O r- r'^ CO CO Oh u-)vo c .0-Ov|rg-'i r^locoo^^^-ncoco rf \n if ^ bf rt- V^ *lOC0'«-> « ii Tj-vo o T^„ CO ih01>-'-i'5OO'"i-i .Songs of Innocence O w N COCOI>00 c r CO CO 4) TS ••-* <-* X C "*"*lO^O O M fOa** coco'<i-coco^i.^(Q~cocO'<*-'^'i-'*'«-'* O w « co^^£P *T^<J••<l-u^lO'0>Olo'5 VO r«oo Ov CO CO VO t~ Ov 01 ns td CQ 1 c o 'C o c '-' •5< o " C» Ov •-< CO CO CO CO Tf ^o be n o co'^^'covo <!cO'*coio-<»-^in> ^ CO CO ^^ CO «co^voS?r^l?.5 i-i -"l- o ON >> 00C0ClC0«O\i-i00l>O .>M I •^ •<1-'^COCOC0q-„'~'^IOM <J-C0C0'^'<*- 83 00 c^ « N o »-< CO CO CO CO o M * ^^w mcoo\M o\Pi rf T«- ^ r» t~ Tt. CO CO • ITi 00 0\ « « O " 00 CO CO CO o « -"i- •^ e« ". COOO t^ '^ '* CO c c c •ivO Ov'^'^CJ >-iOO r-Wi ^COCOCO'S "1u^-*-<l-'> cococo>ococo^(^coioioco'*co"*'S .

writes incorrectly read Songs 'showing' for 'shewing.' which. nor are they known to occur as ' an inscription in any copy of the Songs. and Shep. These lines. This plate was probably engraved after Oct.SONGS Of INNOCENCE and Of EXPERIENCE Shemng the of the The general 'Two Contrary States Human Soul title-page to both series of the Songs. M. when Blake issued his prospectus 'To the Public' Omitted in the editions of DGR. WMR. issued together as one work. lo.' W. WBY of Innocence and Experience. . In the MS. were never engraved or published by Blake. Book (p.' In notes DGR and WBY . under the title 'A Motto. however. loi) are two stanzas entitled Motto to the Songs of Innocence & of Experience. EY. Rossetti prefixes to the Songs in the Aldine edition. 1793.

which leaf. with verso blank. ii. of the earlier.^/^. The engraved title to the Sottgs of Innocence. as well as in the later issue. when published either as In the a separate work. Blake. of the original plate. or in conjunction with the Songs of Experience. this plate is printed on the recto of the piper. (Z. facing the engraved frontispiece is printed on the verso of the preceding leaf (recto blank). end^ from an electrotype Reprinted in Gilchrist . W.SONGS of Inn c enc e 1789 The Author & Printer.

Julius. ii. II. Schrieb die Lieder hin zur Stund. 1811. Bd. WBY.' . that all may read. in the Vaterldndisches Museum.SONGS OF INNOCENCE Introduction Piping down the valleys wild. Schnitzte eine Feder dran. And he laughing said to me: i Pipe a song about a Lamb So I piped with merry chear. and subsequent issues of the Songs of Innocence printed on the verso blank. Dass sie sing' der Kinder Mund. Und ich schnitt ein hohles Rohr. ]ahrg. 150 (1830). Piping songs of pleasant glee. Hort' es lachelnd zu mir sagen : " Pfeifer. Shep. Pfeifend Lieder ohne Zahl .. ' Drop thy pipe. with the omission of the second and third stanzas. H. Macht' aus Wasser Tinte dann. Hefti : ' — Pfeifend ging ich durch das Thai. On a cloud I saw a child. II sang] Thus sung Cunn.. In the recto of first leaf. This poem was first printed in ordinary type in Cunningham's Lives of British Painters. .' So he vanish'd from my sight. . N." So erklang's vor meinem Ohr. translated. setz dich hin und schreib. Dass dein Lied im Sinn verbleib'. While he wept with joy to hear. Wilk. ' ' * • 5 ! Piper. And I 13 pluck'd a hollow reed. 'Piper. 9 ' : sit thee down and write In a book. by Dr.. thy happy pipe Sing thy songs of happy chear So I sang the same again. Sah ein Kind von Luft getragen. pipe that song again So I piped: he wept to hear.

Songs of Ifmocence
And
And
And

I

made a

I stain'd

I

Every

rural pen,
the water clear,

j?

my happy

wrote
child

87

may

songs
joy to hear.

The Ecchoing Green
The Sun does arise,
And make happy the
The merry bells ring

To welcome

i

skies

the Spring

;

;

The sky lark and thrush,
The birds of the bush,
Sing louder around

To

the bells' chearful sound,
sports shall be seen

While our

On

the Ecchoing Green.

Old John, with white hair,
Does laugh away care,

ii

Sitting under the oak,

Among

the old folk.

They laugh

at our play,

And
'

soon they all say
Such, such were the joys
:

all, girls & boys,
In our youth time were seen
On the Ecchoing Green.'

When we

Till the little ones, weary,

21

No more
The

And

can be merry;
sun does descend,
our sports have an end.

This song was engraved on two plates.

The

first

of these (to fourth line

of second stanza) is among the remnant reprinted by Gilchrist {^Life, ii. end).
In the first issue of the Songs of Innocence the two plates are always
printed as recto and verso of the same leaf
i8 When we all, girls
8 bells'] No apostrophe in orig.
punctuation in on'g. ; When we, all girls and boys Wilk., Shep.

&

boys]

No

88

Songs of Innocence
Round

Many

the laps of their mothers
sisters

and brothers,

Like birds

in their nest,

Are ready

for rest,

And sport no more seen
On the darkening Green.

The Lamb
Little

Lamb who made

thee?

i

Dost thou know who made thee?

Gave thee

By

life,

the stream

&
&

bid thee feed,
o'er the

Gave thee clothing of

mead

Softest clothing, wooly, bright

Gave thee such a tender
all

Making
Little

;

delight,
;

voice,

the vales rejoice?

Lamb who made

thee?

Dost thou know who made thee?

n

Lamb, I'll tell thee,
Lamb, I'll tell thee:
He is called by thy name,
For he calls himself a Lamb.
Little

Little

He is meek, & he is mild
He became a little child.
I

;

a child, & thou a lamb.
are called by his name.

We

Little
Little

This
to

'

The

bless thee

!

bless thee

!

the original plates reprinted by Gilchrist {Life, ii. end).
In
Songs of Innocence this plate is found as recto or verso
*
Blossom,' or as recto to Nurse's Song or Spring.'

is

t'le first

Lamb, God
Lamb, God

among

issue of the

3 bid] bade

'

DGR,

WMR,

EY.

'

Songs of

Innocejtce

89

The Shepherd
How

sweet

From

the

is

the Shepherd's sweet lot
to the evening he strays

i

!

morn

;

He shall follow
And his tongue

his sheep all the day,
shall be filled with praise.

For he hears the lamb's innocent

5

call,

And he hears the ewe's tender reply
He is watchful while they are in peace,
;

For they know when
In the

first

issue of the

'

their

Songs of Innocence
'

Infant Joy,' or as recto to
follows the Introduction.'

The

Little

is

Shepherd

nigh.

this plate is printed as

In almost

Black Boy.'

all later

verso to
issues

it

'

5, 6 lamb's
ewe's] No apostrophe in
8 whenj that Wilk., DGR.
.

Infant

.

.

orig.

lambs'

;

.

.

.

ewes*

all edd.

Joy
*

I

have no name

am
What
I

'

I

i

:

but two days old.'
shall I call thee?

happy am,

Joy is my name.'
Sweet joy befall thee

!

Pretty joy!

7

Sweet joy, but two days
Sweet joy I call thee

old.

:

Thou
I

dost smile,
sing the while,

Sweet joy
In the

first

issue of the

recto or verso to

'

befall thee

Songs of Innocence

The Shepherd,'

!

this plate is printed either as

or as verso to

'

On

Another's Sorrow.'

Songs of Imiocence

go

The

Black Boy

Little

mother bore

My
And

I

am

me

southern wild,
my soul is white

in the

O

black, but

White as an angel is the English
But I am black, as if bereav'd of

My

me

mother taught

i

;

child,
light.

underneath a

5

tree,

And, sitting down before the heat of day,
She took me on her lap and kissed me,
And, pointing to the east, began to say
:

'

Look on

And
And

— there

God

does

9

live,

gives his light, and gives his heat away
flowers and trees and beasts and men recieve
;

Comfort
'

the rising sun,

in

And we

morning, joy in the noon day.

are put on earth a little space,
learn to bear the beams of love

13

That we may

;

And

these black bodies and this sun-burnt face
but a cloud, and like a shady grove.

Is

'For when our souls have learn'd the heat to bear,

17

cloud will vanish, we shall hear his voice,
"
come out from the grove, my love & care.
Saying

The

:

And

my golden tent like lambs rejoice.'"
my mother say, and kissed me;

round

Thus did

21

And thus I say to little English boy.
When I from black, and he from white cloud free,
And round the tent of God like lambs we joy,
he can bear
To lean in joy upon our father's knee
And then I'll stand and stroke his silver hair.
And be like him, and he will then love me.

shade him from the heat,

I'll

till

25

;

Engraved on two plates of four and three stanzas respectively. In the
Songs of Innocence the former is printed as verso to
the Laughing Song or The Shepherd,' the latter as recto to The Voice of

earliest issue of the

'

'

'

'

the Ancient Bard.'
ii beasts] beast Shep.
like a cloud Svvinb. p. 115.

9 does] doth Muir's/rtcsi'w.
.

.

.

cloud]

Are

.

.

.

cloud all edd.

learn'd] learnt Shep.
omits out.
23-28

;

Are

18 cloud]

When

I

from

.

.

.

i6

Is

17

clouds Willc, Shep.
19 Wilk.
will then love me] Quoted Shep.

Songs of Innocence

9

1

Laughing Song
When the green woods laugh with the voice of
And the dimpling stream runs laughing by
When the air does laugh with our merry wit,
And the green hill laughs with the noise of it

i

joy,

;

;

When the meadows laugh with lively green,
And the grasshopper laughs in the merry scene,
When Mary and Susan and Emily
With their sweet round mouths sing Ha, Ha, He

5

'

'

When

the painted birds laugh in the shade,
table with cherries and nuts is spread,

!

9

Where our

Come live, & be merry, and join with me,
To sing the sweet chorus of Ha, Ha, He

*

'

!

In the first issue of the Songs of Innocence this plate is generally printed
The Little Black Boy.' In the Brit. Mus. Rdg.

as recto to the first plate of

'

This song was first printed in ordinary
type in Malkin's Fathers Memoirs of His Child 1806).
10 Where] When Wilk., Shep.
6 the merry] this merry MalL
11 merry] happy Wilk., Shep.

Rm. copy

this plate is lacking.

1

Spring
Sound the Flute

Now

it 's

i

!

mute.

Birds delight

Day and Night

;

Nightingale
In the dale,

Lark

in

Merrily,
Merrily, Merrily, to

Sky,

welcome

in the

Year.

Upon two plates in the engraved original. In the first issue of the Songs
of Innocence the former is usually found as verso to 'On Another's Sorrow,'
and the latter as recto to The School Boy.'
'

2 it's]

'tis

DGR, WMR, EY,

Umr'sfacsim.

Songs of Innocence

92

lo

Little Boy,

Full of joy

;

Little Girl,

Sweet and small

;

Cock does crow,
So do you
;

Merry

voice,

Infant noise,
Merrily, Merrily, to welcome in the Year.
Little

Here

Lamb,

am

I

Come and

lick

My

white neck

Let

me

Your
Let

Your

;

pull

soft

me

Wool

;

kiss

soft face

:

we welcome

Merrily, Merrily,

A

>9

;

in the

Year.

Cradle Song
Sweet dreams, form a shade
O'er my lovely infant's head
Sweet dreams of pleasant streams
By happy, silent, moony beams.

i

;

Sweet

sleep, with soft

Weave thy brows an
Sweet
Hover

sleep,
o'er

down

5

infant crown.

Angel mild,
happy child.

my

Engraved on two plates of six and two stanzas respectively, which in the
of the Songs of Innocence are always printed as recto and verso
The first of the two plates is among the number reprinted
of the same leaf.
by Gilchrist {Life, ii. end). Compare with this the Cradle Song on p. 114
insert among
reversed, of the MS. Book, which DGR and most editors
first issue

'

the Songs of Experience.
published by Blake.

'

The poem, however, was never engraved or

Songs of Innocence

93

Sweet smiles, in the night
Hover over my delight
Sweet smiles, Mother's smiles,

9

;

All the livelong night beguiles.

Sweet moans, dovelike sighs,
Chase not slumber from thy eyes.
Sweet moans, sweeter smiles,
All the dovelike moans beguiles.
Sleep, sleep,

happy

13

child,

17

All creation slept and smil'd

;

Sleep, sleep, happy sleep.
o'er thee thy mother weep.

While

Sweet babe, in thy face
Holy image I can trace.
Sweet babe, once like thee,
Thy maker lay and wept for me.

ai

for me, for thee, for all,
he was an infant small.

Wept

When

25

Thou

his image ever see.
Heavenly face that smiles on

Smiles on thee, on me, on all
became an infant small.

thee,

29

;

Who

Infant smiles are his

&

Heaven

own

smiles

;

earth to peace beguiles.

WMR,
WMR,
WMR,

EY.
.
.
beguile Wilk., DGR,
beguiles] smile
II, 12 smiles . .
EY.
15 moans] moan DGR,
14 thy] thine Wilk., DGR,
EY.
15, 16 smiles
beguiles] smile . . . beguile Wilk., DGR,
EY.
20 thy] doth DGR,
EY.
beguiles]
31, 32 Infant
.

.

WMR,

.

.

.

WMR,

'

Wilk.,

DGR.

Infant smiles, like

His own smile

Heaven and earth

to peace beguile.'

.

.

.

Songs of Lmocence

94

Nurse's Song
When the voices of children are heard
And laughing is heard on the hill,

My

heart

And
*

is

at rest within

everything else

Then come home,

And

is

my

my

i

breast,

still.

children, the sun

the dews of night arise

is

gone down,

5

;

Come, come, leave off play, and
morning appears in the

us

let

Till the
'

on the green,

away

skies.'

no, let us play, for

No,

it is yet day,
cannot go to sleep
Besides, in the sky the little birds fly,
And the hills are all cover 'd with sheep.'

And we

9

;

'Well, well, go & play till the light fades away,
And then go home to bed.'

The

ones leaped

little

And

Nurses Song

orig.

the

first

In

recto to

&

shouted

laugh'd

the hills ecchoed.

all

plate.

&

13

in Gilchrist {Life,

Reprinted

ii.

end')

from the original

Songs of Innocence this plate occurs as
(generally) or as verso to 'The Lamb,' or as recto

issue of the
'

'

Holy Thursday
'The Chimney Sweeper.' The original version of this song is found in
'After this [' H0I3'
the MS. known as The Island in the Moon (chap, xi):
Thursday' sung by Mr. Obtuse Angle] they all sat silent for a quarter of an
" it
puts me in mind of my [^raW-]mother's
hour, and Mrs. Nannicantipol said
to

song
I

the

:

When

the tongues of children are heard on the green," eic.^
2 And . hill] And laughing upon
Isl. in Moon.
znd rdg. (afterwards re-corrected to its earlier and present form).

voices] tongues
hill ibid,

5 Then
1st rdg.

.

.

.

.

.

down] Then come home
8 DGR, WMR, EY, and

10
eight-line stanzas.
dark Isl. in Moon ist rdg.

And

.

.

.

children, the sun is down ibid.
divide this poem into two

WBY

And we cannot

sleep]

11 Besides

.

.

.

fly]

The

sleep

till

it 's

flocks are at play

&

12 And
go away ibid, ist rdg.
sheep] And the meadows
are cover'd with sheep ibid.
14 go] come Wilk.
15 leaped
leaped and
laugh'd] leap'd, and shouted, and laughed Wilk., Shep.
16 ecchoed] I have found in
shouted and laughed WMR. EY, WBY.
a library copy of Blake's poems the joyous emendation of some youthful

we

can't

.

.

.

.

;

reader

:
'

And

all

the hills echoed, ed, ed

'
!

.

.

2nd rdg. In the first issue of the Songs of Innocence this plate is generally printed as verso to Nurses Song. 2 The] Came DGR.' . where The erased passages. The children walking two & two. sit] Seated Moon. Beneath them sit thunderings the seats of heaven the aged men. but multitudes of ! lambs. Obtuse Angle. in Moon. the whole multitude of innocents their voices raise Like angels on the throne of heav'n. Grey headed beadles walk'd before. in red & blue & green.. hands] . version of this song is found in The Island in the Moon (chap. The hum of multitudes was there. . Or 9 harmonious like among. in Moon 9-12 In Blake's first draft (in the Island in . these flowers of London town 5 Seated in companies. their innocent faces clean. order 7 sit was] were .Songs of Innocence 95 Holy Thursday 'Twas on a Holy Thursday. into the dome high of Paul's like they Thames' waters flow. Thousands of little boys & girls raising their innocent hands. O what a multitude they seem'd.' or (once") as recto to The Divine Image. EY. are here given in the footnotes. pronounced illegible. waiting the chief chanter's in companies 8 Thousands commands Isl. this stanza stood * : — Then like a mighty wind they raise Or like harmonious thunderings the When to heav'n the voice of song. in DGR. xi). And Isl. in Moon ist rdg. wise guardians of the poor. they sit with radiance all their own. lest you drive an angel from your door. in Moon. in Moon. with wands as white i Till as snow. Then cherish pity. wise] 9 Now] Then Isl. red] grey they were Wilk. which E and Y have it is sung by Mr. in . etc. seats of heav'n among. the Moon) the Isl. deleted Thousands of little girls & boys. all in 6 Seated Moon. I 'Twas on a] Upon a Isl. Now like a mighty wind they raise to heaven the voice of song. This poem was first ' ' printed in ordinary type in Malkin's Father's Memoirs of His Child (1806). WMR. . . 11 aged] rev'rend Isl. ibid. Isl.' The original MS. raising the voice of praise.

doch der Lammer Menge nur allein. oder du treibst einen Engel — fort. paarweis'. swift as arrow. Pretty. sobbing. ' ' II. Zwischen den Kleinen die Alten. gekleidet in roth und in blau und in grun GraukOpfige Zuchtmeister mit schneeweissen Ruthen voran. 1811): — Es war am grunen Donnerstag. Museum. and began * Let cherubim and seraphim now : — raise their voices high. Merry Sparrow Under A i ! leaves so green. Seek your cradle narrow Near my Bosom. . i.' found as recto or and as verso to the . Abgetheilt sitzend in Rotten. In St.' second plate of EY and my Bosom. O ! wie zahllos erscheinen sie da. ganz in der eignen Unschuld Pracht Es ersummt wie eine Menge. Songs of Innocence as recto to ' The ' WBY Spring. diese Blumen von Londons Macht . zum Himmel Gesanges Chor ein harmonisch Gewitter zu den Sitzen der Engel empor. and the stanza rewritten with the slight changes This song is thus translated by Dr. Pauls hohen Dom wie der Themse Fluthen strOmen sie dann. Julius {Vaterldndisches noted above. ! Tausend kleine Knaben und Madchen erheben ihre Handchen so wie 'Jetzt Wie ein Wirbelwind steigt rein.' The Blossom Merry. Pretty Robin. man sahe die Kinder ziehn. Pretty Robin Under leaves so green. der Armuth weiser Hort Drum erbarme dich vor deiner Thur.' This also was cancelled. this plate is Little Girl Lost. Sauber gewaschen. 7 ! A happy Blossom Hears you sobbing. happy Blossom Sees you. Near In the verso to first ' issue of the The Lamb.Songs of Innocence 96 Blake then deleted the entire stanza.' print as one stanza. Pretty.

laughing. that very night. And And Tom awoke and we rose in the dark. all of them lock'd up in coffins of black. Tom was happy & So so do their duty they need not if all In the first issue of the 21 . if he'd be a good boy. & sleeping. Then naked & white. & never want joy. Were And by came an Angel who had a bright key.' And so he was As Tom was a quiet. And my father sold me while yet my tongue Could scarcely cry So your chimneys There's That * Tom little ' ' 'weep I 'weep ! sweep. Lamb). aAMPSOS H Toddy jVt J.Innocejice Songs of 97 The Chimney Sweeper When my mother died I was very young. He'd have God for his father. They rise upon clouds and sport in the wind And the Angel told Tom. ! in soot I sleep. Songs of Innocence warm : harm. 3 'weep!] No apostrophe in orig. And he open'd the coffins & set them all free 13 . they run. all their bags left behind. got Tho' the morning was cold. Joe. & ! 'weep ! 'weep Hush. Dick. Dacre. cried when his head. You know i : that the soot cannot spoil your white hair. 5 was shav'd so I said for when your head 's bare curl'd like a lamb's back.' or as verso to Nurse's Song. Montgomery . 17 .' This poem was first printed in ordinary type in James Montgomery's Chimney-sweeper' s Friend and Climbing-boy's Album recto or verso to ' ' ' (1824) from a copy supplied to the editor by Charles Lamb. in a river. Tom ! never mind who it. fear found printed as this plate is The Divine Image. Then down And wash a green plain leaping. Ned & Jack. and shine in the Sun. 5 Dacre] (Ch.' as recto to the first plate of Spring. he had such a sight! 9 — That thousands of sweepers. with our bags & our brushes to work.

and Love All pray in their distress And i . And Love. & Pity There God is dwelling too.' or recto to A Dream. the human Then every man. Prays to the human form divine. 13 in his distress. 5 Is For Mercy has a human heart. Love. Return Pity. Peace. And Mercy. 'The Divine Image. .' or as verso to Holy Thursday. Mercy.' The original plate is among the number reprinted in Gilchrist's This poem was first printed in ordinary type in Malkin's Life (ii. Pity. to these virtues of delight their thankfulness. or jew. Pity. Where Mercy. end). 9 Pity a human face. our father dear. verso to ' * ' Memoirs of His Child (1806). Peace. Peace. That prays dress- of every clime. occurs either as recto or The Chimney Sweeper. In the first issue of Songs of Innocence this plate dwell. and Love God. and Love Is Man. And Peace. Peace. Love. 17 In heathen. And all must love the human form. For Mercy. has for many years been used as one of the hymns of the Positivist congregation in a northern Father's city. his child and care.Songs of Innocence 98 The Divine Image To Mercy. Pity. turk. the human form divine.' with the omission of stanza 2.

their nest. in the first issue. WMR. EY. Engraved upon two plates. They pour sleep on their head. 9 Where flocks have took delight. shine i . With silent delight and smiles on the night. mine. 105 of the MS. EY. Book. which. 9 groves] grove DGR. They look in every thoughtless nest. 23 head] heads W. And sit down by their bed. for the west. and WBY. To keep them from harm. green fields and happy groves. And joy without ceasing. On each bud and blossom. 24 by] on Wilk. 13 blessing] blessings W. Sits Farewell. 17 . Where lambs have nibbled. Muir. entitled * Day and beginning •The Sun arises in the East. WMR. Innocence. of the Songs of The poem. Unseen they pour blessing. And each sleeping bosom. Muir. took] ta'en all except Sh^^. Where birds are cover'd warm They visit caves of every beast. are always found as recto and verso of the same leaf. Muir. all If they see any weeping That should have been sleeping.Songs of Innocence 99 Night The sun descending in The evening star does The birds are silent in And I must seek The moon. like a flower. In heaven's high bower. ' or part of a poem. Ha .' antithesis of this Song may have been designed by Blake as the of Innocence. silent moves The feet of angels bright . Ii moves] move DGR. 10 3 nest] nests W. on p.

Recieve each mild spirit. wash'd in life's river. Saying 'wrath. EY. sickness Is driven From away our immortal day. 'And now beside thee. 41 . bright mane for ever Shall shine like the gold My As 33 eyes] eye DGR. New worlds to inherit.I oo Songs of Imtocence When wolves and tygers howl for prey. And pitying the tender cries. And there the lion's ruddy eyes 3. Graze after thee and weep. bleating lamb. I o'er the fold. And walking round the fold. Muir. For. And keep them from the sheep. pitying stand and weep They 25 . And. I can lie down and sleep Or think on him who bore thy name. 39 Is] Are A Dream Once a dream did weave a shade O'er my Angel-guarded bed. Muir. That an Emmet Where on In the first issue of the * The lost its way grass methought I lay. WMR.' guard W.' i ' ' ' . But if they rush dreadful. most heedful. Seeking to drive their thirst away.' or as Image.3 Shall flow with tears of gold. Songs of Innocence this plate is printed as recto to verso to Laughing Song or to The Divine Little Girl Lost. 46 mane] name Wilk. by his meekness. 36 fold] folds W. The angels. by his health.

' and as recto or verso to reprinted in Gilchrist's Life (ii. 'wilder'd.Songs of Innocence i Troubled. In the plate first plate of is issue of the ' fill'd ? 9 infant groan. Little wanderer. Dark. an infant fear? No. wailing wight watchman of the night ? set to light the ground. I drop'd a tear. All heart-broke I heard her say: or 5 * O. But saw a glow-worm I Who ' replied Calls the 'I am : What 13 near. not be in sorrow too? And Can see another's grief.' The original . no first 5 my Can a father see his child Weep. my children do they cry ? Do they hear their father sigh? Now they look abroad to see Now return and weep for me. benighted. ' is found as recto to the Infant Joy. sorrow's share? I And not feel Can a mother sit and hear never can it be never can it be! Never.' On Another's Sorrow Can I see another's woe. end). I And not seek for kind relief? Can see a falling tear. hie thee home. Over many a tangled spray. nor be with sorrow An i ! 1 Songs of Innocence this plate Spring. and forlorn. travel-worn. While the beetle goes his round Follow now the beetle's hum ly.' 9 ! : Pitying. : .

I02 Songs of l7mocence And who can he smiles on all 13 Hear the wren with sorrows small. And O ! he gives to us his joy grief he may destroy That our Till He Little 33 . 34 grief] griefs Wilk. our grief is fled & gone doth sit by us and moan.' 3 Speak] O speak . Hear the small bird's grief & care.. 17 Pouring pity in their breast And not sit the cradle near. Boy Moon i ! little Songs of Innocence Found. never can it be ! He He doth give his joy to all becomes an infant small He He doth becomes a man of woe feel the 25 . thy maker is not by Think not thou canst weep a tear. introduced by the words father !] father. father Isl. Hear the woes that infants bear. always found as recto poem is found in the — 'Then sung Quid . Boy Lost * where are you going ? Father father O. O boy. The ^^i . in Moon. Weeping tear on infant's tear . ! Speak. xi). And not sit beside the nest. father.' The this plate is original draft of this (chap. speak to your Or else I shall be lost. 21 day. And thy maker is not near. DGR. no ! ! Never. 30 by] nigh Wilk. Father in ! Moon. sorrow too. And not both night sit & . . . Think not thou canst sigh a sigh. do not walk so fast. Wiping all our tears away? never can it be O.' to issue of the In the first 'The Little Island in the I Isl.

sought. & the child did weep. The in . thro' the lonely dale. the vapour flew. & by the hand And to his mother brought. & in no father was there Moon. led. night child] it And was dark the child Isl. EY. like his father. 5 sorrow pale. but God. He kissed the child. no father was there The child was wet with dew The mire was deep. And away 5 Isl. 6 The Moon. Began to cry Appear'd .So?igs of Innocence 103 The night was dark. . 8 Her] The DGR. boy weeping little issue of the verso to the preceding. The The there] . 5 . Songs of Innocence WMR. Boy Found Little The little boy lost in the lonely Led by the wand'ring light. ever nigh. this plate always occurs as . in white. Who Her In the first in i fen. .

.

W. facing the frontispiece of the Shepherd on The engraved title to the in conjunction with the the verso of the preceding leaf. end) from an electrotype of the original This title-page would appear to have been twice engraved by Blake. plate.SONGS of EXPERIENCE 1794 The Author & Printer. Blake Songs of Experience. when pubHshed either Songs of Innocence or separately. In Gilchrist's reprint the date 1794 is omitted and the cross stroke to the letter/ has a downward instead of an upward curve. . The plate is printed on the recto of the leaf. Reprinted in Gilchrist's Life (ii. In some copies the date has evidently been inserted by hand.

18 floor] shore Swinb. i-io] Swinb. And fallen fallen light renew ! 'O Earth. 4 Holy] ancient Swinb. * Turn away no more Why wilt thou turn away? i6 . ancient trees.SONGS OF EXPERIENCE Introduction Hear the voice of the Bard Who Present. version. I . Rises from the slumberous mass. sees Whose ears have heard The Holy Word That walk'd among the . return! Arise from out the dewy grass is worn. Calling the lapsed Soul. Past. The The starry floor. wat'ry shore. Closely connected this poem are The Voice of the Ancient Bard.. the morn Night And ii . by which it is immediately ' ' with preceded in followed in some copies all of the Songs. Is giv'n thee till the break of day. WMR. 11-20] Swinb. 6 And That might control! The starry pole. Not found in any MS. weeping in the evening dew.' by which it is copies.' One engraved plate. and ' Earth's Answer. prints as a single stanza. EY. 5 ancient] silent Swinb. & i ! Future. 19 shore] floor Swinb. prints as a single stanza. O Earth. 20 Is] Are Swinb.

dread. Book) first word deleted. . Essay. p. Cast out from thy lovely bosom Cruel jealousy. the lines immediately preceding this poem in the MS' Book. over rocks. Stony dread And ! her locks cover'd with grey despah*. . 118 other edd. DGR WMR. word erased. fled] Blake's successive changes of this line are Her : — eyes fled orbs dead light fled (pencil). Book cancelled. . 4 Stony dread !] Punctuation as in MS. 6 den my Starry Jealousy does keep : Cold and hoar. Book and engraved Songs (Stony 6 Prison'd dread !) shore] Stony. jealous. Cold and hoar . selfish fear! ' The Earth's Answer (MS. Prisoned on this watery shore Swinb. . read . arrangement abaab breaks down in this Cruel MS. . EY. Cp. Renew in these chains of darkness Where bones of beasts are strown. The original rime- 10 father of the] del. 'Prison'd on wat'ry shore. Book 1 1 Selfish] 14/ rdg. Book (p. Weeping o'er hear the father of the ancient men. also the final * stanza oi Ahania {engraved 1795) : — But now alone. how can delight Self-destroying . selfish fear. Father of Jealousy?' Cp.Songs of Rxperierice 107 Answer Earth's up her head Earth rais'd From the darkness dread Her i & drear.. Book 13 selfish] illegible 1st rdg. del. so also in Swinb. ' beginning: — 'Why art thou silent & invisible. . Engraved on a single plate from what is obviously the original draft in the MS. iii reversed). . I 'Selfish father of men! ii Cruel. MS. weeping MS. and replaced by some 11-15 MS. del. . mountains. . in and the next stanza. . Bk. h'ght fled.Shep. 7 my den :] Punctuation as in my den Wilk. On the bleak and snowy mountains Where bones from the birth are buried Before they see the light?' 3 Her . . . WBY.

del.' i6-ao This stanza was 14 Chain'd] Clog'd MS. Does the sower sow His seed by night MS. Engraved without material change from a MS. 25 Eternal bound] Thou. Chain'd The in night. \ . my children. vain ! Eternal bane ! Selfish That ! free 21 Love with bondage bound. Book is/ rdg. del. . Book 15/ rdg.1 08 Songs of Experience Can delight. youth rise fresh and pale. No apostrophe in original. 2a freeze] close MS. Book (p. 3 my] green] grave R'. 5 the dews of night arise Your spring & your day are wasted in play. my bane Hast my love with bondage bound MS. Book xst rdg. . children are heard on the green in the dale. which Blake cancelled. face turns green Then come home. virgins of youth and morning bear? Does spring hide ' its joy buds and blossoms grow? Does the sower 16 When Sow by Or the night. del. Nurses' rise] are MS. 19 Does 16 joy] delight MS. del. but restored when 18. night] : . . And your winter and night in disguise. del. an addition written in place of the third. 4 SongWilk. 24. the sun And is gone down. . Nurse's Song] R' omits. Nurse's Song When the voices of And whisp'rings are The days My of my . engraving. My] And my R'. Book. Can the sower sow by night Swinb. . in my i mind. Book xst rdg. plowman darkness plow? in ' Break this heavy chain That does freeze my bones around. Book 15/ rdg. fair copy (without title) in the 109 reversed).

deviations from the engraved text are given in the footnotes. 27-30. preserving the guilty hand in the of stanza i. Till some blind hand Engraved on a single first draft. followed Blake then preis an afterthought. A A few trifling 3 thoughtless] guilty MS. fixed a summer's] summer MS.' Then come the second. chases a butterfly of human shape. and fifth by two versions of stanza four. Book. labile another. from the original pencil sketches in the in which a youth.Songs of Experience 109 The Fly Little Fly. title. And And dies in peace. Am not A fly like I Or A 5 thee? art not thou man For I me ? like dance. i Thy summer's play My thoughtless hand Has brush'd away... hat in hand. third. 11. sing. so do thou. in double columns. also Milton. ' He ' then turned to the shorter metre. Book jst same idea occurs in The pictorial representation of the Gates of Paradise (engraved 1793. fled . Book). Below is the inscription 'Alas ' 1 Cp. on p. 18. . Then follows a deleted stanza. lies crushed at his feet. which stanzas in their present form. he had used Proverbs of Hell {Marriage of Heaven and its first two lines as one of his ' * Hell) : 'The cut worm Forgives the plow. numbers to the stanzas indicating their present order. uncompleted and felicitous tiny metre — hand Brush'd across thy summer joy All thy gilded painted pride Shatter'd. Book. loi of the from what deleted stanza shows that before hitting upon this Blake began to write the song in a less sprightly strain 'Woe! my alas! guilty is evidently the An MS. plate. f. del. since writing the poem. MS. probably because. 9 And & Shall brush my drink. omitted by him in the ' first draft engraved version. . 8 rdg. without wing. which he has just struck down.

(2nd version) WMR WMR (2nd version). 109. xxxix. too numerous to be readily intelligible in footnotes. DGR. readings. If I live Or 13-16 If . WMR (2nd version). Book.' This poem was first printed in ordinary type in (reversed) of the Malkin's Fathers Mentotrs (1606). in a letter to Bernard Barton. WMR (and version). are given in full in the appended note on the different versions of 'The Tyger. Book is & breath.. which exhibits an important variant reading of the last line An early corrupt version also appeared in Cunningham's Lives of the British Painters (1830). Thro' the desarts Chas. from a copy probably supplied by Blake himself. . 108 MS. R' . frame] Framed Cunn. 7.. fire] . (and version). 144. WMR . 1824). DGR. the want Of thought Then am happy is death . ! i ! What immortal hand Could frame thy or eye fearful symmetry? In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? "What the hand dare sieze the fire? 5 Engraved on a single plate from the first draft of the poem on pp. die. fervour Cunn. p. May 15. Cunn.. 6 Burnt] Burned the] that of] within DGR. DGR. Cunn.iio Songs of Experience If life is thought And And 13 strength & breath. The Tyger Tyger burning bright Tyger In the forests of the night.. bum'd Wilk. death. I A 17 fly. R'. The MS. .' del xst rdg. ... 4 Could of the third stanza. ii. Lamb (quoting from memory. 2 forests] forest Malk. if I death] is life 'Thought And strength But the want Of thought MS. 8 dare] dared DGR.

enables us to follow every step in the composition of the poem. DGR. EY. ! ! . DGR. WBY stanza is sprinkled Cunn. Unable to complete this stanza to his satisfaction he cancelled it altogether. DGR 18 water'd] watered Malk. WMR (2nd version). Cunn. What dread hand? & what dread feet? And what What the hammer? what 9 the chain? 13 In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? what dread grasp Dare deadly terrors clasp? its When the stars threw down their spears. ii .. thy Cunn. leaving the preceding line as it stood. . fearful symmetry? And heart] When 10 thy] thine Wilk.. . did not escape his . (and version).. DGR. NOTE ON 'THE WMR.Songs of Experience 1 1 1 shoulder. It ' will be seen that Blake at first intended the line What dread hand and what dread feet — ' merely as the beginning of a sentence running on into the next stanza.. their] and shining Cunn. 16 Dare] Dared Malk. WMR . and 6. WMR (2nd version).. 2.. R'. R^ What the hammer. WBY. On the left page is found the first rough draft In stanza 3 the manuscript version throws light i.. feet?] What dread hand forged thy dread feet ? Malk. Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to beat.. Book. This.. What dread hand formed thy dread feet ? What dread hand and what dread feet Cunn. omitted by Cunn. its] 17 spears] spheres Cunn.. WMR (2nd version). 3. EY. thy heart. . 12 What. WMR Cunn. . Knit thy strength and forged . . WMR. .' The original draft of 'The Tyger. Malk. And water'd heaven with their tears. . what the chain. 109. Wilk. upon a verse which has proved a crux to many of Blake's readers and of stanzas commentators. 108 reversed) ef the MS. & what art. WMR (and version).' written upon two opposite pages (pp. . 4. What immortal hand Dare frame thy or eye. thy brain? DGR. 14 What brain] What the hammer what the chain Formed thy strength and forged thy brain ? Cunn. 17 Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the Lamb make thee? 21 Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night. (2nd version) What dread hand framed thy dread feet? Swinb. of course. DGR.. See also editor's note to this poem. a 1-24 This TYGER. 13.

or wings aspire ? ' I . that Swinburne (Critical Essay. Blake again remodelled this line into the slow and solemn form — 'What where the gain of much dread hand forged thy dread feet?' in definiteness and technical accuracy at the sacrifice is of the fiery energy and vague suggestion of terror conveyed by the It is probably with an imperfect remembrance of this final emendation of Blake's. compressed force of these two short sentences. seeing that he had used the word "shoulder" before. moreover had already been used in the first stanza. A. Book. is a revised version of stanza 2. The difficult ' ' ' ' . On the opposite page of the MS. meaning to erase the first word "And.' At a later which there is no reason to doubt was supplied by the date. Then Blake re-arranged the order of the lines in the and also at stanza. when thy heart began to beat. reading — What ' dread hand framed thy dread feet ? ' The word is no printed or manuscript authority. Malkin. misled by the spurious version of Gilchrist. which seems to be ankle. which differs from that finally adopted. which burst forth with a momentary pause between them like shells from a mortar. though probably written after it. I think that he struck out the number "3" in front of the first line of this stanza by accident. ' line — ' Could heart descend. p. the composition of which Mr. White. " Did He who made the lamb make thee ? " Probably after that he erased the line above." Above the fifth stanza. Yeats to remark that when engraving the ' poem Blake forgot to alter the last line of the third stanza. is altogether lost in the languid punctuation of the Aldine edition — 'And. he struck " it out and inserted the word over it. and by a change of punctuation he converted the unfinished passage into its present notice shape — 'What dread hand? a line exactly parallel in form to ' What the & what dread feet? — hammer ? what the chain ? ' of the following stanza.1 1 2 Sojtgs of Experience when engraving the poem for the Songs of Experience. W. What dread hand and what dread feet?' and it is only the failure of critics to observe the significance of the revised pointing of the engraved version which caused Swinburne to speak of this ' passage as a rock of offence. and numbered them in order to make this order clear the same time numbered the stanzas. 120) refers to ' the recovery of that nobler earlier text. in the version author to Dr.' or Mr. the present owner of the MS. 'Then I think the glorious line occurred to him. and wrote above it And did He laugh H is work to see ? and then added the two lines about the stars. Book is the first draft of the fifth stanza. making this the fifth. thus explains to me in a letter " What the shoulder ? What the knee ? " ' I think that [BIal<e] wrote first and then. The terrible.'' but is not a variant for which there ' frame ' : — very clearly written.

' in the throughout. Book. to the right of these two stanzas. 3.' ' ' ' errors repeated in Mr. pp. 1.' and did for dare ' ' ' ' ' Muses' Library ' — edition of Blake (notes. 5. 92). deleted words or The manuscript itself is unpunctuated lines being printed in italics. pp. 3. 91. for identical with the text ' ' and first last stanzas. and 6. follows a fair copy of stanzas i. or material ' Upon the same page. What immortal hand If eye or Could frame thy fearful symmetry? Dare 2. It will be seen that this version differs in important details from that given by Messrs. Ellis and Yeats (iii. Tyger. Yeats' inspire for aspire. one below another.' 'horn'd' for 'horrid. ' ' and ' hand and eye ' hand or eye in the of the engraved Songs. In what distant deeps or skies Burnt in Burnt the fire of thine eyes ? The cruel On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare sieze the fire And what shoulder. is The following is a faithful transcript of the original draft of 'The Tyger MS. And in thy horrid ribs dare steep? the well of sanguine woe In In what clay Were thy 4. 238. and the readings dare frame for could frame in the first. What the — & in eyes of fury rolVd? hammer ? what Where In t SAMPSON what mould the chain ? where what furnace was thy I brain ? . THE TYGER. & what ? art Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to beat What dread hand & what dread feet Could fetch it from the furnace deep. which not only fails to make clear the sequence of Blake's alterations. Tyger. which.Songs of Experience 1 1 3 God bring down his heart to Or could any lesser daemonic high enough to assume power Could has been interpreted by Swinburne the making of a thing so deadly and strong ? ' : wings and force of nature take to itself Could equal to such a creation ? force so far aspire ? fly spiritual force so far descend. but contains such inexplicable misreadings as 'filch' for 'fetch. burning bright In the forests of the night. Blake's variant readings being indicated typographically by placing them in consecutive order. except for unimportant differences of ' ' capitalization. 239).

and thence reprinted by later editors under such headings as a later MS. G. is not stated. The version given by the latter. Book. burning bright In the forests of the night. is based upon that printed by Cunningham in his ii.1 1 4 So7tgs of Experie7tce What the anvil ? what arm arm the grasp clasp dread grasp Could Dare its deadly terrors clasp'i g^nsp ? clasp ? 6. as he himself states in a note prefixed to his first transcript (R^). Tyger. A ' few words must be added with regard to the so-called second version Tj'ger in the Aldine edition. M. And the stars threw down their spears.. Yeats complains. Mr. water'd heaven with their tears. he assumes that they owe of ' ' ' The ' ' ' ' their origin to changes introduced into the text by D.' adding that it shows certain variations on MS. or wings aspire? What J. This. Did he who made the lamb make thee ? Dare 1. version and the like. What & immortal hand Dare form thy fearful eye symmetry ? frame the opposite page'\ \On Burnt in distant deeps or skies The cruel fire of thine eyes ? Could heart descend. however. as Mr. and as there is obviously no warrant for these readings in the MS.' MS. W. Tyger. When 2. : 'And what shoulder and what art Could twist the sinews of thy heart? When thy heart began to beat What dread hand formed thy dread feet? * What what the chain the hammer Formed thy strength and forged thy What Dared ! the anvil its ! What dread grasp deadly terrors clasp ? ! brain ? — . where the last three stanzas run Lives of British Painters (1830. authority. Gilchrist's What book. Rossetti explains in a footnote. 144). And the hand dare sieze the fire ? work did he laugh his dare he smile U 'hat the to see ? laugh shoulder ? what the knee ? ankle ? 4. 5. is the version which figures in Mr. Rossetti.

and it is plain that Cunningham treated Blake's text with the same freedom which he entitled to use in an old Scots ballad. Bd. Tiger. Thranend ward der Himmel Meer: Schaut' er lachelnd da auf dich ? Der das ' Lamm schuf. it ' own to his 1806). Tiger. schuf er dich? Tiger. welch Gottes Aug' und Hand Dich so furchtbar schCn verband ? ' Stammt vom Himmel. Tiger. his work to see ? Did he who made the lamb make thee?' A comparison of the versions of the other poems and passages quoted by Cunningham with their in originals the Poetical Sketches shows that unauthorized readings are introduced into almost every line. Heft translation of i. Did he smile. Wob so sinnreich HerzensbruQ^t ? Als dein Herz den Puis empfand. aus der HoU'. appeared. zu nah'n dem Gluh'n Starke. Flammenpracht In den Waldern dustrer Nacht ! Sprich. Julius's would have thought himself ' German II.Songs of Experience 1 1 5 'When the stars threw down their spheres. The interest attaching to everything relating to this poem. welche Kunst. wess Gottes Aug' und Hand Dich so furchtbar schOn verband?' I % ? . countrymen. unknown ' The Tyger from the Vaterldndisches Museum. Kettenklirr'n ? Welche Esse schmolz dein Him ? Was ist Amboss ? Welcher Held Muth in deinem Arm behalt ? 'Aus den Sternen flog der Speer. called by Swinburne the most famous of Blake's lyrics. Flammenpracht In den Waldern dustrer Nacht ! Sprich. at a time when Blake's Songs were almost (Hamburg. Dir der Augen Feuerquell'? Welche Flugel tragst du kuhn ? ' Welche War wagt wohl. This spirited and admirably literal rendering will be noticed. No manuscript authority of Blake's can therefore be claimed for this version. And sprinkled heaven with shining tears. Welch ein Fuss und welche Hand ? 'Was ist Hammer. ' ' DER TIGER.' may be thought sufficient excuse for adding to the length of this note by reprinting Dr.

weep? Where can Lyca ' me my Lyca let Lyca wake 25 .1 1 6 Songs of Experience The Lost Girl Little In futurity i prophetic see That the earth from sleep (Grave the sentence deep) I Shall arise and seek For her maker meek And 5 . In the southern clime. come to Underneath this tree. Do father. Seven summers old 13 Lovely Lyca told She had wander'd long Hearing wild birds' song. the desart wild Become a garden mild. . number reprinted from The first the originals by and versions of these songs are known to exist. Lovely Lyca lay. the first of which contains the first ten stanzas of the present poem. niarhs. Lost Is If her ' If ar little child. . and the second the conclusion of the same with the first three stanzas This song. No among manuscript and Shep. sequel 'The Little Girl Found. and and half the its of the fourth of the next song. see] I prophesy WBY. .' are engraved upon three plates. mother sleep. 'Sweet sleep. 2 I 17-32 Wilk. can Lyca sleep mother weep ? her heart does ake Then If sleep? in desart wild your How 17 mother. . last plates are Gilchrist. shall not weep. the summer's prime 9 Where Never fades away. omit quotation .

. And upon her neck From his eyes of flame Ruby tears there came 45 . WMR. O'er this desart bright. 37 the virgin view'd. Let thy moon While I close 117 29 arise my eyes. (SoHgs of In. Then he gambol'd round O'er the hallow'd ground. The kingly And lion stood. 45 And . While the lioness 49 Loos'd her slender dress. . And her bosom lick. lick] And her breast did lick DGR. .So7tgs of Experience 'Frowning. See note to ' The Little Girl Lost. play Round her as she lay. Leopards.' EY. And naked they convey'd To caves the sleeping maid. 33 Come from caverns deep. View'd the maid asleep. While the desarts weep. tygers.) The Little Found Girl All the night in woe Lyca's parents go Over vallies deep.' Sleeping Lyca lay While the beasts of prey. Muir's facsim. frowning night. 41 While the lion old Bow'd his mane of gold.

. 26 his] the Wilk. And silent They look upon his eyes with deep surprise wondering behold Fill'd And A spirit by them stands. arm'd with sorrow sore Till before their A . Turning back was vain: Soon his heavy mane Bore them to the ground. weeping. weak. Rising from unrest. Pale. 17 The trembling woman prest With feet of weary woe She could no further go. And dream they see their child 9 Starv'd in desart wild. But their fears allay When he licks their hands. arm'd 23 sorrow] sorrows DGR. : In his arms he bore ai Her. Then he stalk'd around. With hollow piteous shriek. Seven nights they sleep Among shadows deep. 33 . Arm in arm seven days They 5 trac'd the desart ways. Smelling to his prey 25 39 .T 1 8 Songs of Experience Tired and woe-begone. thro' pathless The ways 13 fancied image strays Famish'd. in gold. Hoarse with making moan. way couching lion lay.

Songs of Experience On On his head a crown Flow'd his golden ' Follow me. ' But And i for another gives its ease. not for the maid 41 . To this day they dwell In a lonely dell Nor fear the wolvish howl 49 . DGR. But a Pebble of the brook Warbled out these metres meet Engraved on a single plate from the Without title in the MS. . 5 sung] sang MS. Book.' So sung a little Clod of Clay. . 7 brook] wood R'. vision led. And saw their Among tygers 4- sleeping child wild. hair. 3 another] another's R'. palace deep lies asleep.' Then they Where the followed. builds a Heaven in Hell's despair. Book. 4 in] to R^.' he Weep my Lyca 9 37 . ' In 1 down his shoulders Gone was 1 said. lion's all edd. Nor the lions' growl. all their care. 38 shoulders] shoulder Wilk. the Pebble Love seeketh not Itself to please. Nor for itself hath any care. Trodden with the cattle's feet. The Clod and 52 lions'] lions orig. EY. WMR. 5 : 115 (reversed) of the MS. fair copy on p.

. nor fasting. (p. at the s our souls to regale. Book ' ' [' pretty del. And God. 13 rejoicing to see] that joys for 16 But to see MS.' 9-12 Cp. del. a pleasant fire Then the Parson might preach. We'd sing and we'd pray all the live-long day. 10 bend R». Book \st The poor parsons with wind like a blown bladder swell MS. that drinks another as a The Little 9 Self] Vagabond Dear Mother. 105 This poem is well] Such usage in heaven makes all go to hell MS. Book 15/ rdg. and R' But kiss him & give him hoth food [_del. . 9 Its delight.?rf rdg. ' and rds. dear Mother. & give him both drink and apparel.I20 Songs of Rxperience * Love seeketh only To bind another to Self to please. rdg. But the Ale-house is healthy & pleasant & warm Besides Such usage But And if where I am used heaven will never do can I tell in i . . Book 4 Such. Joys in another's loss of ease. Nor ever once wish from the Church to stray. the Church is cold. Self DGR. 9 And we'd be as happy as birds in the spring And modest dame Lurch. who is always at Church. .\. changed to drink'] & apparel MS. del. ' in pencil. Would not have bandy children. DGR. Would have no more quarrel with the Devil or the Barrel. Visions 0/ /he Daughters 0/ Albion (engraved 1793) ' sponge drinks Water? EY. . And builds a Hell in Heaven's despite. & drink. EY.. . well. well. But kiss him. del. nor birch. 10: 'Can that be Love. MS. Book 2. Church they would give us some Ale. like a father. & sing. Book \st rdg.. WMR. apparel] But shake hands & kiss him & there'd be no more hell MS. . bind] f. WMR. . rejoicing to see 13 His children as pleasant and happy as he. Engraved on a single plate from the version reversed) entitled The little pretty Vagabond omitted in Wilkinson's edition of the Songs.

. Gilchrist's Life copy on p. & their fields are bleak ways are their It is eternal fiU'd 9 bare. Book (p. I was angry with I told my told it I wrath. Engraved on a MS. MS. Book. For where. Nor poverty the mind appall. EY. EY. . Babe can never hunger there. my my friend my wrath my foe title. 15 Babe] Babes Wilk. (written later in pencil) has and EY. did end. line DGR. 4 Fed . 114 reversed).' of the been adopted by engraved version. 12 poor] And so great a number poor MS. 8. that Blake . 103 (reversed) of the reprinted from an electrotype of the original in single plate from the fair This plate is end). : MS. Book. this stanza in the poem to end MS. 13 For] But MS. drawn below originally intended the WMR. with thorns : winter there. . (ii. where-e'er the rain does fall. And 'Tis DGR. Book. was angry with not. MS. Book. .e'er the sun does And 5 it 13 shine. in preference to that in the in the 'Christian Forbearance. . A WMR. A i : wrath did grow. Book shows at this point. hand] Fed with a cold usurious hand DGR. WMR. Engraved on a single plate from the copy 4 It is] Poison Tree I The 7 . cold and usurous Fed with hand ? trembling cry a song ? be a song of joy ? so many children poor? Is that Can And It is a land of And And And poverty ! their sun does never shine. Is this i Babes reduc'd to misery.Songs of Experience 1 2 1 Holy Thursdaya holy thing to see In a rich and fruitful land. can] should DGR.

& arm'd my 5 . Engraved on a single plate. written in pencil. I wept both day and night. . del. Guarded by an Angel mild Witless woe was ne'er beguil'd I And that ! ? i I : ! And And And And I wept both night and day. he wip'd my tears away. And Till in fears. fears ten thousand shields and spears. The Angel Dreamt a Dream what can it mean was a maiden Queen. it morning with And ii . Book. . So he took his wings and fled Then the morn blush'd rosy red 9 . design of this plate is found on p. on p. it And into my garden When the night had foe tears bore an apple bright my foe beheld it shine. . Book. I dried With my tears. was mine. 103 The title written later. hid from him my heart's delight. stole 13 veil'd the pole: In the morning glad see I foe outstretch'd beneath the tree. Book. 65 of the MS. 9 both] by MS. MS. And shine] I gave it to my 15/ rdg. with soft deceitful wiles. . The original coloured (reversed) of the MS. it And And My 5 my I sunnM it with smiles.1 22 Songs of Experience And water'd I & Night And And it grew both day and he knew that 9 night. from the fair copy. Book .

107 reversed). or Moral Law. Book. 4. A dark-secret love her MS. Book an erased and illegible word. It differs considerably from the engraved illustration. destroy] . . symbolized by a female figure. del. 13 : . he came in vain For the time of youth was fled. passint.Songs of Experience 23 1 Soon my Angel came again I was arm'd. Blake personifies Natural . is represented as a bright and beautiful being. in the night. Book The \st rdg. In Jerusalem and Milton. thou art sick The That invisible flies i ! worm. 7 his] regret at seeing flight. 15 For] ' . take . with the change of 'were' to are. with Rahab. 16 For head] The same hnes. And his Does thy dark secret love life destroy. . generally associated Religion. Instead of the worm preying upon the heart of the rose there is a youth prostrate on the ground. 8 And . Has found out thy bed Of crimson joy 5 . Tirzah. 7. 5 Has] Hath MS. Book. ' But MS. Book. Book xiii).' Shepherd prints this By the name Tirzah. Engraved on a single plate. above Tirzah Whate'er is Born of Mortal Birth i Must be consumed with the Earth. taken from Canticles vi. Book (p. Spiritual Body. Engraved from the copy in the MS.' are used by Blake as the final couplets to 'Infant Sorrow' (MS. On the robe of one of the figures in the design at the foot of the page is written ' It is Raised a the rest omit. And grey hairs were on my head. In the howling storm. . 15. The original coloured design is found on p. Book x\ and the first version of Ina Mirtle Shade' (MS. To rise from Generation Then what have I to free: do with thee? Not in MS. 21 of the MS. Doth life destroy MS. del. Book. as if in the spirit of the rose. To is/ rdg. Sick Rose O Rose.

does implicitly overrate its power upon the soul for evil or good." in his mythology. Dark disputes & & clouds of reason. . 5 This poem is generally found as one of the Not in the MS. or Space : cp. & Ears Didst bind Didst close my Tongue 9 . in evening died But Mercy chang'd Death into Sleep The Sexes rose to work & weep.' 5 sprung] sprang EY. Thou Mother of my Mortal part With cruelty didst mould my Heart. EY. and perverting the mild influences ot the lovely Enitharman." which occupies itself with laying down laws Cf. mother of the perishing body and daughter of the " religion. WMR. also for the flesh which. Essay. artful teazing. 20. to perpetuate the of Sin. WBY. while pretending (and that in all good faith) to despise the body and bring it into subjection as with control of bit and bridle. Eyes. claiming Self-righteousness With cruel Virtue. And with false self-decieving tears my Nostrils. p. of the Ancient Bard of delight. Image of truth new-born. II tears] fears The Voice Youth WMR.124 So7igs of Experieiice The Sexes sprung from Shame & Pride Blow'd in the morn . Asserting the Self-righteousness against the Universal Saviour. and thus falls foul of fact on all sides by assuming that spirit and flesh are twain. 11. come i hither. s . 122: '"Tirzah. and that . in senseless clay. Songs of Innocence^ though sometimes placed by Blake among the Songs oj Experience. Milton^ f. Mocking the Confessors & Martyrs. DGR. Swinb. Doubt is fled. In all the early issues of the former it occurs as verso to ' The .' Swinburne. 6 Blow'd] Blown la bind] blind DGR. things pleasant and good for the one can properly be loathsome or poisonous to the other. And see the opening morn. making War upon the Lambs Redeemed : To War & perpetuate Laws Glory. represents the mere separate and human nature. And me to Mortal Life betray Death of Jesus set me free 13 : The Then what have I to : do with thee ? preying upon and pitying her victims. Book. 41-45 : — ' Rahab created Voltaire Tirzah created Rousseau.

' invariable practice. WBY when] where Muir's WMR. Without 115 reversed).' i . not only in manuscript but in engraved poems.. And her thorns were my only delight. How many have fallen there! They stumble all night over bones of the dead. when they should be led. But my Rose turn'd away with jealousy. And her thorns were my only delight. Shepherd and other editors ruin the melody of this line It was Blake's almost by reading 'passed' or ' pass'd for 'passed. Book 1st rdg.' 6 To . DGR.. Such a flower as May never bore But I said I've a Pretty Rose-tree. to omit the e of the final ed in the preterite or participial termination. tend her by day and by night. where he did not intend it to be pronounced as a separate syllable. . Ri. And feel they know not what but care. forming a connecting link with the Introduction to the Songs of Experience. Book with Jealousy.' while in the latest issues it is commonly placed last. Book 2nd rdg. by night] In the silence of the night MS. Book (on p. EY. 9 stumble] tumble "^nw' % facsimile {Songs of Experience). And wish to lead others. See editor's Bibliographical Preface to the Songs. ii . e. Tangled roots perplex her ways. care] Wilk. And feel— they know not what but care And feel— they know not what save care DGR. g. jealousy] filled to my 8 Blake's pretty rose tree In the silence of the night . del. Pretty Rose Tree My A flower was ofifer'd to me. Then I went to my Pretty Rose-tree. reprinted in Gilchrist's Life (ii. 5 To The first in the poem original draft. my rose was turned from me. : facsimiles. end).' But ' was turned from me MS. pined not pin'd. The only exception 4 passed] ' to this rule is in the case of words where the omission of the e might possibly lead to confusion with another word. . was me I . turn'd : and replaced by of this stanza seems to * Then . del.. preferable to that of the engraved went ' first Songs : 15/ version — . by night] R* omits by.Songs of Experience 1 25 an endless maze. her] it MS. Shep. ' And passed the sweet flower I o'er. title in the This and the two following songs are engraved upon a single plate. Folly is lo Little Black Boy. MS. lo And . 7 turn'd] turned ' all except rdg.

from the first rough draft without title on p. nor a threat. and following song. to & peace. . and aspire wishes to go. Lilly The modest Rose puts forth a thorn.' and completing the quatrain * ' (as in the three. stain her beauty bright. 5 Arise from their graves. And at the lion increase freedom which point he drew a On line under the poem a subsequent reading he deleted the last * The & priest loves war.' show that it was line. Book. meaning. a thorn. writing above them the words puts forth a thorn. Who countest the steps of the Sun Seeking after that sweet golden clime. Where my Sun-flower Not in the MS.' and finishing the then went on lustful rose. 3 clime] prime The Engraved on the same plate as the preceding DGR. Engraved on the same plate as the two preceding songs. delight.' but here. The humble Sheep a threat'ning horn While the Lilly white Nor Love shall in i . 109 (reversed) of the MS. shows that Blake originally conceived . and deleted the — last line with The coward sheep a threat'ning horn While the lilly white shall in love delight.26 1 Ah Songs of Experience Sun Flower ! Ah. . . — the soldier peace. the pale Virgin shrouded in snow. In its present form this beautiful little poem might more fitly rank as a Song of Innocence than a Song of Experience but the first draft. Book.' He . ' ' ' ' engraved version) by a fourth line simply explanatory of the first . and gave the poem an entirely different turn by changing the word lustful to modest.' ' ' — rose puts envious ' full . substituting for it finished. Where And the Youth pined away with desire. Sun-flower! weary of i time.' ' he felt ' that envious ' Beginning by writing The did not express his three words. perceiving that his rime had disappeared. Book. Where the traveller's journey done is .' and coward to humble. with its successive alterations as seen in the MS. he cancelled this line also. it ' in its contrary state.

I : Engraved on a single plate from the fair transcript on the first page (p. Julius in zum Garten der Liebe. 9 tomb-stones where flowers should be Priests in black gowns were walking their rounds. Book 15^ rdg. So kehrt' ich zum Garten der Liebe. writ over the door 5 . another of the poems translated by Museum. is .Songs of Experieitce 1 27 The Garden of Love went And saw what Garden of Love. Book and orig.). 141) falls into the same error. Ich ging einst Und Am Wo ' II. 9 filled] filled MS. II in] with R^. and Shep. Und "du sollst nicht" stand auf dem Thor. 115 reversed) of the MS. (1806) : — Dr. Und zu war die Thur der Capelle. followed by and EY prefix as the first two stanzas of this poem the lines beginning WMR — DGR ' I laid me down upon a bank Where Love lay sleeping . There . were] was Wilk. Und Grabstein'. was ich nimmer gesehn. I never had seen A built in the midst. Book. I to the Chapel was Where used to play on the green.' . binding with briars my joys & desires. and Rossetti was evidently misled by the immediate juxtaposition of these two songs in the MS. all edd. the Vater- . I And the gates of And Thou shalt ' So I That And And And And i : this not ' Chapel were shut. ' i. saw it was filled with graves. Book. 7 So] And MS. Rasen stand eine Capelle. no authority for this in the engraved version. del. Without title in the MS. where however they are clearly divided by Blake's usual line of separation. 2 And saw] And I saw MS. wo Liebe sollt' sein Und Priester in Trau'r umgingen die Mau'r. . Und senktcn in Schmerz mein licbendes Herz. sah. Swinburne {Essay^ p. Book. read 'filled' ( = fiird in all except Wilk. sonst ich pflog spielend zu gehn. Der Blumen sonst brachte hervor. Garden of Love sweet flowers bore turn'd to the so many . 5 this] the R^. ' Und ich sah ihn mit Grabern gefQllet. This is Idndisches 12 binding] choking R'.

that I follow'd. Father. . weeping loud. . . 11.' in the preceding line being deleted and replaced 12 the] his Wnnz facsimile. Book \st rdg. 12 The first reading of these two lines in the MS. how can I love you Or any of my brothers more ? I love you like the little bird That picks up crumbs around the door. Nor is it possible to Thought A greater than itself to know: i And. .' Engraved on a single plate from the rough draft on p.' again cancelled and rewritten * And word 'Then' all — admir'd his priestly care. io6 (reversed) of the MS. his zealous priestly care. how 5 And] Then MS. 7 I bird] I love myself: so does the bird MS. 13-16 This stanza appears to have followed the fifth in order of composition. And standing Lo what a ! ' on the altar high. .' . — ' The mother ''O. Book. Nor venerates another so.' said he. del. here. Book \st rdg. \st rdg. you] I cannot love you 6 Or] Nor MS. such a fiend should bear!'" These are deleted and replaced by — 'Then led him by To shew The last line is his little coat. In trembling zeal he siez'd his hair 9 : He led him by his little coat. the by ' &. And all admir'd the Priestly care. Book 15/ rdg.' ' 5 The Priest sat by and heard the child. Bk.28 1 A Songs of Experience Boy Lost Little ' Nought loves another as itself. Book was . del. del. del. MS. sets reason up for judge ' One who fiend 13 is Of our most holy Mystery.

Book' (x). . Book \st rdg. as far as we can see" weaving and spinning country of our working days it is rather some inscrutable remote land of Titanic visions. against my swadling bands. bound the httle ivory limbs In a cruel iron chain MS. single plate. altered as above. And bound him an iron chain in . my father's hands. Book. del. only the first two stanzas of which were engraved by Blake for the Songs of among 'Poems from SAMPSON The complete poem MS. Book xst rdg. naked. .' . 20 They chain] They 19 They] And MS. On the whole. Like a fiend hid in a cloud. i . 17 . . and changed to above. i26\ 'To the surprising final query. Struggling in Striving Bound and weary. moated with silent white mist instead of solid and sonorous surf. . piping loud. . Infant Sorrow My mother groan'd. si'mbolic of more than we can safely define or conceive. The weeping parents wept in vain They strip'd him to his little shirt. 24 Are Such things are done on Albion's shore MS. comments {Essay. Swinb. Book ist rdg. Where many had been burn'd before The weeping parents wept in vain. . . 113 (reversed) of the MS. end). . Compare the much fuller form of this song found on p. Are such things done on Albion's shore 21 : ? 19. Into the dangerous world I leapt Helpless. To sulk Engraved upon a upon my I 5 thought best mother's breast. my father wept. and peopled with vague pre-Adamite giants. ai And place] They burn'd him in a holy fire MS.Songs of Experience 129 The weeping child could not be heard. Book xst rdg. the Rossetti K will be found . the original of which is among the number reprinted by Gilchrist {Life. ii. things done on Albion's shore ? but the "Albion " of Blake's verse is never this not. "Are such " " one is provoked to respond. with shore ?] first and last words del. del. p. . Experience. . And burn'd him in a holy place.

See Bibliographical ' Preface to the Songs. bower. in the On early issues. sing] When birds are . .' the completion of the Songs of Experience Blake. sorrow and care's dismay. But droop And O By & mother. his tender wing. Book. . -where. The little ones spend the day In sighing and dismay. I take delight. the sky-lark sings with me. in most cases. EY. transferred these poems to the latter series. Ah then at times I And Nor Nor many an my book can in sit Worn How I spend in learning's ii drooping sit. anxious hour.' 'The Little Girl Found. a joy away 6 . what sweet company. 2 When . WMR. cruel eye outworn. How can a child.' originally formed one of the Songs of Innocence. The And O . ! But to go to school O drives it ! Under a all in summer morn. Not in the MS.' and 'The Voice of the Ancient Bard. end). thro' with the dreary shower. can the bird that is born for joy i6 Sit in a cage and sing. reprinted from an electrotype of the original copper in Gilchrist's Life (ii. singing DGR. if buds are nip'd blossoms blown away. In the editions of Wilkinson and Shepherd ' The School Boy appears among the Songs of Innocence. it is always printed as verso to the last plate of 'Spring. like 'The Little Girl Lost. Engraved upon a single plate. father ! And And Of forget his youthful spring? 21 if the tender plants are strip'd their joy in the springing day. I in] on all except Shep.1 30 Songs of Experience The School Boy I love to rise in a summer morn i When the birds sing on every tree distant huntsman winds his horn.. This song. when fears annoy. WBY.

Weaves around the marriage hearse. to have been Blake's first intention to close the poem with this stanza. harlots' Wilk. a single plate. 109. Book 15/ 9 How] But most etc. Book istrdg. del. Book this stanza was at first written Engraved on draft of this WMR . In every cry of every Man. . del. ii.Songs of Experience How shall the summer arise in joy. . del. . marks of woe. But most thro' midnight streets I hear 13 How the youthful Harlot's curse Blasts the new born Infant's tear. 6 In WBY. And blasts the new K born 3 infant's tear. del. I. And blights with plagues the Marriage hearse. Book A mark istrdg. 5 In every voice. ? London wander thro' each charter'd street. Book istrdg. 2 charter'd] dirty MS. In every Infant's cry of fear. however. Book 15^ rdg. del. . (corrected.(reversed) of the MS. Or the summer fruits appear ? Or how shall we gather what griefs Or bless the mellowing year. Near where the charter'd Thames does And mark in every face I meet Marks of weakness. in some later editions).' . . 10 Blackens o'er the churches walls MS. — But most the midnight harlot's curse From every dismal street I hear. 14 Harlot's] No apostrophe in orig. MS. fear] In every voice of every child MS. I i flow. . . Book. end). This plate is among the number reprinted by Gilchrist (Z-y^. It would appear rdg. the hapless Soldier's sigh in blood down Palace walls. ' . 3 And mark] And see MS. harlot's rest. in every ban. with some important changes from the first poem found on p. 8 The hear] The german forged links I hear MS. The mind-forg'd manacles How I hear. 13-16 In the MS. the Chimney sweeper's cry Every black'ning Church appalls And Runs 9 . Book. EY. When the blasts of winter appear 1 3 1 26 destroy.

Book the (pp. sweet Love. Book. And hangs \alt. And the maiden soon forgot her fear. the body of the poem being in italic. 107 same epithets — and 99 reversed): in a quatrain twice repeated in 'An Ancient Proverb. i this indignajit page. that place to man] of blood. with softest care. 5 Free from winter's cold. to that black'ning church. in rising day. .32 1 Songs of Experie7ice — This was cancelled and followed by ' But most front through wintry] streets every \alt. There. that in a former time.' Sjxlt. Parents were afar. Reading Know Love. In the Age was thought a crime! of Gold. Once a youthful Fill'd 10 pair. 15 There] Then all except Shep. to I hear. Strangers came not near.' Blake's use of the Compare MS. Not in the MS. ' Remove away Remove away Remove away 'Twill A [alt. 1-4 In the engraved original this introductory stanza is written indented roman characters. Youth and maiden bright To the holy light. Naked in the sunny beams delight. How the midnight harlot's curse Blasts the new born infant's tear. in Engraved on a single plate. the grass they play On 15 . You'll] quite Girl Lost Little Children of the future Age. WBY. remove the ancient curse. Met in garden bright Where the holy light Had just remov'd the curtains of the night.. that marriage hearse. to smites] with plagues the marriage hearse.

orig. me Engraved on a single that Blake Book shows to sing the notes of woe. Ona To thy ' ! O O pale and weak father speak 30 ! : the trembling fear. Book. Book. Book. . 5 among the winter's snow. in notes of Where are thy father & mother. They When the silent sleep o'er heaven's deep. Waves And 20 meet agree to the weary tired wanderers weep. 6 winter's snow] wintery wind clothed MS. written in pencil upon a diff"erent page (io6 reversed).Songs of Experience 133 Tired with kisses sweet. But his loving look. They clothed me in the clothes of death. Book. the rest clothed [ = cloth' d]. father and mother. To her father white Came the maiden bright 25 . was happy upon the heath. say? MS. . p. Like the holy book. All her tender limbs with terror shook. Shep. The first stanza and title original draft of this at first intended the 103 reversed) to form a poem complete in are an afterthought.. . clothed] . ! ! That shakes the blossoms of my ' hoary hair ! The Chimney Sweeper A black thing little among ' ' Crying ' ' ' 'weep 'weep ! ! the snow. to [= MS. say ? They are both gone up to the church Because I And smil'd And taught i woe ' ! — to pray. second and third stanzas (on itself. plate. snow] MS. 7 clothed] . 4 to the church] to church \aU. . the dismal care. cloth'd Wilk. The song in the MS. 3 Where say] Where are they.

They think they have done me no injury. Book. Book (p.' This title is not in the is Compare with 17 . If all And 1 5 . del. 107 reversed). .1 34 ' So7igs of Kxperience And because am happy & I dance & 12 Who. He sits down with holy fears. our misery MS. And are gone to praise God & his Priest Who make up a heaven of our misery. del. sweet to eat it Ruddy and And In the its the MS. no more could be were as happy as we. plate. Raven his nest has made thickest shade. . fears] with his holy fears EY.' & King. Who wrap themselves up in 9 sing. .' MS. Book I would] could MS. root his foot. this song the fine variant version. reprinted in Gilchrist (ii. Book 15/ rdg. 20 its] 1st rdg. Till the selfish loves increase Then Cruelty And . Book Earth. Book. Book. and ' MS. 114 reversed). thickest] blackest MS. 2 If there was nobody poor MS. misery] . erased. The Human Abstract Pity would be no more If we did not make somebody Poor And Mercy mutual fear brings peace. knits a snare. . Soon spreads the dismal shade Of Mystery over 13 head And the Catterpiller and Fly Feed on the Mystery. spreads his baits with care. Engraved on a single in . . 9 with the Swinb. end) from the draft The first title of the poem was 'The The human Image' substituted: the present (p. And his bears the fruit of Deceit. ' beginning I heard an Angel singing. And waters the ground with tears Then Humility Underneath takes its 9 .

who dwells in Chaos. Human Face a Furnace seal'd. 5 I place this poem as appendix to the Songs of Experience in the absence of evidence that it was included in any authentic copy of the Songs issued during Blake's lifetime. ' : ' ' signifies — Moral Law. {engr. iii.Sojigs of Experience The Gods 1 35 of the earth and sea 21 Nature to find this Tree Sought But their search was all in vain There grows one in the Human Brain. shot up from sparks and fallen germs of material seed being after all a growth of mere the topmost stem of it made into error. They bent down. and vegetable (not spiritual) life . and again enrooting Shot into many a Tree. And Secrecy the Human Dress. Human Heart its hungry Gorge. an endless labyrinth of woe. chap.' SONGS OF EXPERIENCE] Divine Image Cruelty has a Human Heart. A : The Tree spread over him its cold shadows (Albion groan'd). Jealousy a Human Face Terror the Human Form Divine. Human Form a fiery Forge. . rock of separation. rooted in the 1795).' MS. thro' . See Jerusalem. p.' A very similar ' description of the growth of the Tree is found in Ahanta thus condensed by Swinburne {Essay. Book The Tree of Mystery ' 14-19 11. and the Law deadly Tree Of God.^ last line del. they felt the earth. And The The The The i . : . 121) . Human Dress is forged Iron. 28^ He [Albion] sat by Tyburn's brook. where the growth of it is defined .' is/ rdg. : 23. and underneath his heel shot up he nam'd it Moral Virtue. 24 ' But Till their search was all in vain they sought in the human brain. f. Compare the passage . Out of fifteen examples of the Songs of Experience . watered with the tears of a jealous God. a cross whereon to nail the [To The A dead redeemer and friend of men. hidden from the human sight.

1793. the uncoloured copy in the Reading Room of the contains this plate. when this adver- Blake rejected the plate without destroying it — perhaps because it was one of those which were engraved on both sides of the copper leaving it possible for it to be inadvertently introduced into one or two copies which may have been printed when the plates passed into other hands.vperience by R. 1831. The only other existing specimen of the engraved song is a proof impression (also uncoloured) in the possession of Mr. Blake in October. and there the watermark of the paper. and the of plates specified as belonging to this work in his prospectus ' the Public (see Bibliographical Preface to the Songs) would seem poem with this number To show to that this was was his intention in October. Wilkinson. It is fairly plain too that — first editor. Since then it has been included among the Songs without comment by W. William Muir.1 Songs of Experience 36 known to British which me. H. M. as well as to Gilchrist. Blake's (1866). A Little Girl Lost. Shepherd Songs. This poem seems to have been unknown to tisement issued. one only. which he has reproduced in facsimile at the end of his beautiful edition of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. who rightly represents 54 as the number of plates belonging to a complete set of both series of the It is first introduced into the Songs of E. Rossetti and all who follow Shepherd in placing it immediately after Blake's later editors. It is quite clear that Blake engraved total ' a view to its forming one of the Songs of Experience.' . dated 1832. British who probably took it from the posthumously printed copy which the Museum had acquired two years before. after the death of Mrs. proves that it must have been printed at least five Museum. is years after Blake's death.

POEMS from THE ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT (circa 1793-1811) commonly known as 'THE MANUSCRIPT BOOK' .

'47. a pencil sketch. 15. in on the verso of the second leaf.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT The Rossetti MS. heading them 'Verse and Prose by William Blake (Natus 1757: All that is of any value in the foregoing obiit 1827)..' The latter title. signed 'D. upon which are written part of 'The Everlasting Gospel' and of his Canterpart of the first draft of Blake's description ' bury Pilgrims. shows four gatherings of 16 and 8 gathering of 10 leaves and Bound in at the end is a folded sheet leaves The . it was from the artist's wife that he had the present which he sold me for loj-. of the volume an attendant in the Antique Gallery at the British Museum. less commonly correctly. 'The called Book. designs. descriptive title for Blake's MS. drawing paper present but the stitching in the centre of the quires after ff. is the name used in this edition as a book of notes and sketches. is a foolscap quarto volume (7|x6| 1-116 by its inches) of 58 leaves.' A pencil note on the verso of the flyleaf. Rossetti MS. Palmer knew Blake personally.C.' and sometimes.R.' Rossetti 's earlier signature. of Palmer. . tells how he became possessed I purchased this original MS.G. 'Ideas of Good and Evil. In of all probability Blake intended it to refer to the series and afterwards on engraved p. 18. of different and smaller paper forming two leaves. is found written. paginated consecutively is without watermark The owner. alternately. and 54. Among the sketches there are ' : one or two Rossetti profiles of Blake himself transcribed certain of the contents. and MS. beginning The poems which Paradise. that the book is made up of one 30. on the 30th April. published as T/ie Gates of not then been had title this under some editors include partially covered by bold script characters. 42. 5. written.

for poetry. from in cases earlier most apparently rough drafts. when most of the leaves were thus filled. than the include Some of the sketches are colour or sepia. About 1793. Book proper. All the poems in this section of the book Songs of Experience or lyrics of the same character must have been written before the end of — the year 1793. paper bears the watermark 1H44. He had served first used it ' at least twenty years and for sketches only.' referred to as Rossetti's R^) con- emendatory readings. but fairly clear hand. this purpose. Blake continued to write from the reversed end as far as p. some of which he subsequently rejected in his version of the poems printed in Gilchrist's Life. Urizen. — . and some for the Songs of Experience. but the greater page. G. R. pages has here been copied out. certain of the Songs of Experience.Rossetti MS. This transcript. converted still later. my transcript (in tains a number of footnotes 139 D. consists of leaves. labelled Blake MS. a few are are small finished or rough pencil drawings occupying the centre of the page. for prose. most of those for the Visions of the DaiigJiters of Albiofi (engraved 1793). bound in at the end of the MS. but probably not much later. besides other lyrical poems which he himself never published. and. Avoiding at first the pages on which sketches of any importance appeared. copied. reversing the volume and beginning on Here he the three blank pages at the end of the book. all the designs for The Gates of Paradise (engraved 1793). were neatly written in two columns in year 1789. Blake began to use the sketch-book for the transcription of some of his poems. These pieces. of which 5 (evidently containing Epigrams 1-19) have been '^'>^ Part of the cut out.' The volume is bound in half-calf and The MS. as our facsimile shows. it into a note- The sketches two drawings of the figure of Nebuchadnezzar which Blake afterwards engraved in the undated Marriage of Heaven and Hell. separation lines being drawn between the different poems. the Songs of Innocence and The Book of Thel (both engraved 1789). 98. In most cases the titles were afterthoughts. in full number a small. 1794). Vertical pencil lines are drawn through those poems which Blake engraved as part of the Songs of Experience. we may infer that his use of the sketch-book began not earlier. C. and Afnerica (all engraved As there are no designs for Blake's earlier works. Book covers a period of of Blake's when book it life.

such as Fayette. writing them.' the last written piece in the MS. an overflow from his marginal notes to his copy of Reynolds's Stothard. is an extract From Belts Weekly Messenger. Aug. Taking it up again about the beginning of his Felpham period. The earliest dated entry in the MS. 4th. and Discourses. Book version of I saw a monk of Charlemaine was afterwards split up The Grey Monk of by Blake into two separate poems the Pickering MS. obviously after the exhaustion of other space. Cromek. but from the original beginning of the sketch . The MS. as Ellis and Yeats conjecture. 21 begins the series of epigrams which may be dated from the end of Blake's stay at Felpham to the year ' 1809. part of the poem being written.' and the long poem I saw a monk of Charlemaine. Book in footnotes. 12 are as the lines ' Each man is in his spectre's power. ' ' . Fragments of this are drafted or copied on blank spaces left on the now crowded pages. Hunt. Rossetti 140 After writing these poems. where I print them with the readings from the MS.. On p. upon a scrap of paper bound in at the end of the book. Book (i-xxxvi). day. Blake discontinued the use of it as a notebook for several years. ' A ' ' ' * ' — Jerusalem. 10. On p.' both of which were afterwards engraved as part of Jerusalem. 181 1. To the same period evidently belong the epigrams on art and artists. night embodies precisely the same theme as Jerusalem (1804).MS. animnm solvere. and were obviously written down. June 1793 ' ! ^^ latest. they relate to his differences with Hayley. and the 'Address to the Deists' in p. without view to publication.book. while others have elsewhere The lines beginning Three received Blake's revision. now preserved in the British Museum. will be a Wonder. he added some new poems. which form the first section of the MS. Book is the note on And if I live one it on p.' were left in an unfinished state. 3 and 2 is the fine poem spectre around ' me and My Swinburne points out.' which are scattered here and there throughout the book with frequent encroachments upon the sketches. 59. In the same category should be placed his great unfinished poem ' The Everlasting Gospel. not as before from the reversed end. are Blake's 'Advertisement' and 'Additions to the Catalogue for the year 1810.' which. Among the last entries in the MS. 'I say I shan't live five years. in a more perfect form the break of at day appear virgins in the Pickering MS. which are probably. Book.' few of the poems in the Rossetti MS. On pp..

taining anecdotes of Artists (apparently intended as Blake's own title for piece which Rossetti and others call Public Additions to Address'). 141 In the following Index to the Rossetti MS. a man has married a wife. Book xxxvii. Johanna Southcott. ID. Drawings. Index. *2. reference may be made to Gilchrist to Ellis and Yeats (vol. S.] — Sketch (pencil). Book. The or ii) — : MS. poems. p. 5. 7. Book xxxix. WMR. [MS. 115 to p. — If Prose. Book p.Rossetti MS. between Two & seven in the Evening one will be shan't Note. For the year t8io. . Title-page. live five [See Gil. Despair.] p.] —Tuesday Jan' 20. & on. 383-403).. Voltaire. the Index should be read backwards page by page. the sketches. Sougs of Exfollowing contractions are used in this quoted (vol. And a Wonder. [MS. ii. I.' xxxvii. 6. . . and Engravings. no. Memoranda. lost. Italics indicate sketches or prose. men p. pp. if ii.] Mock on. weak capacities . Mock p. — To engrave on pewter. WMR Sketch (pen and ink) [see (a)]. — say years.] I live it . On the Virginity of the Virgin Mary p. 4. . 10. 1807. When When [MS.E. Book [MS. and continued straightforwardly from p. without which the art is [Advt. * ' INDEX TO 'THE ROSSETTI p. 242-243). 11. 3 to For the same point. Rossetti's Annotated Lists of Blake's Paintings. Blake s Catalogue of Pictures.] Klopstock England defied. My — [MS. of first last words are which few or the only prose passages. 158. ii. Sketch. *i. June 1793. roughly Blake's own order of writing the poems enumerated. Daphne. con.' List 2. 98. p.] —A Sketch (pencil). Rossetti Manuscript (followed by periejice number of poem in the present edition) Advt. 13.. My spectre continued (stanzas 9. pp. 1810. To woodcut on pewter. &c. spectre around me night Ideas of Good & Evil.. Note. and prose contents are given in the order in which they occur in the volume inverted pieces. M. Cat. young woman dressing. 8. 2.. I I engrave on copper. 3. xli. Book xl. p.] & day. 9. Book xxxviii. Advertisement to Blake's Canterbury Pilgrims from Chancer. written from the To follow reversed end. of MS. [MS. Sketch (sepia). Rousseau. are marked by an asterisk. W. from p. and *3). . 12. To p. 25 (Gilchrist's Life.

Book xlv. I won't attempt to make ye. p. : To Prose. [Advt. [MS. confessed .~\S&& in this p. —There should consider the following. [Advt.] p. 14. William Blake. [MS. Sketch. . P. The Birds.. [MS. 12.. therefore of the Amateurs of [Advt. [MS. — Art the encouragement which is my due nothing can hinder my course. [MS. . Book liii.. . — Columbus discovered America not because there cannot be any difference Prose. Rossetti 142 p. — Princes appear to me to be fools Sketch.) Sketch.] —The wretched state of the arts demand country .— For Gates 0/ Paradise. Book lii. as guilty of Prose. To : find the Western path. 20. p. though . [Advt. — In [Advt. Sketch. (continued on p. Book Anger & Wrath my bosom rend.] 1. [Pickering — ? Lucifer discovering Judas. The Golden Net.] You think Fuseli is not a Great Painter. Book li... — H [MS. p.] p.] For Gates of Paradise. . MS. [MS.] Canto xxxiv.— '^S^e WMR {Inferno.] Who that has eyes .) Sketch.] Sketch.] a commercial : Iv. [MS. Sketch. ill etc. [MS. — p. [Advt. 13. . . 26. in the journeyman's labour. I (g)]. p. Book Prose. (fi. 18. No real style of colouring ever appears. Prose. .] Each man is in his spectre's power. [MS. —The WMR (h).. — For Gates of Paradise. Book xlviii.] And in melodious accents L [MS.'] I saw a Monk Morning of Charlemaine. I'm glad. — (The same.. 16.] .. Book xlii. p.] And his legs cover'd it like a long fork. [Advt. Prose.] Prose.— Tor Songs of Experience— 'ThQ^ickRose: [See WMR p. 24) [Advt. Book xliv.. etc. as a public duty.] The Sussex Men are Noted Fools. Book xlvii.] I by thee am Mocked. ir.] Was p.] — (continued from p. 19. Madman I have been called.] Terror in the house does roar. p. ' ' I etc.] [MS. p.) [See Sketch. 22.] painters of England are unimployed intellectual riches. Sketch (sepia). Sketch. Book xlvi.] You don't believe. . Prose. [MS.. not. is mental high treason. storehouse of I angry with Hayley who used me so ill. 17. 21. Book xlvii. . [MS. 24.] Note.S. Prose. [^Jerusalem.] You don't believe continued.)] — wonder who can say speak no of the dead Note. p. Sketch. — (The same. [Advt. 25) . WMR (b)]. 23. . Three Virgins at the Break of day. is . 25.MS. 15. Book xliii. Fool they call thee. — Rubens' Luxembourg gallery Note. To F Book liv. [MS. — Oh rare wisdom. Book xlix.] nation I do not believe I mock thee . p.

] created for destruction come. [MS. Book Ixxxv.— [See : [MS. Book Ixxv. Ivi. [MS. I taught them how If p. Book Ixxviii. Sir Joshua praises Michael Angelo. Ixxix. 32. A [MS.] it is — : [MS. p. : Ixxii. Cromek: For Fortune's favours you your riches [MS. He (i)]. Book Ixii.] Mr.] He is a Cock would. Book lot. Book : . all [MS.] Sketch (pencil). 33. does pretend continued : 3. Book Ixv. Stothard : Fortune favours the Brave. Cromek to Mr.] p.] [The Everlasting Gospel.] to see.] To H Book : Thy friendship oft has made my heart to ake.MS. what the Prophets write. [MS. 35. the Case : The villain at Royal Academy: A the gallows tree. p. 4). Book Ix. [MS. y's Friendship To forgive enemies Book Ixxviii. Book Ixvi. Sketch.] To forgive enemies H does pretend. Rossetti p. Book Ixxi. A Pitiful To Sir Joshua sent his own portrait to. 26. 34. Book Ivii. 37. Can there be anything more mean. Mr. lix. Book Ixiii.] [MS.] help thy husband's copying me. [MS. On F and S I found them blind. Book Ixxxii. You say [MS. Ixxxiii. Book Ixxx. ] Sketch.] Sketch. Ixvii. [MS. [MS. Book Strange Erratum in Ixxiii. [MS. the Editions. [MS.] On H do. [MS.— [See Some men H WMR.] Sir Joshua praised Rubens with a smile. Book p. S in Childhood on the nursery To Nancy F [MS. [MS.] p. Book Ixxiv. Book Ixi. Book bring. 30. Book Of p. For Visions of the Daughters of Albion. loves artists as he loves his Meat. Ixxxiv. On S (11. [MS.] . 27. Book Ixxvii. I Iviii. WMR. [MS. Book a compliment to [MS.] reserve and modesty he has.] To F You call me Mad 'tis folly to do so. [MS. For Gates of Paradise. a. [MS.] Petty Sneaking Knave I knew. To Book p. [MS. Imitation of Pope.] true. old proverbs [MS. Book Cr who wants a proof of what he can't Perceive. (j). Book Ixxxi.] S d You all your Youth observ'd the Golden Rule. Stothard to Mr. has observ'd the Golden Rule.] P loved me not as he lov'd his friends. : When H y finds out what you cannot [MS. H can floor.] p.] Cosway Frazer & Baldwin of Egypt's Lake. Ixxvi.] say.] I am no Homer's Hero you all know. Book Ixx. 28. Book Ixiv. Book lix. & the Ladies. 36.] was birth this 's — the happy [MS. Ixiii. Florentine Ingratitude Book p. [MS. 29.] p.J The Angel that presided o'er my birth.] 31. How : 143 [MS.] He's a Blockhead [MS.

[MS. [MS. Book xcvii. Book civ. [MS. [MS.] cv. Book xciv. [MS. [MS.] Cromek speaks: Book ciii. Book Ixxxvii. given [MS. Book cviii.] A Pretty Epigram for the encouragement of those Who have paid great sums in the Venetian and Flemish ooze. Book xcii.] [MS. Book he and I my judgement from a Fool. For Gates of Paradise I have said to corruption etc. [MS. Prose. — — — * produce a Picture or Painting.] Prose.] If I e'er Grow to Man's Estate. appear While Titian &c. [MS. 40.] p. . with thought. you always can at a picture English Encouragement of Art. On to the H Learned the Pickthank Pig. Rossetti 144 An Come knock heads against this stone. Another: I was buried near this dyke. xcix. [MS. They say there is no straight line in nature — — — . [Advt.] : Book p. Book Ixxxix. [MS. Book cvii. Book cix.p.] Here lies John Trot. Nebuchadnezzar. Book xcv. Book xcvi. The Washerwoman's Song I wash'd them out and wash'd them in. Book When Nobility.] These are the Idiots' chiefest arts. Book cvi.] Machination. ci. p. You say till cii. the other never can be acquired but must be born.] Great things are done when Men & Mountains meet. but not the same genius. [MS. Book c] I : write the rascal thanks.] Raphael Sublime Majestic Graceful Wise. MS. Sketch. [MS. 5. you look I always take [MS. [MS. (k).] Note. Book xciii. [See WMR. I. [MS.] All pictures that's painted with sense and Book xcviii. [MS. Book by English Give Pensions p. Sketch. Bookxci.] Cromek's opinions put into rhyme. 46. On — the Book & great encouragement labours. Epitaph Book : j'our Ixxxvi. 39. Delicate — as in the Book Hands & Heads will never of Moonlight. : p.] a Statesman and a Saint. p. . [MS. There is just the same science in Lebrun or Rubens or even Vanloo that there is in Raphael or Michael Angelo.' Let a Man who has made a drawing gt) on & on & he will Note.] Sketch. [MS. To English Connoisseurs You must agree : that Rubens was a fool. 44. 45. [MS.] title is prov'd. 42. 38. 41.] For Marriage of Heaven and Hell Sketch (pencil). 37. cripple every step drudges For Gates of Paradise. Another [MS.] — p. Science is soon got . Swelled limbs with no outline that you can descry. Sketch. [MS. My Ixxxviii. Book xc] as a Genius thus am Rubens.] Learn the laborious stumble of a Fool. p. . but if he chooses to leave it before he has spoil'd it he will do a Better Thing.] their Pictures well painted be. The p. [MS. the Friend of all mankind. p.] When I see a Rubens Rembrandt Correggio.— "^Invdcr. see. 43.

Sketch.Prose. p. 93-96.] [The Everlasting Gospel. [Advt.] ] (7^ 11.53- [Advt. . Everlasting Gospel. 53-71... 11. 51. —Woollett I know . [Advt. 11. . This day is Publish'd Advertizements to Blake's Canterbury Pilgrims from Chaucer.— The Cottager's .] has resumed . g. g. [Advt. [The Everlasting Gospel. 49. The Everlasting Gospel. cxiv. B.) .] Prose. Sketch (pencil). is never correct.— [See Why [MS. This only is ugliness. Book cxiii. 57. [Advt.] [MS. . reputation as a draughtsman.. 77. . [MS.] Prose.. p. .] Woollett's best works . Book cxi..— For these thirty-two Years . . [Advt. 56. It is very true what you have said. 5. Prose.] I will tell you what Joseph of Arimathea. . cxii. as Machlin told me at the time for P. Book [The Everlasting Gospel. 7-. — (Continued from on 145 [Advt. 11. plate Mr. 1-26. 27-52. this 11.] WMR. 54. Sketch.] p.u cannot deny . p. 46) . Ang. Rossetti p. 3. 52. [The [The [The [The Everlasting Gospel. 46. — — [Advt. (continued *I give you the end of a golden string. 26-83.] Prose.MS. The only Man For 11. . in [Advt. 5. asserted that Woollett's. But that is not — Every line Prose. containing anecdotes of Artists. p.] Grown old in Love from Seven till Seven times Seven. I hope this print . [MS.] Sketch. . (or Mich. [MS.— Y\&xma. 84-106. [Jerusalem. 50. .] — Nebuchadnezzar.] the line of beauty. 1-25. [Advt. It is only fumble and bungle which cannot draw a line.] were superior to Basire's because . [Advt. you play a Game of chance. Prose. is which doubts and hesitates in the midst of its course.'] master's touch. paid what they put in on these ungracious subjects. — Of my Work & approbation Prose. .] [The Everlasting Gospel. . P. [Advt.— I do not pretend to Paint better than Rafael which they understand not. . 47.] people are so foolish . Book cxv. condemnation. [The Everlasting Gospel. Book ex.] Prose. (1)..] was Cupid a Boy.) — The manner in which my character has been blasted Prose.] p.. 6. 47). — Prints art..] 72-92.] Everlasting Gospel. Prose. 48. p.. Prose. [MS. Note. .] Everlasting Gospel.55.] p. .] p.] this is that e'er I — In knew. Prose. beginnings of [Advt. . Book being a Friend just in the nick.] a line If [Advt..] p. p. [The Everlasting Gospel.5. Pro5^. —This was spoke by My Spectre to Voltaire Bacon &c. I forget. . . — Many 7'. 11.] Note. . — . 11.

trading competition.— TrofAQ of Blake. [MS. [Adv. — From Cratelos.] For Gates of Paradise I found him beneath a tree.— I do not know whether Homer . If — Chaucer's Canterbury Pilgrims. Book cxx. — Resentment for Personal Injuries has Prose. — From Bell's Weekly Messenger.] To Venetian Artists Perhaps this little Fable may make us merry. like Fuseli Milton. manifest to .] time has crook'd. no good workman Fools do often Me inspire. [See WMR. Sketch.] — What kind of intellect . p. 58. . — For Songs of Experience — The Angel. Book cxxi.] For Gates of Paradise. [Advt. 67. Book cxvi. . . Infirm is all me . artist Call that the Public Voice .] p.. 4*** 181 1 all. . & Sketch. Book cxx. to look at his print.. [Advt. . 61. . .] Sketch. . [MS. . [Advt. in this country a much — — Extract. & Michael Angelo. That God Prose. 65. — is . [Advt. Book cxix. p.] [MS. p. .] Prose.] Cooke wished to give to Hogarth . Sketch. — The English [Title for Advt.] Being a complete Index of in Prose. 59. Vasari Prose. . — It is upon & attend upon Empire but Empire The Arts. 62.] my — Later Note. — He who could represent Christ Men and *Great p. [Advt.] but not to (c). Shakespeare laugh at what others can see no crime in. [MS. it that it is not Arts that follow that attends Prose. Englishmen rouse yourselves — —A — .] [MS.] Some p. — In this de draw. Book cxxii.] [MS. but he could not. Aug. which is their Error. Men think they can Copy Nature Prose. p. [Advt. [Advt.] — — For Gates of Paradise What we hope we see. Hogarth's works prove. — — I've given great Provision to Foes. Having given great offence by writing Prose. — Let us teach Buonaparte & whomsoever else may concern Prose. but day do not draw . Prose. God or man. Human Characters as they exist age after age. I do not mean smooth'd up & Nigled Poco Pen'd and all the beauties [picked out] blurr'd & blotted but Drawn with a firm & & & decided hand at once. fine art. dear Mother Outline of wisdom most sage. [Advt] Prose. Prose.] I always thought that Jesus Christ was a snubby or I should Note. 63. Book cxviii. Book cxviii.] detestable Falsehood . Friend Orator Prig. my Dear asked I .] Prose. Prose. men will act like a maid smiling over a churn. Sketch.] make a Man. [Advt. Book cxvii.] etc. Is that he does. he. [Advt.. p. Rosseiti 146 p. [MS.] Colouring Newton does show. not have worshipped him if I thought he had been one of those — long spindled nosed rascals.] public address but love to my art and had some share my zeal for greater. tells us. & not the forms of Things.. manner the English public . Extract. p. [Advt. 60. Whoever looks at any . [MS. Book cxx. . [Advt. . 64. . . [MS. Noblemen follows nonsense for . .MS.] Prose. 66. [Advt. O : [MS.

in .] will never buy a horse has got any brains will never buy is not for the sake of convincing but for the sake of defending those it it. Bock cxxviii. [Cat. the golden Age. . [MS. Book cxxiv. . 82. p. .] Prose. [Advt. 1810. & Intentions.. 81. . 1810. on the brink of [Cat. . The Last Judgment is not Fable [Cat. .— No man of sense . 1810. . . a Protection.— For the year 1810 Addition [Advt. [Cat.] p.] people admire the Prose. 1810..] who I who any truth tell know do not .. [Cat. [MS. 1810.] 80. 1810. — Over the head . cxxvi. . 83.] p. — old heavens Art proportion to his means. Book cxxvii. .— And heal Visions . 72.] Sketches. [Cat.] Prose. . Pros?. Pros?. . p. 70. by the colour & a man a picture by the colour. — Note here that Fable or allegory [Cat. [Cat. Note.] Prose. (d).— The originality of this 147 production . Evil . [Cat. In Eternity one Thing vegetable Nature also. p. [Cat. p. do. Sketch. — The painter hopes that his Friends Amytus Melitus & Lycon p. 1810. Book {A quarter of this leaf has been cut out.. 86. last &c.] Prose.) Sketch. 1810.. 67. 73. — [Cat.] Sketch— [See WMR (n). p. 1810. all will be well.] Sketch. 85. . iBic] Prose. — perdition of the Hebrew. begs public protection and [Cat. [MS. Prose. Prose. as to believe this. 74. p. work of a Fool. p. 1810. For Gates of Paradise (frontispiece).] p. . . 76. p.] 1810. 1810.— A jockey that is anything of a jockey .] mental Charms. call'd p. 1810. cord in his hand.] To Chloe's breast Now young Cupid slily stole. 77. p. —When those who p. Art has lost its — — Prose.... . 1810. ..— [See WMR. . 1810.~23 May 1810 found the Word Golden. — —The greatest part of what are 1810.] To God. Sketches.] Nail his neck to the Cross. Book cxxviii. — — — Prose.—The— when they assert that Jupiter Note.] p. 1810. 84.— [See WMR. 78. Between the Figures . Pros?. nail it with a nail. — Just above . [Cat. — Pros?. Some to Blake's Catalogue of Pictures [Title for Cat.~Yor Gates of Paradise— At for hatching ripe. — Good L & 2. Rossetti p..] The Combats of Prose. 75. [MS.— Tot Gates of Paradise Death's Door. 68. 79. Knowledge of good & evil. .— [Cat. 1810.] . Nofe.~K man sets himself yourselves to be disgraced.. p.] Prose.] Pros?. together by the feet .] Since all the Riches of this World. . .. whitloes on their . . a Cruel Church. . .] Pros?. 71. . [MS. . p. for will perceive . Prose.] Prose— (continued from 83.— No Man of Sense . [MS. Book [Cat. 69. . a Male & Female chain'd [Cat.) [Cat. fingers. p. .] Prose. Sketches. . — The Characters removing the [Cat. cxxiii...] Prose. p.MS. [Advt. (m).] Prose.

[SE. .] Shall know them . Book cxxxi. Book xxix. Prose. [MS. — that Bad art not with [Cat. Sketch.] *The look of love alarms.) rose up at the dawn of day.] [SE. p. — Men because Last Judgment &. p. . [MS. . Extract. [Cat. 130-1. xxxii. Book cxxx. [MS. Book xxiv. 1810. [MS. Book xxxvi. .] fly. . /3.] *The Fairy Come hither. The Caverns Prose.] — Lines written surrender of 96. p. *Day The sun arises in the East. 88. [SE. 105. . Prose. be Painting. 89. 1-37.p. my thou seest there. gi. 102. Sketch. Sketch. Book xxxiv.] *An Old maid early e'er I knew. 1810. *Littie *Motto Book p. Book xxii.] — For Gates of Paradise —happier kit. p.] *An answer to the parson Why of the sheep do you not learn peace ? [MS. Angels [Cat. Book xxx.] of the Grave I've seen. 7^ 11. my sparrows. 1810. Book xxxi. Sketch (sepia) Prose. 103.] 92. . he rears from the pool his mighty p.. [MS. I . loi. MS. 2. Book xxxv.] *Holy Thursday Is this a holy thing to see.] : : . 1810.] *Her whole Life is an Epigram. 94. stanzas 2. Sketch. Sketch. The Chimney [SE. dated Sunday. p. 38-57. . ' p. Book xxiii. p. 6). Prose. [MS.] 99.] — For Gates of Paradise— Water. p. Prose. the to Songs of Innocence & of Experience. — Such as Rafael Mercy have.] —Adam and Eve. *The Angel I dreamt a Dream what can it mean. 104. 3. 98. 1-38. August 1807. 96) signed Birmingham L* Note. tell me what [MS.] *Lacedemonian Instruction : Come hither. — (Description of Last Judgment.] *Riches The countless gold of a merry heart. p. it. 93. . . [MS. Sweeper. Book xxxv. [MS. Sketch. 1810. Book cxxix.] *The sword sung on the barren heath.] *Fayette (Stanzas i. . stanza 2. p. pp. 10). p. . [MS.] — — — — stature. p. 87. : boy. (The same. 90.] 3. — Continued (from p. — Represented those who are Envy the Success.] — For Gates of Paradise— Earth. 11. 4. — For Europe — an assassin. 11. . Book xxxiii. Extract. Copenhagen. [MS.] [The Everlasting Gospel. Rossetti 148 [MS. [MS. [See Swinb.) [Cat. [Cat.] Do what you will this life's a fiction. 97. 1810. 100.. — Of Satan or of Og than. 95. 4. I . 9. Book xxxvi. Prose. p.] Fayette (Stanzas p.] Note and Qtiotatious from Aphra Behn & Dryden. . [The Everlastins: Gospel. ^. 1810. [MS. *Several Questions Answered.] : : p. . p. [The Everlasting Gospel. [Cat.] For Gates of Paradise Fire. .] *Because I was happy upon the heath. Essay. [MS.] *The Question Answer'd What is it men in women do require : ! : : [MS. [Cat. Book xxxvi.

] *Nought loves another as itself [A Little Boy Lost. desire.] father wept. SE.] [MS. [SE. [SE. .] care for the men of thames. p. Book ix. also should I [MS. [Nurse's : p.] p. Book xvi.] *Eternity He who bends to himself a joy. Book xxxvi. *An ancient Proverb Book xxxvi. Book xvii. 107. *0 lapwing thou fliest *I fear'd the fury of *Infant Book *Why Sorrow: X. 3). SE. Earth rais'd Why [MS. little Kid. Sketch. 149 [MS. [MS. : Book *The sick *Soft Snow Rose I : O : Rose.] *Love to faults is always blind continued (stanza 2). Tyger. 4 and 6). [SE. [MS. Book vii. — Suggests Urizen. 112. *Thou hast a lap *Earth's Answer full : *In a mirtle shade : [MS. III.] *When the voices of children are heard on the green.] *Are not the joys of morning sweeter. [MS. : : : cold.] p. p. Book xxvi.] *The little Vagabond Dear Mother.] walked abroad on a snowy day. [MS. Book xxvii. [SE.] *Love to faults is always blind. Book xviii. [MS.] The harvest shall flourish in wintry weather. Book xxv. [SE. Book xxviii. xix. : : : Song. SE. of seed. 3. Dear Mother. [The Human : p.] *If you trap the moment before it 's ripe.] my Mirtle To a lovely mirtle bound.] *The wild flower's song continued (stanzas 2. 110.] *There souls of men are bought & sold. p. 108.] *To Nobodaddy Why art thou silent & invisible. [SE. Book [MS. Book xiii. SE. [MS. 105. [SE.] should I be bound to thee.] : Remove away [MS. — Continuation of above. [The Lilly. [MS.] *The human Image Pity would be no more.] *The Kid Thou. Book xii. Book xxi.] p.] *The wild flower's song As I wander'd the forest (stanza i).] [MS. my viii. Book xv. [MS. 113.] around the heath. Book xiii. Book *To : xvii. i. *Silent Silent Night. Sketch. burning bright (stanzas : i. Book xx. Tyger. burning bright (first draft of stanzas i. : Abstract. [MS. 5. my My wind.] *The Tyger Tyger. that black'ning church. Book xi. [MS. [MS.] [MS. Book xiv.] up her head. [MS.Rossetti p. thou art sick.] mother groan'd. *The Tyger Tyger. Sketches (pencil). 2. 6). the Church is *Abstinence sows sand *In a wife would I all over. 5. 106.] *The modest rose puts forth a thorn. *Merlin's prophecy [MS. Sketch. Book xix. 109.] *London I wander thro' each charter d street. [MS. SE. did'st play. MS. 3.] *They said this mystery never shall cease.] *The Chimney Sweeper (stanza i). [MS.

[119]. p. Book vi. give you the end of a golden string. [117]. [MS. List (in pencil). saw a chapel all of gold. [MS. p. p. beauty bright.) — [Cat. Sleep.] please.] bound — (Description of Canterbury Pilgrims.] flower *I told my was offer'd to love I *Love seeketh not Pretty Rose Tree. — Ofplagues of Egypt. \^Here follow the contents of the two leaves at the end of the MS.] *I laid *I *I — Of twenty -two subjects for history of England. Why was Cupid a boy.] *A cradle Song Sleep Sleep beauty bright.Rossetii 150 me MS. 115. 116.] e. A flower was offer'd to me. I laid me down upon a bank. 1810.) — (The same. The look of love alarms. I I The angel who presided o'er my I saw a chapel all of gold. [My my love. Book v.] me down upon a bank. [120]. Book ii. 114. List (in ink). *Christian Forbearance [A Poison p. Spectre around me night and day. [End of in [Descriptive Cat. [MS. etc. Book i. p.] went to the garden of love. Where thou dwellest. When the voices of children are heard on the green. the mother said.] INDEX TO THE ROSSETTI TRANSCRIPT (R^) The My Everlasting Gospel (part).] I was angry with my friend.] the Rossetii MS. : : Tree. [MS. *I asked a thief to steal *I heard an a peach.] [The Everlasting Gospel. I. To find the western path. Giants ancient inhabitants of England. in what grove.] [MS. Hail. I grow to man's If e'er estate. SE. [118].] [MS. birth. Three virgins at the break of day. Prose. Book iii. I see. to tell thy love. [The Garden of Love. I see. sleep.'] Prose. Angel singing. Prose. [The Clod and the Pebble. p. Boils. heard an angel singing. *A SE. Lice. itself to told SE. p. Locusts. . Never seek 1 wander'd the forest. me. Book iv. SE. Great things are done when men and mountains meet.

dear mother. Prose descriptions of Blake's pictures. and wanted to Was there not some see my manuscript by that genius. but its contents ? fancy it might wait long for his efforts. i860. Rossetti appears to have contennplated publication of part of the contents of the MS. Nought loves another as itself. a peach. The caverns of the grave I've seen. What do I care for the men of Thames. Tyger. Book. I A have not yet engaged myself any way to said Gilchrist on the subject. Rossetti The errors of a wise man make your 1 5 1 rule. man (one Gilchrist. together with others ' . Wilham In a letter to the latter dated AlHngham. talk of your doing something in the way of publishing I know William thought of doing so. In making his transcript.' Rossetti. without distinguishing between the two separate sources. and is as near him in other respects as he can manage) wrote to me the other day. the poet. to Gilchrist in the following year. Love seeketh not itself to please. To Chloe's heart young Cupid slily stole. and I have no time. Under the heading Poems hitherto unpublished. Rousseau. or by his friend. did lend the MS. and on the death of the latter helped to complete his unfinished work by editing the selection from Blake's poetical and prose works given in the second volume of the Life. prints for the first time a number of poems from the Blake autograph in his own possession. especially " '' if a new Life gives a shove to the concern (as Spurgeon expressed himself in thanking a liberal subscriber to his ' : Tabernacle). 1 walk'd abroad on a snowy day. [Hiatus offive leaves J\ Five epigrams numbered 20-4. I rose up at the dawn of day. rose thou art sick. I was angry with my friend. mock on. Voltaire. Tyger. Mock on. though I have told him he can see it here if he will give me a day's notice. he writes lives next door to Carlyle. the church I asked a thief to steal me is cold. Dear mother. but really think its contents ought to be edited. He 's a blockhead who wants a proof of what he can't perceive. as we know. Canterbury Pilgrims and Vision of the Last Judgment. who November i. The countless gold of a merry heart.' Rossetti. saying he was writing a life of Blake. edited by his brother. burning bright.MS.

spectre around me night and day (vol. by it its for a A made for Mr. pp. Mr. Ellis. Mr. which has since disappeared. 24-7). He takes considerable liberty with the text and gives to several of the pieces titles of his own.' About the same time the Pickering MS. In their description of the MS.333-403). gives for the first time some adequate conception of Blake's great and extraordinary poem ' ' ' The Everlasting Gospel. Ellis' transcript.' as well as a few new poems. who soon after lent time to the publisher of Ellis and Yeats' large edition of Blake's Works.. and his Vision of the Last Judgment' (i. ' . was used for their three-volume edition. Yeats' in his small 'Muses' Library' Blake. 42-60). pp. if one may judge by the text of these editors. mutually supplement each other. W. M. which had already been printed by his brother. H.e. Shepherd. 202-32) Ellis and Yeats include for the first time a few minor poems which had been rejected or ignored by former editors. published in the same year. from the borrowed Pickering MS. of The Everlasting Gospel. while Shepherd was prohibited from using any part of the larger MS. who generally follows his brother's text. Book. ii. From the MS. ii. and. A. chiefly epigrams. Additions to Catalogue 1810). ' ' ' ' ' ' ' PP. pp. Their versions of some of the longer poems and prose pieces in the MS. Book in his Critical Essay (1868). copy of the manuscript. 1868. Rossetti was able to use that part only of the Pickering MS. The Ever' To the Deists in lasting Gospel (vol. My * elsewhere. became the property of Basil Montague Pickering. pp. White. Rossetti.1 Rossetti 52 MS.g. 37. pp. Swinburne was the next to make use of the MS. ii. 1887. 221-4). the publisher. Book must be sought (vol. M. iSg^. e. prints more. ii. W. and 1874 edited by R. ' present owner. He adds to the number of new poems printed. ii. Pickering's last edition. W. Book as well as i. though not as stated all. bears obvious marks of having been made in haste by a copyist unfamiliar with Blake's hand. by Mr. 'Fayette' (vol. and the prose Advertisement and Additions to Blake's Catalogue (vol. The Rossetti MS. Book also he excerpts the prose manifesto which he calls Public Address.' Blake's Memoranda on his modes of engraving. by his copious extracts and illuminative comment. and Jerusalem (vol. 38). Book was purchased January 26. and the Aldine edition which appeared in the same year. who printed the whole of it foi the first time in his editions of 1866.

these changes are the reverse of improvements. of the care bestowed upon this part of the work may be gathered from the fact that in more than one instance the White original transcription of a single page has cost Mr.Rossetti MS. Book mirtle bound a To (MS. The aid of the magnifying glass or of photography has also been resorted to. and collated with the chief texts.' yet the latter is not only as Blake wrote The to the poem. together successive numerations of stanzas and lines (without careful observance of which many of the poems would be uninthe advantage of having been made by telligible). presents fore. From these made by the transcripts copies of the poems have been present editor. Book made by Mr. version of some of the Songs of Experience may be preferred to the text of the engraved book. •. it. enabling the reader to follow the same . any differences of reading being again Some idea referred to Mr. — — ' ' ' ' ' ' Instances will be noted where. These transcripts. as in 'Cupid' (MS. with all Blake's deletions. xiii. Similar care has been four or five hours' close labour. G. White. for the worse or for the better. This edition therea facsimile. while it serves every purpose of he matter in a much clearer and more intelligible form. but also imparts a deeper meaning D. .'existing • ing The proofs have lastly process by reference to the notes. which faithfully reproduce the relative positions of poems or stanzas on the and original page. White for the of transcripts present edition. whether of Blake's final version. Not the least important result of the plan here pursued besides the light which it throws upon Blake's self-criticism apparent in his successive changes is the new form in which a number of the most familiar poems now appear. White for further examination. and any obscure passage submitted to minute My own scrutiny. or where the MS. One may hesitate to change the generally received line Sweet morning leads me on (xliii) to Sweet mercy leads me on. 1 '> 5 text of the poems has been prepared from the MS. and his marks of with transposition corrections. given by the editor to unravelling Blake's method of buildup a poem. lyric lovely In a Myrtle Shade ') gains by the recovery Rossetti's Blake's final readings. been read by Mr. insertions. are here uniformly adopted. Book cxv). possess a Blake student thoroughly familiar with his author's handwriting and mode of composition. and the text and notes again checked from the original manuscript.

Book. and the two — ' quatrains Each man is in his spectre's power and I give you the end of a golden string. The poetical pieces forming part of the MS.' afterwards engraved as part of Jerusalem and here printed among poems from the ' Prophetic Books. the variant readings of which are Three virgins at the suppUed in the footnotes to that work break of day. ' ' .' which I print in the poems from the Pickering MS. Book version. are part of the Songs of Experience. with the readings of the MS.Rossetti 154 MS. but not printed in this section of my edition.

in the reversed circa 1793 115-98 book . MS. pp. Book Written i-xxxvl.POEMS FROM THE ROSSErri MS.

Where love lay sleeping.. punctuate by comma after heart and period 4 doth] did all edd. To the thistles & thorns of the waste And they told me how they were beguil'd.I ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT my I told told I love. all edd. .. WMR MS.. I heard among the rushes dank Weeping. under the title ' Love's All edd.' ignoring the separation between the two poems. Swinb.' drawn prints . Swinb. Silently. print the first stanza deleted by Blake :— p. . A 5 — Silently. & compel'd to be chaste.' DGR Printed by and later add. WBY 2. iii. Book.] to tell thy Love that never told can be For the gentle wind does move * love. p. fears. Trembling. in Never pain [seek del. . read doth for does. 115. Then went to the heath I & the wild. 115. reads shall for can. p. after fears.411 edd. 93.' read seek for pain. Book ist rdg. 0!. as the first line WBY separately with title * The Thistles and Thorns. 8 WBY deny] He took her with a sigh MS. except fears] All edd. and all edd. DGR. cold. invisibly. . told her all I my my heart i love. Secret. 5 Soon as] Soon after all edd. Driven out. . EY however note this. . in ghastly Ah she doth depart. 11 me down upon I laid a bank. 3 heart . del. Weeping. traveller came by. invisibly O! was no MS. and EY print these two stanzas of 'The Garden of Love. ! Soon as she was gone from me. Book. Not deny.

8 Till Down . And many weeping stood without. mourning. WMR. turned] turned i. turn'd into a sty. 2 He] And he MS. Weeping.Rossetti MS. Book (Index to MS. reads. Book. EY steal] steel 1st rdg. Swinb. EY . down the golden Vomited WBY. And along the pavement sweet. Set with pearls & rubies bright. laid me down among the swine. 157 111 saw a chapel all of gold That none did dare to enter I i in. p. & 13 on the wine. Not Sanctuary. del.' his poison out On And 9 . 141) and later edd. . entitle ' asked] asked = ask'd all edd. IV I ask^d a thief to steal turned up his eyes. I saw a serpent The white rise pillars between 5 of the door. Till upon the altar white Vomiting the bread So I MS. = . ask'd a lithe lady to me a peach: He I Holy & meek. 115. Book. 114. Book. (p.' this I lie her down : cries. DGR and all later editors entitle this 'The Defiled Swinb. All his shining length he drew. 13 Vomiting] all except who WBY. tore] Till he broke the pearly door MS. Till He vomited DGR. p. Book \st rdg. turn'd all edd. she MS. The Will and the Way. worshipping. he the golden hinges tore hinges tore. in . 205). . And he forc'd & forc'd & forc'd Down the golden hinges tore. del. Not in DGR.

5 4 Is] Are all edd. as two lines. * 13 If all MS. p. except 14 as correcting later in MS. haycocks looked brown. omit. without one word said a peach from the tree. xst And he MS. 6 He] all edd. del. Till the And I heard a Devil curse Over the heath & 9 the furze: 'Mercy could be no more If there was nobody poor. Peace Is the world's release. Pity. went an angel came 5 : at the thief. 5 sun went down.' Swinb. ii Enjoy'd] He enjoy'd MS.. 8 said] spoke MS. . As 5 .' At his curse the sun went down And the heavens gave a frown. still as a 8 maid Enjoy'd the Lady. del. 3 Pity. Book. DGR and later edd. I heard an Angel singing When . Book ist rdg. 12 was] were all edd. . and maid] And 'twixt earnest & joke MS. all edd. and i the day was springing: Mercy. Book . .I s Rossetti 8 As soon as I He wink'd And smil'd And Had And MS. EY WBY. print del. And pity no more could be. 13 could] we] ye all except Swinb.' ' Thus he sang all day Over the new mown hay. 15 At his curse] Thus he sang & ' 16 frown] Here. p. 147. Book rdg. ' ' ' ' ' Thus] So all would Swinb. were as happy as we. ID And came] . all edd. del." note iii. as. Book ist rdg. 114. isi rdg. at the dame . Book 1st rdg. name this The Two Songs. 97. Peace] Pity and Peace all edd. as Blake's line drawn beneath . del. An earlier version of The human Image (engraved under the title The Human Abstract in the Songs of Experience). happy] All edd. p.

' . [18]. Pity. which are not very legibly written. &c. however.' Is DGR Misery's increase prints as his third stanza {Songs 0/ Experience) and ' I 11. being ' at a : — Mercy Pity \_& del. Peace " concluding. 5 of ' The Human Abstract [21]. and [22] as his last 'Down poured the heavy rain Over the new-reaped grain . And Pity no more could be If all were happy as ye : : And mutual fear brings Peace. Peace. and again indicated the completion of the poem by stanza Blake afterwards deleted. Pity.' iii. 97. [21]. Peace [21] ' . 15. the heavens gave a frown. in their Notes to the EY. p. II. 16 ' At his curse the sun And WBY ' . And Mercy Pity harvest was The Farmers were ruined Over the & & & ended'' This a fresh terminal line. and Poetical Sketches. Pity. And Mercy. pourd down'] 159 the Later he added a fifth heavy rain [17] new reap'd grain. Songs. Pity. the stanza : poem — ' Down originally And [at first ended. [22] (slightly altered) : — ' version heard a Devil curse Over the heath and the furze " Mercy could be no more If there were nobody poor. Book. 9-14. [17]. Misery's increase Are Mercy. the rejected readings. Peace descended . stanza: (p. Rossetti this stanza shows. Peace. their readings of the partially illegible words being rather different WMR.' EY follow DGR. from mine. — 147) re-arranges and prints 11. print the poem as it is found in the MS. as a separate couplet. 1.] Peace {? Joy'd) at their increase {? With) Poverty's Increase Are And by distress increase Mercy. : — went down.MS. Peace By Misery to increase Mercy. with U. the final form of the only completed couplet of which reads 'And Is And new : Miseries' increase Mercy. Lastly follow several attempts stanza. Pity.' Swinb.

del. . Book abandoned opening stroke ibid. the cunning wiles that creep little heart asleep. 8 Little wiles] Such as burning youth beguiles MS. in Soft desires I Secret joys & 5 secret smiles. del. feel] touch MS. ! Dreaming o'er the joys of night in thy sleep Sleep Sleep ! i . 9 As etc. 16 lightnings] light shall all edd. ist rdg. Smiles as of the morning steal O'er thy cheek. in most cases with explanatory note. . Book. ' p. all edd. del. . Stanza 2 was then added and a second boundary line drawn. ! & Little sorrows sit Sweet Babe. 2nd rdg. Book \st rdg. Obviously written as the contrary of the Cradle Song' Songs of Innocence . 4. del. Book 2 Dreaming 1st rdg. o'er] in 4 Little weep] Thou wilt every secret keep MS. Rossetti vi A Cradle Song Sleep Sleep ! beauty bright. 12. Book 15^ rdg.i6o MS. but never engraved by Blake. Little pretty infant wiles. . night] Thou shalt taste the joys of night MS. thy face can trace. at first consisted of stanzas i. .'\ Yet a little while the moon Silent MS. while still later Blake added the final stanza and numbered the whole in their present order. . 13 In thy When Then thy little heart does wake the dreadful lightnings break. rdg. DGR and all later editors include this poem among the Songs of Experience. . Book 15/ Canst thou any secret keep ibid. Blake indicating the change by prefixed numerals. del. . 114. . . 2nd rdg. . . As thy softest limbs I feel. . This song. MS. Where thy O ! little & o'er 9 thy breast heart does rest. as the line drawn below it shows. 10 steal] broke ibid. of this stanza. in the . { . . del. weep. 15 does] doth all edd. 3. . del. 1-4 Sleep weep] The two couplets were written in reverse order. .

7 joys] love 205). . who reads Female female MS. .' Svdnb. EY. 17-20 From ' thine eye for thy eye in however. and obviously transcribed from an earlier draft. . . Without I SAMPSON around the heath. Nor with sorrows meet ? But an honest joy Does itself destroy For a harlot coy. 17. Book. dost thou not fly among the corn fields? cannot spread nets where a harvest yields. name Night and Day. p. . 1. Thousand spirits stray That sweet joys betray. . O'er the youthful harvests nigh. For possess'd of Day. thou] that M Only printed by EY. i Quench the holy light Of thy torches bright . del. 133. Book (i. Infant . It has been printed. p. Book.MS. lo MS. p. DGR and later edd. beguiles] all edd. ' . Infant wiles & infant smiles Heaven & Earth of peace beguiles. i. omit this stanza. Vll Silent. Book 15/ rdg. by Swinb. Without any corrections. Rossetti i6i From thy cheek & from thy 17 eye. No title in original. 11 does] doth DGR. Swinb.. p. infant] 19 . 113. WMR. spread beneath. ' ' . Vlll O lapwing! Nor thou fliest seest the net that Why They MS. EY. 113. 206. WBY. 124. is correction. Silent Night. Why 5 should joys be sweet Used with deceit. EY omit in their Table of Contents to ' the MS.

two my with added p. pp. fair or true 5 not found on any tree blossoms grew all i fair never blew. Sketches. verj' inaccurate and later edd. p. piping loud. with roman numerals. tho' fair to see. X Infant Sorrow My mother groan'd. 4. sulk upon title later.. my father wept 1 .' Not in Swinb. Printed by Blossom. Book. 113. I MS. with the i. ' ' changes Shade ' in the other stanzas where required. 5 Striving against & Bound To MS. Struggling in my father's hands.) 1 . stanzas first thought best Mother's breast. grew Fruitless. cloud] See note to ' Infant Sorrow ' {Songs of Exp. Book fury] roughness DGR ist rdg. 94 To understand Blake's successive changes in the last part of this poem it should be noted that. with this poem ' In a Mirtle xiii). ' Cp. 205). WBY (Notes). who numbers the stanzas Not in DGR or WMR. my swaddling bands. shin'd.1 62 Rossetti MS. &c. p. as one of the The Songs of by Swinb. 113. Book 4 Like . it But a blossom Was shin'd it wind wind my blossoms all blight & . Into the dangerous world I leapt. 240. title ' Barren wind] word EY (in their 4 And] But MS. del. Book. naked. as the different were afterwards engraved by Blake ink shows. false. 137-139. I weary. MS. 93. beginning with 1. Helpless. del. Like a fiend hid in a cloud.' making corresponding . altered to my father ') to many a Priest. 21. he changed a Priest' (afterwards. . . IX fear'd the fury of I Would And my And my sun For & & true. Songs. (MS. as in xiii. EY (Notes to the Poetical First printed Experience. index to the MS. Book.) iii. Book \st rdg. .

omit. 21 beheld the Priest by night embrac'd my mirtle bright: beheld the Priest by day. blossoms out to me. 21. Book . Pronounced curses on his head Who the fruits or blossoms shed. a mirtle tree Stretch'd its . Seeking many an artful Twining many a trick and wile Swinb. . I ' MS. and print in a final note the revised form of stanzas 6-9. would nothing gain. Swinb. that rage 9 Turning many a trick & wile began to soothe & smile. I rdg. 14 stray] lay Swinb. . . wile] I wile MS.. Seeking only for delight. rdg. In his hands a holy book. 18 WBY. Swinb.. smil'd MS. look] fruits] fruit bright] book EY Swinb. . I And Till sooth'd day after day. upon the ground I stray. embrac'd ing . Book mirtle bright. delight beginning of first an afterthought. The two book couplets of this stanza M 2 (? look) WBY 28 vines] vine EY. EY. grew MS. Like a serpent in the day Underneath my vines he lay Like a serpent in the night He 9-12 When . rdg. ist rdg.' this stanza del.' give the earlier (and preferable) form of the remaining stanzas .. And . I 25 . Book . is 17. I And I And I 13 smil'd night after night. . He I Where beneath my vines he lay. These changes are all dependent upon the substitution of ' 21 But a Priest] My father many a Priest for ' a Priest in 1.. grew MS. ii Turn. del. del. beheld . retains this. EY. ' And I From \st rdg. znd rdg. Book 15 smil'd] my smile] This stanza began to MS. were (Notes). del. 17 .] ' then p.MS. vine] But upon the earthly ground No MS. But a Priest with holy look. EY . beyond. me saw before shine 17 Clusters of the wand'ring vine And. del. Book ist 13 sooth'd] Book 2nd . 29 : was to be found. Rossetti When I saw And to sulk 163 was vain. Book 2rd 24 240. 29-32 originally written in . del. this point onwards EY put asterisks for 'was to. . . .

But many a Priest with holy look. I MS. waves] waters DGR. *29 : So I smote them. EY. *i7 . head] stanzas (see note to 1.Rossetti 164 So & his gore my mirtle bore smote him. ' Ohio. xi Why Or Or should I care for the men of thames. Book. . *25-*32 I beheld . & their gore *33 Stain'd the roots my mirtle bore . fled. bright] WBY (Notes) omits. all edd. with title Thames and Not in Swinb. deletions and additions. 2 Or] And r thames] the Thames EY (Index to MS.' . WBY. . But the time of youth is fled. 113. 205). Like to holy men by day Underneath the vines they lay Like to serpents in the night They embrac'd my mirtle bright. the changes being And I saw before me shine Clusters of the wand'ring vine And many a lovely flower & tree Stretch'd their blossoms out to me. i. 17-36 And I saw . Printed by DGR and later edd. Book. WMR. 4 my] mine all edd. ear? MS. my head. . the cheating waves of charter'd streams shrink at the little blasts of fear That the hireling blows into my i . I append here the The verses were version of the last five final not recopied. Pronounc'd curses on my head And bound me in a mirtle shade. Stain'd the roots But the time of youth grey hairs are on is And 33 . . p. the reverse order. EY. In their hands a holy book. 17). my *2i look] book *28 vines] vine EY. the final position of the lines being afterwards indicated in Blake's usual manner by Arabic numerals added in the left-hand margin. I beheld the Priests by night the blossoms bright beheld the Priests by day *25 . They embrac'd I *2i : . Underneath the vines they lay. And grey hairs are on head.

Xll Thou And hast a lap full of seed. : fc>* 6 bathed] bathed all edd. . Without tearing up Some stinking weed. but I go to be free. 1st rdg. Rossetti 165 Tho' born on the cheating banks of Thames. . lo MS. human soul to cast the The seed of eternal science. as arranged the lines as first DGR. EY. stanza 12 : DGR ' — 'Then thou. Book 1st rdg. from me MS. may have been Blake's but he erased and Book 1st rdg. with title Seed Sowing. Tho' his waters bathed my infant limbs. full of generous fire.). . On On the virgins of springing joy. with thy lap full of seed. is a fine country. But MS. or Printed by WBY. For . And live in it Shall I And cast turn merrily? on the sand it 5 into fruitful land? it For on no other ground Can sow I my seed. del. 5. lap full] lapful DGR. The Ohio shall wash his stains from me I was born a slave. With thy hand "Walked forth from the clouds of morning. . . . it del. Cp. 7-10 This end of I. weed] DGR. WMR. 7. Book ist rdg. . Book EY print these intention. . v.' Not in Swinb. where it precedes 'Earth's Answer' {^Songs oj Exp.MS.' WMR. Ill. The me] I spurn'd his waters away 8 go] long MS. del. 1 this Why dost thou not cast thy seed. . . . 6 Shall I turn] Oft I've I . Book. four lines as two. p. chap. del. he wrote can here printed. 7 del. and later edd. 7 For] 1st rdg. WMR and turn'd 2 fine] fair MS. Ahania. Book ' at the EY. ' 9 tearing] pulling MS.

Book . by omitting these and after the rest 11. 94 and i WBY (Notes% . Book x\ bound] This stanza was added . (MS.1 66 MS. ' 245. . EY (Notes to the 3. 137. &c. iii. Book weak EY. del. To any O thee. 13-16 So. 33-6 (MS. . Book. the left-hand column. this version Swinb.) Cp. laugh'd So smote him. were written. WBY. .. all around. Rossetti • • • Xlll \First Version] In a Mirtle Shade Why should I be bound to O my lovely mirtle tree? free love. by print this couplet without 5 sick] MS. . where. Sorrow 5-8 DGR p. Poetical Sketches. my Oft I father Stain'd the roots & his gore my mirtle bore. at our simplicity. with this poem the fuller form of Infant . 9 : . quotes stanzas ' O and is . . pp. prefixed numerals to position of the second and third stanzas. my WMR omit head.' 11 : cp. stanza 2 with the couplet. as else11 Oft saw] Oft the MS. x). ! 5 . i cannot be bound tree that grows on ground. But the time of youth And grey hairs are on MS. misrepresents the true order. afterwards deleted : ' To a lovely mirtle bound. Love. Songs. Blake began printing the stanzas as written. in 5 and 9 indicating the relative WBY. Oft my To behold mirtle sigh'd in vain my heavy chain And saw us sigh. WBY italics. 1st trig. 138. Book x. marking the deletion.' Blossoms show'ring Both EY and priest beheld ' head] cp. Underneath my mirtle bound. how sick and weary I Underneath my mirtle lie Like to dung upon the ground. p. III. 13 fled. Infant Sorrow.

prefixing marginal numbers in his usual manner to indicate the Blake's intention is perfectly plain yet we position of the lines retained. Rossetti into supposing that two more lines were required. p. ' Blake here compresses the sixteen lines of the preceding version has been As this poem has never been correctly obscured by editorial changes. the first stanza of the earlier version.*z. indicating deleted Hnes by italics : — TO MY MIRTLE. find all Blake's editors following . the earlier version. Book. *4- In a Myrtle Shade. (Notes). beginning his second stanza with the couplet which he had rejected in the previous draft and adding but in transposed — order — two accepted couplets of the same stanza. follow text.) iii. as it stood. O how sick & weary I Underneath my mirtle lie Why should I be bound to thee. and were written in the MS. Book. 5 Why 6 O my should I be bound to thee *i lovely mirtle tree Love free love cannot be bound To any tree that grows on ground. but leave them meaningless by the omission DGR and all edd. of Blake's marginal numbers. 95. io6.Rossetti MS. *3.' 6 tree] All edd. He then struck out 11. lie] ' . \6j \Final Versto?i] To My Mirtle To i a lovely mirtle bound. DGR and printing the poem as two four-line stanzas. Songs. give this Alledd. and by ignoring deletions. *8. *4 and *7. It will thus be seen that Blake began by transcribing. *4. The original arrangement of the verses must have misled Mr. in which it is found printed. To a lovely mirtle bound Blossoms showring all around 1 2 Like to dung upon Underneath 3 O how 4 Underneath sick the my mirtle & weary my mirtle *S ground bound I *9 lie. ! 5 O my lovely mirtle tree? MS. otherwise he would have been the first to perceive how omission of the greatly the poem gains in freshness and sweetness by the rhetorical tag : — Love. end first stanza here. free love. where it immediately precedes Nought loves another The simple and faultless form into which as itself ('A Little Boy Lost').add\\. cannot be bound To any tree that grows on ground DGR's ! EY (Notes to the Poetical Sketches. WBY poem the title used in 4 3 sick] weak all edd. Blossoms show'ring all around. All edd. print the lines in the order in which they &c. Book. it may be well to reproduce it in the exact form in the MS. in restoring the deleted lines *3.

9 Or 5 EY and WBY print both stanzas as one.. Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793) Innocence honest. subtil modesty. Secresy] applause] a later addition in pencil. with title 'Young — Cp. Book isi rdg. 140. Swinb. Swinb. 264 EY. p. the Father of Jealousy. . joys of morning light taught thee modesty.. seeking : ' ! The vigorous Who open to virgin bliss. . 4 searching] passing EY. 109. ' ' .' antithetical to 'Father of AH') was Blake's jocular nickname for Urizen. gains] Jealousy iwith note querying secrecy' as the true reading) Swinb. All edd. Father of Jealousy? Why dost thou hide thyself in clouds From every searching Eye ? Why Why & darkness i 5 obscurity thy words & laws. del. 91.del. ' : : XV Are not the joys of morning sweeter Than the joys of night? And i are the vig'rous joys of youth of the light? Ashamed MS. {sic). ^o<^\strdg. 109. 'To Nobodady iii. EY. Book xxxvi. in WMR ? under the title Father Printed by 209. child of night .WBY.1 68 MS. print as two lines. & sleep ? ' . in text as To Old Nobodaddy. Book. That none dare eat the fruit but from In all The wily serpent's jaws? Or is it because Secresy gains MS. open. of Jealousy. ' * ' 'Nobodaddy' (obviously 'Nobody's Daddy. Love. 4 Ashamed] Ashamed DGR. xxxix\ 2 Father] Man MS.' and in notes as i. females' loud] feminine MS. Rossetti XIV To Nobodaddy art thou silent & invisible. DGR. gives Swinb. Swinb. 7 dare] can EY.. Book. WBY title added females' loud applause Not later in different ink. The p. The same name occurs also in Fayette and in the lines on Klopstock (MS. p. (first Printed by two DGR and later edd.' p. lines only).' and by .

Book. forges fetters for the MS. ' Cp. 107. And breaks all chains from every mind. but interest blind. 246. Modest. I EY WMR. del. 2 promotes] loves MS. Lawless. XVll Love to faults is Always is always blind i . mind. wing'd & unconfin'd. poem. & Lawful. Book \st rdg. : . 106. .Rossetti Let age & MS. & the soldier peace. written in pencil at top right-hand corners of pp. which was probably a hasty attempt at erasure Lawless. WBY. ' p. WBY Freedom and Captivity ') print the first (the latter with the title stanza and an altered version of the fragment by which it is immediately ' followed in the MS. . unconfin'd] Always . to joy inclin'd. unconfin'd MS. . — ' Deceit to secresy inclin'd. unconfined EY. their connexion being obvious. underlined. Not in DGR. XVI They said this mystery never shall cease: The priest promotes war. to interest blind. Book 1st rdg. 107. is 15/ rdg. . . winged. Deceit to secresy confin'd. 6 vineyards] vineyard all edd. MS. chains in fetters every mind. mind] MS. note to The Lilly {Songs of Experience^. ' Always Book ' . Pluck fruits before the light. . 169 sickness silent rob 5 The vineyards in the night But those who burn with vig'rous youth . 5-8 Deceit . Book. See also 3 Lawless (' WBY There souls of men are bought & sold ') as a single (Notes). and not indicated by Blake himself. cautious To anything And refin'd 5 . though or Swinb. print the two stanzas as one poem.' . prudish Never And is & confin'd. p.

WMR.' seek for But I . 109 at first formed the entire poem later Blake added on p. I murmur'd And ' I felt my In the morning As To fears delight. . milk fed infancy for gold youth to slaughter houses I Not p. &c. Book And] In EY. WBY print as second stanza to preceding poem. and finally the title. gold] 3 youth] youths Swinb. Book the] wandered in the all edd.del.. . WBY. pp. . . 7 5 I Earth] I was found in the dark ibid. fears] thoughts R^ (though correctly in DGR). EY. WBY. 127. cradled infancy i sold.'). del. 107. 107. beauty. sold 2 MS. milk fed . i among. There] The EY. Book. WBY. . heard a wild flower Singing a song. and to xvii. EY p. Book. I wander'd 3 flower] thistle MS. 9 rosy as morn.1 MS. is led. XIX The Wild Flower's Song As wander'd the I The green I leaves forest. WMR.. new Joy met with scorn. and Swinb. del. 1st rdg. ' I slept in the Earth 5 In the silent night. . WBY: \st rdg. The second and third stanzas on p. I went. Rossetti 70 XVlll & There souls of men are bought And And And MS. Book 4 beauty] See note \st rdg. DGR in EY. 109.. for a bit of bread. 107 the introductory stanza and catchwords (' I slept in the dark. maidens MS.^v4\v^. MS. : .

del. Book. index to the MS. ! 4 : And MS. del. Book). line in their I Printed here for first time. wintry] windy the Priest] virginities EY a tether in 207. ! &c. i. 205. Cloth'd in robes of blood & gold Swords & spears & r . Book. sun] day MS. The king and priest EY. WBY. I walked] walked MS. WMR. EY {Index). 171 XX Snow Soft I walked abroad on a snowy day I ask'd the soft She play'd And MS. . Book 15/ rdg. 15/ rdg. MS. WBY ('Couplets 1 : to play added later. EY she melted the winter call'd p. 3 The King & XXU Day The sun arises in the East. i. XXI Merlin's Prophecy The harvest shall flourish in wintry weather When two meet together The King & the Priest must be tied Before two virgins can meet together. DGR. Croun'd with warlike fires & raging desires. 105. (note). 135.Rossetti MS. Book and ask'd] wooed Swinb. MS. crime] Oil. Book. 107. Only printed by EY. Book. R'. Ah . del...' i ). I i : p. 136 Title and Fragments. last line is in pencil. {riote). MS. all edd. p. EY quote 4 title 5 and first bosom] ancles . should be thought a crime Swinb. i. that sweet love . and & snow with me The it : in all her prime. that. (Index to MS. wrath increast All around his bosom roll'd. Book 1st rdg. 2 snowy] sunny Swinb. pp. Book . Swinb. 205. 106. a dreadful crime.

96. Book. EY. reproduced in Gilchr. 11 Swinb. ss . If a tear or a smile Will a man beguile. 15 hat caught] Cp. 19 is an addition. And 20 and a line now thoroughly erased the marriage ring ist rdg.' So a fairy sung. — 9 fairy a king. For Of MS. Book isi rdg. .MS.. pp. Title in pencil. . del. Let him laugh. From the leaves I sprung He leap'd from the spray To flee But He in away my .' EY print both titles. 20 For . Only in Swinb. . 105. 19. Book 1. ring] 1. iii.. ' See preceding note. Blake's first title : MS. (afterwards erased) was 'The Marriage Ring. little i sparrows. arrows. afterwards engraved by Blake for The Gates of Paradise. Book. hat caught. 143. gives this instead of the later title indicating the author's deletion of the first. poem originally ending with ' 20 Of] And MS. p. If an amorous delay Clouds a sunshiny day. without Swinb.. a sketch in the MS. 99. and EY.. He 's my him let butterfly 17 cry. 13 the] his Swinb. i. 142. soon shall be taught. If 5 the step of a foot Smites the heart to its *Tis the marriage ring Makes each root. no. EY. the 7 step] tread stanzasasone. 7. 11 sung] sang Swinb. del. prints both 12 sprung] sprang Swinb. 10. : . I've pulled out the sting the marriage ring. Rossetti 172 xxiii The Fairy Come ' My my hither.

p. 105. XXVI In a wife I would desire What in whores is The lineaments of MS. as the second stanza of the poem immediately following in the MS. (' Couplets all edd. in DGR I. MS. p. 105.' vii). The tears of repentance you'll certainly wipe But if You . Rossetti 173 XXIV The sword sung on the barren heath. : MS. XXVll If you trap the moment before it's ripe.' Swinb. Not and Fragments. EY. WMR. p. Book. 137. del. Book (xxxv. But could not make the sickle yield.MS. del. 105. The sickle in the fruitful field The sword he sung a song of death. Book \st . MS. In pencil. p. But Desire Gratified Plants fruits of MS. 4 You can] You'll MS. XXV Abstinence sows sand all over The ruddy limbs & flaming hair. Book. EY Fragments. (ii) and WBY ' (3) Couplets and flowery Swinb.' ' ' I trap] catch rdg. & life DGR. once you let the ripe moment go can never wipe off the tears of woe.. Eternity ') under the title Opportunity. Cp. Book. a flaming] ? flowering ? beauty there. p. Book. WBY or Swinb. 105. Book 15^ rdg. 3 sung] sang WMR. Several Questions Answered ' — ' (xxxv). always found Gratified desire. Printed by DGR and all later edd.

Book. 2 of a loving eye] In the MS.' second stanza of cxxv. Blake here. EY. p. 4 secret] cunning .. of a loving of a loving eye. rubies & pearls of a loving eye. 2 tangled] caught EY. Book man MS.. uses He never &c. according to his usual practice. there] Title added later. Book. did'st play &c. I tell . 103. WBY ' ' 3 indolent] idle MS. MS. Come A my MS. fool tangled in a religious snare. indolent never can bring to the mart. All edd. XXX Riches The The The Nor countless gold of a merry heart. p. what see you there ? Only in EY. all edd. Book. and 1st rdg. transcribed it into the MS. and the remainder of this piece is therefore ' lost to us. Book. 105. boy.' to signify that the poem had already been noted elsewhere. p. tell me what thou seest there.1 MS. del.. the secret hoard up in his treasury. ivritten in error. Book 15/ rdg. . Rossetti 74 xxviii The Kid Thou. 103 (reversed). follow DGR in printing this as with title The Two Kinds of Riches. . So in MS. little Kid. and all edd. del. XXIX Lacedemonian Instruction hither.

Till Experience teaches them to catch And to cage the Fairies And And And And then the & Elves. p. xxxii Motto Songs of Innocence and the to of Experience The Good are attracted by Men's r perceptions.' MS. WMR. DGR and Swinb. Book. p. WBY ' (Notes) p. His possibly I Her] Not plainly written . Rossetti 175 XXXI An Answer the Parson to of the sheep do I don't want Why you not learn peace? you to shear my fleece. WMR (' Couplets and Fragments. in ' ' : smart] smack all edd. smooth & neatly pen'd.MS. Songs of Innocence and of Experience with the title A Motto. 100. 238. WMR Not in DGR or EY. EY. 7 ends] end WBY. Swinb. a hang-noose] strong noose all edd. with a hang-noose at the end. (xii). the Hypocrite to howl all his good Friends shew their private ends. ' Not Swinb. 3 to catch] how to catch Swinb. Platted quite neat to catch applause. MS. to 5 . 124. Book. 103. And think not for themselves. DGR (x). xxxiii Her Whole Life is an Epigram smart. or WBY.' Not xiii). Because in MS. loi... and Placed WBY among Couplets and Fragments' by (14). prefixes p. EY p. the Eagle is known from the Owl. Knave begins to snarl. . Book.

it flies * MS. p. EY. the first drafts of which are written elsewhere in the MS. . Book. ' . 105 and 3 kisses] just kisses Eternity's] an eternal MS. Book. WMR. originally the I first. The second 206. 100. MS. short pieces. 105 15/ rdg. with the title Opportunity. 105 with 1-4 He and later edd. Title 206) as Questions answered (again). Rossetti 176 xxxiv Old maid early e'er I knew Ought but the love that on me grew An And now And wish O I ! that cannot cannot find For Early MS. i.' incorrectly given Printed title Eternity. e'er] Read ere. But he who kisses the joy as Lives in Eternity's sunrise. Book. .' as the first stanza of by the first draft of which immediately precedes it. I The undaunted courage Before & I'm cover'd o'er i my I was in love 5 Mind of a Virgin . Book. [Eternity] He who bends to himself a joy Doth the winged life destroy . : p. crost.' Blake here transcribes hastily in pencil. a Doth] Does Book. 2) 3) I) 5» the revised sequence being None figures. Under the general title Several Questions Answered. had been a Whore. 3 I'm cover'd] I am covered EY. Book. in EY's Index ' (i. 99. del. flower of love was lost. The original order of pieces was indicated by Blake's usual marginal 4. Printed only by EY. Book. . WBY. winged] winged 105 ist rdg. p. all edd. . stanza was Blake afterwards renumbering them in their present order. DGR ' xxvii.' sunrise] First written on p. p. del. on p. p. XXXV Questions Answered Several i. 105 of the MS. of Blake's editors print these fragments together. o'er. MS.MS.

10 follows the pre- DGR and later ceding quatrain but with Blake's usual line of separation. where it bears the or 'The Question Answer'd. 107. The look of love alarms. . in] of MS. ' 'tis . 11-14 Desire] Transcribed from MS. print as the two last Unes of 'The look of love alarms. 182. Book WBY.). I 18 You'll] 'Twill ' ' MS. 103. Book 1st ver17 man] dash in MS. del. . p. Book. del. ' MS. What is it women do in men require? The lineaments of Gratified Desire. Only in (Notes). WMR. London ' 15 black'ning] {Songs of Exp. Book 1st version. ' Couplets and Fragments (2). 11. . the] . Book. . 9 These are Beauty's sweetest dress. [The Question Answer'd] What is it men in women do require ? The lineaments of Gratified Desire. 11 5- An ancient Proverb Remove away Remove away Remove away that black 'ning church. it 's fill'd with fire Because But the look of 5 .13 15-18 Transcribed from MS. 103. 5-8 The hire] Transcribed from Couplets and Fragments (iii). blackening sion. where the title is an addition. man from the last rdg. 240.. edd. i. dress ? . Book. Cp. soft deceit Shall win the lover's hire. 103 of the p. note to WBY. that marriage hearse. Book ist version. (4). dress] MS. DGR WBY WMR. p. version. . EY p. place MS.MS. 103. of the earlier supply . ist rdg. p. DGR. Book Soft .' Not in Swinb. that ' del. 4. 3- Soft deceit & Idleness. Transcribed from MS.' Blake at ' Which are beauties sweetest first began this couplet with the deleted line What title ' 10 Beauty's] beauties MS. p. and all edd. 206. 1st rdg. 103. 1st rdg. where it Among 6 it 's] 9. p. filled all edd. SAMPSON N 1st version. HW d'\ I5^z^<?rs2b«. Rossetti 177 2. . EY. Book. 15 — that [man] of blood You'll quite remove the ancient curse. WBY. ' (title omitted) WBY p.

Without title. and Blake accordingly erased the whole passage from Then old — ' ' ' ' ' ' shall have a Priest and a passing bell (A 11.' new born babe. To the latter of these (' The King awoke on his couch of gold') he now added. A. 99. a companion stanza in the same metre ('The Queen of Nobodaddy 19). thou'rt bought & sold ' —the last 'Who will exchange his own fireside. Resuming in the first column of p. 15 prefixing the marginal refer to the stanzas in each ' . 98 he began a new stanza ('Fayette beside his banner stood') which he cancelled before com- process.' WMR This re-arrangement.' : ' And ' said Every I bit as love hanging well as war & & — drawing & quartering slaughtering. ' ' adding the three verses 'Will the mother exchange her pletion. pp. A iii. 3 to A ii. This last he erased. being an amended version of the deleted stanza at the foot of the second column of the preceding page. formed by and the second couplet of A iii: — Then he swore a great & solemn oath To kill the people I am loth. Rossetti 178 XXXVl Note Prefatory MS. Book. mediate. Reproduced as it a chaos to the reader.' and 'Fayette. below the deleted passage. and by lower-case roman numerals. and C. numerals 4. leaving aloft to only the They first France just touched this Globe '). and finished his work on p. some separated from the rest by boundary lines. His next change consisted in placing smaller figures 1-12 before the lines which he meant to retain in the order specified. and stands in the MS. Some of the stanzas are erased. thou'rt bought & sold ') in the second column underneath B iii. Turning to the vacant space in the first column below Several Questions Answer'd Blake added three Fayette stanzas (B iv-vi) followed by a fourth (' Fayette. this rough draft would prove I have therefore endeavoured to represent the various stages in the development of the poem by printing it separately in its I call these three versions initial. Fayette. The effect of this is to interpolate uniting the between first A A and i couplet of A iv ii a new second stanza [A *3]. These three . Probably written about 1793. B. A iv. 9two stanzas of A as originally written. to denote that the original second stanza was to be placed last. 98. 2. 14. Fayette. Blake has left no fair copy of this piece. 99 by drawing a line of separation between the Fayette stanzas in both columns and the matter immediately above. 13..' This version (A) he next altered by erasing 11. Blake began his first attempt at the head of the second column of p. and some numbered with a bewildering series of marginal figures marking successive attempts at the arrangement of lines into stanzas. however unless with we transpose the relative leaves the pronoun he without positions of the second and third stanzas antecedent.MS. erasing and re-writing three lines in the These three stanzas form the beginning of B. 99 to the right of the space filled by Several Questions Answer'd. and stanzas into different orders. some re-written. and final forms.

and to have abandoned any further attempt at completion. no word substituted. 99 (B ' leaving only that beginning Fayette beheld the King & Queen.' WMR A *iii B iv B v B prints the stanzas in the following EY (ii. Passages of The Everlasting Gospel and one epigram are found upside down upon the same page. form B.' 8 Famine] MS. 2427 give a not very accurate account of the evolution of the poem. 3. ' ' [i] 'Let the Brothels of Paris be opened With many an alluring dance. . at the head of the second column. and later the figure 3 was struck out to mark the cancellation of Who will exchange dungeon floor. On p. 98 we reach the point at which Blake reversed the MS. both & drum. B Blake then added a slightly amended form of the lines beginning exchange his own fireside.MS. 2. & crumb.' a boundary line being drawn around the two retained stanzas. Book fife is/ rdg. Book and began writing from the other end.' and.' the prefixed numbers 2. Book is/ rdg. N 2 5 : EY. Under the B title ' Lafayette. In version C I print the poem as he left it. the [Famine] shall eat both crust 3 Physicians] Pestilence MS. . indicating a new but not very happy revision of the ' viii) Who will ' arrangement of the three last stanzas. del. As soon as he heard these tidings told 'Arise And & come.' which he re-transcribed below. I. omitting one stanza (A iv) altogether and ignoring or misinterpreting the successive order : B i ii iii (is/ rdg. del. These changes are manifestly for the worse. Blake seems to have lost his grip of the poem. added later. ["] The King awoke on his couch of gold. i to show that their position was to be inverted. was to erase the two Fayette stanzas on p. . Cancelling the two stanzas above (B vii and Blake's next alteration iv. .) C v B vii B viii. This gives us the poem in its fullest and best stanzas ' . B vii. i To awake the Physicians thro' the city. Rossetti 179 were then numbered 3. the stanza O who would smile on the wintry seas. v).' Said the beautiful Queen of France. "i re-arrangements of lines and stanzas indicated by Blake's marginal numbers.

' . they rebel. & & love hanging I 9 .i8o MS. around] There is just such . they must go to hell: have a Priest & a passing bell. & war bit as well as Every aloft & drawing quartering slaughtering. To awake the Physicians thro' the city Said the beautiful Queen of France. & . many suckers grow around.' Damn [iv] Then he swore a ' To But great the people kill I & am solemn oath loth 16 : .' if shall They 15 swinging] surgery 16-19 Then EY. . . i ' [»] The King awoke on couch of gold. Rossetti [Hi] Then old ****** & And Nobodaddy belched ' said. around] But the bloodthirsty people across the water Will not submit to the gibbet MS. And the Pestilence darted from her robe.. . .' . 12 a tree at Java found MS. bell] EY omit. Book all 9 1st rdg. the Famine shall eat both crust and crumb. cough'd. Book snd rdg. del. And II. halter. as he heard these tidings told As soon 'Arise And & his come. 12 But a great . 13 praying & singing. Unless they will bring in The blood of ten thousand by fighting or swinging. WMR. both fife & 5 : drum. B [i] ' Let the Brothels of Paris be opened With many an alluring dance. . But our good Queen quite grows to the ground.' [iii] The Queen of France just touch'd this Globe. And del.

WMR 22 tears & iron] curses and iron 17 beheld] liked EY. [vii] Fayette. thou'rt bought For well I see thy tears Of Of & : — . [vi] Fayette beheld the King In tears & iron bound & Queen 31 .' Who will exchange his own fireside For the steps of another's door? "Who will exchange his wheaten loaf For the links of a dungeon floor ? ' and the two deleted lines Who : — exchange his own heart's blood For the drops of a Harlot's eye 1 25-32 Fayette . His captains false around. .MS.' and King Lewis This again is followed by the stanza marked for erasure : ' ' ' ' ' ' : ' — ' for 'his banner. . Fayette. ' will ' . Fayette. floor] These stanzas were at first written in reversed order. the deleted stanza ' Fayette. thou'rt bought And sold is thy happy morrow & sold 25 .' — and the deleted beginning of a stanza Fayette beside his banner stood. But mute Fayette wept tear And fa' guarded them around. for tear. of iron EY. Rosseiti i8i [iv] Fayette beside King Lewis stood He saw him sign And soon he saw About hand his 13 . 24 Here follow in the MS. [v] Fayette beheld the Queen to smile And wink her lovely eye And soon he saw the pestilence 17 . Thou'rt bought & sold EY reading I will see for well I see. tears sold Pity are exchanged for those selfish slavish fears. Thou gavest the tears of Pity away In exchange for the tears of sorrow. the famine ragfe the fruitful land. . From street to street to fly.

] [iv] Who will exchange his own fireside 13 For the stone of another's door? Who will exchange his wheaten loaf For the links of a dungeon floor? M Fayette beheld the King & In curses iron bound & Queen 17 . for tear. . Book . [viii] Will the mother exchange her new born babe For the dog at the wintry door? Yet thou dost exchange thy pitying tears For the links of a dungeon floor 29 ! [First three stanzas as B. MS. [vi] O who would smile on the wintry seas & Pity the stormy roar? Or who will exchange his new born child For the dog at the wintry door? 13-20 Who reversed order. concluding as below. 21 around] These two stanzas were originally written in 14 stone] steps ist rdg. But mute Fayette wept tear And guarded them around. tears . del. rf^/. MS. Book i-s^ ro'^g'. 18 curses] .1 82 Rossetti MS.

Book. xxxvii-cxxxi { pp.POEMS FROM THE ROSSETTI MS. II MS. 2-98. Written circa 1800-1810 .

rather an offshoot of The Four Zoas. 2. the same argument and symbolism of which are practically the as those of Milton and Jerusalem. pale. In either column. in the MS.' the former to signify . 8.e. Book. in 1797. Butts in Blake's having been written about the same time as the lines to xxxvii may therefore be dated October or letter of October 2.' and Thou hast parted from my side. numbered i and written The all stanzas. in either column. in pencil. 6. 1800. at the head of page 2. and his final order of the eight retained stanzas. 3 and 2. showing clearly Blake's successive arrangements. and written later in pencil around a sketch of in the centre of the page. their natural place would seem to be after stanza 3. stanzas 2 and 7.' and numbered 1. which is almost illegible. is the stanza beginning the final stanza 14 (i. however. a stanza without number (' Poor. and the unnumbered stanza ('What transgressions form ' ' ' ' arrange them as part of the poem in If so. written to that work. To the right. the ' I. of further three on. The whole of these are written in ink. 1800 book as a notebook : November. which contains internal evidence pages poem (xli). 278. Blake's use of the terms spectre ' ' and ' emanation. 279) describes 'My Spectre' as 'perfect Jemsakm both for style and matter. with one or more arable numbers at the head of each. marked for insertion between 6 and 8. pp. the latter are stanzas 9 and 10. consecutive to 'Let us agree to give up love'). In the first column of the former page are stanza two deleted stanzas beginning Her weeping she shall ne'er give o'er. are to the left a stanza numbered 2 Daphne. and near the foot of the page. The next piece of any importance is the for poetry.' and 'meant for insertion in some ' fresh instalment of prophetic rhapsody by way of complement or sequel It is. pp. ' to come in ' ' love did between stanzas 3 and insertion 5. these and the two top stanzas.' Throughout Poor pale pitiable form are not cancelled. I commit'). stanzas II and 12 (all four written and numbered in ink) followed by stanza 13 Intermediately between (written in pencil and centred at foot of page). 5. numbered another and ') pitiable O'er my sins thou sit and moan. to The position poem the original beginning of the volume after it had been half filled by earlier soon poems written from the reversed end proves that it was composed when he resumed his use of the old sketchafter Blake removed to — Felpham.' with stanzas 3.II ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT xxxvii Prefatory Note MS. ' cancelled stanza marked ' When my and stanza 4 (marked for first begin afterwards cancelled and then again Last follow in the position originally indicated). Book— the first piece written from of this and Blake may have intended a final draft. Swinburne {Essay. In the second column of the same page are the cancelled first version of stanza 2. Eternity.

G. and has been accepted without question by the majority of editors who follow the text of the Aldine edition. supplies the clue to the meaning of this beautiful but obscure poem. . Ellis and Yeats print fourteen stanzas with S3'mbolic 'interpretation. 3. 249). 8. W. transposing the position of 11 and 12. ' His His fall fall into the generation of decay and death. the above is the true text of this poem with the numberings of the The same . 279) prints with commentary the two rejected stanzas 'Thou hast parted from my side. the present editors not having seen the MS. it may be explained. 1 8s the reasoning power in man. through selfannihilation achieved by the infinite tolerance and forgiveness of sin. Swinburne (pp. M. and his Regeneration by resurrection from the dead. Mr. the separation two contrary and conflicting selves. Messrs. Rossetti gives a very corrupt text. the rejected stanza 'Thy weeping thou shall ne'er give o'er. is the nearer to the Edition and elsewhere truth . then stanza version is adopted by Mr.' In vol.' which must mystify readers who find. Iron tears and groans of lead Thou bind'st around my aching head. printing stanzas i. The theme is identical with that of the later Prophetic Books. 6. and their text contains one or two of their customary deviations from verbal Under the title Spectre and Emanation. B. sing into Division and his resurrection into Unity. but of Imagination in the opening lines of The Four Zoas of reason and emotion into — : — Daughters of Beulah.' the poem is rather more correctly given by Mr. partly from numberings of verses put experimentally and then erased by Blake. rently rejected ') in the notes (p. who prints the fourteen approved and numbered stanzas in the text. and their reunion in a state of regained humanity and moral liberty. and stanzas 5. the unplaced stanza *i.' descriptive of the meaning which he reads into it. Rossetti. deep winter dark and cold Till ' A Within my heart thou dost unfold . formed by amalgamating couplets taken from the unplaced or rejected stanzas :— ' Poor pale pitiable form That I follow in a storm. Mr. W. From sin I never shall be free thou forgive and come to me.' Of this poem. 278.' 4. with the title 'Broken Love. Yeats. instead of in its revised form. Not is altered from the original. 14. ii. The poem as printed in the Aldine a word is erroneously arranged. and the latter his imagination and emotion.' The latter of these two contradictory statements. three pages before.' and 'When my love did first begin. which he thinks Blake must have so numbered 'by some evident slip of mind or pen.e. though the editors have rendered their third stanza meaningless by printing the second in its earlier and cancelled. i. 37-41. D.' the unplaced stanza *2.Rossetti MS. Cp. a.' They conclude with the note: 'The text of the poem here is reprinted from the Aldine edition. the author's invocation to the Muses — in Blake's mythology the Daughters.' and stanzas 8-14. 7. a fourth and fifth stanza. ' verses as finally arranged after three re-considerations by Blake. and the three unplaced stanzas (' appa' accuracy. pp. not of Memory.

42. 10. . f.' WMR DGR and print the former as their eighth stanza. of 'shall' to 'shalt' in 1. 4. 23 56. 18 . Emanation My Weeps far within my incessantly for Sin. Milton. Within my heart thou didst unfold A Fathomless There we & boundless deep wander. 2 A Fathomless & boundless deep.' Here followed ' And Till two cancelled stanzas : — [ist rdg. Jerusalem. . There we wander.1 86 MS. 1. f. 1. Milton. 34. 8. I around] before I Spectre] Cp. reason.' and comes to come in 1. . f. — Man.' 'The Spectre See 1. . making the necessary changes. Rossetti Spectre around me night & day Like a Wild beast guards my way My i . . 1. in contradistinction to the Spectre. by Martyrdoms and Wars. dark & cold. 16 f. gave forth their Emanations Like Females of sweet beauty'). 50 Power 11. & when separated From Imagination. cp. & not with the daughters of inspiration I am that Evil One I in my Selfhood am that Satan : He 4 my is Spectre. 54. there we . is 15. i. the Reasoning is also Jerusalem. pride and agination and self-annihilation ' 14. never will from sin be free & comes to me.' . . 3 Emanation] In Blake's mythoalways personified as a female (cp. weep. and closing itself as in steel in a Ratio Of the Things of Memory. logy the Emanation in 1. It thence frames Laws & Moralities To destroy Imagination. f. behind] EY adopt the first rejected form of this stanza : ' ' ' ' ' ' . WBY. and passim. who is male. 13. 11. 14. self-righteousness. forgives to thou forgive. . Her'] sin I the weeping thou \_she'] against thee \_her'\ more & more Thy . : shall ne'er give o'er. f. Milton. the Divine Body. f. 74. f. 12. 7 36. she forgives 'Thou hast parted from my side Once thou wast a virgin bride Never shalt thou a true love [lover'] : : My find : Spectre follows thee Behind. EY. 'she 5-8 A . overlooked by Blake. . The Emanation represents imthe Spectre. Spectre follows thee behind. self-hood. 28-31 : — 'What do I here before the Judgement without my Emanation? With the daughters of memory. — ' A deep winter. there we weep On the hungry craving wind My 5 . f. 11. 10-13: 11.

9 Thro' the wintry hail & rain. night — — : wherever the Emanation goes. ' again] . my I O 17 my] thy EY. WMR. .' my all Driving 8 Cp. . WMR. . Loves away. 3 & sin : day. Jerusalem. the Spectre 'for Attends her as her Guard. Cp. build fears EY. shadowy 18 Has] WBY. Daughter of Babylon. Cp. tears EY. 32. begin. * He 5 . .' 9-12 "• 4.' This is followed deleted stanza quoted only by Swinb. tears] DGR. 19 built .' 13-15 Dost MS. . and unlovely in my sight. WMR . f. And with cold & shuddering fears. 18 and joy in my delights. 16 — fears Fill] ? 13 DGR. Love a Secret trembling. . 3 7 : . . WMR. because thou hast cruelly Cut off my loves in fury till I have no love left for thee. Blake's previous deleted readings are 1. And Dost] Didst 17. fill DGR. Then thou wast lovely mild and gentle. wilt thou return again? When 4 Dost thou not & Pride in Scorn 13 with tempests all my morn. 1 'winter night dark' for 'winter dark. :— f. 11. Dost fears] 15/ rdg. 32*. 2. hunts her footsteps thro' the snow & the wintry hail & rain. Milton. 20 shuddering fears] shadowy fears WBY. Their marble tombs I built with tears. Hath DGR. Book . 11. Milton. . And with jealousies & fears Fill my pleasant nights with tears? Fill 5 Seven of my sweet loves thy knife Has bereaved of their 17 life. My He the Originally fourth stanza. del. Wheresoever thou dost go.MS.* ' On a dark cold winter night Within my Heart. another by and then : When my ' Thou Love did didst call that first f. . Spectre still wandering thro' them follows my Emanation. . Rossetti 187 3 He scents thy footsteps in the snow. . 30.' loves thought that you would love Seeking for pleasures in my pleasures. now thou art terrible In jealousy.

omit inverted commas (wtg.' DGR. also in MS. 37 : del. Book 15/ rdg. 32 as I] and MS. never quell and thou pursue & Morn & Hell : the flight renew.1 88 MS. WMR. 33-40 EY . 8 When My wilt loves. 10 'Thro' the Heaven Thou I will fly Night 23 each] at 26 wine] vine & Earth shalt never. When When & thou return & them to life wilt thou return & view renew live 29 ? ? wilt thou pity as I forgive ? 9 'Never. DGR. alone I'll have thee Living.) all edd. And when dead I'll be thy Grave. Rossetti Seven more loves weep night & day Round the tombs where my loves lay. I return: 33 Victory I burn. WMR. Still for . Never. EY. And 21 seven more loves attend each night my couch with torches bright. WBY. 24 Around] About R^ 30 to hfe] in life 28 Thy] My WBY. 25 all forgiving transgressions great & small. Around 7 And seven more Loves in Crown with wine & Pitying Thy my my bed mournful head.

Book isi rdg. rdg. 45 Fate. Let] Swinb. That it no longer shall dare to mock with the aspersion of Madness Cast on the Inspired by the tame high finisher of paltry Blots. never worthy be Till I turn And shall I To 41 root step into Eternity. 46 What is meant by annihilation' is rendered clear by the following passage from Milton. . I 298-306 : — will destroy I created. 37 f. : ' . Book 15/ two stanzas. & . The Four Zoas. 42 root] dig MS. hungering. Thou knowest that the Spectre is in Every Man insane. That body For. ' — To cleanse the Face of my Spirit by Self-examination. H. When I was a ravening. is:- and passim. Newton from Albion's covering. f. del. to wash off the Not Human. . ' : . : ! also — The Four Zoas.. 1. transposes these 45 And. 48 Cp. To bathe in the waters of Life. . then shall we unite again in bliss these terrors planted round the Gates of Eternal life Are driven away & annihilated. 43 I] : Thou 45-49 And . 42. 43. cast off Rational cast off the rotten rags of cast off Bacon Locke and Memory by Inspiration. to] And I to MS. del.MS.' 47. & thirsting. & I cannot crave for any thing but thee ' The Spectres of the Dead. Swinb. rdg. brutish. Book 11. To cast aside from Poetry all that is not Inspiration. del. we never can repass the Gates. f. Book 1st rdg. EY. i-io MS. . 12 to end thy cruel mocks. Infernal Grove] See Jerusalem. I come in Self annihilation & the grandeur of Inspiration To To To To Demonstration by Faith in the Saviour. WBY. take off his filthy garments and clothe him with Imagination. 339-345 Thou art united with thy Spectre. for I am as the Spectre of the Living Deformed Craving . Rossetti 189 II from Female Love up the Infernal Grove. Night vii. consummating by pains & labours That coy mortal body. Indefinite or paltry Rhymes. . And another form create And. or paltry Harmonies. del. . . 11. .. To be my subservient to 41 I] thou MS. & by Self-annihilation back returning To Life Eternal To be assur'd I am thy real self . ' 11. cruel lust of murder. Night vii. 8-11. Annihilate thee on the rocks. . Thou didst subdue me in old times by thy Immortal Strength. 43. till that I am thus a ravening devouring lust continually devouring but my Eyes are always upon thee Oh lovely not so Delusion.

11. 11. EY. use the first See note above.' Redeemer. see Eternity. i. and *i and *2 as their seventh and ninth Swinb. WBY. MS. WBY *i. WMR. quotes in Notes. out DGR. Book — a Crime the Emanations buried alive in the earth with *i sit] : . ist rdg. Jerusalem. Jerusalem.' See also Jerusalem. Throughout] Through- In Forgiveness of Sins our dear Redeemer said] 55 dear I. 1. ' f. the last couplet of *3. Rossetti go I Let us agree to give up Love. stanzas. DGR. 92. and EY omit. f.' my WMR. sins fast asleep. 2 of their fourth stanza. *3 thou sit] 15^ rdg. 15 Every Emanative joy forbidden as And my] thy MS. thou] thou dost sit DGR. *2 Hast thou] Have thine thou I DGR. wry . WMR. thy] my ibid. Another body will be prepared For me. 14 & Throughout all Eternity 53 you forgive me. del. my] thy ibid. WMR and others. WBY. Book *4 thy] 15^ rdg. followed by couplet of *3 as 11. 14. Book 1st rdg. : 'This the Wine. thou dost sit DGR. 9. thine DGR. thou] I ibid.. Book MS. 4 of their fifth stanza . As our dear Redeemer said I forgive you. .' But if thou dost refuse. 8-12. 23. & thou annihilate evaporate & be no more. which is f. WMR. del. WBY. WMR. WMR. del. root up the infernal grove And & Then shall we return The worlds of happy 49 . *2 ' Cp. 98. I pomp of religion. slightly altered as IL 3. said & 53 Cp. my MS.MS. del. & this the Bread. . [Appendix O'er my Unplaced Stanzas] : thou sins Hast thou no O'er my And lull sit sins of thou thy own sins sit & moan *i : thy own? & weep. WMR. Self Annihilation.

pale. *3 Poor.MS. iii. Below 4. Bind around my *5-*8 This stanza was written after the following one. 67. woman sitting ' : * When man a He — marries a wife. groans of lead aching head. Book by the the And let [us go] to With many wiles Woman partly [? ! illegible unerased but day] your [? wiles] win back] your [? woe thou poor child of why compel me to bind thee?' the that does not love Will never O from Tirzah. without pagination) dressing. MS. 208) print as a quatrain MS. Rossetti What Are Transgressions 191 commit I *5 for thy Transgressions fit. f. In altering has Married to marries. as well as the indentation. but the absence of initials in the second and fourth.' which the colloquial ' ' ' miss the point of the allusion to knees and elbow-grease might have suggested.' and calling ' ' the piece ' droll and risque'. 43. ' . Jerusalem. ' 11. Book. smiles. . *8 my] thy WBY. pitiable form That I follow in a storm & Iron tears *9 . 44 ! stanza : — ' *g Cp. They thy Harlots. :— O thou poor Human Form Why wilt thou wander away *I2 Followed *6 Trans- WBY gressions] transgression in said she. and on the edge of it in a very elementary stage of FY's reproduction of this drawing (vol. prove that Blake meant them to form a couplet. finds out whether Her elbows and knees are only Glued together. EY (i. he finds out whether elbows are only glued together. thou their slave And my bed becomes their Grave.' XXXVIU When a Man Her knees & has Married a Wife. a graceful little sketch of man in bed..' which is not the case.' The lines are certainly so divided in the MS. a young p.'' EY elbows. conveys the idea that it is found on the same page as Daphne.

' Fayette (xxxvi. . 11 sight] EY omit. turned him round] EY omit. 31. 3 aloft] EY omit. Mar.] the intripled turn. His body was free At Lambeth beneath the poplar tree. occurs in the first EY. . Although written from the unreversed end this piece probably belongs to the same date as those in the earlier section of the MS. . 14 And yell] EY omit. Blake of course have been familiar with Collyer's translation of the Messias. . . called aloud to English Blake. 8 Blake 7. * version of . and EY a few words which the present owner of the MS. cough'd] EY omit. 9 turned him round three times three. all his MS.' point rather to its having been written about 1793.. . A). Book 1st rdg. Book. . 16 churn] burn MS. of 1. 13. yell] Supplied 12 cups] spears EY. . pp. 29) . 4 in may supply in square brackets from Swinb. 26. Uprose William Blake in his pride For old Nobodaddy aloft ****** & & Belch'd cough'd i . blushed red] Supplied from Swinb. 13 ninefold yell. The same line 4 ****** I . Book is unable to decipher. 5 made] would make trees] Blake was away. refers the origin of this Rabelaisian jeu d'esprit to the passages from Klopstock rendered into English by Hayley for Blake's benefit during the latter's stay at Felpham in 1803 (Hayley's Diary. intripled] ninefold MS. del. . lo 9 From he] From Lambeth then shouted he EY. At Lambeth beneath the poplar From his seat then started he And 5 trees. but the reference to Lambeth. . 15 Klopstock] Astonished EY. xxxix When Klopstock England defied. from Swinb. bowels began to churn. . Book 1st rdg. Book. 32. . and the repetition ' Fayette.Rossetti 192 MS. p. del. written in pencil and a considerable portion of it is no longer legible. Blake was giving his body ease. .' EY. This piece is verj' faintly which had reached a second edition in 1769. ' . The Moon at that sight [blushed scarlet red. 12-14 cups scarlet] quite EY. Swinb. . . And all the devils that were in Answered with a Klopstock And felt hell. 5.] The stars threw down their [cups and fled. Then swore And a great oath that made heaven quake. .

Then 29 And Blake would do this when he **** ** **** ***** What might he not do if he sat down to write? If And And. 4 No one] . Since] the old Anything [was created. you'll ask her she will swear it so. added later. .. . .. Book ist rdg.. Only printed by swear it] tell you MS. . Anything] EY omit 29. EY. Since 'twas the [fashion] to [go naked. . p. 30] Of these lines. . blame: Whether tis good shame. Book 1st rdg. Only legible when he had the MS. the title 2 you'll] you EY. 193 bowels turned round three times three. Supplied from EY 17 . 25 fashion was created] 26 Since] Supplied from Swinb. Since Eve first chose her hellfire spark.Rossetii And And MS. . he beg'd me to turn again And . MS.] And so feeling. round] They turned around 19 ne'er] never EY. Book.' marginal addition. Book before him. one the no No one can take the pride. i. 210. which apparently were Supplied from Swinb. del. Then again old Nobodaddy swore 21 He ne'er [had seen] such a thing before. EY . . it] EY omit. hell-found EY. And none EY.. 25 .. 32 A xl On the Virginity of the Virgin Mary & Johanna Southcott Whate'er And if is done to her she cannot know. SAMPSON O EY del. go naked] Supplied from Swinb. locked in his soul with a ninefold key That from his body it ne'er could be Till to the last [judgment] it was his 17 . Swinb. EY 24 chose] EY omit hellfire] : had seen] supplied from. omit 20 to] EY omit judgment] 22 ne'er] never Swinb. 31.. Swinburne writes in choice Attic or in archaic French could the rest be endured by modem eyes . but Panurge could hardly have improved on the manner of retribution : : ' : devised for flaccid fluency and devout sentiment always running at the mouth. 6. or evil none's to MS.. Since Noah was shut in the ark. poor Klopstock never pain .

' being obviously suggested by ' first 11. B. Blown back they blind the mocking eye. Gem Reflected in the beams divine 5 . escaped at the hands of Blake's editors. 1803. And the wind blows And every sand becomes a it back again. This page therefore cannot be dated later than April. The Atoms of Democritus Newton's Particles of light Are sands upon the Red sea shore. 51. W. is ' ' (see — The war of swords & spears Melted by dewy tears. it will . In the first column are found stanzas 1-9 and the first two lines of stanza 10.' The Hermit's prayer Alone can free the ' 14 comes the beautiful lyric Morning a different treatment of the same idea Below stanza be seen. 9 And MS.MS. Mock on You throw the sand Rousseau Voltaire. 'tis . ' ' ' beneath this stanza. some title ' p. xlii Note Prefatory The first draft of this piece. Mock on. To the Deists in Jenisalenu and The Grey Monk in the Pickering MS. Yeats' textual alterations. vain all in i . which. 5 sand] stone poem WBY. before 11. ! against the wind. by oversight. Book. Scoffers. Without DGR and later editors with of the very few pieces which had hitherto. this beautiful little might well have been spared Mr. written without title on p.' The xliii).' Printed by title. Book. Mock on. 7. 52 of this tear shall melt the And every wound it poem : — sword of steel has made shall heal. Rossetti 194 xli Mock on. which A line of separation drawn is continued at the head of the second column. consists of fourteen stanzas which Blake later split up into two separate ' poems. shows that Blake's intention was to end with the lines : ' — & the widow's tear world from fear. 41-56 were added. Where Israel's tents do shine so bright. But still in Israel's paths they shine. 12 of the MS. As one 3 sand] dust WBY.

' This poem I see.' and between right-hand margin he made two attempts to rewrite stanza 2 which were not adopted in either of the final versions.' At the same time he added * — When — margin the stanza Charlemaine O Voltaire Rousseau Gibbon vain Your Grecian mocks [^mocks if iron del.' was probably when about to engrave Jerusalem that Blake returned to poem. print the Blake's later text of ' To the Deists rejected readings and omitted stanzas. Book.' and For a tear is an intellectual thing. and stanza two stanzas are common to both versions.] ' Against this image of his Lord Titus ! in the Constantine : ! ! ! ! ! & Roman sword — linked to stanza 14 the columns and in by the catchword 'A tear is &c. gives us the poem entitled To the Deists' engraved at the foot off 52 oiJerusalem. ' and ' The Grey Monk ' with editors' emendations will be found among poems irom Jerusalem and The Pickering MS. ' unimportant verbal changes. begins with the original fifth stanza the line ' ' ' ' .' The remaining stanzas (6-1 1) are arranged in the order of the MS. before my sight I talk'd to the Grey Monk where he stood In beams of infernal light. I die. Then below the couplet on Terror and 13. and ' we has find Blake been hitherto Sweet Mercy me leads still — 195 invariably misprinted on. o a i . See Poems from the Prophetic Books.MS. and prefixing the numbers 5-7 to When Satan first the black bow bent.' 'Titus Constantine. Pity.. the Mother said. These In the footnotes to the present poem I give such variant readings only as MS. with the interpo- between 5 and 6. except for a few Jerusalem. Charle' maine.' which in the line this connexion.' This. Ellis and Yeats. 220-26). Rossetti The reading * ' morning * mercy.' ' I saw a Monk of Charlemaine Arise. are derived from the in their preface to Chapter III of Jerusalem (ii.' gains additional force in dwelling on the same thought in the couplet which immediately follows ' Terror in the house does roar : But Pity stands before the It this door. His first change was to reduce its length to seven stanzas by drawing a separation line between stanzas 4 and 5. who.. Book. said' being changed to 'I die.' Of the stanzas thus rejected Blake made a separate poem which he transcribed into the Pickering MS. and 14 to come in after stanza 4. lation of stanza 4 14 between 10 and 11. the Mother I see. and marking stanzas 12. he wrote the revised version of stanza 12 : ' Satan first the black bow bent And the Moral Law from the Gospel rent He forg'd the Law into a Sword And spill'd the blood of Mercy's Lord. or from the text of Messrs. : 3 to] with EY where] as EY. the Lastly he indicated clearly the order of the seven stanzas to be used in by marking the first four stanzas 1-4. with the title The Grey Monk.

del. middle column. . I see.' (a) 3 arouse the polar bear for ' Muster partially : of Voltaire whirl'd on high. & bind him in his Cell ' ! The blood red ran from the Grey Monk's His hands & feet were wounded wide. 15/ rdg. . del.] Star. 10 Thou . MS.' they said afar. Charlemaine & his Clouds ofWar [ Must[er around] the Polar ' In printing the above. His body bent. .' down] sat him down EY.' the ' My Mother 13 17 said. Rossetti 196 Gibbon arose with a lash of And 5 : The Arose with * steel. his arms & knees Like to the roots of ancient trees. in right-hand margin. as * And Voltaire ' for ' hidden by the binding. Star. Rise. War in iron & gold. 9 ' War. Voltaire turned his wracking wheel. top of page : ' ? — : 'Gibbon plied his lash of steel. 'I see. 9. at top of page ' The Wheel Gibbon aloud his lash does ply. ' & his barons bold.' (b) 4 'Must around the Polar 7 The roll'd] War] Seditious Monk said Charlemaine The Glory of War thou condemn'st . Charlemagne and his warriors bold EY. Charlemaine & his barons bold Stood by. 2 read barons. now These words are 6 wracking] 5 arose] armed EY. And in thy Cell thou shall ever dwell. . racking EY. Children will die for lack of bread. and mocked in iron & gold.' . In vain condemning Glorious War. EY in (a) EY 'The glory of reading in last line war thou cursedst 18 will] shall EY. Thou lazy Monk.' Readings rejected by Blake.. ist rdg.' ' Voltaire.' — in vain.' (i) Sideways. gold] Variants of this stanza are Sideways. .MS. 5-8 Gibbon (fl) side. . Voltaire with a wracking wheel schools. Book ' warriors ' for ' . 20 sat : in vain. in Clouds of learning roU'd. What more has the merciless tyrant said The Monk sat down on her stony bed.

My ' Thy With father drew his sword in the North he is [marched] forth 33 . . ' Untill the Tyrant himself relent. his thousands strong . 45-48 44 And usurped the tyrant's throne & bed MS. Book 15/ rdg. del. 197 His Eye was dry. . . hand to write 25 In the studious hours of deep midnight. See Pref. substituted. . shall Slaughter heap the bloody plain 45 The Tyrant who : Resistance & War is the Tyrant's gain. . .Thy brother has armed himself in steel To revenge the wrongs thy children feel. Note. . 21 could] would EY. 23 woe 24 At said] EY oitiit. He] Between these is an illegible line erased. 22. 22 first spoke] bespoke EY. * But vain the sword & vain the bow. but no word 36 revenge] avenge EY. He told me that all I wrote should prove The bane ' My of all that on Earth love. children's cry soul appalls I mock'd at the wrack and griding chain bent body mocks at their torturing pain. I brother starved between two walls my 29 . . no tear could flow. . . 37 They never can work war's overthrow The Hermit's prayer & the widow's tear . of vengeance sought the bed To which The And 41 the purple tyrant fled iron hand crushed the tyrant's head. became a tyrant in his stead.Rossetti MS. hollow groan first spoke his woe He trembled & shuddered upon the bed At length with a feeble cry he said A : ' 21 : When God commanded this — . 41 sought] found EY. Untill gain] This stanza was rewritten later. first the black bow bent. . 34 marched] Deleted in MS. Thy : . Alone can The hand ' free the world from fear. EY. 31 I mock'd chain] I mock at the rack and the grinding pain EY. . 26 studious] shadowy EY.

is And with soft grateful tears Ascends the sky. . the bitter groan of the Martyr's woe Is an arrow from the Almightie's bow. 53 And And a sigh is the sword of an Angel King.' MS. ' . MS. G. . every wound it has made shall heal. submission to death beneath his feet tear shall melt the sword of steel. he had at first written ' 1.' soft ' correction of DGR :— Sweet morning leads me on With The Printed by later. read ' I and all later ' to the poem .' The word 'Morning' was repeated in 4 of the song.Rossetti 198 'But the Tear of Love And The And ' —& MS. xliii Morning To Western path. repentant moan see the break of day. p. . versions. find the i Gates of Wrath thro' the Right I urge my way Sweet Mercy leads . 49-52 But . The Sun freed from fears. Book. With soft repentant me on moan 4 : see the break of day. Melted by dewy tears. and the Pickering heal] Omitted in both the Jerusalem 55 of the Martyr's] for another's MS. For the tear an is 49 forgiveness sweet. ' editors with the title 4-6 Sweet added 12 morning to ' ' Mercy conveys a meaning received text.' day] All edd. Title 12. Book show that some other word— probably the right one— before in the title may have misled him into 'morning. Daybreak. 8 Exhales on high. . The marks of entirely lacking in the ' ' Rossetti's transcript of all that is of any value in the an erasure in D. — intellectual thing. I The war of swords & spears. Morning supposing that the same word and 'Mercy' being somewhat alike in Blake's handwriting. del. Book 1st rdg. of a martyr's EY. MS. . .

MS. 5. in what Grove. But Pity stands before the door. There I live and mourn for thee my Morning drinks And He. 3 dost] doth EY. p. 14. have liv'd Each day And I 9 and mourn'd for thee mourn along the wood. mourn] moan EY. my sorrow bear.MS. for the first time. xL The Birds He. i8 hangs] 17 . Tell me. No italics in is sweet. See p. She\ WBY. . I. Dost thou truly long for me? And am I thus sweet to thee He. Fair one. 5 . tell me love Where thou thy charming Nest dost build. . thou summer's harmony. ! She. sqq. hung all edd. Sorrow now is O my and lover at 13 ? an end. Yonder stands a lonely tree. Rossetti 199 xliv Terror in the house does roar . He . Book. Book. O 1 evening winds silent tear. She. Prefatorj' Note Here printed to xlii. n . my Friend ! Come on wings of joy we'll fly To where my bower hangs on high Come. MS. night hath heard my sorrows loud. and make thy calm retreat Among green leaves and blossoms MS. thou pride of every field i . . 12. Where thou dwellest.

4 All has taken wing] 'tis quite another thing MS. cp.' 3 there] here EY. in the 2 But . ever] now Gil. ' : tisements in newspapers are no proof of popular approbation.' and by EY (xvii) without title. the two stanzas separated by a sketch. 266.' xlvii You You — I won't attempt to make ye won't attempt to wake ye. Printed among as a single stanza with title 'Couplets and Fragments' (xv) by Reason. i. But advertizing Look Look MS.. Blake's Advertisement (^MS. 56) I . del. . 21. del.' and by EY among Couplets and Fragments (xvi) without title. Satirical Pieces ' ' down ' ' ' margins of Blake's copy of Reynolds' Discourses.. . ' Epigrams from Reynolds' Discourses. . Book. . . . while in your pleasant dreams Sleep on Sleep on Of Reason you may drink of Life's clear streams. . The epigrams on Art which begin on this page would appear to be an overflow from those jotted p. The King dropped a Tear All Nature And all his into the Queen's Ear. I would attempt 2 ye] you to make you WMR. 5 MS. Papers] Save thro' advertisements Adverin the newspapers Gil. Book 1st rdg.200 MS. they are quite two things For so the Swallow & the Sparrow sings. don't believe — asleep are ! : 1 I ! Reason and Newton. p. Book \st rdg. Printed by among Epigrams and on Art and Artists (xiv) with title Colour. Pictures Faded. WMR * I You ye] You don't believe won't] would MS. EY. Book.' iv : — 'When Sir Joshua Reynolds died was degraded. Book. in the News Papers. cp. WMR. Rossetti xlvi No real Style of Colouring ever appears. but often the contrary. 21. there — you'll see at his Pictures S"" Colouring —All Joshua's has taken Wing : ! WMR Gil. p.

That is the very thing that Jesus meant. . 7-12 ('Doubt why') with enclosed single quotation marks to 11. * . ' : to way 20 1 & * don't believe without experiment Doubt. & my two Wings Voltaire Rousseau Where is that Friend of Sinners. why'). 14. in the margin. I go on. and theirs is the p. was probably composed soon after Sept. Who teaches Belief to the Nations & an unknown Eternal life? But the Spectre. Book. 15-24 No . Doubt. 9 and 12. . and marked is missing. 1809. Book. A World of Shapes. rose over Albion. & I ' cry ' I I ! ! These lines occur in Blake's Advertisement. 22. . From York all across Scotland to the Sea This was a Man of Men. When he said Only Believe Believe & try ' : 9 ' ! ! & Try. II. who teach Humility to Man. 31-51 were first written. and hinder my I have enough my exceeding in the approbation of fellow labourers. EY place 7-12 quotation marks in MS. 1 Reached all the way from Chichester to York. 12 ('Only . This is my glory. O Sons of Men I am your Rational Power. 1-14. p. 21. 11. the prose passage : [' contempt of posterity. . and beneath the notice of the Public del.'] I demand If therefore of the amateurs of art the encouragement which is my due. around 11.MS. that Rebel against my Laws. Try. not mine. 17. the beginning 11. 54. And in Will sit melodious accents me down. Saying I am God. Vain Foolish Man. as seems to me. 11. MS. and nothing can course. of which for insertion after 1. theirs is the loss. in craving lust & devouring appetite ? ? ' xlviii MS. . they continue to refuse. 15-30 being added This fragment. Am I not Bacon & Newton & Locke. following Imagination is my World.' make all Nature out. Cf. like a ' ! Come hither into the Desart & turn these stones to bread. This world of dross is beneath my notice. : — hoar frost & a Mildew. f.' xlix And his legs carried it like a long fork. Jerusalem. great reward. Rossetti Reason says Aye! ' Miracle that's the ' Newton says Doubt. Who teach Doubt & Experiment. wilt thou believe without Experiment And build a World of Phantasy upon my Great Abyss. never mind the Reason why ' ! WMR omits to 11.

So Stewhard's Soul he buckled to his back. And Stewhard's Eggs are addled and decay'd. weekly EY. EY. and Dady. Clap'd Death into the corner of their jaw. 10 of] and MS.. . And Cur my lawyer. Jack Hemp's parson.' the parson. chap. I carried] covered Soul] . 25 Both went to Law with Death to keep our Ears on. Horseback with Death. del. EY.' for Dr.' 'Yorkshire Dady. trembling for the affront 17 Like trembling Hare sits on his weakly paper On which he used to dance & sport & caper. The Examiner. . MS.202 Rossetti MS. alas! committing a Mistake. He would bear EY. Jack the Fathers Memoirs. i. Malkin. whose very name is Hunt. Not only in his Mouth his own Soul lay. But once. here called christ. 8 So Stewhard s 4 This] That EY. go) and may have been part See note to Ixxviii. in the afternoon. Yorkshire Jack Hemp & Quibble. Only printed by EY in their ' Memoir ' 78-79). 14 Stewhard's] all my MS. . 9 He bore the wretched Soul of William Blake That he might turn it into Eggs of Gold But neither back nor mouth those eggs could hold. possibly because of his association with Blair's Grave. ' EY ' ' Quibble . when Examiner ' ' . but see footnote. Call'd Death a Madman. xix) in Screwmuch. Book 15/ rdg. Stewhard. Book 1st rdg. EY. Bowyer and (i. ' ' for Flaxman . mistakenly suppose that Boydel and ' of the following piece may be the true names of the lawyers Cur ' Hemp's speaker. 21 And Felpham Billy rode out every morn. and Jack Hemp. the article on 'Mr. 19 Yorkshire] And Yorkshire 20 their] his EY. of is of course Stothard. The Ears of Billy's Lawyer & Dragoon. ignoring the play upon words. at the instance of the Dragoon (see GilYorkshire was the birthplace of Cromek. del. Felpham Billy. Book is/ rdg. ' ' for Blake. 16 trembling Book 15/ rdg. EY. blushing daw. del. 13 His under jaw drop'd as those Eggs he laid. over the fields of corn Who with iron hand cuff'd.' for Hayley .' and Scotland refers to the latter's visit to that country Death' is a nickname search of material for his Reliques of Bums (1808). But my soul also would he bear away. . del. Blake's Exhibition' appeared in Leigh Hunt's of the poem which Blake alludes (no. 17 weakly] affront] Deadly the affront 18 sport] shout EY. of Blake's trial for high treason. Chichester was the scene to in his Advertisement. 5 Like as a Pedlar bears his weary Pack. my soul . daw] saw EY. . MS.

' like: * 31 how] now EY.' the Friend of has not left explaining that a later page of the notebook completes the epitaph. Then Screwmuch at Blake's soul took a long leap. For 'twas a kind of Bargain Screwmuch made That Blake's designs should be by us display 'd. Twas death in a disguise. EY. . He made them pay his Price. Because he makes designs so very cheap. : ' . del. knock your head against this stone.' Here again. O that I ne'er had seen that William Blake. Or could from Death Assassinette wake — ! — We 29 — thought Alas. Book 1st rdg. . as aqua- that] I This Epitaph so sorrowful my thought is MS. ' See Ixxxviii. 36 designs] have writ with tears. that such a thought could be That Blake would Etch for him and draw for me. For sorrow that our friend Bob Screwmuch 's gone. Who — all Mankind one enemy behind. alas live to weep out my Eyes. But EY omit. . who finish the couplet fortis. I'll my own dear epitaph. alackaday! He knew both Law and Gospel better than they. 203 For how to starve Death we had laid a plot Against his Price but Death was in the Pot.Rossetti MS. they misinterpret the force of Blake's ' &c.' And now the Muses upon me smile and laugh . be buried near a dyke 45 also write And I'll 49 That my friends may weep as much as they Here lies Stewhard the Friend of all &c. . And I. His epitaph 'Come. ne'er] never . 51 Stewhard] Stothard EY. 'Twas not a Mouse. however. Artists. 43-4 But 27 design . — aquafortis] EY. 47 upon] in EY. changing the name to John Trot. ! 33 37 ! And Death sits laughing on their Monuments On which he 's written Received the Contents.' which is always a reference to a passage already written.' 41 ' — But — I have writ so sorrowful my thought is for my tears are aquafortis.

to which William Haines and Blake both contributed engravings. . Cp. or Bowyer. 7.' Frag. and . confusing Macklin for whom Blake engraved Stothard's 'Fall of Rosamund (1783) with . poor Schiavonetti. 178. Book. . their brain H pan — the painter Sussex Man. or Stothard. 2 is] in EY. . . 212. But all my limbs with warmth glow: I I MS. Gilchrist. whom they to death bother'd I i can angry with Macklin. . Only printed by EY WMR and WBY print as beginning of (i. or Boydel. Printed by ('Coup. i. which the allusion to Schiavonetti's As li.' xiii) as above. del. WMR 3 ' warmth glow] warmth do glow EY. Malkin {Fathers Memoirs of His Child. 8 by EY with title Friends and Foes. 3 Or Stothard] Or angry with Boydell. ' Boydel] Read 'BoyBlake engraved Hogarth's Scene from the Beggar's Opera Dr. Book ist rdg. ' MS. 24.' for whom of the Bowyer] publisher Hume's History (1806). Written in margin of preceding piece. and Frag. Only ptd. Book. . except last couplet. WMR (' find them the Errors of the foe. II. p.Rossetti AIS. 5 Macklin] Malchin EY. Book. I be angry with Felpham's old Mill ? angry with Flaxman. Hi The Sussex Men And weak I wonder Is not a is if are Noted Fools. MS. 204 1 Was Or Or Or Or angry with Hayley who us'd me so ill. p. p. death shows. ? 5 ' ? 8i). WBY and Coup. written after June 1810. Written about 1809. by EY i. Because they did not say O what a beau ye are At a Friend's Errors anger shew. Mirth at the Errors of a Foe. 23. the date of the publication of Hayley's Life of Romney. or Cromek. or Bowyer or Bu MS. (1788) : : sumptuous illustrated edition of li Anger & Wrath my bosom rends: i thought them the Errors of friends. 1806) dell.' xvi) prefixed by 1. 23.

75. p.' xiv). (' thee I am Mocked: thee Blockhead.' Cp. also Blake's Advertisement (MS. 53) wound Mr. p. p. title WBY omits. 4 That man] Which he ibid. 26. EY ' viii. 17. Book.' they Madman. More Malice in disguise. Epigrams. Only printed by EY 213. 25. ' ' Many people are so 1809. (wrongly) expands title <To Hayley. and no. Fuseli over my shoulder. and Frag. Probably addressed to Flaxman. Book. the latter's references to Fuseli and Blake.' Flaxman]. Ixxix. Book.. Book. MS. To H[unt]. so] This Reynolds' lectures plainly shew ibid. i. i. xvii) with p. June 4. 213. 25. 26. without doubt.. ' To DGR the and Same' WMR [i.' EY. MS. p. Gil. 3 what] that MS. Rossetti 205 liii ' Fool. Examiner. but MS. 1809. though I by Thou call'st me Madman. Book. Ivi Can there be anything more mean. prefatory note to Epigrams from Blake's copy of Sir Joshua Reynolds' Discourses U798). Barry Fuseli is] Fuseli I so. liv To H You think Fuseli This is I'm glad.e. Cp. call Coupl. del. Only ptd. 90. 's Iv To F I mock thee not. 5 Reynolds . They will : foolish to think they can find themselves mistaken they could not : wound even Mr. no. one of the best compliments he ever had.MS. Than Praise a Man for doing what That Man Reynolds When does most despise? i 4 lectures exactly so he praises Michael Angelo. Book ist rdg. and Frag. Sept. is not a Great Painter. by EY i. call thee. ' ' .' while EY think this and the preceding epigram are addressed to Haines. 181.' I have been call'd Thee or Me? I wonder which they Envy ' : — MS. 213. Both are. Gil. Cf.' ('Coupl. EY i.

27. Only in EY i. and at the same time he was blasting ' P' 53) my • character to Macklin How much of his know. and I S ] Stothard WBY. WMR (' Coupl. his father EY. EY i. p. as Macklin told me at the time. 213. Swinb. will allow to be mine I do not Homer and Dante he far enough off to publish them.' lix H Of 's birth this His Mother on MS. Cp. extreme WBY. Book. 2 Mother . was the happy lot: Father him begot. : : MS. 27.' 20). Was extreme Old and most extremely poor He has grown old & rich & what he will He is extreme old & extreme poor still. 38. Flaxman cannot deny that one of the very first monuments he did I gratuitously designed for him. as he went my employer. this] there EY. on] upon EY. on the nursery in floor. Book. p.. Book. WBY (' Coupl. Book. Ivii S Childhood. his p. 4 & extreme] and is ' Epigrams from Reynolds' Discourses (v). 27. ' Frag. Cp. 4). (' p.2o6 Rossetti MS. Iviii To Nancy F How can I help thy Husband's copying Me? Should that make difference 'twixt me and thee? MS. I on H 's] his Father] Hayley's Swinb. WBY Coupl. but the public will know. even to Italy. mother or WMR. 213. WBY. Advertisement (MS.' 19). EY i. 213.' xxi.

(' Epig.' x). Whether Reynolds knew what he was doing. foe] And counts . later. . the hidden trap. Ixii Cr He MS.' xiii). del. del. As much as they were Degraded by the Reputation of Reynolds' Paintings. Book MS. loves artists as he loves his loves the p. others I consider Reynolds' Reynolds' Discourses. Book. i. I Cr Gil. . MS. Book. 'Tis Christian mildness when Knaves praise a foe But 'twould be Madness. WMR. only.MS. Cp. . must MS. I alwaj's consider'd True Art & True Artists to be particularly Insulted & Degraded by the Reputation of these Discourses. Rossetti 207 Ix Sir Joshua praises Michael Angelo. note Blake's ' in : : me the Mischief is just the Same whether a Man does it Ignorantly or Knowingly. Gil. He praises Michael Angelo for Qualities which Michael Angelo abhorr'd & He blames Rafael for the only Qualities which Rafael Valued. 28. but . would] that line added way] This we all outrage thus to praise his foe when Knaves] thus to it mildness] meekness rdg. 29. all the world would say. [ii] Discourses to the Royal Academy as the Simulations of the Hypocrite who Smiles particularly where he means to Betray. & that Such Artists as Reynolds are at all times Hired by the Satans for the Depres: sion of Art. WBY . Ixi He's a Blockhead who wants a proof of what he Perceive And he 's can't . Book ist DGR. ('Coupl. (' CoupL' WMR. vis'd 5 WMR DGR omit. ('Coupl. the Hysteric Smile of Revenge. EY viii). all cdd.' II). a fool who tries make such to a Blockhead believe. Should Michael Angelo praise Sir Joshua i . & the poisoned feast. . is nothing to p. . Book. .' 6). EY Cromek i. His Praise of Rafael is like His Softness & Candour. DGR p. 'tis Meat : the art to cheat. ] Art 208. p. MS. 28. 5 Christ ist rdg. 214 print first line Meat] meal EY. the Pharisees in a rougher way.' 2 'Tis . 3 all . — Christ M S. (' Epig.

t Only in EY 2 he 's] he has i. 29. MS. p. Ixvii. Ixvi He has observ'd the Golden Rule. Book. — WMR ('Coupl. 214. in Only praised] praises EY. del. .' xxn) headed 'Cromek. . . rdg. Ixiv Sir Joshua praised Rubens with a smile. . Book. 214. . 29. Ix^ He is a Cock would And would be a Cock MS. . p. del. Heis]He'sEY. 208. 2x4. 29. EY I 2nd i. Cp. Only in EY I i. But sure such ornaments we well may spare As crooked limbs and louzy heads of hair. 5 6 As hair] Like a filthy infectious head A crooked stick & a louzy head of hair.2o8 MS. Book. p. if he could . 2 Cr Gil. By calling his the ornamental style . WMR. become the Golden Fool. Book 15/ rdg. And yet his praise of Flaxman was the smartest. When he called him the Ornamental Artist. ] i. Till he's MS. I knew how do ye do? Petty Sneaking Knave O! Mr. EY. of hair MS. Book. 30. ibid. ye] you Gil.' Cromek Gil. Cr p. Rossetti Ixiii A MS.

all i Till you're at last become the golden fool I sport with Fortune. 4 sneaking lane] Sneaking Lane Swinb. 5. Mine is the flesh the bones may be your share. Ixviii Mr Stothard to Mr Cromek For Fortune's favours you your riches bring. d I ?). MS. p. Swinb. 215. 31. 31. be unfaithful EY. Why should you be ungrateful to your friends. p. SAMPSON P . In its original form this epigram was written in the third person. EY i. Merry. Only p.' of Ixxvi. 3 be ungrateful] prove ungrateful Swinb. I EY i. Book. . 5 Take you] You have EY. But Fortune says she gave you no such thing. old proverbs say But not with Money. 214) 'addressed to (Who was d I 5 A similar misreading of Blake's capital S for I occurs in their text This and the preceding epigram refer of course to Stothard. 30. WHY ('Coupl.. Rossetti 209 Ixvii To S- You your Youth observ'd the Golden Rule. in EY (i. Sneaking. 214. that is not the way. & Odds-&-Ends? MS. — MS.' and He has ' for ' Take you ' in 1. Ixix Mr Cromek to Mr Stothard Fortune favours the Brave. . 53. : Like to the Lion sporting with his Prey. . Turn back. Book. Blithe and Gay. turn back you travel all in vain Turn through the iron gate down sneaking lane. favours] favour Swinb.MS. ' ' his for ' your. Swinb. ' he ' for ' you.' 6) without title. Book.' ' I Youth] life EY. & backbiting. p. 53. p. Take you the hide & horns which you may wear.

In 1776 Reynolds was elected a member of the Florentine Academy. Book. Gil. I that] who Gil. i. Book. Generous to Enemies promotes their Ends. 32. Rossetti Ixx I am no Homer's Hero you My Generosity That The all know i . Go. 25 : He who loves his Ixxi The Angel that presided o'er my birth Said 'Little creature.' MS. . 2 form'd o'er] at Gil. 5 Betrayer of his Friends. 6 And Friends] Cp. Everlasting Gospel. Book. 32. i. 31. p. p. del. EY 215. . love without the help of anything on Earth. 215. Mirth] thou . 1. in the hand of the simpering fool And He put And on a dirty paper scroll. Ixxii Florentine Ingratitude Sir Joshua sent The his own Portrait to i birth Place of Michael Angelo. 5 This and the other epigrams on Sir Joshua Reynolds were probably written about the same time as the marginal notes in his copy of Sir Joshua's Discourses. MS.' ' ' . for their Friendship I may make amends. not Generosity to a Foe. . Only in EY i. art form'd for mirth live WBY. MS. Title an addition. now in the Brit. Book of] for . and in accordance with their rule. Did 'Sketches by Michael Angelo' write. 7^. p. Only in EY i. form'd of Joy and Mirth. 215. I profess is my to Friends. . sent his portrait painted by himself. WMR (< Coupl. WBY ('Coupl.' xiv). 3 love] WMR. EY. to be polite. Mus.'is).' enemies betrays his friends. And becomes the Enemy & MS. 311. 1st rdg. the paper.2IO MS.

. 11. . Rossetti The Florentines said Michael Angelo's ' 'Tis a Name 21 I Dutch-English bore. 17 calculation] : — These lines written later at foot of page. . door] . first reading of buy] Following this These verses were written by a very envious man. The Michael] who . Rembrandt's door.MS.t.' on Rembrandt's door But you must not bring in your hand a Lie If you mean that the Florentines should buy. . Only in EY i. Ghiotto's Circle or Apelles' Line Were not the Work of Sketchers drunk with Wine ' . and act Rembrandt. ' ' rejected . For Michael Angelo never did sketch Every line of his has Meaning. ' for 19-22. And needs neither Suckling nor Weaning. 14 Tis mean . p. MS. and print this ' facilities ' and ' great Abilities. Another reading was ' EY omitYor. This epigram refers to the concluding words of the last Discourse delivered by Reynolds at the Royal P a . 8 of the City Clock's running fashion of Sir Isaac Newton's calculation. Who whatever likeness he may have to Michael Angelo Never can have any to Sir Jehoshuan. 9 — 'Tis the trading English. . 216. Nor Nor 7. When he is doom'd to To assuage his misery 1 die. It will set his Dutch friends all in a roar To write Mich. that] . 33. EY insert here. In virtue's praise does cry. If .Venetian cant 13 To speak Michael Angelo. lo For couplet. . . 21 . .' writ on The Florentines call it an English fetch. are the lines ' : — after 18 ' 1. . Ang. Book. an incorrect version of the 14.' couplet after 1. 19-22. 14. . Nor of the City Clock's Idle Facilities Which sprang from Sir Isaac Newton's omit futilities 11. Rembrandt] 'Rejected' EY. reading rejected sprang of for ' sprang from.' 19-22 Ghiotto's EY incorrectly call this a 13.a.' Ixxiii A Pitiful Case The Villain at the Gallows tree. EY omit ih.

33. 5 his bitter woe. 6-8 for . Cp. in EY i.' i . 15/ rdg.' 5 ' Read Rembrandt for it is fit To make mere common honesty ' .' MS. Instead of ' Michael Angelo. WMR and EY with title 'Idolatry.212 Rossetii MS. 33. Feed them with the juice of our marrow-bones? MS. Book 8 In] Of EY. might be the name of Michael Angelo. and from this place. 1790 pronounce in this Academy. stocks and stones. that he has writ. del. Dec. p. 216. 7 did howl &] was heard to MS. note to will know now wished Ix. writ] & * That Sir you Joshua Reynolds to speak Of Michael Angelo. Book. for the sake of being Polite. . 7 mere common] either sense or MS. Book 15/ rdg.' 3 his misery] his bitter misery EY. So Reynolds when he came To to die. Book. Shall we. . del. In all MS. del. Ixxv If it is true. Book 15/ rdg. assuage Thus aloud did howl & cry 'Michael Angelo Michael Angelo : ! ' ! I should desire that the last words which I should Academy. ' : Ixxiv To the Royal Academy A Strange Erratum in all the Editions Sir Joshua Reynolds' Lectures Should be corrected by the Young Gentlemen r Of And the Royal Academy's Directors. what the Prophets That the Heathen Gods are all write. Only p.

themselves] himself »6/rf. WMR EY I. . 217 with 2 a ' ibid.' lo that make] . i. Book. Book ist rdg. . me] Blake introduces this couplet into his Descriptive Catalogue 2 they knowl he I them] him MS. 9. del. (' (1809). The Wood and Stone were call'd the And their And Criminals to Sacrifices turn'd. neither themselves nor me. 34. ' Epig. Rossetti 213 And if Bezaleel and AhoHab drew What the finger of God pointed to their View. Holy Things. 53. WMR and EY print as quatrain — lo : •They stole them from The Temple of the Lord. ' are an addition. p. Swinb. And worshiped them that they might make Inspired art abhorred. knows I . 'Tis excellent to turn a thorn to a pin. Knave ' and S On to a glass of gin. Shall we suffer the Roman and Grecian rods To compell us to worship them as Gods ? 5 them from the Temple of the Lord 9 worshipp'd them that they might make Inspired Art They stole And abhorr'd . .' viii) with title MS. Book 1st rdg. del. \st rdg. The words p. and I title On F . del. certain Friends.MS. . del. to make MS.' prints first couplet only. u Sublime Intent given to their kings. ist rdg.' See note to Ixvii. All the Atonements of Jehovah spurn'd. A Fool to a bolt. . Ixxvi To F and S found them blind I And now I : they know taught them how to see .

Cp.Rossetti 2 14 MS. liv). . deprive me of my means of ' in ' this is another reference to the critiques in the Examiner (cp. EY Hayley DGR. . and the manner in which I have rooted out the nest of villains will be seen in a poem concerning my three years' Herculean labours at Felpham. which I shall soon publish. We all know that editors of newspapers trouble their heads very little about art and science. my in P . notes to xlix. rejoice p. Ixxvii P loved me not as he lov'd his friends them For loved He me. 52) 'The manner in which my character has been blasted these thirty years both as an Artist and a Man may be seen particularly in a Sunday paper called the Examiner. wife And when he could not act upon Who my my Hired a Villain to bereave MS. Fair Elenor. Only & for gain. triumph in EY i. WMR. that men are led by interest are knaves. because I know that you act. Cp. 217. Coupl. and that they are always paid for what they put in on those ungracious subjects. forgive enemies never in his life forgave a friend. p. of what interest is it to me to do so and so?" It is of malice and envj' that you have but the contrary. Life. p. man means to be your enemy. at foot of p. even 3 and] EY to your omit. he always begins with being your friend. own destruction. is probably Thomas Phillips Those who say the portrait painter. WMR I (' H ] First couplet only ptd. i). Life] The same line occurs one of the Poetical Sketches. ' : A '• I answer. Secret calumny and open professions of friendship are common enough all the world over. "of none at all. as you well know. not from : interest. Ixxviii H To does pretend. and he lov'd But to MS."' 4 in] at EY. i. by DGR ('Coupl. By the phrase bereave my Life ' Blake here probably means. 34. : published in Beaufort's Buildings. When a base but have never been so good an occasion of poetic imagery. Ends : fall. to serve his for no Gain at all.' XXI. 4 Hired . 26 knavish character will often say. done this I am aware of you.' xi). livelihood . Book. Book. 217. Book. Descriptive Catalogue.' 1. but from malice. Advertisement (MS. 34. 68. cp.' .

'tis not his fault But pecks of poison are not pecks of salt. 4 Be . but as EY. MS.'" MS. & make the World their home. 218 (title . . 35. p. del. Ixxx On H y's Friendship When H y finds out what you cannot do. omitted). Only 2 & make] to make EY. you are but what you was.' EY i. 218. They'll still be called 'The World's Honest Man. Man] Friend Caiaphas is one. Book. Book. . p. 36. Book. He'll still be called "The World's Honest Man. Book 2nd rdg.' xvi) both with title (' 218. you are an Ass. the very thing he'll set you to If you break not your Neck. 4 but what] just what MS. DGR (' Epig. . To Flaxman. Be they as Vile and Base as e'er they can. 3 Neck] back EY. .' MS. p. 35. do what he can. If If ' — you think as you speak.MS. Book 1st rdg. ' in EY i. 3 Be they as] For they are EY. you do not. Ixxxi created for destruction.' 7). come Into the World. del. 3. That is MS. . Only EY in i. . Some men. WMR Epig. Rosseiti 2 1 5 Ixxix To F You call me Mad 'tis folly to do so To seek to turn a Madman to a Foe.

37. Beetle] spider Gil.' etc.' xviii) with title On Stothard. WMR. Epig. and his The Fox. mo\e Descriptive Catalogue. i. with title 'To the Same' (i.' xii) < i. MS. Ixxxii On S You say reserve and modesty he has. out DGR withGil. 2 Do] Do Gil. Book. Stool and Chair But ah more wondrous still the Charming Fair. WMR title. i. 37. DGR. Book. 4 get] DGR. More Wondrous. 218. p. (' Coupl. ' Title. XXI. i.. 36. 307 (last couplet only). WBY EY ('Coupl. 3. the Cock and Hen.e. EY i. Whose heart is iron. 4 Blake uses this couplet in his Descriptive Catalogue (1809). 218. ' (' heart to ake for Friendship's sake. ! MS. (' face brass. more wondrous are the Men. and a Compliment. his head wood. 181. and the Bat By sweet reserve and modesty get Fat..' p.. More wondrous still the Table. Ixxxiii Imitation of Pope : a compliment to the Ladies Wondrous the Gods. . Book. EY . 3 Owl] WMR. the Beetle. EY.' p. 218. Only in Imitation of Pope. grow Gil. the Owl.' 17) without title.2i6 Rossetti MS. 2) with general title On Hayley. Ixxxiv H To Thy friendship oft Do be my Enemy MS. WMR has — made my CoupL' : Gil. Wondrous still. Hayley).

as much WMR (' as they like. 37. That my Friends may weep MS. MS. For sorrow that poor John Thompson 's gone. t'other spits. Cp. p. Ixxxvii Another I was buried near this dyke. & Baldwin of Egypt's Lake Fear to associate with Blake.Rossetti MS. One grins.' xviii). and in corners hides. 46). i . And all the Virtuous have shewn their backsides. & Stothard are also in doubt Lest their Virtue should be put to the rout. p. EY (' Memoir' chap. . 217 Ixxxv Cosway. without title. This and the two following epitaphs were obviously written before the Stothard lines (cp. 7 fother] other EY. . 37. II. Frazer. 37. 8i. Coupl. 49. Flaxman. with last couplet. p. line only) i. xlix. 219. . i. EY (ist . 8 One backsides] A marginal 8 shewn] shaved EY. vii) i. Only in EY i. Hayley. addition. This Life is a Warfare against Evils They heal the sick he casts out devils. : 5 MS. 219. Book. Book. xlix. 45. Book. 219. 50. 6 Virtue] friendship EY. 7. Ixxxvi An Epitaph Come knock your heads against this stone. 11.

Book on Flaxman and Hayley the verses written some eight years earlier these interesting lines. is by Hayley. G. 1800. his friend. 38. nor Gil. p. . Book. who knows to forgive nervous fear. EY. which have not been previously printed.' xxi. A. WMR. 18).' 2 nor] or as a Genius thus p. . Ixxxviii Another Here John Trot. Book. i. EY. 12 Sept. Friends were quite hard to find.' . with this and other epigrams in the MS. ' I To MY Dearest Friend John Flaxman these bless thee. old authors say But now they stand in everybody's way. to be mine — ! is this : Milton lov'd me in childhood. i. He lies : has not MS. xlix. and shew'd me his face Ezra came with Isaiah the Prophet. DGR. I could not subsist on the Earth. 37. : Russell. Epitaph '. EY Hayley. the blessed of Heaven are Italy. man's O Father of Heaven and Earth lines that ever I : saw Flax- face. DGR xvii. i. in thick clouds And my Angels . have told me that seeing such visions. 1. (« prov'd : by Flaxman lov'd. . i8r (last couplet only). Ixxxix My title Not prais'd MS. And now Flaxman such my lot Now my lot in hath given upon Earth the Heavens me Hayley. . But by my conjunction with Flaxman. I owe to the courtesy of Mr. B. .. 51. WMR 181. ' entitles . but Shakespeare in riper years gave me his hand terrors appeared in the Paracelsus and Behmen appeared to me Heavens above The American War began All its dark horrors passed before my face Across the Atlantic to France Then the French Revolution commenc'd . Cp. xv. Angels stand round my spirit my friends upon Earth. When ! Flaxman was taken in to Heaven. the rest omit Gil. the Friend of all mankind left one enemy behind. title. Fuseli was given me to for a Season. WBY (' Coupl' xiv. Coupl. Cp. 3) with title 'On 219.2 1 Rosseiti 8 MS.

. p. It bears this evidence in its face. He mixed them both and so he learn'd to Paint. finish'd with labour. 3 But] For EY. Book. Advertisement (MS.' MS. and the rattle-traps of mythology. Venus. with no outline that you can descry. Only in EY i. p. 220. . ? p. i I. 4 things] thing EY. Book. make him master of your School.' 5. But all the pulp-wash'd. WMR (' Epig. EY (' 5 Sir. 38. 219 xc Rubens. journeymen's] journeymen EY. Coupl.' 2 stander] passer EY. and these must be queer fellows who give great sums for such nonsense and think it fine art. understood Christ was a Carpenter not a Brewer's Servant. . ' What man of sense will lay out his * labour of imbecility. my good And MS. . painted. Only . . DGR. Cp. p.' . Cp. : xcii Swelled limbs. 19) Rubens' Luxembourg Gallery is confessed on all hands to be the work : ' of a blockhead.' xix) with- title. Book. 4 an] painted] EY omit. circa 1810) : . around clumsy and ricketty princes and — princesses. 2 I . 5. in And EY so learn to paint.Adveriisew^h/ (MS. Deceptions MS. I. paint] Rubens had been a Statesman or a Saint . . and imbecility's journeyman . p. 38. Book. Book 1st rdg. . and the lumber of an awkward French palace are thrown together. a Statesman and a Saint. Book. am] Rubens was EY. How can its execution be any other than the work of a blockhead? Bloated gods Mercury. I. Advettisement (MS. more money for his slobberings will give for Rafael's finest things. out i yet you p. That stink in the nose of a stander-by. a EY. Book. ' — 2 . money upon the life's . i. A word illegible in MS. 38. Cp. 18. 63) :' He who could represent Christ uniformly like a drayman must have queer conceptions consequently his execution must have been as queer. del. higledy-piggledy. am . . Rubens. I'll 219. "EY omit. xi). Of an hundred journeymen's how-d'ye do Neighbour — ? MS.Rossetti MS. 6 I Sir] An addition.] xci To English Connoisseurs You must And And give Than you I agree that Rubens was a Fool. Juno.

i. broken masses.'s practice is unbroken lines. 7. Chairs and Stools are Grand. 2 of title. The Swallow sings. omitting ' ' in paid 1. B. p. in Courts of Kings.' I the] EY 15/ rdg. 7. 27 EY ' : could never have been produced with [Blake's 'Canterbury Pilgrims'] Rubens' light and shadow. Book. del. Their art is to lose form his art is to find form and His arts are opposite to theirs in all things. omit. a hand. 38. 5. . who arable numerals. 4.2 Rossetti 20 MS. 11. WMR who ' ' xii). i MS.* 4 That told ' . and 3. have given high Prices for Bad Pictures. and unbroken colours. as a single poem with the title Raphael and Rubens (' Epig. Rubens thinks Tables. p.' MS. 8 being a marginal addition. 220. To Generalize is to be an Idiot. General Knowledges : ' : are those Knowledges that Idiots possess. 2. . 221. for those p. Mr. xciu A the for encouragehave paid great sums in the Venetian and Flemish Pretty Epigram ment of those Who ooze Nature and Art in this together suit: is Most Grand is always most Minute. What where the original title {del. XCIV These are the Idiots' chiefest arts: To blend and not define the parts. Only in of 11. . But Rafael thinks a Head. Book finishings] . EY i. MS. Flemish. Book. That Fools have their high finishings. or with Rembrandt's. EY read ' be 3 The Swallow sings] Let it known '/or told.' xcv and xcvi. Blake's copy of Reynolds' Works. unbroken masses. or any thing Venetian or The Venetian and Flemish practice is broken lines. pp. stanzas as two up arrange The character and expression in this picture Catalogue (1809). Descriptive made Cp. and broken colours. xcviii To Particularize is the Alone Distinction of Merit.' Also Notes in to keep it.) read 'a Pretty Epigram prints this. 38. The correct position of the lines is indicated by prefixed i. 8. 26. 6. a foot.

55) high-finished ignorance. " These I said to Moser.' 2. Vulgar. But to loose them the Fool makes his foolish Game. : ' His power of execution I must — EY obscure the whole grant.MS." Rubens' Galleries. xlvii looking over the Prints from Rafael & Michael Angelo in the Library of the " You should not Royal Academy. had not p. Correggio. Namely To Represent Vulgar Artists as the Models of Executive Merit. He p. Majestic. & Titian knew how to Execute what they could not Think or Invent. things that you call Finish'd are not Even Begun. How He then went and took down Le Brun's and did secretly rage. . & Dry Unfinish'd Works of Art. 4 His . Must admire Rafael's Execution. Low. Stay a little. Blake's ms. . as Reynolds artfully ' Why them ? But that we are to Learn to Think from Great Masters. 39. The Laborious Stumble To make out the parts ' I allow that there is such a thing as Cp. . Book. [114] : End in View that Gainsborough had . the Judgment to Perform the Inferior parts of Art. grant] point of this epigram by punctuating the last line . . i. taken from Blake's marginal notes to Reynolds' Discourses. (as continuation of xciii). v. p. Gil. Rossetti And 22 1 this the Princes' 5 golden rule. show clearly that the last line should be read as an — indignant question involving an answer in the negative : are we to be told that Masters who Could Think. Ignorant His power of Execution I must grant ? — — WMR MS. Moser came to me cfe said. Book xcv Wise Rafael. study these old Hard. 220. Graceful. Book. as there may be a fool or a knave in an embroidered : ' I was once also. EY i. I also spoke my Mind. Sublime. . Angelo were Incapable of the meer Language of Art. Blake's notes to Reynolds' Discourses. Cannot Admire Rafael. . p. xcvi. of a Fool." 8 Game] aim EY. Fool] Cp. & to Learn to Perform from Underhngs Learn to Design from Rafael. 4 Power] powers EY. His Executive Power must I despise? Rubens. Advertisement (MS. 'The following Discourse is written with the Same Works. & That Such Idiots as Rubens. who does not admire Rafael's Execution. xxix. . however. p. 265. p. 167. is the wise man's aim. & I will shew coat ' : . note on flyleaf of his copy of Reynolds' Discourse no. 126. .' The following extracts. Stupid. vol. you what you should Study. MS.' He who Admires Rafael. ' 6 The .' calls ! ' I ' ' . Stiff. and to Execute from Rubens Can any Man be Such a fool as to believe that Rafael & Michael p. how can they then be Finish'd ? The Man who does not know The BeginI ning never can know the End of Art. Cp. i.

Pain in] springs from Gil. 222.222 MS. 221. MS. 19): 'Who that has eyes cannot see that Rubens & Corregio must have been very weak & vulgar fellows ? And This is like what Sir Francis Bacon are we to imitate their execution ? that a healthy child should be taught & compelled to walk like says : — a cripple. EY insert this after 1. Gil. p.' 12). Advertisement (MS. EY. Book ist rdg. Book. 39. Give to ! govern all. XCVlll The And 1 cripple every step drudges & labours. XCVll If I e'er O May Have MS. WBY. both great & small. between lines EY and 2 the And ' WMR 39. WBY Coupl.' says ' : Sir Joshua in astonishment cries out: ' See. Cp. 265. while the cripple must be taught to walk like healthy people. ('Coupl. O. i. 39. EY ('Coupl. Book. Slobbering] globbering EY. what Great Labour ! Pain in Modest Doubt ! MS.' ix).' xi). (first 4 11. Book. rare wisdom I drudges] smudges EY. Neighbours. del. Rossetti XCVl Learn the laborious stumble of a Fool ! Go. a Go. I p. asi). EY i. I e'er] e'er I Book. I DGR. (' Grow to Man's Estate. as part of the poem. send] Go and send EY. . p. and take the wall. . : — ! interpolating ' rule I 221 invert order of the two lines. WMR. 4 . xciii. i line. send your Children to the Slobbering School MS. there 's no doubt MS. only) i. i. the last word. e'en I] EY (Index. of Good to walk Come. DGR WMR. Book. from an as conclusion of presumably his own form idiot's action my xcv. 4 See Doubt] His pains are more than ' ! . others. p. learn me. me a Woman's fate.

every step 5 ! ' Being badly Nurst. omit. Gainsborough. del. Catalani. ' .' 3). or a squall. WMR. 8 . EY . A step] .' all is he crep. Book. whole his Englishman. learned ibid. . 3 taught] wise MS. EY.' 2 For Knife] For a button. 1809 passim. Book print this couplet after ist rdg. Rubens.MS. Book . Du Crow. 7. spends Fortune On a smear.' ix) Du Crow. . to destroy Picture And I call upon Colonel Wardle To give these Rascals a dose of Caudle. or a knife MS. Newton experiment EY." omit 'and Gentry. 4 On] For rdg. p. del. and insert ' Rembrandt after ' ' EY 222.. Rubens ' (' or tune. 2nd rdg. 40. or Knife So the savage taught. or a Cutlass. For Col. DGR. MS. xcix. and Dilbury Doodle As the Ignorant Savage will sell his own Wife For a Sword. a bead. i. c. insert ' (' ' Epig. del. . 5 Wardle] ibid. . jst 5.' and read Catelans for 'Catalani.]. Reynolds... Experiments from last to first. EY. DGR an addition. . Book 15^ rdg. . EY.. DGR. a Bauble [buckle 2nd rdg. title prints under this title c. del. Wardle see Examiner. i . MS. if ' high labour'd Newton and Bacon cry He 223 6 labour'd] finished EY. An first] addition. ci. in title EY . . 1st rdg. 7 cry] EY XCIX On the great encouragement given & English Nobihty by Cor- to Gentry reggio. 5 WMR WMR omit Epig. del. Rossetti He & walks And how stumbles as is 5. to destroy] that is not And Caudle] EY EY. 8 Experiments] marginal addition. He 6 . 6 Warble . a dagger. del.' The ' before ' 'English.

Cp. as sure as a Groat 's i . . either copied or improved. DGR. 5 They never can Rafael it. Book. WMR MS. 223. Book. Can Anglus ever ' discern perfection but in the journeyman's labour ? Cp. Give Pensions to the Learned Pig.2 Rossetti 24 MS. cu On H I write the Pickthank the Rascal thanks. WMR. 40.' 3 Anglus] Bunglers EY. p. . ' i. 5 nor] or EY. p. EY 222. p. p. MS. Book. 7 When 4 As] And DGR. Gil. EY i. Book. DGR. extending H I are quite ' to drawn ' Hayley. 25^! sedulously propagate an opinion that great inventors cannot execute. WMR. nor Blake it If they can't see an outline. In the art of painting. This ' : opinion is as destructive of the true artist as it is false by all experience. Or the Hare playing on a Tabor Anglus can never see Perfection But in the Journeyman's Labour. 181. 222. also Advertisement (MS. these impostors Advertisement (MS. pray how can they make it? When Men will draw outlines begin you to jaw them Madmen see outlines and therefore they draw them. i. 41. . Fuseli it. I i. WMR. p. WMR.' EY dry. (see note to xcix). "WMR (see note to xcix). CI All pictures that Are painted by painted with sense and with thought Madmen. As when they are drunk they always paint best. 47) Englishmen have been so used to journeymen's undecided Even Hogarth cannot be ' : bungling that they cannot bear the firmness of a master's touch. 3 is the Pencil] in the art the DGR. 40. . he and till With Thanks and Compliments MS. For the Greater the Fool is the Pencil more blest. them] All men have drawn outlines whenever they saw them DGR. . DGR. and] or . . Book.

As when it smells of the lamp. del. Book. .MS.. 2 Because judgment] judgments Gil. 41. I . [cxxvii] of his copy of Reynolds' Discourses. EY. 223. know MS. all. 223. Not prejudiced by feelings great Amiable state he cannot feel at ! MS. Cool] Because I know he judgment is] judgalways judges cool. Book . SAMPSON EY. menny wouver in the next piece. That Blake probably read ' 4 ' ' French with ease may be inferred from his quotation of a passage from Voltaire's Essai stiy les iiiceurs et F esprit des nations.' Cp. 1st rdg. p. MS. : MS. Gil. Book 15/ rdg. del. Book. Rossetti 225 cm Cromek speaks I always take my judgment from a Fool Because his Judgment is so very Cool . 208. Jenny sink awa'] Blake's purposely grotesque spelling of Je ne sais quoi. and Jenny sink awa'. Only in EY i. but keep up a jaw About freedom. CIV When you look at If a Man of Sense a picture.. 5 we] all MS. copied with indignant comment on p. ments are EY. p. EY i. you always can see has Painted he. . del. Book 15^ rdg. 41. Then never flinch. we can Say all was owing to the Skilful Man i 5 . i. 4 Amiable state] Because wc 3 or] and Gil. or small. For the smell of water is but small So e'en let Ignorance do it all.

. For it 's all sheer loss. i : ! 5 Rather than the Perfections of a Fool. Of displaying up a light when we want not to see. Like putting oil and water in a lamp. 4 Obscurely cxvi You And say their Pictures well Painted be. yet they are blockheads you all agree Thank God I never was sent to school To be Flog'd into following the Style of a Fool. skill to them seems raving and rant. and 5. The errors of a wise man make your Rule. WBY last couplet only. Book. Fool] To learn to admire the works .' wouver] read manoeuvre. 3 God] heaven EY. when you don't wish to see. no use as it seems to me lighting a lamp. The p. 11. 42. 'Twill hold forth a huge splutter with smoke and damp . . Book ist rdg. *s in] into EY. of a Fool MS. Menny wouver and water skill mad i . is *5 a great splutter with smoke and damp. p. *8 Of] For EY. 4. DGR separate epigrams . *i will Set to For a great multitude are ignorant. separated from the two preceding print the second and third couplets as the 1-4. ranters ! in a 5 lamp. last couplet is WMR 223. and EY i.2 26 MS. as it seems to me. you both Bunglishness & For a great conquest are Bunglers. EY i. 41. 1. by a sketch. MS. And make 'Twill For there Of 2 Menny written. To . Rossetti cv CroEnglish Encouragement of Art mek's opinions put into rhyme : If you mean to Please And like Like displaying oil will Everybody. Book. See note to civ. 6 as distinct pieces . 223 (with Encouragers' for 'Encouragement' and 'opinion' for 'opinions' in title) print the earlier and clearer version ' which reads : ' — If you mean to please everybody you work both ignorance and skill. 4 del. MS.

DGR. 43. till the victim is obliged to give up the Florentine and Roman practice. a Stool Send Battle. and that one he closes with iron bars. WMR . 7. . Book ist rdg. Cp. 7 blind] EY . Only in EY 224. hinders man who all power of individual possessed by this demon loses all admiration of any other Artist but Rubens. Correggio is a soft and effeminate and consequently a most cruel demon. MS. Book is^ r-dg. MS. except one. Correggio] Seeing a Rembrandt or Correggio DGR. sudden death. del. he loads it with hellish brownness. O pray! Rather than be such a blind Human Fool I'd be an Ass.' 4 and x). 6 Send] For DGR. think of the Crippled Harry and Slobbering Joe And then I question thus Are artists' rules i 1 . he was a petty Prince. Correggio. ' 8 an Ass] EY omit. i. and employed numerous Journeymen in manufacturing (as Rubens and Titian did) the Pictures that go under his name. Book. 56-59 a most outrageous demon. EY. EY. ' ' cvni When I see a Rubens. 227 cvii The Washerwoman's Song wash'd them out I And they told me & it wash'd them in. Cp. WMR. is to cause endless labour to whoever suffers him to The story that is told in all Lives of the Painters. omit. 1. . Rembrandt. and those who were his imitators and journeymen he causes to the Florentine and Roman Artist fear to execute. thought . is altogether false . When When I see I . a Worm. EY iii. and adopt the Venetian and Flemish. p... and blocks up all its gates of light. about Correggio being poor and but badly paid for his Pictures. or slobbering Joe EY. . was a great sin. ' whose whole delight enter his mind. a Hog. . 2 I Joe] Of crippled Harry I think and slobbering Joe DGR. Possibly a reference to Blake's manner of using water-colour. Book. I think of crippled Harry. del. and by infusing the remembrances : Rubens is of his Pictures and st^-le of execution. EY let's DGR. WMR. O] we MS. so that the is : and though the original conception was all fire and animation. Book. ! 86. . Descriptive Catalogue. the allusion to water in an epigram on the preceding page of the MS. in Italy. del. and Q 3 . 3 question thus] say to myself MS. p. WMR (' Epig. : To be drawn from the works of two manifest Then God defend us from the Arts I say fools ? 5 ! Murder. a Chair. Book ist rdg. The manual labour in these Pictures of Correggio is immense. 42. civ. a WMR . pp.Rossetti MS. Rembrandt or Correggio MS.

but it shall be at your own peril. Know.' O Artist! CIX Great things are done when This is not done by jostling MS. p. Esq''^' which probably belonged to the deleted passage. ist rdg. Only in EY 224. Book 2 make me almost] 15/ rdg.28 2 MS. (' Epig. vii. I ever EY. WBY DGR. MS. 43. del. and it would be weak. though Correggio was not poor. p. where a month would with judgment have finished it better and higher and the poor wretch who executed it would be the Correggio that the life-writers have written of a drudge and a was paid for originally at the tories of art . If you are benevolent You will never win. cx you play a Game of Chance. WMR. Men & Mountains meet (' EY Coupl. Book. printed as a quatrain. 47. . and lumbering. Book. Book. with the title William Cowper. 225. and take possession of his affections he infuses a love of soft and even tints without boundaries. But. and thick-headed. while they themselves pay their journeymen little enough. 224. compelled to softness by poverty.' EY i. the street. with title Fuseli. . like his own works but then it would have softness and evenness. that confuse one another. Christian . and of endless reflected lights. If i.' v. miserable man.' xv) WMR I ' that e'er I] that ever almost make me EY. Rossetti immense prices that those who keep manufacalways charge to their employers. you may disbelieve all this. sweet MS. — I say again. CXI The only Man that e'er I knew did not make me almost spew Was Fuseli he was both Turk and Jew And so. how do you do Who — : ' ? MS. and 8). del. These hnes are written over an erasure. before you begin. Friends] Christians I WMR. who permits him to enter his mind. by a twelvemonth's labour. in . dear Christian Friends. and for if one of hinder all correct drawing from appearing to be correct Rafael's or Michael Angelo's figures was to be traced. there would soon be an end of proportion and strength. he will make any true artist so. i. p. and Correggio"s reflections and refractions to be added to it. 4 dear] ibid. and pappy. 2 This is] These are all edd. 50. .

was therefore written before the preceding Coupl. Notes to Reynolds' Discourses. & that all Pretence to Inspiration is a Lie & For if it is a Deceit the whole Bible is a Deceit. but waiting till he's sick calls you to his help be you not mov'd . is atrocious in a Friend 'tis Prophecy: a confounded Bookseller. not queer . queer] 5 Not . 19 : for the ' 2 was was — Bacon EY. he is a & & Genius ! obedient to Good Man. MS. You him spend see Do you believe some Till it wants are prov'd. EY. And 'tis most wicked in a Christian Nation For any man to pretend to Inspiration. & a Fairy fun. : Daughters of Memory. Only in EY i. •The Enquiry in England But whether he is Passive Noblemen's Opinions in Art Not. and piece. . . & when Joseph has done make a fool laugh. If he is. truth in his extravagant claim. perhaps 'Twill. Only in WMR ' (' 12 man] one WMR. & Bacon] Priestly done EY. to say the least of it. 9 atrocious] most wicked MS. This Opinion originates in the Greeks calling the Muse[s] Madness. 52. Book. p. & it . For Joseph cp. del. . This p.' is referred to in note to cxi. . I'll EY. the Public Fame. .' is Man not whether a & Polite & & Science. has Talents a Virtuous Ass. Prove there For sick. 6 I will] 3 Priestly done] when Joseph & is a Fairy] at a Fairy's EY. i. Book. Rossetti 229 CXll For this being a Friend just in the nick. 'Reynolds' Opinion was ir. is x Not when He he's well. 225.^ iv. he must be Starved. legibly written. Until. 50. 5 That Genius May be Taught. If cxiii you what Joseph of Arimathea my Fairy was not it very queer ? & Bacon What. Soul his in & 5 lie.' xix) with title Blake's Friends. probably the continuation of the erased stanza. Book \st rdg. are you here ? will tell I Said to i : Priestly before Joseph of Arimathea. Gil. ! Come Listen patient.MS. 12] Cp. Fairy see footnote to Poems from Jerusalem. p. his by being you love 9 To tell you anything that he can't prove. 5 I will MS.

' *ii). And . till Seven times Seven. all with title Cupid and omission of last stanza (except R') which is printed separately (notes. laugh when we do cry. ' . 144). MS. .'v). For a boy ne'er learns so much he Till all and is reading 'never' for 'ne'er' WBY 13 he 's . by Swinb. Ri. 225. DGR. EY ('Coupl. WBY. ' ' (1. 5 And And And the Girl shoots with her Eye. preferable first draft of this stanza ' Then : — . 56. For a boy can't interpret the thing Till he is become a man. p. . make Cupid to a Boy *9 Was surely a Woman's plan. For aught that I can For he shoots with see. 9-12 And man] All edd. Rossetti 230 cxiv Grown I oft Love from Seven old in have wish'd MS. 248).MS. EY i. EY (iii. and 6 the] a WBY. p. print the infinitely ' ' WBY . That the whole business of Is to pick out the 13 his life heads of the darts. WMR. And then he's so pierc'd with cares. WMR. 69). make Cupid a boy 9 the Cupid girl's mocking plan. i And why a boy was he? He should have been a Girl. Ease from Heaven. for Hell. Book. p. so pierced through WBY. *i i). ' (1. Book. Apparently written 54. ' for ' Then cares] he is become a man ' . (p. all except R' 'has for is' (1. And Was to they both are merry & glad. cxv Why was Cupid a Boy. And wounded with arrowy smarts. for or after in 1806. his bow. is) ' ' ' *9) and to mock for so much (1.

I my] of And thrust out his cheeks and 2 part of] thing in MS. WMR.'' my DGR. So if a Great Painter with Questions you push 'What's the first part of painting?' he'll say: 'A Paint.' xxi). : ' a leer in his Eye. Book. WBY. Book 1st ydg. .' ' And what is the third ? he'll bow like a rush. Book.' (' Coupl. EY. . . WMR. . i? of Stone — Joy] Swinb. yonder With — brandt ! &c. . 7 So push] 8 he'll] he'd So if tp a painter the question you push DGR.MS. great wig.' 13 erhaps this is all a Painter can want: of Remhouse is the house that look But. CXVl Dear Friend Orator Prig my asked I 'What's the first i : He part of Oratory?' said : 'A great /wig-' Then. Swinb. WMR. and say paint-brush. II he'll] He will EY. 12 he'll] and DGR. Rosseiti 231 'Twas the Greeks' love of war Turn'd Love into a Boy. a] all that a EY. WMR WMR ('Epig. del. p. DGR.' ' And what is ' the second ? with most modest blush. . he'll reply: 'A Paint-brush. . there WBY omils. 60. dancing a jig he said d bowing profoundly.' of Orator i) with title in Following the &c. .' And. 13 all EY. 20 And] fled] flew EY. WBY. calls this 'the last (rejected) stanza. EY ' ' ' in Bany : a Poem. .' but 17-20 'Twas is no trace of deletion in the MS. replied pig. ' 9 A He'll smile like a cherub. out] EY. .' which indicates that more Prig. Brush. of this piece was written elsewhere Blake has added the words to come MS. 5 A ' great wig. .' And what is the third ? Then he snored like a 'And what the second?' is ' : ' A ' puffing his cheeks out. 17 Greeks'] Greek 18 Turn'd] That turned Swinb. Love] Cupid EY. EY. And Woman into a Statue And away fled every Joy. 6 And EY.

' 13 taste colouring love pp. 5 . i the devil this little P'able may make us merry dog went over the water without a wherry bone which he had stolen he had in his mouth He cared not whether the wind was north or south. . snap All is He ^A had them both before. cxvii O dear Mother Outline of wisdom most sage. . EY poem. Book. DGR. 60. WMR ('Epig. one] EY too ." xxii).' ! ' : ' WMR MS. she said 'Patronage. — ' ! ! — 9 : ' it 's all Chiaroscuro. (' Epig. EY (' Coupl. shadow and the substance do ye] d'ye EY. As he swam he saw the reflection of the bone. 63. ' I Now how do ye do ? ' was before: it more and more.' And what is the Second. EY print first couplet ('Coupl. 60. this little Fable. Poco-Pen Colouring He has lost shadow and substance too. This is quite Perfection one Generalizing Tone There 's no outline.'v). on p. tion . 61 : the first ' couplet with the catchwords Perhaps with the title. pp. Ruth a drawing' : 64. No. i What's the First Part of Painting. . This is CXVlll To Venetian Artists That God And is Colouring Newton does shew. EY. the rest. Book \st 10 Outline Colouring] marginal addi. Snap. too] and lost the 12 them both] both these EY. &c. ! ! great deal better than Those who MS. what a brilliant tone MS. p. 11 for one. He . . Book.Rossetti 2 32 MS. xv. 6r. and said Patronage. . before] . She frowned h'ke a Fury. Blake's Descriptive Catalogue. . is a black outline. A . there 's no such thing Outline Perhaps : A A .' And what is the Third she put off Old Age 5 And smil'd like a Syren and said Patronage. 13 A. EY. 61. 14 taste] have tasted omit.' 2). omit. to Please and Engage. all of us know.' occurs at foot of p. del.' xxiii) followed Tone] Here 's by the two EY omit. perhaps the continuation of the preceding epigram (cxvi). Cp. ' . rest as a separate 8 This rdg. 9.

Also Descriptive Catalogue. p. from the first draft on and the addition of 11. will never be so foolish as to do one. 76). among numerous others painted for experiment. were the result of temptations and perturbations. 65. . The rough draft of most of this piece occurs on p. in i . sharp. ii. Exarjiiner. I EY in Only 63 (reversed). p. lineation in the first draft. Mr.MS. may be removed by an exhibition and exposure of their . afterwards renumbered 1-12. added in a slightly changed form. 3. go. MS. 12. 384. Book . by means of that infernal machine called Chiaro Oscuro. 63. 8 and 9 (or 4. The verses were then transcribed on p. which Blake. and the less keen and sharp. 2 Fool] fools EY. knew this. Only in EY (' Memoir' i. 5 in the original Lines 13 and 14 are also an interdraft). and wirey the boundary line. and bungling. Such art of losing the outlines is the it loses all character and leaves what some art of Venice and Flanders * . the more perfect the work of art. plagiarism. with the couplet 11. . •* The expression" but this is a false notion of expression. 19-22. . the Greater Liar. 11. write in Verse as soft as Bartolloze. labouring to destroy Imaginative power. 62).' imitation. and to all Artists who study in the Florentine and Roman Schools. where the lines were composed in the following order. Book. B. . But September Nobody (p. del. 62. . in all ages. whose enmity to the Painter himself. i and a between 11. Great MS. 5-8. cxx offence by writing in Prose.' CXIX Men and Fools do often me inspire But the Greater Fool. The greater is the evidence of weak Great inventors. in the hands of Venetian and Flemish Demons. 17. . p. Rossetti 233 If losing and obliterating the outline constitutes a Picture. 15-18. Hunt's reference to Blake's Descriptive Catalogue. 1809. 4. me] we EY. i] Cp. at all sees •" Prose] harm EY in omit in. Rhyming] 15. 4 But . Having given great I'll Some blush at what others can see no crime But nobody sees any harm in Rhyming. 65. interlineating 11. — : vile tricks. people call That the more great and golden rule of art as well as of life is this distinct. p. Book." rc/g. — . Rhyming MS. 54 'These pictures. no.

looking quite from skumference to center. and perhaps he wrote said that IMilton's it. cries Dryden. because it is rhyme. 17 Cry. 's That put them may I in mind of ! 21 their latter ends. (p. 9 Thus] An addition Then EY. 20 A reference to Cromek's 'Account of 20 around] about EY. ' ' Milton only plann'd his bells throughout the land. ' ' . and monotonous sing-song sing-song from beginning to end. that is. Advertisement (MS. July i. Schiavonetti. del. and I will assert never wrote. Hayley on his Toilette seeing the sope. Woollett that 'Cooke wished and Strange. 12 that] . (p. center] Cry Tom Cooke 1st rdg. 62).' 7] Cp. Book Mr.^ marginal addition . unfinished piece. p. II. Book 15/ rdg. del. Such are Bartolozzi. : . looking up to my Umbrella. in which it is a rough. Book great] "EY omit. 1st rdg. smelling a sweet savour. del. which perhaps he : 5. Cry. 12 Some ' . 13 Cry Blakefied drawing spoils painter and Engraver While I.' in the E. del. Thus. HY omit. Homer is very much improv'd by Pope. 10 Cries] Says MS. 19. 1810. But at the same time I will allow that stupidity will prefer Dryden. nose] I've given great Provision to my Foes ril lead false Friends by the Nose. . Now poem is everybody of understanding must cry out shame on such niggling and poco-pen as Dryden has degraded Milton with. and Dryden has finished let Dryden's Fall and Milton's Paradise be read.' raving] How many Thousands of Conoisseurs ran raving MS. No one can finish so high as the original Inventor.' But now MS. and mass. outline. . 57) to give Hogarth what he could take from Rafael. . 62\ . 9 ' And now that Flaxman and lead I my false friends by the nose.vaminer. . in rhyme. my A 11 Some say] marginal addition. 20) us in the characters of Milton and Dryden as they are given in a poem signed with the name of Nat Lee. * An example of the contrary 6] Cp. Every Fool shook 5 : Tom Cooke cut Hogarth down with his clean graving: Thousands of connoisseurs with joy ran raving.' Thus Poor Schiavonetti died of the Cromek 17 ' — A thing that tied around the Examiner's neck This is my sweet apology to my friends. arts is written in a paroxysm of insanity. proves from circumference to Center MS. Book. Book. Resolv'd to be a very contrary fellow.2 Rossetti 34 MS. p. . Advertisement (MS. 8 Thousands and colour but he could not. . Stothard. . 63). (p. Book 1st idg.' Cries Some say I've given great Provision to my foes..

you shan't] ne'er now MS. p. I MS. it 's sure to keep your judgment cool . Only in EY 2 & i. 266 with title nature. Book. Knowing and feeling that we all have need of Butter. Book shall \st rdg. del. yourself.' EY i.andio). Mb. (' Epig. 3 Admires] Admireth Gil. WBY('Coupl. ciii. 226. 2. . 235 CXXl men will act like a maid smiling over a churn. DOR. Admires all his colours brown & warm. it p. as Vasari tells us. peeping in a Mirror. Book ! \st rdg. do. how you would 226. fie ! O fie !] MS. first 5 Perhaps a continuation of cxx. They ought not. p. fie fie! Our Friendship you shan't sever In spite we will be greater friends than ever. i. And never once perceives his ugly form. EY. Book. i. . WMR.'vii. cxxii Call that the Public Voice which is their Error Like as a Monkey. in ' ' WMR * cxxiii Some For It It people admire the work of a Fool.' with title Colour and Form. Book. how] what EY. MS. MS. Gil. 6 In spite] For 15^ rdg. does not reproach you with want of wit is not like a lawyer serving a writ. cxxiv To God If you have form'd a Go into MS. 73.Rossetti MS. 70. ? Written in continuation of a passage in Blake's Adverp. 66. To grow sour at what a friend may utter. del. 5 Printed here for the time.ix. when it comes to another's turn. del. Cp. 11. 65. which he says that Rafael and Michael Angelo abhorr'd studying On Colourists. Circle to see go into.' vi) 2 Like as] Like to EY. Book no MS. ^ If False Friends. Book. . ' iiseimiit. Book.

stanza which Lines p. or Degrade them. With works of Art their Armies meet i . 227. And France shall fall down & adore. Book. Myra's pocket-hole. CXXVl To Chloe's breast young Cupid But he crept MS. & the Empire is No More. apparently the beginning of a second in EY i. follow in pencil. Empire follows Art.' 7 their] her EY. (vol. but The Arts.' iv). EY I (' Coupl.' 5). Reynolds' & Science. breast] heart R^ (' Coupl. slily stole.' has shall So spoke an Angel at my birth Then said Descend thou upon earth Renew the Arts on Britain's shore. 4 upon] on the EY. 14 are left unfinished. ' .' stanza of xxx . WBY WMR.' Also Blake's notes to Empire that attends upon & follows The Foundation of Empire is Art Works [cxxv]). p. Book. Book. And War MS. DGR. p. MS. CXXVll •Now Art France lost its mental Charms subdue the World in Arms. 79. 78. as for WMR The Two Kinds WBY ' of Riches. in at DGR. 5 feet. i. Rossetti 236 cxxv the Riches of this World May be gifts from the Devil & Earthly Kings.' 4 my God] WBY omits my. I should suspect that I worship'd the Devil Since all my God If I thank'd first title ' worldly things. & not Vice Versa as Englishmen suppose. may concern p. Book. was shall sink beneath thy 13. Remove them. 66): that it is ' . p.MS. Cp. (MS. Advertisement Only 'Let us teach Buonaparte and whomsoever else it not Arts that follow & attend upon Empire. 73 (reversed) with and EY with title Riches. DGR in printing All add.

del.' this as part of The Everlasting * Gospel. Swinb. p.' EY. MS. * Spirit And who . In a commercial nation the greatest enemies of are These in all are abroad professions. 15/ rdg. with WMR (p. Book rdg. Who shall I dare to shew them to? What mighty Soul in Beauty's form Shall dauntless View the Infernal storm? And these i I 5 MS. And they scorn the immortal Muse. 79. Book.' ' 14 Cp. p. . France shall the arts of Peace restore And save thee from the ungrateful shore. 13 MS. MS. CXXIX The Caverns of the Grave I've seen. 57 wrongly regard for which no place can be assigned. to Blake's Catalogue of Pictures. EY. Book 4 Who] Whom 15/ rdg. 3 But] And MS. I Caverns] Visions MS. Advertisement (MS. title ' EY For a Picture of the Last 144) seems unaware that this poem forms part of the MS. 87. Book isi 6 daunt'ess] dare to . &c. del. shew'd to England's Queen. impostors Genius. .' Swinb.' p. : WMR 74. on same page as part of Blake's descriptive account of Addition his picture of 'The Last Judgment.' headed 'For the Year 1810 iii. 170. del. p. WMR. CXXVlll Nail his neck to the Cross: nail it with a nail.' But if 9 if who lov'st Brittannia's Isle Round which the Fiends of Commerce smile Spirit 12 And . WBY. 237 thy Nation Arts refuse. all except Dedication. EY ii. 13. Book. But now the Caves of Hell I view. del. Book save thy works from Britain's shore 14 Spirit — smile] lovest Britannia's shore Round which Commerce the Fiends of roar. p. Book. Book. Nail his neck to the Cross: ye all have power over his tail. shore] .Rossetti MS. 25). . 55. WBY Judgment p. : 140. 1st rdg.

del.. On the Great Atlantic Mountains. 2. . the first couplet of 6. del. 2. The . but rage in vain. then 4 and 7 . isi Noble] worthy ibid. ist )dg. For everything besides It is away ? i ! I have I can crave. I still go on Till the Heavens & Earth are gone. then 7 EY follows Gilchrist with title Mammon order i.. ibid. 6. crave] It's only can crave EY.ROSsettI 238 MS. a fourth stanza formed of the first couplets of 6 and 4. 3. Gil. Book can] dare 8 flames] doors ist rdg. WMR . 3. 1807. In my Golden House on high. 2. . Follow'd by Envy on the winds. 7 II MS. can crave is] It's R».' 5 Said said 1] I WMR riches that It WMR . 4. 13 Ever My Designs unchang'd remain. 5. the to be this. the latter 228) and MS. rage. i. Time may 17 There they shine Eternally. 309. cxxx — up at the dawn of day Get thee away get thee away I rose ' ! Pray'st thou for Riches This is Said I took I the Throne of It only ! grey. 310. sure.' is very odd Throne of God. in their Youthful prime. : away ! Mammon for 5 . Two Gil. is( rdg. WBY. prints I. 9 Re-engrav'd Time after Time. 8 It only riches I . . 89. del. p. 7 with title The place stanzas in correct order. 7 WBY. 128 (with title Prayer') arranges stanzas in the of 5. Still admir'd by Noble minds. still ibid. : Riches that written immediately under and partly around an entry R' has stanzas i. For above Time's troubled Fountains. " ' . Egremont's Countess can controll flames of Hell that round me roll If she refuse. p. ' Thrones. < . . Everything else EY. dated Aug. a fifth stanza formed of the second couplet of 4 and the first couplet Swinb. 15 unchang'd] shall rdg. Gil. del. WBY (i. 3. I R^ EY. Book. WBY. It's For everything] Everything R'.

98. he holds my money bag in his hand. as I don't value such things as these. edd. Rossdti 239 have Mental Joy.. Mr assur'd. and marked for insertion here. . i6 money bag] money-bags EY. as a If I says. 'The Laocoon' (Prophetic except Swinb. ' . margin. 27 So] But RS Gil. say] God knows it 's little prayers I need him] if I worship not him R'. Gil. WBY. God And Mental 25 please. . pray it must be for other People. omit 'And. MS. WBY. God makes him pay. Book. So. . above stanza C 4 of Fayette' (MS. 9 Joy] joys R' and Mr Devil. EY.. Friends] R* and all Wife I love] Wife that I love R^ 13-20 I am .. which is The Great Satan or Reason the Root of Good Books.MS... written from the reversed end of the book. cxxxi Do what you And is made will this life's a fiction. & Mental wealth I've a Wife I love. . to you] Written later in 14 And he] R^ and all edd. omit 'And. & Mental Health. Gil. I I little won't pray to you. WMR. Church is known by its Steeple. And God's presence night & day. more if to him I would pray he'd pay worst you can do do the so you may And And Be 13 17 worldly things for . EY. ii ' : . & go worse shod. except Swinb. WMR WMR. . I must not Pray. And Mental Friends. 21) & Evil In the Accusation of Sin.' Monej^. which Printed appears upside down. WBY.' 15 doth] does Swinb. . Then if Devil. WBY. & that loves me I've all But Riches Bodily. if I don't worship him EY. . 19 And so j-ou] And j-ou 22 God EY. He You must do. 15. EY.' and all edd. up of contradiction. 25 if say RV. 9 I . xxxvi). here for first time. Riches for God knows. For my am in And he I The . . if I do not worship him for a God. So. except Swinb. i6 Cp. I shall eat coarser food. Book.. WBY. 21 of Prayers need say . never turns his face away accuser of sins by my side doth stand. p. just as 10 all edd.

i

POEMS
FROM

THE ROSSETTI

MS.

Ill

'THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL'
^

Written

SAMPSON'

cxxxii
circa

R

1810

ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT
III

cxxxii

THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL
Prefatory
This poem — or

Note

rather rough studies for a poem which
Blake never carried to completion consists of a series of
fragments scattered throughout the MS. Book. As these
occur for the most part on vacant spaces of pages already

'

partially filled with the draft of his catalogue for the year
1810,' it is plain that 'The Everlasting Gospel' was written
not earlier (though probably not much later) than this

date.

Three of these fragments (/?, y^, and y^) are different treatments of the same theme, Christ's gentleness or humility
one (S) is a mere note or suggestion
while all but the
first few lines of another (77) have been lost to us through
;

;

Blake's neglect to transcribe the remainder of the passage
MS. Book. The several fragments in their present
form contain repetitions of lines and overlapping of thought
and expression which the author would doubtless have
removed on final revision. At one stage in the evolution
of the poem Blake marked the order in which he intended
the parts then written to be placed, and this clue, with
careful observance of the position of later marginal insertions, enables us to arrange the different sections of the
poem in their proper sequence. To carry further the
attempt to give unity to this unfinished piece would involve
editorial omissions and transpositions contrary to the plan
of the present work.
Fragment (3, the 57 11. beginning Was Jesus gentle,'
seems to have been the first draft of the initial section of
the poem.
Handling the same theme again in a different
manner, Blake re-wrote the entire passage in the new form
into the

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MS,

y^ (the 38 11., or with marginal additions 46 11., beginning
'Was Jesus humble' and ending 'And take Revenge at
the last Day'), and this again was further altered and
expanded into the revised version y^, to which the title
'
The Everlasting Gospel was prefixed for the first time.
This last section contains 106 11. which Blake, in a marginal
note, reckons as 78, showing that the calculation was made
before the interpolated 11. 21-24, 31-50 and 85-88 were
added in the margin. At this point he indicated the
connexion of y^ with ^, which he then meant to be the
next section, by adding the catchwords was Jesus chaste
or did he &c.,' followed by the couplet {Q) with which the
'

'

poem was

apparently meant to conclude

:

am sure this Jesus will not do
Either for Englishman or Jew.'

'I

The fragment ^ Was

'

'

Jesus chaste contains 96 11., the
being a marginal addition, written after Blake had
noted 94 lines as the length of this passage. Below 1. 94,
without apparent break, he added

two

last

'

'

:

*

Seeing this

made my

I

What

and passion
over the nation.

false Christ in fury

voice heard

all

are those, &c.'

followed at the side, a little lower down, by the two-line
It was Blake's practice to add
epilogue quoted above.
&c.' where a poem or passage had already be jn written
elsewhere, and it seems clear that these three lines were
merely catchwords marking the position of the imperfect
section r],
Messrs. Ellis and Yeats point out that the 7th
stanza of 'To the Jews {Jenisalevi, 1804) begins with the
words What are those golden builders doing ?
As that
poem, however, is written in quatrains with a different
rime-arrangement it could not well have followed here,
'

'

'

'

though Blake

may have

repeated this particular

Of the remaining

line.

portions the four-line fragment 5 Did
Jesus teach doubt is written transversely on the page
opposite the beginning of y^, which it was apparently
meant to precede. Blake does not here add &c.,' and it
is probable that these lines are
merely suggestions of a new
train of thought which he did not develop further.
The
48 II. (e) beginning Was Jesus born of a virgin pure' p^e
found on a scrap of different paper now bound in at the
end of the MS. Book. It can hardly have been written
earlier than May 18 10, since it occupies the fourth page
'

'

'

'

R

2

the MS. Rossetti 244 of a folded sheet. This passage has no place assigned to it. upon separate pieces of paper. and there is consequently no attempt at is who 175). reduce the entire number of lines in this version to 313. under the poem A ' ' ' ' . found in y^ But there are no grounds for Messrs. M. small part only of The Everlasting Gospel was included among the Poems hitherto Unpublished in Gilchrist (1863) Mr. for the most Mr.MS..' adding I have done my best to arrange the verses into some sort of order and method with what success.' The omission of y^ and a few odd couplets rejected for various reasons. of title The (11. which were afterwards copied The into.' A much more comprehensive by Mr. 1868. Rossetti there printing the prologue 11. or merely loosely inserted in.' Probably all the fragments of . obviously been chosen with a view to elucidating his author's meaning. W. to ' ' which they are probably meant to serve as prologue. 3. The interpolation e still leaves the epilogue at the end of the as at first intended. the preceding page of which contains part of the draft of Blake's Additions to his Catalogue of Pictures for the Year 1810 and it must have been written later than jS as it has the amended form of 1. enriched by running commentary. M. 8. like e. comparatively small number of corrections made in /? show that it must have been copied from an earlier draft. but Blake's text is. . Rossetti states that this wholly amazing and partly splendid poem is now published in full for the first time. Swinburne [Essay. where I print it in the present arrangement. but its natural position would appear to be immediately before ^. Book. Yeats' conjecture that these lines are intended to supersede much of the rest of the poems \read poem '] but rejected by the author before he made up his mind how to fix them in. and the loss of 77 (perhaps also of 5) may be attributed to the same cause. such as This life's dim windows of the soul for This life's five windows of the soul'. Here and there slight emendations are made. W. ' ' ' The ' Everlasting Gospel were first written. G. given prints ' ' ' strict sequence. D. The poem as reconstructed by Mr. ' Woman taken selection in Adultery. 4 omitted) and 43 of 96 ^. the reader must judge. an afterthought. Ellis and and y^. ' ' . Swinburne's extracts have part. In the Aldine Edition (1874) Mr. reverently treated. 148altogether 253 11. pp. The fourteen lines beginning The Vision of Christ that thou dost see (a) are introductory to the whole poem.

6.' Here they fail to pel see that the 2^ 11.e.yMl. 1-20.11. 13). Such misreadings as Doth read for Both read ' ' ' ' for 'three days long' (y\ 1. happy. Yeats gives ten lines less than arranges the fragments with more regard for Blake's own His order of the passages is as follows subdivisions. 8\ y^ 93-96. 5. 13-57. 5. and passion — — climax destroys voice heard all over the nation ' to which the epilogue forms the natural the force of this concluding couplet by making it diately follow the speech of Caiaphas (e. 11. 4). false Christ in fury . written down elsewhere. 11. but now unfortunately lost to us. though its proper place is followed by e. clearly discernible reason. of 7. due rather to simple blundering than to any attempt to amend their author. 81-90 .. 'all day long' •ten years old' for 'twelve years old (y^ 1. 25-106 is scarcely e and of The e. they regard as a cancelled passage. which. Rossetti Rossetti is divided 245 the following six sections. — — WMR ' . 1-20. the latter followed by /? ('Another version. All-i3>57. 51-106. W. ' 11. . Later they print as ments as Blake left them. 11. 25-40 4.MS. 11. a. : a (except P.92. I. (a. 4). y^ 11. then 8 and ^ (treating the former as a continuation of the latter).91. Mr. pp. 17-48). marked The numerous y^. 52) passages show the correctly printed by Blake's earlier editors carelessness with which they transcribed their original.' final version as parallel columns. 42-60) have made the only attempt up to the present to reproduce the frag- They first give y^ and y^ in and previous version. generally adopted the emendations introduced into the text by his predecessor. 11. Rossetti has 11. 11. 4. ^. Ellis and Yeats (vol. ' * — ' ' a separate scrap 21-25. and the omission of rj. Seeing this I made my 2. 11. y^. but Mr. which they think was cancelled and so the MS. such as we find in Swinburne and Rossetti. for no MS. (. 5). Messrs. here as else- where. B. ^. 3. y\ 3. ii. 1.ai-34. apparently earlier ') . — 1-80. ( transposition 3. are merely catchwords marking the position of a complete passage. of " The Everlasting Gosin favour of 77 " terminates for us with a loose end. ^. 41-50. then 6. not with those of the author i a into always corresponding (except 11. in the inaccuracies in their text are. 6. imme- . 3. 6.

4 to] EY omit. 93. 4 Thine . Mine speaks in Parables to the Blind.THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL a \Prologue\ The Vision Is my of Christ that thou dost see Vision's Greatest Enemy. On the strength of the phrase Friend of all Mankind' MS. .' ' (cp. Socrates taught what Meletus Loath'd as a Nation's bitterest Curse.' WBY. . ' thought Jesus. Thine loves the same world that mine hates Thy heaven doors are my Hell Gates. . WBY. 5 Friend] fare DGR. And Caiaphas was in his own Mind A benefactor to Mankind. Book. Both read the Bible day & night. f. EY in suppose this prologue to be addressed to Stothard. 14 read'st] readest EY. See also prose note or p. 9-12 Cp. where on stretched arms and accusing forefingers are engraved the words Anytus Meletus & Lycon thought Socrates a very Pernicious Man. snubby. Thine has a great hook nose like thine. Mine has a snub nose like to mine. 8 12 MS. So Cai[a]phas I . Book xlix and Ixxxviii) and the reference to the 'great hook nose. Book. should not have worshipped him if I thought he had been one of those long spindle-nosed rascals. Thine is the Friend of All Mankind 4 . the bodies of three figures with outJei-usalem. 64 : 'I always thought that Jesus Christ was a MS. mine] This couplet omitted by all except EY. 13 Both] Doth EY. But thou read'st black where I read white. 3 great] long EY.' 3. 33. p.

And. 8 No . And 12 . quotes with commentary 11. understand not what I say. Loud * No My Ye as Sinai's trumpet-sound Earthly Parents I confess 4 : : 8 Heavenly Father's business. A fair copy of an earlier draft. 100. 10 1.' It should not be overlooked that in its present form the poem is merely a rough draft. 44 and WBY places 51. 23. 247 /8 Was He Jesus gentle. business] . as another sentence of equally slovenly construction. following 1. God's high king & God's high Priest Your Shall Plant their Glories in 20 breast. . The MS. Book. WBY.' said Satan. 8). 16 you'll] you EY. the last line of this couplet to I am doing my an heroic attempt to accept the lines as they occur here. My which necessitates however in i) : — their * I : — confess heavenly Father's business. 35-40. 18 stones] stone WBY. mistakenly calling these 'a later division of the poem. and e (1. is favour gains with God & Men. 22. 13-57 between conclusion to 7^. angry. .' John from the Wilderness loud cried Satan Gloried in his Pride.' still weaker readings in 7^ and 7. 11. Book has no punctuation.' EY make 10). When after three days' sorrow found.. Swinb. (1. pp. by punctuating ' ' No. earthly parents. But you can turn the stones to bread. Come. pp. 47-57. pp.' WMR inserts 11. ii. a duty then. come away. as appears from MS. I confess I am doing My Father's business. col. 51. 17-32. In 7' (1. the very slight alterations made after writing. 6 trumpet-sound] trumpet's sound EY. or did Give any marks of Gentility? When twelve years old he ran away. earthly parents. 2. Obedience force me to obey. 168-170. Cp.Rossetti MS. I'll soon see if you'll obey ' ' 16 ! John for disobedience bled.(abandoned No. First printed in full by EY. 7* 7. 50. 34) Blake changes Father's business. 7'. the same lines as 106. 11. And left his Parents in dismay.

: The God of this World The Chariot Wheels. bursting forth his furious 40 There] Those Swinb. come your King Is God a The God & God 28 to sieze. Herod You with bloody Prey Feed with the Sacrifice & be If down. smiter with disease?' of this He bound Old And. WBY.writing .. EY. Rossetti 248 If You Caiaphas will obey. 50 does] did WBY. Throughout the land he took his course. I sieze make way. And in his Body tight does bind Satan & all his Hellish Crew. worship me. WBY. i68 " with the sacrifice of bloody prey. the thunder's EY. . 26 thunders'] thunder's Swinb. in 32 forth. : . And. Thunders the spiritual Prey. Broke down from every Chain & Bar And Satan in his Spiritual War Drag'd at His Chariot wheels loud howl'd 40 . and : louder roll'd louder His voice was heard from Zion's Hill. And trac'd diseases to their source. lightnings] lightning Swinb. He curs'd the Scribe & 36 Pharisee. The WMR. in thunders' sound voice Jesus' Obedient And ' I 24 & : Thus Ye fall . 'An ugly specimen of Herod Sacrifice] Swinb. WBY. 48 out the Temple of his Mind.MS. . EY. his furious ire Became a Chariot of fire. WBY.. 41 &] a EY. 22. p." meaning of course 25 Thunders] Thunder Swinb. WMR. WMR 28 make] give ire. And . And in his hand the Scourge shone He scourg'd the Merchant Canaanite From 44 still bright .. WBY.' lightnings broke around. Where'er His Chariot took its way. ire] . WBY. 33 . smiters with disease. ' ready. . Trampling down Hipocrisy. 23 If . There Gates of death let in the Day. His Chain. . And thus with wrath he did subdue The Serpent Bulk 52 of Nature's Dross. bursting World raged Satan in vain .

' When the rich learned Pharisee 8 ' . Book. surely not what Jesus intends : must mean the mere love of civility. Book) end here in marked here for insertion ' . When they had wander'd three days long These were the words upon His Tongue: 4 No Earthly Parents I confess am doing my Father's business. 5. I am meek & lowly of heart. . MS. Upon his heart with Iron pen He wrote Ye must be born again.' its He Give any proofs of Humility? When but a Child he ran away. not like a Scribe. ii.Rosseiti he had Till nail'd it MS. And so He must mean concerning humilitj'. spoke with authority. p. which this section of the poem originally ended celled line with : 'but on the Cross he sealed Was Jesus Humble. or did — doom. And left His Parents in dismay. . : — He who This He is loves his enemies hates his friends. col. 2. 3. 10-15. 56 Womb] Followed in MS. 16 heart] Quotation marks (wanting in 13-16). Only printed separately by EY. He took on Sin in the Virgin's Womb And put it off on the Cross & Tomb To be Worship'd by the Church of Rome.' . pp. 12 He Scribe] Marginal numbers. II. i. 6. first draft of this passage. 12 ' As The 16 the only way to escape Miser's net and the Glutton's trap. 49. 50. is Blake's 98. I Came He He to consult him secretly. 249 to the Cross. II. EY. 'Follow me. 4. to ^. indicate the transposition of this and the succeeding .' He says. 18 trap] MS. 8.' that MS. 7. prefixed to 11. couplet (as found in 7-. Book has the marginal addition 11. . 8 No business] See note 5 three days long] all day long EY. . Book by the can55 took] put Swinb. 2. 7. was too Proud to take a bribe . with most consummate art.

' del. 1st rgd. He'd have done anything to please us: Gone sneaking into the synagogues And not used the Eiders & Priests Hke Dogs. Day] Whom f. Book ist rgd. God's Mercy & Long Suffering Are but the sinner to Judgment to bring. Haughty toward Man. honest pride. 159-167.). Thou art a Man. del. 10 me? to ' : There- 35-38 thou shalt torment at the last EY day. 24 28 ' . 43-54. This is the Race that Jesus ran. .' Swinb. 11-16. Book the trick of the ancient is If 29 MS. Descriptive Catalogue (1809) 'All had originally one language and one religion this was the religion of Jesus. 32 Cp. elf. Book. creeping Jesus. If. And thy Revenge abroad display In terrors at the last 32 Judgment day. Rossetti 250 But he And acts with triumphant. Me] Why himself. for insertion here: ' Dogs] MS. God is no more. lasting Gospel. fore God becomes . The revised draft of 7'. 59-106. we And 36 as . . God wants not Man to humble This Omitted in EY. r The Everlasting Gospel Was Jesus Humble? or did he Give any Proofs of HumiHty? MS. . But when he humbled himself to God.' 23 the] EY omit. is the Reason Jesus died. with . 54.MS. 52. . this 20 he had been Antichrist. 35-8. Humble toward God. Then descended the cruel rod. pp. Thou on the Cross for them shalt pray. And take Revenge at the last Day. Book has the marginal addition marlted — 24 Not humble as a lamb or an ass.' dost thou humble thyself 31. Natural Religion (A. that we may be as he is. Cp. Obey himself to Caiaphas. are. thou humblest Me Thou also dwelst in Eternity. 38 MS. with title of poem added for first time. If thou humblest thyself. Thine own Humanity learn to adore. otnit. quotes 11. the ever: . 53. 1-4. pp.

Book is/ li^d.' What can be done with such desperate Who was standing by when Jesus died I Fools Heathen Schools? follow after the What I call'd He who loves 20 Humility. 11.' When the rich learned Pharisee Came to consult him secretly. running commentary. interspersed with parts of print . division of the poem. 21-24 a marginal addition. . i) and (. 13. triumphant Pride. . col. What WMR EY. 16. 8 These . . Pride. WBY. 29 For] But EY. WBY. all . Scribe. note to . And the Scribes' & Pharisees' Virtuous Rules For he acts with honest. WMR. . Rossetti 251 Boast of high Things with Humble tone. three days] 9. 10 No . . As that is the only way to escape The Miser's net & the Glutton's trap. 21 such] those . lines are EY. And this is WMR prints by prefixed 5. and 11. .' the omitted passage being prints all. 41-50. . ' : 12 his heart with Iron Upon pen must be born again. 49-51. . EY as his fifth 21-24 '" their given separately on p. Final Version. not like a He says with most consummate Art Follow me. except the same lines. was EY. . jS. All except 24 26 is] . And left his Parents in dismay. called pride WMR. Pride] What they called humility.' He wrote Ye He was too proud to take a bribe He spoke with authority. del. 21-24. And give with Charity a stone? When but a Child he ran away. What EY. WBY. 11. 1. EY Pride] omit." except 11. When they had wander'd three days These were the words upon his 4 long tongue 8 : No Earthly Parents I confess I am doing my Father's business. 8. all 28 the cause that Jesus died. 51-106. (ii.MS. day business] See and . 18 heart] See Jiote to 7^. . pp. . . not what Jesus intends his This surely is But the Sneaking Pride of Heroic Schools. 7 words] This was the word EY. . they . 16 ' heart. 25-40. WBY. ' WBY WBY. 25 betrays] hates MS.. call'd 24 Enemies betrays his Friends. as his fourth division. I am meek & lowly of ' . as the division following the prologue. These I 7. 1-20. 3 Humble] a humble EY. 58.

From He twelve years old to manly prime? 52 meant] These lines are an addition. 48 . EY. 47 the] Swinb. WBY. . Rossetti 252 He did not die with Christian Ease. What was he doing all that time. . o»f^ 52 twelve] ten EY. print the lines as in this footnote. WMR. WBY. 41-50 as continuation of 5. EY. Isaac] Gospel of St. Isaac confutes God can only be known by His Attributes — : ' 44 . Bacon. like a Christian civil 36 Mild Christian regrets to the Devil confess For affronting him thrice in the Wilderness He had soon been bloody Caesar's Elf. to follow this world's fashion. Newton] Like Doctor Priestley.MS. . *40 WMR prints 11. . Isaac confutes God can only be known by His Attributes He had soon been bloody Caesar's Elf And at last he would have been Caesar himself. ignoring Blake's marginal rearrangement. WMR WBY and Bacon and Newton EY. vanity] fallacy EY. . omit. And] Or EY. WMR. 40 he] Like Like . 46 Or of] Or to Priestley . For thus the Gospel St. — indicating the order followed in the text {a) For affronting him thrice in the Wilderness : Like (i) (2) (3) (6) (c) d"" Priestly & Bacon *38 & Newton Poor spiritual knowledge is not worth a button For thus the Gospel St. . . . . is only known WBY. the last couplet being written . *42. . . WMR. Book. WBY. And Or as for the Indwelling of the Holy Ghost. He had only to say that God was the Devil. 40 Like d"" Priestly & Bacon & Newton (Poor spiritual knowledge is not worth a button !) If . That disdains To vanity of the imagination. it's all a boast & And & pride. Isaac EY. interchanges the omits. of Christ His Father. 41 position of couplets *4i. Blake's prefixed letters and figures 31-50 . *44. here. and Newton . . disdains] did wrong Swinb. 45 as for] as to Swinb. and *43. 43 For] But EY And WBY.. known] 44 can Gospel . And at last he would have been Caesar himself.' teach doubt & 48 experiment Certainly was not what Christ meant. His] the Swinb. WBY. 37-44 Mild Attributes] Thus in MS. And the Devil was God. marked for insertion still later in the margin. Asking Pardon of his Enemies 32 : he had. Caiaphas would forgive Sneaking submission can always live. WBY WMR .

Thy] Thine Swinb. God's Mercy & Long Suffering Is but the sinner to judgment to bring. ass Obey'd Himself to Caiaphas.' 76 80 terrors] terror Swinb. 58 seraph band] Not legibly ? seraph hand EY written. God wants not Man to humble himself: That is the trick of the ancient Elf.. WMR . EY. creeping Jesus. a passage from Blake's letter to God keep j-ou and me from the divinitj' Cumberland. And not us'd the Elders & But Humble as a lamb or Priests like dogs . from supposing up and down to be the same thing. 83 shalt] . If 60 . dated April 12. also dwellst in Eternity. . or the less About his father's business? Or was his wisdom held in scorn Before his wrath began to burn In Miracles throughout the Land. nay. WBY. creeping Jesus] a creeping Jesus MS.. That quite unnerved the seraph band? 56 He had been Antichrist..MS. WMR. And thy Revenge abroad display In terrors at the Last Judgment day. humanity Thy : For that Awake. Cf. This is the Race that Jesus ran 64 : Humble to God. WBY. the yea. . Antichrist aping Jesus Swinb. WBY. ' humblest If thou Thou Thou thyself. 68 God to 72 thou humblest me. omits. 1827 of yes. Haughty to man.. He'd have done anything to please us Gone sneaking into Synagogues. all edd. art a Man God is no more own learn to adore. and no too. as all experimentalists must suppose. WMR. . the Rulers before the People Cursing Even to the temple's highest Steeple. : — judgment] justice Swinb. del. WMR. And when he Humbled himself Then descended the Cruel Rod. is my : 76 Spirit of Life. 59 Antichrist. creeping Jesus. . arise to Spiritual Strife. Book 1st rgd. Thou on the Cross for them shalt pray 80 — . Rossetti Was he then 253 Idle. ' — 82 Is] shall Are EY. seraph's hand seraph hand WBY. 55-58 Or band] Swinb.

its Windows 100 of the Soul Heavens from Pole to Pole. . Perhaps Can that which was of women born. . In the absence of the Morn.' Can that which was of woman born. did WBY. dark Hermaphrodite. & thunders hurl'd 84 : never will Pray for the World. . .' This couplet. 43. five Windows windows . supplies the pardon?' or possibly sentence left unfinished. 92 Shooting out against the Light Fibres of a deadly night. ' . . 106. . . f. 13-15: 11. Humility And does the Sun & Moon blot out. Cp. 1. The Gates of Paradise. 96 Reasoning (? heard) archangels Swinb. 88 When the soul fell into sleep. 'Two Horrid Reasoning Cloven Fiction. WBY.' Distorts Swinb. carry on the quotation marks to the . 'Auguries stood.2 MS. If the & Moon Sun We MS.. Pick. which A 97. Reasoning upon its own dark Fiction. 98. 95. 102 Five WMR. conclusion: 'Can that reason itself into redemption?' 89 woman] women EY. 98 Humility.' Jesus replied. ' I . Distorts] dim window . 8 ' : If we are wrathful loi.' 85-88 Jesus Pardon] These lines are an addition.' 99 Rooting] Roofing alledd. EY. no: — should Doubt. . it] Self Contradiction] Cp. Book by the lines This Corporeal And is life 's made up : — a fiction of contradiction. which was afterwards erased in ink and retranscribed in a slightly altered form on p. 'The Keys of the Gates. Rossetti 54 And take Revenge at the Last Day. WBY. Jerusalem. Albion will destroy Jerusalem with rooty Groves. . can hardly have been intended as part of 'The Everlasting Gospel. . MS. . . out] Cp. In doubt which is Self Contradiction ? 96 is only doubt.' of Innocence.' 11. etc. . take with it a bodily Swinb. 89 96 Can 85 &] in EY. Self Contradiction] 1. 92 And Archangels] And 91 When] While Swinb. ' is Self contradiction. In Doubt.' end of . And Archangels round it weep. Once I did so when I pray'd in the Garden I wish'd to take with me a Bodily Pardon. perhaps rightly. . Rooting over with thorns & stems The This & buried Soul Five life's Distorts the 84] Followed in the ' all Gems. . 109. They'd immediately Go Out.

. 41-50. When the Soul Slept in Beams of Light. Thro' one himself pass out what time he please. lines. or did he Did Jesus teach doubt Give any lessons of Philosophy. . on — f.' 11. MS. f. . For stolen joys are sweet. 106. ofj in EY.' and. WBY. Blake's use of the word spectre' in the sense of reasonthe same page. This ivas spoken by my spectre to Voltaire^ Bacon. &c. John Linnell's Five windows light the cavern'd Man thro' one he breathes the air Thro' one hears music of the spheres thro' one the eternal vine Flourishes that he may receive the grapes thro' one can look . Or Men call MS. 104 the soul slept in the beams of light. ' ' WMR rearrangement.' WBY omit the. 10. Newton and Locke. WBY. wise for not Believing? The beginning of a new passage. EY misquote 'This was spoken by my spectre to Bacon. The heading is written in pencil at the top of unfinished. which. Auguries of Innocence. copy of Europe ' 255 : Cp. Swinb. ? Charge Visionaries with decieving. 125-128 : — When we see \with delJ\ not Thro' the Eye. 164. of Mr. seem in his to regard it as a continuation of 2 any] ^*. to perish in a Night. 103-106 And 78 bread eaten in secret pleasant. EY. 11. apparently left These lines are written laterally in pencil. 3. WMR WBY omits. Cp. the Eye in a night. 103 leads] EY. .' a connecting line See Introduction to indicating that ({) was then intended to follow 1. ing power' has been already noted. but he will not. We * ' & light] Cp. And see small portions of the eternal world that ever groweth. in margin of page opposite the beginning of ^.' lead WBY. form the penultimate section of the poem. . 11. 106 the beams] 105 That] Which EY. ontits. not through. his poem. prefixes these two couplets to 7^^.' are led to Believe a Lie ' . to perish in a night.MS. &c. Which was Born in a Night. Pick. 7-16. Rossetti And leads you When you see That was born When Distort to Believe a Lie with. . the lines in the preface. while pointing out that this fragment has no place assigned to it. Jerusalem. Book. p. 48. p. 106] This line has Blake's marginal numeration followed by the couplet : — 'I'm sure this Jesus will not do Either for Englishman or Jew — ' and the catchword 'was Jesus Chaste or did he.

but they say he never fell. — 16 . ff. Book. with more EY. marks in MS. and when he bid them shake off the dust of their feet against such as refused to lodge them ? I tell you no virtue can exist without breaking these ten commandments : Jesus was all virtue. . Or . been] (have) been Swinb. 23. and he mock'd unlock'd The Sabbath's God. yet shall not his folly be beaten 4 The] Uisalledd.. the immediately' before the epilogue. 48. such a body as might not feel Body From 12 Or The passions that with sinners deal? Yes.MS. containing Blake's note to Chaucer. and acted from impulse not from rules. Book. 13 might] 9 which] that a!/ except WMR. and He ' Written on the fourth page of a folded scrap of paper. now . With seven devils in her Pen. Just such a one as Magdalen. Cp. is . He mock'd ' the Sabbath. and also print in WBY EY full. have been 8 more] MS. See prefatory this Swinb. prints second section of the poem. it WMR. this the latter placing 11. pp. 170-174. out of him " : if in the greatest Jesus Christ degree . Book. neither pain nor grief Exempted. WMR makes 1-16. "bray a fool in a morter with wheat. Ask Caiaphas for he can tell. And more sucking devils nurs'd ? Or what was it which he took on.. could Swinb. nurs'd] Interlineated in . 25-38. WBY. hear how he law of ten commandments did he not mock at the sabbath. 8 7.' etc. EY. bound in at the end of the MS. 17-48 He Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790). and so mock the sabbath's God ? murder those who were murder'd because of him ? turn : away the law from the woman taken in adultery ? steal the labor of others to support him ? bear false witness when he omitted making a defence before Pilate ? covet when he pray'd for his disciples. WBY. you ought to love him has given his sanction to the the greatest man. That he might bring Salvation? A 8 subject to be Tempted. prey] No qitot. 47. . poem.' . 24: 'The Devil answer'd. . Or were Jew virgins more still curs'd. Rossetti 256 Was Jesus Bom of a Virgin Pure & looks demure? With narrow Soul If He intended to take on Sin The Mother should an Harlot been 4 .

. Rossetti The And 257 Evil spirits from their Shrines. scorn'd Earth's And mock'd the one and the other's Rod : God. His Seventy Disciples sent Against Religion and Government They by Sword of the Justice — fell. '].' his . WBY." Obey your '•Woman. Where He the devil combs — 24 his lice. 43 labour] labours EY. WBY. . And him their Cruel Murderer tell. 34 No God MS. That he might The live above controll. Since which. . hating Vice. plainly written. . del. that 44 away lost its Prey. In the Bloody Shrine of War Pour'd around from star to star. Halls of justice." He scorn'd Earth's parents. In] Not plainly written .^ marginal addition. . 'Tis WMR. 36 other's] other EY. WBY. A wand'ring vagrant without Home And thus he others' labour stole.MS. turn'd Fishermen to Divines 20 . He left his feather's trade to roam. EY. . O'erturn'd the tent of secret sins. to II. WBY. . turn'd the devils into swine That he might tempt the Jews to dine 28 . written transversely 33. from the Adulteress turn'd God's righteous Law. a Pig has got a look That for a Jew may be mistook. 8. Book ist all edd. marginal addition. Business] See note rdg.' 2a 21-24 O'erturn'd star]. Publicans and Harlots he And S33 40 . Selected for his company. And its golden cords and Pins. 24 Pour'd] Not 26 Halls 21-24. " What Parents. EY. . 25. 48 its] all its . lice] A later 29 which] when 35 Earth's God] WMR. perhaps 'Pass'd. to ^. 36 . what have I says he ? do with thee? to 32 No Earthly Parents I confess I am doing My Father's Business.

' Swinb. WBY. All away began to roll.. pp.Rossetti 258 MS. and Thou alone ! 24 . 168. makes 11. 93-96 among parts of /S and 7'^ as his fourth division of the poem. Writ with Curses from Pole 12 to Pole.92. stone] EY. sitting] sat omits. 51. 48. What was the sound of Jesus' breath ? He Law His hand on Moses' laid The 8 . 53-64. 1-80. 152-154. 18 Pulling] Pulling 20 heard by] heard 7 17. 20 : ' ! Sinai's trumpets cease to roar ! Cease. Jesus was sitting in Moses' Chair. WBY. 1-80 his third division. . and places 11. Book. MS. 81-90. with the Prologue. EY and ' WMR WBY print in 2 full. 50. pp. As she heard by Eden's flood Good and Evil are no more 16 . DGR omits. in silent awe. 20. EY. f. 261. The Earth trembling and Naked lay In secret bed of Mortal Clay On Sinai felt the hand Divine Pulling back the bloody shrine And she heard the breath of God. Was Jesus Chaste? or did He Give any lessons of Chastity? The Morning blushed fiery red Mary was found in Adulterous bed Earth groan'd beneath. 19. . fell WMR. ancient heavens. and Heaven above Trembled at discovery of Love. 8 trembling] 17 felt] Swinb. 18 was DGR [or ? Putting] it by DGR. Moses commands she be ston'd to death. Nor may the sinner cast one stone. 49. WBY. 91. finger of God. were first printed by DGR under the title The Woman taken in Adultery. to write The Heavens are not clean in thy sight. Thou art good.. Lines 7-16. Putting 21-26 Good . . : 4 . prints II. They brought the trembling woman there. 83-96. 27-32. of] in the latter putting this passage before EY. 39-50. . adulterous R'. DGR. 169.

38 jail] goal Swinb. is . though you cannot Love. And You You And away my trembling Dove. Mary. Has no Man condemned thee?' No Man. shall lick the dust for Meat . WBY. 39 didst] dost 41 does] doth DGR. That have forgot your ancient love. 46 forgiveness] full forgiveness DGR. 36 Impure] not clean EY. Pale. WBY.. Fallen fiends of Heavenly birth. bow before her feet driven shall 52 . WMR. 31 hast] 33 My] My Swinb. 54 You] Ye DGR. 44 torment] trouble DGR. WBY. To be 56 A 27 Good only. but Hate. 55 You] Ye DGR. WMR. Wherefore hast thou writ these Laws A And My created Hell's dark jaws? I will take from thee Presence 28 3a : A cold Leper thou shalt be. The Seven Let me see Devils that torment thee. Lord. That forgiveness thou may'st win. Meat] meet EY. WBY. . 56 Shall be] Ye shall be DGR You shall be 27. 44 Hide not from my sight thy sin. EY. the breath Divine is love. Though thy covenant built Hell's jail. Fear Not. S 2 . 50 Fallen] Ye fallen DGR. 28 A God] As God EY. 43 Mary] Woman DGR. 37 thy] thine Swinb. Swinb. 53 You] Ye DGR. Still And 40 the breath Divine does move. Shall be beggars at Love's Gate. to Pharisee] be WMR. . Though thou didst all to chaos roll With the serpent for its soul. WBY. That didst create this Body of Mine. I 259 To be Good only.ROSsett MS. Though thou wast so pure and bright That Heaven was Impure in thy Though thy Oath turn'd Heaven 36 sight. 28 be] good only has Svvinb..' Then what is he 48 ' ' Who shall accuse thee ? Come ye forth. is to be God or else a Pharisee. EY. 47 Has] Hath DGR. Thou Angel of the Presence Divine. is to marginal addition. .

thence did covet also rise. When O first Lord. WBY omit. But this. call DGR. Diseases] disease EY. Glittering with festering Venoms bright Crying Crucify this cause of distress. or Some trifle not worth caring for That they may call a shame and 60 . Thence rose And 72 secret adulteries. or 'twas custom. the Blind 88 59 has] hath 64 dwelleth in] 68 its] her addition. Thou hast forgiven me My Canst Thou forgive my Blasphemy ? Canst Thou return to this dark Hell. the WBY. WMR. . & . WMR. 84 . the dumb. Love it ' . by] with 88 the dumb] and the dumb Swinb. Swinb. we bind deaf. In dark pretence to chastity Blaspheming Love. does not WBY. WBY. EY. . WMR. . The Naked Human form divine. Rossetti thy love ? Let me see it or dark deceit?' Love too long from me has fled *Twas dark deceit. to earn my bread What was Was . 'Twas covet. blaspheming Thee. 76 ' So his prey. wing] all edd. see't call] extract ends. sin Love's Temple that God dwelleth And hide in secret hidden shrine 64 in. 87 The] All Swinb.. this was these devils let I my 68 sin. Diseases . &] EY. in. 84 Glittering] Glistering EY. But these would And 65-68 WMR . . 85 Crying] Saying Friends] An addition. 85-90 Crying 86 don't] EY. . An WBY. An ever devouring appetite.26o MS. WBY.. to make them sin . ' Who don't keep the secrets of holiness! The Mental Powers by But he heals the 57 see 63 That it] . DGR's WMR. DGR.. secrets] secret EY. And in my burning bosom dwell? And canst Thou die that I may live? And canst Thou Pity and forgive ? Then RoU'd the shadowy Man away From the limbs of Jesus. And render that a Lawless thing On which the soul expands its wing. 70 these] those DGR. . WBY. . . .

52. the] this addition. And still he devours the Body of Clay . Jerusalem. Note. 54. . . comforts and Heals and calls them Friends. 93 Nights] days Swinb. 94 89 has] hath EY. WMR. it See Prefatory Note.. p. Originally meant to follow WMR this epilogue follows I I 7^.' But. Which never was made for Man to Eat. I made my Voice heard What are those. f. . These which who in fury all lines. 95. 89. 96 93. Book. the rest of only quoted by EY. MS. follows (. 96 For WBY. when Jesus was crucified. WBY. 1. . 1. Eat] made] meant A marginal all edd. For Dust and Clay is the Serpent's meat. 1.MS. omit. EY. In . in WBY am] I'm Swinb. WBY. They are See treat them as the termination of the poem. Either for Englishman or Jew. &c. In three days he devour'd the rejected corse Cp. d [^Epilogue] am sure this Jesus will not do. 7] Seeing this False Christ. . is lost. 50 . I MS. p. Pref.. 13 of death. a passage. In three Nights he devour'd his prey. 261.. 96. WBY. Rossetti 261 Whom God He has afflicted for secret ends. 96 Which] That EY. Book. ' : WBY EY. Then was perfected his galling 9a pride. & Passion over the Nation.' 94 he] EY. f. catchwords marking the position of immediately follow f. p. 91-96 But eat] Swinb. .

I ll .

.THE PICKERING circa 1801-1803 MS.

former connexion with the Songs of Lnnocence. led the Publisher to re-issue his father's volume The together with the newly-acquired pieces in 1866. reExperience. son of the William Pickering who in 1830 had published the first letterpress edition of Blake's Songs of Innocence and of These considerations.' says Shepherd. have been reclaimed. from as chaotic a mass as could well be imagined amid which it has sometimes been necessary either to omit. as regards the first-mentioned source.' adds Rossetti.' little and two . Note Book ["the Rossetti MS."] to which frequent reference has been made in the Life. it passed into a second edition (now also exhausted) years later (1868). the MS.' ' . is the MS. and partly from another small autograph collection of different matter lished. transpose. Rossetti selected the poems hitherto unpub' printed in the second volume of Gilchrist's Life In his introduction to this precious section' he explains that its contents have been derived partly from the MS. his father's ferring to the inaccuracy of Rossetti's text.PREFACE TO THE PICKERING The Pickering MS. G. so as to render available what was very seldom found in a final state. volume was welcomed . ' The poems. 76-116). or combine. ' ' . In 1866.' somewhat more ' fairly copied. means of the same kind have occasionally been resorted to.. And even in the pieces drawn from the second source specified above. was bought by Basil Montagu Pickering. . as we learn from Shepherd's introduction to his edition of 1874. where they seemed to lessen obscurity or avoid redundance. as satisfying a public want.' ' (pp. and the purchase eventually of a number of inedited Poems of Blake. name used throughout this edition for the smaller of the two Blake holographs from which D. three years after the publication of Gilchrist's work.

M. White. seem who was surprised to find among them the long-missing I owe to Mr. It was lost sight of presumably about the date of Pickering's death in 1 878. when the opportune reappearance of the original MS. as well as the following details respecting this undescribed MS. their efforts were unsuccessful. several Blake originals and other works were bought en bloc by Mr. enabled him to print this section also with the literal fidelity observed in the rest of the poems. Pickering. Dodd. G. 1905. was thought to be permanently lost. On the purchase of the Locker Lampson collection in June. had lain perdu for years in the Rowfant Library. M. Ellis and Yeats and later editors were thus obliged to follow the versions of these poems given by D. Mr. about i^ inches apart. through which a cord had evidently once been laced. stitched into a darkish olive-tinted cover. to the best of his recollection. This portion of the work in proof. The leaves were trimmed down somewhat in binding. though occasional attempts to trace its subsequent ownership were made by the two or three students who realized that this MS. W. cation of my text. bore no must have been removed when. without water-mark. Rossetti. of 11 leaves of writing or then. and. A. the only two editors who had made use of the original autograph. The Pickering MS. of New York. The MS. W. .Pickering MS.. by Messrs. constituted the sole authority for the text of some of Blake's loveliest and most extraordinary poems. must have passed after the death of Pickering and before inscription. is a foolscap quarto volume (6x8 drawing paper. Messrs. when in his brother's hands. paginated consecutively by Blake 1-22. the great importance of which would was indeed to have been overlooked by its last owner. White's kindness the rectifiPickering MS. and the present editor had accordingly decided to reproduce Shepherd's as the best available text. in one of his letters to me. 265 For over thirty years nothing further was heard of the Pickering MS. describes it. into whose possession the MS. which. Traces of this simple binding may be observed in the three punctured holes. the top and bottom lines of pages 17 and 18 being slightly grazed by the binder's knife. it is to be presumed. Rossetti and Shepherd. The original covers. as the binder's stamp shows. the volume was bound by F. Meade & Co. who saw the MS. William Mitchell. Inserted on the inside of the cover is the armorial book-plate of Mr. Bedford for B. as being inches). The Pickering MS.

on the first seventeen pages. are not warranted by the poet's theory or practice. Whether of pure lyrical loveliness like The Golden Net and The Land of Dreams. The light may be there. corrections. and Catches his Shrieks in Cups of gold.' or outwardly simple as Mary all alike are characterized by a strain of profound mysticism which is not quite the same as that of the Prophetic Books. M. which Blake here as elsewhere employs for the sake of emphasis. As in the Rossetti MS. It is noteworthy that all the poems have titles. The pages are without illustrations and contain no prose matter of any kind. or Jer7isaleni. Book. and re-arrangements of stanzas. or the person for whom. which with Blake are generally afterthoughts. there is no punctuation. convey the impression of having been written at one time. Locker Lampson. Differing in this respect from the larger MS. the Pickering MS. 67-70) in the 'Auguries of Innocence ' ' ' * ' ' ' ' ' — ' ' — Every Tear from Every Eye Becomes a Babe in Eternity This is caught by Females bright . with numerous deletions.' are only to be understood by reference to parallel allusions in The Four Zoas^ Milton. ascription or other indication of the circumstances under which. but the illumination as Swinburne observes of a similar Blake himself is none of the author's kindling. Unlike the Rossetti MS. where most of the poems are found in rough draft. There is no title-page.266 Pickering MS. this special collection was transcribed. Mere allegorical interpretations such as W.. is obviously a fair copy of pieces already There is not a single alteration written in approved form. And return'd to its own ' delight — or the figure in The Mental Traveller of the Woman Old who nails the babe down on a rock. the poems of the Pickering MS.' obscure as The Mental Traveller and The Crystal Cabinet. being acquired by Mr.' attempt Fable or disdained the use of mere allegory of this sort. Verses such as the two couplets (11. the literary contents of which extend over a period of nearly twenty years.' however acceptable to readers eager for any light thrown upon Blake's darkness. None of the poems are dated. and the few corrections which occur are mostly in the use of capitals.' uncouth and grotesque like Long John Brown. though each helps to explain the other. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' — — ' ' . Rossetti 's of ' The Mental Traveller. There is no note of the last-named owner to indicate how it was obtained.

' ' Judgment. or allegory. in the aggregate. 349) would appear to date this poem at least as early as 1789. moreover. or by antedating the whole MS. is formed by the daughters of Memory. and in a different manner. 'The Golden Net and The Grey Monk. when. which W. as having been written at widely different times. when Blake in a letter to Mr. and from those of later date in their avoidance of the mythological names which crowd the pages of Milton and Jenisalem. There are. 1803. Vision. a fact liable to be overlooked. in 1804.. meaning thereby wholly or partly unintelligible to all save the highly initiate they differ in their more fully developed mysticism from the earlier prophetic writings.' is — ' ' — ' ' ' . 267 * he says in his account of the Vision of the Last a totally distinct and inferior kind of poetry. M. In so doing it will be seen that he differs from me. are found on two leaves of the latter part of the Rossetti MS. 'Mary' was certainly written before August i6. To the latter fact indeed part of their difficulty is due. This MS. Yeats (Notes. Fable. and in a different sense.' The poems of the Pickering MS. M.Pickering MS. 177). 135) and two lines of 'Mary' (p. B. Rossetti and Swinburne concur in regarding as the first of the series of the Prophetic Books. W. in the latter instance using Shepherd's text instead of Rossetti's. W. consistently used by Blake in a definite sense. p. Rossetti prints the same pieces as his allegory. they are scattered among pieces written at different times. either in regarding the several poems in the Pickering MS. have a certain unity of their own. by fourteen years. In identifying the style of 'The Mental Traveller' with that of Tiriel. in several of the poems phrases repeated in Milton and Jerusalem^ both of which were engraved. may confidently be referred to Blake's Felpham period. really and unchangeably.' which appear in a more perfected form in this MS. Imagination is surrounded by the daughters of inspiration. Butts introduces two of its lines in a slightly altered form. Among the deepest of Blake's writings if I may use the adjective in the sense in which English gypsies apply it to language. in whole or part. is a representation of what actually exists.. written probably in the same year. or imagination. are called Jerusalem. supply clues to the author's meaning which are absent in these poems. Swinburne quotes with comment two stanzas of The Land of Dreams' (pp. for these names. as in several editions of the poet's works. 134. The original drafts of two of the poems. who.

pp. Book version of the Monk of Charlemaine.myth and a story In the same volume (pp. adopting some of his emendations. brother. 31-36) print 'The Mental edition. Their Little ' ii. but with some new readings of their own for which there is no W.' they give the MS.' with interpretation as 'a sun.' but ignore the Pickering variant called The Grey ' ' Monk. of the Incarnation.' and The remaining poems. . of Good and Evil. text generally follows that of the Aldine edition.. but rejecting others in favour of readings evidently taken from Shepherd's Ellis and Yeats (ii.' prints all the poems. Traveller.' they print in vol. the Island in the Moon. 220-225). Yeats.268 Pickering MS. and other late and early sources. including Long John Brown Mary Bell. B. Ideas authority. with the exception ' of ' Long John Brown. under the general heading.' arbitrarily arranged among poems taken from the Rossetti MS. 72-83.

The omits the round Crystal Cabinet. Frown of Disdain. It . 15. p. Misery] WMR and EY.THE PICKERING MANUSCRIPT The Smile There And And is a Smile of Love.17. i. adopts DGR's reading of 12 Cp.' 4 these] the DGR. is a Smile of Deceit. except Shep. i there there a Smile of Smiles is In which these two Smiles meet.' . 11-16 And . ' 11. . ' 1. DGR and all all Misery.' with less violence. And And And is a there is a there is Which you For Frown of Hate. evade the anacoluthon by reading followed by : was smiled But only one smile alone ' (And betwixt the cradle and grave It onlj' once smiled can be). 9 But only one Smile alone. brackets. ' 1. ' And no smile ever DGR. That when it once is smiled There's an end to all misery. & That betwixt the Cradle Grave 13 only once Smil'd can be And. edd. There's an end to Pickering Frown MS. entitle 'Smile and . sticks in the Heart's deep core And it sticks in the deep Back-bone — And no Smile that ever was smil'd. when it once is Smil'd. a Frown of Frowns there it 5 strive to forget in vain. . WBY. and retains the And in 1.

first line is & left ! ! tears for ever flow. except for the omission of p. : Wings they had that soft enclose [& when they Round their body when they chose. Blake omitted the line with which the poem originally began 'Beneath the white thorn's lovely May. young man. ' found in the Rossetti is written in the left- is title.' rimeless. without which the reference to the branches Rossetti restores this line. 11. prefixed to couplet. and tears for ever flow coincides generally with the form in which he afterwards transcribed the smaller autograph collection.' — ' A further change consisted in the deletion of opposite to which are written ' 11. In transcribing this poem into the Pickering MS. Pickering Note Prefatory The original version of MS. Book. and runs as follows Beneath the white thorn's lovely May. woe Alas for alas for ! woe ! — 11. : — ' Three Virgins at the break of day. and The first revision is found below the opening passage twice re-written. i first ' it into attempt at emendation was to indicate by 11. 9-12).' in 1. del. that the to 9. " Alas for wo alas for wo alas for wo " : ' ! They Here the cry. Blake recommencing at the head of the next column Beneath the white thorn's lovely May. the source of the present text. beginning the poem with the triplet : ' ' : ' : This is Cabinet. ' Blake's terminal line marking the end of the poem. whither away?"' one of Blake's * threefold ' poems.y]. Book. 11. 5-13 (MS.)'] ' This unfinished passage is also struck out. 10 is meaningless.' was now meant to follow 1. 14. 11-14 (MS. and. 3 and 4 — ' They cry. They bore a net of golden twine To hang upon the branches fine. del.270 MS. Blake evidently omitting to recopy the second line of the couplet which he had already twice written Three virgins at the break of day. The initial couplet was next deleted.' — Beneath a white thorn's lovely May Three virgins at the break of day "Whither.. The other clothed in iron wire [sweet desire The other clothed in tears & (15/ rdg. sighs. In this early draft Blake's marginal numbers. 3-1 1). — See note to ' The Crystal . There Blake's hand column of ' ' ' to The Golden Net The Golden Net first without draft. 2. They would let them down at will Or make translucent chose {1st rdg. The one was clothed in flames of fire. Book.' This again was erased. Dazzling bright before my eyes.

desire in . The Honeysuckle sleeping on the Oak.' woe] Alas for wo K\ DGR. EY. the mild Lilly. The one was cloth'd in flames of fire. ! . the Jessamine. MS.) — Beneath the white thorn stood in May Three virgins at the break of day ' . Opens her many lovely eyes listening. Book rdg. . . ? the white-thorn's. EY. all 4 Alas alas for . 1st rdg. the Rose still sleeps. lead the sweet Dance they wake soft . Milton. the Carnation. col. DGR. Pickering MS. 'Whither. young man. The Jonquil. & tears for ever flow. EY.' cp. 2. the Wall-flower. — 50-62 : — " ' For ' the white morning breaks joy opens in the flowery bosoms. WMR. Yet 3. WMR. . . begins with the triplet— Beneath a white thorn's lovely May. The Pink. . i del. young man. followed by ' WMR and EY. WMR. lovely . MS.' 11. whither away : WHY ' changes a white thorn's thorn's lovely May.MS. . the flaunting beauty Revels along upon the wind the White-thorn. a] opening of the poem (MS. every Flower. & first cloth'd] are sick with Love. lovely May. The other cloth'd in iron wire. The other cloth'd in tears & sighs. waving among the reeds. which the Sun rising dries first the Wild-Thyme to tears. R' begins with an amended version of Blake's second draft of the 1. del. my Dazling bright before 5 Eyes. None dare to wake her soon she bursts her crimson curtained bed And comes forth in the majesty of beauty. del. Book. RS DGR. . And Meadow-sweet downy & Light springing on the air. Three virgins at the break of day " Whither. was clothed R^. whither Alas for woe woe alas for ! i away? ' ! They cry. alas for wo ! 6 other] iron wire] sweet 7 other cloth'd] third was clothed tears MS. 14. opes her heavens every Tree And Flower & Herb soon fill the air with an innumerable Dance. Men 3 Alas 5 one] DGR. 31. ' p. Pickering 271 The Golden Net Three Virgins at the break of day. ! . p. wo second R'. order sweet flow] R' omits. ' First e'er the Joy even ' ' to f. Book ist tears and sighs] sighs & . Book.

20. WMR. Book. Bore the Golden Net aloft. Pitying I wept to see the woe That Love & Beauty undergo. Book sweet desire ibid. 25 Tears & sighs] Tears-and26 O rise] When. is developed into the veil or net of Vala. 24 Iron Wire] iron wire MS. Fire] flaming fire MS. and WBY. Book. del. ' 11. 23 Burning by MS. 16 Melted] It melted R' and all edd. WBY. 14 ungratified desires] unsatisfied burning Fires] flames of fire WBY. 10 silken net They fine] R in MS. weep Ri. C^. Book.Pickering 272 They bore MS. O when. a Smile That did Heaven itself beguile. 21 Over] O'er MS. . Visions of the Daughters of moral of Albion. Now intreating Iron Wire. expressed by the silken net and golden cage of the earlier poems. In Blake's later mystical writings the simple idea restrictions placed upon love. Jerusalem. Book Iron-wire R* and all edd. except Shep. Flaming-fire R' and all edd. Underneath the Net I stray. a Net of Golden twine To hang upon the Branches 9 fine. . WMR. . R'. . 17 21 Now intreating Burning Fire. R'. 2. the lines in Sketches) : ' — ' How He And sweet I roam'd from ' field to field caught me in his silken net shut me in his golden cage ' 25 {Poetical ' . 30-32 When : the ' the Albion rent thy beautiful net of gold and silver twine.' 1. EY. did] might DGR. Over the Morning of my Day. . del. As on downy Pinions soft. 17 my Tears] me 20 on] 18 That] which R>. art. ' let me places after go. . also the references to f. When they saw my Tears. Now intreating Tears & Sighs. desire WBY. O when will the morning rise ? 9 Cp. Sighs R' and all edd. 13 consum'd] following Blake's revised order of EY. . And in tears cloth'd night & day Melted all my 13 Soul away. . clothed R\ DGR. To be consum'd in burning Fires And in ungratified desires. . except Shep. Book 1st rdg. . except Shep. will Morning rise? MS. thou hadst caught me in the bands : lines in — Thou hadst woven it with Of love thou refusedst to 9. 1st rdg.

Man passes on. used invariably in the same sense and the same connexion. then. Ellis and Yeats' interpretation as at the same time a sun-myth and a story of the Incarnation on pp. c. as 'catching shrieks in cups of gold' are in the nature of ideograms. or to separate from their context. 1810) supplements the clue supplied by the author's title to the meaning of this most obscure poem. The myth itself admits of no glib paraphrase. Pickering Note Prefatory 273 'The Mental to Traveller ' A passage in Blake's description of his picture of the Last Judgement (MS. ' ' second volume of their large edition of Blake's Works. in bliss & woe Alternate. Rossetti's ingenious 98) and repeated in the Aldine edition. 49. Everything is eternal. The complete picture must be pieced together from the fragments discovered and identified. Those who prefer a shorter cut to a mean- Blake — may W. it should be premised that the chapters quoted from will not supply the reader with ' a consecutive narrative of the exact myth presented in this poem. 178-181 of his Critical Essay. 11. Book.' : The poem.' Such figures. Difficult to define precisely. Referring to the three States or enumerated Churches. In my footnotes to The Mental Traveller' I give references to passages in the Prophetic Books. 72-74 Learn therefore. and must always be understood symbolically and not metaphorically. throwing light upon allusions otherwise uninWhile these. read with their context.MS. f. SAMPSON . In bringing together these parallelisms from the Prophetic Books I allow to be his own interpreter. and Messrs. 75— Adam to Luther. In other words it is a restatement of ' Blake's favourite doctrine of constant generation and regeneration. Swinburne's commentary on this poem will be found on pp. He passes through them like a traveller. O Sisters. render plain the sense telligible.' symbolized by the twenty-seven Heavens in Jerusalem. to distinguish the Eternal Human. passing through successive mental states. as he himself insists. M. printed in Gilchrist (ii. 34-36 of the ing—if not to his exposition.' to the point from which he started. The same ' — idea is repeated in Jerusalem. they serve as useful catchwords to more detailed expositions of the same myth elsewhere. but states remain for ever. of the particular lines or stanzas to which they are appended. 'After which Adam begins again ' ' ' ' ' in endless circle ' — Blake adds — : now. are visions and not allegories. That walks about among the stones of fire. for Blake's parables. must be understood as a picture of man's spirit. first meaning turn to Mr. from those States or Worlds in which the Spirit travels. who may well suppose that the places he has passed through exist no more as a man may suppose that the states he has passed through exist no more. in endless circle. and at last returning. f. more' ' ' over.' ' These states exist .

3. caught by Females bright. — poem (* For a Tear is an Intellectual Thing. 11.' 5 Cp. Night vii. my thoughts. gold. the place of torture of the victims of natural religion. 9 In Blake's prophetic writings the spectre. : They dance around the dying. These are the sports of love. heard & saw such dreadful things cold Earth -wanderers never knew. him down Catches his Shrieks Pickering MS. which is feminine. 67.' 12 Cp. walking within my blood vessels. 31-34 My Streets are my Ideas of Imagination My 9 Old. same manuscript ' tear return'd to ' is in Eternity its own : ' delight . f. And As For there the Babe is born in joy That was begotten in dire woe 5 . 38. 37 saw] saw and heard EY. is always represented as masculine. ' f. 'Auguries of Innocence. 24. . 68.2 MS. f. . 17. f.' .' 11. too Men & Women of i . & they drink the howl & groan. & these the sweet delights of amorous play. Milton. Jerusalem. 36. See also Jerusalem. They catch the shrieks in cups of gold.' 8 Which] That EY. Jerusalem. — .' 5-8 Cp. — to the burning rock. the line in another collection . 11. human emotion which The Grey Monk ') of this be understood as the to Cp. 1.' or reasoning power in man. Boy Woman With children of & : pleasure. 71 my feet & hands are nail'd : ' . ' ' rock' is the druidical altar of Albion {Jerusalem. in contrair The distinction to the 'emanation. 1. 11. 35-39 ' The cruel joys of Luvah's Daughters lacerating with knives And whips their Victims. Picker i7tg 74 The Mental Traveller Land I travel'd thro' a A Land of Men. & the deadly sport of Luvah's Sons. Just as And if the Babe He's given Who nails to a born a is I. . . upon a rock. Breeding Women walking in pride & bringing forth under green trees 3 heard ' Cups of in 2 Cp. 67-70 Every Tear from Every Eye : ' Becomes a Babe This is And where of course gives rise to it. 53. Affections. they hand them to one another. we reap in joy the fruit Which we in bitter tears did sow. : Houses are Thoughts The my . — and Four Zoos. ' p. without pain. for their food is — — blood of the Captive. Inhabitants. f. and passim).' or affective self.

thou my garden of Delight. every vein & lacteal. She cuts his heart out at his side. for his delight.MS. i. 14. Thou vii. He plants himself in all her Nerves. & drinking tears of woe. : — 'every nerve She counted. repli'd : watered Enion Among 11. Till And And binds her down ai . 27. 265-71 : lovely Vision. f. And she becomes his dwelling-place And Garden See 25 fruitful seventy-fold. ' 17 Cp. Four Zoos. he becomes a bleeding youth. • 17 . 67. Just as a Miser counts his gold She lives upon his shrieks cries.' T 2 : . 20.' See also Jerusalem. 28 By dwelling in a garden of delight Blake symbolizes man in a state of unity whose spectre and emanation ' ' ' Cp. Mutual there we dwelt. 'The Spectre said. To make feel it & both cold 13 heat. and f. 22. : around] about EY. Her fingers number every Nerve. she becomes a Virgin bright Then he rends up his Manacles. & I the spirit in the garden. 11. 15 — Vala.' also Jerusalem. 1. 23. Terrified. She pierces both his hands & feet. f. 81. Cp. Just as a Husbandman his mould . : " : morning & I liv'd in a she lived ' — . & Is given us for a Shelter Till once again the morn of ages shall renew upon To reunite in those Where thou & I in — ' — mild fields of us. Night 114-6 11. 66. 11. threading them among Her woof of terror. 6i. 1. in one anothers joy revolving. ' Is his garden of delight away thy stolen Emanation garden of pleasure. 13 iron] strong DGR. torturing their victim. I. 80. 'Tharmas I vii.' See also Night ibid. f. 717-719 "O! f. Night are not divided.. happy Eternity. 1. once in the the apple trees and Jerusalem. where the daughters of Albion. undivided Essence walk'd about Imbodied. Pickering 275 She binds iron thorns around his head. this delightful Tree from the tempests of void Solid. Four Zoas. Jerusalem. 7. bind his forehead with thorns of iron. & And she grows young as he grows old.

the description of Jerusalem (spiritual liberty). except Shep. MS. . all edd. XXX : — ' 39 And] To 34. 45 hand his Dares stretch to touch her Baby form. 43 on] upon all edd. soon he fades. sore distrest. walls to ring. that none . 86). 35 Cp. . 49 young or old. They are his meat. & age-bent. 46 Cp. Or wrap her in his swadling band. Full-filled all with gems Which he by gold industry had got. .' 40 For door] Forever opens his 44 does] doth all edd. the emanation of Albion (Jerusalem. Not the ctlnning hdard up in his treasury. except Shep. Rossetti The countless gold of a merry heart. Shep. And these are the The The The rubies & & 29 gems Human of the Soul. A Beggar at another's door. countless gold of the akeing heart. except . or rich or poor They soon drive out the aged Host.276 Pickering MS. Wand'ring round an Earthly Cot. The rubies & pearls of a loving eye. on the hearth Female Babe does spring little And she is all of solid fire And gems & gold. . The idle man never can bring to the mart. f. 33 pearls of a love-sick eye. door EY. Oft blind 32 had] has EY. they are his drink He feeds the Beggar and the Poor And the wayfaring Traveller is his door. 31 gems] gains Shep. some other take him in 55 . He wanders weeping Untill far away. An Aged Shadow. If . But She comes to the Man she loves. 45. Until he can a Maiden win. 37 : For ever open His grief is They make Till A their eternal joy & the roofs from the fire 41 . & martyr's groan the lover's sigh.

The Guests are scatter'd thro' the land. 77 :-^ wheel of religion] the Sun was roll'd into an orb. Cp. every Space that a Man views around his dwelling-place Standing on his own roof. The Microscope knows not of this nor the Telescope. f. EY. 11. f. all edd. the Clouds bow To meet the flat Earth & the Sea in such an order'd Space : The Starry heavens reach no further but here bend and set And & the two Poles turn on their valves of gold. it is a delusion of Ulro. in several passages. 61 . And The the Earth becomes a Ball flat Moon. Sun. The bread & wine of her sweet smile. Milton. Stars. The wild game of her roving Eye. 57 The Poor Man takes her in his arms The Cottage fades before his sight. . 55 : 69 . except The Shep. 11. Objects of Perception seem to vary.MS. A . . refers to the flat earth becoming a ball as a delusion of the modern scientific spirit. 51. 50. . For the Eye altering alters all The Senses roll themselves in fear. 34. 28.' 64 Blake. Such are the Spaces called Earth & such its dimension. — Perceptive Organs vary. f.' See also Jerusalem. Moon] Stars. or in his garden on a mount Of twenty-five cubits in height. The honey of her Infant lips. moon and sun ' . they alter The ratio of the Spectator's Organs but leave Objects untouch'd . Moon faded into a globe Travelling thro' the night. 1. And a dark desart all around. Jerusalem. And nothing left to eat or drink. . On And sides all if As to that false appearance which appears to the reasoner As of a Globe rolling thro' Voidness. Pickering And 277 to allay his freezing Age. The Garden and its lovely Charms. Jerusalem. Do 72 Does] 66. 'By it By it [the the f. he move his dwelling-place his heavens also move Where'er he goes & all his neighbourhood bewail his loss.' 65 Cp. shrink away. such space is his Universe: And on its verge the Sun rises & sets. 4-20 ' If ' ' ' : — 'The Sky is an immortal Tent built by the Sons of Los. all 65 desart vast without a bound. For every Space larger than a red Globule of Man's blood Is visionary. Does him to Infancy beguile 62 Cp.

83 wayward Love] Cp. behold. & day. 11. In embryon & . Jerusalem. various arts of love beguil'd . 11. in Four Zoos. 82. look. 26.' f. And many a pleasant Shepherd's home. trees bring forth sweet extasy who all in the desart roam 89 . 217. 11. look. Till 76 Cp. 61-64 All things acted on Earth are seen in the bright Sculptures of Los's Halls. except Shep.' 82 desart] desert 's all edd. Like the wild Stag she Her many fear plants 73 flees away. 81 he becomes a wayward Babe. many a City there is Built. they shrink themselves in fear. 77 a thicket wild . While he pursues her night By Love & Hate. 77 flees] of Los and Enitharmon. 218. wide desart planted o'er With Labyrinths of wayward Love. 63: wander'd hand in — hand like two Infants wand'ring m the desarts. hers Scorn Jealousy.' 85 Cp. see Upon my bosom. terrified at each others beauty. Night i.' ' The Crystal Cabinet. . Pickering 278 eats & drinks he grows & younger every day.' 11.MS. 50 The See also : — desarts tremble at his wrath. Then many a Lover wanders here The Sun & Stars are nearer roli'd And The To . 85 various arts of By Till the Till she a weeping Woman Old. 81 Cp. f. : . Younger And on the desart wild they both For as he Wander & in terror dismay. WBY. and Boar. ' Also ' 1. 86. here is the lovely wayward form That gave me sweet delight by his torments beneath my Veil. 62.' 80 arts] art flies 80. and in his circling Ner\'es From Enion WBY. With every pathetic story possible to happen from Hate or : — ' Wayward Love. — & his breast. the description of the wanderings who in the Brain of Man live. 11. Where roam the Lion. & every Age renews its powers from these Works. . 37-39 =— him lie Look. ' Silent they f. 25. ' ' . passions they kiss'd not nor embrac'd for shame •Alternate Love Hate & fear. 16. Hyle is become an infant Love. Jerusalem. Jerusalem^ 75. Wolf.

in 9 sweet delight. had no two 10 Thomas] This name is plainly written and cannot quotation marks. of course. O wake DGR Oh wake WMR. every Tree does shed its fruit. ! ? ' She walk'd with her Thomas 1 O for joy. Terror strikes thro' the region wide: They cry 'The Babe! the Babe is Born!' And away on every flee 93 side. . Land are its is the Land of Dreams? & what are Mother there. except Shep. my Why but cp. lines part of the boy's reply. of Dreams Awake. clothed in white. Pickering 279 But when they find the frowning Babe. 103 him] it DGR. 6 O streams] I follow Shepherd in making these . ' ? p. awake. all howling flee. 122128). Except it be a Woman Old 10 1 . therefore be a misreading of ' Tharmas. as in part of the father's opening speech. IMountains. She nails And all is him down upon the Rock. Boars. . above. 5. 4 Awake] except Shep. 7. the EY. Lions. the] a little Boy Thou wast thy Mother's only joy 84. For who dare touch the frowning form. The original MS.. pp. . bears. DGR and other edd. done as I have told. instead of.. ! *0. like a dove I when shall I again return wept ! Pickering MS. reads Lions. And And none can touch that frowning form. 99 Lions.' as might be conjectured from several analogies in the story of Vala and Tharmas {^Four Zoas. its 5 Streams Father I saw my Among the Lillies by waters fair. does] doth all edd. Boars] Bears. Among the lambs. what What 1. Wolves. 94 wide] wild EY. 98 100 does] doth all edd.MS. i ! . . mourn. EY. dost thou weep Awake in thy gentle sleep? thy Father does thee keep.. Night ix. EY. The Land its] who lions all edd. His arm is wither'd to its root 97 .

177.' See note to 11. And repeated with pleasure the joys of the And Mary arose among Friends to be free. except Shep. — & Mary moves in soft To augment with sweet smiles conscious delight. Came into the Ball-room among the Fair The young Men & Maidens around her throng. on one side. Essay^ p. omit does. tho' 'Father. Morning Star. Night 13 Dreams . makes this stanza part of the preceding speech. an allegory of the poetic or spiritual mind moving unrecognized and reviled among its fellows . 9-12 Shep.' Mary Sweet Mary. to the rest of the Fair beauty Nor once blushes to own That sweet Love and Beauty are worthy our care. shalt see. Mary. 13 night. .' 5 . O father! what do we here In this Land of unbelief and fear ? The Land Above the of Dreams better is light of the 17 far. the first time she ever was there. DGR ' this poem appears to be. But no Friend from henceforward thou. p. In the Morning the Villagers rose with delight. According to and Swinburne. could not get to the other side. 6 again does return] All edd.2 8o Pickering Dear Child. She opens her lips 'tis the Month of May. And these are the words upon every tongue i . 22. Or again does return the Golden times Her eyes outshine every brilliant ray. I also Have wander'd But I pleasant streams in the Land of by all MS. & warm calm the waters wide. and this view of it is corroborated when we find Blake applying to himself two lines almost identically taken from it. 8. 9 all the joys of the Night. Pickering MS. 21. : 'An Angel is here from the heavenly Climes.

1803 O why was I born with a different face ? Why was I not born like the rest of my race .. . . Her soft Memory imprinted with Faces of Scorn 37 .' I will . EY.Pickering MS. dated Aug. . this stanza in his edition of 1866. except Shep. ? in ' 33. call'd Christian Love. And A Her & HUies 'O why was Why Why was I roses are blighted I shed. With Faces Like of Scorn and with Eyes of Disdain. shut to the door damp cold came o'er her. 281 Some said she was proud.' said the Child in the Street She went out in Morning in plain neat attire. she forgot it was Morn. 29 keep from the Ball. 22 why . Fiends inhabiting Mary's mild Brain foul 41 . & she trembled & cried She forgot it was Night. sweet Mary. some call'd her a whore. 31 forsakes] forsake Shep. whore] some reviled her more DGR. . when she passed by. . the morning all cdd. . 17-20 Shepherd omits . Butts. spite in the my 25 is Beauty. . And came home in Evening bespatter'd with mire. 35 Morning] in 36 in Evening] in the evening all cdd. & from Envy be free. — 17 some O 21. All Faces have Envy. Race] of Blake's letters to Mr. sitting on the Bed-side. She trembled & wept. She went out in Morning attir'd plain & neat 33 Proud Mary 's gone mad. born with a different Face? 21 not born like this Envious Race ? then set *To be weak And Lamb and smooth as a Dove. still ' WMR. and my Eyes shall not shine And if any Girl's Lover forsakes her for me I'll refuse him my hand. not dress fine. Envy your Merit 's to blame as a not to raise Envy. WBY. but thine . the lines occurring in one 16. except Shep. weak I will & the tame. She forgot it was Night. She remembers no Face like the Human Divine. Cp. But if you raise For planting such humble will I & Heaven adorn me with bountiful hand. her blushes all fled. some. me down in an envious Land ? did And ' 17 . ' .

to destroy Imagination. And me up Lock'd with a golden Key. in is i . in was dancing merrily I 45 : — it plain that the subject of 'Imputing Sin & Righteousness to Individuals. 17-31. Others. makes Rahab. . On her white marble & even Neck.282 Pickering And And And thine is thine is thine is That shall never The MS. Rahab Sat deep within him hid his Feminine Power unreveal'd Brooding Abstract Philosophy. Cabinets richly fabricate of gold & ivory For Doubts The Eternal . all love and all perfection. a Face of sweet Love in despair. Terrified the Spectre screams Of kindness & compassion & & is rushes in fear into their Net born a weeping terror. her Heart Inorb'd and bonified with locks of shadowing modesty.' — surround the Passions with porches of iron & silver & beauty around the dark regions of sorrow. Three-fold Each within other. Jerusalem. : : : . & fears. Her Brain enlabyrinths the whole heaven of her bosom & loins To in put act what her Heart power ? Her name is Vala 3 Cp. ' f. feminine. : In fires of beauty melting them as gold & silver in the furnace. the DivineHumanity A Three-fold Wonder. shining Over her beautiful Female features. soft flourishing in beauty. a Face of wild terror & fear be quiet laid till Crystal Cabinet The Maiden caught me Where on She put me into her Cabinet. that when the lips Recieve a kiss from Gods or Men. Some Sons 27. unform'd & wretched & melancholy of Death weeping Spectre stands on the threshold little . 11. the Wild. or moral law this poem p. a threefold kiss returns From the press'd loveliness so her whole immortal form. Creating form Creating the beautiful House for the piteous sufferer. a Face of mild sorrow & care. Pickering MS. most beautiful. with bounds to the Infinite putting ofi" the Indefinite Into most holy forms of Thought (such is the power of inspiration).' . in Eternity 1-26 of Los : in : wills . They labour incessant. A passage its bier. three-fold Three-fold embrace returns consuming lives of Gods & Men. Milton. 11. Beams mild. lo. Giving to airy nothing a name and a habitation Delightful. with many tears and afflections. O who can Time her name is withstand her Rahab. f. 70.

found a Threefold Kiss return'd..' see Jerusalem.' ' 86 :— ' Till And he becomes a wayward Babe. Threefold each in the other clos'd..' The Grey Monk ' 'The Grey Monk' is found on p. ' Woman Old. 1. Another London with its Tower. 85. O what a pleasant trembling what a smile Fill'd me ! fear — ! a threefold smile that like a flame I burn'd 17 . under the title 'The Grey Monk. 1 And I strove to sieze the With ardour fierce & inmost Form hands of flame. 29 sqq. And in the outward air again I with woes the passing Wind. And 9 another pleasant Surrey Bower. ' Translucence and ' Opake26 Cp. like a Weeping Babe became And A weeping Babe upon the 21 — wild. within it opens into a World a little lovely Moony Night. The MS.Pickering MS. 13 Translucent. 283 This Cabinet is form'd of Gold Pearl and Crystal shining bright. 5 And And And Another England there I saw. Book version consisted of fourteen transcribing stanzas. fill'd 14 For Blake's definitions and comparison of ness.' and original draft of MS. bent to kiss the lovely Maid. 12 of the Rossetti forms part of xlii. 25 And Weeping Woman pale reclin'd. lovely. Another Maiden like herself. 42. shining clear. f. which Blake afterwards separated into two poems eight stanzas into the Pickering MS. where it engraving seven as the untitled lines at the end of his — ' Address to the . 'The Mental Traveller. Another Thames and other Hills. But burst the Crystal Cabinet. 11. she a weeping Prefatory Note to The 25.

W. his own text which is entirely unarbitrary. had been written before ' The Grey Monk ' version also. Rossetti's in the MS. WHY. My What more has the merciless Tyrant said ? The Monk sat down on the Stony Bed. i). The April 25. die I ! the Mother said. . MS.' authorized. — and not from the MS. 1803. and omit 'The Grey Monk' as a separate poem. 3 has] hath R^ sat him down DGR. 11. The blood red ran from the grey Monk's & feet were wounded wide. and WBY omit. in his note to this poem (p. 'The arrangement of the verses in the Aldine edition is quite It is. Yeats falls into the same error. his arms & knees Like to the roots of ancient trees. D. 306). . DGR. he says. DGR. Rossetti follows Shepherd in number and arrangement the of verses. . i Children die for lack of Bread. Book version — ' ' ' He makes. 33). The Grey Monk * ' ' I die. The latter includes two stanzas which occur in greater part of Jerusaletn. taking these from the Pickering MS. B. 12. WBY. on the other hand. W. though its actual completion in engraved form was probably This dates The Grey Monk' as later than the date on the title-page. Book version. and generally as to text. Book. sought (1. first version of this in his early transcript of poem is based solely on the draft which he gives stanzas 5-10. 5 p. Butts. changes from the MS. Ellis and Yeats. DGR. here as elsewhere. Book. In his second version. see. 1804. (ii. G. one from the engraved version in Jerusalem. ' and sometimes made on his of which are own his transposition ' responsibility — among the most meaningless and misreadings of 11. the] her MS. f. Pickering MS. Book. I die] I . seem ignorant of the fact that Shepherd's edition preserved for us the text of the ' ' for Pickering MS. Book. side. Pickering (Jerusalem. 247). Book version.284 Deists ' MS. Book.six changes on the authority of the MS. with readings sometimes adopted from the Aldine. ' Mr. . M. when. as we gather from one of Blake's letters to Mr. 12. For deleted words and passages see MS. Book xlii. WMR. hands His His Body bent. with a few verbal changes of his own. printed in Gilchrist he adds the two final stanzas. as under the title The Grey Monk he prints stanzas 5-14 of the MS. In the footnotes to the present poem I give only the final readings of the MS. adopting two out of the three important ' I die 'for and found ' I see (1. I die. I ' 2 die] will die 4 sat down] WMR. DGR shall die WBY.' Mr. 5-8 The trees] R^. and adopts four of his brother's emendations.. Book. 52). Messrs. Mr. and still omitting the second stanza 'The blood red ran from the grey monk's side. I see MS. belonging to the earlier part of the Felpham period.

Book. He told me the writing I wrote should prove The Bane of all that on Earth I love. wrongs] . WBY. MS. Book. DGR. * My brother starv'd between two Walls. A . WMR. WMR. He trembled & shudder'd upon the Bed At length with a feeble cry he said 9 : . 12 with] 15 the In a letter to writing] that all MS. Mr. WBY. 1803. . DGR. that R^ wrongs 24 avenge] revenge MS. 19 griding] grinding Cry] crying DGR. Butts. WBY. 14 studious] 35 shadowy DGR. bent body mocks their torturing pain. With his thousands strong he marched forth 21 . WBY inverts the order of these two Hnes. 23 has] hath marched] is marched MS. 285 His eye was dry no tear could flow hollow groan first spoke his woe. 20 mocks their] mocks at their Shep. WBY. DGR. also the lines in an earlier letter to the same friend ' : — Must Flaxman look upon me as wild ? And all my friends be with doubts beguil'd Must my Wife live in my Sister's bane ? Or my sister survive on my Love's pain ? ? ' 18 His] Thy R^. * 9 tear] tears II. : ' When God commanded this hand to write 13 In the studious hours of deep midnight. WBY. 17 . Thy Brother has arm'd himself in Steel. WMR. DGR. dated July 6. 12 He . 21 See note to version in MS. . Cp. WBY. His Children's Cry my soul appalls I mock'd at the wrack and griding chain. DGR. WBY omits. To avenge the wrongs thy Children feel. WMR. Book. They never can work War's overthrow. WMR. said] 10 first spoke] bespoke RS DGR. WMR.Pickering MS. the grinding WMR. . 22 With his thousands strong] By his strong courage R' Book xlii. The Hermit's Prayer and the Widow's Tear Alone can free the World from fear. WBY. But vain the Sword and vain the Bow. Blake speaks of Hayley's aversion and contempt for his prophetic writings. Book. 13-16 DGR. WBY. My 'Thy Father drew his Sword in the North. . WMR.

Prefatory Note to ' Innocence DGR. nor is there a terminal line or other mark of separation between the opening stanza and the proverb-couplets which follow. Slaughter shall heap the bloody plain Resistance and war is the tyrant's gain. . — been suggested to Blake's mind while engraving the plates for Hayley's . The couplets are not divided into sections. WMR. . Book. The few exceptions to this rule have the appearance of being marginal interpolations. its penalty or reward a theme which may have It will be lowed by sixty-four couplets. became a Tyrant in his Stead. Book. The conjecture. it vcxa. folTurning to the latter. p. The tyrant who the first [MS. marks of transposition. therefore. . — made WBY. the bitter groan of the Martyr's woe Is an Arrow from the Almightie's Bow. Book version 9. or numerical rearrangement of lines.2 86 ' Pickering MS. WBY. "Book first the] black bow bent. WBY. For a Tear 29 And And The hand * of Vengeance found the To which The And 29-36 For ' : 33 . inverts the order of stanzas 8 stanzas Bed the Purple Tyrant fled iron hand crush'd the Tyrant's head.' — and Following the MS. : ' — tear of love and forgiveness sweet. 5-24) deal with cruelty or kindness to animals. But the And The And every wound 29 a Tear] the tear it has MS. additions. Auguries of ' Pickering MS. Written in a single column.y be noticed in the first place that the couplets are almost always arranged together in pairs. WBY Stead] R^ omits. a Sigh is the Sword of an Angel King. The first five stanzas (11. without marginal 13. shall heal. that Blake intended the title to refer to the initial quatrain only is not supported by the evidence of the MS. and inserts between them the two Until the tyrant himself relent. seen that the poem consists of an opening quatrain. as if forming quatrains with the rime-arrangement aabb or sometimes aaaa. submission to death beneath his feet tear shall melt the sword of steel. is an Intellectual Thing.' 31 the Martyr's] a martyr's 33 found] sought MS.

pity for those whose lot is cast in the land of eternal winter. 1.' 'envy. deferring conclusion. 287 25-28) Blake wanders off into a different (11. I my . followed in smaller type by revised version for those who may prefer to read the poem as a whole. It has the appearance of being an afterthought. 85-96) pass on from reverence of infant faith to pauper. 54) Stanzas of these — ' A Truth that Beats all 's told with bad intent the Lies you can invent — ' not very closely bound to the preceding lines. and Stanzas 20-22 (11. MS. perhaps in the nature of a personal reflection is on one of the chief modes by which 'slander. marks of woe in beggar. 63-74. 55 the return to the quatrain unit is clearly marked by the rimearrangement of the next three stanzas. 25-28. all. 54- id) 11. 29-44. 77. 85-96. 53. The couplet which follows (11. The foregoing have treated two like the v^n-ote rimes in down from loose tinuity analysis reveals the curious fact that Blake the couplets in the order of composition or transcribed them rearrangement for future consideration. 76. 52.' having four identical rimes. alternate pleasure and grief in human life. (c) 11. interweaving one with another a canto of terza rima. {g) would seem themes alternately. {e) 11. Stanzas 26. and often compress within the narrow limit of a couplet the strength and tenderness of some of the most familiar of the we have 'Infant Sorrow. obscene or noxious animals symbolizing human faults or vices. 111-118. 5-24. At 1. London. instead of as a number of disconnected proverb-couplets. 12 (II.. a theme entirely different from the darker one of predestined misery or delight (11. 25 (II. Con- may be It given the poem by following each theme separately would then form seven sections. a theme returned to (after a short digression contrastIn stanzas 15-17 songs. with exquisite compassion. divided as follows (a) 11. 97-102.' and in stanzas (11. denunciation of doubt. 51.Pickering In the sixth stanza Ballads. 10 and 11. The subjects of the remaining stanzas are strongly reminiscent of those of the Songs of Experience. to jottings. 75. It appears probable that he either different : — to its 1-4. as in the last stanza of 'The Grey Monk. 108-110). 19 ' ing war and peace) ' ' (11. 27 recall be regarded as a continuation of stanzas 18. {b) 11. aspect of animal life. 19. 103-110. 63-74) 75-84) marks of weakness. This paragraph discusses a new topic. 59-62. 1 19-132) with which Rossetti links it in his rearrangement. 55-88 and 5962) appear to have been mistakenly copied down in inverted order. 78. soldier. Stanzas 13 and 14 (11. 37-44 and 45-52) are continuations respectively two themes. 9. 1 19-132. (/) 11- 11. 79-84. 55-58. 53.' and 'jealousy' work for evil. 45-50. and 23^ Three more stanzas (11. 1 19-132) expressing. This theme is continued later in the couplets following 44.' conclude this truly ' great poem. 18. own print the text as in the original MS.' and may in stanzas 24.

288
With

Pickering
this

(a)

11.

(6)

11.

may be compared

MS,

Rossetti's rearrangement

:

1-4.

5-10, 17, 18, 11-12, 19, 20, 13-16.
29-32, 41, 42, 33-38, 21-24, 39> 40» 43» 44, 67, 68, 71, 72,

(c)

11.

(rf)

11.

25-28, 45-50, 97, 98.

{e')

11.

99, 100, 77, 78, 101, 102, 75, 76, 51, 5a, 81-84, 79, 80, 113-118.

(J)

11.

85-90, 63-66, 93-96, 103, 104, 91, 92, 105, 106, 53, 54, 107-H0.

{g)

11.

1

19-124, 59-62, 55-58.

ih) 125-132.

The latter arrangement (which has been adopted by all later editors
except Shepherd), readable as it appears on first glance, seems to me to do
great violence to the author's meaning. Passages are torn from their context
and given an entirely different sense, by being placed in an artificial position.

An

example of

this

may

be seen

in Rossetti's

penultimate section, where,
is made to argue that
to misery and endless

by the juxtaposition of two separate passages, Blake
a correct apprehension of the fact that some are born
night will enable us to go through

with safety.

life

Auguries of Innocence
To see a World in a Grain

of Sand,
a Heaven in a Wild Flower,
Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand,

i
.

And

And

Eternity in an hour.

A

Robin Redbreast in a Cage
Puts all Heaven in a Rage.
dove-house fill'd with Doves & Pigeons
Shudders Hell thro' all its regions.
dog starv'd at his Master's Gate

5

A

A

9

Predicts the ruin of the State.

A

Horse misused upon the Road
Calls to Heaven for Human blood.
Each outcry of the hunted Hare

A
A
A

fibre

from the Brain does

13

tear.

Skylark wounded in the wing
Cherubim does cease to sing.
The Game Cock dipt and arm'd for fight
;

Does the Rising Sun

17

affright.

Pickering MS. p. 13.
I

on

a] the Shep.,
all edd. except

WMR.

Shep.
sing all edd. except Shep.
Doth all edd. except Shep.

EY.
15 in]
14 does] doth DGR,
16 A . . sing] Doth make a cherub cease to
18 Does]
17 The] A all edd. except Shep.

WMR,

.

MS.

Pickering
Every Wolf's

&

289

Lion's howl

Human

Raises from Hell a

Soul.

wild Deer, wand 'ring here & there,
Keeps the Human Soul from Care.

The

21

The Lamb

And

misus'd breeds Public Strife,
yet forgives the Butcher's knife.
Bat that flits at close of Eve

The
Has left the Brain that won't Believe.
The Owl that calls upon the Night
Speaks the Unbeliever's

He who

25

fright.

shall hurt the little

Wren

29

by Men.
wrath has mov'd

Shall never be belov'd

He who

the

Ox

Shall never be

to

Woman

by

The wanton Boy

lov'd.

that kills the

Fly

33

Shall feel the Spider's enmity.
He who torments the Chafer's Sprite
Weaves a Bower in endless Night.

The

Catterpiller on the Leaf
Repeats to thee thy Mother's
Kill not the

Moth nor

37
grief.

Butterfly,

For the Last Judgment draweth nigh.
He who shall train the Horse to war

41

Shall never pass the Polar Bar.

Beggar's Dog & Widow's Cat,
Feed them & thou wilt grow fat.
The Gnat that sings his Summer's Song

The

45

Poison gets from Slander's tongue.
The poison of the Snake & Newt
Is the sweat of Envy's Foot.

The poison

of the

Honey Bee

49

Is the Artist's Jealousy.

Prince's Robes & Beggar's Rags
Are Toadstools on the Miser's Bags.

The

22 Keeps]
in the

all edd. except

Keep

Songs of Experience.
'

Paradise,

Keys

44 wilt] shalt
SAMPSON

.

of the Gates,'
'

24 Cp, footnote to 'The Fly'
Shep.
.
37, 38 The
griefj Cp. The Gates of

11.

i,

2

:

.

The Catterpiller on the Leaf
Reminds thee of thy Mother's

all edd. except

Shep.

U

Grief.'

290
A

MS.

Pickermg
Truth that

Beats
It is

's

told with

bad intent

53

the Lies you can invent.
right it should be so
all

;

Man was made for Joy & Woe
And when this we rightly know,

;

57

Thro' the World we safely go.

& Woe

Joy

A

Clothing

are

woven

fine,

for the soul divine.

Under every grief & pine
Runs a joy with silken twine.
The Babe is more than Swadling Bands
Throughout all these Human Lands

61

;

& Born were hands,
Farmer
understands.
Every
Every Tear from Every Eye
Becomes a Babe in Eternity
Tools were made,

65

;

This

is

And

returned to

caught by Females bright,

own

its

69

delight.

The Bleat, the Bark, Bellow, & Roar,
Are Waves that Beat on Heaven's Shore.
The Babe that weeps the Rod beneath

73

Writes Revenge in realms of Death.
The Beggar's Rags, fluttering in Air,

Does

to

Rags the Heavens

tear.

&

The

Soldier, arm'd with Sword
Palsied strikes the Summer's Sun.

Gun,

77

The poor Man's Farthing is worth more
Than all the Gold on Afric's Shore.
One Mite wrung from the Lab'rer's hands
Shall buy & sell the Miser's Lands

81

;

protected from on high,
that whole Nation sell & buy.
who mocks the Infant's Faith
if

Or,

Does

He

Shall be mock'd in
58 Thro'

.

.

.

Age &

85

Death.

go] Safely through the world

we

go

all edd. except

Shep.

'

63, 64 All edd. except Shep. omit semicolon after Bands and punctuate with
.
and
semicolon after ' lands.'
69, 70 This
delight] DGR,
omit ;
73, 74
69 bright] aright
prints in Notes.
a;:^
The Babe
omit;
prints in Notes.
Death] DGR,
'

.

EY

WBY

76 Does]

Do

.

.

.

all edd. except

WMR,

.

WHY.

WMR,

Shep.

EY

WBY

48 Does] Shall

all edd. except

Shep.

Pickering
He who
The

MS.

shall teach the Child to

291

Doubt

Grave

shall ne'er get out.
respects the Infant's faith

rotting

He who

89

Triumphs over Hell & Death.
The Child's Toys and the Old Man's Reasons
Are the Fruits of the Two Seasons.

The

Questioner, who sits so sly,
Shall never know how to Reply.

He who replies to words of Doubt
Doth put the Light of Knowledge
The Strongest Poison ever known
Came from

93

out.

97

Caesar's Laurel Crown.

Nought can Deform the Human Race
Like to the Armour's iron brace.
and Gems adorn the Plow
Arts shall Envy Bow.

When Gold
To peaceful

A

101

Riddle, or the Cricket's Cry,
Doubt a fit Reply.

Is to

The Emmet's Inch & Eagle's Mile
Make Lame Philosophy to smile.
He who Doubts from what he sees

105

Will ne'er Believe, do what you Please.
If the Sun & Moon should Doubt,
They'd immediately Go Out,
To be in a Passion you Good may do.
But no Good if a Passion is in you.

109

The Whore & Gambler, by

the State
Licensed, build that Nation's Fate.
The Harlot's cry from Street to Street
Shall weave
92 Cp. Milton,

'To

f.

43,

Old England's winding-Sheet.
11.

12-17

:

cast ofT the idiot Questioner

But never capable of answering
Silent, plotting

Who

113

when

publishes doubt

who is always questioning
who sits, with a sly grin,

:

to question, like a thief in a cave.

&

calls

it

knowledge, whose Science

is

Whose pretence to knowledge is Envy, whose whole Science
To destroy the wisdom of ages to gratify ravenous Envy.'
100 Armour's] armourer's
103 Riddle] puddle

DGR,

all edd. except

WMR,

WMR, EY omit; WBY prints in

EY.
2

is

102 Arts] hearts

111-112 To

Notes.

U

Shop.

Despair,

.

.

.

you]

EY.

DGR,

MS,

Pickering

292

The Winner's shout, the Loser's Curse,
Dance before dead England's Hearse.
Every Night and every Morn
Some to Misery are Born.
Every Morn and every Night
Some are Born to Sweet Deh'ght.
Some are Born to Sweet Delight,
Some are Born to Endless Night.

We

117

121

are led to Believe a Lie

125

When we
Which

When

see not Thro' the Eye,
was Born in a Night to perish in a Night,
the Soul Slept in Beams of Light.

God appears, & God is light,
To those poor souls who dwell in Night
But does a Human Form Display
To those who Dwell in Realms of Day.
118 Dance] Shall dance all edd. except Shep.

Cp.

'

'

Everlasting Gospel

'And

7",

11.

103-106

:

125-128

129
;

We

.

.

.

Light]

leads

you to believe a lie
you see with, not through, the eye
That was born in a night, to perish in a night.
When the soul slept in the beams of light.'

When

126

When

.

\st rdg. del.

.

.

Eye]

and

;

When we

all edd. e.xcept

see with, not through, the eye, Pickering

Auguries of Innocence
{Revised A rrangemen t)
To

Hold

And

A

World in a Grain of Sand,
Heaven in a Wild Flower,

see a

And

a

Infinity in the

all

Heaven

j"our hand,

dove-house fill'd
Shudders Hell thro'

dog starv'd

in a

Cage

in a

A

A

palm of

Eternity in an hour.

Robin Redbreast

Puts

Rage.
with Doves
all

its

&

regions.

at his Master's

Gate

Predicts the ruin of the State.

A

Horse misused upon the Road

Calls to

Heaven

for

MS.

131 does] doth all edd. except Shep.

Shep.

Human

blood.

Pigeons

MS,

Pickering

of the hunted Hare
from the Brain does tear.

Each outcry

A
A
A

fibre

Skylark wounded

in the

Cherubim does cease

wing,

to sing.

The Game-Cock dipt and arm'd
Does the Rising Sun affright.
Every Wolfs & Lion's howl

for fight

Raises from Hell a Human Soul.
The wild Deer, wand'ring here & there,
Keeps the Human Soul from Care.
The Lamb misus'd breeds Public Strife,
And yet forgives the Butcher's knife.

He who

shall hurt the little

Wren

by Men.
wrath has mov'd

Shall never be belov'd

He who

Ox

the

to

Woman

Shall never be by

The wanton Boy

lov'd.

that kills the Fly

Shall feel the Spider's enmity.
He who torments the Chafer's Sprite
Weaves a Bower in endless Night.

The

Catterpiller

Repeats

to thee

on the Leaf
thy Mother's

Moth nor

Kill not the

grief.

Butterfly,

For the Last Judgment draweth nigh.
He who shall train the Horse to war
Shall never pass the Polar Bar.

The Beggar's Dog

&

Feed them

& Widow's

thou wilt grow

Cat,
fat.

The Bat that flits at close of Eve
Has left the Brain that won't Believe.
The Owl that calls upon the Night
Speaks the Unbeliever's

fright.

The Gnat

Summer's Song

that sings his

Poison gets from Slander's tongue.

The poison
Is the

& Newt

of the Snake

sweat of Envy's Foot.

The poison

of the

Honey-Bee

Is the Artist's Jealousy.

A

Truth that's told with bad intent
all the Lies you can invent.

Beats

& Woe are woven fine,
Clothing for the soul divine

Joy

A

;

Under every grief & pine
Runs a joy with silken twine.
It is right it

should be so

;

Man was made for Joy & Woe
And, when this we rightly know,
;

Thro" the

World we

safely go.

293

MS.

Pickering

294

is more than Swadling Bands;
Throughout all these Human Lands
Tools were made, & Born were hands,
Every Farmer understands.
Every Tear from Every Eye
Becomes a Babe in Eternity
This is caught by Females bright,

The Babe

;

And

return'd to

its

own

delight.

The Bleat, the Bark, Bellow, & Roar,
Are Waves that Beat on Heaven's Shore.
The Babe that weeps the Rod beneath
Writes Revenge in realms of Death.
He who mocks the Infant's Faith
Shall be mock'd in Age & Death.
He who shall teach the Child to Doubt

The

Grave shall ne'er get out.
respects the Infant's faith
Triumphs over Hell & Death.
rotting

He who

Child's Toys and the Old Man's Reasons
Are the Fruits of the Two Seasons.
The Questioner, who sits so sly,

The

Shall never

know how

to

Reply.

replies to words of Doubt
put the Light of Knowledge out.

He who
Doth

A

Riddle, or the Cricket's Cry,
Doubt a fit Reply.
The Emmet's Inch & Eagle's Mile

Is to

Make Lame Philosophy to smile.
He who Doubts from what he sees
Will ne'er Believe, do what you Please.
If the Sun & Moon should Doubt,
They'd immediately Go Out.

The Prince's Robes & Beggar's Rags
Are Toadstools on the Miser's Bags.
The Beggar's Rags, fluttering in Air,
Does to Rags the Heavens tear.
The poor Man's Farthing is worth more
Than all the Gold on Afric's Shore.
One Mite wrung from the Lab'rer's hands
Shall buy & sell the Miser's Lands;
Or,

if

Does

The

protected from on high,
whole Nation sell & buy.

that

Soldier, arm'd with

Sword

&

Gun,

Palsied strikes the Summer's Sun.
The Strongest Poison ever known

Came from Caesar's Laurel Crown.
Nought can Deform the human Race
Like to the Armour's iron brace.

MS.

Pickering
When

295

Gold and Gems adorn the Plow

To peaceful Arts shall Envy Bow.
To be in a Passion you Good may
But no Good

if

a Passion

is

do,

in

you.
The Whore & Gambler, by the State
Licensed, build that Nation's Fate.

The
Shall

Harlot's cry from Street to Street
weave Old England's winding Sheet.

The Winner's

shout, the Loser's Curse,

Dance before dead England's Hearse.
Every Night and every Morn

Some

to

Misery are Born.

Every Morn and every Night
Some are Born to Sweet Delight.
Some are Born to Sweet Delight,
Some are Born to Endless Night.

We

are led to Believe a Lie

When we

see not Thro' the Eye,
in a Night to perish in a Night,
the Soul Slept in Beams of Light,

Which was Born

When

God appears, & God is light,
To those poor souls who dwell in Night,
But does a Human Form Display
To those who Dwell in Realms of Day.

Long John Brown
Little

Bell

Mary

&

Little

had a Fairy

in

Mary

a Nut,

Long John Brown had the Devil in
Long John Brown lov'd little Mary

And

Bell
i

Gut

his

;

Bell,

the Fairy drew the Devil into the Nutshell.

Pickering MS. p. 19.
In Jerusalem, f. 36, 11. 35-37, fairies are described as one of Four ravening
States Permanently Fixed by the Divine Power.'
deathlike Forms. .
Cp. from the Motto to the Songs of Innocence and of Experience,^ in the MS.
'

.

.

*

Book

(xxxi)

:

'The Good are

And

attracted

by Men's perceptions.

think not for themselves

;

Experience teaches them to catch
And to cage the Fairies & Elves
lines perhaps explained by the quatrain which almost immediately precedes
Till

'

:

them

in the
'

MS. Book

The

(xxvii)
trap the moment before it 's ripe,
tears of repentance you'll certainly wipe

But

if

If

:

you

You

once you let the ripe moment go
can never wipe off the tears ot woe.'

;

one. 15/ rdg. there goes Miss Bell with her fusty old Nut. EY being an addition. his dinner. And the Devil enter d into the Young Man's broth. two. had a Wolf in his stomach day & night. And I wonder if William Bond will die. Her Fairy 5 . Love is a Sin. is/ rdg. 5 & her] Pickering MS. alack for Pretty Mary Bell For the Devil crept in when the Fairy skip'd out. And he laugh'd at the Devil till poor John Brown Died. and Pride. And woe & And Title\ 13 . ! 17 . He ' He was soon in the Gut of the loving Young Swain. Though he eat & drank as much as ten Men for 9 . skip'd out. I. 3 Long] 2.296 Pickering MS. o)tnts &. Some Some said he said Then the Fairy skip'd out of the old Nutshell. p.' The Devil he raged. Attended by Fairies. Pickering MS. And he return'd home in Misery.' the adjectives 3 Little] Pretty Pickering MS. & the Devil he was wroth. del. For assuredly he is very ill. . William Bond wonder whether the Girls are mad. EY. & they guess'd right The fairy skip'd about in his Glory. del. and three But the Angels of Providence drove them away. Young 15 Joy] love . For John eat & drank to drive away Love's pain But all he could do he grew thinner and thinner. 5 in] on all edd. he had the Devil. except Shep. At first ' John Brown & Mary Bell. & her Fairy skip'd in laugh 'd at the Devil saying. 20. I He went to Church in a May morning. And I wonder whether they mean to kill. Joy.

297 He He went not out to the Field nor Fold. and there lay down. O. I do another Love. And saw her William Bond so near. And Another I will have for my Wife. 4. in Songs vf . IMary trembled And Mary fell When Mary woke & found her laid On the Right hand of her William dear. But he came home in a black black cloud. And on his Right hand was Mary Green. in the midst the Sick Man on his Bed. Experience ^ To Tirzah. But she is ruddy & bright as day. On the Right hand of his loved Bed. . 37 thee] Cp. Then what have I to do with thee? 25 For thou art Melancholy Pale. on thy Head is the cold Moon's Shine. 9 13 17 21 Dost another Love better than poor Mary. And the sunbeams dazzle from her eyne. 'O William.' 'Yes. 28 Then . And took to his Bed. And And And And an Angel of Providence at his Feet. And their tears fell thro' the black black Cloud To drive away the sick man's pain. And Mary Green shall her Servant be. went not out to the Village nor Town. if thou dost another Love. And on his Left hand was his Sister Jane.Pickering MS. . down on the right hand That William Bond & his Sister Jane Scarce could recover Mary more. Go & take that other to be thy Wife.' oniiis 1. Mary. 21 O William] Shep. in the midst a Black Black Cloud.' ' 29 And & Mary chill'd. an Angel of Providence at his Head. Another I Love far better than thee. 33 floor.

41 . In the naked & outcast. And I the Angels of Providence thought Love lived But O. WMR. EY. the Comforter of Night. seek Love there 49 ! 45-52 All edd. Pickering The Fairies that fled from William Bond Danced around her Shining Head They danced over the Pillow white. Moony light 45 ! in the heat of Day. Seek Love in the Pity of others' Woe. WBY. first person. I the in poem treat the it if the speech were William who begins DGR. In the gentle relief of another's care.298 MS. hot sunshine. 52 In] With . rather as that of the narrator of the story. he I in the lives in the thought to find Love But sweet Love is left the Bed. place in inverted commas as Bond's. In the darkness of night & the Winter's Snow.

POEMS FROM LETTERS 1800-1803 .

144) from an autograph of Blake's on the back of a small pencil-sketch. being unable to trace the present whereabouts of the original and for the same reason take my text of 'A fairy leapt upon my knee' from Swinburne's My . the last . pieces are contained in letters to Mr. 1 800-1 803. Butts. Anna Flaxman. 143. Essay. Blake to Mrs. 1800. Flaxman. The first Shepherd : five poems are printed by all editors except by Swinburne and Ellis and Yeats only. dated September 14. the grandson of Blake's friend.PREFACE TO POEMS FROM LErrERS Five of the letters written six poems in this section are by Blake or his wife. Butts written from Felpham. kindly lent me by Capt. immediately Four of the before the Blakes' removal to Felpham. pp. It was first printed by Swinburne {Essay. Butts is taken from the originals. I follow Gilchrist for the lines to Mrs.e. text of the poems in the letters to Mr. The taken from earliest of these are the stanzas enclosed in a letter from Mrs. i. I place here also a little fairy poem which seems to belong to the same period.

' though obviously Blake's own composition. . Dispensing unceasing to Gilchrist. signed ' biographer by Miss Den- W. 15. Blake's patron. other edd. i. copy supplied to the The poem. Lambeth.v] The 7 turret] the turret of Hayley's house dated ' sister.' and signed Catherine Blake. all ' : are probably Gilchrist's. from a man. Blake.' is in a letter H^ercules] B[uildings]. Hayley. constantly refers to himself as the italics Eartham ' or the ' Hermit of the Turret ' 15 William Hermit of ' in liis letters to his friends. 150. or all that you may. the blossom of hope for a sweet decoy To Do To i . at my cot it does end. does softly descend. Mrs. entice him to Felpham and far away. the village then winds. for Heaven is there of Angels descends through the air 5 . The Ladder On the turret Through You The its spiral . 11 w. The bread and the wine of delight of sweet thought 13 Feed the And village of Felpham by day and by night. and my friend and thine Descend and ascend with the bread and the wine. . 149. stand in the village and look up to heaven precious stones glitter on flight seventy-seven 9 . print in roman. And my brother is there. see note to 1. 1800. you can. at his own door the bless'd hermit does stand. that all Away to sweet Felpham. Anna Flaxman This song to the flower of Flaxman's joy. Flaxman's the wide land. Mrs.POEMS FROM LETTERS To my dear Friend. 14 Sept.

Mock on.* WMR. Remote from Desire The Light lo Care. .' * : ' .' amazed. My i first On The Sun was Emitting His Glorious beams From Heaven's 5 high Streams. and entitle To Mr. all Into regions of fire. Butts. Oct'. Blake's precise use of the spelling ed when he intends the final syllable to be pronounced. Amazed 20 . .Poems from 302 Letters m • U To my Friend Butts I write Vision of Light. 2''. 1800. 15 The jewels of Light Distinct shone clear. Blown back they But still blind the mocking eye. of the .' addressed to 'Mr. My Eyes did Expand Into regions of Away from air. Rousseau (MS. in Israel's paths they shine. And every sand becomes a Gem Reflected in the beams divine . ii. . Book ' xli) : — 'Mock on. WBY ' 13-17 Cp. Morning Heaven's Mountains adorning : In particles bright. Written in two columns on the first and second pages of a letter dated Felpham. EY. i8o. Butts. Great Marlborough Street. 'The Atoms of Democritus And Newton's Particles of Light Are sands upon the Red sea shore Where 20 gazed do shine so Israel's tents bright. the yellow sands sitting. Over Sea. the stanzas in the verses beginning ' Voltaire. such as they are. iSi.) These verses are prefaced by the lines Recieve from me a return of verses such as Felpham produces by me. I cannot resist the temptation to send them to you. ignoring Amazed] All edd. . 19. tho' not such as she produces by her Eldest Son however. over Land. I Astonish'd.' (See Gilchrist. ' ' . . & Amaz'd & in fear each particle gazed. read gazed .

limbs to infold In his beams of bright gold Like dross purg'd away All my mire & my clay. Soft he smil'd. Continue Expanding. & Star. 45 Like a Sea without shore. Soft consum'd in delight. . Each grain of Sand. Till the Jewels of Light. And Saw Felpham sweet Beneath my bright Shadow And my And My We I 35 feet. like Infants shadow & 40 too. earth. Mountain. Cloud. Friend.Poems from Letters 303 For each was a Man Human. Who Complacent began My bright. Each herb & each tree. wife's Sister. In soft Female charms And in her fair arms My 30 . hill.form'd. Are Men Seen Afar. knew. Heavenly Men beaming Appear'd as One Man. Swift I ran. Like a weak mortal birth. Each rock & each hill.' I stood in the Streams Of Heaven's bright beams. Meteor. My Eyes. For they beckon'd to me. & sea. The Heavens commanding. descend In our Shadows on Earth. Saying ' : as Every Stone on the Land. Each fountain & rill. In his bosom Sun-bright I 50 remain'd. 55 . more & more. Remote by the Sea.

horn'd with gold These are guards of thou And 1 the voice faded mild remain'd as a Child All I ever had me Before I Ram My By the fountains of Such the Vision 70 : . To the Christians ' ' : — ' Imagination. iv. 5 ! W.Poems 304 And fj^oni Letters heard his voice Mild. & Behold Your Harvest Springing to Eternal Life. the real & eternal World of Vegetable Universe is but a faint shadow. Parent of Youthful Minds. from Sleep the Sides of the Deep. 4 Human Vegetation] Cp. the Mountains around 65 The roarings resound Of the lion & wolf. These ' ' chap. Saying: 'This is My Fold. signed excuse. O thou Ram Who awakest On On 60 I horn'd with gold. me Appear'd on the Sea. & happy Wife i . known bright Shone & your wife saw you ' ! to : 75 life. B. & deep gulph. the passage in Blake's introduction to Jcnisaleni. Butts will lines. & in which we shall live in our Eternal or Imaginative Bodies when these Vegetable Mortal Bodies are no more. Recieve this tribute from a Harp sincere Go on in Virtuous Seed sowing on Mold Of Human Vegetation. The loud Sea.' conclude the letter from which the preceding poem is taken.. Fold.' which the author hopes Mrs. HI To Mrs.' which this . Butts Wife of the Friend of those I most revere.

44 : — & silence that they had created. & my way before A frowning Thistle implores my stay. . fears— 20 With a thousand Angels upon the Wind. e. These verses. they my wrath terrible ^ . And a mild With trees And little Sun & & sings . in And God With And Golden demons lo that none can stay Father my hovering upon the wind. 1. 19. 11. What to others a trifle appears Fills me full of smiles or tears 25 . that mounts fields full who devils fight for themselves Rememb'ring the Verses When my that Hayley sung heart knock'd against the root of With Angels planted 5 — my tongue — Hawthorn bowers. they appear upon my path. himself in the passing hours. Tho' dead. Nov"^ 22.' WBY. Silver Angels across my way.' WMR * 3. With 15 — Notwithstanding They beg. of Fairy elves.Poems from Letters 305 IV With happiness stretch'd across the hills In a cloud that dewy sweetness distills With a blue sky spread over with wings. fill'd full of tears. they drop their intreat.' two lines lines are written sideways & — with the note ought to come in at x in the margin.' Printed by all editors except Shepherd. the position being also indicated by Blake's catchword ' 16 See note to ' Mad Song {Poetical Sketches). 4 Cp. Fill'd full of hopes. i . Los the Terrible. And my Brother John. written in two columns in a postscript to a letter dated 'Felpham. the evil one. 'Rememb'ring'). Jerusalem. And my Brother Robert just behind. ' In a sweet With 7. In a black cloud making his mone. 17. 1802. (i. 43. were omitted when transcribing : ' after line 6. moony night a blue sky spread over with wings and a mild moon. Pouring disconsolate from behind To drive them off. ' 8 These These 2 f.' Blake says 'were Composed above a twelvemonth ago while Walking from Felpham to Lavant to meet my Sister. and EY entitle 'Verses. S/VMPSON X .

10. . : — 'Every Minute Particular ' . L 42 69. is depicted as a blacksmith working Los is Time (see note to 1. 17. I. Oliver Madoxin his capacity of prophet and seer. Brown conjectured. 71. thy . building Heavens Twenty-seven-fold. not of Demonstration ' . 39. and * ' ' ' Visions of the Daughters of Albion.' the thistle said. 16-23 • & and all . f. . is probably a transposition of Sol (cp. 23. 1. 4) and one of the daughters of Albion {ibid. 1. elsewhere referred to He is described as fill'd with care {Milton. 53. 1. Enitharmon is nam'd Space. 33 Theotormon. drinking the cries of pain From howling victims of Law . For here does Theotormon lower. ' ' the passage from Milton quoted in the footnote). S&e Jerusalem. 55-57. . 35 Poverty.Poems from 3o6 For double the vision my Letters Eyes do see. 90. 34 lovely Enitharmon {Jerusalem. own Minute Particulars ones are holy. to God alone. see Milton. 40 This allusion is only to be understood by a knowledge of one of the chief articles of Blake's faith in ethics and art. 68 :— 1. as to the supreme importance of cultivating and recognizing what he terms 'Minute Particulars. f. and inspiration {Jerusalem. U. and 'Los 35 ' Los is . 50). thou goest back. first mentioned in Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793). 8. ' ' ' f. and f. & fear. 16. symbolizes space . a Thistle across my way. thine little is Holy'. 4). 44-46 : — f. And a double vision is always with me. f. Because thou backward dost return. f. II.' .' meaning thereby those personal characteristics which constitute the identity of the individual. are of Faith. f. . In Blake's reference to his own terrible wrath (1. f. 39). Shall bring thy Wife upon a bier And Butts shall give what Fuseli gave.' Form of strong Urthona' {Jerusalem. one of the Four Zoas {ibid. 31. as Mr. 42). 15). old age. f. f. 11. Heavens over Hells Brooding in holy hypocritic lust. 42. ibid. 1. . 30. With * ' my outward.. 47. the spirit of prophecy at his furnace. 12) and associated with storms and weeping {^Jerusalem. passint). 23. dark black Rock & a gloomy Cave. the Vehicular . as the sons of Los. f. 1. 18) he appears to identify himself with Los The name Los. Belong They ibid. f. With my inward Eye. by mortals nam'd Time. 34). — '. 3. 87. 8. A 40 27 See note to 1. f. Envy. 1. is the third of the Four Sons of Jerusalem that never were Generated (^Jerusalem. And here is Enitharmon's bower And Los the terrible thus hath sworn. 1). 43. 'tis an old Man grey. 1. If Thou woe art to endless betray'd 30 . 1. 11. the emanation of Los {ibid.

' 47 Cp.Poems fro7n I struck the Thistle with Letters my 307 foot. unimaginative Instead of the Mutual Forgivenesses. hypocrite. General Good is the plea of the scoundrel. . a Tree deadly and poisonous. liii and Iv. in which 'Minute Particulars' of personal identity are crushed under the weight of reason and natural religion.. a Rock. I see a Cave. And broke him up from his delving root. And his So I dismal terrors spoke.' wrath The old man weltering upon my path. & seek with love & sympathy. 55. every one in their own identity ibid. It is to Instead of Albion's lovely mountains. note X 3 to ' The Grey Monk. The Rock and the Cave. 11. 60-64 He who would : ' . And not in generalizing Demonstrations of the Rational Power.' 1. descending before Swell'd & bloated General Forms repugnant to the Divine Humanity. & the curtains of Jerusalem. ' f. 16. & flatterer For Art & Science cannot exist but in minutely organized Particulars. & make me struck in my 45 ? 50 afraid. the Minute Particulars. constantly recurring figures in Blake's later Prophetic Books. 43. 11. 49 Cp. All broad & general principles belong to benevolence Who protects minute particulars. MS. The Infinite alone resides in Definite & Determinate Identity. while we Derogate from him in the trifles & small articles of that goodness. I see : Pits of bitumen ever burning. 56-62 : — easy acknowledge a man to be great & good. the terrible shade. Or my sister survive on my Love's pain The curses of Los. This is rendered clear by the passage in Jerusalem. — do good to another must do it in Minute Particulars. Then Los appear'd in all his power: 55 In the Sun he appear'd. ' f. And all my friends be with doubts beguil'd? ' Must my Wife live in my Sister's bane. who is the Only General and Universal Form. Must the duties of life each other cross ? Must every joy be dung & dross ? Must my dear Butts feel cold neglect Because I give Hayley his due respect? Must Flaxman look upon me as wild. Those alone are his friends who admire his minutest powers.' . are invariably used as sj'mbols of the state opposed to Jerusalem (or the life of spiritual liberty and imagination). Book Pickering MS. To which all Lineaments tend.

' are not . . inward Los in his might. Nor yet the Space that I do see My Mind is not with thy light array'd. They vanish not from me & mine we guard them first & last The generations of men run on in the tide of Time. When I had my 70 Defiance given. 78 the Arrows] with . : : 60 Ease] rest Swinb. . Los flam'd in With the 55-58 Cp. The Sun stood trembling in heaven The Moon. tho' on the Earth. Milton. .Poems from 3o8 Letters My face in fierce flames in my double sight 'Twas outward a Sun. * We eat we little. all things vanish & are seen no more. & dearth. I Los stood in that fierce glowing fire And I became One Man with him arising in my strength. Behind my back.' Are I. Six Thousand Years & Space obey my will. My hands are labour'd day & night. 20. 11. & sickness. . Another Sun feeds our life's streams. ' And Los behind f. finish'd. just close turned round in terror. & the Sun was hot bows of my Mind & the Arrows of Thought. . . 'Twas too late now to recede. But leave their destin'd lineaments permanent for ever & ever. And Ease comes never in my sight. : : ' I am that Fell from Shadowy Prophet who. Felt affliction. drink 60 less. Became leprous & white as snow And every Soul of men on the Earth . My Wife has no indulgence given Except what comes to her from heaven. me 6-25 : — stood. in Six return I : both Thousand Years. up and down for not one Moment Of Time is lost. that glow'd remote below. my path. 75 men] man : all edd. 75 & sorrow. ago. We 65 warmed with thy beams Thou measurest not the Time to me. Los had entered into my soul His terrors now posses'd me whole I arose in fury & strength. arrows Swinb. a terrible flaming Sun. This Earth breeds not our happiness. Time w^alk . where Satan Fell and was cut off. Thy terrors shall not make me afraid. Six Thousand Years my station in the Eternal bosom. nor one Event of Space unpermanent But all remain every fabric of Six Thousand Years Remains permanent. . and behold.

To whom be Glory & Dominion. And it is thus Created. S5 delight. f. Beulah is evermore Created around Eternity appearing To the Inhabitants of Eden around them on all sides. threefold in soft Beulah's night. of man are Beulah. First On Couches soft with mild of Beulah a most pleasant Sleep music tended by Flowers of Beulah. Creating Spaces. 11. within each district. 197-203 'There is from Great Eternity a mild & pleasant rest : — Nam'd Beulah. round incircled With arms of love & pity & sweet compassion. Milton. Weeping for Milton mute wonder held the Daughters of Beulah. ! : to man. Enraptur'd with affection sweet and mild benevolence.' See also The Four Zoas. f. and OrUlro. which abounds in fourfold correspondences always conveys the idea of perfection and harmony. gore. mild & Gentle. Lo ! the Eternal Great Humanity. As the breath of the Almighty such are the words of man In the great Wars of Eternity. a fourfold vision is given to 'Tis fourfold in And march before father me . I a fourfold vision see. This place is called Beulah It is a pleasant lovely Shadow Where no dispute can come. To build the Universe stupendous. Jerusalem. 80 .Poems from My My My Letters 309 bowstring fierce with Ardour breathes arrows glow in their golden sheaves . Amen Walks among all his awful Family. lest they fall into Eternal Death. 34. Sweet Female forms winged or floating in the air spontaneous. Al-Ulro. But Beulah to its Inhabitants appears. feminine. Because of those who Sleep. brothers & The heavens drop Now And with human my supreme .-^. /ass«V«. given in Mercy to those who sleep.' — See also the opening lines of the second book of Milton There is a place where Contrarieties are equally True. Into this place the Sons & Daughters of Ololon descended With solemn mourning into Beulah's moony shades & hills. 8-1 1 : And the Four States of Humanity in its Repose — ' Were shewed them. Night i. Eternally Created by the Lamb of God around On all & sides. — 81 brothers] brother all edd. The Daughters of Beulah follow Sleepers in all their Dreams. 98. a Soft Moony Universe. 0. and the later Pro- — 86 Beulah] In Blake's mythology the four states phetic Books. . 11. Alia. in fury of Poetic Inspiration. Evermore. within without the Universal Man. But to The Sons of Eden. the moony habitations of Beulah Are from Great Eternity a mild & pleasant Rest. Pure. Mental forms Creating. : ' : : : As the beloved infant in his mother's bosom. lovely. Cp. 85 Fourfold the basic idea of Blake's symbolic system. seen in every face.

3 When] If EY. lose every Friend.3 Poems from o 1 And May God us keep Newton's sleep twofold Always. person degrade.' 2 See note to 10 I'm Envy'd] I ' am Mary.' Cp. not through. my shame my Fame. xix). 21. 103. Butts Gr. 10. in Blake's Letters language. and WMR. Pickering envied EY. 9 . Book xxxvii. a comparison repeated and into 'spectre ' And ' leads When for 'spectre' you f. not 'divided 27-30. where ' ' in a state and 'inward eye' of imagination is of reason. August which led to his trial for high treason (see Gilchrist's Life. 1803. I'm despis'd. i race . I offend .' title I. I ought to blame myself. . ' incomprehensible the Vegetated Mortal Eye's perverted & single vision To [i. to reason separated from imagination]. chap. From .' 11. the latter with the Verses. EY. ! meant man's reason and imagination own of harmony. 7^. 104 11. pre- burn what I have I have been very much degraded peevishly written about my friend. when ? my I ? speak. 1 1 : : — he to believe a and 'emanation' see introductory note 88 Cp. ' Printed by DGR. too low.' contrasted with the ' — to ' : MS. 11. if it all arise from my own fault. the pencil bury. .' in which Blake describes the circumstances ' Felpham. All the pen my my is Talents 1 am either When Elate I & dishonour. In a letter addressed to 'M"". And starts & my . ' the outward eye emphasized in a couplet of The Everlasting Gospel. each my passive. & injuriously treated . WMR. 11. 22. MS. Jerusalem. Marlborough S* London' dated i6. why was was Why When I born with a different face I not born like the rest of I Then I'm silent & Then verse I My one look. e. or too highly priz'd I'm Envy'd. or. and dead is When Meek 5 . but. the eye 53. & Single visioHj ' twofold ' By 87 twofold] is 'emanation. My pictures despise temper chastise terror. faced by ' Give me your advice in my perilous adventure : i. you see with.

falls back in terror with sharp recoil ' : of drawn-up limbs . 144. whose twisted limbs make a sort of spiral cradle around and above the child's triumphant figure an attendant. Disgracer of the female form. gilded. note\ copied from a loose scrap of paper. of patches. Amphitryon watch the struggle 9 O] EY omit. and such-like things. poisonous Weeping. rings. 143. he And ' fell upon my 5 worm thigh.' 6 paltry] pretty EY.' Swinburne's text (pp. thus in tears did soft reply Knowest thou How much not. on the back of which is a pencilled sketch of Hercules throttling the serpents. Whatever hides the female form That cannot bear the mortal storm Our ' ! we give the female live ? still make And what would turn into disease We will turn to what 13 . Thou paltry. abhorred. Alcmene and he grasping her hand. . naked.Poems from Letters 3 1 r VI A upon my knee and dancing merrily Singing I i fairy leapt 'Thou thing said. in silence. O fairies' : lord Therefore in pity lives to 9 ! by us contemned. joy and please. . necklaces. Pins.

.

DEDICATION OF BLAKE S ILLUSrRATIONS OF BLAWS Published Written 'GRAVE' May circa ist. 1808 1806.1807 .

Louis Schiavonetti an action resented by Blake. which was first printed in the Geiitletnaiis — Magazine. This letter. was to have formed an additional engraved The design plate with a vignette of Blake's invention. I never to it. larity. but was returned by the latter upon grounds sufficiently clearly stated in his letter dated May. however. R. Schiavonetti ten guineas for etching a plate from the drawing in question. Cromek. violating this unwritten agreement. and submitted by the artist to Cromek. Fuseli. 1852. to dedicate the work to her honour w*^ have been yours exclus^ but that you might not be deprived of any advantage likely to contribute to your reputation. achieved any degree of poputhe public. not (i. The allowed you. was actually prepared. whose strong feeling with regard to this transaction is evidenced in several of the epigrams in the Rossetti MS. on the understanding that the engraving of the plates was also to be entrusted to the artist. had the remotest suspicion that you*^ for a moment entertain the idea of writing me to supply money to create an ' : Sir. The dedication of this work to Queen Charlotte. 205-207). February. appeared with the recommendations of West. 1807.PREFACE Blake's Illustrations of Blair s Grave is the only work which. Flaxman. I have returned the drawing with this In note. and the list of subscribers Blake's twelve alone considerably exceeded five hundred. not me. or brought his name prominently before The edition. which is printed in ordinary type on the recto of the leaf following the title-page. and others. under any circumstances. for designs or 'inventions' were purchased by Cromek the sum of twenty guineas. employed instead a talented pupil of Bartolozzi's.' honour ! . . H. I rec''*. The Queen in w'* I cannot possibly participate. and I will briefly state my reasons for so doing. Cromek. the first place. begins your letter demanding four guineas for the sketcJied vignette ded" to the Queen. widely advertised by its publisher. and reprinted by Gilchrist with* great surprise. during his lifetime. I was willing to pay Mr. I do not think it merits the price you affix In the next place.

mother with her adolescent and infant family a man and children to the right. M. and the Ascension of the Above. The subject is the deliverance of the Human Soul from Death.' ' ' : . Drawings. ii.The Grave 3 1 5 The original design. and Engravings. clasp their upraised hands in thankfulness for the great deliverance. are two angels. . is thus described by Mr.' Executed with most List I. Just. Between the upper angels a space is left for the inscription. no.Rossetti in his Annotated Lists of Blake's Paintings. 70 (Gilchrist. another holding the unequally-poised balance and a sealed roll a third descends with a key to unlock the fetters of the grave. W. preserved in the British Museum. one sheathing the sword. A . 309) special care and completeness in pale semi-neutral tints a very beautiful work. . their rises to the left chains riven. .

5 . Behold this Gate of Pearl and Gold 10 ! To The dedicate to England's Queen Visions that my Soul has seen. is signed 'William Blake.. And cold and pale the Limbs repos'd. In her mild The Grave And rich Hand is the golden Keys : Heaven's golden Gate. 20 . and poor around it wait . The Dedication 14 solemn] silken Wilk. bring What I have borne on solemn Wing. by Her kind permission. 1808. O Shepherdess of England's Fold. From Before the vast regions of the Grave. Sov'reign's Feet.. Shep. wond'ring. Her Throne my Wings Bowing before ' my I wave 15 . these Blossoms sweet The Grave produc'd In mild repose from Earthly strife The Blossoms of Eternal Life . ' ! Blair's Grave. That Mortal Eyes cannot behold But. And. The Soul awakes and.To the Queen of Death is made of Gold. when the Mortal Eyes are clos'd.' 15 regions] region Wilk. sees The Door i . Shep.

EPIGRAMS FROM ANNOTATED COPY OF REYNOLDS' WORKS BLAKE'S circa 1808 .

November 2. Blake given in the following Notes. Book. When Nations grow ' ' ' ' ' * ' Old. The annotations in Blake's Reynolds all refer to the first eight Discourses contained in the first volume of the Works.' These epigrams. According to Ellis and Yeats (ii. 315) there can be no doubt that at the time Blake was writing extracts from the Discourses to Butts.' adding. those written in the copy of Reynolds being probably rather the earlier of the two. So says Sir Joshua. in which he quotes with approval a passage from the Discourses. 1798). while those on the following Discourses are jotted down As the latter are mixed with verses in the MS.PREFACE TO THE EPIGRAMS The nine epigrams which follow are found interspersed a number of prose annotations to Sir Joshua Discourses. and So say I.' attributes the annotaGilchrist. referring to his quarrel with Cromek and Stothard the whole of the epigrams may be dated circa 1808. on tions and epigrams in the 'Discourses' to the year 1820. and reconsidering.' written in Blake's autograph on Reynolds' the margins of the first volume of his copy of Reynolds' among ' Works (2nd edition. moreover.' a letter to Mr. ' Whatever Blake may have meant by it this cryptic certainly cannot refer to his own age at the time .' saying. are precisely of the same order as those scattered through ' ' ' ' ' ' : : the pages of the later part of the Rossetti MS. however. he was looking over his pencilled notes and adding to His only reference. 1802. This is the page my Proofs of this Opinion are Opinion of Will. intrinsic evidence. to Reynolds is in them. Butts dated Felpham. as he says.' Blake's later and more prejudiced view of the President of the Academy is forcibly expressed in his note on the titleThis Man was Hired to Depress Art. These marginal notes were made at first in pencil. all his thoughts on art. and afterwards copied over and supplemented in ink. This is obviously a conclusion from the words Aged Sixty-three in the lines beginning.

which is now preserved in the British Museum. very similar reference to being born old occurs in one of his epigrams in the MS. Book written about the same period : ' — S[tothard] in childhood. Was extreme old and most extremely poor He has grown old and rich and what he will He is extreme old and extreme poor still.Epigrams 3 1 9 A of writing. upon the nursery floor.' : : My text is taken from Blake's annotated copy of Reynolds. .

And with Labours of Ignorance fill every place. ' . I you'd] you would Gil. 4 Labours of Ignorance] 11 Some look to see the sweet Outlines. & Blake's of his disappointment at his preceding these lines runs : first — ' . i. 259. Hire Idiots to Paint with cold light & hot shade. iii). vol. I saw & I knew immediately Gil. Bracelets Reynolds. Give high Price for the worst.EPIGRAMS Advice of the Popes who succeeded the of Rafael Age first the Arts if you'd Mankind Degrade. ' 318 {reading to the popes who succeeded to the age ')• 2 hot] not EY. labour of idleness Gil. 320. ii. Paint. i. of Rafail 257. the difference between Rafael & Rubens. comment on Sir Joshua Reynolds' account impressions of Raphael. Gil. Degrade Reynolds. I am happy I cannot say tliat Rafael Ever was from my Earliest Childhood hidden from Me. i. WMR EY ii. unless they are born with Determinate Organs. leave the best in disgrace. written at foot of title-page. xv. Powder'd Hair. vol. & Stays p.' (' Epig. The prose passage Men who have been Educated with Works of Venetian Artists under their Eyes Cannot see Rafael. EY i. And beauteous Forms that Love does wear Some look to find out Patches.

but by every other mode incessantly endeavoured to debase and assimilate this free and happy country to the all model of ^& ferocious and enslaved Republick of France ! — "These Adam-wits. to France.Epigrams 321 111 When France got Were Savage vol. Reynolds. [iv]. i. IV When S' Joshua Reynolds died All Nature was degraded The King drop'd a tear into the Queen's Ear. i. who since the era above mentioned. cix. first i. . prints as two lines. And all his Pictures Faded. vol. Sixty-three. Suggested by the following footnote memoir of Reynolds prefixed to the Discourses: — 'How in Malone's justly may we apply the immediately following lines of the same great Poet to those demagogues among us. 'twixt fools & Knaves. Began to dream they wanted liberty And when no rule. They led their wild desires to woods and caves. ciii. beneath Reynolds' dedicatory letter to the Members of the Royal Academy and following Blake's prose comment The Rich Men of England form themselves into a society to Sell & Not ' : — to . MS. 323. p. Cf. Aged Gold. For all Reynolds. are Born Poor. by laws less circumscribed and bound. vol. have not only on occasions gratuitously pleaded the cause of the enemies of their country with the zeal of fee'd advocates. p. Europe. below the account of Reynolds' death. V When Nations grow Old. 259 and EY ii. Ear] Gil. i." . ' This couplet is printed only by EY ii. . free. the Arts grow And Commerce settles on every Tree And the Poor & the Old can live upon Cold. And thought that all but savages were slaves. Book xlvi. Only in Gil. 3 The . & after— Slaves. Reynolds. 323. too fortunately free. . no precedent was found Of MEN. . p.

in italics. Discourse : — vol. VI On the Venetian Painter He makes the Lame But then he Strives to walk. i. 4 Aged Sixty-three] Gil. we all agree. 99. or propriety But if general censure was given to that school from the of expression. 264. and WMR print as two lines. . . . i. had seen but One Picture of Mich. (' Epig. his Shadows would destroy it & deform its appearance. Interest or his Duty. 324. Cold] Gil. EY ii. in the opinion of Michael Angelo.' Printed only by EY ii. vol. knew & despised all that Titian could do. Put on.' Gil. how much more heavily and more justly would the censure fall on Paolo Veronese. vu A pair of Stays to mend the Shape Of crooked Humpy Woman.Epigrams 322 Buy Artist who does not The Pictures. & to the Destruction of ail Form or OutUne. 98. O Venus now thou art Quite a Venetian Roman. and Gil. to blind all Suggested by the following passage in the fourth appears that the principal attention of the Venetian painters. p. to the neglect of the ideal beauty of form. — I ' If the Venetian's Following Blake's prose note Outline was Right. Ang. Reynolds.' Titian ! Gil. and more especially on Tintoret ? Venetian attention is to a ConBlake prefaces his couplet by the note Reynolds. EY ii. . See Introduction. i. WMR (' Epig. who can see. I When Gold] . Purposely & Intentionally. 333. and . p. seemed to be engrossed by the study of colours. WMR print as a separate line. Ang. 3 And WMR print as two lines. 259. know Exhibitions. : .' iv). this it ' : — ' tempt & Neglect of Form Itself. sight of a picture of Titian. does not WMR 258. As if Mich. . ' By i. XIX throw his Contempt on such Trading own either his ').

Suggested by the passage in the sixth DisThose who have undertaken to write on our art and have represented it as a kind of inspiration. p. course : — * — art may be acquired. is a Knave.Epigrams 323 Vlll Venetian Than all ! is no more on a Crooked Whore. loo. as well as the other Venetians. to the exclusion of Titian for though his style is not so pure as that of many other of the Italian school. 147. ' — followed by the present couplet. I wish to be understood to mean Paolo Veronese and Tintoret. Why on Art Such ? Idiots are not Artists Printed only by EY ii. whether there are any means by which Reynolds. behold the Philosopher's grave was born quite a Fool. as a gift bestowed upon peculiar favourites at their birth. however awkward in his imitators. IX O Reader. when I speak of the Venetian painters. this : ' Y 2 . thy Colouring Boulster'd Plasters Reynolds. The Man who says that the Genius is not Born but Taught.' This couplet follows Blake's prose note Bacon's philosophy has Destroy'd true Art & Science. i. ! He vol. 333. and have a much more captivating and liberal air.' Printed only by EY ii. Discourse: — .' Blake's note on this is Titian. Suggested by the following passage in the fourth 'For my own part. but he died quite a Knave. p. which. seem to insure a much more favourable disposition from their readers. than he who attempts to examine. yet there is a sort of senatorial dignity about him. vol. seems to become him exceedingly. i. coldly. so far from : — ' Senatorial Dignity appear to me to give always the Characters of Vulgar should Titian and the Venetians be Named in a Discourse Stupidity. 337.

i .

POEMS FROM THE 'TROPHETIC 1789-180- 'BOOKS' .

is conducted by do nothing of ourselves Spirits. is almost entirely in prose the others are composed in different measures. absent in the later books nearly every phrase. latter may possibly have been suggested to Blake's ear by the passages from Klopstock's Messiah which Hay ley read and translated to him during his stay at Felpham. ' ' poem ' is We — written dwell on Earth can : who every thing or Sleep. and epithet must . is nowhere used by the poet himself. a storehouse of his mythology. it is impossible to subject them to any ' prefixes to ordinary standard of criticism without ignoring the primary intention of the author. The greater number of the Prophetic Books are written a variety of forms of free verse. name.' and ' ' ' two of the number the sub-title A Prophecy. In the earlier of these writings symbolism is wholly. Broadly epic in character.' This name. in imitation of Milton. they are in content a verbal and pictorial rendering of Blake's visions. first employed by Gilchrist to describe Blake's Visionary Writings. the following account of the measure in which the in . T/ze Marriage of Heaven and Hell.' The Prophetic Books fall under a category of their own. Either more or less than literature according to the point of view of the reader. In Blake's Address to the Public which serves as Introduction to the first chapter of Jerusalem^ he furnishes. varying from the semirhythmic Ossianic verses of Tirielto the short irregular metre The of Ahania or the pseudo-hexameters of Jerusalem. One book. be interpreted symbolically. or almost wholly. no less than Digestion : . though he refers to them as inspired or dictated. and a fervent exposition of his mystical gospel.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO POEMS FROM THE 'PROPHETIC BOOKS' In the present section I group together the lyrical poems from the works commonly known as the * Prophetic Books.

Human Race Nations are Destroy'd or Flourish in proportion as Their Poetry. TJie Book of Los and Ahattia. A MS. Crawford. the artist appears to have resorted to the simpler is less process of ordinary etching. I consider 'd Monotonous Cadence. but as much a bondage as rhyme itself. in the mouth of a true Orator. the mild & gentle for the mild & gentle parts. H. such monotony was not only awkward. 262). .. and Music are Destroy'd or Flourish The Primeval State of Man was Wisdom. forming part Mrs. Art. and the prosaic for inferior parts: all are Poetry Fetter'd Fetters the necessary to each other. but by far the greater number were destroyed. 1891. of the Lakelands Library of Mr. ceasing to be mere illustration as in the Songs of Innocence. attributed to Blake. But I soon found that. I therefore have produced a variety in every line. This is the work called Outhoonl included in a list of books by Blake. W. Ferguson (Gil. an 'Angel' of the Irvingite church. on religious grounds. complementary to and scarcely less important than the text itself. which was at Sotheby's in March. : ! ! and Science ' ! The greater number of the Prophetic Books were produced by the method of relief engraving which Blake first employed in the Songs of Innocence. both published in 1795. into whose hands they passed after the death of . to be a necessary and indispensible part of Verse. Two of these. The effect. Painting. both of cadences & number of syllables. Milton and Jemsalem. while one at least would appear to have been lost or destroyed. pictorial design plays an increasingly prominent part. Every word and every letter is studied and put into its fit place the terrific numbers are reserved for the terrific parts. ii. and probably for this reason in two works. relief. grand. like that used by Milton & Shakspeare & all writers of English Blank Verse derived from the modern bondage of Rhyming. by Frederick Tatham. A few of these engraved Prophetic Books are known to by two or three examples only. The labour of this must have been very great. survive in MS.\\& In the works engraved in reverted to his original method. Tiriel and The Four Zoas. Blake. however.Prophetic Books 327 'When a this verse was first dictated to me. and in Blake's next hooks. offered No for sale by his widow to a Mr. Other of the Visionary Writings were never engraved. and developing into a species of secondary symbolism. us ' copy is known to exist. was sold This MS.

Russell and Maclagan.' The former consist of a series of propositions couched in purely abstract terms. both entitled Ther'e is 7io Natural Religion^ and two of the socalled Sibylline Leaves. I append also. in many ways helpful and suggestive. and by the introduction of private opinions not drawn from Blake's writings.) purchased by Mr. value of their work. Ellis and Yeats. Few of Blake's editors have endeavoured to grapple with ' . under the heading Dogmatic Writings. notably through the want of legible and properly indexed reprints.' a sequel to The Gates of Paradise^ should also be accounted one of the Prophetic ' ' Books. . Quaritch that the MS. Quaritch. was catalogued Angels and Devils. The latter editors. to their theory of his symbolic system. however. and 34 original drawings by this celebrated artist. Swinburne's Critical Essay (1868) still remains the greatest real utility. 4"*. is too incomplete to be of any and an index which. and of a concordance displaying in chronological sequence the names. cf. of any adequate apparatus for the study of his text. commentaries of the different books. and resold for a small sum. The Keys of the Gates. descriptions of two small early works. autograph manuscript. containing poems. neatly mounted on cartridge paper.' I am informed by Mr. who print Jerjisalem with a brief introduction.Prophetic Books 328 — Blake (W. Strictly speaking. and phrases symbolically used. In the following list of the Prophetic Books the term is interpreted in its broader sense to include some of the earlier writings in which the mythological element is not very prominent. In the absence. indeed. the difificulties of the Prophetic Books. as my introduction and footnotes to that poem show. was proved to be not by Blake it was put up again at Sotheby's. is somewhat lessened by the omission of references to the passages upon which their conclusions are based. any attempt at interpretation must necessarily be of a somewhat tentative character. inscriptions to the 7 sections. In the exegetical field the only important are those of Swinburne and Messrs. the latter being small leaflets treating of art and classic poetry. names and most readable introduction to the Prophetic Books. An initial step towards supplying the former want has been taken by Messrs. words. in their much space devote and paraphrased The three-volume edition of Blake.

[i]) father of Curiosity." I cried.' friends Join'd Hand in The First Piece ends (p. I. a Virgin ever young. and Strengthen her weak arm. [5]) Go see the City Hand Go see the Natu ral tie of flesh & blood Go see. And after Leaden Sloth. ' [6]. the verso of the last leaf being There is no dated watermark." cried the muse. "'when all around Summer hath spred her Plumes. tears started at the Sound. who brought forth wonder. from whom came Ignorance. is plainly Pages MS. These are the Gods fear which came from [interpolated for Gods like these nor male nor leaves of blank. evidently belongs to the same period as 'Contemplation. 1. consists of four crown 8vo paper.EARLIER WORKS no symbolism. written in ink. This extremely early autograph MS. These leaves are now mounted upon rather larger paper. more — I ' : ! | : : ! ! | strong. on the outer cover of which is written 7 (seven) The handwriting of William Blake. together ming|ling yet they all war with Shame. its former owner. [6]) Woe.' and a few other of the last I have therefore dated it as falling pieces in Blake's Poetical Sketches. why. Grief perch'd upon my brow. W. ' : ' : | | — | | female are.. indicating where two of Blake's afterthoughts should be inserted. Rossetti's.' The MS. It contains two pieces. & Golden Pleasures Beam around my head. and tunes her Notes ? When Buxom Joy doth fan his wings. circa 1777-1783. the first of which begins imperfectly in the middle of a poem. I the ties of marriage love thou Scarce Shalt . find but Self love | Stands Between. the division into metrical lines being marked in red ink by Mr. Rossetti.' 'The Couch of Death. The MS. which is incomplete. Both are written straightforwardly as prose. but or little (Characterized by some extent of the Prophetic anticipatory to Books proper) Seven-Page MS. 7^ x 5 inches. between the year 1777 (when. if they list. but Single | Pregnate bring forth mighty powers — or. There is also a red ink note of Mr. She knew them not ] . according to Mathew's 'Advertisement.' the last pieces in that volume were written) and 1783. The First Piece begins {imperfectly) (p. and thought Embrac'd Her.. dost thou ' : | | [ I accost me ? " | ' The Second Piece ends {p. Grief. M. then She bore Pale desire. the year in which the book was printed. with a few deletions.' " The Second Piece begins (p. "What does this mean. and ink and pencil corrections and additions. . 22) : " O'er yonder lake [ the winds their .

Rossetti in the Monthly Review (August. 1903. the handfirst draft evidently not the rough writing appears to me to belong to no late period in his life. Tiriel. was first printed by Mr. by Mr. though with several deletions. my time is gone. Mr. Autograph MS." it Said no more. "Mne" are scratched out M. headed by arabic numerals 1-8. marked for insertion on p. for an erased Can wisdom be put in passage on the verso of f 7 contains the line a silver rod. untimely lost. One Law for the Lion & Ox is Oppression.' On grounds of the character of the handwriting Mr. Rossetti in his Aldine edition (1874). In the original blue-grey paper cover bearing the inscription in Blake's in Blake's earlier autograph. The whole of the first fragment has been printed by Mr. pp. W. W. hand. vol. who entitles the poem 'The Passions. Each section of the poem. (in section 8) " I am Tiriel. or even before that. [7] are two passages belonging to the first piece. ' ' is one law given for the lion the patient Ox ? is obviously the ' & Why of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790). it seems probable that Blake at first intended to write The daughters of Mnetha' (one of the personages first introduced in Tiriel). Its correct place. W. Mr. of handwriting prevails up to near the close of the poem. upon eight leaves of foolscap quarto paper 8| x t\ inches. who has been kind enough to lend me the original MS. or love in a golden bowl ?' which Blake afterwards engraved as ' : ' part of the Motto to The Book of Thel. f. begins at the top of a new page. Yeats' statement that 'the letters in the Bodleian copy' is incorrect. M. Quaritch. Rossetti says the MS. Yeats conjectures.' This MS. circa 1788-1789. 6. Referring to the handwriting of is 'neatly executed. lov'd even unto Death now Dead. formerly the property of Mrs." a new and : This character With the words less precise kind .' On p.. [4]. Tiriel M.Prophetic Books 330 Sad Complainings bear for Conrade lost. thy Conrade once. Written upon both sides of the leaf. 22) And is there not one law for both source of the ' last line ' : the lion and the ox ? An ' additional proof that Tiriel was written before Thel is found in the The daughters of Mne Seraphim led round opening line of the latter book their sunny flocks. as Mr. S.) Another line on the same page. Rossetti ascribes this piece to a rather early date in [Blake's] career say 1785. thee I from approaching ill. Neatly written. corrections.' I owe the above description to the courtesy of Signora Rossetti Angeli.' as well as of another line in the Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793.. 2. Blake. would have ' | ' ' ' seen just before or just after TheV It is evidently just before. and now in the possession of Mr. and is Tiriel. and afterwards altered this to The daughters of the Seraphim without erasing the meaningless Mne from ' : ' ' ' ' the plate. B. he conceives. | I | — ' eight years of age. W. 133-129). B. farewrell.' Here. M. (See footnote to that poem where the erased passage is quoted in full. There is no date on the watermark of the paper. divided into metrical lines by the editor. but vanished ever from my Sight. when he was twenty| When . ' King of the West. the verso off 8 blank. and additions. Gilchrist. 1. I'll guard thee living. xii.

But now his eyes were darkened. W. Reprints : WMR. EY Har iii. " The Ghost of Abel. The probably followed by style of the later lines seems to the present writer to be much later than the style of the rest of the poem. the wise Ct" & pray repugnant forth. [aged del. see the death of to subtil as a serpent in a paradise.' In the opinion of the present editor." or "America. 1. Moreover. 8 recto." It is symbolical rather than allegorical. that Blake. And Aged ' Gates of his beautiful palace. more of a direct appeal from the soul of Blake to the soul of the reader. Yeats says ' : resembles rather that of "The Mental Traveller" than the more vehement and broken style of the later prophetic poems. & Heva's feet in awful death.' Begins (f. sons of the Curse. look on her that bore you. after an interval some years. once the Queen of all the western plains . I 1. f. makes it clear that "Tiriel" It was belongs to an earlier period than any other of the prophetic books. insects & warbling birds. B. Har. paradise is fall'n. I 331 think. but this latter page is as purely mystical as "Europe.] (f." — Tiriel — man's folly del. outstretch'd at Typ. 7 verso. ' [Hypocrisy the ideot's wisdom to Compell'd Till I am 11. clearly indicating. ' . took up the poem and finished it.] With Myratana. & a drear sandy plain Returns my thirsty hissings in a curse on thee. recto. 1-7) : Such was Myratana. The point is worthy of notice since it appears to have misled one Referring to Mr. and thus the Voice : Of aged Tiriel arose. you accursed sons. . dent upon mystical knowledge for its interest. Rossetti's remarks on The style of the poem. the quality of the handwriting is the same throughout. (f.] father. 31 . and much more wholly depen. The rest of the poem has a certain interest and meaning as a story. perhaps in much more summary fashion than he had at first intended. Come. Mistaken father of a lawless race my voice is past. Consuming all." or "Jerusalem.Prophetic Books of handwriting begins . It is more directly mystical. & his wife fading in death They stood before their once delightful palace. i) : — 'I. & forth my weak Come Ends come forth.] arms I here have borne your dying mother. And now my both flowers & fruits. which at least of Blake's commentators. the erased line referred portion to repeated in Thel proves that this page could not have been written later than 1789. that his sons might hear in their gates. 7 ends) humble the immortal spirit. '"Accursed race of Come In Tiriel! behold your [aged del. and the slight difference perceptible between that of the last page and a half and the earlier of is merely such as may be attributed to the sharpening of a quill pen which had grown somewhat coarse.' WBY. O ! * He ceast. Tiriel stood before the [But dark were his once piercing eyes del. the two handwritings Mr." .

1. a whirlpool fierce to draw creations in ? Ends ' : a Nostril wide. & he was conbecome a Devil. & shakes his fires in the burden'd air Hungry clouds swag on the deep. W. see | | | & XXXIV & XXXV | Chap. who stretched out his arms. H. the return of Adam into Paradise . The Argument ' begins 1.' is the active springing from Energy. but written and probably engraved in 1790. I have also The Bible of Hell. : This the book as originally conceived. ii. she in paleness sought the secret air. 24. title-page 8 plates. 3) round their sunny flocks. which the world shall have if they behave well. 8. Evil is Hell. relief engraving. (f. relief engraving. And thus her gentle lamentation falls like morning dew. Love and Hate. 3) : As a new heaven is begun. the Eternal Hell revives. embracing the flame of fire. and arose as Elijah. 3. WBY. Good is the passive that obeys Reason religious call Good is Heaven. 1876. Text ends (f. The daughters of Mne {sic. 71-5). read 'the ') Seraphim led Begins (f. trembling & affright? a tender curb upon the youthful burning boy? a little curtain of flesh on the bed of our desire? Why Why Why ' The Virgin Facsimile Reproductions DGR Typ. i. The Argument i plate. 79-89) and may have been an addition to ' ' . 2. about 6 x 4^ inches. Now is the dominion of Edom. Note This Angel. L. Reason and Energy. All but the youngest To fade away like morning beauty from her mortal day.gether in its infernal or diabolical sense. EY Muir (coloured). who is now Isaiah Attraction | | | | : ] | | : | I ! | is my particular friend we often read the Bible to. about 6x4 inches. inhaling terror. Heaven of Marriage I | and Without Hell. 2-10) 'When he had so spoken. containin the copy ing *A Song of Liberty. 2) : ' — ' Song also occurs separately. I beheld the Angel. Rintrah roars.Prophetic Books 332 Book The 3. & The Author Thel of | | | I Printer Will"^ Blake 1789. and Repulsion.' ' Text begins (f. Down by the river of Adona her soft voice is heard. M. The 4. WMR. text 25 plates Collation title-page i plate. Thel's Motto ' i plate. sumed. ' Collation : i plate. 11. Without Contraries is no progression. 11. : (Gil. | j date. 27 plates. his writings are the linen clothes folded up.' ' : : Why a Tongue impress'd with honey from 16-22) (f. i. and it is : now thir | ty-three is years since its advent. are the necessary to Human existence. The last three plates. Reprints: Gil. which the world shall have whether they will : 1 I | [ | .' started from her seat. sitting at the tomb . every wind ? Why an Ear. 'Thel 6 ' plates .' would seem to have been wanting described by Gilchrist {Life. iii. & with a shriek she came into the vales of Har. From these contraries spring what Evil Good & Evil. And lo I Swedenborg the Angel. Extracts: 76. Fled back unhinder'd till B.

held all Swinburne also read that copy Brother.' In a letter to the present editor dated June 21. a long hunt. Johnson. According from : Poem a Seven Books. 2) the Earth . in 1791. with hoarse note. My remember Brother. being Blake's work. even if no better in workmanship than this first book. I thought I had (and still believe I have. copy of the poem. 208- 78-86. Extracts.'s French Revolution. little The . not in the tone of the Prophetic Books. like the Poetical Sketches and Descriptive Catalogue. Muir (coloured). Linnell is the only possessor I know of an original copy. tice. WBY. curse the sons of joy Nor his accepted brethren. 27. necessarily great in a certain way. p. Severely realistic not. The French Revolution Book the First. Palmer's handwriting. ends (f. Mr. after .' now be traced. unillustrated.' In a later letter to Mr. Rossetti. Gil. Typ. Rossetti. called The French Revolution (the first of seven projected books). is ^^^iZ One Law \half-page picture of Nebuchadnezzar. but I did not think it at Prophetic memorable performance it in no esteem. Gilchrist refers to her MS. to Gilchrist. 25. without illustrations. adding: 'Mr. & (if I in itself. Reprints'. but it comes much nearer than any . : | | ! | I | ' 1 | Facsimile Reproductions EY ! | : W. 5. dated July 19. L. i. that . I am grieved to say. This was at the time. if as they can hardly be without some personal interest or empirical value. ought nevertheless to be looked up. or even nothing six other books.' * A Song of Liberty was heard over ' ' i. minus. iii. : The Eternal Female groan'd it : ' Let the Priests of the Raven of dawn no longer. this work of Blake's. Linnell is or was my who Its interest is a striking or also looked into it. Mrs. begins (f. Swinb. Gilchrist writes Mr. lay the bound. . One Shilling. the only original work of its author worth splutter. by J. the best which must have been among the residuum your brother it. the possessor of an original copy The statement is incorrect. right) about the same time.Prophetic Books or no. M.' Swinburne also would appear to have seen either this transcript or the original. was published anonymously. whom tyrant he calls free. in The French Revolution. Gilchrist In a letter to W. 1. Mrs. W. is. which. destroyed. whom the above title is transcribed. consisting mainly of mere wind and extant. though I cannot.'] for the & Ox Lion Oppression. say 1862. in quarto format. ' : this post passage . M. it of course is an ordinary piece of typography. 15) he says that this ' poem or apology for a poem. . in Mr. Camden Hotten (coloured). Gilchrist in relation to the Life. when I was lending some help to Mrs. H. That French Revolution & is Book to dealing with historical facts as such. in deadly black. 1863 {Rossetti Papers. Rossetti writes: *I myself have actuallj' seen & read B. I send by dated November 18 of the same year. was printed in ordinary typography. as far as I know. Book I. . 224. since in his Essay (p. Contrary to his usual prac- gives no description or extracts from this book. or build the roof! Nor pale religion's letchery call that For every thing that lives is Holy virginity that wishes but acts not all I ' 14-21) 11. 1905. & concurred with Neither original nor transcript can Mr. 27). find it) a copy of this piece about the prisoners in the Bastille.

& men bliss . the wild snake. relief engraving. the pestilence to adorn him with gems & gold Arise. relief engraving. And thus she spoke to the bright Marygold of Leutha's vale. . sighs . The shadowy daughter of Urthona stood before red Ore. you * now a flower. fourteen suns had faintly joumey'd o'er his dark abode : His food she brought in iron baskets. 179-183. Visions ' 8 plates. his drink in cups of iron When Crown'd with a helmet A quiver with its by year 1793. 'The Daughters of Albion hear her woes. 179-187. for every thing that Thus every morning wails Oothoon Upon I holy. America Collation A (f. and title-page ' 3. 11. burning stores. M. behold their eternal joy. Begins ' and title-page : design. Typ. 6-13) " The sea fowl takes And And : art thou a nymph & trees. a bow like that of night. * ' I the wintry blast for a cov'ring to her limbs . 18 plates. Daughters of the of | ] more than the Heart knows sees | Albion The Eye | Printed by Will'^ Blake | : 1793Collation I plate ' The Argument (f. glancing wings. about 1 1 . sometimes placed full-page towards America. 1. i. 2) : — | Lambeth Printed j . 10. the Daughters of Albion their mountains Upon ' i plate each. Extracts : Gil. EY iii (reduced). in their valleys. Oothoon wander' d in woe. about 9J x6f inches. Prophecy | in the frontispiece : Prophecy Begins a I William Blake ' lives is Theotormon but . ' and sometimes as frontispiece. 3." sits the margin'd ocean. 14 plates 1. .' B. " dewy bed ? I see thee dare not pluck thee from thy I 1 & dark hair the nameless female stood.Prophetic Books 334 II THE PROPHETIC BOOKS Visions 6. Along the vales of Leutha seeking flowers to comfort her . 1876. For the ** soft soul Art thou a flower ? Now ' a nymph Ends (f. Facsimile Reproductions : H. 229-234. — birds. and sing your infant joy little and drink your Arise.' . ' i plate each. W. 6| x 4f inches. of America. 2) : — Enslav'd. weep a trembling lamentation . last plates. 7. conversing with shadows dire. L. 105-108. 'Preludium 2 plates. Reprint : WBY & echo back her sighs. Swinb. & beasts. Muir (coloured).

shook all nature to the utmost pole. M. Gil. Fainting upon the elements. around golden chariots. And & the fierce flames burnt round the heavens. (f. Prophecy | Lambeth Printed By | Will'» Blake 1794. wilt thou bring forth other sons. Reprints (Extracts) by W™ . 242-245. 8c cries in groans Facsimile Reproductions 9. Colophon Lambeth Urizen of | | iii (reduced). ' Preludium 2 plates. raging with red wheels dropping with blood 11. and with mildews of despair.Prophetic Books Ends * :— 16-23) 11. smitten with their own plagues. unable to stem the fires of Ore. B. ten full-page illustrations without text variously arranged in different copies ' 10 plates . relief engraving. without text 2 plates ' plate each. Stiff Filled with blasting fancies. chapters i-ix 15 plates. The furious On sun glow'd fiery red. : Typ. B. Swinb. i. 130. 109-112. Spain & Italy In terror view'd the bands of Albion. in snaky thunders clad. 2) ' . & suck And Enitharmon * Then Los arose And. that my place may not be For I am faint with travel. : '"O mother Enitharmon. To cause my name to vanish. and the ancient Guardians. full-page illustrations of the :— The nameless shadowy female rose from out the breast of Her snaky hair brandishing on the winds of Enitharmon. with a cry Call'd all : his that The the ruddy tide. 18. : Book i. Reprints {Extracts). The arrangement 17 plates. i Begins (f. Gil. Muir (coloured). 235-237. 17. 3. & their bolts and hinges melted.' Facsimile Reproductions 8. about 6x4 inches. about 9^ x 6f inches. ' — 3-11): 'The I [First] Blake 1794. round the abodes of men. 1. Printed | : The End of the book first [ of Urizen. 335 shudderings shook the heav'nly thrones. found ? Like the dark cloud disburden'd in the day of dismal thunder. his sons to the strife of blood. 1876. head he rear'd. They slow advance to shut the five gates of their law-built heaven. ' Collation : title-page and Preludium i plate each. M. The word First ' ' . Swinb. The Tygers couch upon the prey. EY iii (reduced). 129. France.' : Typ. relief engraving. And thus her voice arose Ore. With fierce disease and lust. Muir. 1797. a Europe \ | W. EY W. terrors flew The Lions lash their wrathful tails. anguish and dismay. But the five gates were consum'd." Ends (f. Collation frontispiece and title-page : 'A Prophecy' two 11 plates. plates varies somewhat in different copies. 27 plates.

: Typ.' : ] frontispiece and title-page i ' plate each. Los 3 ' text. Ariston shudder'd. & milk. Aged Mother. : Gil. Eternals. The 1795- Gil. Sitting beneath the eternal Oak.^6 in the title-page. : i. 1876. ' 1. & fear not ' To Ends I unfold your dark visions of torment. 8 plates. about 9 x6|^ inches. ' 2. void. gave him a place in the north. and shook the steadfast Earth. blood. 2) sung : — ' I will sing you a song of Los. Muir (coloured). 5 plates. : engraving. (f. The | I | Colophon: 1795. call'd all together the pendulous earth left they They So Fuzon children of Urizen. (f. [ I | | Colophon: Collation etched EY iii (reduced). desire. Eternals spurn'd back his religion. B. Who the chariot of Leutha guides Since the day of thunders in old time. He 1. it at the tables of Eternity. to four harps. (f. And Ends 11. i. : The remaining And called And ' 9.' — 'The Grave shrieks with Her hollow womb. EY iii (reduced). Eno. (f. & shout. i. W. three fulltitle-page page illustrations variously arranged in different copies . In heart-formed Africa. 5-9) — '8. 2) : i. in wanting — Of the primeval Priest's assum'd power. Book of Los Lambeth Printed by W. 2. Reprint {Extracts) 10. M. . 3. Trembled. & shakes the solid stem. which was probably purposely erased from Blake's stereomost copies. Begins 2. and Facsimile Reproductions 11. M. glandous wine dance In rivers rush. & clasps Her bosom swells with wild & And delight. Blake The Song of Los is Ended Urizen Wept. And thus her speech broke forth. thus the 35-40) : Song began. Reprints {Extracts) plain. 6) : ' When And Obscure. & On mountain. type. Swinb. | 'Africa' 2 plates. shadowy. 132-134. : B.Prophetic Books 2. 11.' plates . 6. Begins (f. the Eternal Prophet. solitary ! hear your call gladly. Dictate swift winged words.' 27. 255-257. 'Asia' 2 plates. Song of Los Lambeth Printed by W. 131. col. Urizen faded. dale.' Facsimile Reproductions Typ. is Begins 1. & Egypt it : left it. 2. col. the salt ocean rolled englob'd. 1876.Blake The End of the Book of Los. relief Collation r plate.

' 11. i.' Facsimile Repmduction 12. Reprint : WBY. 3. i. Moulding As smoke rages his hand burns red is moulded. The I EY : iii.. 337 11. 253. 'The MS. : — These 70 loose sheets are made up as follows drawing paper. to Swinburne The Book of Ahania may have been originally intended as the second book 6 plates. 21-26) : '9. 47 sheets old engraving by Blake cut in two : . col. But now alone over rocks. 13-21) Cast out from thy lovely bosom Cruel jealousy. blank. inches. about i title-page 5|x3| plate each. 135. 5. etched text. chariot. 2. silent burnings. consists of 70 separate leaves or sheets of paper (not 70 pp. 2) : Fuzon on a chariot iron-wing'd. a & his Heart Form Was completed. Book of Ahania | Lambeth J Printed \ by Blake 1795. and Collation: frontispiece 'Ahania' 4 plates. W. Begins (f. in ? Man | | I | | by William Blake 1797.' 21 sheets. the following admirably clear and exact account of this autograph MS. with watermark 'J. in its cloud. formed four rivers. SAMPSON Z . : Self-destroying. According of Urizen. working proofs of Blake's " illustrations to Young's "Night Thoughts (published 1797). mountains. On ' 1.Prophetic Books Ends (f. The Four Zoas The Torments of Love & Jealousy The Death and Judgement of Albion the Ancient 13. Till his Brain in a rock. selfish fear. I owe to the kindness of Mr. i. Whatman 1794. the paper same size and date where marked. ' 6. Renew Where On the Where bones of beasts are strown bleak and snowy mountains. size 16^ by i2f in. how can delight in these chains of darkness. In a fleshy slough. 252. 2. . col. col. Description John Linnell. Shot down his wide bosom and shoulders . Obscuring the immense Orb of fire. EY : I ' iii. Jun. bones from the birth are buried Before they see the light Facsimile Reproduction Typ. together with 4 small fragments.. Extracts : Gil. 136 . into a vast globe his wrath.. Swinb. Ellis). as stated by Mr. 14. spiked flames rose : his hot visage Flam'd furious sparkles his hair & beard. On clouds of And his right the thunder-stone Son of Urizen's Ends (f. a Human Illusion In darkness and deep clouds involv'd. Flowing down into night till .

1794. consequently the position of many of the sheets as determined by Messrs. occur. only the first 14 pages were numbered by himself. critics would have been enabled to judge for themselves as whether the arrangement or order of the sheets as printed has been of the to correctly made or not. According to Messrs. wherein he registered and expressed his ideas without any restriction. 295-300. written in Greek characters. Mr. was never properly looked over b3- the author or finally sorted into Nights. and that he never once intended this MS. I consider this work more as a private study that Blake executed for himself. " many erasures'' and corrections are made. Ellis " " Ephesians iii c." " is specified on the title-page. 298." "the arrange- ment of the loose sheets occupied us during several long days." " to conjecture the sequence. 61 sheets have the text of the poem written upon both sides of the paper with regard to the 47 sheets with the engravings to Night Tlioughts printed upon one side of each sheet. 'The poem is written in ink throughout. for Blake himself has written plainly in ink (in his usual form) * In vol. 12. and not put in order. and add by what slip Blake gave the Epistle 14 chapters is incomprehensible. Ellis' own error in transcription. the only available space on the printed side was the blank rectangular space in the middle of each sheet. "the MS. Now besides the beginning and the ending of each Night pp. afterwards some alterations and additions were made upon the text or upon the margins.) which are marked by Blake.e. hold that this poem should be placed in the same category with those poems or "Prophecies" that Blake wrote.'" (See vol. but it cannot of 'The date of the MS. 3'''* chap." and this date not altered by subsequent revision. Ellis and Yeats' description of it. this MS. erased in favour of "The Four Zoas. 1797. In its first — — . finished for publication. was course have been begun before 1794. as in the title-page. followed in bold script capitals by the heading *'VALA." " it it is only possible was unpaged and unsorted. Ellis and Yeats must be in a degree conjectural. ii. 'The title is written on one side of the first sheet of paper. the head of the second sheet. as written in ink. and a large part a first draft of the poem. There is no other evidence as to when the MS. 10. was written except that afforded by the date of the paper. must be Mr." This was afterwards altered in pencil to the final form given above. and himself printed and published.Prophetic Books 38 and written upon on one side only (back) 2 sheets = 70 sheets. . left for the text of Young's poem and here Blake has written. nor even as a whole for any public inspection . Ellis considers it was in progress for some years. with 7 exceptions (where one side only is written on) i. on the grounds of fairness. is in an unfinished condition." (i. ro"' verse). is the motto from Ephesians vi. there are good and substantial reasons why he never did or could have done ' . form. the page upon which the poem begins." This. and Yeats say that Blake in the ninth Night quotes '" " Ephes. xiv. Had they marked in their printed copy where the beginning and the end of each sheet of paper MS. The 68 sheets. 10 v. ii. with its pencil illustrations for publication. parts written fairly. p. The text of The Four Zoas appears to be in an unsettled condition." which is not here. however. without 1 At accents. of the Ancient Man I it | read: "VALA A DREAM of | | The Death and Judgement Nine Nights by William Blake or | ] | | 797. e. " Vala" I do not.

Book the Second' 17 plates. Detached lines and lengthy passages of The Four Zoas were engraved by Blake as part of Jerusalem. Collation: 26 title-page and 'Preface' i plate each. end). with facsimiles of a few pages of the original. In quoting from Milton in my footnotes the folio references are to the Print 3> 5? 8*. With all their woods. now in the Lenox Library. 13. ff.Prophetic Books 339 Therefore he kept this study in an unfinished state by h'm during his with his other papers that were never made public. all For The Dark Religions are departed.' — Night the Ninth ends ' Urthona is arisen in his strength no longer now Divided from Enitharmon. rather than that which The saw the completion of the entire work. 32*. life a private gift of it. ! In his ancient strength. Marshalled in order for the day of Intellectual Battle. The war of swords departed now. ^ Night the First begins : — •The Song of the Aged Mother. the three books constituting a group in which one may trace the highest development of Blake's mysticism.' which title. wail'd in dismal fear. to form the golden armour of science intellectual War. W. Linneirs note shows. Following Mr. Short extracts are printed by WBY 196. in a somewhat incorrect text.' The Four Zoas exhibits in a less condensed and consequently more intelligible form the same set of ideas that characterize Milton and Jcntsaleiii. Where is the Spectre of Prophecy? where the delusive Phantom? Departed & Urthona rises from the ruinous walls. illustrations). just as he had left it. and at last made this. as Mr. 197. Blake 1804 To Justify the | 1 | ) reigns. about 61 x 4^ inches. & sweet Science in 12 Books 14. to my father. Room copy. relief engraving. date on the title-page probably represents the j'ear in which the engraving of the First Book was begun or finished. 'Book the First' and 21 being full-page. Only printed by EY (^iii. the streams & valleys. the was earth & moved shudder'd. 3-28 (ff. M. ford copy from the Hamilton Palace Library. 41 and 45 being full-page The Beckillustrations) . 8. 45 plates. 38. & the mountains. however. : . Mil|ton a Poem Printer W. Z 2 . from that of the example in the Print Room of the British Museum. which is also identical in arrangement with the copy described in the catalogue of the Blake Exhibition held at the Grolier Club of New York in 1905. New York. lacks the Preface and has five additional plates of text numbered plates. 33. which shook the heavens with wrath. 29-45 (ff' 29. Hearing the march of long resounding strong heroic Verse. no longer the Spectre Los. was afterwards rejected in favour of T/ic Four Zoas. ' 15 The order of the plates in this copy differs somewhat 17. The heavens quake.' The Author & Ways of God to | Men. Rossetti. ff. EY entitle the poem 'Vala.

. ' ' ' . 22 plates (ff. The End of The Song of Jerusalem. in the heavens beneath Beulah. EY iii. 1. i) : — Rintrah & Palamabron view the Human Harvest beneath Their Wine-presses & Barns stand open the Ovens are prepard. 1. frontispiece to Chap. the image of the Invisible God. WBY 207-209. 15. of its sacrifices and Its offerings. 4) : — Of the Sleep of Ulro and of the passage through Eternal Death and of the awaking to Eternal Life ! ! ! I . I begins ' (f. 27) Deists (f. and not that of the completion of the whole work. see Poems from Jenisalein. 51). Reprints {Extracts) Gil. H. Blake S*"^ Molton St. 28-50). 3 23 plates (ff. 4' 22 plates {ff. Became its prey. 2 23 plates (ff. I ' ' ' . Record the journey of immortal Milton thro' j'our Realms ' Of Of terror. an offering and an atonement For Death Eternal. (coloured). The Waggons ready terrific Lions & Tygers sport & play All Animals upon the Earth are prepar'd. where by your ministry His burning ! By The Eternal Great Humanity Divine planted his Paradise. about 9x6i inches. 77) 'Chap. I Colophon Collation : The Emanation of The Giant by W. ' To the Christians' (f. 53-75). 259-274. 4-25% frontispiece to Chap. : 3) — Daughters of Beulah. to delight the wanderer and repose thirst & freezing hunger Come into my hand. 44. For intropiece (f. 100) ductions to chapters 1-4. your mild power descending down the Ner\'es of my right arm. Muir : Typ. even till Jesus. 36-39 .Prophetic Books 340 Book the First begins 1.' . & before the Gates Of Jerusalem. his Emanation. in it caus'd the Spectres of the Dead to take sweet form And Tell also of the False Tongue. Beneath your land of shadows. .'' ' ' Chap. ' 'Chap. 1-3) . frontispiece to Chap. Facsimile Reproductions L. f. 11. From out the Portals of my Brain. 26). 2 (f. ' The engraving oi Jerusalem was apparently begun about the same time as that of Milton. full-page end100 plates. in the heavens of Albion. (f. & mild lustre. a curse. To go forth to the Great Harvest & Vintage of the Nations. Swinb. 3. : i. To the (f. To the Public ' i plate each (ff. the former and longer work being probably the last to be completed. vegetated In likeness of himself. 78-99). 52) Chap. 'To the Jews' Chap. 45. Jerusalem Albion 1804 | | | | Printed I | ' : frontispiece. 3 (f. 184-195. 4 (f. relief engraving. Muses who inspire the Poet's Song. . 76). . 195-198. 4.' Book ' the Second ends (f. in all their strength. . As in the case of Milton the date on the title-page. W. title-page. 1804. must be understood to represent the year in which the first chapter was begun er finished. in soft sexual delusions moony varied beaut}'.

Imagination is Eternity. Reprint: Russell and Maclagan. relief engraving.Prophetic Books 'This theme me calls Awakes me & ev'ry morn see the Saviour over me. and not. then Awaking into his Bosom in the Life of Immortality. 198-207. but Imagination has. 98. Blake's Original Stereotype was 1788. to an earlier issue of The Ghost of Abel. 26-31) : — each side a Chorus of Angels entering Sing the following of the Heathen Swore Vengeance for Sin Then Thou : The Elohim I stood'st O Elohim Jehovah. Nature has no Supernatural & dissolves. Death. Collation Begins ' : 2 plates. * 341 I & "Awake awake O sleeper of the land of shadows. 276-292. at sun-rise : then Spreading his beams of Love. 183-194. all returning wearied Into the Planetary lives of Years. as has been commonly supposed. 4 Such ' ! : And And ends (f. Brotherhood ? O Holy I Is this . All Clothed In thy Covenant of the Forgiveness of Sins.' doest thou here. Nature has no Time. going forth."' ! ! ! I ' ' Chap. i. 1904. of Abel A Revelation In the Visions Seen by William Blake. and you in me. but Imagination has. The Ghost 16. ' Human Forms identified even Tree. 11. 4. about 4I x6i% inches. i. Can a Poet doubt the Visions of Elijah ? Nature has no Outline. 54-56 . from the Thirty-two Nations of the Earth among the Living is Creatures. dictating the words of this mild song. Forth. Human Forms identified living. Typ. wake expand am in you. & All . Jehovah | ? | | Ends ' On [i. (f. : WBY Swinb. 99. | of Jehovah W. mutual in love divine Fibres of love from man to man thro* Albion's pleasant land. | The reference to Blake's first stereotype probably refers to his earliest use of this process in the Songs of Innocence. in sleep. Earth & Stone. . f. Extracts: Gil. 2. . in the midst of the darkness of the Oath. after To Lord Byron What title in the as above) : — Wilderness. 1-5) :— the Cry from all the Earth. Days & Hours reposing. EY iii (reduced). Months. from the great City of Golgonooza in the Shadowy Generation. Colophon: 1822. Metal. night after night. 1. And And heard the I Name of their Emanations : they are named Jerusalem. 11. 11.' Facsimile Reproductions Pearson. from the Living Creatures of the Earth.

But the number of plates in in '' might be another title for the which one Oothoon plays a prominent the two not corresponding decisively negatives such a supposition. There is j No Natural Religion f j WitJwutdate.' Ill DOGMATIC WRITINGS 18. [«]. Blake. Brotherhood. 175. hnt probably circa 1790. of this book the entry is iii. H. Even Mr. Reprint : Outhoon. Reprint: L. . propositions I-VI. . 12) : ' II I Reason or the not the same that it | shall be we have we know more.' Therefore God becomes as we are. called Outhoon. But the above must be taken. relief engraving. and Love.*^ I have never seen a copy of this. already known . ii. Collation: frontispiece. 262) A work 12 plates.' Typ. Swinb. 6 plates .' has no notion of moral fitness | | only a natu]ral organ subject to is | Sense. by Peace. 176. od. of Albion.Prophetic Books 342 The Elohim saw their Oath Eternal Fire they rolled apart trembling^ over The Mercy Seat. as indisputable evidence that such a book does or did exist. WBY 229. 6 inches more or less. 3") but from Education. On the frontispiece. Facsimile Reproductions : Date 7inhioivn. 230. 2s. that we may be as he is' i plate propositions I. Relief engraving. each in his station fixt in the Firmament. title-page. 295-297. ] | | ' . Typ. a among number of works by Blake offered for sale by his widow to Mr. with small pictorial designs. 'The Argument' i plate each. in reversed writing. nor been able to find adds anyone who has. Ferguson (Gil.' ra-|tio of all when | Facsimile Reproductions: W.' Ends is I (f. I think. Muir (coloured). Price (C2. All that 7 known is EY W. Extracts: EY | iii. Muir (coloured). Naturally he ' : Man & Printer W. about 2 x iJ inches. Linnell has never heard of it. II 2 plates 12 plates. the imprint is 'The Author The Argument Begins (f. 17. ' : WMR An ' : " Outhoon ingenious friend suggested that Visions of the Daughters part.

The Argument. The Argument 10 plates. 22-24) The Classics. but circa as (On Poetry.' ' with surrounding designs. Principle i" ' — in the Principle 7"^. Without Virgil. Small print. but why Homer's is peculiarly so I cannot tell. Reprint : Principle & Religions. 26) Sacred Truth has pronounced that Greece & Rome. : Wilderness ' '). is : | Eternal Existence. it is. 4^x3! inches. 38-40 at left^ Mathematic Form is Eternal in . EY : 1 8 1 6.) date. 10) So all Typ." : 'Where any view of Money exists.' ' ' ' : | ' : | | ' ' ' : | Ends Gothic 37) \\. 232-233.Prophetic Books There 19. 160. the true faculty of knowing must be the faculty which exThis faculty I treat of. 8 20. 39 at right) Form. all all similars men are alike (the' infinitely have one source The true Man. x. H. & not Goths nor Monks. [The Laocoon.' Ends (11. ii. 9. 159. 2) Every Poem must necessarily be a perfect Unity. that Desolate Europe with Wars. 38. the Classics. Imagination Denied. while the whole of the surrounding space is filled with disconnected aphorisms on art and the conditions under which it is fostered. v. Art cannot be Read Matthew c. Withotit date.' On Virgil begins {\. 10. 'Grecian is Mathematic Form: (11.1 As 7'''. relief engraving. Collation frontispiece title-page. but circa 1 816-1820. Extract: L. .] Imprint'. so far from being parents of Arts & Sci-| ences as they pretend. ' : Ends various) ' (f. 3) experiment. line engraving. (11. Reprint: Gil. hit probably circa 1790. were destroyers of all Art. As the true method of knowledge is Begins (f. No is | Natural j 343 Religion | Without \b\ date. . Drawn & Engraved by William Blake. On Homer's Poetry begins (1. On Homer's 30. Facsimile Reproduction : EY iii. is : Living .' 'Art Degraded.' periences. At head on but of leaf: War only. 5f X4I inches. Small Broadside. War carried Governed the . A drawing of the Laocoon occupies the centre of the plate.2 inches. about relief engraving. | | the Reasoning Memory Living Form Facsimile Reproduction EY iii. 21.' iii. ('The Voice of one crying ' i ' plate each.' : Typ. as Babylon & Egypt. 7 plates 2 X 1. At foot of leaf Nations.

"] patient Ox? Dost thou not see that men cannot be formed all alike Some nostril'd wide. "O weak. 4. breathing out blood Some close shut up ! . and WMR omit pit . . 4 f. Island in the Moon. title. f. Joys laugh : : Among the ' Proverbs Marriage of Heaven and Hell. Thy God of Love. or love in a golden bowl? Is the sun a king warmed without wool. 27. mistaken. so God rewards prayers. & poison in their tongue With daggers Or eyed with . Cp. Or those whose mouths are graves.' the rest being in prose. or does he cry with a Of thunder does he look upon the sun & laugh.POEMS FROM THE PROPHETIC BOOKS From THE BOOK OF THEL Motto Thel's Does the Eagle know what is in the Or wilt thou go ask the Mole ? Can Wisdom be put in a silver rod. of Hell. one of the preceding proverbs. or with infernal brands Flinging flames of discontent & plagues of dark despair. As the plow follows words. 1. thy heaven of joy Why is one law given to the lion &c the [Ox del. In silent deceit. Or Love in a golden bowl ? Thel. and were deleted by Blake. two last lines. Prayers plow not Sorrows not weep not. O Har! & Tiriel's wisdom. note to song from An Golden Net' (Pickering MS. These 3. or stretch voice . 1. From THE MARRIAGE OF HEAVEN AND HELL Praises reap not. 2 i. hid beneath their lips. DGR I. whose teeth the gates of eternal death little ? Can wisdom be put in a silver rod. g. sparks of Hell. poisons inhaling from the morning rose. and & spread to ' The 9. lines occur in a passage in 7"«V/f/ of which all but 11.). iii. father of a lawless race! Thy laws. end together in a curse. His little hands unto the depths of the sea to bring forth scaly tribe [word above illegible] The deadly cunning of the it to the morning?"' 4 Cp.' ' . 'He said.

Prophetic Books 345 From VISIONS OF THE DAUGHTERS OF ALBION The Argument loved Theotormon. a daughter of Los. ' sang O'er Los. kissing springs upwards from the petals of a flower. 33. 9-14. 11. 12. The Eccho wakes the moon to unbind her The golden Sun bears on my song. Night ii. 28). f. I hid in Leutha's vale! And plucked Leutha's Flower. From THE FOUR ZOAS At the And first Sound the Golden Sun arises from the Deep. one of the daughters of Beulah (cp. See of Prophetic Books. 1. passim. I was not ashamed I And trembled I in i . whose story references to which occur in several of the Prophetic Books probably formed the Visions. a sprite f. And i shakes his awful hair. I And 5 . The song which Enitharmon reviving him to Life. is depicted as a bird of paradise ' in a vale of flowers : see Europe. I rose up from the vale But the terrible thunders tore My virgin mantle in twain. . work Oitihooii. list I See note to Poems from Letters. my virgin fears. and the Prophetic Books.' iv. 17. round the fiery king. WBY. above an illustration of a nude kneeling female figure. Milton. 4 Leutha.' 3 to unbind] again to unbind EY. 9. 2. The speaker here is Oothoon. who — — subject of the lost engraved no. nine bright spheres of harmony rise silver locks. 1. f. Four Zoas.

And & Furious lifts & sport rend the nether up rugged head hovering wings. they i6 deep The deep The The terrible . the bubbling springs of life in regions of dark death. . They sing unceasing to the notes of my immortal hand. stretch abroad.' II . WBY. Now my left hand stretch to Earth beneath. The solemn silent moon Reverberates the long harmony upon my limbs. Song Liberty. this EY word . I 26 And I strike the terrible string.Prophetic Books 34^ The joy of woman Who Love dies for the Death of her most best beloved is 6 of her In torments of fierce jealousy & pangs of adoration. Arise. ' 30 regions] region WBY. ever dying. The birds & beasts rejoice & play. For the Earthworm renews the moisture of the sandy plain. WBY. In forests of And wake & I plant a smile affliction. n every one seeks for his mate to prove his inmost joy. drink your bliss For every thing that lives is holy for the source of life Descends to be a weeping babe. . vanishes with a his lost in infinite And. even to EY. 26 stretch to] f. Heaven and of Hell. you Arise & ! . is inmost joy. of her most best] even of her most WBY unceasing] unwearied EY. and may be unweary.. 27. fading cry ever living in is voice living cry. WBY. is of her most not distinctly- 13 upon] sounding upon of the holy] The same words end the chorus 23 For EY.' Mmtiage of 28 dens] dews EY. The Lovers' night bears on my song And the nine Spheres rejoice beneath my powerful controll. ' written in the MS. . . wake sweet joy in dens of sorrow. WBY. 6 is] in WBY. its 21 little glancing wings & sing your infant joy.

once the haunt of Swans. palace walked in gardens of delight. . my palace in gardens of delight.Prophetic Books am weary 347 lay thine hand upon me. the harpers follow'd with harps. fine : — Thus sang this Lovely one. once of wisdom dwelt. delusive hopes Kindling. sink I on the bed of solemn sleep 31-35 35 And on] • senses I EY. . Four Zoas. II compos'd the song] made songs EY. where the sons of And the Virgins sang. Nine virgins cloth'd in light compos'd the song to their The immortal And at my voices. outstretch'd the immense. & fading. I ! For thou hast touched Now And am I my five & nothing. & water them in vain. The houses of my harpers are become a haunt of crows. The mountains of Urizen. WBY omits. are rocks of Desolation. EY. now breed the 5 scaly tortoise. . She led him into Shadows & thence fled. O. till thou awakest me. fall & they faint. Los heard reviving: he Siez'd her in his arms. The gardens of wisdom are become a field of horrid graves. The Woes of Urizen shut up in the deep dens of Urthona.' 9 Once 3 of Urizen] EY omit. end. or I faint beneath these beams of thine. Upon & smiling. 9 drop Once how I walked from sons of wisdom stood around. 33 five] awakest me] The poem continues 31 thine] thy on EY. banquets of new wine my head was crown'd with joy. on whose tops silver.' 11 Ah ! how shall mansion Ah! how submit to this dark Urizen the King r ? Once on the heights this? is I stretch'd my throne sublime. in Rapturous delusive trance. like a bright rainbow. weeping. 12 banquets] banquet EY. Night ' v. My fountains. EY. And on the bones I my tears. And 31 answer'd thee. delight] Once how I from my 10 follow'd] came EY. .

for who call'd & And ' said. O O O I keep the horses of the day in silver pastures? 21 refused the lord of day the horses of his prince. envyings] envying EY. 13 in the silent night among sweet smelling my flowers. Because the Steeds once of Urizen. . Were kept back from my Lord & from his chariot of mercies. 17 soags are turned into cries of Lamentation under & my palace deep sighs my Mountains. up from the deep EY.Prophetic Books 348 Then in And walked ivory pavilions I slumber'd in the noon. Deep] Saying. 24 darken] darkened EY. .' 13 pavilions] palaces EY. my land & my darken'd is men wise are departed. 30 Saying .' & my my me from heard the mild 'O Light spring up from the Deep. and lo. . & holy voice & I sprang crown'd me 29 up with a Son who wanders on the ocean. gave to me a silver scepter. & sweet dreams round me . I sprang 31 & crown'd me] crowned EY. did I close my treasuries with roofs of solid stone. Go forth & guide shine. Light spring up and shine. And darken all my Palace walls with envyings & hate ? O did ! I ! ! Fool to think that ! I could hide from his all piercing 25 eyes The gold & Fool silver could ! I & costly stones. He I holy workmanship. light that filled bright the deep. his forget the spheres Was a reflection of his face 1 well remember. golden crown. 25 eyes] eye EY. Saying. My Heard on roofs . 15 round me hover'd] hovered round EY. on Till my silver hover' d But now bed I slept. than the swifter light.

42 the] this EY. gave to thee the Steeds. 35 spears] spears of light EY. The stars threw down their spears & fled naked away. wither'd by winds. bow'd down with him. Light 50 That . didst Then thou keep with Strong Urthona the gates of heaven But now thou gates of on the steps step'd art living . . Because thou gavest Urizen the wine of the Almighty 45 in thy golden For steeds of Light. 41 on the steps] on steps EY. . night EY. Then love shall shew its root in deepest Hell. even to the hell. crown'd with the gold of heaven. by winds] by the winds EY. 37 And like a lilly is thy wife Vala. dark Urthona. This may be the thy wife] . from fell my throne sublime. beauteous Luvah thou art faded like a flower. I siez'd thee. When thought is closed in caverns.Prophetic Books went not wrath I forth hid myself on black clouds of I : 349 my 33 : the stars around my feet in the night of councils dark. We fell. . I I pour'd the stolen wine. perhaps this is the night Of Prophecy. 38 is EY omit is. When thou didst bear the golden cup at the immortal tables Thy children smote their fiery wings. night] That shakes my cavern with strong shudders. And thy fair divine. & Luvah When Thought is hath burst his clos'd in Caves. In my left hand falling. Thy pure feet other feet. 52 When . 47 Steeds] steeds of light EY. 46 steeds of Light] EY omit of th}-] the EY. Hell] EY. dens. that they might run chariot of pride. I call'd I siez'd thee. love shows roots in deepest hell . & find that pulsation That shakes deep 49 my caverns with strong Shudders . too pure for 41 locks shadow'd thine eyes from the divine effulgence. way from Enitharmon. 34 councils] council EY. And. . drunken with the immortal draught. will I these Explore arise.

& pomp. the doubtful word might be From a photointended for compose. looks like nothing but an impossible term. but worthy of quotation. me to of this Linnell. Written in pencil on the right-hand margin of the verso of the third sheet of Night vi. with gracious cunning then give with Magnify small gifts: reduce the man to want a gift. The lines are connecting the couplet with a passage in The Four Zoas. runs: — Compell the poor to live upon a Crust of bread by soft mild arts gove[r]n over all: let Moral duty tune your tongue But be your hearts harder than the nether millstone. worldly-wise advice. we reluctantly leave the deciphering of the word that It would have biographical interest. and causes the couplet to read as follows 'One conquer] I illegible in : "Till thou dost Thou (?) — injure the distrest never have peace within thy breast. Thou Four Zoas. With pomp give every crust of bread you give.. Say he is overgorg"d. when his children sicken. In the opinion of Mr. Both are as to the attitude to to the addressed man. & drowns his wit tho' you know that bread & water are all In strong drink if Preach temperance. Jun. word. With regard to this word EY comment: the original. which occurs ' see another's woe. & our Earth will be overrun Without these arts.' The argument of this conexplanatory of that of the couplet.' I read the word Mr.Prophetic Books 50 111 Till thou dost [conquer] the distrest.' conquer. Smile when they frown. If pale. let them die .' or improve. there are enough And. by supplied kindly passage. . or nearly twenty years after the date Since then of his boyish effort 'King Edward the Third. as conquer. frown when they smile.' but was unable to see how this could ' ' ' ' ' I have come to the conclusion that this is the right reading. not only as a specimen of Blake's shrewd satire. graph make good sense." shalt After fruitless efforts.' cannot be injui-e to future editors. .' inspire. in as an interesting illustration of the note of Elizabethan imitation surviving his prophetic writings as late as 1797. Say he smiles you hear him sigh. man looks pale With labour & abstinence say he looks healthy & happy. Born. temptuous be cultivated towards the poor and oppressed— in fact the antithesis of Blake's own sentiment passage seems to me : — 'Can And This passage. John Linnell. If you would make the poor live with temper. not be in sorrow too?* I in Night vii. even too many. say he is ruddy. . and when a So shall we . shall never have peace within thy breast.

Night viii. O Young Men of the New Age set Latin slaves of the Sword. is From MILTON And did those feet in ancient time Walk upon England's mountains And was the holy Lamb of God On 1 ? green England's pleasant pastures seen ? And did the Countenance Divine Shine forth upon our clouded hills And was Jerusalem builded here Among these dark Satanic Mills? 5 ? ' 2. but when the New Age is at leisure to Pronounce. 71). symbolize See Four Zoas. For we have Hirelings in the Camp. for ever Painters on you I call. who would. however. as spaniels are taught with we 1 can art. this passage printed with such extraordinary inaccuracy as to suggest that the whole poem has been practically rewritten by Mr. depress Mental & prolong Corporeal War. These lines occur as part of the Preface following the prose The Stolen and Perverted Writings of Homer & Ovid. passim.' Beside rooted the tree of Mystery. ! Sculptors! Architects! Suffer not the fash[i]onable Fools to depress your powers by the prices they pretend to give for contemptible works. WBY. in different aspects. where. all will be set right. mountains] delight is in we are but if of Eternity. those just & Worlds shall live for ever. which all Men ought to contemn.in mountain Gil. which we WMR. are set up by artifice against the Sublime of the Bible. passage & f. on the strand of a lake of waters but of spaces. in Jesus our Lord. Reduce all to : 35 pity his children till .. of Plato & Cicero. or the expensive advertizing boasts that they make of such works believe Christ : & his Apostles that there is Men whose whole Greek or Roman Models a Class of We do not want either Destroj'ing. In Blake's mythological world the mills of Satan are ' not situated eastward of Golgonooza (or Law).' which is formed of the 8 Mills] ' tears them hills Gil. our will. 70. All these. is Prophetic Books. ' : professedly Inspired Men will hold their proper rank. Shakspeare & Milton Memory were both curb'd by the general malady & infection from the silly Greek & Rouze up. if they could. the Court & the University. true to our own Imaginations. Ellis. and sighs and death-sweat of the victims of Urizen's laws. Perturbed black and deadly. & the Daughters of shall become the Daughters of Inspiration. and the Blake's conception of natural religion.' 2 upon] over Swinb. . ! your foreheads against the ignorant Hirelings.' For the context see Ellis and Yeats (iii. & those Grand Works of the more ancient & consciously ' Milton.Prophetic Books He can Flatter his wife afiford.

.. me for this energetic exertion of vay talent. This headed To the Public (flanked on either side by the and Goats '). of the following Poem. Reader.. in my hand. converse with daily as man with man. Poem is written. I cannot doubt that this more consolidated & extended Work will be as kindly recieved. begins After m}. which is ' ' ' ' words Sheep on the banks of the Ocean. I. I pretend not to holiness of men yet I pretend to love. the and . The Spirit of Jesus is continual forgiveness with trembling & amazement. the missing words having been chipped out It may have been Blake's intention to insert either by accident or design. Till we have built Jerusalem In England's green & pleasant Land. .' Printed only by Swinb. The Enthusiasm . Swin- .' ' After this come the lines above. to whom the Ancients look'd and saw his day afar off.. 3. address.. who is the God and Lord . I will not cease Xor 13 Sword sleep my shall From JER USALEM [To the Public] Reader And of books Jemsalem. . and WBY. i. 2 them by hand. . My . the Divine Body.. of Sin he who waits to be righteous before he enters into the Saviour's I am perhaps the most kingdom. but I know of no copy in which this has been done. approve.. wholly One in Jesus our Lord.Prophetic Books 352 Bring Bring Bring Bring my Bow of burning gold my Arrows of desire my Spear O clouds. of heaven God from whom of that forming part of Blake's introduction to Chap. . . will never enter there. the Author hopes . ' ' : I again display my Giant forms to the Public former Giants & Fairies having reciev'd the highest reward possible. . to see. The gaps here and in the preceding prose passage are the result of flaws in Blake's stereotype. followed by Blake's account Of the Measure in which the . WMR... . of those with whom to be connected is to be . . .three years slumber f. sinful ! ! to . & . .. unfold my Chariot of fire me me me me ! 9 ! ! ! ! from Mental Fight. .. I also hope the Reader will be with me.. & the more to have an interest in Therefore what you do not the Friend of Sinners.

Jerusalem. 11 Such visions As my I Jerusalem f. Essay. have appear'd to order'd race have run Engraved in capital letters. . 11. though not. forming part of Blake's introduction to Chap. f. Among Jerusalem. Even from the depths of Hell his voice I hear in To Man Within the unfathom'd caverns of my Ear. & flames of fierce desire.' Reader ' ! my the passage might be better preserved by continuity of reading as : 9 Hell. the Sons of Albion. he speaks in thunder and in fire. & the form is the Divine Vision. burne. Were builded over with pillars of gold And there Jerusalem's pillars stood. Tabernacle of Mutual Forgiveness.Prophetic Books Who 353 mysterious Sinai's awful cave the wondrous art of writing gave. • • • 111 [To the Jews] The fields from Islington to Marybone. Therefore I print nor vain my types shall : & Heaven. is headed ' To the Jews. 26. — : Reader ' And The lover of books ! of that — opinion. 1-5 : — In great Eternitj'. thus supplies the lacunae.' the Light Tent And & 2 race] course Russell and Maclagan. in very happily 5 And ! 9 types] type WBY. Jerusalem. on a plate containing a full-page illustration of the figure of Jerusalem watching Hand ' in flames. f. which SAMPSON 27. Male & Female Clothings.' begins A a : — This . Jerusalem is called Liberty among the Children of Albion. be. 2. lover of heaven God from whom all things are given. 284. Earth. preface. i To Primrose Hill and Saint John's Wood. is his Garment. p. C'p. white on a black ground. henceforth shall live in harmony. 54. Again Thunder of Thought. And A This is Jerusalem in every Man. me is named : Liberty.' some such — — [best boon] of heaven [lover] of books ! of that God from whom [they first were given]. every particular Form gives forth or Emanates Its own peculiar Light.

Heber.' Sacrifice & War. is explained by a passage in the same chapter. the Emanation of the Giant Albion. the Emanation of the Giant Albion that the Learned have explored ? Patriarchal Religion ? If it is true. in One Religion. his Bride. followed by the paragraph ' Satan : ' If If Humility is tradition that your Christianity you. This poem summarizes the principal myth told in more detailed form in Chap. in London's opening streets. the Saviour. The Return of Israel is a Return to Mental as the Prophets had foretold. 5 The Lamb And fair Jerusalem. the Righteous to Righteous- ! & End in Albion's Ancient Druid Rocky Shore. 11. contained in his Limbs are all — the true Christians Animals is True. : ' I write in South Molton Street. this you received from the Druids. & is. & the Everlasting The Wicked will turn Huzza Selah Gospel. became apparent on Earth. ' ! ! " All things Begin it to Wickedness. who were Druids. 38. Paraplirases of this poem may be referred to in Ellis and Yeats It will as little ' ' . Among the little meadows green.& : they were separated from him by cruel Sacrifices and when compulsory cruel Sacrifices had brought Humanity into a Feminine Tabernacle. & follow Jesus. Can I it be ? Is it a Truth Was Britain the Primitive Seat of the my title-page is also True. Take up the Cross. 43 ." Albion was the Parent of the Druids. Shem." 'Your Ancestors derived their origin from Abraham.' be unnecessary to explain to any student of Blake that 'Jews' here mean the Hebrew race as 'Jerusalem' means the city so named. and Noah. . divided under his fourfold sj'stem into four quarters. ' ' " But now the Starry Heavens are fled from the mighty limbs of Albion. the Eternal. The former signifies merely the dwellers in Jerusalem or state of spiritual liberty. the most Ancient. O ye Inhabitants of Earth. 'Jerusalem.' After this come the lines above. It is True and cannot be controverted. You have a tradition that Man anciently contain'd in his mighty limbs all things in Heaven & Earth. O Israel. as the Druid Temples (which are the Patriarchal Pillars & Oak Groves) over the whole Earth witness to this day. f. Man O Jews. Amen ness.Prophetic Books 354 Her Little-ones ran on the fields. Ye are united. 2. of God among them seen. & in his Chaotic State of Sleep & Adam & the whole World was Created by the Elohim. that Jerusalem was. in the loins of Abraham & David. the Lamb of God. 42. The Religion of Jesus. Pancrass & Kentish-town repose Among her golden pillars high. The geographical symbolism under which Blake typifies mental states by London districts. what I — both see and hear In regions of Humanity. Among her golden arches which 9 Shine upon the starry sky.

& the tiles engraven gold. Jerusalem. 25 Cp. The curtains. into lovely forms there the secret furniture of Jerusalem's chamber wrought Lambeth the Bride. 25-44 II. devotion : O Prepare the furniture. Without the gate of Los among the dark Satanic wheels. The Ponds where Boys to bathe delight. . Always comforting the remembrance the floors. Forgiving trespasses and sins Lest Babylon. a 3 . thanksgiving Lambeth. and the bricks. Standing above that mighty Ruin. firm fixing. She walks upon our meadows green of God walks by her side 1 . ' . tears of honesty the nails ! : : : : the screws & iron braces are well wrought blandishments. never forgotten. '• — where was the burying-place that Of soft Ethinthus ? near Tyburn's fatal Tree ? is Mild Zion's hills. are those golden builders doing ? f. written in the original stereotype WBY. Labour of merciful hands the beams & rafters are forgiveness The mortar & cement of the work. humility And And : .' Is : : ! : : : See also the conclusion of prose note A to vi. with cruel Og. builders in hope tho' Jerusalem wanders far away.Books Pj^ophetic 355 The Jew's-harp-house & the Green Man. 17 our] her Shep. The cielings. I Marybone] Marylebone WBY. near mournful Ever weeping Paddington ? is that Calvary and Golgotha Becoming a building of pity and compassion ? Lo The stones are pity. in Satan's Synagogue. the Lamb's Wife. The Lamb 7 . Welhng's Gil. For comfort woven the hearths. Should Crucify What 21 are those golden Builders doing 25 Near mournful ever-weeping Paddington.. well wrought affections Enamel'd with love & kindness. And every English Child is seen. What WMR. (ii. & With Moral Self-righteous Law. The fields of Cows by William's farm. most ancient promontory. loveth thee Thou art one with her & knowest not of self in thy supreme joy. Shine 13 in Jerusalem's pleasant sight. well contrived words. tears & in sighs. : thy pitying looms wrought . 12. 15 William's] This name is obscurely Willan's Shep. Go on. Children of Jesus & his Bride. Where Satan the first victory won : 196-198) and in the Introduction to the reprint of Jerusalem edited by Russell and Maclagan.

Satan his name He . 49. And Albion's Spectre from his Loins Tore forth in all the pomp of War.Prophetic Books 356 Where Albion And beneath the slept fatal Tree. Thro' Maiden. Poplar & Old Bow. . : * 53 O Withering the By Laws Human Form by Laws of Sacrifice for Sin. He wither'd up Jerusalem's Gates. in Natural Selfish Chastity And to & holy banish Pity dear Mutual Forgiveness & to become One Great Satan to the most powerful Selfhood to murder the Divine : Inslav'd In : : Humanity whose sight folly r all are as the dust. On the Euphrates Satan And over Asia stretch'd He stood. 37 in flames of fire stretch'd his Druid Pillars far. death 8: woe. Till it But O became a Mortal Worm. f. & who chargeth his Angels with . O Spectre over Europe and Asia. from Lambeth's Vale. wither 'd up sweet Zion's Hill every Nation of the Earth From 49 . He wither'd up the Human Form By laws of sacrifice for sin. & acros the Sea. all the Atlantic Mountains shook. 24-31 Polypus of Death. Jerusalem. Jerusalem Down War & In fell 41 thro' howling. They groan'd aloud on Tyburn's Brook 33 : Albion gave his deadly groan. his pride. — 53 Cp. ! translucent all within. The Rhine was red with human blood The Danube roU'd a purple tide 45 . 29 the Druid's golden Knife Rioted in human gore In Offerings of Human Life? They groan'd aloud on London Stone. 11. & Abhorrence I am wither'd up. And in a dark Land gave her birth. Create a Heaven in which all shall be pure of Chastity Striving to In their Own Selfhoods.

76 Cp. 11. . when a man's worst enemies Alas in a Religion Shall be those of his own house and family Of Generation. Jesus And Vision ! in still was seen. 84 law] hand Russell and Maclagan.' — 81 Cp. thou art Not an Avenger : ' ! — . mortal clay. By his own law shall surely die. he is the Great Selfhood the Mighty Ones of the Earth. thy Love my Spirit to Subdue my Spectre Create . to thy Fear. And Jerusalem thy Bride? is Come to Depart arms my & : never more but dwell for ever here . f. 61 Entering thro' the Gates of Birth. O God. 17. 46. ! My Selfhood Is this Thy 69 . f. 1 here reclaim thee as my own.Prophetic Books The Divine Still Weeping. 33. Worship'd as God by . And passing thro' the Gates of Death. And O Lamb thou of God whom ! I 65 Slew in my dark self-righteous pride. Jerusalem. 25-28 79 alone] above Shep. Human Form was the & weak thine the 57 Divine . 18 So spoke the Spectre to Albion : — ' Satan. The Human Hands. — Satan arm'd in 73 ! gold ! thy soft Family-Love. Jerusalem. The time will come. 11. cruel Patriarchal pride 77 . The Bride and Wife of the Lamb. Planting thy Family alone. Art thou return'd to Albion's Land. ' ! . 81 . thine ! & thine & Breath. Destroying all the World beside ? A man's worst enemies are those Of his own house & family And he who makes his law a curse. Form was the still 357 Human Face & Feet. to destroy by Sin and Atonement happy Jerusalem. warlike Fiend Spectre of Albion In clouds of blood & ruin roU'd.

Till then the Lamb of God 4 Cp. 10-12 Awake.Prophetic Books 35^ Exchanges every Land my In Shall walk 85 & mine. written in reversed characters on a scroll to the left of a large bowed figure.' . 3 When his] Untill MS. And cast his Spectre into the Lake. Milton. Cast him down into the Lake ! Los. I Each Man] This world MS. written immediately below one of the stanzas of 'The maine' ('When Satan first the black bow bent'). Book \st rdg. And cast his own Spectre into the Lake — Untill the arrival of that hour. Both heart 85 Cp. Book. walk'd in every Nation. 43 : hand hand. Jerusalem. 24. afterwards deleted. Book the MS. Seated on the scroll is a sprite holding a pen in his hand. 41. The original draft of these lines is found on p. 3. * f. Monk of Charle- his] the MS. Subdue to the Divine Mercy. Each Man is in his Spectre's power. Jerusalem. 42. 'And there to Eternity aspire The selfhood in a flame of fire. 12 of the MS. ' f. intending the stanzas . in every Land. to read : — 'When his Humanity awake. Book \st rdg. i. ever & ever. & in heart 11. opposite these In the margin of the printed for the preceding : — first lines is an unfinished stanza. 4 his] his own MS. 40. in — London every Nation walk'd. that ever burneth with fire. del.. 4. Book. awake Him Of : ' — reclaim thy Reasoning Spectre. Book \st rdg. At some time Blake numbered these four lines in the MS. Amen. Mutual shall build Jerusalem. del. Albion.' IV Each Man is in his Spectre's power Untill the arrival of that hour When his Humanity awake. 11. 2. . f. here apparently intended as a continuation of the time.' MS. del. mutual in love In the Exchanges of And London & harmony.

3. therefore. Hypocrisy I . & requires Selfhood continually & must continually be changed into his direct But your Greek Philosophy (which is a remnant of Druidism) Contrary.' The address either side of the title ' ' ' runs ' : — He never can be a Friend to the Natural Morality. or Natural Religion to . shall shortly be destroyed He is in . as the Ancients saw plainly by Revelation. in the same. but how cannot concieve." and destroying all who do not calling the Prince of this World to the intire abrogation of ' : worship Satan under the Name of God. This was the Deism is the same. and not of the Forgiver of Sin and their God Deism Your Religion. Man must & will have Some Religion if he has not the Religion of Jesus he will have the Religion of Satan. " God.Prophetic Books [To the Deists] Monk saw a I of Charlemaine my Arise before sight In beams of infernal Jerusalem. Rousseau. & will erect the Synagogue of Satan. 52. New a Experimental Theory. ! — by the means of what you call Natural Religion and Natural Philosophy. teaches that Man is Righteous in his Vegetated Spectre— an Opinion of fatal & accursed consequence to Man. Righteousness. charge the Spiritually Religious with a Monk. & is altogether an Evil. Will any one say "Where are those who worship Satan under the Name of God?" Where are they? Listen Every Religion that Preaches Vengeance for Sin is the Religion of the Enemy & Avenger. can be a Hypocrite are Men of like passions with others. O Deists is Satan Named by the Divine Name. Distinguish between the Man. be the Friend of Man. and of Natural Morality or Selfthe is Worship God of the of this World. when a Religious Man falls into Sin. & ends Religion of the Pharisees who murder'd Jesus. ' You. the Selfish Virtues of the Natural Heart.' and The Spiritual States of the Soul are all Eternal. & his present State. & the Laws of that Babylon which he foresees with the Spiritual and not the Natural Sword. On f. he . i : Grey Monk talk'd with the I 359 as we stood light. & pretend not 'Voltaire. Gibbon. Human Race who is the Preacher of he is a flatterer who means to betray. ' To the Deists are the bracketed sentences Rahab is an Eternal State. following the conclusion of Blake's preface to Chap. Hume. are so : O Deists you are ! profess yourselves the Enemies of Christianity and you the Enemies of the Human Race & of Universal also Man is born a Spectre or Satan. and many believed what they saw. ! . or a Methodist either. to We be holier than others . Nature. and Prophecied of Jesus. which State must be put off before he can the State named Rahab perpetuate Tyrant Pride.

Arose with War in iron & gold. conescape my charge that you are Pharisees & Hypocrites. as he WBY. Men Good by Nature. . stanza 7 is also the final version of the original draft and a marginal addition. Forgivers of Sin. engraving seven stanzas here as part oi Jerusalem. Rise. Book version of the stanzas. ' ' ' ' four stanzas are practically the same as those of the version in the MS. & not a confession. Book version. Book xlii. .' The first (see MS.' The original version forms part of a larger poem found in first draft on p. All the Destruction therefore in Christian Europe has arisen from Deism. that vou by you may accuse others. and The Grey Monk in the Pickering MS.' is a revised . & especially the Religious whose errors Rousseau found no friend. . lazy Monk In vain condemning glorious War And. Book. the Lewis's thought ' War. for Whitefield pretended not to be holier than others but conVoltaire Rousseau You cannot fessed his Sins before all the World.Righteous. probably added by Blake when about to Stanzas 4 and 6 occur also as stanzas 2 and 8 of the this poem. & Fredericks. this display of pretended Virtue chiefly design to expose. Book. original stanza 12 stanza 6 engrave . call'd his Confessions. & Friendship cannot exist without Forgiveness of sins continually. he found them Evil. can never be the cause of a But the Religion nor of a single War Martyrdom. of the MS. in your Cell. who alone are its causes & its actors. and traninto the Pickering MS. Gibbon arose with a And The 5 Voltaire with a wracking wheel Schools. which is Natural Religion. This Blake afterwards separated into two distinct poems. in clouds of learning roU'd. But you also charge the poor Monks & Religious with being the causes of while 3'ou acquit & flatter the Alexanders & Caesars. MS. 12 of the MS. 4 In beams] In the 11 your] thy MS. you shall ever dwell ' ' Thou 9 ! ' . The Book written by Rousseau. they sound afar. Foote in calling Whitefield Hypocrite was .Prophetic Books 360 lash of steel. for you are talking of the Virtues of the Human Heart. Book. Book WBY. War. In my footnotes I give here the final readings For deleted readings see MS. 3 as beams we] where he MS. & bind him ^ : ' in his Cell ! to ought not to be call'd a Hypocrite this title is more properly to be given a Player who falls into Sin. scribing others. Book.). under the title The Grey Monk. 9 sound] said you] thou MS. . is an apology & cloke for his sin. and particularly of your ! ! stantly own. Book xlii. himself one. Those who Martyr others or who cause War are Deists. whose profession is Virtue & Morality & the making Men Self. of Jesus. is version in the Pickering MS. but never can be The Glory of Christianity is To Conquer by Forgiveness. Forgiveness of Sin. 'When Satan first the black bow bent.

77. Titus O ! 17 Charlemaine Rousseau Gibbon Vain Constantine ! Voltaire 21 ! ! 13 ! ! Your Grecian Mocks & Roman Sword Against this image of his Lord . 642-644) : — 25 .' which is found both in the MS. f. Only wind it into a ball. the Martyr's WBY omits the. Book and in the ' battle Pickering the MS. 18 And the Moral] 24 this] 27 a Martyr's] 25 a Tear] the tear MS. vii (EY. His body bent. It will lead you in at Heaven's gate I Built in Jerusalem's wall. is an Intellectual thing a Sigh is the Sword of an Angel King the bitter groan of a Martyr's woe Is an Arrow from the Almightie's Bow. Night bow draw . Book. draft on p. Book. engraved from the the MS. The blood side. 46 (reversed) of version being the first deleted . MS. WBY. When Satan first the black bow bent And the Moral Law from the Gospel rent. : Again the elemental strings to your right breasts draw. VI [To the Christians] give you the end of a golden string. He forg'd the Law into a Sword. his arms & knees Like to the roots of ancient trees. Jerusalem. WMR.' These lines occur as continuation of a passage which in its reference to the and the northern drum are reminiscent of the stanza Thy father drew his sword in the north. And spill'd the blood of mercy's Lord. the only difference in the first MS. ' 17 Cp. For a Tear 13 red ran] ran red 11. Again the black Four Zoas.Prophetic Books 361 red ran from the Grey Monk's His hands & feet were wounded wide. And let the shadowy drum speed on the arrows black. And And WBY. Book. version.

Every moment lost is a moment that cannot be redeemed every pleasure that intermingles with the duty of our station is a folly unredeemable.Prophetic Books 362 ' have given ' ' ' in 1. before all the World. calling it pride & selfishness & sin. and of no other Gospel. are they any Performances ? What are all the Gifts of the Is God a Spirit who must be worGospel. addressed To the Christians. the giver of every Mental Gift. and are not the Gifts of the Spirit Every-thing to Man ? O ye Religious. Wheel Of fire surrounding all the heavens it went From west to east against the current of : Creation.' Devils are False preface. & & manifest to the thought ? Can you think at all & not pronounce heartily. which Dies ? What is Immortality but the things relating to the Spirit. are they not all Mental Gifts ? shipped in Spirit & in Truth. This stanza forms the opening The Chap. 3. & in which we shall live in our Eternal or Imaginative Bodies when these Vegetable Mortal Bodies are no more. which alone are the labours of the Gospel. in some Mental pursuit for the Building up of Jerusalem. discountenance every one among you who shall I call pretend to despise Art & Science upon you in the Name of Jesus What is the Life of Man but Art & Science ? is it Meat & Drink ? is not the Body more than Raiment ? What is Mortality but the things relating to the Body. than the liberty both of body & mind to exercise the Divine Arts of Imagination. i. What were which all their spiritual gifts ? What is the Divine Spirit ? is the Holy Ghost any other than an Intellectual Fountain ? What is the Harvest of the Gospel & its Labours? What is that Talent which it is a curse to hide? What are the Treasures of Heaven which we are to lay up for ourselves. All the tortures of repentance are tortures of self-reproach on account of our leaving the Divine Harvest to the Enemy. & expel from among you those who pretend to despise the labours of Art & Science. the real & eternal World. and devour'd all things in its loud Fury. of this Vegetable Universe is but a faint shadow. mocks Jesus. The Apostles knew of no other Gospel. Let every Christian as much as in him lies engage himself openly & publicly. ' I stood among my valleys of the And saw a flame of fire. even as south a . & is planted like the seed of a wild flower among our reading for give ' lines of Blake's preface to ' ' ' ' ' We . the struggles of intanglement with incoherent roots. which Lives Eternally? What is the Joy of Heaven but Improvement other than Mental Studies & ! ! What are the Pains of Hell but Ignorance. Why persecutest thou me ? runs :— are told to abstain from fleshly desires that we may lose no time from the Work of the Lord. which has the two mottos in the left margin Religions and Saul. Saul. is not so in the sight of our kind God. Idleness. but that which is a Sin in the sight of cruel Man. & thundering course round heaven & earth. not this plain : ! which always appear to the ignorance-loving Hypocrite as Sins. . devastation of the things of the Spirit ? Answer this to yourselves. I know of no other Christianity. That to Labour in Knowledge is to build up Jerusalem and to Despise Knowledge is to Despise Jerusalem & her Builders? And remember He who despises & mocks a Mental Gift in another. Imagination. wheat. Is in the things of the Spirit? Bodily Lust.

Opposing Nature. Creating Nature from this fiery Law By self-denial & forgiveness of Sin." forth out of thy For Hell : is : ' Vll [To the Christians] England ! awake ! awake awake ! ! r Jerusalem thy Sister calls Why wilt thou sleep the sleep of death. Into a root a fathom long. But Jesus is the bright Preacher of Life. Pity the evil for thou art not sent . the dark Preacher of Death. And close her from thy ancient walls? ! f. Book. & the Prisoners set free. little And I asked a Watcher & a Holy-One he answer'd. like to the Pharisees Crucifying & encompasing sea <& land For proselytes to tyranny & wrath. from its dire Travelling thro' the night And restless fury Man himself shrunk up By it the . "It is the Wheel Its Name of Religion. This terrible devouring sword turning every way?" He answered: "Jesus died because he strove : I its Name Against the current of this Wheel Is Caiaphas. at foot of Christians.Prophetic Books By it Sun was roU'd the into an orb 36 o . To the Christians. forming the conclusion of the address 'To the and immediately following the long passage quoted in the footNot in the MS. . cast out devils in Christ's name. . & of punishment. but let no curse : Go mouth to blight their peace open'd to Heaven thine eyes beheld The dungeons burst. Heal thou the sick of spiritual disease.' vi and vii as a single poem with the title Jerusalem. It is Natural Religion. 77. To smite with terror Those that are & with punishments sick.' * 4 close] chase Swinb. Shepherd prints note to the preceding poem. & said. Moon faded into a globe for. Of sin." " Is this the law of Jesus. of sorrow. But to the Publicans & Harlots go Teach them True Happiness. Go therefore. wept.

.' which seem intended as title to the lines above. where this stanza is engraved in reversed characters Below the two the left margin of a three-quarter-page illustration. also written in reversed writing. the time returns again & London's towers : souls exult.64 Prophetic Books Thy hills & valleys felt her feet Gently upon their bosoms move Gates beheld sweet Zion's ways Then was a time of joy and love.. f. . 2 and 3. Recieve the Lamb of God to dwell In England's green & pleasant bowers. Maclagan misread especially the Female. couplets. Vlll [Especially to the Female] In Heaven the only Art of Living Is Forgetting But You & Forgiving on Earth Forgive you shall not find where to Live. are the words Especially to the in ' Female.' and place between Russell and * 11. 8r. : Thy And now Our . if Jentsahyn.

VERSES from FOR THE SEXES THE GATES OF PARADISE Written between 1805 and 18 10. later date and revised at some .

a small engravings on title ' book of Engravings. unnumbered subjects are a marginal addition). 3J. not by the artist's usual cameo etching At the foot of process. The Ancient Britons according to Caesar.' Price. jfohjison St. The Gogmagog the Giant into the sea. Women fleeing from War.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE GATES OF PARADISE Blake's GaUs of Paradise. of The Gates of Paradise. or edition. Women in a Siege {these three frontispiece 8. 4. ' The History Price. with Blake's imprint as publisher. in 1882. a companion volume of England. Blake No. : 3. as first issued. The i. and sixteen numbered plates of emblematic designs. Paul's Church Yard. are executed. The Britons' distress depopulation. each is a short inscription or legend. {del). It appears to me probable that the rough draft of subjects for a history of England written on the outer page of Blake's Manuscript. but by ordinary line engraving. has the in their earliest state.. before the date and imprint and publishers' imprint on plates were added. The Druids. The plates. & Corineus throws {^del. where it is described as The Gates of Paradise. 2. Giants ancient inhabitants of England. The British 1793. Boadicea inspiring the Britons against the Romans. beth The book in this form consisted of a frontispiece. Museum Print Room copy is an example of this first The Beckford issue. 9. 7. King Lear. Alfred in the countryman's . sold at the Hamilton Palace sale. 1793. y' The would seem preceding entry. The book is advertised in Blake's prospectus of October 10. which vary in size from 2| x if to 4I x 2| inches. The Landing of Julius Caesar. book of Engravings. the original pencil sketches for which are found in the Rossetti : \ \ \ — \ \ \ \ | I I MS. 5. title-page. was a small foolscap octavo picture-book with the title For Children The Gates of Paradise [ru/e] \_aflying figure'] 1793I Published by W. copy. 13 Hercules Buildings Lamand J.) 6. dated [Lambeth] May 17.and Sketch-book supplies a clue to the contents of this missing work \ Blake may also have intended to * This entry reads Landing of Brutus. a small to refer to of which no copy is known to exist.

Gates of Paradise 367 engrave and issue. however. printed several years later though Blake has left unaltered the original imprints. 'themselves a little obscure. deleted).).). ' the Black Prince brings his Captives to his father. stirring the Con" crown'd. Engravings. Famine occasioned by the Popish interdict (a marginal addition).' while the ' ' ' ' dark hermaphrodite — ' (or a humanity divided against itself) somewhat violently — favourite figure in Jerusalem is offered as the interpretation of the picture illustrating original plates have been worked over and elaborated in this second issue. as the contrary to 'For Children. and considerably changed edition. 18 are a marginal addition. Ch. Cloud. I agree with 12.). dated 1793.' ' now represented as blind in order that the descriptive text. house. reading into what were at first simple allegorical pictures for children the later developed elaborate symbolism in which Blake clothed his full-fledged mystical Thus we find Water. VIII. Edward Edward 15.' represented in the earlier gospel. 22 {20 del. 10. i. of Jane Shore.' (See — W. ij del. the figure of Fire being ' The Fire. The Reformation by H. 13. 16 (75 del. 102) regards the Keys. The Penance 18. 19 {16. poet's biographer could not have fallen had he made any serious attempt to trace the gradual evolution of Blake's symbolic system. 18 del. The Cruelties used by Kings & Priests.) The Gates of Paradise also appeared with the new Rossetti's t/nda ted tit\e-pa. at Calais. ^^ ^^^ ^oot of the frontispiece and sixteen plates of emblems. M. up the Londoners to resist W.' The Gates of Paradise a book which is known to us only from its title-page For Children. subsequently The fire of London. are additions. the Gates of Hell. beheaded {subjects 77. containing the Keys of the Gates and To the Accuser appear also for the first time. The Plague.).ge : For The the Sexes \ Gates | \ of Para| This is in reality a second ^prologue of ten lines\.' Gil. interpreted for the sexes.' merely as versified explanations of the artist's This. the A King John & Mag. The lines on the new title-page beginning Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice/ and some part of the The three supplementary plates legends. is an error into which the original motives. watry folly. and Drawings. A 21 (7p del. A pro- . — ' 'Annotated Lists of Blake's Paintings.). 17. Charta. ' ' ' ' ' and Jerusalem. spect of Liberty. W. These lines. issue by the figure of a survivor of the Deluge. 250. Edwin & Morcar Conq^ II. belong to the same period as Miltofi dise I . as my footnotes to the Keys amply demonstrate. it may 14. 20 (77. Gilchrist (i.' as Doubt self-jealous.

Gates of Paradise

368

authority for the text of TJie Gates of Paradise
second form is the copy in the possession of
Mr, John Linnell, junior, formerly belonging to his father,
The twenty-one plates are
Blake's friend and patron.
printed upon separate sheets of paper measuring about
There is no dated watermark. One of the
51. X 4f inches.
two copies from the Rowfant Library is an example of
the first issue, with imprints, but without the legends to the
and the Keys of
plates, and with the second title-page
the Gates inserted from the later impression, probably by
Mr. Frederick Tatham, to whom it formerly belonged.
The plate To the Accuser who is the God of this World

My

in

this

'

'

'

'

is

lacking.

At

a

some

still

later date

Blake retouched the plates and made

further alterations in the text.

These

last revisions

the prologue on the title-page, and in the change
'
in the
of I to
Keys of the Gates.' In the present
edition I follow Blake's final version, taking my text from
a copy in the possession of Mr. W. A. White, of Brooklyn,
New York. This copy, which must have been one of the
There are
last printed, bears the dated watermark 1825.
two other examples of this book in its final form one a copy
in the possession of Mr. James T. Linnell, and the other
a duplicate from the Rowfant Library since acquired by

occur

in

'

'

'

We

'

Mr.

W. A.

White.

Gilchrist, misled perhaps by Blake's retention in the
later issues of the original dated imprints, appears to regard
'

the two forms of The Gates of Paradise For Children
and For the Sexes as contemporaneous issues of the
same work with different title-pages. He also ignores the
'

'

'

fact (first, so far as I
aware, suggested by Mr. W. A.
White in a letter to the present writer) that the Keys
must have been written long after the first
of the Gates

am

'

'

appearance of the little book in 1793.
A comparison of the metaphorical figures found in the
Keys of the Gates with those used by Blake in his
earlier and later prophetic books has convinced me that
could only
the verses in the two issues for the sexes
have been written about the same time as Jerusalem
'

'

'

'

or Milton.
Blake, it is true, not infrequently in certain
earlier writings anticipates the complex mystical formulae
found in those written several years later, or repeats,

long intervals, thoughts or expressions adumBut in the Keys of the
brated in his simpler poems.
Gates
we find no such confusion of earlier and later

after

'

'

Gates of Paradise

369

The whole is a harmonious composition,
repeating in an extremely condensed form, often in identical
words, the full evangel of Jcriisalein.
further clue to the date of the Keys of TJic Gates of
Paradise ' for the sexes may be found in the repetition
In
in 'The Everlasting Gospel' (y^, 1. 96) of the line

symbolism.

A

'

'

'

*

The Everlasting Gosdoubt which is self-contradiction.'
pel,' which was written about 1810, itself contains a con'

number

siderable

of striking parallelisms with

passages

Jerusalem which I have given in the footnotes to that
poem. Jenisalcin bears on its title-page the date 1804,
but this represents the year its engraving was begun rather
than finished, and its completion may well have been the
work of several years. The first issue of TJic Gates of
Paradise in its altered form for the sexes may thus
be assigned with some certainty to the last half of the
decade ending 1810 ^.
Mr. W, M. Rossetti, followed by all later editors^ dates
the 'Keys of the Gates' 1793, with the remark that it
should, strictly speaking, be placed chronologically between
the Songs of Linoccnce and the Songs of Experience.
Messrs. Ellis and Yeats stumble at the threshold of the
The Gates
truth in curiously stating it in its converse form
"
"
value
of Paradise soon after Lafayette are of incalculable
"
Their " keys
will
as interpreting the Prophetic Books.
open the meaning of all the myth, though they will not,
in

'

'

'

:

of course, explain its story.'
All editors follow Gilchrist's text (based apparently upon
B^), but omit the numbers referring to the engraved plates.
facsimile by Mary Hughes and William Muir reproduces

A

*

on the strength of a passage in Blake's Adver(ii. 260),
Public Address,' which refers to the Examiner's attack upon him,
place the first appearance oi Jerusalem at some time later than August, 1808.
'The manner
This passage, which is found on p. 52 of the MS. Book, runs
Ellis

and Yeats

tisement or

'

:

which my character has been blasted these thirty years, both as an Artist
and as a Man, may be seen particularly in a Sunday paper called the
Examiner, published in Beaufort's Buildings the manner in which I have
in

;

poem concerning my three
Felpham, which I shall soon publish.' This,
however, can hardly refer to Jerusalem, though Blake's allusion to his three
years" Herculean labours at Felpham are reminiscent of the opening words
But
of the Address to the Public with which that poem commences.
Jerusalem, though part of it may be the result of his three years' labours at
Felpham, is certainly not a poem conceriiiug ihem and only a very esoteric
school indeed could interpret it as an allegory of his quarrel with Hayley
and Hunt.
rooted out the nest of villains will be seen in a

years"

Herculean labours

at

'

'

'

'

;

SAMPSON

B D

Gates of Paradise

370

the frontispiece, plates 1-6, 8-16, and the plate 'To the
Accuser,' apparently from B^ or B^, with the title-page of
Plate 7, as the legend shows, also
A, For Children.'
belongs to A. Prefixed in ordinary letterpress is the prologue from the title-page of B \ and in a somewhat corrupt
version The Keys of the Gates,' which would seem to have
been wanting in the copy facsimilized.
Appended is a list of the plates of The Gates of Paradise
with their several legends, in the first issue For Children
For the Sexes
(A), and in the first and second issue
'

'

'

'

'

*

(B^andB^).

Frontispiece.
[A caterpillar on a leaf. On a second
human chrysalis like a babe in swaddling-clothes.]
B^ and B^. What is Man
The Sun's
A. What is Man
on
he
it
when
unfolds
the
Depends
Organ that
Light
[i]

leaf a

!

!

|

|

beholds

it.

\Title-page?^

[ii]

A. For

Children

B^ For

etc.

the

B^. For the Sexes etc. (with changes in text of
prologue, for which see footnotes).
1. [A woman under a weeping-willow, holding a babe in
her left arm, and pulling a mandrake out of the ground by
its hair.]
A, B\ and B-. I found him beneath a Tree.
2.
[Old man, resting his hands on his knees, sits upon
a rock beneath a leafless tree in a deluge of rain. The
encroaching flood rises to his feet.] A. Water. B^ and
B^. Water
Thou Waterest him with Tears.
from a crevice
3. [Crouching figure of a man emerging
in a rock.]
A. Earth. B^ and B^. Earth He struggles
into Life.

Sexes

etc.

|

|

4. [Man seated upon a white cloud clasps his forehead
with both hands and gazes steadfastly before him. Behind
him the sky studded with stars.] A. Air. B^ and B^.

On Cloudy Doubts and Reasoning Cares.
[Fiend, blind in B^ and B^, but not in A, standing in
flames, armed with spear and shield.] A. Fire. B^andB^.
That end in endless Strife.
Fire.
6. [Cherub issuing from an Q%g.\
A, B^, and B^. At
the
breaks
shell.
he
for
ripe
hatching
length
7. [Boy in garden, hat in hand, chases flying fairy.
second fairy lies face downwards crushed at his feet.]
A. Alas!
B^ and B^. Alas! [the original inscription
written in centre of page with the addition of the words on
the Female
either side and below] What are these ?
Air

[

5.

|

A

.

Martyr
8.

Is
|

She

also the Divine

Image

.

.

?

[Seated old man, with sword in right hand, leans

Gates of Paradise

37

1

sorrowfully on his elbow, averting his head from the figure
son!
of a joyfully departing youth.]
A, B\ and B'-.

My

my

son

!

of world prepares to mount
9. [Man standing on edge
Two lovers
ladder reared against the crescent moon.
I want
watch him.] A, B^, and B-. I want
One arm upthrust, and head
10. [Man drowning in sea.
A, B^, and B-.
just disappearing beneath the waves.]
!

!

Help! Help!

under a tree, an old man with spectacles
wings of a boy who struggles to escape. Before
him the setting sun. Sec facsimile?^ A. Aged Ignorance.
11. [Seated

clips the

B^ and

B-.

Aged Ignorance

|

Perceptive Organs closed,

their Objects close.
12. [Old man and four sons

and daughters in dungeon
A, B\ and B'-^. Does thy God, O Priest, take such
vengeance as this ?
bed on which
13. [Man, woman, and two children, beside
lies a corpse, watch the ascending spirit of an old man
who points upward.] A, B\ and B^. Fear and Hope are
cell.]

|

Vision.
14.

[Man with

walking-stick striding along country lane.]

A, B^ and B-. The Traveller hasteth in the Evening.
15. [Old man, leaning on crutch, passes through gateway of tomb.] A, B\ and B-. Death's Door.
16.
[Woman in white grave cerements, seated on the
|

A huge worm crawls around her
in burial crypt.
A, B\andB-. I have said to the worm Thou art
my mother and my sister.
Sec text.
[17, 18]. Keys of the Gates.
is the God of this world.
who
Accuser
To
the
[19].

ground
feet.]

See

;

text.

Bb

|

Gates of Paradise

372

FOR THE

THE GATES OF

SEXES.

PARADISE
\Prologue\
Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice,
Such are the Gates of Paradise,
Against the Accuser's chief desire,
Who walk'd among the Stones of Fire.
Not in the first issue of The Gates of Paradise, 'for Children' (1793).
Engraved, in sHghtly different form, on the title-page of the undated first
issue of the Gates for the Sexes' (B'), and, as above, on the later issue of
'

EY (iii. 62), and WBY,
(B"). Printed by Gilchrist (i. 102),
the three latter with the title Introduction,' and by W. Muir with title
Prologue.'
the

WMR,

same

'

'

I
'

Cp. Jerusalem,

f.

49,

11.

25-29

:

Withering the Human Form by Laws of Sacrifice for Sin,
By Laws of Chastity & Abhorrence I am wither'd up.

&

Striving to Create a Heaven in which all shall be pure
holy
In their Own Selfhoods, in Natural Selfish Chastity
to banish Pity
:

And
also
'

f.

dear Mutual Forgiveness
92,

When

15-20

11.

:

'

;

their Crimes, their Punishments, their Accusations of Sin,

all

Al} their Jealousies, Revenges, Murders, hidings of Cruelty in Deceit,
Appear only in the Outward Spheres of Visionary Space and Time,
In the

Shadows

of Possibility by Mutual Forgiveness for evermore.
& in the Prophecy, that we may Forsee 8c Avoid

And

in the

The

terrors of Creation

Vision

&

Redemption

&

Judgment.'

also Jerusalem, f. 7, 1. 66, and f. 43, 1. 61.
Here also may be added
Blake's daring and beautiful perversion of the Agnus Dei, which forms the

See

concluding lines of the second chapter oi Jerusalem: —
'

Come,

O

thou

To Sin &
To Sin in
To record

Lamb

of God, and take

to hide the Sin in

away

sweet deceit

is

the remembrance of Sin.
lovely

!

the open face of day is cruel & pitiless
But
the Sin for a reproach, to let the Sun go down
In a remembrance of the Sin is a Woe & a Horror,

A

1

brooder of an Evil Day, and a Sun rising in blood
then, O Lamb of God, and take away the remembrance of Sin.'
!

Come

3 See note to
11.
'

18-27.

'

Epilogue.'

4 Cp. Jerusalem,

4,
f.

49,

5 Cp. Jerusalem 'To the Public,'
11.

72-74

:

Learn therefore, O Sisters, to distinguish the Eternal Human
That walks about among the stones of fire in bliss & woe
Alternate.'

f.

3,

Gates of Paradise

373

Jehovah's Finger Wrote The Law
Then Wept then rose in Zeal and Awe,

5

;

;

And

the Dead Corpse, from Sinai's heat,
Buried beneath his Mercy Seat.

O

Christians

You

rear

.

Christians

B and all cdd.
'

5 Finger] fingers
.

!

me Why

tell

!

on your Altars high

it

6 Then]

He

9

?

all edd.

7,

8

And

Seat]

.

'

And
Hid

WMR,

B\

Gil.,

W.

Muir.

in the midst of Sinai's heat

beneath His Mercy Seat.'
EY, WHY.
'And in the midst of Sinai's heat
Hid it beneath the Mercy Seat.'
it

The Keys
The

Catterpiller on the Leaf
Reminds thee of thy Mother's

i

Grief.

of the Gates
I.

My

Man

Eternal

set in

The Female from

Repose,

his darkness rose

Engraved upon two plates of 23 and 29
printed to follow plate
Sexes.'
I,

;

lines respectively,

which arc

16 in both issues of Gates of Paradise 'for the

2 Cp. 'Auguries of Innocence' {Pickering MS.),

37, 38

11.

:

'The

Caterpillar on the leaf
Repeats to thee thy mother's

The 'Eternal Man,' or Fourfold Man'
when fallen into mortality) is Blake's term
'

3
'

Four

states of
'

And

Humanity

in its

grief.'

(called by the name of 'Albion'
for Universal Humanity. For the

'

Repose see

Milioti,

the Eternal Man, even Albion upon the

4 This refers to the

'

division

'

'

of

Man

into his

'

f.

34,

'

:

'

He

When

divides into

8, also

&

46

'

(imagination)

the Individual appropriates Universality
Female.'

Male

I.

:

Male and Female Con-

Spectre (reasoning power) and Emanation
chief theme oi Jerusalem.
Cp. f. go, 11. 52, 53
'

trarieties,'

1.

Rock of Ages.'

— the

Gates of Paradise

374

found me beneath a Tree,
Mandrake, and in her Veil hid me.
Serpent Reasonings us entice
Of Good and Evil, Virtue & Vice,

And She

5

A
2.

Doubt

3.

Struggling thro' Earth's Melancholy,

4.

Naked

5.

Blind in Fire, with shield and spear,

Two

Self Jealous,

f.
'

Veil

'

and the

Natural Religion.'
'

And

Also

'

ii,

He

22

1.

:

13

Self contradiction,

is

is like

a mandrake in the earth.'
'

'
7 Serpent is one of Blake's names
lines immediately following referring to his hete noir

see note to

for Nature, this
'

Fear,

Horrid Reasoning Cloven Fiction,

6 Cp. Jerusalem,
'

9

folly.

Shame and

in Air, in

In Doubt, which

For the

Watry

1.

19.

Cp. Jefusalem,

f.

1.

29,

76

:

the vast form of Nature like a serpent play'd before them.'

The

'

Everlasting Gospel

{Rossefti

MS.

cxxxii),

j3, 1.

53

:

'The Serpent Bulk of Nature's Dross.'
8

all edd. omit.

&]

Is

whether he

For definition of

'

description of the
f.

29,

11.

Cp. Jerusalem,

whether a Man

'I care not

39, 40

is

a

f.

is

Wise Man

91,

11.

Good

54,

55

:

or Evil

:

all

that

I

care

or a Fool.'

'

Good and Evil see Jerusalem, f. 10, 11. 7-16. 9 Cp. the
Shadow from Albion's wearied intellect,' Jerusalem,
'

:—

'A sweet entrancing

self-delusion, a wat'ry vision of Albion,

Soft exulting in existence

;

the

all

Man

absorbing.'

interesting to note (a fact hitherto, I believe, overlooked) that the whole
of the page of Jerusalem in which these lines are found occurs also, with
It is

Man or Ancient Man
The Four Zoas was written or
The Four Zoas (Night iii).
begun about 1797, the date on the title-page, though its completion may
perhaps be some years later. Forty-seven out of the seventy leaves of which

a few trifling differences such as the substitution of

'

'

'

'

for 'Albion,' in

the manuscript

is

composed are proofs of Blake's

illustrations to

Young's

Night Thoughts, published in the same year.
II, 12 Cp. Jerusalem, f. 7, 11. 38, 39
Vala comes from the Furnace in a cloud, but wretched Luvah
Is howling in the Furnaces, in flames among Albion's Spectres.'
:

'

13 Fiction] fictions all edd.

13-15 Cp. Jerusalem,
'

...

A

64,

in self contradicting agonj-

dark Hermaphrodite they stood.'

Cp. also 'The Everlasting Gospel,' 7',
'

f.

11.

95, 96:

Reasoning on its own dark Fiction,
In doubt, which is Self Contradiction.'

11.

27-31

:

Gates of Paradise
A dark Hermaphrodite We stood, —

375

Rational Truth, Root of Evil and Good.
Round me flew the Flaming Sword;

17

Round

her snowy Whirlwinds roar'd,
Freezing her Veil, the Mundane Shell.

where the Dead dwell

rent the Veil

I

6.

When weary Man enters his Cave.
He meets his Saviour in the Grave.
Some find a Female Garment there.
And some a Male, woven with care

21

;

Lest the Sexual Garments sweet
Should grow a devouring Winding sheet.
One Dies Alas the Living and Dead
!

7.

One
We]

15

:

and One

!

B ^ and all edd.

I

wept &

'I

!

!

slain

is

said

is

fled

17 Cp. Jerusalem,

"Is

:

25

this the

f.

!

77,

11.

56-62:

law of Jesus,

This terrible devouring sword turning everj- waj- ?
It is Natural Religion.'
He answer'd ...
18 Cp. Jerusalem,
'.

.

f.

19 Freezing] Freeing

Of
also
'

f.

Mundane

the
59,

1.

7,

73

:

indignant self-righteousness like whirlwinds of the north.'

.

11.

2-9

:

W.

Muir.

Shell,

Cp. Jerusalem, f. 63, 1. 44
'among the Caverns

which

froze on all sides

;

f.

64,

i

I.

:

'
;

For the Veil of Vala, which Albion cast into the Atlantic Deep
catch the Souls of the Dead, began to Vegetate & Petrify
Thus, in process of time, it became the beautiful Mundane Shell,

To

.

23, 24 Cp. Jerusalem,

f.

II.

54,

3,

4

:

&

.

'

Tent

.

of the Spectres of the Dead & the Place
& of awaking again into Eternity.'

The Habitation
Of Redemption

A

Tabernacle

of

This

Mutual

is

Jerusalem

Forgiveness,

in

Male

every Man,
and Female

'

Clothings
also
'

f.

61,

Man

1.

51

in the

:

;

Resurrection changes his Sexual Garments at Will.'

25 Cp. Jerusalem, f. 90, 1. 37
Lest the Sexual Generation swallow up Regeneration
and Mt'ltou, f 43, 11. 25-28
:

'

'

:

;

'These are the Sexual Garments, the Abomination of Desolation,
Hiding the Human Lineaments, as with an Ark & Curtains
Which Jesus rent & now shall wholly purge away with Fire
Till Generation is swallow'd up in Regeneration.*
;

27 Dead] the dead

W.

Muir.

In the later Prophetic Books Blake uses

! -^ : 10. 8. 'Death's Door. 42 Cp. But when once I did descry 12. and light and love. f. to the Tomb: Weaving to Dreams the Sexual strife. i. 30 .' ibid. . : . double Spectres.' Jerusalem. 26-55. 11. 6. speeches Power in Muir. Spectres] spectre (' Reasoning Pride & Self-righteous- the divided to 1. For references every Man. 4-6 : — knew that it Humanity. 50 Cp. 8. Climbing thro' Night's highest noon In Time's Ocean falling. 54. & Albion saw his Form. in Ages of Eternity. — War and deadly contention. 41 The Immortal Man 14. f. Sister. 1. . 13. 96. the Universal & Man.' ' . f. they become an Eternal Death. Daughter. too long for quotation. I clip'd the Wings Of all Sublunary Things. 32 See description of plate 8 ness. Self Accurst. Blake's illustration to Blair's Grave. 11.Gates of Pai^adise ^^6 In Vain-glory hatcht and nurst. The Door And the Thou'rt 16. Milton. 49 of Life. ' f. 31. Cp. 3 17.' ' 39 my] icy all edd. Man with Man. 11. 30) see Jerusalem. also Jerusalem. W. Albion 43 shades] shadows W. and passim. they conversed as 1. . . Between Father and Son. from the Womb : . passim. On the shadows of the Moon. . over the Web death' as the equivalent of bodily or 'vegetative' 90. Jerusalem. 21 31. : In Aged Ignorance profound. life. of Death I open found. Muir. 45 Cp. drovvn'd ! 9. Holy and cold. 1. And weeping ' f. 15. 29 By My Son my Son thou treatest me But as I have instructed thee. and 7. f. Thro' evening shades I haste away To close the Labours of my Day. of the Daughters of Los weaving the Web of Life with tears and lamentations. 45 Worm Weaving in the Ground my Mother. f. 18. 37 And in depths of my Dungeons Closed the Father and the Sons. f. description. 1.' See also Jerusalem. Was A the Lord. 59. 20.' 49. Jerusalem. Wife. . f. Hermaphroditic worshippers of a God of cruelty & law. Jerusalem. 53-55 11. :— ' & when the Male & Female Appropriate Individuality. that cannot Die. and The Four Zoas.

' For Sin. Tho' thou art Worshipped by the Names Divine Of Jesus and Jehovah. Will any one say. cxxx). Nan. & will erect the Synagogue of Satan. Synagogues worship Satan under the Unutterable Name. f.' : Every Harlot was once a Virgin : ' 5-8 Cp. Sexes. Compell'd others to serve him in moral gratitude & submission. 98. calling themselves Sons of God. Devil. thou art still The Son The lost Morn of in Traveller's weary Night's decline. making to himself Laws from his own identity. Book. Where Satan. Where are those who worship Satan under the Name of God ? Where are they ? Listen Every Religion that Preaches Vengeance for Sin is the Religion of the Enemy & Avenger and not of the Forgiver of Sin and their God is Satan. And the Spectres of the Dead. 11. 61. which in the Rossetti Rossetti calls and Swinburne 'Prayer' (MS. Named by the Divine Name. 10-14 : God by — the Mighty — Ones of the Earth'.Gates of Paradise 2>77 \Fjpilogiie\ To who the Accuser The God is World of This My Satan. 48. 18 ' : — ' : . canst thou ever change Kate Nor into i Man . 11.' Mammon ' sins' stands 3 Cp. in In the untitled War. 11.' Title\ Cp. ' f.' all In his . thou art but a Dunce. the 'accuser of for Satan or * 5 ' Mr. poem & in the 49 : — where are his all Human Sacrifice Druid Temples of the Accuser of MS. Jerusalem. 9. he will have the Religion of Satan. last leaf of the issue 'for the All edd. And dost not know the Garment from the Every Harlot was a Virgin once. print as a single stanza. 1. Jcnisaleni. Being call'd God. 18-25) Man must & will have Some Religion if he has not the Religion of Jesus. f. I : : : 'Satan. God and destroying all who do not worship Satan under the Name of God. f. 1. Truly. 52.' — ' Sin. 33. calling the Prince of this World. 52 every Criminal an Infant Love. Worship'd as and Milton. Dream under Engraved on a single plate printed as the the Hill. Blake's Address to the Deists at the beginning of the third chapter oi Jerusalem (f.' See also Jerusalem. setting himself above all that is called God .

11 Thou He On waterest in A. forming a quatrain.' * Which vary See ' also ibid. Depends on the Organ that beholds it. 11. 38 such was the variation of Time : & Space. 98. slightly changed. 4. 56 : — Objects of Perception seem to vary Perceptive Organs close their Objects seem to close also Perceptive Organs vary If the : : : note also the repetition of the latter to the legend of plate 11 in B^ and line. . 11.o Gates of Paradise yS \^From the Legends to the Plates^ The Sun's Light. to be read and 5. : cloudy Doubts and Reasoning Cares. Earth. 2. That end Not him with Tears struggles into Life. occur as legends to plates respectively illustrating Water. according as the Organs of Perception vary. in Legend all edd. Jerusalem^ f. B and B° ^ these four lines. to Frontispiece of The Gates ' — for the Sexes' (B' and Cp. In in endless Strife. All edd. omit. 37. 3. when he unfolds it. omit. which seem intended consecutively.^ If f. Air and Fire. ' : in the addition B^. 55. 34. Not B ') A.

INDEX OF FIRST LINES PAGE A crowned king A fairy leapt upon my knee A A flower was offer'd to 62 3" me black thing among the snow A pair of Stays to mend the Shape Petty Sneaking Knave I knew Strange Erratum in all the Editions Abstinence sows sand all over Ah how shall Urizen the King submit to this dark mansion Ah. An Old maid early e'er I knew And did those feet in ancient time And his legs carried it like a long fork And in melodious accents I Anger & Wrath my bosom rends I wander'd the forest the Ignorant Savage will sell his own Wife At the first Sound the Golden Sun arises from the little Boy hither. Human Heart Dear Mother. awake. dear Mother. my boy. my Deep ! sparrows Come. ! ! ! 345 279 235 lOI 205 132 174 172 17 217 217 207 135 is Do ! 117 204 168 60 170 223 Call that the Public Voice which is their Error ? Can I see another's woe Can there be anything more mean Children of the future Age Come hither. & Baldwin of Egypt's Lake Cr loves artists as he loves his Meat . Fortune favours the Brave. tell me what thou seest there Come 173 347 126 224 35 1 201 201 As As my 322 208 212 176 Are not the joys of morning sweeter As I walk'd forth one may morning Awake. Sun-flower weary of time All pictures that 's painted with sense and with thought All the night in woe little — A A ! ! . 125 133 ! ! . old proverbs say 120 320 239 344 358 107 363 102 209 229 209 . the Church Cruelty has a cold Degrade first the Arts if you'd Mankind Degrade what you will this life 's a fiction Does the Eagle know what is in the pit Each Man is in his Spectre's power Earth rais'd up her head England awake awake awake Father father where are you going ? For Fortune's favours you your riches bring For this is being a Friend just in the nick . Kings. Frazer. and listen to my song Come knock your heads against this stone Cosway.

till he and I 171 131 121 . smooth & neatly pen'd Here lies John Trot. though I by rose up at the dawn of day . —thee am Mocked . . 217 227 127 229 296 224 .Index of First Lines 8o PAGE Fresh from the dewy hill. all agree . 55 233 208 207 20S II asked cry 21 233 228 230 89 225 ! am no Homer's Hero you all know ask^d a thief to steal me a peach I 15 224 130 345 205 238 219 157 195 359 my told love love. . am a Statesman and a Saint saw a chapel all of gold saw a Monk of Charlemaine saw a Monk of Charlemaine my 213 361 89 158 156 13 summer morn lovM Theotormon mock thee not. the merry year Give Pensions to the Learned Pig Golden Apollo. the Friend of all mankind Honour & Genius is all I ask ! How How How I help thy Husband's copying sweet I roam'd from field to field sweet is the Shepherd's sweet lot always take my judgment from a Fool can Me ? ' Mother said Dreamt a Dream what can it mean I die ! the ! my 60 284 122 162 ? wind found them blind I taught them how to see give you the end of a golden string : have no name heard an Angel singing laid me dowTi upon a bank love the jocund dance love to rise in a . Rubens. ! He makes the Lame to walk. 175 21S 59 206 157 231 . we He who bends to himself a joy . that thro' heaven wide Great Men and Fools do often me inspire Great things are done when Men & Mountains meet Grown old in Love from Seven till Seven times Seven Hail Matrimony. fear'd the fury of 322 176 106 59 210 my Dear Friend Orator Prig my matches as far as Guildhall die. made of Love Having given great offence by writing in Prose He has observ'd the Golden Rule He's a Blockhead who wants a proof of what he can't Perceiv He is a Cock would . . Hear the voice of the Bard Hear then the pride & knowledge of a Sailor Her Whole Life is an Epigram smart. I told travel'd thro' a Land of Men 156 274 walked abroad on a snowy day wander thro' each charter'd street was angry with my friend was buried near this dyke wash'd them out cS: wash'd them in went to the Garden of Love will tell you what Joseph of Arimathea wonder whether the Girls are mad write the Rascal thanks.

you Joe O lapwing thou fliest around the heath O Reader. behold the Philosopher's grave O Rose.' they Madman. thou art sick ! 40 222 58 179 109 88 295 59 59 ! ' 235 235 226 228 116 364 In futurity In Heaven the only Art of Living Is this a holy thing to see Justice hath heaved a sword to plunge Learn the laborious stumble of a Fool Leave. laden with fruit. my father wept mother groan'd. Mary Bell thee ? had a Fairy in a Nut Phebus came strutting in Lo the Bat with Leathern wing Love and harmony combine Love seeketh not Itself to please Love to faults is always blind Fool. My My My My silks and fine array My Spectre around me night & day My title as a Genius thus is prov'd 90 12 186 218 : ! ! ! ! . and a tongue O holy virgin clad in purest white O.Index of First Lines 38 1 PAGE If e'er I Grow to Man's Estate . Rousseau Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice mother bore me in the southern wild mother groan'd. Voltaire. Know. and stained O dear Mother Outline of wisdom most sage O for a voice like thunder. 121 in Albion's breast ! Little Fly Lamb who made . what the Prophets write men will act like a maid smiling over a churn If you have form'd a Circle to go into If you mean to Please Everybody. Merry Sparrow Mock 12 call . who lookest down O why was born with a different face O Winter bar thine adamantine doors I ? ! Of H 's birth this was the happy Once a dream did weave a shade thee 119 169 205 14 96 194 372 129 162 Nail his neck to the Cross nail it with a nail Nature and Art in this together suit No real Style of Colouring ever appears Nought loves another as itself Now Art has lost its mental Charms O Autumn. ' : Memory. hither come Merry. before you begin If you trap the moment before it 's ripe In a wife 1 would desire If If it is true. my father wept on. you will If you play a Game of Chance. I Mock on. I say.' I have been call'd Little . to whose fury the nations are O thou who passest thro' our vallies in O thou with dewy locks. O thou. O leave [me] to my sorrows Let the Brothels of Paris be opened Little Little 222 212 lot 237 220 200 128 236 6 232 40 8 61 161 323 123 26 5 5 310 7 206 100 .

Graceful. the strongest of the children of men. 175 171 103 177 282 126 228 .. ! 91 353 92 2 So 219 199 232 210 Sweet dreams. the first time she ever was there Swelled limbs. form a shade Sweet Mary. prepare the iron helm of war Rafael.Iarybone The Good are attracted by ]Men's perceptions The harvest shall flourish in wintry weather The little boy lost in the lonely fen The look of love alarms The Maiden caught me in the Wild The modest Rose puts forth a thorn The only Man that e'er 1 knew The sun arises in the East The sun descending in the west The Sun does arise The Sun's Light. Silence The The . Wise Reader . of heaven : Remove away that black'ning church S in Childhood. how he 44 161 236 208 207 210 beauty bright Idleness Some look to see the sweet Outlines Some men.. come Some people admire the work of a Fool Sound the Flute Such visions have appear'd to me ! Soft deceit 160 177 320 215 235 ! & .. and 42 211 246 . on the nursery floor Samson. when he unfolds it The Sussex Men are Noted Fools The sword sung on the barren heath The veiled Evening walked solitary down the western 8 237 174 222 316 353 . Villain at the Gallows tree . Silent Night Since all the Riches of this World Sir Joshua praised Rubens with a smile Sir Joshua praises Michael Angelo Sir Joshua sent his own Portrait to Sleep Sleep I sing .Index of First Lines 382 P loved Phebe drest PAGE me not as he lov'd his friends like beautie's Piping down 214 Queen 55 the valleys wild Pity would be no Prayers plow not 86 134 344 41 221 352 177 206 more Praises reap not Prepare. and shook the silent tower The Catterpiller on the Leaf The Caverns of the Grave I've seen The countless gold of a merry heart . with no outline that you can descrj' Terror house does roar in the That God is Colouring Newton does shew The Angel that presided o'er my birth The bell struck one. of books . Vision of Christ that thou dost see 99 87 378 204 173 hills. created for destruction.. Sublime. Majestic. The cripple every step drudges &: labours The Door of Death is made of Gold The fields from Islington to l^. 171 . was foiled Silent.

'twixt fools & Knaves When H y finds out what you cannot do When I see a Rubens. to this place men in women do require is Born of Mortal Birth is it Whate'er Whate'er to her she cannot know has Married a Wife. Europe. and Love To my Friend Butts I write To see a World in a Grain of Sand Truly. . What 60 204 47 177 123 193 stranger. 43 . Correggio When a is done Man 191 16 321 215 227 192 97 321 When Klopstock England defied When my mother died was very young When Nations grow Old. this country has brought forth This frog he would a wooing ride This song to the flower of Flaxman's joy Thou fair-hair"d angel of the evening Thou hast a lap full of seed They Thou. Pity. There's Doctor Clash There is a Smile of Love There souls of men are bought . . in what Grove Whether on Ida's shady brow 321 91 . you always can see Where thou dwellest. Who is this. Rembrandt. . My Satan. S3 23 47 . did'st play Thou waterest him with Tears Thy friendship oft has made my Three Virgins at the heart to ake break of day thou dost [conquer] the distrest Till 350 To a lovely mirtle bound To be or not to be To Chloe's breast young Cupid slily stole To find the Western path does pretend To forgive enemies H To Mercy. W'hen S'' Joshua Reynolds died W^hen the green woods laugh with the voice of joy When the voices of children are heard on the green When the voices of children are heard on the green W hen you look at a picture. he finds out whether WTien early morn walks forth in sober grey When France got free. that where only 94 108 225 199 17 with unerring step dares tempt the wilds. little 169 57 61 many mayors 301 7 165 174 378 216 271 Kid. .Index of First Lines PAGE The wild winds weep 14 61 . & 269 170 220 sold These are the Idiots' chiefest arts said this mystery never shall cease This city &. Peace. ! 323 ! Welcome. . their innocent faces clean Tyger Tyger burning bright Venetian all thy Colouring is no more Want Matches ? Was I angry with Hayley who us'd me so ill ! 95 no . thou art but a Dunce 167 56 . . the Arts grow Cold When old corruption first begun When silver Snow decks Susan's cloaths When silver snow decks Sylvia's clothes I . 236 198 214 98 302 288 377 'Twas on a Holy Tnursday. .

. . I "^ O? y I .Index of First LhZ7tes 84 Why art thou silent & invisible Why of the sheep do you not learn peace Why should be bound to thee Why should I care for the men of thames Why was Cupid a Boy PAGE 168 . Wife of the Friend of those I most revere . I ? 166 164 . more wondrous are the Men You all your Youth observ'd the Golden Rule You call me Mad 'tis folly to do so — You don't believe— I won't attempt to make ye You must agree that Rubens was a Fool You say reserve and modesty he has You say their Pictures well Painted be You think Fuseli is not a Great Painter. M. 230 304 305 216 209 215 2CO 219 216 226 205 124 d Oxford : Printed at the Clarendon Press by Horace Hart. Fm glad Youth of delight. .A. come hither . With happiness stretch'd across the hills Wondrous the Gods.

.

I .

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