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reversed), showing early draft of some of the Songs of Experience
written circa 1793.
.See p. 149, Index to Rossetti M.S.

and other poems.

THE POETICAL WORKS
OF

WILLIAM BLAKE
A NEW AND VERBATIM TEXT FROM
THE MANUSCRIPT ENGRAVED AND
LETTERPRESS ORIGINALS
WITH

VARIORUM READINGS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL
NOTES AND PREFACES
BY

JOHN SAMPSON
LIBRARIAN IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL

OXFORD
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
1905

V

HENRY FROWDE,

M.A.

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

LONDON, EDINBURGH

NEW YORK AND TORONTO

4/40

P05
J UN 2

1366

1086280

/ Memoriam FREDERICK TORK POWELL ./.

.

that what he styles a disservice is done to the poet by reprinting his works finish so ' ' without correction. on the surface. it may perhaps be pertinent no writer would have more strongly resented to recall that interference with his held that ' own mode of expression than he and that is holy ' every minute particular who ' no one can high as the original inventor. poetry. First should be specified the difficulties encountered in It should be remembered that referring to the originals. The primary object has been to recover and present Blake's own version of his poetry without the Apart from the customary attempts at emendation. The literary remains of William Blake fall into three broad and generally recognized divisions. and The present work is a complete the prophetic books.GENERAL PREFACE TEXT I. of Blake's poems.' Even if we assume. engraved. there desire to refer to his itself to their be some so curious as to form which commended restoration of text should be necessary at modern writer whose works have passed the case of a through The still in the author. That such a all in may poems many editions may seem lie to require explanation. with one of these critics. natural question whether most editors of Blake are competent to effect improvement in the works of a man of singular and individual genius. This edition furnishes readers with a new text. including all lyrical and metrical pieces scattered throughout his prose works and collection visionary writings. during Blake's lifetime few of his poems were either N . reasons. however. literally reproduced from the original manuscript. and printed sources. prose.

the collation of several copies if incorrect conclusions are to be avoided. deliberately further found in the Gabriel Rossetti. in his desire to present an almost unknown poet to the public in as favourable a light as . and Blake's various changes. is and necessary Still greater poems which Blake himThe MSS. are still very deficient in Our great first national libraries Most editions of Blake.' though the latter is clearly engraved in the original impressions of The Keys of the Gates. followed by all later editors. examples of the engraved works are widely scattered the libraries of private collectors in this country and in America. Thus we find Gilchrist. accounts for a number of errors which have crept into the published texts.General Preface vi printed or published in the usual manner. ments of lines and stanzas. exact careful study before his A few misfinal intention can be accurately determined. Many of the poems are hastily or not over legibly written. that until its recent acquisition by the British Museum it might be regarded as generally inaccessible. mode of indicating his successive rearrangeand additions. ' ' misreading icy dungeons for my dungeons. His first work. but only a few copies were issued to friends. the Poetical Sketches. in which self never engraved or published. these are found have always been private possessions. and even when the courtesy of owners has permitted them to difficulties exist in be made use the case of the work of transcription is full of pitfalls for the copyist. and unfamiliarity with Blake's hand of. and since the various impressions of the same in V^ book often \ '""'^ differ from one another in contents arrangement. and the little volume remained so rare. Again several pieces are left by their rough draft.' ' ' A and more important source of error is to be changes which some of Blake's editors have It is comprehensible that Dante introduced. to the be attributed inability of editors readings must also author in to decipher their own transcripts. originating in this way errors which tend to become fixed. was indeed produced in ordinary typography.

. while he introduces and ' the five short stanzas quoted no less than seven emendations of his own. every lover of Blake must feel that the intended emendations not only are made on no consistent principle. but are often destructive of the happy grace and artless No equally valid defence can simplicity of the original. Liberties such as no one would venture on with Burns or Shelley. ' welded piece has been created out of three shorter poems together by a line which is apparently the composition of Blake's text has. are found in conjunction with professions Reference to of scrupulous regard for textual fidelity. even in to remove what he regarded as blemishes. and readings destructive of sense. involving additions of syllables and important changes of meaning. changed. are everywhere taken with Blake by those who still profess their admiration for his 'exquisite metrical gift and rightness It is not a little bewildering to find one great of form. which can hardly be regarded especially if as improvements. and vice versa. this case.General Preface vii have considered himself justified in making grammatical and other changes in the endeavour Yet. stanzas are transposed or omitted. owner has overwritten his own poetry. the variorum readings given in the footnotes to the which this passion present edition will show the extent to It will be seen that for emendation has been carried.' poet and critic extolling Blake for the 'glory of metre' ' sonorous beauty of lyrical work in the two opening into lyrics of the Songs of Experience. in the ingenious and modest editor. suffered scarcely a single poem or even epigram has been Words and phrases are to remain as Blake wrote it. possible. and prosody are introduced Unauthorized titles are added without obvious reason. of sort become a poor palimpsest where each new short. Two or more lyrics In one instance a new are printed as one. as in the case of Broken Love/ impart to the poem a meaning undreamt of by its author. new readings. syntax. be made should for the perversions of more recent editors. which.

engraved as well as in his manuscript writings. while all earlier or cancelled readings are supplied in footnotes. I have accordingly supplied my own punctuation though Blake's pointing. he followed latter the was never ' or ' ed. they would only serve to confuse the reader.' tyger. Both in his system. in his . "d practice the final have thought it of books using the be syllable better to preto vent any misconception on this point by retaining the 'd in the former case. is apparent from the careful manner in which he has added them as corrections in the revised versions of several of his MS. has been taken into consideration. In all existing editions the melody of many of the has been marred songs by ignoring the fact that Blake's use of participle or preterite. if reproduced. as a rule. The spelling and capitalization of the original are adhered to throughout. or in the engraved form of songs found also in rough draft. but based on manuscript and engraved only when he intended separately pronounced. In my retention of Blake's orthography I have been influenced not only by the desire to preserve as far as possible the colour of the original in such pleasant archaisms as desart. and occasionally. as in the third stanza of 'The Tyger.' is an indication of the in which a particular passage was intended to Blake omitted apostrophes and inverted commas way be read. without points of any kind. and. where it occurs. by supplying an accent which is not in the original. while those in the engraved books are inserted in such a haphazard manner that.' but also the ' ' ' by fact that in some instances his own spelling is a valuable aid to the just reading of lines or stanzas.' and lilly. Blake's autograph MSS.Ge7teral Preface viii In the present edition Blake's final version is uniformly adopted as the text. in the latter. In the matter of punctuation the poet has left his editors almost entirely to their own resources.' in contemporary I the arbitrary. poems. That Blake himself attached some importance to the use of capitals for the sake of emphasis or artistic effect. are. and .

or in the poem beginning ' My me night and day. since Blake's omission of quotation marks contributes to the difficulty of obscure poems by leaving it questionable to whom particular Instances of possible conspeeches should be assigned. phrase all editors must of course be understood to refer to those only who print some version of a particular poem. reference to with precise book from which each is taken.' where the untabulated drama are the narrator. or manuscript 1. engraved.' — characters whose respective parts are not immediately obvious to those who with the visionary writings. capitals. or has been subjected to repeated alterations. fusion arising from cause this may be noted The ' in which it is sometimes not apparent where quoted speeches end and Blake resumes the disEverlasting Gospel. the source of every poem is stated. In every case where a poem has been left in rough draft. 2. for example. add also. the page or folio of the printed.' in course in his own person spectre around persons of the his ' . excludes Wilkinson and Shepherd. In the first place.' and ' emanation. The notes to the poems will have no dealings NOTES are of several kinds. his spectre. I ' ' In the case of the Rossetti MS. where necessary./ it should be understood that when these are found in the text they have been added at the discretion of the editor. 4.General Preface ix . II. Differences are noted in all cases except where they consist only of trivial variations of spelling.. of all 3. The detail is not a purely trivial one. All Blake's earlier or cancelled readings are given in footnotes in the order of composition. These are followed by the variant readings editors who have not merely reprinted some existing text. this who it necessarily print no part of MS. I have . or punctuation. the names of the editors or The commentators by whom the poem has been printed.

' 'equal. for the light ' voyagings. as 'radius. W.' spectre. Interesting examples of the pains taken by Blake in perfecting his verses will be found in the notes to The Tyger.' natural religion of sym' hermaphrodite. While Blake has been at little pains to supply the world with a chart of his mental 5. and the absolute uniformity with which definite symbolical figures are used to express definite conceptions.' 'pentagon.' These not only Fayette. ' ' or 'The Mental Traveller' in the Pickering MS. indicating the successive changes by which he arrived at his final version.' I have therefore endeavoured to make the poet his own interpreter by appending to these poems elucidatory passages from the Prophetic Books. before him. but enable him to follow for himself the reasons that have led the editor to arrange lines or stanzas in the order in which they appear in the text.' will be ignorant of the consistency with which his self-invented system of mythology is expounded.' and The Everlasting Gospel.' or 'parallel' are not more absolutely descriptive of certain mathematical figures or relations. could only be ascertained after considerable study. M. with Mr. were the actual MS. The value of these references in the interpretation of difficult poems like My spectre around me in the Rossetti MS.Ge7teral Preface endeavoured to explain the author's mode of composition by longer prefatory or appended notes. than are such locutions as ' ' ' ' ' Jerusalem.' or bolic meanings in the writings of Blake.' ' ' ' supply the student with data which. emanation. coupled occasionally with brief explanations of what I conceive to have been his meaning. where the key to obscure mystical allusions is generally to be found. it is impossible to study the prophetical writings without becoming aware of the extreme precision of his In the books of Euclid such terms mystical terminology. turn from the visionary writings after a hasty and half-shuddering glance. Readers of Blake's simpler poetry only who. Many poems would prove unintelligible were it not thrown upon them by the Prophetic Books. Rossetti. will not .

' as he assures There is some reason to suppose that ' ' ' ' . 7. ARRANGEMENT most of the existing have fallen under the would groupings of Blake's poems are to blend and poet's lash for those whose chiefest arts not define the parts. and with some knowledge of the written around them. Henry Gay Hewlett's be ingenious article in the Contemporary Review. Mad Song' {Poetical Sketches) and Infant Sorrow' {Songs of Experience). ' While interpretation is here restricted to passages in the seem to require explanation. III. 6. Blake's of these repetitions have been adduced as evidence poverty of thought and language in Mr.' the allusion to the ' rock ' and ' cave in 1.' If to make out the parts. I have similarly illustrated Blake's epigrams on art and artists by quotations from prose writings where his opinions or prejudices are expressed with his customary energy and conviction. probably contemplated by him that they would In only a single instance. it may exfrom which identical the that to out writings point proper pressions are borrowed were not published by their author. 40 may only be understood through the associations of the same figures in The Four Zoas and Jerusalem. has a line been transferred from one printed nor was it ' ' and as I have elsewhere explained. Blake never seems to have regarded the privately printed Poetical Sketches as one of his actual publications. And even in such comparatively simple With happiness lines as the verses to Butts beginning ' stretch'd across the hills. at give also occasional indications of the date or place referwell as cross as were which particular poems written. I As ences to lines or passages repeated in different pieces. that of the ever see the light. work to another.General Preface xi pass unnoticed. the editor lyrical poems which may claim that the parallelisms from the Prophetic Books have been selected after many readings of the visionary chief literature writings.

'everyone in its own identity. written The first of these. This arrangement is of course a bibliographical.' or Later Poems..' In each of these groups the poetical contents are printed in the order in which they occur in the original.' are arbitrarily used to comprehend pieces collected from a number of undefined sources belonging to widely different periods. It is also in cases a valuable aid to the dating of many particular pieces. present arrangement conserves the integrity of the various books. While the contents of the Pickering MS. including the original drafts of many of the Songs of Between the first and second section interExperience.* is Geiteral Preface the wise man's aim. whether letterpress. engraved. rather than a purely historical one. consists chiefly of lyrical poems. drafts of certain lyrics afterwards transcribed into the Pickering MS. The three broad sections into which its contents fall are however clearly marked and occasion no confusion. or engraved as part of we reach the epigrams. about 1793. The earlier pieces in the second section include a few poems written in a strain of among them first Jerusalem.Xll us. The latter is indeed of the nature of a notebook. vened a period of about seven years. those of the larger Rossetti MS. or in manu- The script. which were . Before more highly developed mysticism. a plan which has the advantage of illustrating how poems found in juxtaposition have often been suggested by or grown out of one another. extend over a period of more than twenty years and are of the most diverse character.' ' 'Miscellaneous Poems. are obviously all of a kind and written about the same time. during which Blake wrote and engraved the shorter Prophetic Books. the earliest poetic entries in which antedate the publication of the Songs of Experience and the latest postdate most of the Prophetic Books.' culty when such editorial it becomes a task of no titles as ' Ideas of little diffi- Good and Evil. In one case at least the heading Later Poems is made to include a ' * song written in Blake's early youth.

complete index of the contents of the Rossetti MS..' * notes to this book I have drawn attention to a hitherto ignored publication of Blake. or A * smaller autograph collection. and possibly the list of its contents recovered from the MS. containing anecdotes of Artists. fragments of Lastly. and the Pickering MS.General Preface xiii an overflow from Blake's marginalia to Reynolds' Discoursesl the Pickering MS. established the fact that there were three several editions of The Gates of Paradise. be directed to the entry in the Rossetti MS. Book may be the means of bringing this lost work The attention of the curious bibliophile may also to light. and have made some corrections in the dates of their composition or Comparison of a number of copies has publication.. also supplied brief bibliographical descriptions of the manuscript and engraved Prophetic Books.' I have is described for the first time. the two later only including the In my verses which distinguish the issue For the Sexes. 56) that • This day is Publish'd Advertizements to Blake's Canter- bury Pilgrims from Chaucer.' This may of course have been merely an experimental draft of a notice for insertion in the newspapers in case he thought fit to publish as a pamphlet with this down in his paragraphs jotted hand. All accessible have copies of the Songs of Innocence and of Experience been collated. ' ' The — the latest of Blake's surviving Everlasting Gospel poems with the possible exception of The Keys of the ' ' Gates. is given. portion at least of Jerusalem and Milton have the we third as the section. and some had been written.' In the bibliographical prefaces to the various sections I have tried to give fairly full and accurate accounts of hitherto been printed books or manuscripts which have somewhat slightly or incorrectly described. a companion volume to The Gates of Paradise . it is not improbable that notebook. his History of Ettgland for Children. it On title the the other may have been printed . and Blake's successive arrangements tabulated and classified. the letters to Butts. (p.

and colouring of the first issue ' occupied an entire year. D. as his public restricted to the few friends or patrons who necessarily was had poetic genius during his own obtained copies of his works from the Author and Printer. According to the commonly received account it was in consequence of his failure to secure a publisher for the Songs of Innocence in the ordinary way. that Blake to resort to the laborious expedient of was driven engraving and Verisimilitude is printing the Songs by his own hand.' The circumstances under which he first conceived the idea ' of producing his books by his invention of relief engraving possess therefore much more than the merely technical interest attaching to a new and curious art process. IV.' a detail of but little relevance when it is remembered that the engraving. said to have been published by Johnson in 1 791. preserved perhaps. Shury. and Barry : a Poem. but of which no trace is known. added by the picture of the poet's wife going out with their last half-crown to buy the necessary materials.General Preface xiv for him possibly same manner as the Descriptive Catalogue. In the first place it may be observed that the supposition . Works referred to by Blake himself. case. I believe this story. and the engraved Book of Outhoon. and of his extreme indigence which prohibited him from bringing out the book in letterpress at his own cost. BLAKE'S ILLUMINATED PRINTING It is to Blake's singular mode of publication that must attribute the scanty recognition accorded we to his lifetime. printing. which may be traced to a loose statement of Gilchrist's. by the same printer. and that a copy in the may still be discovered. N. are The Book of Moonlight. to be without foundation. as is so often the by being bound up with contemporary tracts. Among other lost works of Blake may be mentioned the first book of the French Revohition.

as Smith tells us. rather in the it . Blake. it must be remembered. while that of Blake interwove text. regardless of toil which he loved. and the same attitude of mind which caused him on being shown ' a number of the Mechanic's Magazine to exclaim these doubtless led him to regard as things we artists HATE in which his conceptions were him book of a unworthy ' ! inadequately presented by a merely mechanical and somewhat unlovely process. His deliberate exclusion of the Poetical Sketches from the catalogue of his works offered a list which includes books produced by for sale in 1793 — ordinary engraving as well as seems to It is me by * ' illuminated printing — to support this view. handed to the author to publish or sell privately as he saw no attempt to dispose of the fit. to conclude that Blake brought more reasonable out his books himself by his own process. the Poetical assistance. were. was an artist as well as a poet. the sheets of which. stiffly or clumsily placed in juxtaposition to the surrounding of the text.xv General Preface that Blake desired to put his Songs into circulation through the medium of a publisher is altogether at variance with that characteristic independence which led him throughout his life to do most things for himself in his own way. he seems to have made or even to sell them personally. Sketches. design. a bookseller copies through While there is no positive evidence that such was the case it is not improbable that he himself may have destroyed the greater part of this small edition. The method then in vogue admitted of artistic embellishments steel or wood engravings. Relating the story of the invention Blake's biographers have represented of this process. and disdainful of external In the case of Blake's earlier work. printed in letterpress at the expense of Mathew and Flaxman. because no for him the new publisher or printer could have produced kind of illustrated work which he had in his mind. type and colouring into one harmonious whole with the happiest only in the shape of and most exquisite effect.

in a dream or daydream. & at have every other leaf a high finished print. Children.. imperfectly. me my my abilities. characteristic of the rough draft in this MS. dear & all they hate ." The the last unfortunate loss of one or more leaves preceding page may have deprived us of a description of the literary contents of the Cynic But (or book which the speaker Quid the Blake) designed since three of the most to bring out in this manner.." I was at Mrs. that would be excellent. ." said he. at the head of the recto of the ninth " " " leaf Illuminating the Manuscript Ay. entirely.. " who- ever will not have them. I would the writing Engraved instead of Printed." " Then. ing to the account derived from Smith. Blake may have solved a problem which had long occupied his to in Striking confirmation of the fact that at least thoughts. this engraving was revealed him mode of a vision by the spirit of his favourite brother Robert. Sicknakers. and sell them a hundred pounds a piece. " . profits of such a work — some new kind of illuminated printing is found in the early MS. and there is no particular reason to doubt that." " " Then. will be ignorant fools & will not deserve to live." said she. are eat up with envy —they envy your envy abilities. In the preface to that popular book Watts ." . known as An Island m the Moon. They all would Print off two thousand. are of higher abilities than their nasty filthy ' Selves." said — ' : she. Watts' Divine Moral Songs for suggested by . five years before the publication of the — he had contemplated and not without a view to the superior Songs of Linocetice it may be noted.General Preface xvi a happy accident than as a deliberate attempt Accord- light of to deal with a clearly realized artistic difificulty. & I was my speaking of the Women who people but their nasty hearts. poor devils. . Blake that may have had already unlikely Innoce^ice appear in Songs of seems not in view the it perhaps completion of a series of songs for children and Dr. all in three Volumes folio. abilities. This passage begins.

Hewlett. and than grand. first of his works colophon to the Ghost of Abel^ 1822. The Author. we have no grounds for questioning Smith's statement was the that the Songs of Innocefice in engraved this A manner. the last of Blake's Prophetic Books. he styles this process illuminated printing. the Author is sure of his reward. that the subjects of several of Blake's songs felt ' are identical with those of Watts. it probably means that plate of the Songs was engraved in the year preceding the publication of the completed book. It has been pointed out by Mr. any before discovered.' while noted that the moral it with which may the also be ' Chimney songs somewhat tags ' Holy Thursday. and perform much better.' and other abruptly conclude. such as I could wish some happy and condescending genius would undertake for the use of children. informs us that W.' a phrase the first ' evidently suggested by the passage quoted above from the Island in the Moon.' and it is likely enough that Blake may have rightly himself to be this destined genius. but since this statement cannot possibly refer to an earlier ' issue of the same sibylline leaflet. has invented a method of Printing both Letter-press and ' ' in a style. while it produces works at less than one-fourth of the expense.' says Blake. provided that it exceeds in elegance all former methods. recall the manner of Blake's didactic Sweeper. 1793.' parative require Blake's observation as to the com- mode cheapness of this some explanation. anticipated me in this conjecture. Blake's Original Stereotype was 1788'. as I find. uniform.' prototype. If a method of Engraving Printing which combines the Painter and the Poet is a phenomenon worthy of public attention. In Blake's prospectus 'To the Public' of October.Ge7ieral Preface xvii ' modestly refers to his songs as a slight specimen. Though nowhere definitely stated by the poet himself. who. as suggest that this illuminated SAMPSON it of printing seems to cannot be intended to printing was cheaper than . more ornamental.

though our comfortably veiled from us in several existing It may be confessed at once that with regard biographies. of little consequence. Such a task should not be undertaken with slight equipment. fication should. was printed separately by two different processes. engraver. and printer. or in a spirit of condescension towards ' our good Blake.' ' some deeper study than has yet been attempted of the sources from which he received and absorbed his ideas — notably the influence of the Wesleyan revival.General Preface xviii ordinary typography. his precise debt to Swedenborg. and later. Little is known of the life of William Blake. though 'slightly touched. And the only true biography must be that in which own writings. To some of those who have . was antagonistic to the scientific spirit in all its works and ways. the eye. as he was. LIFE V. The quali- be understood. and not through. To understand him. and a larger visionary endowment his than that which he esteemed the merely deceptive faculty We need too of seeing with. some degree of intellectual sympathy with an uncommon mind and temper is desirable. his own artist. the manner in which the doctrines of the French Revolution affected one who.' the somewhat illiterate. ' The slightness of the events of his material career is. rather than petty contemporary gossip. who. but amiable enthusiast. to what Blake called his vegetative existence we are ignorance is * almost wholly in the dark. of course. Probably what he meant was that the engraving and printing of lettering and design simultaneously less expensive than intaglio engraving and letterpress. Blake's real life was a mental and spiritual one. although the very opposite of reactionary. of our knowledge however. that to produce books in Blake's manner the author must be. are made the foundation of an endeavour to trace this mental and spiritual development.' was capable now and then of happy flights of fancy which are to be sought for as oases in the Sahara of his writings.

His views on the province of art.' To represent this mental. studying the influences which touched him and the degree in which they were modified by a naturally heretical mind and tracing step by step through the surviving Prophetic Books the evolution of the extraordinary system of mythology created . much autobiographical material greater part survives in his pictures. ' moral. Despite the destruction of the of the MSS. letters. an impassioned pursuit of virtue. Autobiographical. delineating Blake in his threefold character of artist. every sand becomes a Gem Reflected in the beams Divine. Book.' to himself a clear that it harmony was also is undoubted. and finely expressed with entire insight and sympathy by the author of The City of Dreadful Night. published and unpublished writings. the converse is rather the case. as also in his engraved works or in various facsimiles. and mystic. by him for the expression of his philosophical and religious views. borrowing the phrase which Shelley applied to his own. were Blake's remaining works destroyed by a new Tatham. and artistic harmony is the difficult work awaiting him who would present Blake aright. poet. still remain a sufficing monument to his genius. Blown back they blind the mocking eye 'And But still That Blake's nor is it less in Israel's life was paths they shine. MS. grasping at such pieces of self-revelation as the writings afford. in the fullest sense.General Preface xix essayed to follow with more or less success Blake's almost untrodden path. and criticisms examples preserved ba . has been carried further by Swinburne in that Essay which. This true line of investigation first apprehended by Wilkinson. marginalia. ' ' Blake's pictorial art may be studied at in the British first Museum hand from or in private collections. would The chief sources of our knowledge of Blake's life are particularized below. and I.

Even Blake's phrases and subject-matter. and in TiricI dj\d Thel\ the preface to Jeriisalem showing that in this attempt at a new cadence Blake was deliberately following the example set by the author of Paradise Lost. reminiscent of the Ode on the may ' Morning * of Christ's Nativity The deep What : — came .' or may century in the contemptuous reference to tinkling rhymes and tells us. It is in the message. occasionally be traced to the same source. fled to their abodes. time the secret child Descended War of winter ' ceas'd.XX Geiieral Preface of schools of painters. and epigrams in his MS. meet here also with the imitations of Macpherson. the grotesque Hudibrastic lilt of The Everlasting Gospel. .' Blake's Prophetic Books tell us what is known of his ' mystical religion and philosophy. among in the aphorisms in the in his sibylline leaflet. in his Advertisement or Public Address. are almost entirely his own. which. and Laocoon. the Barry: « P^^w must unfortunately be numbered lost works. continued but a more lasting and potent influence was that of Milton. except in the purely imitative Poetical Sketches. In the of literature Blake's early study. ' ' We ' elegances terse in the youthful Poetical Sketches. as Malkin field was of the Elizabethans. to which may be attributed the metrical experiments of the Prophetic Books.' of 1810. & all the troops. the shorter rhythms being evidently suggested by the choruses in Samson. thro' the orient gates of the eternal day. and in . Book. like shadows.' Minor influences may be detected in the epigrams in the manner of Wolcot in the lyrics from the Prophetic Books which often recall the hymns of Charles Wesley. in the jottings ' copy of Reynolds' Discourses. His attitude to eighteenthin lines To the verse be noted his Muses. are expounded at length in his Descriptive Catalogne of his exhibition of 1809. as in the opening lines of Ezirope.

John Linnell. twelve years his junior. Book illustrate Blake's and patrons while certain of them (as perhaps cxiv) throw light upon his private life. George Cumberland. The facts there given were evidently derived from the poet himself. Blake's Exhibition. junior. The value of Blake's letters to Butts. obviously worth As lies. 3. dated January 4. of Bristol. Linnell left certain memoranda for Butts. Johnes. in the possession of . in 1818 (not 1813 as stated by Gilchrist). instance of his friend. while among other entries in his private journal are notes of several transactions made on Blake's These documents are now Mr. This 1806. A short but valuable account of Blake's early life and literary and artistic predilections is given by Malkin in his Father's Memoirs of His Child. Book of Job/ designs which had but were only engraved at the Mr. John Linnell. 2. portrait and landscape painter. was written when Blake was forty-nine years of age. in an introductory letter to relations with his Thomas friends . referring to the poet. assistance his * we owe the Inventions to the been executed great To work of Blake's old his age. Paul's Epistle to the Romans can they be regarded as the practice of literature for its own sake. was introduced to Blake by Mr. contains a critique of Mr.' impugning * the artist's sanity offensive in indignantly referred to by Blake written in the Rossetti MS. is enhanced by the fact that they belong to the period when he conceived and in part produced his J ertisalem. Hunt's Examiner for Sunday. terms. for whose book Blake designed the frontispiece. September 17. behalf. and Doctor Malkin.General Preface rather than in the xxi manner of its delivery. great works Milton and Most of the epigrams in the MS. 1809. little whom written to a friend to he could speak without fear of misconception. of which almost nothing is known. This attack in several of the is epigrams 4. that their chief as S. of Hafod. and thenceforward remained Blake's steadfast friend and supporter.

as we are told. Henry Crabb Robinson. to a London dealer. which no one seems to have j^'jo passim). Ellis and Yeats. however. 1831. 1825. and fruitlessly sought by Gilchrist. is limited to the extracts quoted therefrom by Swinburne and others. then in his fiftieth year. Tatham 's misstatement of the date of Blake's birth (which misled and Swinburne) does not suggest habits of accuracy .General Preface xxii 5. it reappeared in the Blamire sale in 1863. Frederick Tatham. Tatham acquired. Richard Garnett. became one of made the small group of neophytes. My knowledge of Tatham's Memoir. of Charles Heathcote Tatham. and others. Blake's acquaintance through Linnell. 6. for a short time before her death. who was the son About 1825. which I have not been able to see. who met him later in life. when a youth of twenty or twenty-one. life. On the death of the poet's wife in October. interesting and valuable both as to his mystical opinions (not very clearly or sympathetically apprehended . though they do not appear to have gleaned from this source any new facts Those given. thought worth printing in full. unfortunately for the world. refers to him as a man on whose word no reliance could be placed. The copy of Jeriisalem with which it is bound up was re-sold at Sotheby's in June. the younger Tatham met Blake and. first met Blake at the home of Mr. had been an of real inmate of the miniature painter's household. possess the interest of having been derived from Catherine Blake. Lost sight of for some time. and is now the property of an owner who prefers that no description of its contents be given. has been used and quoted by Swinburne. who. the whole of Blake's literary remains. Aders on December 10. or appropriated. 1887. bound in with an illuminated copy of Jerusalem (see Rossetti Papers. on religious grounds/ This person wrote a memoir of Blake which he appears to ' have parted with for purely secular reasons. which he afterwards destroyed. presumably importance. His diary and letters contain accounts of Blake in his last years. 1862This MS. sculptor and miniature painter. architect.

to that of Scant justice has hitherto Fuseli. rather irreverently written little life is Smith's Nollekins. Flaxman. most candid biography written in the English lan- as the title-page states. died August 12. the poet were still living. which gives for the ' time the greater part of the material upon which Cunningham and Gilchrist based their biographies. Memoir ( Works. as the guage. prehends Memoirs the time of Roubiliac. This contemporary one who knew picture drawn with intelligent sympathy by him well is of the utmost value and Smith's tribute to . comof several contemporary Artists from The second volume. i860. lived next door to Carlyle and was as near him in other ' . and the Annual Register for the same year. of Blake. In 1828 John Thomas Smith. and a few other friends and contemporaries of About Richmond." Gilchrist. i. 142-150). Allan In published his Lives of tJie Cunningham 1830 9.Ge7ieral Preface by xxiii the diarist) and as to his views on the poetry of WordsThese passages are reprinted together in Ellis and worth. 10. life and works appeared in the Literary Gazette. and lofty character. Short notices of his Blake 7. and Blake. when Linnell. Hogarth. is the contrary view. Sculptors. 1827. the Gentle- Yeats' mans Magazine. Smith's first acquaintance with Blake dates from his early days at the Mathews' to the close of the poet's life. published his Nollekins and his Times. Tatham. sufficient refutation of among which is This gaily and mainly derived from a biography of Blake. Alexander Gilchrist began his Life " Pictor Lgnoitts. Samuel Palmer. coming from the pen of one who was the reverse of a hero-worshipper. in Rossetti's words.' been done to this admirable little life. sanity. and while it shows no particular research or regard for accuracy has preserved a few anecdotes of Blake which probably would have otherwise disappeared. Most Eminent British Painters. and Architects. and Reynolds. which has been not inaptly described 8. Keeper of the Prints and Drawings in the British Museum. Blake's genius.

is especially intended. 1893. where. published in the same year. M.General Preface xxiv respects as he could manage. and is his style betrays the also a tendency to dwell ' unduly upon unimportant incidents such as the Visionary Heads. 1 86 1 The book. most of the material drawn from the preceding sources. aided by D. Alfred T.' which gives the portrait a lack of proportion. James O'Neill. having assumed the name of Blake borne by his second wife. if factorily dealt with by Gilchrist. This account. is the discovery that Blake was of Irish ancestry. 1 800-1 803. Life. Practically the whole of the first volume had been written. where he became the father of the poet. substantiable on good evidence. which was published two years later. appear here A for the first time. The letters to Blake's Butts. or to discuss in greater detail aspects of Blake's life which they consider unsatisOf much importance. daughters . second This edition. and the first eight chapters printed. handsomely produced. as the editors state. was completed by his widow. however. a certain John O'Neill. prose and verse. is at variance with another. the former supplying a supplementary ' and editing the Selections from ' chapter to the biography. Ellis and Yeats' Memoir. first given in Mr.' There influence of his model. with some new letters. and the latter contributing a serviceable list of his pictures and engravings. when Gilchrist died on the 30th of November. on the authority of two ladies. Storey's William Blake. his grandfather. and embellished with facsimiles of Blake's own glorious designs. prefixed to their large edition of the Works. achieved its main purpose in popularizing the poet. his son by a name of Blake. and in preparing the way for SwinGilchrist incorporates burne's great critical appreciation. Rossetti. though his manner of writing sometimes leaves it doubtful whether he is embroidering supplementing our knowledge or merely more simply narrated by earlier bio- facts graphers. of Rathmines. and settled in the took previous union. and W. Dublin. G. II. also London. . to supply new facts. was published in 1880.

and that the English poet. 28). Yeats to their editions of the poems. Willimn Blake. in the of the author article ' hired a villain to bereave my life. identify I refer elsewhere Examiner. will be found in Alfred T. Character.' nowhere claims interpret the Irish descent. M. Henry G. difficult task of reconciling these rival claims. entitled Imperfect Genius {^Contemporary Review. following I is a list EDITIONS of the editions quoted in the footwhere use has been made of the refer to those only original printed and manuscript sources. Rossetti^ Laurence Housman and W. claiming to be of William second cousins of the poet. 1895. of Southampton. Messrs. In pure aesthetic criticism D. and in the introductions of W. in also be noticed. 1905. and Swinburne's masterpiece hold the first place. VI. 1^93. and Genius. but of interest as embodying personal appreciations of Blake's work. Rossetti's prefatory notes to the in Selections Gilchrist. in Richard Garnett's monograph in the Portfolio. Blake's descent is traced to the Somersetshire family with which the Commonwealth Without attempting the Admiral was connected. Hewlett's curious essay in depreciation. The notes. Biographies of Blake derived from the above sources. his Life. Ellis reference to mysterious and Yeats Hayley's having the sense of his having Blake of his means of Flaxman with to deprive conspired villain with Hunt. the hired the and livelihood. and. who in one instance describes himself as ' Blake. Maclagan and Russell's Introduction to their reprint of Jerusalem. should ' ' An elaborate attempt to expound Blake's symbolic system in detail is contained in Ellis and Yeats' edition of the Works.' in to these editors' interpretation of Blake's mystical writings. G. Storey's la. it may be pointed out that Blake's father was certainly a Protestant. B. and where the . vol. James Thompson's printed ' ' Essay.xxv Geiieral Preface John Blake. more concisely stated.

J. Poems quoted by 1863. Pickering and 3. by Allan Cunningham. . i. Edited with a short but Songs.' which has be traced the second or later version ' ' ' deceived so of Blake's editors. Sculptors. authority. London. ' See Bibliographical This transcript was still Rossetti when 1847.' but as a matter of fact Wilkinson's The first letterpress edition of the emendations are somewhat fewer than those of Dante Gabriel 4. 8°. Hurst. a portion of Rossetti's original transcript of MS. Life of William Blake. W. Malk. Heath Malkin. . London. London. 16°. White. Ctmn. Benj. Volume ii contains poems from Poetical Sketches and Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Newbery.. and Architects. Vol. Garth Wilkinson. A Father's Memoirs of his Child. the text of this edition is described as 'much altered. (Dedication of the Poem of the Grave. F.A. The Lives of the most eminent British Painters. and Orme.General Preface xxvi given might for this reason be understood readings possess some to authority. are here quoted for the first time.S. Wilk. Illustrated from Blake's Linton and a few of Blake's original plates. 6 vols. in facsimile by W. Shewing the two Contrary States of the Human Soul. ' Gil. in Photolithography with In two volumes.A. By Longman.. Rossetti MS. . Esq. Blake's Poems from the was probably made about Preface to later editors. Murray. These readings. Alexander Gilchrist. John 2. Contains five songs from Poetical Sketches and Songs of Innocence and of Experience. 12. Book. Rees. To Cunningham's corrupt version of The Tyger may on MS.) W. 8°. Gilchrist in the first own works volume of the Life. 8°. M. 1. Pictor Ignotus. printed presumably from copies supplied by Blake to the author. Macmillan. the translator of Swedenborg. . R"^. London. J. excellent preface by J. Malkin's version of 'The Tyger' contains an interesting variant reading of 1.' a youth. many Songs of Innocence and of Experience. . In the Dictionary of National Biography and elsewhere. furnished me by Mr. 1829-1833.' with Selections from his poems and other writings by the late 5. 1839. 1806.

' 8. including the greater portion of The ' Everlasting Gospel. 9. His text of the poems included of any hitherto published. Szvinh. all of which were Songs of Innocence and [q/"] (reprinted in 1868) published by B. Comprising So7tgs of Innocence and of Experience^ together with Poetical Sketches. Shepherd was not able to print in his edition any of the poems from the Rossetti MS. by far the most accurate . The Poems of William Blake. and some copyright poems not in any other edition. [Aldine Edition. 1883. London. given by D. Muir's text of the prologue and of the . J. however. The Volume same. Muirs Mr. London. Memoir by William Michael Rossetti. 1868. ii. 1874. but retains others.) 7. By illustrations from Critical With WMR's Blake's designs in facsimile. London. 8°. M. Gabriel Rossetti. The Poetical Works of William Blake. Lyrical in This popular edition has been frequently reprinted. p. Shep. William Muir's coloured facsimiles of the Songs of Innocence and the Songs of In the footnotes to The Gates of Paradise Experience. 165. if the work were ' before him to be done. WMR.' A i^See Dante Essay. 8°. Basil Montague Pickering. W. Edited with a Prefatory and Miscellaneous. 1874. Mr. coloured and plain. in the second volume of Gilchrist's Life. is. Pickering. 1868.xxvH General Preface 6. I refer also to facsim. Charles Alp-ernon alterations. with other poems. Contains poems quoted by Swinburne from Blake's published works and from the Rossetti MS. 8". 1866 and that of the Poetical Sketches. C. and not ' to these and infrequently adopts the readings of Wilkinson. ID. The readings quoted my footnotes are taken from a copy of the fourth edition. ' Poems printed in the Selections from Blake's works.] George Bell and Sons. DGR. This edition collects in a single volume Richard text of the Heme Shepherd's earlier Experience. Book. From the latter source Swinburne prints several poems omitted by Rossetti. G. make so many William Blake: Swinburne. of the changes made in his earlier transcript. Rossetti rejects some Rossetti. Hotten. With reference other attempts at emendation introduced by him into Blake's text we may note Rossetti's later statement that he would not now.

in expounding Blake's system. (e. William Blake. Edwin John and William Butler Yeats. 8°. R. In 1893. In three Bernard Quaritch. Russell \on cover A. Russell The and Maclagan. Selections from the writings of William Blake with an introductory essay by Lawrence Housman. was in Mr. Edited by Lawrence and 8°. g. Ellis and Yeats have trusted to the Aldine edition. 1893. London. Reprinted by Routledge (1905). of William Blake.General Preface xxviii ' of the Gates Keys ' prefixed in ordinary typography to The Gates of Paradise. his facsimile of Admirable as facsimiles of Blake's coloured illustrations. Book and The Four Zoas. London. and Co. Trench.' and a Memoir and Interpretation by and Critical.' and By his own hand ' shall surely die' for ' By his own law ' ' shall surely die. For some of their text apparently Messrs. G. Muses' Library. The Poems Yeats. Jerusalem. and passim) 12. B. and some of their remarks WBY. lay claim to special knowledge produced by the evocations of symbolic magic (i. Large 8°. Prophetic Books of Edited by E. but contains such misreadings as course for race. . 1904. Ellis somewhat confusing arrangement In this edition the of the Poems may perhaps be due to the editors' scheme of interpretation. Island in the Moon. 288 ' ' 299) would seem to suggest their belief that the possession of these occult powers enables them to produce a text through which Blake's mind is reflected more accurately than in the MSS. these reproductions cannot be followed with any certainty for the text of the poems. 13. D. London. LH. W. 1893. correct text than the preceding. B. Apparently intended as the first of a series of typographical reprints of Blake's Prophetic Books. B. volumes. R. since this 14. I An Kegan quote this edition only for the variant reading in the song taken from MS. while part has been derived from Mr. G. Symbolic. Ellis' transcripts of the MS. 11. Triibner.] [The Bullen. ' EY. Purports to be a verbatim and literatim reprint. Maclagan]. Edited with Lithographs of the Illustrated Prophetic Books.' ' . Bullen. These editors. D. Poetic. some respects a more ii. Housman's hands. Paul. Russell and E. left by himself. Maclagan and A. The Works of William Blake. 4°.

to form the conclusion that the two issues For the Sexes. junior. White for the two facsimiles of the MS. after a study of the symbolic references in the couplets explanatory of the plates. the Pickering MS. Linnell has also furnished me with Linnell family. endeavour by furnishing me with exact transcripts of the poems in the MS. White. A.' in which the poems first appear. I am indebted to Mr. as well as the description of this MS. which led me. photographs . I owe also to Mr. and details of copies of The Gates of Paradise. must have been ' produced. W. White the correct text of the smaller Pickering MS. To Mr. which after me in this a disappearance of over thirty years was opportunely I should rediscovered while this edition was in the press. The Ghost of Abel. can best be made clear by an explana- Entering into my desire to final text of Blake's poems. and other Blake originals. and answering a very great number of questions of detail. of Brooklyn.. of obscurely written lines in The Four Zoas. and an accurate produce Mr. not omit to explain that it was Mr. John Linnell. White's conjecture that The Gates of Paradise belonged to a later date than had been previously supposed.. t>ut somewhere nearer 1810. and passages quoted in the footnotes from The Four Zoas. Book given in this edition. not in 1793. and other Blake originals in the possession of the Mr. Lastly. New York.xxix Gene7^al Preface VII much In a work involving reference to material not any public library an editor is dependent upon the goodwill and co-operation lying ready to hand in necessarily It is of the owners of precious books and manuscripts. with gratitude that I acknowledge the invaluable aid rendered me in various ways by collectors and students of the works of Blake. My debt to Mr. Book. I owe the correct text of the songs. White has for the past three years collaborated with tion of his share in the work.. the owner of the Rossetti MS..

M. and my Rossetti kindly furnished collection of the lost book. Beach for research work in the British Museum in the early stages of this book. B. Experience^ enumerated in 72-77). G. My thanks are also due to Miss Isabelle Linnell and Mr. John Pearson in several communications has given me the benefit of his expert knowledge of original issues and works of Blake. I owe to the kindness of Mr. A. the artist's I am obliged to Mr. Thomas Butts. Madan to . To Signora of Tiriel. Cowley of the Bodleian Library for a grateful courteous response to questions submitted by me.General Preface XXX and has replied with great minuteness to several questions of mine relating to different works of Blake. the of the Pickering me with his re- French Revolution. Fairfax Murray the loan of the autograph MS. known as An Island in the Moon. Mr. and Mr. I am indebted to Mrs. since presented by him to the Fitzwilliam Museum. Bernard lifelong friend and patron. Mr. thanks for her kindness Helen Rossetti Angeli I tender my in sending me from Italy the early and curious Blake MS. and also MS. earlier I Quaritch for lending me the MS. courteously sent hitherto unprinted poem (see p. 218) Mr. to Mr. C. . in the to Mr.Frederick Macmillan has taken which great pains to clear up the question of the process by reprints of the plates of the Songs were reproduced in Gilchrist's Life. I am Mr. have to thank Captain Butts for the loan of Blake's letters to his grandfather. for collations Mr. W. Fortescue of the British first place. containing The Passions and another piece. as well as extracts from original letters of Flaxman throwing light upon the cause of Blake's estranged attitude towards his A former friend. John Lawler has been good enough to supply me with information as to Blake originals sold by auction. William Linnell. Mr. Russell illustrates the me by and happier relationship between the two artists. details of the several impressions. which has since come to light. I have to acknowledge the courtesy of the various owners of copies of the Songs of hmocence and the Songs of ' ' Bibliographical Preface (pp.

Professor John Macdonald Mackay has been good enough proofs and prefaces. JOHN SAMPSON. 20. S. T.Ge7teral Preface xxxi Museum for personal replies to like inquiries and to Mr. without preliminary collation of the original engraved and manuThis view was accepted by the Delegates script sources. The of death Professor York Powell me of untimely deprived of advice and him so advantages encouragement. cursory comparison of existing A showed me the impossibility of giving a reliable version of Blake. even in the form of selections. Yates. E. To Mr. Librarian to the Biological Library. fain to dedicate to his which. and especially Mr. am favourite poets. especially by Miss M. Eames I owe information regarding the unique example of Blake's Milton in the Astor-Lenox Library. of the Press. The help rendered by the members of my class in bibliography. Lyster and Miss D. in the reading and correction of the proofs. imperfect memory. in a somewhat light-hearted mood. Milford. E. and the present critical edition undertaken besides the smaller work at first proposed. I wish to thank the authorities of the Press. I have pleasure in acknowledging the help of Mr. assistant in the University Library. Peter Cowell of the Liverpool Public Library for obtaining for me the loan of certain rare books. H. given by carried out the generously at the outset of my task. and robs me now of much of the pleasure with which I bring to completion this edition though of one of his it be. . Harkness Graham. and the aid in Wilberforce various ways given me by Miss May Allen. the preparation of a small edition of Blake's Lyrical Poems for the Clarendon Press. 1905. I Liverpool. Nov. In concluding this long list of obligations I desire to add that it was at the suggestion of the late Professor York to read certain of my Powell that I undertook. . for the care and patience with which they have texts ' ' minute particulars of this book. has contributed greatly to the ac- curacy of this edition.

. ... intended for a Dramatic Piece of King Edward the Fourth Prologue to King John Song to Englishmen The Couch of Death A War Contemplation Samson ..CONTENTS PAGE . King An of . la 13 .... • .... ... . . Poems from the Poetical Sketches 2 Bibliographical Preface To To To To To To 5 Spring Summer Autumn .... I2 . ... 6 Winter 7 the Evening Star ... .... . Imitation of Spencer Blind-man's Buff .. Norway ..... Mad Song 8 ii . the merry year Song When early morn walks forth in sober grey 15 16 To ^7 : the Muses Gwin.. . . ....14 14 Song: Fresh from the dewy hill. . I roam'd from . field to field Song: Song: My silks and fine array Song: Love and harmony combine Song Song : : love the jocund dance Memory.... . Appendix I King Edward the Third Prologue. . '5 .. .21 23 26 40 40 41 42 43 44 ... .. .. . Morning Fair Elenor How sweet . . . hither come I .. . .. 7 8 .. . .. . ... .. 17 ..

Songs from ' An . . 57 5« 59 Songs of Innocence and of Experience Bibliographical Preface Songs of Innocence .. Moon Island in the Bibliographical Preface When old corruption ' 50 . first 47 47 begun 53 . 65 . .. O leave [me] to my sorrows Appendix 55 56 .xxxiu Contents page II Appendix Song by a Shepherd Song by an old Shepherd . .. The Song of Phebe and Jellicoe Hail Matrimony. made of Love To be or not to be This city and this country Leave..

. Songs of Experience Introduction ...XXXIV Contents PAGE .

: Argument . 264 .282 • . . . • • S^^ 320 Poems from the 'Prophetic Books' Bibliographical Preface From The Book of Thel Thel's Motto From The Marriage of Heaven and Hell From Visions of the Daughters of Albion . : 326 344 344 The 345 .XXXV Contents PAGE .302 . . . Anna Flaxman To my Friend Butts I write To Mrs... .. 269 • .. 3^4 316 Epigrams from Blake's Annotated Copy of Reynolds' Works Preface Epigrams .. Butts -304 . . ... .. . ...310 . the Queen .. . . fairy leapt 301 .... 286 295 . 300 . .. ..296 . ... .. With happiness stretch'd across the hills why was I born with a different face ? Dedication upon ' of my knee .. Auguries of Innocence Long John Brown and Little Mary Bell William Bond • .279 280 ... .. . of Illustrations Blake's 305 . 270 ... . Blair's Grave' Preface To . . . . .. ... .273 .. 311 . O h.. Poems from Letters Preface To my dear Friend. . • . ..283 .... . Mrs.. .. The Pickering Manuscript Preface The Smile The Golden Net The Mental Traveller The Land of Dreams Mary The Crystal Cabinet The Grey Monk .

.. . .. . . . . . . . p. .... 242 . 52 . p. .. of this World . 109 Facsimile of Rossetti MS.. . . 366 yjl 373 377 378 379 ILLUSTRATIONS Facsimile of Rossetti MS. Frontispiece To face p.. . . . . Each Man is in his To the Deists To the Christians To the Christians Spectre's power .. Paradise ' .. .. 345 347 350 351 me ^^^ 353 . .. To the Accuser who is The God From the Legends to the Plates Index of First Lines - ZS?. ..Contents xxxvi PAGE From The Four Zoas At the first Sound the Golden Sun Ah how shall Urizen the King : ! Till thou dost [conquer] the distrest From Milton And From Jerusalem To the Public : To visions . did those feet in ancient time : Such . Bibliographical Preface Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice of the Gates ... Especially to the Female The Keys .. . . 358 359 361 363 364 The Gates of Verses from 'For the Sexes.. .. have appear'd to the Jews . ..

POEMS from the POETICAL SKETCHES (Privately Printed. SAMPSON B 1783) .

Prologue to King John A War Song to Englishmen The Couch of Death Contemplation Samson The little book. .' The book is without index or table of literary contents. B. : . : . Winter the Evening Star Morning 4 5 6 . withoctavo demy out publisher's or printer's name. LONDON: Printed The first quire of two leaves in the Year MDCCLXXXIII. hither come Mad Song Fresh from the dewy hill Song When early morn walks forth Song To the Muses Gwin. 17 18 19 24 36 King Edward the Third. ' fine array II . signed are no half-titles There the section 'Miscellaneous Poems' or to 'King Edward the Third.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE POETICAL SKETCHES The Poetical Sketches. except the first book of the French Revolution^ which made its appearance in is . 3 .. 29 Prologue intended for a dramatic piece of King Edward the Fourth 56 . which are as follows to : Miscellaneous Poems To To To To To To PAGE I Spring Summer Autumn 1 . .. How ' ' : My 7 sweet silks I and roam'd . 13 * Memory. Blake's earliest work. is the only one of Blake's poetical writings.' 10 . then nine quires in contains the title and advertisement : I | | [ ' ' B — K (K^ blank) and paginated 1-70. King of Norway Song — ' : ' ... Song: 'Love and harmony combine' I love the jocund dance Song 12 ' ' . . The title-page reads POETICAL SKETCHES. Fair Elenor Song: Song . privately issued. An Imitation of Spencer Blind-man's Bufif . which SI 58 60 63 64 exceedingly rare. ByW. fours. is a slender volume of 38 leaves. .' 14 15 16 ' : .

The size of the edition is not stated but it was probably a small one. to which Blake. The Preface. come rolling o'er ' ! In the present edition punctuation is amended and the inlines of the printer abandoned in favour of Blake's own invariable and more artistic alinement. See ' Gwin.. however. Like clouds. black Like clouds. frequently a faulty one. or perhaps Mathew. he has been deprived of the leisure requisite to such a revisal of these sheets.Poetical Sketches 3 ordinary type. and occasionally resumed by the author till his twentieth year since which time. King of 'Arouse thyself! the nations. as might have rendered them less unfit to meet the public eye. while generally respecting Blake's use of 'd or ed where the latter is to be pronounced as a separate syllable.' and in the fourth stanza of the Song on p.' The printer. commenced in his twelfth. which was the composition of Mathew. G. and of it Blake seems to have issued a few copies only. to be now reproved or confirmed by a less partial public' While the book contains a few obvious as ' ' her ' cares ' for for ' ' his ' ' ears ' misprints. and by no means warrants such violent changes as D. talents having excellence in been wholly directed to the attainment of his profession. The lyrics in Poetical Sketches include the whole of the poems on pp. which merited some respite from oblivion. : — 'Advertisement The following Sketches were the production of untutored youth. come rolling o'er ' ! are printed : 'Arouse thyself! the nations black. it was printed at the expense of Flaxman and Mathew. In every other. his ' . 1-28. respect the text of the original edition is exactly reproduced. Norway. As we learn from Cunningham. in ' ' general inaccuracy is far less than has been represented. omitted capitals. Rossetti's rustling birds of dawn for rustling beds of dawn in the Mad Song. ' Conscious of the irregularities and defects to be found in almost every page. such An Imitation of Spencer. who handed the unbound sheets to the author to dispose of for his own advantage. has evidently corrected Blake's spelling. and supplied his own yet its ' ' ' ' y ' punctuation. his friends have still believed that they possessed a poetical originality.' dented B % / . These their opinions remain. runs .' where the lines. The other pieces gives the title 'Miscellaneous Poems. 13 .

Shepherd in Pickering's editions of 1868 and 1874. M. in the selection given in Gilchrist's Life.' To Spring. Griggs in May. Song by a Shepherd and Song by an Old Shepherd. omitting W.' and Samson. prints separately in 1868 as a supplementary volume to the Songs of Innocence and of Experience.' and the latter the Address to the Muses.' R.' to ' King John verse. H. they were apparently unknown to D. To the Muses. Selections from the Poetical Sketches were first given by Malkin and Cunningham.' Norway.. Shepherd makes a few trifling corrections he omits Blake's general heading 'Miscellaneous Poems' and inserts a half-title to King Edward the Third which is not in the original.' Blind-man's Buff.' and selections from scenes i. First printed by R. Rossetti. Rossetti.' D. though all Blake's editors arrange them among poems written in a different manner and at a much later date. the former printing How sweet I roam'd from field to field. Basil Montague Pickering. W. prints six of the eight songs (excluding the two last). M. Rossetti's Aldine edition. 1890).' the two prologues^ The Couch of Death. B. Yeats omits Fair Elinor.' To the Evening Star. Ellis * ' ' ' ' ' reproduction of the Poetical Sketches by W.' ConThere is an excellent facsimile templation. and vi of King Edward the Third. and together with that work in the edition of 1874. but were found in Blake's handwriting on the fly-leaves of a copy which was lent to Mr. G. Shepherd the whole book with his customary accuracy. the publisher. with the exception of the Prologue fall ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' * ' ' . W. ' ' ' ' ' and Samson which he prints as blank and Yeats follow the Aldine edition. (fifty copies printed .ong the poems in the Poetical Sketches. M. where they are placed at the end of the poems from the Pickering MS. about 1868.Poetical Sketches 4 somewhat outside the scope of this edition. iii. but are supplied in an appendix in order that the reader may be enabled to judge of Blake's first volume in its entirety.' These songs are not printed am. H. v. They clearly belong to the same period as the Poetical Sketches. and (as Pickering's copyright) could not be included in W.' with a few passages from King Edward the Third. G. Rossetti and later editors have availed themselves of this excellent text. Rossetti places the pieces in an order of his own and omits the prose. The Poems from the Poetical Sketches together with the pieces in the first Appendix give therefore. the whole contents of the book. In a second Appendix I have placed two short poems.' Gwin of Samson.' To Summer. in their proper order.

. O deck her forth with thy fair fingers. 'Abstinence sows sand The ruddy limbs & all over flaming hair. p. xxv. Which in full choir hails thy approach. curb thy fierce steeds. pour Thy soft kisses on her bosom and put 13 . Summer. pp. feet visit thy holy Come o'er the eastern hills. and the list'ning Vallies hear. O i Spring! The hills tell each other. Whose modest tresses were bound up for thee Poetical Sketches. 5 tell pavilion each] do DGR. all our longing eyes are turned Up to thy bright pavillions issue forth. while we beheld With joy thy ruddy limbs and flourishing hair. That flames from ! O Oft pitched'st here thy golden tent. .POEMS FROM POETICAL SKETCHES To Spring O thou with dewy locks. Thy golden crown upon her languish'd head. Book. 6 ruddy . and oft Beneath our oaks hast slept. who lookest down Thro' the clear windows of the morning. Poetical Sketches. 5 : And let our clime. and let our winds let us taste Kiss thy perfumed garments Thy mom and evening breath scatter thy pearls Upon our love-sick land that mourns for thee. turn Thine angel eyes upon our western isle. hair] Cp. To Summer O thou Thy who passest thro' our vallies in i strength. 2. allay the heat their large nostrils thou.' 5 . tell each DGR : 14 soft] softest to each tell EY. ! r. 9 . . 7 pavillions] DGR. MS. 2.

nor waters clear as heaven. on Some bank beside a river clear. the daughters of the year shall dance the lusty song of fruits and flowers.6 Poetical Sketches Beneath our thickest shades we oft have heard Thy voice. pass not. there thou may'st And tune thy jolly voice to my fresh pipe. And 10 Summer breaks forth into singing. but left his golden load. and Flourish down the bright cheek of modest eve. Nor laurel wreaths against the sultry heat. laden with With the blood of the fruit. and stained grape. 12 Silk] Thy DGR. and o'er the bleak ' .' Thus sang the jolly Autumn as he sat Then rose. all ! 5 Sing now The narrow bud opens The sun. roves round The gardens. with pinions light. Till clust'ring The spirits of the air live on the smells Of fruit and joy. 3. girded himself. Blossoms hang round the brows of morning. Poetical Sketches. Nor echoes sweet. Our bards are fam'd who strike the silver wire Our youth are bolder than the southern swains Our maidens fairer in the sprightly dance : 15 : : We lack not songs. 15 youth] youths DGR. and love runs ' her beauties to in her thrilling veins . Hills fled from our sight. and rush into the stream . . feather'd clouds strew flowers round her head. p. and in our mossy valHes. And i sit rest. II thy] all DGR. To Autumn O Autumn. when noon upon his fervid car Rode o'er the deep of heaven beside our springs Sit down. but Beneath my shady roof. or sits singing in the trees. 15 . lo : Our vallies love the Summer in his pride. throw thy Silk draperies off. nor instruments of joy.

there hast thou built thy dark Deep-founded habitation. 16 and the monster 15. scatter thy 5 . the direful monster. ! 13 — Poetical Sketches. pillars not. Shake not thy roofs. dew. rear'd his sceptre o'er the world. Swinb.' but o'er the yawning deep I dare not lift mine eyes. EY. EY. light Thy bright torch of love thy radiant crown Put on. . . and the monster With storms Is driv'n yelling to his caves beneath mount Hecla. . . and freezes up 9 : hand frail life. 1-4 no quotation marks in original. till heaven smiles.Poetical Sketches To Winter * O bar thine adamantine doors The north is thine. sheathed In ribbed steel For he hath Lo To i : ! Unclothes the earth. whose skin clings groaning rocks his strong bones. p. 4. The curtains of the sky. the Evening Star Thou fair-hair'd Now. on the mountains. and in his He 5 his storms are unchain'd. while thou drawest round The sky's blue curtains. the mariner Poor little wretch. scatter silver dew. 5. whilst the sun rests angel of the evening. ! Poetical Sketches. p. and smile upon our evening bed Smile on our loves. and while thou drawest the i . . mount Hecla] and drives the monster Yelling beneath To Mount Hecla to his caves. strides o'er the withers all in silence. 6 while . . DGR. that deal'st Cries in vain. — He takes his seat upon the cliffs. 3 bright] brilliant DGR. Winter Nor bend thy He hears me Rides heavy . ! now with thine iron car. 5.] whilst thou drawest round dew.

12 And the] influence] protect with influence EY. and looked in. pp. . where Isabella descends into the vaults of the Castle. DGR. and bring Awake the .. scatter thy silver dew On every flower that shuts its sweet eyes In timely sleep. Poetical Sketches. And wash the dusk with lo . dawn The honied dew . Compare the incident in the first chapter. salute the sun Rouz'd like a huntsman to the chace. and with Thy buskin'd feet appear upon our hills. EY. And The Thy 6 silver] And the lion glares thro' the dun forest with sacred dew: protect them with thine influence. Swinb. 6. Dost thou withdraw then the wolf rages wide. To Morning O holy virgin ! clad in purest white. silver. EY. lake.8 Poetical Sketches Blue curtains of the sky. evidently suggested published in 1765. 14 protect . and issue forth that sleeps in heaven let light Rise from the chambers of the east. radiant morning. full soon. Soon. and shrieks on meeting what she believes to be the ghost of Conrad. bell struck one. Fair Elenor The The and shook the silent tower. r : A The theme of this very juvenile poem was by Walpole's 'Gothic story. Let thy west wind sleep on The speak silence with thy glimmering eyes. : fleeces of our flocks are cover'd EY then the omit. p. fair Elenor graves give up their dead Walk'd by the castle gate. hollow groan ran thro' the dreary vaults. that O cometh on waking day. 7 shuts] closes DGR.' The Castle of Otranto. first . Unlock heav'n's golden gates. Poetical Sketches. WBY. . 7-10.

Deep sighs. Stifling in mud. the cold stone her pale cheeks.Poetical Sketches 9 shriek'd aloud. froze to stone with fear. Sickly smells death issue as from a sepulchre. . like a ghost. 9 . 13 grinning skulls. and send it by whom thou wilt send ' : my It is He 's ' life — send to Elenor it dead. Fancy And returns. and howling after Take : — me . and now she thinks of bones and corruptible death and now fancies she hears shroud in his Wrap'd and sees pale sickly ghosts gliding. no fancy but reality Distracts her. Howling. and sunk upon the steps. She On Of And 5 but the sighing vaults. Amaz'd. leap'd Fair Ellen pass'd the bridge. fled from fear. : the wretch pass'd swift thro' the outer gate wall the o'er the into moat. and follow'd on the wings of fear. And. . all is silent and she revives Chill death withdraws his hand. she finds herself upon her feet. and strikes in darkness. At length. crying Take this. Ellen stood Like a dumb statue. and the feet A 17 — Of one that fled. as the arrows that fly night. Ellen flew over pathless plain . till at her 6 cheeks] cheek house all edd. . A 21 25 .' he cry'd wet napkin. approaches. destruction flies. feeling the cold walls with her hands. heard a gloomy voice cry ' Is it done ' ? the deer wounded. They And As The By She . 33 . thro' narrow passages Walking. rushing sound. for blood ! and thrust into her arms this. wrap'd about then rush'd she receiv'd into her arms Past. The deed is done The wretch approaches. howling Pale death. 29 arriv'd.

fall'n like weak woman. life.lo Poetical Sketches Her maids await her on her bed she . groan'd. now villain to . it unfold itself. am who. But he Clouded ' darken'd is like the . woman's fear Ah. wretched Elenor ' ' ' ! . and thus it *0 Elenor. O give not ' He life by the accursed duke hired villain turn'd him thy hand.' 61 I am] 47 eyes] eye Swinb. Her eyes were fix'd the bloody cloth unfolds. in the night. I 6r ! my ! 65 . The O 45 and wickedness. she raised up her head. . tenfold 53 And saw Which More terrified. ' ! Thus having spoke. yj falls. That bed of joy. With gory blood. sleeping on the stones of yonder Was A 'reft of O Elenor. life as frail as flower withdraw thy cruel hand. cut down breath of heaven dwelt among his leaves. the bloody napkin by her side. I am thy husband's head. the opening eyes of day by . cursed duke Ah. in her arms she brought and now. saw . all ghastly pale. Elenor. . ghastly death lord May lusty like ! 41 ! ! Seek'st thou that flow'r to deck thy horrid temples? ' My was lord like a star in highest heav'n Drawn down to earth My like was lord When spells western winds creep softly o'er the flowers. where erst her lord hath press'd she cry'd Ah. behold all edd. 49 summer's] summer Swinb. coward.] This line is repeated by Blake . ! ' : My Of O was ! ! a flower upon the brows Ah. summer's noon the stately tree. . woe with fill'd 49 . Disclosing to her sight the murder'd head Of her dear lord. 68 Hired life. Who. bereave spake: tower. my dear lord ah. sleep to death beware the cursed duke seeks thy love Hired a my it 57 dead . clotted .

. 1 69 . Ixxviii). Poetical Sketches. golden wing. And blushing roses for my brow He led me through his gardens fair 5 . Island in the Moon (c. stiffen'd to stone She took the gory head up in her arms She kiss'd the pale lips she had no tears to shed She hugg'd it to her breast. He loves to sit and hear me sing. xxxvi). With sweet May dews my wings And Phoebus fir'd my vocal rage He caught me in his silken net. 1785) iii : ' Come & be 9 . is perhaps imitative of the line quoted by him. the prince of love beheld in the I field i all sunny beams did glide ! He shew'd me lilies for my hair. from Chaucer. cured of all your pains In Matrimony's Golden cage. And shut me in his golden cage. loss of liberty. lo. 12 golden cage] Cp. . Where all his golden pleasures grow. . sports and plays with Then stretches out And mocks my my 13 me . Book.' who . p. Blake's use of epigrams on Hayley (MS. xxxiv. and groan'd her last. it was written by Blake before the age of fourteen. in his Descriptive Catalogue : in ' one of bereave ' his as a transitive verb Hath me ' bireft my beauty and my pith. Then. quotes this poem.Poetical Sketches 1 She sat with dead cold limbs. According to Malkin (pp. were wet.* Song How sweet And tasted 'Till I Who roam'd from field to the summer's pride. laughing.

. 2 intwine] entwine all except Shep. a winding sheet my grave have . 12. i smiles and languish'd love are driv'n away By And air. Song Love and harmony combine. p. p. made Let winds and tempests beat Then down I'll lie 1. giv'n wintry cold lo ? love's all worship'd all love's pilgrims come. Joys upon our branches sit. an axe and spade. And our roots together join.Poetical Sketches 12 Song My My and silks fine array. Poetical Sketches. And around our souls intwine While thy branches mix with mine. Where Bring Bring is me me When I 6 : is tomb. . mournful lean Despair Brings me yew to deck my grave Such end true lovers have. . 11. His face fair is as heav'n When springing buds O why to him was't Whose heart His breast unfold .5 : as cold as clay. Chirping loud and singing sweet Like gentle streams beneath our feet Innocence and virtue meet. True love doth pass away ! Poetical Sketches.

9 am clad in flowers fair Thy sweet boughs perfume the And the turtle buildeth there. Poetical Sketches. Where mirth And the maiden's tongue. the echoing hill. All Blake's editors . laugh our sports to see. . . 4 And where] Where DGR. Where innocent eyes do glance. 9 lot. I love the innocent bow'r. 13. . lay. 5 vale] gale Malk. I love the oaken seat. Song I love the jocund dance. p. play. There There his charming nest doth lay. And thy lovely leaves among. DGR. the jolly swain laughs his fill. I .Thou Poetical Sketches 13 the golden fruit dost bear. There she sits and feeds her young. is love.' 17 charming necessary correction. There he sleeps the night away There he sports along the day. r The softly-breathing song. Where And all 13 the old villagers meet.] make the charm'd nest he doth lay. air. And where I love I love lisps the laughing vale. 17 . does never 5 fail. Sweet I hear her mournful song 13 . I love the pleasant cot. I hear her tongue. Beneath the oaken tree. And among our branches doth 16 her] An obvious misprint for 'his. Where white and brown is our Or fruit in the mid-day hour.

7 beds] birds . there The day lie I'll along and dream : And when night To places fit for I'll comes. I better love thee And love them I ever shall . WBY. p. 15 Poetical Sketches. . Walking along the darken'd valley With silent Melancholy. Sleep. go woe. Kitty. hear the linnet's song And And 10 . But. : But lo the morning peeps Over the eastern steeps. DGR. 15. I'll drink of the clear stream. Poetical Sketches. 14. EY. 4 unfold] infold Shep. Son g hither come. while upon the wind Your music floats. But thou art all to me. 5 ! And The the rustling beds of dawn earth do scorn. WBY. And : 5 Where sighing lovers dream.Poetical Sketches 14 I love our neighbours 17 all. tune your merry notes And. Mad Song The wild winds weep. p. I'll pore upon the stream i Memory. And fish for fancies as they pass Within the watery glass. And my griefs unfold . . i And the night is a-cold Come hither. enfold WMR.

joyful shepherd stops his grateful song hear the music of an angel's tongue. Like a fiend hid in a cloud. And 15 with tempests play. 6 angels'] angel's Gil. 16. . haked. Gil. ! lo With sorrow fraught My notes are driven : They strike the ear of night. With howling woe After night I do croud. Like as an angel glitt'ring in the To 9 sky In times of innocence and holy joy The 5 : . beaming with heav'nly light. And rising glories beam around my head.Poetical Sketches 15 Lo to the vault Of paved heaven. From whence For comforts have increas'd my brain . Like a fiend in a cloud. cloud] Cp. p. the merry year car his Smiles on my head and mounts flaming Round my young brows the laurel wreathes a shade. .' Mac- ' pherson's Song i Fresh from the dewy hill. They make mad the roaring winds. Make weep the eyes of day. while o'er the dewy lawn. light doth seize With frantic pain. 5 like] with Gil. ' Infant Sorrow' in the Songs of Experience: 'Helpless. Ossian. Poetical Sketches. . like angels' feet bless those limbs. . with night will go I turn my back to the east And 30 . 9 Like as] As when . feet are wing'd. piping loud. maiden risen like the morn I meet My my Oh Oh bless those holy feet. 12 an] that Gil.' The in picture was probably suggested in Blake's mind by passages 22 From whence] Whence DGR. 17 Like .

and pensive as I go and bless my pleasing woe. nothing impure comes near. . where my black ey'd maid tear beneath the silent shade. i When evening sits beneath her dusky bow'r. p. Doth drop a I turn Curse my eyes my black Oft when the Whisp'ring . ao . the voice of Heaven I hear So when we walk. village bell alarms. and does my song 13 17 inspire. 15 prove false. and each calm retreat. Whene'er I enter. his limbs I'd tear pity on the burning air e'er I'd curse bright fortune for then I'd die in peace And Poetical Sketches. forgot. I O walk the village should she And throw all 10 . round if at her side A youth doth walk in stolen joy and pride. Each field seems Eden.1 Poetical Sketches 6 So when she speaks. away the vale darkens at pensive woe. . The And To I go. That made my love so high and me so low. more than mortal fire But that sweet Burns in my soul. Each village seems the haunt of holy feet. 5 my that sweet village. 17. breeze. to my black ey'd maid I haste away. maid village where my black-ey'd Closes her eyes in sleep beneath night's shade. stars summer sleeps among the murmurs to the scanty faint trees. my mixed and be lot. I curse my stars in bitter grief and woe. And gently sighs away the silent hour. Song When Then early morn walks forth in sober grey.

Kings. . i8. 13 you] ye Cunn. 12 Poetry] poesie Cunn. Or the blue regions of the air Where 5 the melodious winds have birth. i The chambers of the sun. the son of Nore. Gwin. SAMPSON C drive . King of Norway Come. The Nobles of the land did feed Upon the hungry Poor They tear the poor man's lamb.Poetical Sketches To the 1 7 Muses Whether on Ida's shady brow. many Fair Nine. and When listen to my song : Gwin. p. that now From antient melody have ceas'd . Or in the chambers of the East. pp. forsaking Poetry! How have you left the antient love That bards of old enjoy 'd in you The languid strings do scarcely move The sound is forc'd. and The needy from their door. Poetical Sketches. 19-23. Over the nations of the North His cruel sceptre bore . Whether on chrystal rocks ye rove. Or the green corners of the earth. 15 do] now Cunn. the notes are few 13 ! ! ! Poetical Sketches. Whether in Heav'n ye wander fair. Beneath the bosom of the sea Wand'ring in 9 a coral grove.

Down Bleron's hills they dreadful rush. come rolling Gwin His o'er * ! rear'd his shield. . roaring abroad. black Like clouds. the son of Nore. Arouse thyself! the nations. furious as wolves In the bleak wintry day. Howling like ghosts. like an awful thunder cloud. Seeking their nightly food. 25 29 Let Gwin be humbled. weeping loud. and in the clouds He The . humbled] No quotation marks in original. The num'rous sons of blood Like lions' like tempests black. ' down Pull the tyrant to the dust. 33 Gwin. ! Their wives and children. Beneath them roll'd.' They cry. 21 hills] . Let Gwin be humbled ! ' ! Gordred the giant rous'd himself From 13 sleeping in his cave shook the hills.1 8 Poetical Sketches The ' land is desolate our wives . Their cry ascends the clouds The trampling horse and clanging arms Like rushing mighty floods 21 . Follow in wild array. his palace shakes. whelps. 'and let ten thousand Pay for the tyrant's head. troubl'd banners wave. voice of solemn sound With 9-12 The hill EY. Each. 17 . : . And children cry for bread Arise. . chiefs come rushing round 37 . and pull the tyrant down 9 .' From ' O tow'r to tow'r the lives watchmen cry.

as black as night When With And stormy sky. horses and with chariots — 57 spearmen bold March to the sound of mournful song. pestilence does fly. mellow pipe. Like clouds around him roll'd. And spear. Like the tall ghost of Barraton 53 Who sports in Gwin leads his host. ' 53 Barraton] Probably a reminiscence of 'Berrathon' in : Macpherson's Ossian. C 2 .' in th' . a piece from which Blake would also seem to have borrowed the name 'Leutha' in the Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793). And 49 sounds the trumpet shrill The workman throws his hammer down To heave the bloody bill. 45 .Poetical Sketches 19 Like reared stones around a grave They stand around the King Then suddenly each seiz'd his 41 . like balances 65 — Almighty's hand Gwin. clashing steel does ring. Gwin all his — hand the nations halt war he cries Prepare Gordred appears his frowning brow ' lifts his ! ! — Troubles our northern The armies Held — ' for 6r . . stand. The husbandman does leave his plow To wade thro' fields of gore The merchant binds his brows in steel. thou hast fiU'd thy measure up Thou'rt swept from out the land. And leaves the trading shore The shepherd leaves his . skies.

20 Poetical Sketches And now the raging armies rush'd Like warring mighty seas The Heav'ns are shook with roaring war. . And Now death is Labour and Steed Sunk 85 . '&' like sheep they die. The dust ascends the skies ! Earth smokes with blood. ! And on the verge of this wild sea Famine and death doth cry The women and cries of Over the field The King With doth of babes fly. and groans and shakes 73 To drink her children's gore. . ! The god of war is drunk with blood The earth doth faint and fail The stench of blood makes sick the 93 . 80 doth] do WMR. of might is men all his 77 . ! ! EY. rolls sick. 97 . and riven men toil for life on steed. sea of blood nor can the eye See to the trembling shore A . . 81 . of strife shield. 69 . groan upon the plain The battle faints. And ghosts accusing groan 78. Like blazing comets scattering death Thro' the red fev'rous Beneath arm his nierht. and shield on in this sea 89 . and bloody men Fight upon hills of slain. Ghosts glut the throat of hell O what have Kings to heav'ns answer for Before that awful throne When thousand deaths for vengeance cry. seen raging afar.

And the first blow decides Down from the brow unto the breast Gordred his head divides 105 Gwin fell the Sons of All that remain'd alive 109 . Title] All edd. Which drop like fruit unto the earth Thro' the fierce burning night . and ababbcbcbB—aW different all wrong. 24-26. . that thro' i And wash my earthy mind in thy clear streams. 8 yields] yield'st correct Spencer all edd. to Spenser. and overwhelm'd pleasant south country. Blake's successive attempts are: ababbcbcc. Poetical Sketches. ! Norway : The rest did fill the vale of death. ababbcbcb. That wisdom may descend in fairy dreams. Let rays of truth enlight his sleeping brain. ababbcbcB. roll'd their Into the northern sea Who fled. For them the eagles The river Dorman The An mourn'd strive. This piece has not the air of being one of Blake's earUest efforts.Poetical Sketches Like blazing comets That shake the 21 the sky in loi stars of light. In lucent words my darkling verses dight. And when thou yields to night thy wide domain. ababbabb. aiabbcbB. pp. his sons. Representing the Spenserian stanza by the formula ababbcbcC. in spite of its metrical faults. and truth's beams. 2 truth's] truth his alledd. Like these did Gwin and Gordred meet. Golden Apollo. 5 All while the jocund hours in thy train Scatter their fancies at thy poet's feet . Imitation of Spencer heaven wide Scatter'st the rays of light. blood 113 . .

And o'er the surface of the silent deep dost fly 25 : thou arrivest at the sandy shore Where nought but envious hissing adders dwell. Such is sweet Eloquence. Then. yet in his rude affray. 15 C2X&%\ All edd. assist my lab'ring sense That round the circle of the world wou'd As the wing'd eagle scorns the Of Alpine hills round his high And searches thro' the corners 35 fly. i. lo might thee assay to dash thy nervous verse. like a falling star.Poetical Sketches 22 For brutish Pan in vain With tinkling sounds Sound without sense . Thy golden rod. that does dispel If Envy and Hate that thirst for 30 human gore. around Plumes his wide wings. Entering with holy feet to where on high Jove weighs the counsel of futurity. correct who this ndsprinifor ears. is And And thou. 40 Then. dost go Down. laden with eternal fate. O Mercury. . And cause in sweet society to dwell Vile savage minds that lurk in lonely cell. from autumn sky. Mercurius. leasing nurse. thunder's sound. with all holds her charge in a lease or leash. Sports in the clouds to hear the And see the winged lightnings as they fly. Can charm to harmony with potent spell. that with winged brow aloft into the yielding sky. and seeks Sol's palace high. 15 20 Dost mount And thro' Heav'n's halls thy airy flight dost throw. Folly's leesing nurse (For ignorance love of Folly needs none other's curse) Midas the praise hath gain'd of lengthen'd cares. of the sky. 19 brow] bow all edd. And judge of tinkling rhimes and elegances terse. one 13 leesing nurse] Read. bosom'd in an amber cloud. thrown on the dusty floor. tow'ry fence aery.e. For which himself might deem him ne'er the worse To sit in council with his modern peers. Blake's editors.

'Till. 26-28. Lov'st thou to walk the peaceful solemn grove. 50 Or have thy soft piteous eyes beheld The weary wanderer thro' the desert rove? Or does th' afflicted man thy heav'nly bosom move? Blind-man's BufF When silver Snow decks Susan's cloaths. walls so fair * Heap the sea-coal. 45 Pallas. falling. like the sea. the terrors of Almighty Jove. silken 'kerchief folds. With lad and lass. 2 nose] Compare the opening lines of When . jewel hangs at shepherd's nose. . pp. The laughing jest. the waves of battle move? Where.Poetical Sketches And O thou. The well-wash'd stools. Poetical Sketches. The blushing bank is all With hearth so red. and my i care. the love-sick tale. ' 20 Song by an Old . She blush'd so At Of poor fool who Blind-man's Buff they each incumbrance clear the hall And call — . . But now stool. heap The oaken log lay on the fire it . blear-ey'd Will the black lot holds. how fair the show The merry can of nut-brown ale. kiss'd the ground. the game begins. I. And jewel hangs at th' shepherd's nose. ' . with side-long glance hob-nail Dick. tir'd of chat. for Jenny her ! red. Arm'd with 23 warrior maid invincible. Minerva. silver snow decks Sylvia's clothes. maiden terrible. Shepherd' (Appendix * II) : — When And 15 griev'd the chance. In solemn gloom of branches interwove? Or bear'st thy Egis o'er the burning field. Roger from Dolly twitch'd the She. a circling row. The lasses prick the lads with pins ! 10 .' 3 blushing bank] chimney nook DGR. 5 higher. come.

EY. pert. still he sees ' O — Grace cries softly thou. Kitty. For thro' the slender cloth he sees. with And Peggy Pout gives The Blind-man's Sam ' Silence Sam hush ! ' ! a push. I vow She catches him then Roger ties His own head up but not his eyes. now what chance hast thou. now! what chance hast thou! I vow Roger so near thee trips She catches him ! Shep. I vow ! ' : 'Now. between O woe betide slips : — ' — ' but titt'ring Kate Thee. Must. surer bound. now! what chance Roger so near thee trips. Kitty. ' ! 29-31 Now . clumsy Will Is pen'd up in the corner strait ! 25 ! And now Will's eyes beheld the play He thought his face was t'other way. ! 30 35 — ' ! Where cheating But Roger ' ' He sees there's mischief there. and WBY . Trips She catches him — DGR reads . 40 Roger. Roger so near thee Trips.Poetical Sketches 24 Now laughing stops. who slips with ease ' ! — ! — — ' ! His clumsy hold and. Now. . . now Roger so near thee She catches him — WMR. now what chance hast thou. go thro' thy part Now Kitty. . what chance trips. Kitty. to be the sense intended by the faulty : Kitty. dodging round. him] This seems punctuation of the original ' Now. ! ! . And Roger turns him round three times. And runs at Sam. — I ' hast thou? " . . pursues the chace. unskill'd in art. extended wide. arms. — ! — ' : * " Now. repeats the rhymes. Roger so near thee. I vow hast thou. I vow She catches him '"Now. Sukey is tumbled on the ground See what it is to play unfair . '' ! ' : Kitty.' is.

And And 65 . lay- Directly in the Blind-man's way. around. 65 as] So DGR. — —Alas. as. fain would cure the hurt he made And 55 . till wantonness liberty began t' increase. a nation grown. and ran With hood-wink'd chance sure of his man ' ' ! But down he came. But Kitty hasted with a key. And Hodge again holds up his head. Such are the fortunes And those who play By wholesome laws should stop the same such as all those .Poetical Sketches Then pauses ere he starts — but 25 Dick Was mischief bent upon a trick Down on his hands and knees he 45 . how 50 frail Our best of hopes. . 70 . Then cries out Hem Hodge heard. first Lawless they liv'd. Who Stand 60 of the game. And down his back they strait convey The cold relief. 57 hasted] hastens DGR. the blood is stay'd. long a-gone. on the blinded man impose in his stead When men were . all Poor piteous Dick supports his head. how soon they fail With crimson drops he stains the ground ! Confusion startles . one man lay in another's way Then laws were made to keep fair play.

A crown of glory but from thy very dust — beam a radiance. King Edward.] ' KING EDWARD THE THIRD. That death can never ravish from thy brow. Lord Percy. thou. maintain thy servant's right Without thine aid. The Coast of France. to fire the breasts Of youth unborn. whose fury the nations are King. Bishop. And yelling death runs up and down the ranks. 9 . But as dust.' Reprinted from the original edition. and spear. but without variorum readings in footnotes. The letters. Soldier. Are idle trophies of the vanquisher. Won by our fathers in many a glorious field. a Sir Walter Manny. Sir John Chandos. the twisted mail. invisible chains. When When 5 confusion rages. We And like the fetter'd. i ! And forged helm. common Peter Blunt. PERSONS. Lord Audley. Dagworth's Man. and to make them shine with gold 25 . that they May emulate their fathers' virtues. when the field is in a flame. Duke of Clarence. 29-70) containing the blank verse and prose pieces following the Miscellaneous Poems. 13 ? mounting flame. and shield of seven times beaten brass. William. my son. King Edward and Nobles O before it. how then but heavy can they be free . and fire the battle. The enemy fight in chains. Let Liberty. Their minds are While. ! Vent'ring their lives in my most righteous cause. be strong thou fightest for a crown 17 21 . Sir Thomas Dagworth. And thou. Our names are written equal 'tis ours to gild In fame's wide trophied hall Shall . the cries of blood tear horror from heav'n. Queen Philippa. O sheathe their hearts with triple steel. spring to battle o'er the floods of death these fair youths. the charter'd right of Englishmen. The Black Prince. the flow'r of England. to The Army.APPENDIX I TO THE POETICAL SKETCHES [The latter portion of Poetical Sketches (pp. SCENE. Enerve my soldiers let Liberty Blaze in each countenance.

and other young Nobles. Regardless of the moon. and those that once were bright. At By A 45 country not yet sown with destruction. SCENE. for 'twas your advice we landed here in Brittany. the fiery whirlwind of swift war Has not yet swept its desolating wing. and sees his golden London And her silver Thames. that. or Mortimer. [^Exeunt. Glory may not be dimm'd with clouds of care. And where And separate march. or Montacute. Is in his hand to whom all men are equal. The world of men are like the num'rous stars That beam and twinkle in the depth of night. Lords. and turns his eyes on this 5 His native shore. shall gain the brightest fame. Bishop . have by the advice of her am doubly bound to obey. call'd you together. should not our thoughts be first to commerce My Lord Bishop. Or ev'n the least by birth. my burden heavier than is unfledg'd years . Lionel. let Brave Lords. Bishop. Yet. 49 I i Sovereign. 13 ? 17 . and Heav'n marshal English Court. but join again at night Each knows his rank. 41 Stand only for to gaze upon their splendor. may so advance advance 37 : at twinkle in their That the astonish'd world. you would recommend us agriculture? And Sweet Prince. the arts of peace are great. Grow larger as we The most obscure To and some.l Now us take a just revenge for those who fell beneath the bloody axe Paris. and sees commerce fly round his white wings. no less glorious than those of war. with your kind assistance. Queen Philippa I And my My My task . I hope England shall dwell in peace . : 29 33 . Each clad in glory according to his sphere But we. ifc. Or the Prince of Wales. and all the golden cities In his land overflowing with honey. Lords. all. \He here knights the Prince. her merchants buzzing round Like summer bees. that wander from our native seats And beam forth lustre on a darkling world. throng'd with shining spires 9 With And corded ships.Appendix I That never tarnishes 27 whether Third Edward. while my father Toils in his wars. Thanks. noble Harcourt. Whom . My Lords. Say. great. Into three parties we divide by day. Ditke of Clarence . with uptum'd eyes. my Parent Clarence. that scarce were seen sphere. Lords . perhaps home.

Percy. Clar. I Mayor of London 41 : have another boon To I ask. my Not merely our native land. each and Is cultivated This is my But. that speaks what my narrow observation has Lords. My Lords. Fie. spoiling our naval flocks. Fosters his parent. but what I have concluded from your lessons. Then you will give Clar. Lord. that lacketh bread. 65 69 . my If Industry is in diocese. And grant his favours with a sparing hand. by the Queen's advice. fear Lord Percy will not give me leave. true wisdom drops From your tongue. which is the favour of your company. like to ravening wolves. for now : You to go 49 : represent the sacred person of Your If not father. Be England's trade our care .Poetical Sketches 28 Perhaps more glorious in the philosophic mind. Looking to the gain of this O my Clar. Now.clouded. Infest our English seas. 6r to business. Religion will flourish . Lordi Thou hast a gallant which fear 57 Will be imposed on by the closer sort. good Lord. Well. Sir. and beg our aid. Pick'd up. My 29 tho' the child of Agriculture. devouring all Our burden'd vessels. a private man. Or they are never rightly valued. Lord Clarence you proceed not But speak of your own pleasures. Fie. and we. private duty and council with my my sit in pleasure. My me leave to shine sometimes. spirit. For Commerce. Queen Phil. The merchants do complain. I hope their Lordships will excuse your giddiness. that. my dear Lord. These are my thoughts yet it were best But keep a proper dignity. Clar. I'll endeavour to take Lord Percy's advice I have been used so much To dignity that I'm sick on't. thoughts take in the gen'ral good of the whole. \Aside. I . who else must sweat and toil. as tradesmen. Dear 45 a prince should always keep his state. 33 like honey as from a worship'd oak. I ask your leave To If dine to-morrow with the I obtain your leave. the French have fitted out many ! Small ships of war. Then. My thoughts are on my gardens and my How employ the hand to 21 fields. When I sit at my home. prince. 37 my talkative youth. 'tis with the sun. And gain but scanty fare. Forgive. 'tis sometimes with princes as o'er. we grow weary 53 Of his officious glory. as I man's heart 25 will bring forth fruit. And England is the land favour'd by Commerce .

Thomas Dagworth and meeting. Lord Percy. Aud. ere long. Exultingly Dagw. Lord Audley. They can. 97 Queen Phil. Lord Percy cannot mean that we should suffer This disgrace if so. on which cast I'll set But my whole we estate. and the gallant sun Springs from the hills like a young hero . and will. the head if but one member suffer. my Lord morn don't know. SCENE.I Appeitdix The merchants are rich enough Percy. Aud. roar. When that they find they must. Ha. brave Lord Percy you have the thanks Of England's Queen. — Aud. and as worthy His generous aid to put it into practice. when at the birth of nature deep the Ocean ceas'd and fawning play'd around Her snowy feet. me your hand. At Sir Cressey. if the heart is sick. did he fear then? Dagw. my Lord. and work him onward To this most glorious voyage . 85 . When almost singly he drove six thousand French from the ford. Must be aggriev'd The heart doth fail. Sir Thomas you but joke Give I ! . is wise 93 Quickly to the Lord Mayor. \Exeunt. Thanks. These rovers : defend themselves against this is a noble scheme. 89 Worthy Lord Bishop. my Lord. Audley. brave Sir Thomas Smiles on our army. they will: Percy. shaking his golden locks this is a promising day. Good morrow. the bright Into the battle. that Heaven gave Bish. will bring these Gallic rovers under. and you shall see They 73 will bestir themselves. and may but how to gain 29 . I might say 'tis 9 13 fear . 'Tis not Mine. Let them but suffer awhile. the merchants She was seated His mighty in the 81 . I dare not own the plan. . Yet will I. their will . and own'd his awful Queen. Can they not help themselves ? Bish. Did you ere see him fear? At Blanchetaque. Edward 's afraid of Philip. Can. if they will. we are not sovereigns Of the sea our right. the brave Lord Percy. In you . Requires our countenance and help. Ha. fear that made him fight so. what was rash in me Percy. 77 : — To England. You say. I I 5 : Why. and now I'll tell you what think you do not know. By the same reason That makes you fight. of England. Yes. if you please.

. One rotten And if the sheep spoils the whole flock 49 . And. you say you have caught it too. like the youth at morrice play. and strike a bargain for The enemy he has danc'd in the field Of battle. Good morrow. look you here. Dagw. nor Warwick. brave man totters. Chand. For. He is a young lion. the The King caught here 53 in Perhaps the air of the country I feel it coming upon me. France of running away. Attd. Are you afraid too. Why. have not heard. Welcome And wait Dagw. Sir Thomas The Prince may I Chand. : 45 for Philip. fears to turn his face. Sir Thomas. nor none. back. strive against 57 it . I say. bell-weather is tainted. Is of He do not think. His back. 33 : Dagw.Poetical Sketches 30 look upon Edward's But -when he turns Mayhap you may Dagw. you I know what fear 41 is. Why. Perhaps you think the Prince too is afraid? Dagw. Of having my back laid open we turn Our backs to the fire. . when the coward runs. perhaps he takes it by fits. Dagw. None of us but me. O I have seen him fight And give command. There. you are a wise man. I hope so. And so will the whole army. Sir Thomas. Enter Sir John Chandos. all afraid. No God forbid I'm sure he is not. : 29 . noble Chandos. and I am very much afraid. till we shall burn our skirts. I'm sure he's not afraid. Sir Thomas. know you understand me a distemper ! ? . so I is 61 the cause. And. Sir Thomas? I believe that as much as I believe The King's afraid but what are you afraid of? 25 ! . Chandos. fear a different kind then from the King's. 17 to his face. I wish not catch the distemper too. Aud. And this. Generals I give you joy Here we stop. then I will say He is afraid : : it he makes us cannot bear the Now here we are I enemy at face. to the fields of Cressy. do you call that fear? I don't know. Sir Thomas. I Dagw. To-morrow we shall know. 'tis very catching. Aud. what distemper Distemper. at Cressy my . No one can say he fears. you call fear? Your 37 . and lightning has flashed From his eyes across the field I have seen him Shake hands with death. Lord Audley. 21 where to-morrow. That Edward runs away from Philip. and you to turn your back.

That 10 r Thomas. with respect and deference I look 8r Upon such noble souls. Sire. I've told him before. When I have seen the field glow. Dagw. Dagw. With And By certain victory be shall and . was I 85 have been wing'd inspir'd these brave troops. To be plain. my courage shrunk and wither'd. I think retreating Too often takes away a soldier's courage. English courage fails. Ne'er shouted to the Heav'ns. France. Them better make Generals. 69 deaf. And in each countenance the soul of war Curb'd by the manliest reason. and such a Nay. Plainly. Down goes But we are our right to when . I 93 have a small petition to your Majesty. . Prince. having such examples. my son. thou art Most happy. refuse? 97 hope your Majesty cannot refuse so great A trifle I've gilt your cause with my best blood. my still 'tis glory. . 105 I . Prince. My sinews slacken'd. after a few more know how to retreat all shall — 31 Better than fight. but his disorder Sir Dagw. nothing conquerors every where Can stand our soldiers each man is worthy Of a triumph. friend : 109 . The Ford. 65 Here comes the King himself: tell him your thoughts Thomas. I . Sir would not have sooner parted with Than such a soldier as you have been. And would again. Sir Thomas Dagworth ask that Edward What can King. Makes him Enter King Edward and Black Good morrow. having such command the man 77 * : Were who were base not fir'd to deeds Above heroic. I my boast. Such an army of heroes 73 .Appendix I You yet are whole we Retreats. were I not forbid By him whom I am bound to obey: my hands Are tied up. I I beg know I may not return to England. and wish myself Worthy the high command that Heaven and you Have given me. but. Therefore King. Can 89 Your Grace had Dagw. all Thomas Dagworth. while you can fight as you did at Sir King. Edward. And shall. you must have your joke. Generals King. Chand. I will know the most remote particulars Of this your strange petition that if I can I still may keep you here. and my voice scarce heard. nor shook the field. what you could have ask'd.

Then I can never be afraid of Philip. Fears the small fire that plays about the fen. the Forester the Lion. Startled. I Dagw. fearful Crane springs from the splashy fen. Which often plays with Wisdom for its pastime. and I am as light As the young bridegroom going to be married. And You I : hope And and see us you'll stay. that doth gaze upon the sun. And we will sing like the young housewives busied must flight. Snake doth turn. my soldiers. 'Twill be a gallant thing to fight or die . hearts on set all in tell fight this battle. Sir Thomas. Dog doth seize the Wolf. and thinks we flee from him. Dagw. Now. Furbish our armours bright. for another battle. and fear usurps 113 his heart. astonish'd at the clam'rous Cock . If all my soldiers are as pleas'd as you. Else he would never dare to attack us.' Last night. Now my heart dances. fight. the fields of Cressy we are settled Philip springs the tim'rous covey again. us. plum'd. 153 me . Wolf is hunted down by causeless fear. and bite the padding foot. ' I saw a I told him he look'd little hunger like a a fiery face .Poetical Sketches 32 Here on Dagw. Negro in the crevice of the rock at this The The Doth seize the soaring Eagle They tame submit . 'Till The The Lion flees. The If. undone by such the effect : 121 flight. Crane o'ertaken fighteth with the Hawk. he was ' pig enough To light another pattle. Stag turns head and bays the crying Hounds. On noble souls.' Welchman with I pass'd by 157 . And brings good counsel from the breast of laughter. tim'rous Stag starts from the thicket wild. In the dairy For to I 149 : King. Eagle. candle half Burn'd out he answer'd. the fields of Cressy them how fire to 133 be with we 137 . are more like a Lion than a Crane Therefore I beg I may return to England. Now 145 them ready. reap rich harvest Then go And 129 if to England. new plume our helms. but not an please your grace. get my feet are wing'd. beneath . A raw-bon'd fellow t'other day told him to put off his hungry looks — He answer'd me. Now the quarry's set! and Death doth sport is Philip 141 In the bright sunshine of this fatal day. 117 moment of their idle fear. now I understand your mirth. your Majesty's afraid of Philip. King. has flight Now hear its opposite. The The The The The The 125 shining Snake glides o'er the bending grass.

Thomas Dagworth. he'll shake Off sloth. into ardour. and rich as midsummer. and build himself a hut. I see thee King. Teach man 193 my Lord. for thou art suited to the Throughout the camp Blow up the sluggish work. : 173 ! 177 will not part Go now. in hope still 'Til! . he should wed a maiden Fairer than snow. . To 20I rest at night. Give but a slave his liberty. Liberty within him. when 33 had pitch' d Their tents. and meet to council. And wing their brows with hope and expectation Then to our tent return. Thy heart richer than the vales of France is with such a man as thee. all May He Prince. And leap and dance to hear the trumpet sound. but gave them noble hopes. ! I 205 Lead them on to battle I see thee blow thy golden trumpet. Sir John I think Englishmen the bravest people on Forgive My The . with Thy wide-stretch'd plumes . Thou'dst laugh his fury into nerveless shame I 169 . while . and wish'd health to his father. glory fires his breast to enlarge his castle While the poor slave drudges all day. my Chandos. These are the minds that glory in the battle. 189 spirit of my prejudice. and at each pause he wip'd His dropping eyes. and Confirm the strong with strength. enflame the timorous. : He will move onward to plan conveniences. If Philip came arm'd in the ribs of death. Chand. I chid them both. Thy O SAMPSON D 209 . 197 . be thou near our person Sir King. In that enlarged breast of his. that see what's done within. if he Return'd victorious. ' 165 Another wept. and hedge A spot of ground this he'll defend 'tis his By right of nature thus set in action. Chand. think thyself a gardener. 185 . Courage. the weak inspire. sons shout the strong shout of victory ! noble Chandos. That man's a hero in his closet. to think he's a free agent. O Liberty.Appendix I The moon walk'd abroad. and all were still I heard a blooming youth singing a song He had compos'd. proceeds from self-dependence. how glorious art thou see thee hov'ring o'er my army. face of the earth.' I all i6i . and more A hero to the servants of his house Than to the gaping world he carries windows 181 : \ExH Dagworth. . And shook his mortal dart against my head. And hath the is a genuine Englishman. The ditty was.

Come. my Chandos. You are a man. dear son learn to think lowly of ! — Thyself. Chandos. swOrd upon each thigh. as we may all each prefer other Tis the best policy. unregarded. Methinks And see them I gird the 225 And dance to the neighing of our steeds. Sir John. which I commit unto care prune all extravagant shoots. 249 each rolling year the mind's treasure-house: While vacant youth doth crave and seek about Within itself. Methinks the shout begins. That plays with danger as the inndcent child Unthinking plays upon the viper's den . us down. impatient takes the wing. . and guide Th' ambitious tendrils in the paths of wisdom My Thy : . Chandos. my prince. the strongest sated and tired the changing sameness. and a brave man. 1 . son a vine. till may have tir'd at length. attacks experience. Roams round vast Nature's forest. Chandos. the swiftest Find prey With We . room. and view our former joys sit 257 . Does rise so high to overflow all bounds Of moderation while Reason. where no bounds Then. the battle burns. and 'tis our duty. take the helm. 237 : 241 : am a coward in my reason. And may our duty. Are tir'd set. be our pleasure. can see no shore or bound for vast Ambition. Now we are alone. sin to love the noise of war. 213 Water him with thy advice and Heav'n Rain fresh'ning dew upon his branches. are posting up and down. and findeth discontent.Poetical Sketches 34. Methinks I see them perch on English crests. thou seest my weakness strong nature Will bend or break us my blood. in her Frail bark. It is my In truth I am too full 229 . arm my gallant soldiers. \Exeunt Prince. That my full-blown sails overset me not In the wild tempest condemn my 'ventrous youth. And roar the wild flame of fierce war upon The thronged enemy. And breathe my hopes Where thousand deaths 217 King Edward. I will unburden. and want of use Use makes the armed field and noisy war Pass over as a summer cloud. but your heat If I can judge of actions Is the effect of youth. my Edward. and string each stubborn bow. 245 : Or but expected as a Age is contemplative Brings forth fruit to thing of course. old variety. and fit Each shining helm. 233 : . Chand. . like a springtide. 253 of thought. And. Seizes the fruits of time. 221 into the burning air. Commission'd to this fatal f^eld of Cressy.

and keep Sweet symphony to feather'd angels. I know the wolf : we fall. We Is to fight. Dagw. neither warbling voice Nor trilling pipe is heard. 269 shall steal the fruit This is philosophy. and taste and touch and sight and sound and smell. I ever saw Dagw. disdaining Little sport. 293 \Exeunt. Williayn his Man. Then it grows most in France the vines here Will. I shall with pleasure view a glorious action . These are the tricks of the world but the pure soul Shall mount on native wings. Shall warble round the snowy head. It is it. not dangerous 35 265 for food. William. Dagworth and Bring hither my armour. dislike. Let us not fear to And rouze the strongest prey then if fall with glory. That sing and dance round Reason's fine-wrought throne. not acts . the growth of ev'ry clime. 289 pulse Beat slow. . Sir John. D 2 ? . I'm glad my father does not hear me talk You can find friendly excuses for me. Chandos. Will. and leave them all forlorn Yet not forlorn if Conscience is his friend. that if it please Th' Almighty to stretch out my span of life. William a root that grows in every breast . SCENE. and cut a path into the heaven of glory. But do you not think.Appendix I With and distaste Prince. Is it a little creeping root that grows in ditches Thou dost not understand me. tn Sir Thomas Dagworth' s Tent. if Then. good Nor is the hide a comely vestment so have our battle for our pains. What is the tree you mentioned ? I don't think Dagw. views motives. Aye. . sitting As guardians round your chair then shall the . it grows most in lands most cultivated. Will. Will. Which my youth Chand. Leaving a track of light for men to wonder 373 at. the voice of Conscience 385 then. Ambition is . I know That youth has need of age to point fit prey. Aye. . 26t we must tug for experience. Does it grow in England. Sir? Dagw. Sweeter than music in a summer's eve. Are finer than any we have in England. Ambition. And master'd? Considerate age. but the oaks are not. We And oft the stander-by Of th' other's labour. Dagw. beat round Nature's wilds. 377 when 38t my Lord. nor pleasure sits With trembling age. Shall flee away.

aright. honour if acts without reason may do a great deal of harm it. know every thing. Will. Now. Thou art a natural philosopher. all have it in their power to know the motives of their own actions. . Will. Then. Will. which is for not true. story-telling : story. . your information. there's as . thou dost thrust the question home but I must you that. such is that worthy Chandos. as we have run our argument. and 'tis a sin to act without some reason. Now. and I can't tell whether he don't mention us all one by one and he is to write another about all us that are to die. he has got the same name as Sir John Chandos. will tell Will. war-songs. Dagw. William. set in rich gold. for all our blood and bones are in France and a great deal more that we shall all hear by and by and I came to tell your honour. and to know that little wrong of course . . Dagw. have I I . I compliment. And who is this minstrel. this is no time for No. that we may be remembered in Old England. tell . William. in any pursuit after glory I don't thinlc you have any of it. and given him I don't know what. yet I you that it was ambition. without knowing Thou Dagw. an endless moralist. Dagw. dost know? aye. Dagw. Sir. art there's a story you'll give me come into my head.Poetical Sketches 36 Ambition Has But is the desire or passion that one man to get before another. while reason runs aground. Tho' the knowledge of that will not profit thee much. that the prince is always with the wise man that knows us all as well as your honour. because you love to hear . Now Will. Yonder 's a musician going to play before the King it's a new Peter. O — thank you. if ambition is a sin. guilty in in fighting for him. Only remember. I should be glad to know if it was not ambition that brought over our King to France to fight for his right? Dagw. and knowest truth by instinct . and fitted to the finger of an emperor. I always thought that a man might be guilty of doing wrong without knowing it was wrong. and we are all coming with him. But when our first ideas are wrong. And whoever Will. guilt being an act of the mind. Sir. save it till another time but here comes one who is as entertaining as a good Dagw. what follows must all be 'tis best to know a little. Peter. William. but not for your much difference between him or shining glass and me as between glittering sand and fruitful mold and a wrought diamond. Dagw. . Peter. and the Prince has made the minstrel a 'squire. I forgot to tell that . . Yes. Enter Peter Blunt. song about the French and English. Peter. that I will tell j'our leave. Then. only e'nt so good natur'd. none are guilty but those whose minds are prompted by that same ambition. have a great ambition to .

Death wons 5 smoke. lie and rot.Appendix I Peter. destruction How many 9 is sleep 13 In earth. Dagw. palms of victory. seems to me as pale As the pale fainting man on his death-bed. ai Whose face is shewn by light of sickly taper. at . \E. you ask'd me if he did not look well when he fell and I said No. Why. Thomas to hint I Manny. France is sick. answering his hard demands. Sir Thomas Dagworth^ s Dagworih — Filter Sir Walter Sir Walter. Yet death is terrible. the very sky. Sir. Talking with death. SCENE. How many walk in darkness. When men sleep in their beds. Where And shake is the gates of hell. he look'd very foolish . but every body else does. get you gone . flattery is delicious. How terrible then 17 the field of death. have been weeping i Over the men Dagw. when we were in England. tho' borne on angels' wings. terrors are round The curtains of their Ready at the door. and in still night. Dagw. It To be exalted to those heavenly 25 fields. Where peace and joy and love and calm content. you or Sir Walter. at the tournament Windsor. 29 . Sit singing in the azure clouds. does not think any thing of yourself. Why you Will. that are to die to-day. beds. You mean that I was angry with you for not flattering the Earl of Warwick. How many in walled cities lie and groan. flatter don't know that. \Exeunt. brave Sir Walter. Sir Thomas Dagworth. even from the lips of a babbler. I Dagw. Where songs of triumph. and strew Flowers of heaven's growth over the banquet-table. whose spirits walk Upon the clouds of heaven to die no more. Go. cover'd with stones and deathy dust. makes me sad and sick at very heart. Thousands must fall to-day. he doth rend the vault of heaven. Tho' sunshine light it. Cover'd with silence and forgelfulness. I know this I may breathing flesh must fall. and the Earl of Warwick was tumbled over. and you was very angry with me for not flattering you. Resting in quietness.xit Peter. in cities' Turning themselves upon their beds. Peter. know your honour I 37. walketh about. Dagw. O Dagworth. Will. Sir Tent. Thousands of souls must leave this prison-house. never I your honour. know.

That murmur down their pebbly channels. Dagw. Whose voices are the thunder of the field. Several of the Warriors meet at the King's Tent with a Minstrel. by light'ning from their dens. Well. seem to hear the dismal yells of death. And blood shall flow like streams across the meadows. — ! ! . cloath'd in war. service Spend their sweet lives to do their country Then shall England's verdure shoot. Her mariners shall use the flute and viol. her fields shall Her ships shall sing across the foaming sea. I'll weep and shout for glorious liberty. 65 England blow the trump of victory. fall Sir Walter. who sings the following sons of Trojan Brutus. I'll fight and weep. The table is prepar'd in shining heaven. The flowers of immortality are blown Let those that And those that fight fight in . in the Camp. and the 57 And Let war stain the blue heavens with bloody banners it up I'll draw my sword. Heated with war. let the trumpet sound. decked in tears. Grim war shall laugh and shout. 'tis in my country's cause. broken with wind and tide (Like lions rouz'd : 9 . Burning up nations in Song: i O 5 your wrath and fury! Your ancestors came from the fires of Troy. the sun Rolling dark clouds o'er France. to And seem be in one great charnel-house. Sir Walter. field of war. \Exeunt. Shall be no more. 4^ soul fainted with these views of death. With helmets hewn. Whose eyes do glare against the stormy fires). brave Sir Walter let me drop Then let the clarion of war begin. and shields covered with gore. muffling In sickly darkness like a dim eclipse. of death. . and I 45 . shall rise in victory. till this fatal day of Cressy. fill'd with the blood of Greeks. lay stretch'd upon the field SCENE. I've often seen the burning often heard the dismal clang of arms But never. and black and dreary war. to scent the rotten carcases. as fire Threatening as the red brow of storms. In navies black. rattling guns. Put on the robe of preparation. And Has my I seem 37 good stedfastness.Poetical Sketches 38 33 Bind ardent Hope upon your feet like shoes. . Stop. While the black gore drops from his horrid jaws Yet I not fear the monster in his pride But O the souls that are to die to-day a tear. 49 53 : smile. nor ever sheath 'Till Or I 6r drum beat.

Rain fire into 29 the molten raging sea. The sepulchre of ancient Troy. No. forest. Giant voices Are heard from the hills. for plenty shall bring forth. ' Our fathers swarm from the ships. our fathers sit 37 Attentive on the melancholy shore Hear ye the voice of Brutus 'The flowing waves Of time come rolling o'er my breast. Hercules Buildings. from whence Shall rise cities. like oaks entangled Thick as a ready for the axe. and arms. Lambeth. and thou shalt be our grave. : — And my Our sons * heart labours with futurity : shall rule the empire of the sea. and awful pow'rs. the red lightning. .' the first entry in Blake's list of subjects for a history of England (MS. Their nest is in the sea. Defy'd the storm that howled o'er their heads 33 ! Our fathers. inspir'd . The smoaking trees are strewn upon the shore. hurling rocks. Cities shall sing. would seem to show that Blake engraved these subjects as a companion volume to The Gates of Paradise. and view The mighty dead giant bodies streaming blood. Our fathers move in firm array to battle The savage monsters rush like roaring fire 25 . Blake's. In the prospectus of 'Works now published and on sale at Mr. O how oft have they Spoil'd of their verdure. Dread visages frowning in silent death. 13.' is included ' 19. Naked and roaring like lions. : Then Brutus spoke. And 17 wielding knotty clubs. and thrones. Like as a forest roars with crackling flames. 21 . 35 Giant voices England.' they said Our children's mother. but they shall roam nor shall the young Like eagles for the prey Crave or be heard. . The History of England. a small book of Engravings. . Giants ancient inhabitants of giant bodies] Cp. the parched heavens Lights on some woody shore When . Shall laugh. p. . 1793. * .' October 10. ." he said . lean on their spears. Price 3s.Appendix I 39 They landed in firm array upon the rocks Of Albion they kiss'd the rocky shore Be thou our mother and our nurse. which is described in the same leaflet in identical terms. . borne by furious storms. sweating. . ' This work. 41 ' Their mighty wings shall stretch from east to west. and vales whose in rich fruitful laps 45 array bend down with fulness. the enormous sons Of Ocean run from rocks and caves wild men. no copy of which is known to exist. 116). Book.' 13 .

: 53 Their daughters shall sing. families.' Prologue. thy Land have done it ! Ministers have done it ! the Prologue to King John Justice hath heaved a sword to plunge in Albion's breast . Heaven. Brother in brother's blood must bathe. Albion's breast with her own children's gore. And fiends of Hell rejoice upon the slain. ' Liberty shall stand upon the cliffs of Albion. calls to battle. stand upon the roaring waves. Each one buckling on his armour Morning Shall be prevented by their swords gleaming. and the Who can stand of soul When ? and a tongue war When ! l the senses driven to madness. Then Patriot rose full oft did Patriot rise. Or. when Tyranny hath stain'd fair . and her all 57 . And Evening hear their song of victory Their towers shall be built upon the rocks. she covereth Fair Albion's shore. the flood of Death. O who can stand O who hath caused this O who can answer at the throne of God ? ? 13 ? The Kings and Nobles of Hear it not. who can stand? 5 When the whirlwind of fury comes from the Throne of God. is the souls of the oppressed Fight in the troubled air that rages. with her eagle wngs. Round his majestic feet deep thunders roll each heart does tremble. ! ! . souls are torn to everlasting fire. ' 49 . . To drown the throat Are shaken.Poetical Sketches 40 Our sons shall rise from thrones in joy. O land most hapless O beauteous island. how forsaken Weep from thy silver . Stretching her mighty spear o'er distant lands While. for Albion's sins are crimson dy'd. the trumpet. surrounded with shining spears. The stars of heaven tremble the roaring voice of war. intended for a Dramatic Piece of King Edward the Fourth O for a voice like thunder. who can stand Sin claps his broad wings over the When And sails rejoicing in When ? 9 battle. tow'ring. Casting her blue eyes over the green ocean . rivers of death. when the frowns of his countenance Drive the nations together. and each knee grows slack. and the red scourge follows her desolate sons.

her mariners shall sing upon the sea. thine iron heart. the weeping The husbandman doth leave his Blood cries afar! The land doth sow itself! The bending harvest! The aged senators their glittering youth of courts must gleam in arms ancient swords assume The trembling sinews of old age must work the work of death against their progeny. and myriads shall to her temples crowd Her sons shall joy as in the morning Her . and raise her golden head exultingly throng about her gates. 15 Prepare. O Proud. 5 Prepare your hearts for Death's cold hand prepare souls for flight. "Whose Why Had And fatal scroll is that sinks my heart. though O yet may Albion smile again. cast in the spacious orb . prepare the iron helm of war. Prepare your arms for glorious victory Prepare your eyes to meet a holy God ! Your ! ! 10 Prepare. and stretch her lingering Fate is slow. : : Prepare. and 'blood' he cries and dreadful thunder of the battle heard afar I' Beware. your bodies for the earth . prepare ! Our cause is Heaven's cause Be worthy of our cause Soldiers. the noise of shout. arm. Bring forth the lots. with ghosts. is smitten. prepare Prepare to meet our fathers in the sky ! . 25 . I'd die in such a cause.I Appendix 41 The angel of the island weeps fountains. thou shalt be humbled thy cruel brow. over the well-fought ? I field. prepare. for Tyranny hath stretch'd his purple mother feeds him for the slaughter! ! ! 'the chariots and the horses. rise. weep from thy gentle rivers Thy widowed virgins weep beneath thy shades Thy aged fathers gird ! ! ! themselves for war The sucking ! infant lives to die in battle . Her citizens shall peaceful arms. that are to fall to-day ! Prepare. And casts them out upon the darken'd earth i ! Prepare. Th' Angel of Fate turns them with mighty hands. prepare. . prepare. ! ! ! daughters sing as to the rising year A War Song to ! Englishmen Prepare. And walk together on the clouds of heaven ! ! 20 Prepare. prepare. ? why Methinks faultereth 'tis my mine ! tongue three lives. Soldiers. O troops. The arrows of Almighty God are drawn ! Angels of Death stand in the low'ring heavens Thousands of souls must seek the realms of light. prepare.

how should I call on Him who is Truth ? My breath drawn.Poetical Sketches 42 Alfred shall smile. sinful my helper may come Through the void space I viralk. prepare. like lilies dropping tears in each other's bosom. Lion Heart. my child. But lo. and Silence reposed in the valley the birds of day were heard in their nests. can I not cry. tree is . Like the sound of a broken pipe. and lift my eyes to Heaven? Thinking of this my spirit is turned within me into confusion. my son. 'O Voice. I stretch it out ? My ways are sinful. between the O for a hand to pluck Beneath me burns eternal fire world and is ! ! eternity As the voice of an ! ! me forth ' ! omen heard in the silent valley. if I lift up my head. the aged woman raised her voice. and make his harp The Norman William. without a lantern to direct Thus he laments through the still my me. when the thin beams of the moon give a faint light such was this young . sin covers me as a O my dear friends. and the learned rejoice . pray ye for me Stretch forth your hands that cloak. Like the bubbling waters of the brook in the dead of night. . replied. where no fall thick ! ! .' The youth is a God. on all is silent when Nature takes her repose. of the woods drops trickle down. ! I look behind. when the evening they stood by the bed like reeds bending over a lake. . rustling and the owl and bat flew round the darkening in brakes and thickets In former times. ' face in the dust. . far . who made the world how should a from heard a voice like sepulchre. walked on the stedfast globe. As the deer wounded. were gathered to Sorrow linked them together leaning on one the sick bed of a . a mother and a sister. the remains of a family of the tribes of Earth. I loathsome. The Couch The veiled of Death Evening walked solitary down the western hills. breath infected? So is mine. man's voice to his friends. My hand is feeble. how should he not be offended ? If lay my the grave opens its mouth for me . the aged woman raised her cry. I walk in regions of Death. that dwellest in my breast. I seem to walk through a deep hard and death is terrible The damps of death from the light of day. alone and comfortless wind the is Parting valley. and welcome us And ! 30 Prepare. how should I raise mine eyes ? My voice hath used deceit. and the visions of Heaven unfold their visitation. by the brooks is thy of water. trees such an evening. with His loyal queen shall rise. ' O my son. and our ancestors. O my child. another's necks alternately. there is Horrors stare me in the face upon me no returning Death follows after me. who now sleep in their graves. Clerk." steps. and black-brow'd Edward. so the arrows of sin stick in my flesh . : youth. when ' is asleep. there stretch out thy hand to Him. the poison hath entered . without a staff to support till the curtains of darkness were evening. when the few inhabitants cling trembling together as the voice of the Angel of Death. and said. when the cold clay breathed with life. I know but little of the path thou goest. His voice was low as the whisperings .

Even in childhood. season follows season. where only 'Tis Contemplation. Such smiles were seen upon the face of the youth. whispers in mine ear. eyes the distant country with joy.' in mortality. how little thou seest thou where Mirth sits ! ! . and Discontent runs like a brook. youthful sun joys like a hunter rouzed to the chace. Humility. a visionary hand wiped away his tears.Appendix I 43 marrow. its silver inhabitants sport and play the sky. and the youth . true joys descend heart ! . where. daughter of the grey Morning » ? Nature's foot hath trod Majestical she steppeth. they covered their faces and wept. lord of eternity on the painted cheek? doth it not seem ashamed O what an humble of such a place. blow the green grass delights blossom around . Staff . the its arms along the velvet meadow. breathes out his soul with joy into eternity. till he became to me as my brother. . slave of each moment. . and stringed sounds ride upon the wings of The sorrowful pair lift up their heads. Now great. take it. till the into my sun shine. and with her pure quill on every flower writeth lowly bending. numberless beauties the brook stretches springs in joy. 'Heavenly goddess ! the world with joyful sounds. voices of comfort are heard over the Couch of Death. and wear it in thine Clamour brawls along the lord of thyself. and the drops of rain glisten. . . Contemplation Who is this. while on his majestic brow the voice of Angels is heard. and I oft found myself sitting by Sorrow on a tomb-stone. and the nimble air kisses the leaves . he rushes up and lays hold on the immortal coursers of day. them.' Like rolling waves upon a desert shore. the sky glitters with the Like a triumph. ! lofty rocks. : . Misery builds over our cottage roofs. then. is grown into a giant Lo. I answered. The traveller that hath taken shelter under an oak. that roams on it is a flower that grows in every vale. my flesh is a prison. All was still. smoak but on these plains. sighs succeeded his mother's sighs. he fancies he Wisdom's name.' and down house steps and in the when I grew up : . . Sorrow slept with me in my cradle he followed me up music I fills am wrapped . the yellow harvest breathes. that with unerring step dares tempt the wilds. arm was under his head . 'O man. thou then art lord of all. was in my I walked through dreary places with him. 'cause his garments are swoln with wind. he was my schoolfellow thus he in my play. and in church-yards . and the stars faintly glimmered in the summer sky the breath of night slept among the leaves of the forest the bosom of the lofty hill drank in the silent dew. while the airy jingling trappings. The youth lay silent. and the thankful eyes of the villagers are turned up in smiles. my bones the bars of death. how O man. The moon hung not out her lamp. he was like a cloud tossed by the winds. and a ray of light beamed around his head. and streets. and grow immoderate to brave it out? Those who want Happiness must stoop to find it garb true Joy puts on Vain foolish man. hovering Angels are around night. and destruction hovers in the city's here build thy nest here fix thy in these silent woods.

' ! ! ! ! ! suckled thee. . ! ! : . tear put honest-seeming brow. a false woman's gates brought arts. and gorged human flesh. ' the sky I should secret of . : Go on. noon-tide while in dark pavilion. a lioness that thou wast born of mortal kind ? ' tried in vain . ! \ . stay. and conquer him by Call thine alluring arts and him. . guide my timorous hand to write as on a lofty rock with iron day.' and thus she day by day oppressed his soul he seemed a mountain. presence with blessed feet. . she bath'd his feet. and seeks to hide her bruised head under the mists of night. Dark thoughts rolled to and fro in his mind. turning our earthly night to heavenly of the Almighty Father thou visitest our darkling world from . where strength failed. bringing good news of Sin and Death destroyed. purple and silver neglect thy hair. breeding dark plots. like thunder clouds troubling Palestine. his brow among the clouds she seemed a silver stream. darkened. thou art not love death cloathed in flesh thou lovest.Poetical Sketches 44 Samson foiled Samson. . thou shalt overcome. and pierce the ears o' th' gods Thou wouldst my Look not upon me with those deathful eyes me not Thus. do . I'm thine . Alas. fair in vain she wept in many a treacherous tear. Night. . that all who pass may of damned spirits. the holy kiss of love. over the silent earth spreads her Now read. deceit and Lord for gold. and Desolation spreads his wings over the land of Palestine from side to side the land groans. and death approaches fast. Who saj's Destruction was thy father. what am I calling thee ? My days are covered I pour my tears for sacrifice morning and evening. ere once again the changing moon her do thy guileful work traitress force circuit hath performed. the strongest of the children of men. I am I withdraw your hand I'll run I will go mad. ! then should I lay at quiet and have O Dagon furious. By night I am deceived. what can I fear? the utmost may be warded off as well when told as now. hold me not thou lovest about. by by that shinest with propitious beams. that strong rest. council sat Philista's lords . thy young hands tore human limbs. Thou lov'st me not still she grasps his vigorous knees with her fair arms. . . art thou not Samson's servant ? 'Tis Dalila that calls . O foolish Dalila O weak woman it is thou'rt war. For Dalila's fair arts have long been ambush lay. and let thy master thy . O of the to wife Truth. wedded ! to . Though I should tell this heart. his Though was troubled his soul was distressed. and upon her sumptuous couch reclined in gorgeous pride. Come hither. pens the words of truth. black thoughts Their helmed youth and aged warriors in dust together ly. and thou hast been incircled in his arms! To thee Thou art my God Alas. in false tears. and the transparent on fair linen that with the lily vies. O whiterobed Angel. I sing how he was death.' visage tell her my birth. from his secret and wrest unconquerable. ' Samson. eyes of love decked in mild sorrow and sell thy she still intreats. her prowess lost. all . in and. and thus resumes her wiles. my Lord. and tear my crisped hair your enemy O Samson. death. do the deed : one blow of master's wife no. with sorrow. Death. and all ye gods of am but a weak woman. my She saw him moved. Shut up.' For now. arm would ease my pain Pity forsook thee at thy birth . to seem more lovely in thy loose attire put on thy country's pride. his feet embracing.

But God joys in store. . . and despised my joy is given into the hands of him who hates me. and labour is my lot of all of woman born nor matchless might. ! . doubt no more of Samson's love for that fair breast was made the ivory palace of my inmost heart. and drew the curtains of heaven : pensive she sat. He . his blessing leaving. twice a sacred vow enjoined me that I should drink no wine. weave thee to the beam by thy strong hair. therefore. She saw the maidens play. Childless he ' : . Twice was it told. Now. O Dalila ! appease her then. thus he spoke. like the summer grass. till venerable age came on hath other plenty crowned his board beloved. and calm evening. ! ." Manoa cried but Heaven refused. the fields of light entered the house. and he shall be called Israel's Deliverer. The venerable sweet'ner of his life receives the promise first from Heaven. . what shouldst thou didst thou rend the feeble ties fear ? Thy power is more than mortal. " The Then did suspicion wake thee. none can hurt thee thy bones are . for holy unto Israel's God I am. can from the Twice was my birth foretold from heaven. son. Didst thou not tell me with green withs to bind thy nervous arms. that it might not be broken. Pensive." Then. " Hail. and. as a neighbour. kind Heaven. using deceit to the wife of his bosom. when in thy sleep I bound thee with them to try thy truth. nor knew he so seemed he to depart was an angel. and take his evening's : rest from labour — the sweetest time that God has allotted mortal man. nor could conceal aught that might Hear. departs. conceive. for he shall be a Nazarite to God. to shame my over-fond inquiry. she blessed each new-joined pair but from her the long-wished deliverer : : . . I cried. alone she sat within the house. Alas.' He sat. mourned. nor eat of any unclean thing. how Philistines be upon thee. drink no wine. an army of mighty men are as flocks in the vallies what canst thou fear? O worse than wolves and I live upon sorrow I drink my tears like water But O at tygers. she wondered with exceeding jo}'. Samson!" Thou fearest nought. ! . : : : . rose from and thought on east. and heart of man hide sorrow. Ten thousand spears are brass. highly favoured! Israel's and and bear a strength shall be upon his shoulders. he saw . But " "for lo. . and in Israel he lived. his flocks increased. shall spring. nor wisdom. a Nazarite even from my " Grant mother's womb. In solitude. when busy day was the forsaken fading. and eat not any unclean thing. when I had found thy falsehood. me a son. thy sinews are iron. I did even that to try thy truth " " The Philistines be then didst thou leave me but. though not obscure. with new ropes to bind thee fast ? I knew thou didst but mock me. when his evening tale is told. an angel from Israel's grief. leaning on her bosom. nor every gift enjoyed. ! and lov'd the beauteous suppliant. but thought his God knew best. revered of man. when lo. what canst thou give when such a trifle is denied me ? Thou toldest me to last thou mockest me. time for contemplation. Thrice hast thou mocked me and grieved my soul. thou shalt said he mild he hailed her. and from his spacious brow shot terrors through the evening shade. Manoa left his fields to sit in the house. and blessed their innocent mirth . and silent prayed to Israel's God His form was manhood in the prime. after that. when I cried upon thee to bewail that Samson loved me not. where it shall lie at rest for sorrow is the lot for care was I brought forth. and inward griev'd.Appendix I 45 I am with me what thou wilt my friends are enemies ray life is death a traitor to my nation. Is burdened Israel his grief? The son of his old age shall set it free.

. My name is wonderful enquire not after it. Clad as a traveller fresh risen on his journey. we may honour thee. is God. that thou mayest sit and eat. while sat. offer an offering unto the Lord. and was ready to give place to Lord." . The aged woman walked into the field. O when shall our Deliverer come? The Philistine riots on our flocks. Stretch forth thy hand. seeing it is a secret but. the ox goad : " O Instead of peaceful pipe the shepherd turned into a spear. and praised God. The wolf teareth them. again the angel came. who came and talked with him. and Israel groaned oppressed. and tell us of thy name and warfare that. The time rolled on." The Angel answered. if thou ' wilt. she ran and called her " O man of " thou said husband. : . Let us detain thee while I make ready a kid. our The echoes of country is plowed with swords. hill. doubting : then prayed till hope grew Manoa slaughter reach from hill to bears a sword. comest from far. thy flock is scattered on the hills. our vintage is gathered by bands of enemies." he. when thy " sayings come to pass. feeble. the plow-share rusted.Poetical Sketches 46 and heard with joy. who Israel still doth keep." Thus prayed Manoa. The sword was bright. and reaped in blood. and lo. Oppression stretches his rod over our land. and save.

9 So clad. And jewel hangs at shepherd's nose. . The jewel health adorns her neck. boisterous wind. 154. also his Introduction to that edition. p. . stranger. . to this place. and here reprinted from Shepherd's text (ed. vi. 11. Paleness We flies .] Song by a Shepherd Welcome. . stern Winter frown. Song by an Old Shepherd When silver snow decks Sylvia's clothes. 154). 1874. Blind-man's Buff {Poetical Sketches). Innocence doth like a rose Bloom on every maiden's cheek Honour twines around her brows. 154. from every face reap not what we do not sow. Shepherd. nose]. p. That makes our limbs quake. That makes our limbs quake. if our hearts be warm. 8 That] Which EY. found in Blake's autograph on the fly-leaves of a copy of the original edition of Poetical See Sketches. Cp. . Innocence is a Winter's gown.APPENDIX II [The two songs referred to in editor's introduction. That makes our limbs quake. I stranger] little stranger EY. 2 When p. We can abide life's i pelting storm. p. Shepherd. we'll abide life's pelting storm. 1-2. 5 And Truth a lantern to our path. if our hearts be warm. We can abide life's pelting storm. Whilst Virtue is our walking-staff. Where joy doth sit on every bough. Blow. if our hearts be warm. I.

.

E circa 1784) .SONGS from ^^ ISLAND (an untitled SAMPSOM IJ^ THE MO 03^ Autograph MS..

Suction the Epicurean. and the vanities are the same. the Antiquarian. and begins at the head of the first page (recto of first leaf) In the Moon is a certain Island. in this Island you so much alike. now the seventeenth page. volume of sixteen folio MOON leaves. the three Philo. names of those sects tho' the sects are not ever mention'd however the things still there. Quid the I call them by the Cynic. soiled appearance of this last verso proves it to have been the original outer leaf of the MS. known a thin foolscap as An Island in the Moon. and Sipsop the Pythagorean. lacking is two perhaps four) leaves through the loss of one (or two) sheets from the centre of the single quire of which it is (or composed. The remaining pages are blank. remain. that think was would you among your friends. as being quite out of date. but which. when the book was complete. with the exception of the verso of the last leaf. Gimblet came in. near by a mighty continent. & what & is more extraordinary the people are language so much the same.. among them Blake's signature — — The written backwards as if engraved on copper-plate.' or rather is left unfinished by the It ends abruptly author on line nineteen of the recto of the leaf following the lacuna in the text. & after an abundance of Enquiries to no purpose sat himself down & so they described something that nobody listen'd to. which small island seems to have some affinity : — ' 'to England. as . their dwells three Philosophers. were employ 'd when Mrs. Etruscan Column. The autograph is in Blake's early hand.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO AN ISLAND IN THE The Blake MS. which is scribbled over with rough sketches and pen-trials. and since it is also. in comes sophers sat together thinking of nothing. must have been page 21 or 25.

i. circa 1789. The MS. which reached its height in 1782. pp. Book. when. and would seem. placing one of the songs among the Later Poems. 186-201 and Mr. who . if so. in their edition of Blake's works. dates the MS. strangely. The brochure itself. Johnson published work. when Blake wrote. are more likely to have been written before than after may therefore. to have been still a . I am unable to agree with Mr. which may be described as a somewhat incoherent and pointless precursor of the Headlong Hall type of novel. was perhaps intended by the author as a satire on the little coterie of distinguished personages which met at Mrs. . while. with tolerable cerJohnson's death.. Lawrence Housman. was it the poet's wont to allow social patronage or material assistance to interfere with his Celtic privilege of free satire. T. contains the first drafts of Holy Thursday and the Nurse's Song. . at one time possessed a first leaf containing a title-page.' The work has never been printed as a whole nor. Messrs. and that Blake's gratitude for Mr.Island in the Moo7t 5 1 the watermarks show. date it between the publication of the Poetical Sketches in 1783. Mathews' salon in Rathbone Place but. Blake's relations with the Mathews and their circle had become somewhat In chapters 5 and 7 there are references to the strained. were this done.' and had these beautiful lyrics been written in 17H3 it is difficult to believe that Blake would not have included them in his first The doggerel lines on Dr. Smith tells us. tainty. would it £% ' . vol. probably in the latter year. ' ' ' We topic of conversation. Ellis and Yeats have given a synopsis of the chapters. as we know from the epigrams in the MS. Yeats' surmise that An Island in the Moon preceded and even led to the publication of the Poetical Sketches in 1783. the originals of the portraits are not now to be identified. moreover. ElHs and Yeats' conjecture that the MS. 1784. This is to attach a to trifle unnecessary importance evidently dashed off by Blake for his own amusement without thought of publication nor. there are no grounds for Messrs. Chatterton controversy. though Quid the Cynic may possibly stand for Blake himself. from this MS. has reprinted three chapters as specimens of his prose. as J. the other half of the sheet on which the work begins. and December 20. Mathews' share in defraying the cost of printing the little volume caused the author to leave the present work unfinished. with copious though rather inaccurately printed extracts.

trivialities or doggerel sung by children or drunken boon-companions. the mouths of several of the characters.Bibliographical Preface 52 Its chief interest to literary reputation. in its evidence.' the Thursday.' variant readings to which are given in the footnotes to the Songs of Innocence. kindly lent to me by Mr. My text of these poems is taken from my transcript of the original MS. Besides the six songs which follow. who has since presented it to the Fitzwilliam ' street-cry. even at this early date.' or The Little Boy Lost. I have thought it necessary to print the whole of them in an Appendix. . ' the early versions of Holy Nurse's Song.' are plainly not Blake's at all while others are. Museum. . Since these pieces have been referred to and partly quoted by Messrs. a number of choruses and nonsense verses are placed in Some of these. and ' * Books. such as This frog he would a wooing ride and the London I do not repeat here ' ' ' ' I cry my matches as far as Guildhall. some years beforehand. the illuminated printing which he afterwards employed in the Songs of Innocence and in the Prophetic and experiment. Charles Fairfax Murray. the first drafts general readers must lie in its giving us of three of the Songs of Innocence. as the writer intended them. Ellis and Yeats.. which all lovers of Blake may pass over. Cambridge. of Blake's rooted antipathy to science add to Blake's in its foreshadowing.

& keep them down with his fist. t^ . : — : Only printed by EY i. he'll Swear at them. He committed on flesh a whoredom O. and thrust his fist in.FROM THE ISLAND IN THE MOON When old corruption first begun. what a wicked beast — ! From then a callow babe did spring. make such a piece of work fori" "Hang that!" said " let us have a Suction. t>» And old To think For now corruption smil'd his race should never end." Then the Cynic sang ' . he had a child. . 13 in] on EY. : 4 And this he always kept in mind And form'd a crooked knife. chap. "I only wish Jack Tearguts had had the cutting of Plutarch he understands anatomy better than any of the Ancients he'll plunge his knife up to the hilt in a single drive. 5 then] there EY. that have it done for nothing. 3 He call'd The babe him Surgery with his & fed own milk y . — Isl. in Moon. For flesh & he could ne'er agree She would not let him suck. Adorn'd in yellow vest. — p. vi "Ah !" said Sipsop. And ran about with bloody hands To seek his mother's life. ' . & tell them that he'll scrape their bones if they don't lay still & be quiet What the devil should the people in the hospital. 193. and all in the space of a Quarter of an hour he does not mind their crj'ing — tho' they cry ever so. song.

ao which] that EY. & 8 And when the child began He shouted out aloud — * I've found the dropsy out. father grinn'd skipt about. 33 . He fell in love & married her — A deed which is not common She soon grew pregnant. to swell neck. discover'd guts. And brought forth 21 & & ' For now ' ! spott'd fever.Moon Island in the 54 And as he ran to seek his mother He met with a dead woman.' With that he tied poor scurvy down. which he had made. stopt up all its vents. said I'm made for ever 1 Scurvy The & 17 I have procured these imps 25 I'll try experiments. . Shall do the world He thro' the holes first & 29 soon more good.' He took up fever by the And cut out all its spots And.

& Joe. p. while steelyard walk'd about the room. Lightly tripping on a row. iii. 5 All the country folks a courting. — Then ' Then said Miss Gittipin.' Pills to this song were perhaps suggested by 11. ix '"Hang Italian songs! let 's have English. in WBY p." said Scopprell. LH WBY.Moon Island in the 55 11 [The Song of Phebe and Phebe drest like beautie's Jellicoe] i Queen. 10 with] to EY. who can be In happiness compar'd with ye? The Pilgrim with his crook & hat Happy 9 Sees your happiness compleat.' 5 loves a sporting] lovers sporting EY. loves a sporting. "English Genius for ever— here I go—. know i. and 25-7. in Moon. 7 Bob] Bab LH. . she repeated these verses." said The subject and metre of Quid. 95 with — title ' The Pilgrim. viii the song of 'Phebe and Jellicoe'?'' "No. Sitting all beneath a grot. 198) print ' ' . Jellicoe in faint peagreen. Maidens dancing. Bob. Scopprell." He that intends to take a wife. lightly trip sit — Isl. toe. EY (i. " Mr. do you Moon. 7. Where the lambkins little trot. WBY. people. in Hail Matrimony. p. Isl. made of Love i ! To thy wide gates how great a drove On purpose to be yok'd do come Widows & maids & Youths also. 106. That Or on beauty's on beauty's bum. 144. 13. 18. chap. p.' EY p. chap. purge Melancholy. 8. Johnny. Miss. Susan. 196.

or Doctor South. ye Come & be cured of all your pains ! swains 25 ! — 7 In Matrimony's Golden cage 17 Some tender lover] Some Hail] EY omit. : — ' . cure whatever In damsel or in It wall-eyed well inclined. Or Nature's hand has crooked her For Or if Yet. hanged you have the face to make " The phrase in the last line. & he. is tender lover she shall find That panteth The is 13 frame. They chirp & hop away. just cured of the pip. 1783. " said " Go and be " how can Scopprell. makes them Like Birds. for a Bride. iv To be or not to be Of great capacity. Or any Comfort find. 6 Sutton] Thomas Sutton. 25 maidens] maids. chap. ix wiping his face. ye maidens come. founder of the Charterhouse (1532-1611). universal Poultice this. Tis you that come in time of need. Then come. p. Formed to suckle all Mankind. ! makes them skip it .5 Moon Island in the 6 Hail fingerfooted lovely Creatures! 7 The females of our human Natures. is 19 amiss Widow gay smile. Without you we shoud never Breed. — MooH. sang time. and EY. Or Sherlock upon death I'd rather be Sutton — ! Isl. looking on the corner of the cieling. 27] Here the song abruptly breaks off. as EY point out. if a Damsel 's blind or lame. Or Locke. i Like Sir Isaac Newton. 10. s^e Poetical Sketches. (? friend) or EY. or 's her heart To . in Printed here for the first ' & Then Quid called upon Obtuse Angle for a Song. she if Some deaf. explains game of matrimony ? the ' golden cage in the third stanza of How sweet I roam'd from field to ' ! ' ' ' field'.

19 . . in & any nut with drinking of strong hospitality. He drew out of the Stocks His money in a box. [to the till the . preceding song] as ix — * O then it did not The Lawgiver was very beg'd to have it sung over again fail ! attentive & again . sit & give forth laws out of their old oak chairs. With brown face as ale — Good English Isl. He sinks & gutters made. Whose name was Sutton As 25 Locke. And to the Carpenter He was so fervent. Or Sherlock upon Death.Moon Island in the S7 For he did build a house For aged men & youth. Moon. And all his own. or Doctor South. score. He furnish'd it 7 within With whatever he could win. 13 And sent his servant To Green the Bricklayer. — — Was not this a good man Whose life was but a span. And all the way he pav'd To hinder pestilence. With walls of brick & stone. chap. Or Sir Isaac Newton ? This city & this country has forth brought many mayors To i in state. for convenience. The chimneys were three The windows many more And.

pp. WBY. with which work Blake appears to me to have been familiar. Here Till And O leave [me] to my sorrows & fade away. WBY. and Miss Gittipin sung — EY p. Then chance along this forest in pathless ways. 135) entitles this song Old English Hospitality.' in Chatterton's Antiquity of Christmas Games. they were stout & haleGood English Thus the at sitting O hospitality. with A Song of ' Isl. Any if 5 walk Hear my voice upon the Breeze. & beef O drinking beer. EY. has] have laws EY. each eat as much as : The hungry poor enter'd the hall to eat good & aleGood English hospitality. . 200. With stockings roll'd above their knees as jet With eating & shoes as black .' I me] omitted in orig. ' WBY EY i. table then it wide did not fail ! Mayor & Alder- the men Were fit 9 to give law to the city ten . sorrows] sorrow EY. 198-9. ' Cp. i . WBY (p. I lose this form of clay. 4 lose] love . O then it did not fail beef ! company were & tired. 102) prints as a single stanza. . (p. xi — Here a laugh began. insisted which he readily complied with : on the Lawgiver singing a song — himself. WBY. in Moon. sit I'll I'm nothing but a spirit.' title i. I ' WBY. 10 law] VI Leave. me EY. WBY. ' Sorrow. chap. Thro' the gloom he'll see my shadow. make would 5 .' following the inaccurate version given of the refrain in the first and second stanza by EY. WBY. 4 and 8 Good] Old EY. 'Old English hospitality is long since deceased.' an essay reprinted in the Miscellanies of 1778.Moon Islaiid in the 58 With scarlet a gowns & yeoman sweat broad gold lace.

EY i. i ! — A Isl. i blinking. blinking. ask the Gods no more! No more! No mox&\\ the three Philosophers bear chorus. poor frail man god wot I know none frailer. 190. . iii. & Genius is all I ask. ' Quid. Lo ! Sung by viii. 5 so & so] so so EY. & his mizen. Johnson. in Moon. ht Moon. iii. Honour And I let go at only so it & Sung by Quid the Cynic. 'If you don't own me a Philosopher ^ •^ '^ *<^ ^ ^Ir ^X* ^L« •1' Is/. ix — '"I •4' ^l' .APPENDIX TO AN ISLAND IN THE MOON a Phebus came strutting in. main sail. this evening we'll "4^ all f get drunk. p. Hear then the pride & knowledge of a Sailor His sprit sail. 6 Johnson To Scipio Africanus. chap. p. Like Dr. & his round chin. Not in the Bat with Leathern wing. Steelyard.v. is it you would please to have? Little With his fat belly What Ho! Ho! I won't IsL in Moon. Sung by Quid the Cynic. the Lawgiver. blinking. O ho ' ! said Dr. chap. No more No more f ! ! Isl. chap. fore sail. in Moon. chap. i8g. so EY ! i. ^X* •>!' *4' say. •X* sl^ . ! Winking Winking Winking & & & EY. I say. I know no greater sinner than John Taylor.U.

196) print this .' EY (i.6o Moon Island in the Suction. dash. \st Vo. an Anthem! an Anthem stanza. Johnson Said Scipio Africanus. p. !" said Suction — . 'A ha ' to Dr. *T» *X* 'i^ 'I* And lo ! ** *!* vv ^ vT '^ y\ the Cellar goes •rgi 'T* *(^?^^^*l>^?J^»I>'f»^ down with a step {Grand Chorus).

with same refrain. chord tn . and favour us with a fine song. ix your bounty descend to our fair ears. And runs without shoes to save his pumps. That Bill a foolish fellow 's 9 . you sing like a harpsiMoon. — & ' Here nobody could sing any longer. let O.' Not in EY. And broke the stumps. : 1st. Kitty alone Kitty alone This frog he would a wooing ride. I cary. variant of this song. I never saw such a bowler To bowl the ball in a tansey. they sweep in the cash Into their purse hole Fa me la sol La me fa Sol O ! Isl. jn Not in EY. * — I you Joe. Kitty alone & I ! ! ! ! ! — " " Miss Gittipin. He does not know how to handle a bat Any more than a dog or a cat He has knock 'd down the wicket. xi Lally pluck'd up a spirit. Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes of England (Percy Society). 1842. He has given me a black eye. chap.'' said he. I've a And And leave to clean it with my 5 hankercher Without saying a word. us the ball i say.Moon Island in the 6i This frog he would a wooing ride. — There's Doctor Clash. Kitty alone Kitty Alone! Kitty alone! Cock I cary Kitty alone. xi — ' The Lawgiver all ! the while sat delighted to see . Kitty alone & I Ting cock. chap." Then she sung w' Cp. he sung . Isl. 13 till Tilly i And Sinior Falalasole. chap. Throw ! good mind to go you all. in Moon. in Moon.

62 Island in the Moon Great A. who refer to it as a song in praise of William the Conqueror. Bouncing B Play away. — 'Then said the Lawgiver. the shout of his thousands fills his heart with rejoicing And the ! & shout rejoicing Victory . And not like clumsy bears. his trumpets sounding. you must be " O. them Jn such a serious humour. chap. in Moon. With And And Banners flying Thro' the clouds of smoke he makes his way. On a white horse sitting. — . Play away. " Scropprell. 'twas Victory I William the prince of Orange. & he was forced to sing himself." said he. And Long fingers & thumbs." Then Sipsop sung . 1 A crowned king. let's Isl. Ho Ho Ho! I am no singer I must beg of one of these tender hearted ladies to sing for me. You'r out of the key ! ! Fa me La me la sol fa sol ! Musicians should have pair of very good ears. "funny enough. ii A Fa me La me la sol Gentlemen fa sol Gentlemen ! ! i6 ! Rap! Rap! Rap! Fiddle! Fiddle! Fiddle! Clap! Clap! Clap! Fa me La me la sol fa sol ! " Mr.' Not in EY. 6 little A. victory. dear sir. of his thousands fills his heart with & victory. ix have handel's waterpiece.' Not in EY. acquainted with a great many songs?" ! ! ." They all declined.

SONGS OF INNOCENCE and OF EXPERIENCE .

.J.

68) that 'by the end of 1788 . W. in tints meant to harmonize with the colour scheme afterwards applied in water-colours by the artist. or he would undoubtedly have included them in his exhaustive 'Annotated Catalogue of Blake's Pictures and Drawings' (Gilchrist. in a medium impervious to acid. : ' ' ' SAMrSO!* F . which were then etched in a bath of aqua fortis until the work stood in relief as on a stereotype.935) there is an entry of three coloured sketches for the Songs of Innocence 'from the collection of a friend of Blake's.' The text and surrounding design were written in reverse.. The only original i. the illustrated had been executed conveys the imdesigns in colour pression that before engraving Blake had completed an entire series of coloured illustrations to the Songs of Innocence. he styles 'illuminated printing. P.' which is probably attributed by a cataloguer's error to the Songs of Innocence. upon small copper plates about 5" by 3''. ' . . impressions were printed. . which to economize copper were in many cases engraved upon both sides. in the ordinary manner. — designs known to the present writer are the following (i) In Quaritch's General Catalogue (1887.' are the Piper frontispiece. the Introduction ('Piping down the valleys wild').. and it is evident that no such sketches were known to Mr. In the dexterous interweaving of text and design Blake anticipates the modern school of book illustration. which are described as being in Blake's usual rich style of colouring and as differing considerably from the published engravings. in his prospectus of 1793. ii. M.' These designs. and a third drawing called 'An Ideal Hell. From these plates.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE AND OF SONGS OF INNOCENCE EXPERIENCE The Song's of Inriocence (1789) was the first of Blake's works produced by the novel method which. Gilchrist's statement {Life. This would seem to be pure assumption. Rossetti. 201-64).

To the Public. dated Oct. the thirty-one plates occupying seventeen leaves. at one time. have no reason to believe that Blake first executed for all the songs coloured sketches which have since disappeared. though the two last were still sometimes placed by him among the Songs of Innocence. With the exception of the frontispiece. Blake into paper covers. while others. All these variant readings are here given in the footnotes to the . The engraved version of the Songs.66 Bibliographical Pi^eface (2) There are besides in the Rossetti MS. Manuscript versions of eighteen of the twenty-six Songs of Experience form some of the first entries in the Rossetti MS. from an earlier notebook or from loose scraps of paper. Original autograph versions of three of the Songs of Innocence are found in the unpublished Blake manuscript known as An Island in the Moon. transcribed. ' ' ' Little Girl Lost. title-page. addressed ' . Book. complete copies of the little book in its original form — These include five The The Little Girl Found. The Songs of Innocence was at first issued as a separate work. must of course be regarded as the only authoritative text even where. the earlier manuscript readings seem preferable. Probably many of the originals were merely pencil draw' to quote Blake's own phrase ings with nothing to seek ' ' ' ' — We ' — — engraving on pewter which would recipe naturally be destroyed in the process of rubbing off on to in his for the copper. as in a few cases. These loose leaves were then stitched by Mrs. Several of the latter have the appearance of being fair copies. Book the original designs for two of the Songs of Expei'ience^ The Angel and The Sick Rose the latter different in many respects from the version subsequently engraved. issued by the author without change during a period of nearly forty years. the plates in this earliest issue were printed upon both sides of octavo paper.' ' ' — generally transferred by Blake to the So?tgs of Experience. in most cases by the rough process known as * stabbing. and introduction. Songs.' are evidently the first rough draft. In 1793 Blake completed the engraving of the Sottgs of His prospectus. 10 of the same Experience.' The Voice of the Ancient Bard.' and The School Boy which were afterwards containing thirty-one plates.' and giving a list of ten year. such as 'The Tyger.' a cord being laced through holes punctured an inch or two apart.

yielding sixteen impressions (six being engraved on both sides of the copper). According to Gilchrist {Life. This is the form in which most copies of the Songs occur. the issue of the Songs extending from the completion of the Songs of Innocence in 1789 to the close of Blake's life. were printed from electrotypes which have every appearance of having been made from the actual plates engraved by Blake. and is known to us by only two examples. as the watermark shows. Sets of impressions were struck off as required. series fifty-four. The outline designs there. including the general title-page which had not then been engraved. In 1863 ten of the original plates. The present whereabouts of these plates I have been unable to trace. Blake here. were still in existence. it would seem to have been deliberately rejected by the poet himself. in the ordinary sense of the term. each being priced at ^s. of this or of any other of Blake's engraved works. as I learn from Mr. was containing printed not earlier than 1832. which he has reproduced at the end of his facsimile of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. In 1794 Blake added a general title-page to both series. Frederick Macmillan. 13 Lambeth. which would make the entire number of plates in the two. the plates printed on one side of the leaf only and numbered by hand consecutively one to fifty-four.Songs of hmocence works ' 67 now published and on Sale at Mr. The plate Blake in this ' it is not found in any authentic copy of the So7igs issued in the lifetime of the artist or his wife. and described as containing Hercules Buildings. according to his practice twenty-five designs. F a i. prospectus must have reckoned 'A Divine Image (' Cruelty has a Human Heart ') among the number. does not include either frontispiece or titlepage. As this is the full number in a perfect copy of the Songs of Innocoice atid of Experience. Blake's. in other cases. which. Gilchrist in the second volume of his Life of Blake.' advertises the Songs of Innocence and the Songs of Experie7ice as two separate books. William Muir. and the other is a proof impression in the possession of Mr. no. which thenceforward were issued by him as one work. It should be noted that there was never any true edition. 125) a few copies were . Though this poem is inserted without question in all editions of Blake since Shepherd's. One of these is in the uncoloured co'py of the Songs in the Reading Room of the British Museum. and were used by Mr.

as Mr. in the Reading Room of the British Museum. and even drapery. Tatham. each) at which Blake advertises the Songs of Injiocence and the Songs of Ex^ '^^^ thirty shillings perience in his Prospectus of 1793. vines. These last issues are printed upon larger paper and upon one side of the leaf only. and in lacking the superadded water-colour tinting there are three modern The first of these is given in The facsimiles of the Songs. the plates are sur- rounded by delicate borders of trees. The out- . and each plate has the additional embellishment of a wide wash border instead of the simple red line with which Blake ordinarily surrounded the designs. are as absolutely the originals as those appearing in the copies printed by ' Blake ' — except of course in having been printed from electros instead of direct from the plates. or two guineas which Gilchrist (i. while it affords a fairly good general idea of Blake's designs. Besides the sixteen plates reprinted by Gilchrist. William Muir in 1884 and 1885. These frames. 124) tells us the artist received for the first issue of the collected Songs probably refers to coloured impressions. Rossetti points out. The earlier examples of the Songs of htnocence are distinguished by the simplicity and delicacy of their colouring. The only uncoloured copy of the Songs of Innocence and of Experience known to the present writer is the very unworthy example. and. G. uncoloured poor copy of the So?igs acquired by the British Museum in January.68 Bibliographical Preface ' issued plain in black and white. the edition being limited to fifty copies. The Monckton Milnes copy. 1864. in which part of the plates at least were printed after the death of Blake and his wife. D. measures 13'' x lof". contrasting in this respect with some of the later more elaborately illuminated copies of the Songs of Innocence ajid by Mr. already referred to. were added with a fine brush. or blue and white. 1831. produced after 18 18. of Experience. which are not more than a quarter of an inch in width. In a copy exhibited at the Grolier Club at New York in 1905. which. is coarsely executed and exceedingly inaccurate as to the text. reprodiiced in facsimile from the original editions (100 copies printed for private circulation)^ This has evidently been prepared from the very 1876.' This agrees with the modest price {^s. This is a made-up copy. into whose possession they passed after Catherine Blake's death in October. perhaps F. The second is the very beautiful reproduction made by Mr. — Works of William Blake.

originally belonging to a Mr. are arranged in a different the plates. tinted impressions. as in the first ' issue. as the editor points out. and a collation of various copies of the Songs shows that the order in which the plates are arranged varies in almost every instance. Quaritch at the Hamilton Palace sale.' *Ah Poison Tree. though order that of the Songs of Experience from the famous Beckford Library copy. only Sunflower. The Little Girl Lost.' with the introductory stanza to 'A Little Girl Lost. beauty. with the exception of The Voice of the Ancient Bard. White of Brooklyn. 1903). printed upon one side of the leaf only. however. Edwards. The plates are without engraved foliation or pagination. and the colouring added by hand from the finest examples accessible The tinting of the Songs of Innocence is to the artist. cameo plates have.' and The School Boy ') the body of the text is in minuscule roman. There is no engraved Table of Contents. Ellis (Quaritch.' 'London. Blake substituted for roman the more easily formed italic characters which he first adopted in the Book of Thel four (1789) and used in all his subsequent works.' which is in italic. Edwin J. W. edited The though a trustworthy guide for Blake's text. The early issues of the Songs of Innocence are without manuscript pagination or border lines. however. and delicacy of Blake's lettering. are foliated at the top rightis ' ' ' ! . fails to represent the clearness of the originals where the copies have been made from Neither of these facsimiles. July 4. These exquisite facsimiles leave little to be Blake's desired in their general fidelity to the originals. and partly no doubt for this reason Mr.' and 'A songs. and now the property of Mr. purchased by Mr. a sharpness and definiteness of outline impossible to achieve by printing from stone. 1882. In Blake's Songs of Innocence (including. and catchwords are only used where one of the longer songs is continued on to a second plate.Songs of Iiinoceiice 69 drawings are here facsimilized by lithography. In the Songs of Experience. There is also a useful facsimile of the outlines of the line — — by Mr. Songs. plates are here reproduced by a photographic process. Muir fails in the difficult technical feat of reproducing the grace. 'The Tyger.' being written in the former style of lettering. to Flaxman copied from the volume which Blake gave it may be noted. which. much more accurate than the reproduction of 1876. on the contrary. Later issues of the two series.' The Little Girl Found. A.

the Songs of Innocence and in Table II of one copy of the Songs of Innocence a7id of Experience. B. Blake's earliest arrangement is found in the extremelyrare first issue of the Songs printed upon both sides of the In Table I I give the collations of five copies of leaf. the frontispiece. title-page. yet in four of these the same designs are invariably found further instance either as recto or verso of the same leaf. however. so that the two missing leaves. in which. as if printed on the verso. This is evidently a made-up copy. bound by C. as from any deliberate intention on the part of the author.D. A ' ' ' ' ' ' which we may reasonably conjecture have gone to supply the lacunae in the Print Room copy. either for his own guidance or that of his wife. M. must have disappeared These coincidences of arrangement. in the same brown or red ink with which Blake added the border lines surrounding the plates. the table showing the order in which the songs should be paged and arranged. and it was probably with the intention of rectifying this defect that Blake compiled. B. April 24. of the same juxtaposition is the example in the Print Room of the British Museum. among the books sold is recorded an incomplete copy of the Songs of Innocence This volume was in which these four plates are wanting. are printed upon one side of the leaf only the frontispiece was generally bound. Some copies bearing Blake's own foliation seem to be arranged regardless of system. The Ecchoing Green (two plates) and the Nurse's Song and Holy Thursday are printed upon either side of the same leaf. which Mr.. The first three plates of the Songs of Innocejice. 1H93.Bibliographical Preface 70 corner. to face the title-page. . plates printed upon the same leaf being bracketed together and those on hand the recto being placed first. may be dated approximately . the deficiency of the original being supplied by two leaves of the earlier issue. are as likely to have arisen from the fact of a number of impressions having been printed at one time. and C. and Introduction. Muir has given in facsimile at the end of his reproduction of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. at an early date. This index. Lewis in 1782. It will be seen from these tables that although the order of plates is not identical in any of these six copies. In a sale at Sotheby's of the library of J. as in A. Ditchfield. which is written on two opposite leaves of quarto paper.

' This arrangement. 17. General Title. Lost. 49. The Angel. Nurse's Song. Night. Title Page of Songs of Experience. On 27. 35. Holy Thursday. 41. 14. 15. London. 34.Q. This later arrangement of the Songs is as follows: I. End of Softgs of Lmocence : then Begins ' So?tgs of [page] 28. 32. 46. 16. five copies (N. 10. 26. show an entirely different order. Frontispiece of Piper. Little 8. The Little Boy Lost. The Lamb. Nurse's Song. II. — '>. The Chimney Sweeper. Ditto. 0. Introduction The Fly. 25. The Little 26. Earth's Answer. Laughing Song. Boy 25. A Little Girl little Black thing. The Chimney Sweeper. of Love. On . Infant Joy. 2. The Little Vagabond. 47. 7. The Sick Rose. Introduction Piping down the Valleys. The Shepherd. &c. General Title. 54. 31. Ditto. 21. 3. issues. 12. 18. Nurse's 20. in which the Songs of Innocence Experience ought to be paged & placed. 4. The Human Abstract. Ditto. Frontispiece. 2. Title page to Songs of Imiocence. Ditto. 45. My The School Boy. 39. 13. 22. Ecchoing Green. 7. 18. Night. [2nd leaf of index begins] page 24. dream. 3. The Voice of the 43. Ditto. Cradle Song. A The Little Boy Found. 14. The Lamb. The Blossom. Infant Joy. 23. 40. The Ecchoing Green. Cradle Song.P. 9. A 24. Ditto. 21. 6. 48. 37. Dream. 16. &c. Another's Sorrow. Spring. Title-page to ^t'w^. &c. 23. The Little Boy Found. The 19. The Shepherd. 10. Laughing Song. 53. The Clod & Pebble. 36. Song. 29. 44. and others approximating closely to the same standard.f Later — of Innocence. The Divine Image. The Little Black Boy. 6. Holy Thursday. it *The Order & of Page I. Ancient Bard. Frontispiece of Child on the Shepherd's head. Holy Thursday. 8. The Divine Image. 27. 22. ' — Black Boy.Songs of Innocence 7 1 by the watermark (1818) of the Monckton Milnes copy. 15. as the only one in which Blake is known to have laid down explicit instructions regarding the order of the songs. Hear the voice of the Bard. pretty Rose Tree. To Tirzah.'>. Chimney Sweeper. 5. The Tyger. 13. 17. with which coincides in arrangement. 51. A A 50. Lost. Introduction. Infant Sorrow. 4. Poison Tree.R) placing the plates in identical sequence. The Blossom. 20. A 52. 38. 5. Little Girl Lost. Spring. 11. Ditto. 30.. 9. Experie7ice. The Garden Little Boy Lost. however. is followed in the present edition. 42. 19. 12.

34-6. printed upon 17 leaves. No dated watermark. 43. Boy. In Table III I give the collation of the sixteen examples known to me. 32. 31 plates. Printed in golden brown. 41. The Human Abstract. The School Boy is retained among the Songs of Experience and The Voice of the Ancient Bard is retransferred to the end of A A A A ' ' ' . Songs of Innocence.72 Bibliographical Preface Another's Sorrow. 38. predominating tone of yellow brown. The Sick Rose.53. Pebble. No dated watermark. Holy Thursday. Introduction. 28. 42. may be obtained by noting the positions of The School Boy and The Voice of the Ancient Bard. Voice of the Ancient Bard. 33. Printed in yellow.'] fairly satisfactory test of the date of a copy of the later issue of the Songs of Innocence and of Experience. In the original blue-grey paper binding. as in Blake's in later first impression printed upon recto and verso issues both are placed among the Songs of Experience while. pagination. Simple colouring. 48.' In earlier copies these two songs are included in the So7igs of Imioccnce. 40. Title-page to So?igs of Experience. Size 7^ x ^\ inches. Poison Tree. George Barclay Moffat. The Nurse's Song. The Without sa7ne. Sold at Sotheby's. The same. Little Little Boy Lost. 50. The property of Robert Hoe. 54. : 31 plates. 30. printed upon 17 leaves. Earth's Answer. Flaxman's copy. now re-bound in red Size 7| x 5x\ inches. levant morocco. 37. Without pagination. The The To Tirzah. printed upon one side of the leaf only. [End of Songs of Experience. The Fly. . 45. Coloured with pagination.. Esq. Coloured very beautifully with extreme finish. in citron morocco by Bedford. The Garden of Love. The Little Vagabond. Bound Size 61^^ x 5 inches. Little Girl Found. printed upon 17 leaves. The copies described in this and in the two preceding tables are A. 46. C. New York. The Little Girl Lost. 52. 47. Now . [End of Songs of Innocence?^ 29. Frontispiece. with autograph of his sister. ' ' ' ' the Songs of Innocence. The Tyger. Now in the possession of Mrs. The Angel. The Clod and 31. in two of the very last copies produced. Infant Sorrow. London. The Chimney Sweeper. My pretty Rose Tree. 51. . New York. 49. 31 plates. School Girl Lost. 44. B. 39. Without No dated watermark. Originally in worn-out red leather binding.

Nov. it. Robert Hoe. In olive green calf binding. Printed in sepia. ham. Cecil House. ^ . Watermarks dated 1802 and 1804. and an autograph letter of Blake's to the same friend were inserted in. New York. America. printed upon 17 leaves.. Copy presented by Blake to his physician. Bound in cloth. 22. Paginated consecutively throughout. G. Songs of Innocence. Pagi31 plates. The probably error -^ in mistake. Esq. Without border lines. Locker-Lampson. Foliated consecutively by Blake. Formerly in the possession of Mr. representing a woman and copy.. printed on one side of the leaf only. by Linnell. Butts. The same.' one being placed among the Songs of Experience. Songs of lujiocence and of Experience. An incomplete copy forming part of a miscellaneous collection sold at Sotheby's. Size 7i x 5 inches. ' Coloured.Songs of Innocence t^ the property of J. from the covers of which it was rescued Now in the Rowfant by Mr. Foliated consecutively by Blake. The same. Sold Now the property of at Sotheby's. as may have nude boy. Size 7 inches in height. 1897. Coloured in green tone throughout. in D. Purchased in 1900 from Quaritch. Printed in golden brown. There are duplicate impressions of The Laughing Song. Songs of Innocence and of Experience. who Copy describes John Linnell's originated through the fact that a pen and ink portrait of Blake. Esq. 20. E. each on separate leaf. No dated watermark. 54 plates. Coloured. nated in pencil. Pasted upon a fly-leaf at the end of the book is a pen and ink sketch by Blake. F. Bound in green morocco by Bedford. Bound in original mottled calf. Feb. ^^ plates on 32 leaves. William Muir his coloured facsimile of the Songs of Innocence. this copy. Blake's The volume was cut down by a later friend. Pearson. 1900. though not bound up with. 28 plates. about 1830. SydenThis was the copy used by Mr. Size Coloured. No dated watermark. H. in the possession of Mr. owner to meet the dimensions of an old weekly washing book. 6yf X 4y| inches. Library. Perry of Providence.

Shepherd includes among the Songs of Experience the rare poem *A Divine Image.74 Bibliographical Preface bearing the autographs. K. 181 9. Size 12x8^ the leaf inches. each printed on a separate leaf. the general The watermark title-page being without foliation. The same. 1868. Wade. This copy. in the same sepia as the border lines. Bernard Quaritch. Bound in the original white vellum binding. however. Modern binding. which was bought from Blake by Mr. is ' Following the general title-page the Songs of Experiby an error of the binder. and 1874. Presumably a copy followed by Shepherd Copy Phillips the painter. March 30. Foliated by Blake 1-54. Songs of Innocence. separately foliated. Plates are printed in brown. Formerly the property of Mr.' which he may. printed Each book only. in ink. possibly part of the original binding. beautifully coloured. 13 X io| inches. Dated watermark 1818. in pencil. Watermark without date. of Gerald Massey the poet. August 27. in Pickering's three editions of 1866. in Brooklyn. Delicately coloured. Size 5 x 7^^ inches. New John R. R. The same. . of the Songs of Innocence is Whatman 1808. afterwards Lord Houghton. the possession of Mrs. Linnell. W. Printed in greenish grey. The same. 54 plates. The inclusion of ' The School Boy among ' the Songs of Innocence points to the original having been rather an earlier than a later issue. A sheet of brown paper is inserted between the two series. 54 plates. The same. have taken from the posthumously printed copy in the British Museum Reading Room. is now in the possession of William Linnell. Esq. and later. Monckton Milnes. Coloured. printed upon one side of General title-page without foliation and the remaining leaves numbered by Blake 1-53. but no bibliographical details are available. are placed before the ence. of H. with wide wash borders.' Very In old calf binding circa 1830. 1903. Now the property of Mr. and sold at the Crewe sale. Size John M. Copy L. I. 54 on one side of the leaf plates. York.

These sheets are mounted on white paper \\\y. with added border lines of same Richly and splendidly coloured. 13. W. of Brooklyn. 1836. who considered it the best he had seen. and now in the possession of James T.() inches. Foliated consecutively by Blake 1-54. Linnell from Mr. Esq. P. Half-bound in morocco. 1797. and now the property of W. Foliated by Blake. A pencil note in this copy reads Edwards May 1828 [? R. Edwards the publisher of Young's Night Afterwards Thotig/its. Foliated by Blake 1-54 consecutively. . through Mr. printed on one side of the leaf only.. Watermark 18 15. The size of the drawing paper upon which the plates are printed is io| x 8| inches. This was the copy which T. with added border lines of same colour. Linnell. Muir in his reproduction of the So7igs of Experience. 54 plates. printed upon one side of the leaf only. This copy was used by Mr. J. Coloured with extreme finish and beauty. Size 8| x ^-^^ inches. or Mrs. drawing paper. The same. Aders.Songs of Innocence N. of James Weales. in the library the possession of John Subsequently now in whose father purchased it Dec. which was then considered to be a somewhat enhanced price for a coloured copy of the Songs. White. Richly and elaborately coloured. Printed in dull orange-red. 1883... New York. Printed in red. Linnell. 54 plates. 3 x 10 inches. Wainewright (' Janus Weathercock ') bought from Blake. The same. This is the copy bought. Lewis. The same. probably during his connexion with the London Magazine 1830-3. These sheets were originally bound in boards covered with light green calico. Esq. Linnell. for the sum of five guineas. Bound in green morocco by C. Esq. Esq. from a Mr. on separate 75 leaves. G. j or shortly afterwards. A. They are now mounted in a book of white consecutively ' ' O. Printed in reddish orange. Acquired by Mr. 1843. and in width from 4^ to 5 inches. and bound in boards colour. sold at the Hamilton Palace sale. illustrated by Blake]. the Beckford copy. 54 plates. The plates copy are printed upon pieces of drawing paper varying in height from 6 to 7^ inches. from Blake by Mr. in this covered with unglazed calico or holland of a warm red colour. White. Aders in July.

Supplied from the early issue of the Songs of Innocence. and coloured gilt. March 1 1. Richly coloured and gilt. 41. is a very poor one. printed upon 52 leaves.' Crabb Robinson. . to whom it was bequeathed by Sir F. with MS. 1863. Perry Blake's friend. Linnell to Blake at the same date. 54 plates. Modern mount floral tracery. 38. Now in the possession of C. was issued not earlier than 1825. Supplied from a third copy are twelve plates of the the ' leaf. of tints. as the watermark shows. ' ' ' Songs of Experience. Field as a gift in memory of her husband. 47. These plates. for the sum of five guineas. 1826. printed upon both sides ot The same. These. of Providence. mark dated 1825. Bound in morocco circa 1830. Bibliographical Preface plates. 28. 49. Fairfax R. printed upon one side of the leaf Foliated consecutively in ink 1-54. viz. C. The majority of the plates. who had received it from Mrs. as Rossetti points out. This copy Crabb Robinson's copy. printed on recto only. Watermark dated 182. Field. binding. and the copy. Size 8i X 5| inches. 51. 50.76 Q. 40. 54 plates. 38 in number. ' are the second plate of The Ecchoing Green printed as recto to The Lamb (verso) and The ' Chimney Sweeper' recto with The Blossom' verso. which lack the border lines. with added borders of Brilliantly Size 6-^^^ x ^\ inches. 54 ' : Edwin W. 42. are foliated by Blake between the outer and inner borders with which he surrounded the designs. Formerly the property of the artist Edward Calvert. which I present with great pleasure to The same. belong to a copy which. Wateronly. 43. paid through the elder Mr. Printed in orange. all printed in a reddish brown. and are foliated in pencil. bought this copy in April. H. Printed in golden brown. Y. are printed in a variety : The colouring of some of the plates is rather muddy.(last figure wanting). S. note I received from Blake himself and coloured by his own hand. Paginated consecutively by Blake in red. Linnell informs me. Esq. as Mr. In modern binding.. 32. Murray. N. Now in the possession of Mr. 33. The same. This set of impressions is apparently made up from three different copies. Size 7I x 4^ inches. W. Burton. Robinson.

and may be the editor's 1831. Size. 1825. not probable that the whole impression of the Songs in number the twenty-two above. Under this heading I give the order of the Songs as they occur in the first letterpress edition This is not traceable edited by Wilkinson in 1839. The described Public. Ff. marked Blake's own. having at one time formed part of a copy which conby Blake. dated watermark. to any engraved original. purchased January 7. on one inches. delicately executed according or as harmonious as some of the earlier examples. Jebb. 25 plates. Charles Forster. 1-40 and 42 printed with leaden grey ink upon thick paper. as not is to Gilchrist. 45-54 are printed in reddish In a Uncoloured. T. Ff. 43. 1864. Esq. side of the leaf only. as the foliation shows. each leaf separately mounted on a guard. Ff.. Richly coloured and gilt. printed on recto only. Foliated in pencil. This is the copy followed by Gilchrist and most later editors in the arrangement of the So?igs. 43 bearing the upon larger watermark 1832. It was sent by Mrs. Haviland Burke. In 1863 this copy was in the possession of the Rev. 54 plates. Watermark dated ' V. 44. but. as a return for a sum of twenty guineas which he had handed to her through Mr. Now in the possession of Robert Hoe.Songs of Innocence Purchased by the British Museum (Print 77 Room) in 1836. New York.' to whom the author copies It is issued by Blake much exceeded ' . f. sepia upon large thin paper. Y. Blake. printed in own arrangement. Songs of Experience only. tained the Sofigs of Innocence also. Bishop of Limerick. printed from the original plates after Blake's death. smaller paper 9-| X ']\ inches. Songs of Innocence and of Experience. The same. Obviously printed on recto only.' to Dr. X. The sa7ne. Foliated The colour. larger paper io| x 7^. 41. some sheets of which bear the watermark somewhat darker ink and thinner paper. 54 plates. Bound Size 7| x ^\ in modern English maroon morocco. modern binding. printed No Foliated 30-54. Copy in the Reading Room of the British Museum.

Bibliographical Preface 78 appeals in his Prospectus and elsewhere.. and in others introduced new readings of his own which cannot always be commended. 184) speak son's text as 'much altered. to far more accurate edition of the The Garden of Love. twelve years after Blake's death. was published by Pickering in 1866. 124. is now itself somewhat of a bibliographical rarity. The Gilchrists of Wilkin{Life. together with other of Blake's poems. i. His text of 'The Tyger' is based upon the corrupt version of Cunningham. which seemed a pious duty. that the Songs of Innocence and of Experience were printed for the first time in ordinary types. while the particular copy from which this arrangement is borrowed has not been traced by me. . The order of the songs in this edition differs from that of Wilkinson or Rossetti. it is most improbable that so faithful take ' ' A ' ' In Malkin's Fathers Memoirs of His Child (1806). and Cunningham's Lives of British Painters (1830). Biog. had thus only the remotest opportunity of becoming acquainted with his poems save by the two or three examples quoted by Malkin and Cunningham ^ It was not until 1839. Wilkinson omits The Little Vagabond. G. volume of Gilchrist's Life of Blake. 1812-99). and from the same source prefixes two stanzas. but.' and prints the poems in an ' order which apparently is not derivable from any engraved In 1863 the Songs were reprinted in the second authority. published by Pickering and edited by James John Garth Wilkinson (Swedenborgian. and Diet. Book. Rossetti. and such changes as ta'en for took in the lines ' ' ' ' ' — ' fields and happy groves have took delight' Farewell green Where flocks away something of the charm of the original.' In reality his reprint compares not unfavourably in this respect with those of later editors. in 1874. passed into a second edition two years later. the correction of some few glaring grammatical blemishes These alone excepted. who make greater pretensions to literal fidelity. who has in several instances retained Wilkinson's alterations. He introduces into the Songs of Experiejtce the Cradle Song taken from the MS. D. and only a very small edition can have been printed. in themselves a complete poem.' Songs. Nat.' 'corrections' are the work of Mr. This little volume. v. the biographer states the poems are now given in strict fidelity to the original. and was reprinted. with the Poetical Sketches.

and that the Songs of Innocence and of Experience are still printed with Mr. G. : : — — ' ' This explanation hardly also less absolutely exact. which.Songs of Innocence 79 Heme Shepherd would have rearranged the poems in a way of his own. The Aldine edition of Blake's Poems. Prefatory Memoirmayhavegiven rise to some misconception. R. Referring to the changes introduced by Mr. Rossetti's emendatory readings. with a few fresh changes. Rossetti These into the poems printed in Gilchrist's Life. G. an editor as Mr. he says emendations were indeed great improvements. was published in 1874. The Song of Experience with the title 'A Divine Image' ('Cruelty has a Human Heart') appears in Shepherd's edition for the first time. Since 1874 the Aldine edition appears to have been generally accepted as the standard text of Blake's Poems. Ellis and Yeats. edited by Mr. taken perhaps from the copy in the British Museum. Yeats in his smaller Muses' Library' edition of Blake. and were then printed in their original shape (which term includes their occasional original shapefelt justified in recurring to another lessness). and they rectify various annoying and inexcusable laxities in point It is of metre or syntax. and has been frequently The editor's remarks on the last pages of his reprinted. as the compositions in their aid. W. if better. D. among others.' renders it sufficiently clear that Blake's text has been restored only in the case of the Poetical Sketches. is A ' . M. therefore with considerable reluctance that I abandon them. B. D. W. I have not form of the same poems. It is followed in most of the subsequent editions and selections. as it assuredly is. and do Blake the disservice of again presenting him without At any rate. different and more accurate text is given by Mr. in the large Collected Works of William Blake edited by Messrs. Rossetti. or here and there of expression.' and later question have been already reproduced at a date intermediate between that of my brother's editing and of the present volume.

8o Bibliographical Preface .

Title-page Introduction Earth's Answer 3- perience cence 4- Introduction A The Shepherd Infant Joy The Blossom The Lamb Laughing Song 7Little Black Boy Little Black Boy 8. Frontispiece Title-page to Songs of Inno- 2. A IS- Holy Thursday My Pretty Rose Tree. General Title-page I. The Human Abstract The Fly 6. II. I On Another's Sorrow Spring Spring . The Sick Rose Nurse's Song 9The Angel The Little Vagabond 10. 17- The The Little Little Boy Lost Boy Found 3- 4- 5- Little Girl Little Girl Lost Lost Found Boy Lost The Chimney Sweeper The Tyger 7 •1 London The Garden of Love 8.3. Night (2 plates) A Dream SAMPSON Laughing Song The The The 14.8i Songs of Innocence TABLE II FIRST ISSUE OF SONGS OF INNOCENCE AND OF EXPERIENCE (Printed upon both sides of leaf) F LEAF LEAF I. The Lilly. The Ecchoing Green (2 plates) II.1 The School Boy Nurse's Song "•! H-l Holy Thursday -! i6.1 The Voice of the Ancient Bard The Divine Image The Chimney Sweeper Cradle Song (a plates) lO. Ah Sunflower. Frontispiece to Songs of Ex- 2. Little Girl A Little A Poison Tree Infant Sorrow 12. Little Girl Lost To Tirzah The Clod and the Pebble ! .

^ < Bibliographical Preface .82 .

5co"> <*•^OT^lD>*•S t~oo irno W C« comr^'^'^ON-'i-ONO'O •*« CO CO O M tlO C» >1- « CJ •- CO CO CO « lOvO o\ o\ ** * CO '^ '^ oovO O N ON o ** 10 vO^ f'^'^COiOvCO'^i. COOO t^ '^ '* CO c c c •ivO Ov'^'^CJ >-iOO r-Wi ^COCOCO'S "1u^-*-<l-'> cococo>ococo^(^coioioco'*co"*'S .J 10 VO CO CO NlOC0MMO\C«rl- bo Tj--<«-io-<riO'^ir)cO'*> CO >* OvOO co»0 :u^co-^coirt'^coio>o O r- r'^ CO CO Oh u-)vo c .Songs of Innocence O w N COCOI>00 c r CO CO 4) TS ••-* <-* X C "*"*lO^O O M fOa** coco'<i-coco^i. CO CO • ITi 00 0\ « « O " 00 CO CO CO o « -"i- •^ e« ".o 00 covo w <i-T)-iO'<i-iO'*-mcO"iJ-> CO CO en o coovOwmcot^'^ c« c c< cOjq ov o " n CO ^ 10 cococococOu.^(Q~cocO'<*-'^'i-'*'«-'* O w « co^^£P *T^<J••<l-u^lO'0>Olo'5 VO r«oo Ov CO CO VO t~ Ov 01 ns td CQ 1 c o 'C o c '-' •5< o " C» Ov •-< CO CO CO CO Tf ^o be n o co'^^'covo <!cO'*coio-<»-^in> ^ CO CO ^^ CO «co^voS?r^l?.5 i-i -"l- o ON >> 00C0ClC0«O\i-i00l>O .>M I •^ •<1-'^COCOC0q-„'~'^IOM <J-C0C0'^'<*- 83 00 c^ « N o »-< CO CO CO CO o M * ^^w mcoo\M o\Pi rf T«- ^ r» t~ Tt./.0-Ov|rg-'i r^locoo^^^-ncoco rf \n if ^ bf rt- V^ *lOC0'«-> « ii Tj-vo o T^„ CO ih01>-'-i'5OO'"i-i .

under the title 'A Motto. . WMR.' In notes DGR and WBY .SONGS Of INNOCENCE and Of EXPERIENCE Shemng the of the The general 'Two Contrary States Human Soul title-page to both series of the Songs. M. This plate was probably engraved after Oct. and Shep.' which. Book (p. were never engraved or published by Blake. when Blake issued his prospectus 'To the Public' Omitted in the editions of DGR. These lines. Rossetti prefixes to the Songs in the Aldine edition. writes incorrectly read Songs 'showing' for 'shewing. however. EY.' W. 1793. issued together as one work. In the MS. loi) are two stanzas entitled Motto to the Songs of Innocence & of Experience. nor are they known to occur as ' an inscription in any copy of the Songs. WBY of Innocence and Experience. lo.

The engraved title to the Sottgs of Innocence. this plate is printed on the recto of the piper. ii. with verso blank. (Z. when published either as In the a separate work. facing the engraved frontispiece is printed on the verso of the preceding leaf (recto blank).^/^. which leaf. W.SONGS of Inn c enc e 1789 The Author & Printer. Blake. of the original plate. of the earlier. end^ from an electrotype Reprinted in Gilchrist . or in conjunction with the Songs of Experience. as well as in the later issue.

N. H.' . Schnitzte eine Feder dran. and subsequent issues of the Songs of Innocence printed on the verso blank. Piping songs of pleasant glee. Bd. with the omission of the second and third stanzas. 9 ' : sit thee down and write In a book. Hort' es lachelnd zu mir sagen : " Pfeifer. Dass sie sing' der Kinder Mund. WBY. Wilk. Pfeifend Lieder ohne Zahl . On a cloud I saw a child. by Dr. And he laughing said to me: i Pipe a song about a Lamb So I piped with merry chear." So erklang's vor meinem Ohr. . Shep. 150 (1830).' So he vanish'd from my sight.. Und ich schnitt ein hohles Rohr. Hefti : ' — Pfeifend ging ich durch das Thai. ' ' * • 5 ! Piper.. Sah ein Kind von Luft getragen.SONGS OF INNOCENCE Introduction Piping down the valleys wild. that all may read. Schrieb die Lieder hin zur Stund. ' Drop thy pipe. 1811. thy happy pipe Sing thy songs of happy chear So I sang the same again. ii. . setz dich hin und schreib. While he wept with joy to hear. In the recto of first leaf. Macht' aus Wasser Tinte dann. And I 13 pluck'd a hollow reed. translated. This poem was first printed in ordinary type in Cunningham's Lives of British Painters. II. Dass dein Lied im Sinn verbleib'. ]ahrg. Julius. in the Vaterldndisches Museum. II sang] Thus sung Cunn. 'Piper. pipe that song again So I piped: he wept to hear..

Songs of Ifmocence
And
And
And

I

made a

I stain'd

I

Every

rural pen,
the water clear,

j?

my happy

wrote
child

87

may

songs
joy to hear.

The Ecchoing Green
The Sun does arise,
And make happy the
The merry bells ring

To welcome

i

skies

the Spring

;

;

The sky lark and thrush,
The birds of the bush,
Sing louder around

To

the bells' chearful sound,
sports shall be seen

While our

On

the Ecchoing Green.

Old John, with white hair,
Does laugh away care,

ii

Sitting under the oak,

Among

the old folk.

They laugh

at our play,

And
'

soon they all say
Such, such were the joys
:

all, girls & boys,
In our youth time were seen
On the Ecchoing Green.'

When we

Till the little ones, weary,

21

No more
The

And

can be merry;
sun does descend,
our sports have an end.

This song was engraved on two plates.

The

first

of these (to fourth line

of second stanza) is among the remnant reprinted by Gilchrist {^Life, ii. end).
In the first issue of the Songs of Innocence the two plates are always
printed as recto and verso of the same leaf
i8 When we all, girls
8 bells'] No apostrophe in orig.
punctuation in on'g. ; When we, all girls and boys Wilk., Shep.

&

boys]

No

88

Songs of Innocence
Round

Many

the laps of their mothers
sisters

and brothers,

Like birds

in their nest,

Are ready

for rest,

And sport no more seen
On the darkening Green.

The Lamb
Little

Lamb who made

thee?

i

Dost thou know who made thee?

Gave thee

By

life,

the stream

&
&

bid thee feed,
o'er the

Gave thee clothing of

mead

Softest clothing, wooly, bright

Gave thee such a tender
all

Making
Little

;

delight,
;

voice,

the vales rejoice?

Lamb who made

thee?

Dost thou know who made thee?

n

Lamb, I'll tell thee,
Lamb, I'll tell thee:
He is called by thy name,
For he calls himself a Lamb.
Little

Little

He is meek, & he is mild
He became a little child.
I

;

a child, & thou a lamb.
are called by his name.

We

Little
Little

This
to

'

The

bless thee

!

bless thee

!

the original plates reprinted by Gilchrist {Life, ii. end).
In
Songs of Innocence this plate is found as recto or verso
*
Blossom,' or as recto to Nurse's Song or Spring.'

is

t'le first

Lamb, God
Lamb, God

among

issue of the

3 bid] bade

'

DGR,

WMR,

EY.

'

Songs of

Innocejtce

89

The Shepherd
How

sweet

From

the

is

the Shepherd's sweet lot
to the evening he strays

i

!

morn

;

He shall follow
And his tongue

his sheep all the day,
shall be filled with praise.

For he hears the lamb's innocent

5

call,

And he hears the ewe's tender reply
He is watchful while they are in peace,
;

For they know when
In the

first

issue of the

'

their

Songs of Innocence
'

Infant Joy,' or as recto to
follows the Introduction.'

The

Little

is

Shepherd

nigh.

this plate is printed as

In almost

Black Boy.'

all later

verso to
issues

it

'

5, 6 lamb's
ewe's] No apostrophe in
8 whenj that Wilk., DGR.
.

Infant

.

.

orig.

lambs'

;

.

.

.

ewes*

all edd.

Joy
*

I

have no name

am
What
I

'

I

i

:

but two days old.'
shall I call thee?

happy am,

Joy is my name.'
Sweet joy befall thee

!

Pretty joy!

7

Sweet joy, but two days
Sweet joy I call thee

old.

:

Thou
I

dost smile,
sing the while,

Sweet joy
In the

first

issue of the

recto or verso to

'

befall thee

Songs of Innocence

The Shepherd,'

!

this plate is printed either as

or as verso to

'

On

Another's Sorrow.'

Songs of Imiocence

go

The

Black Boy

Little

mother bore

My
And

I

am

me

southern wild,
my soul is white

in the

O

black, but

White as an angel is the English
But I am black, as if bereav'd of

My

me

mother taught

i

;

child,
light.

underneath a

5

tree,

And, sitting down before the heat of day,
She took me on her lap and kissed me,
And, pointing to the east, began to say
:

'

Look on

And
And

— there

God

does

9

live,

gives his light, and gives his heat away
flowers and trees and beasts and men recieve
;

Comfort
'

the rising sun,

in

And we

morning, joy in the noon day.

are put on earth a little space,
learn to bear the beams of love

13

That we may

;

And

these black bodies and this sun-burnt face
but a cloud, and like a shady grove.

Is

'For when our souls have learn'd the heat to bear,

17

cloud will vanish, we shall hear his voice,
"
come out from the grove, my love & care.
Saying

The

:

And

my golden tent like lambs rejoice.'"
my mother say, and kissed me;

round

Thus did

21

And thus I say to little English boy.
When I from black, and he from white cloud free,
And round the tent of God like lambs we joy,
he can bear
To lean in joy upon our father's knee
And then I'll stand and stroke his silver hair.
And be like him, and he will then love me.

shade him from the heat,

I'll

till

25

;

Engraved on two plates of four and three stanzas respectively. In the
Songs of Innocence the former is printed as verso to
the Laughing Song or The Shepherd,' the latter as recto to The Voice of

earliest issue of the

'

'

'

'

the Ancient Bard.'
ii beasts] beast Shep.
like a cloud Svvinb. p. 115.

9 does] doth Muir's/rtcsi'w.
.

.

.

cloud]

Are

.

.

.

cloud all edd.

learn'd] learnt Shep.
omits out.
23-28

;

Are

18 cloud]

When

I

from

.

.

.

i6

Is

17

clouds Willc, Shep.
19 Wilk.
will then love me] Quoted Shep.

Songs of Innocence

9

1

Laughing Song
When the green woods laugh with the voice of
And the dimpling stream runs laughing by
When the air does laugh with our merry wit,
And the green hill laughs with the noise of it

i

joy,

;

;

When the meadows laugh with lively green,
And the grasshopper laughs in the merry scene,
When Mary and Susan and Emily
With their sweet round mouths sing Ha, Ha, He

5

'

'

When

the painted birds laugh in the shade,
table with cherries and nuts is spread,

!

9

Where our

Come live, & be merry, and join with me,
To sing the sweet chorus of Ha, Ha, He

*

'

!

In the first issue of the Songs of Innocence this plate is generally printed
The Little Black Boy.' In the Brit. Mus. Rdg.

as recto to the first plate of

'

This song was first printed in ordinary
type in Malkin's Fathers Memoirs of His Child 1806).
10 Where] When Wilk., Shep.
6 the merry] this merry MalL
11 merry] happy Wilk., Shep.

Rm. copy

this plate is lacking.

1

Spring
Sound the Flute

Now

it 's

i

!

mute.

Birds delight

Day and Night

;

Nightingale
In the dale,

Lark

in

Merrily,
Merrily, Merrily, to

Sky,

welcome

in the

Year.

Upon two plates in the engraved original. In the first issue of the Songs
of Innocence the former is usually found as verso to 'On Another's Sorrow,'
and the latter as recto to The School Boy.'
'

2 it's]

'tis

DGR, WMR, EY,

Umr'sfacsim.

Songs of Innocence

92

lo

Little Boy,

Full of joy

;

Little Girl,

Sweet and small

;

Cock does crow,
So do you
;

Merry

voice,

Infant noise,
Merrily, Merrily, to welcome in the Year.
Little

Here

Lamb,

am

I

Come and

lick

My

white neck

Let

me

Your
Let

Your

;

pull

soft

me

Wool

;

kiss

soft face

:

we welcome

Merrily, Merrily,

A

>9

;

in the

Year.

Cradle Song
Sweet dreams, form a shade
O'er my lovely infant's head
Sweet dreams of pleasant streams
By happy, silent, moony beams.

i

;

Sweet

sleep, with soft

Weave thy brows an
Sweet
Hover

sleep,
o'er

down

5

infant crown.

Angel mild,
happy child.

my

Engraved on two plates of six and two stanzas respectively, which in the
of the Songs of Innocence are always printed as recto and verso
The first of the two plates is among the number reprinted
of the same leaf.
by Gilchrist {Life, ii. end). Compare with this the Cradle Song on p. 114
insert among
reversed, of the MS. Book, which DGR and most editors
first issue

'

the Songs of Experience.
published by Blake.

'

The poem, however, was never engraved or

Songs of Innocence

93

Sweet smiles, in the night
Hover over my delight
Sweet smiles, Mother's smiles,

9

;

All the livelong night beguiles.

Sweet moans, dovelike sighs,
Chase not slumber from thy eyes.
Sweet moans, sweeter smiles,
All the dovelike moans beguiles.
Sleep, sleep,

happy

13

child,

17

All creation slept and smil'd

;

Sleep, sleep, happy sleep.
o'er thee thy mother weep.

While

Sweet babe, in thy face
Holy image I can trace.
Sweet babe, once like thee,
Thy maker lay and wept for me.

ai

for me, for thee, for all,
he was an infant small.

Wept

When

25

Thou

his image ever see.
Heavenly face that smiles on

Smiles on thee, on me, on all
became an infant small.

thee,

29

;

Who

Infant smiles are his

&

Heaven

own

smiles

;

earth to peace beguiles.

WMR,
WMR,
WMR,

EY.
.
.
beguile Wilk., DGR,
beguiles] smile
II, 12 smiles . .
EY.
15 moans] moan DGR,
14 thy] thine Wilk., DGR,
EY.
15, 16 smiles
beguiles] smile . . . beguile Wilk., DGR,
EY.
20 thy] doth DGR,
EY.
beguiles]
31, 32 Infant
.

.

WMR,

.

.

.

WMR,

'

Wilk.,

DGR.

Infant smiles, like

His own smile

Heaven and earth

to peace beguile.'

.

.

.

Songs of Lmocence

94

Nurse's Song
When the voices of children are heard
And laughing is heard on the hill,

My

heart

And
*

is

at rest within

everything else

Then come home,

And

is

my

my

i

breast,

still.

children, the sun

the dews of night arise

is

gone down,

5

;

Come, come, leave off play, and
morning appears in the

us

let

Till the
'

on the green,

away

skies.'

no, let us play, for

No,

it is yet day,
cannot go to sleep
Besides, in the sky the little birds fly,
And the hills are all cover 'd with sheep.'

And we

9

;

'Well, well, go & play till the light fades away,
And then go home to bed.'

The

ones leaped

little

And

Nurses Song

orig.

the

first

In

recto to

&

shouted

laugh'd

the hills ecchoed.

all

plate.

&

13

in Gilchrist {Life,

Reprinted

ii.

end')

from the original

Songs of Innocence this plate occurs as
(generally) or as verso to 'The Lamb,' or as recto

issue of the
'

'

Holy Thursday
'The Chimney Sweeper.' The original version of this song is found in
'After this [' H0I3'
the MS. known as The Island in the Moon (chap, xi):
Thursday' sung by Mr. Obtuse Angle] they all sat silent for a quarter of an
" it
puts me in mind of my [^raW-]mother's
hour, and Mrs. Nannicantipol said
to

song
I

the

:

When

the tongues of children are heard on the green," eic.^
2 And . hill] And laughing upon
Isl. in Moon.
znd rdg. (afterwards re-corrected to its earlier and present form).

voices] tongues
hill ibid,

5 Then
1st rdg.

.

.

.

.

.

down] Then come home
8 DGR, WMR, EY, and

10
eight-line stanzas.
dark Isl. in Moon ist rdg.

And

.

.

.

children, the sun is down ibid.
divide this poem into two

WBY

And we cannot

sleep]

11 Besides

.

.

.

fly]

The

sleep

till

it 's

flocks are at play

&

12 And
go away ibid, ist rdg.
sheep] And the meadows
are cover'd with sheep ibid.
14 go] come Wilk.
15 leaped
leaped and
laugh'd] leap'd, and shouted, and laughed Wilk., Shep.
16 ecchoed] I have found in
shouted and laughed WMR. EY, WBY.
a library copy of Blake's poems the joyous emendation of some youthful

we

can't

.

.

.

.

;

reader

:
'

And

all

the hills echoed, ed, ed

'
!

.

.

In the first issue of the Songs of Innocence this plate is generally printed as verso to Nurses Song. are here given in the footnotes. in Moon. lest you drive an angel from your door. And Isl. in DGR. where The erased passages. etc. WMR.Songs of Innocence 95 Holy Thursday 'Twas on a Holy Thursday. their innocent faces clean. I 'Twas on a] Upon a Isl.' . seats of heav'n among. Beneath them sit thunderings the seats of heaven the aged men. these flowers of London town 5 Seated in companies. sit] Seated Moon. this stanza stood * : — Then like a mighty wind they raise Or like harmonious thunderings the When to heav'n the voice of song. all in 6 Seated Moon. waiting the chief chanter's in companies 8 Thousands commands Isl. in Moon ist rdg.. Grey headed beadles walk'd before. . order 7 sit was] were . red] grey they were Wilk. EY. deleted Thousands of little girls & boys. in Moon. into the dome high of Paul's like they Thames' waters flow. 2 The] Came DGR. Isl. in red & blue & green. the whole multitude of innocents their voices raise Like angels on the throne of heav'n. which E and Y have it is sung by Mr. raising the voice of praise.' The original MS. xi). 11 aged] rev'rend Isl.' or (once") as recto to The Divine Image. The children walking two & two. O what a multitude they seem'd. version of this song is found in The Island in the Moon (chap. Or 9 harmonious like among. ibid. Thousands of little boys & girls raising their innocent hands. 2nd rdg. Now like a mighty wind they raise to heaven the voice of song. in Moon. This poem was first ' ' printed in ordinary type in Malkin's Father's Memoirs of His Child (1806). with wands as white i Till as snow. but multitudes of ! lambs. Then cherish pity. The hum of multitudes was there. pronounced illegible. the Moon) the Isl. they sit with radiance all their own. hands] . Obtuse Angle. in Moon 9-12 In Blake's first draft (in the Island in . . in . . wise guardians of the poor. wise] 9 Now] Then Isl.

. Merry Sparrow Under A i ! leaves so green.' This also was cancelled. Zwischen den Kleinen die Alten. and began * Let cherubim and seraphim now : — raise their voices high. In St. gekleidet in roth und in blau und in grun GraukOpfige Zuchtmeister mit schneeweissen Ruthen voran. ganz in der eignen Unschuld Pracht Es ersummt wie eine Menge. oder du treibst einen Engel — fort.Songs of Innocence 96 Blake then deleted the entire stanza. zum Himmel Gesanges Chor ein harmonisch Gewitter zu den Sitzen der Engel empor. Julius {Vaterldndisches noted above. 1811): — Es war am grunen Donnerstag. ' ' II. happy Blossom Sees you. 7 ! A happy Blossom Hears you sobbing. man sahe die Kinder ziehn. Museum. Seek your cradle narrow Near my Bosom. Pretty. Songs of Innocence as recto to ' The ' WBY Spring.' print as one stanza. this plate is Little Girl Lost.' found as recto or and as verso to the . Sauber gewaschen. ! Tausend kleine Knaben und Madchen erheben ihre Handchen so wie 'Jetzt Wie ein Wirbelwind steigt rein.' second plate of EY and my Bosom. O ! wie zahllos erscheinen sie da. Near In the verso to first ' issue of the The Lamb. der Armuth weiser Hort Drum erbarme dich vor deiner Thur. paarweis'. sobbing. Pretty Robin Under leaves so green. Abgetheilt sitzend in Rotten. swift as arrow.' The Blossom Merry. doch der Lammer Menge nur allein. Pretty. Pretty Robin. diese Blumen von Londons Macht . Pauls hohen Dom wie der Themse Fluthen strOmen sie dann. i. and the stanza rewritten with the slight changes This song is thus translated by Dr.

They rise upon clouds and sport in the wind And the Angel told Tom. Dacre. laughing.' or as verso to Nurse's Song. he had such a sight! 9 — That thousands of sweepers. Tom ! never mind who it. and shine in the Sun. 5 was shav'd so I said for when your head 's bare curl'd like a lamb's back. & ! 'weep ! 'weep Hush. they run.Innocejice Songs of 97 The Chimney Sweeper When my mother died I was very young. Dick. Were And by came an Angel who had a bright key. Lamb). cried when his head. & sleeping. 5 Dacre] (Ch.' And so he was As Tom was a quiet. Then down And wash a green plain leaping. And my father sold me while yet my tongue Could scarcely cry So your chimneys There's That * Tom little ' ' 'weep I 'weep ! sweep. with our bags & our brushes to work. aAMPSOS H Toddy jVt J. And he open'd the coffins & set them all free 13 . fear found printed as this plate is The Divine Image. Montgomery . 3 'weep!] No apostrophe in orig. And And Tom awoke and we rose in the dark. if he'd be a good boy. You know i : that the soot cannot spoil your white hair.' as recto to the first plate of Spring. all their bags left behind. He'd have God for his father. that very night. Songs of Innocence warm : harm. got Tho' the morning was cold. ! in soot I sleep. all of them lock'd up in coffins of black. Joe.' This poem was first printed in ordinary type in James Montgomery's Chimney-sweeper' s Friend and Climbing-boy's Album recto or verso to ' ' ' (1824) from a copy supplied to the editor by Charles Lamb. Ned & Jack. Then naked & white. in a river. 17 . Tom was happy & So so do their duty they need not if all In the first issue of the 21 . & never want joy.

and Love All pray in their distress And i .' with the omission of stanza 2.' or as verso to Holy Thursday. Peace. Pity. his child and care.' or recto to A Dream. to these virtues of delight their thankfulness. Love. verso to ' * ' Memoirs of His Child (1806). Where Mercy. . Mercy. And Peace. occurs either as recto or The Chimney Sweeper. Return Pity. 13 in his distress. or jew. Love. Pity. 17 In heathen. turk. and Love God. And all must love the human form. And Love. Peace. Prays to the human form divine. has for many years been used as one of the hymns of the Positivist congregation in a northern Father's city. For Mercy. Peace. 'The Divine Image. In the first issue of Songs of Innocence this plate dwell.' The original plate is among the number reprinted in Gilchrist's This poem was first printed in ordinary type in Malkin's Life (ii. our father dear. And Mercy. 9 Pity a human face. & Pity There God is dwelling too. That prays dress- of every clime. Peace. 5 Is For Mercy has a human heart. end). the human form divine. Pity. and Love Is Man. the human Then every man.Songs of Innocence 98 The Divine Image To Mercy.

10 3 nest] nests W. and WBY. 9 Where flocks have took delight. for the west. 13 blessing] blessings W. Where birds are cover'd warm They visit caves of every beast. Ha . took] ta'en all except Sh^^.' antithesis of this Song may have been designed by Blake as the of Innocence. in the first issue. their nest. With silent delight and smiles on the night. EY. They look in every thoughtless nest. ' or part of a poem. Muir. entitled * Day and beginning •The Sun arises in the East. Where lambs have nibbled. 23 head] heads W. Muir. And sit down by their bed. 17 . Innocence. green fields and happy groves. Book. on p. 105 of the MS. And joy without ceasing.Songs of Innocence 99 Night The sun descending in The evening star does The birds are silent in And I must seek The moon. In heaven's high bower. WMR. all If they see any weeping That should have been sleeping. are always found as recto and verso of the same leaf. WMR. Muir. EY. like a flower. 9 groves] grove DGR. They pour sleep on their head. On each bud and blossom. Unseen they pour blessing. shine i . which. Ii moves] move DGR. Engraved upon two plates. And each sleeping bosom. mine. of the Songs of The poem. To keep them from harm. Sits Farewell. silent moves The feet of angels bright . 24 by] on Wilk.

3 Shall flow with tears of gold. That an Emmet Where on In the first issue of the * The lost its way grass methought I lay. And there the lion's ruddy eyes 3. pitying stand and weep They 25 . bright mane for ever Shall shine like the gold My As 33 eyes] eye DGR. wash'd in life's river.' i ' ' ' .I oo Songs of Imtocence When wolves and tygers howl for prey. Seeking to drive their thirst away. 41 . The angels. EY. And keep them from the sheep. Recieve each mild spirit. I can lie down and sleep Or think on him who bore thy name. most heedful. Songs of Innocence this plate is printed as recto to verso to Laughing Song or to The Divine Little Girl Lost.' or as Image. I o'er the fold. 39 Is] Are A Dream Once a dream did weave a shade O'er my Angel-guarded bed. For. But if they rush dreadful. Muir. bleating lamb. 'And now beside thee. sickness Is driven From away our immortal day. 46 mane] name Wilk. And pitying the tender cries. New worlds to inherit. WMR. Muir. by his health. And walking round the fold. Saying 'wrath.' guard W. by his meekness. And. 36 fold] folds W. Graze after thee and weep.

end). ' is found as recto to the Infant Joy.Songs of Innocence i Troubled.' On Another's Sorrow Can I see another's woe. an infant fear? No. travel-worn. wailing wight watchman of the night ? set to light the ground. I drop'd a tear. Over many a tangled spray. no first 5 my Can a father see his child Weep. Little wanderer. and forlorn.' The original . All heart-broke I heard her say: or 5 * O. sorrow's share? I And not feel Can a mother sit and hear never can it be never can it be! Never. not be in sorrow too? And Can see another's grief. 'wilder'd. In the plate first plate of is issue of the ' fill'd ? 9 infant groan. While the beetle goes his round Follow now the beetle's hum ly. nor be with sorrow An i ! 1 Songs of Innocence this plate Spring. : . I And not seek for kind relief? Can see a falling tear. Dark. But saw a glow-worm I Who ' replied Calls the 'I am : What 13 near. benighted. my children do they cry ? Do they hear their father sigh? Now they look abroad to see Now return and weep for me. hie thee home.' 9 ! : Pitying.' and as recto or verso to reprinted in Gilchrist's Life (ii.

Hear the small bird's grief & care. sorrow too. And not both night sit & . And thy maker is not near. DGR. 30 by] nigh Wilk.' to issue of the In the first 'The Little Island in the I Isl. no ! ! Never.' 3 Speak] O speak . in Moon. Think not thou canst sigh a sigh. father Isl. 34 grief] griefs Wilk. xi). .. And not sit beside the nest. Boy Lost * where are you going ? Father father O. introduced by the words father !] father.I02 Songs of l7mocence And who can he smiles on all 13 Hear the wren with sorrows small. . our grief is fled & gone doth sit by us and moan. speak to your Or else I shall be lost. never can it be ! He He doth give his joy to all becomes an infant small He He doth becomes a man of woe feel the 25 . 21 day. Father in ! Moon.' The this plate is original draft of this (chap. father. do not walk so fast. O boy. Wiping all our tears away? never can it be O. 17 Pouring pity in their breast And not sit the cradle near. thy maker is not by Think not thou canst weep a tear. Weeping tear on infant's tear . Hear the woes that infants bear. And O ! he gives to us his joy grief he may destroy That our Till He Little 33 . Boy Moon i ! little Songs of Innocence Found. ! Speak. always found as recto poem is found in the — 'Then sung Quid . The ^^i .

5 sorrow pale. 5 . ever nigh. . And away 5 Isl. sought. EY. He kissed the child. 6 The Moon. The The there] . but God. led. this plate always occurs as . . in white. & in no father was there Moon. Began to cry Appear'd . 8 Her] The DGR. Who Her In the first in i fen. & the child did weep. night child] it And was dark the child Isl.So?igs of Innocence 103 The night was dark. no father was there The child was wet with dew The mire was deep. the vapour flew. Boy Found Little The little boy lost in the lonely Led by the wand'ring light. like his father. boy weeping little issue of the verso to the preceding. thro' the lonely dale. & by the hand And to his mother brought. Songs of Innocence WMR. The in .

.

end) from an electrotype of the original This title-page would appear to have been twice engraved by Blake. W. The plate is printed on the recto of the leaf. Reprinted in Gilchrist's Life (ii. In some copies the date has evidently been inserted by hand. plate. Blake Songs of Experience. when pubHshed either Songs of Innocence or separately. In Gilchrist's reprint the date 1794 is omitted and the cross stroke to the letter/ has a downward instead of an upward curve. facing the frontispiece of the Shepherd on The engraved title to the in conjunction with the the verso of the preceding leaf.SONGS of EXPERIENCE 1794 The Author & Printer. .

6 And That might control! The starry pole.. EY. 19 shore] floor Swinb. Past. version. Is giv'n thee till the break of day. 4 Holy] ancient Swinb. Closely connected this poem are The Voice of the Ancient Bard. WMR. and ' Earth's Answer. Not found in any MS. the morn Night And ii . The The starry floor. i-io] Swinb. O Earth. 18 floor] shore Swinb. 20 Is] Are Swinb. wat'ry shore. weeping in the evening dew. by which it is immediately ' ' with preceded in followed in some copies all of the Songs. Rises from the slumberous mass. prints as a single stanza. ancient trees.' One engraved plate. sees Whose ears have heard The Holy Word That walk'd among the . * Turn away no more Why wilt thou turn away? i6 . return! Arise from out the dewy grass is worn. prints as a single stanza. I . 5 ancient] silent Swinb.SONGS OF EXPERIENCE Introduction Hear the voice of the Bard Who Present. & i ! Future. Calling the lapsed Soul.' by which it is copies. 11-20] Swinb. And fallen fallen light renew ! 'O Earth.

Book (p. The original rime- 10 father of the] del. I 'Selfish father of men! ii Cruel. weeping MS. mountains. arrangement abaab breaks down in this Cruel MS. Book and engraved Songs (Stony 6 Prison'd dread !) shore] Stony. Book) first word deleted. Essay. . 6 den my Starry Jealousy does keep : Cold and hoar. Engraved on a single plate from what is obviously the original draft in the MS. Book cancelled. Book 13 selfish] illegible 1st rdg. selfish fear! ' The Earth's Answer (MS. dread. . jealous. MS. Prisoned on this watery shore Swinb. Renew in these chains of darkness Where bones of beasts are strown. p. read . . over rocks. del. del..Shep. . . Weeping o'er hear the father of the ancient men. how can delight Self-destroying . Book 1 1 Selfish] 14/ rdg. iii reversed). . h'ght fled. the lines immediately preceding this poem in the MS' Book. DGR WMR. 4 Stony dread !] Punctuation as in MS. Cp. 7 my den :] Punctuation as in my den Wilk. . . so also in Swinb. Cast out from thy lovely bosom Cruel jealousy. selfish fear. Bk. in and the next stanza. word erased. 118 other edd. On the bleak and snowy mountains Where bones from the birth are buried Before they see the light?' 3 Her . and replaced by some 11-15 MS. EY.Songs of Rxperierice 107 Answer Earth's up her head Earth rais'd From the darkness dread Her i & drear. . WBY. fled] Blake's successive changes of this line are Her : — eyes fled orbs dead light fled (pencil). Stony dread And ! her locks cover'd with grey despah*. Cold and hoar . . Father of Jealousy?' Cp. . ' beginning: — 'Why art thou silent & invisible. . 'Prison'd on wat'ry shore. also the final * stanza oi Ahania {engraved 1795) : — But now alone.

fair copy (without title) in the 109 reversed). Nurse's Song When the voices of And whisp'rings are The days My of my . Chain'd The in night. night] : . 2a freeze] close MS. Engraved without material change from a MS. my bane Hast my love with bondage bound MS. plowman darkness plow? in ' Break this heavy chain That does freeze my bones around. . 4 SongWilk. Book. Book (p. \ . 5 the dews of night arise Your spring & your day are wasted in play. 24. youth rise fresh and pale. Nurses' rise] are MS. virgins of youth and morning bear? Does spring hide ' its joy buds and blossoms grow? Does the sower 16 When Sow by Or the night. face turns green Then come home. . Book xst rdg. Can the sower sow by night Swinb. in my i mind. del. engraving.' i6-ao This stanza was 14 Chain'd] Clog'd MS. the sun And is gone down. Nurse's Song] R' omits. 19 Does 16 joy] delight MS. 3 my] green] grave R'. Book 15/ rdg. but restored when 18. My] And my R'. which Blake cancelled. Does the sower sow His seed by night MS. del. an addition written in place of the third. del. vain ! Eternal bane ! Selfish That ! free 21 Love with bondage bound. del.1 08 Songs of Experience Can delight. . . children are heard on the green in the dale. Book xst rdg. 25 Eternal bound] Thou. Book is/ rdg. No apostrophe in original. Book 15/ rdg. my children. del. And your winter and night in disguise. .

fled . i Thy summer's play My thoughtless hand Has brush'd away. sing. 8 rdg. also Milton. Book). 18. labile another. Then follows a deleted stanza. Book jst same idea occurs in The pictorial representation of the Gates of Paradise (engraved 1793. loi of the from what deleted stanza shows that before hitting upon this Blake began to write the song in a less sprightly strain 'Woe! my alas! guilty is evidently the An MS. Below is the inscription 'Alas ' 1 Cp. in double columns. MS. 27-30. omitted by him in the ' first draft engraved version. Till some blind hand Engraved on a single first draft. fixed a summer's] summer MS.Songs of Experience 109 The Fly Little Fly. and fifth by two versions of stanza four. uncompleted and felicitous tiny metre — hand Brush'd across thy summer joy All thy gilded painted pride Shatter'd. del. ' He ' then turned to the shorter metre. . Am not A fly like I Or A 5 thee? art not thou man For I me ? like dance. 9 And & Shall brush my drink. followed Blake then preis an afterthought. title. Book. third.' Then come the second. numbers to the stanzas indicating their present order. on p. so do thou.. lies crushed at his feet. deviations from the engraved text are given in the footnotes. 11. which he has just struck down.. Book. A A few trifling 3 thoughtless] guilty MS. since writing the poem. And And dies in peace. without wing. chases a butterfly of human shape. plate. . from the original pencil sketches in the in which a youth. which stanzas in their present form. hat in hand. f. preserving the guilty hand in the of stanza i. probably because. he had used Proverbs of Hell {Marriage of Heaven and its first two lines as one of his ' * Hell) : 'The cut worm Forgives the plow.

R' . The Tyger Tyger burning bright Tyger In the forests of the night. 8 dare] dared DGR. readings. WMR (and version). . R'. too numerous to be readily intelligible in footnotes. death. DGR. Cunn. are given in full in the appended note on the different versions of 'The Tyger. Book is & breath. WMR . Thro' the desarts Chas. 6 Burnt] Burned the] that of] within DGR. (and version).. 144. from a copy probably supplied by Blake himself.iio Songs of Experience If life is thought And And 13 strength & breath. ! i ! What immortal hand Could frame thy or eye fearful symmetry? In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? "What the hand dare sieze the fire? 5 Engraved on a single plate from the first draft of the poem on pp. DGR. which exhibits an important variant reading of the last line An early corrupt version also appeared in Cunningham's Lives of the British Painters (1830). I A 17 fly. 7. xxxix.. die.' del xst rdg. bum'd Wilk.. The MS. DGR. (2nd version) WMR WMR (2nd version). fire] .. p. 4 Could of the third stanza. the want Of thought Then am happy is death . frame] Framed Cunn. Book. 2 forests] forest Malk. May 15. . 108 MS.' This poem was first printed in ordinary type in (reversed) of the Malkin's Fathers Mentotrs (1606). Cunn. ii. Lamb (quoting from memory. 1824). If I live Or 13-16 If . 109.. in a letter to Bernard Barton.. if I death] is life 'Thought And strength But the want Of thought MS. . fervour Cunn. WMR (2nd version).

upon a verse which has proved a crux to many of Blake's readers and of stanzas commentators. its] 17 spears] spheres Cunn. Cunn.. R^ What the hammer. WBY. What immortal hand Dare frame thy or eye.. . See also editor's note to this poem. 2. Knit thy strength and forged . What dread hand formed thy dread feet ? What dread hand and what dread feet Cunn. Unable to complete this stanza to his satisfaction he cancelled it altogether. And water'd heaven with their tears. 17 Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the Lamb make thee? 21 Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night. DGR. .' The original draft of 'The Tyger. On the left page is found the first rough draft In stanza 3 the manuscript version throws light i. thy heart. DGR 18 water'd] watered Malk. and 6. Book. (2nd version) What dread hand framed thy dread feet? Swinb. thy Cunn. DGR. their] and shining Cunn. of course. (and version). WMR Cunn. Malk. enables us to follow every step in the composition of the poem. ! ! . R'. fearful symmetry? And heart] When 10 thy] thine Wilk.. leaving the preceding line as it stood. feet?] What dread hand forged thy dread feet ? Malk. 14 What brain] What the hammer what the chain Formed thy strength and forged thy brain ? Cunn. what the chain. This. It ' will be seen that Blake at first intended the line What dread hand and what dread feet — ' merely as the beginning of a sentence running on into the next stanza. EY. EY.. Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to beat. omitted by Cunn. WMR (2nd version).' written upon two opposite pages (pp. WMR. . WMR .Songs of Experience 1 1 1 shoulder. 13.. 108 reversed) ef the MS. . ... NOTE ON 'THE WMR... WMR (2nd version). WMR (2nd version). . a 1-24 This TYGER.. 12 What. & what art.. 109. ii . WMR (and version). 16 Dare] Dared Malk. . did not escape his . thy brain? DGR. DGR. 4. . 3. What dread hand? & what dread feet? And what What the hammer? what 9 the chain? 13 In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? what dread grasp Dare deadly terrors clasp? its When the stars threw down their spears. Wilk. DGR. WBY stanza is sprinkled Cunn.

he struck " it out and inserted the word over it. W. though probably written after it. thus explains to me in a letter " What the shoulder ? What the knee ? " ' I think that [BIal<e] wrote first and then. Book. On the opposite page of the MS. misled by the spurious version of Gilchrist. compressed force of these two short sentences. Malkin. and numbered them in order to make this order clear the same time numbered the stanzas.' At a later which there is no reason to doubt was supplied by the date. moreover had already been used in the first stanza. I think that he struck out the number "3" in front of the first line of this stanza by accident. meaning to erase the first word "And. and wrote above it And did He laugh H is work to see ? and then added the two lines about the stars. in the version author to Dr. is a revised version of stanza 2. seeing that he had used the word "shoulder" before. is altogether lost in the languid punctuation of the Aldine edition — 'And. A. The difficult ' ' ' ' . which burst forth with a momentary pause between them like shells from a mortar. when thy heart began to beat. Yeats to remark that when engraving the ' poem Blake forgot to alter the last line of the third stanza. Book is the first draft of the fifth stanza. and by a change of punctuation he converted the unfinished passage into its present notice shape — 'What dread hand? a line exactly parallel in form to ' What the & what dread feet? — hammer ? what the chain ? ' of the following stanza. which seems to be ankle. which differs from that finally adopted. ' line — ' Could heart descend. Then Blake re-arranged the order of the lines in the and also at stanza. The terrible. or wings aspire ? ' I . White.'' but is not a variant for which there ' frame ' : — very clearly written. " Did He who made the lamb make thee ? " Probably after that he erased the line above. reading — What ' dread hand framed thy dread feet ? ' The word is no printed or manuscript authority." Above the fifth stanza. the present owner of the MS. the composition of which Mr. p. making this the fifth. 120) refers to ' the recovery of that nobler earlier text.1 1 2 Sojtgs of Experience when engraving the poem for the Songs of Experience.' or Mr. What dread hand and what dread feet?' and it is only the failure of critics to observe the significance of the revised pointing of the engraved version which caused Swinburne to speak of this ' passage as a rock of offence. 'Then I think the glorious line occurred to him. Blake again remodelled this line into the slow and solemn form — 'What where the gain of much dread hand forged thy dread feet?' in definiteness and technical accuracy at the sacrifice is of the fiery energy and vague suggestion of terror conveyed by the It is probably with an imperfect remembrance of this final emendation of Blake's. that Swinburne (Critical Essay.

' and did for dare ' ' ' ' ' Muses' Library ' — edition of Blake (notes. 238. Tyger. 1. THE TYGER. follows a fair copy of stanzas i. Ellis and Yeats (iii. pp. 239). It will be seen that this version differs in important details from that given by Messrs. Tyger. What the — & in eyes of fury rolVd? hammer ? what Where In t SAMPSON what mould the chain ? where what furnace was thy I brain ? . What immortal hand If eye or Could frame thy fearful symmetry? Dare 2. but contains such inexplicable misreadings as 'filch' for 'fetch. and the readings dare frame for could frame in the first. except for unimportant differences of ' ' capitalization. 3. In what distant deeps or skies Burnt in Burnt the fire of thine eyes ? The cruel On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare sieze the fire And what shoulder. which.' 'horn'd' for 'horrid. deleted words or The manuscript itself is unpunctuated lines being printed in italics. burning bright In the forests of the night. one below another. pp. to the right of these two stanzas.' ' ' ' errors repeated in Mr. 91. which not only fails to make clear the sequence of Blake's alterations. 5. 92). 3. Book. is The following is a faithful transcript of the original draft of 'The Tyger MS. & what ? art Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to beat What dread hand & what dread feet Could fetch it from the furnace deep. Blake's variant readings being indicated typographically by placing them in consecutive order. and 6. Yeats' inspire for aspire. ' in the throughout. And in thy horrid ribs dare steep? the well of sanguine woe In In what clay Were thy 4. or material ' Upon the same page. for identical with the text ' ' and first last stanzas.Songs of Experience 1 1 3 God bring down his heart to Or could any lesser daemonic high enough to assume power Could has been interpreted by Swinburne the making of a thing so deadly and strong ? ' : wings and force of nature take to itself Could equal to such a creation ? force so far aspire ? fly spiritual force so far descend. ' ' and ' hand and eye ' hand or eye in the of the engraved Songs.

is not stated. Rossetti. : 'And what shoulder and what art Could twist the sinews of thy heart? When thy heart began to beat What dread hand formed thy dread feet? * What what the chain the hammer Formed thy strength and forged thy What Dared ! the anvil its ! What dread grasp deadly terrors clasp ? ! brain ? — . 5. When 2. where the last three stanzas run Lives of British Painters (1830. and thence reprinted by later editors under such headings as a later MS. Tyger. is based upon that printed by Cunningham in his ii.' MS. he assumes that they owe of ' ' ' The ' ' ' ' their origin to changes introduced into the text by D. And the hand dare sieze the fire ? work did he laugh his dare he smile U 'hat the to see ? laugh shoulder ? what the knee ? ankle ? 4. Yeats complains. Book. M.' adding that it shows certain variations on MS. G. Tyger. Rossetti explains in a footnote. And the stars threw down their spears. The version given by the latter. Did he who made the lamb make thee ? Dare 1.1 1 4 So7tgs of Experie7tce What the anvil ? what arm arm the grasp clasp dread grasp Could Dare its deadly terrors clasp'i g^nsp ? clasp ? 6. What & immortal hand Dare form thy fearful eye symmetry ? frame the opposite page'\ \On Burnt in distant deeps or skies The cruel fire of thine eyes ? Could heart descend. is the version which figures in Mr. This. Mr. version and the like. Gilchrist's What book.. authority. as he himself states in a note prefixed to his first transcript (R^). water'd heaven with their tears. burning bright In the forests of the night. or wings aspire? What J. and as there is obviously no warrant for these readings in the MS. as Mr. A ' few words must be added with regard to the so-called second version Tj'ger in the Aldine edition. W. 144). however.

schuf er dich? Tiger. welch Gottes Aug' und Hand Dich so furchtbar schCn verband ? ' Stammt vom Himmel. Dir der Augen Feuerquell'? Welche Flugel tragst du kuhn ? ' Welche War wagt wohl. Bd. unknown ' The Tyger from the Vaterldndisches Museum. Tiger.Songs of Experience 1 1 5 'When the stars threw down their spheres. The interest attaching to everything relating to this poem. Tiger. Wob so sinnreich HerzensbruQ^t ? Als dein Herz den Puis empfand. Flammenpracht In den Waldern dustrer Nacht ! Sprich. This spirited and admirably literal rendering will be noticed. Flammenpracht In den Waldern dustrer Nacht ! Sprich. aus der HoU'. Did he smile. Julius's would have thought himself ' German II. zu nah'n dem Gluh'n Starke. his work to see ? Did he who made the lamb make thee?' A comparison of the versions of the other poems and passages quoted by Cunningham with their in originals the Poetical Sketches shows that unauthorized readings are introduced into almost every line. Thranend ward der Himmel Meer: Schaut' er lachelnd da auf dich ? Der das ' Lamm schuf. Heft translation of i. Welch ein Fuss und welche Hand ? 'Was ist Hammer. it ' own to his 1806).' may be thought sufficient excuse for adding to the length of this note by reprinting Dr. wess Gottes Aug' und Hand Dich so furchtbar schOn verband?' I % ? . welche Kunst. called by Swinburne the most famous of Blake's lyrics. Tiger. No manuscript authority of Blake's can therefore be claimed for this version. ' ' DER TIGER. and it is plain that Cunningham treated Blake's text with the same freedom which he entitled to use in an old Scots ballad. appeared. And sprinkled heaven with shining tears. Kettenklirr'n ? Welche Esse schmolz dein Him ? Was ist Amboss ? Welcher Held Muth in deinem Arm behalt ? 'Aus den Sternen flog der Speer. at a time when Blake's Songs were almost (Hamburg. countrymen.

see] I prophesy WBY. . . weep? Where can Lyca ' me my Lyca let Lyca wake 25 . last plates are Gilchrist. come to Underneath this tree. 2 I 17-32 Wilk. and and half the its of the fourth of the next song. and the second the conclusion of the same with the first three stanzas This song. the desart wild Become a garden mild.1 1 6 Songs of Experience The Lost Girl Little In futurity i prophetic see That the earth from sleep (Grave the sentence deep) I Shall arise and seek For her maker meek And 5 . . In the southern clime. 'Sweet sleep.' are engraved upon three plates. the first of which contains the first ten stanzas of the present poem. omit quotation . shall not weep. . sequel 'The Little Girl Found. No among manuscript and Shep. Seven summers old 13 Lovely Lyca told She had wander'd long Hearing wild birds' song. can Lyca sleep mother weep ? her heart does ake Then If sleep? in desart wild your How 17 mother. Lovely Lyca lay. number reprinted from The first the originals by and versions of these songs are known to exist. Do father. mother sleep. niarhs. Lost Is If her ' If ar little child. the summer's prime 9 Where Never fades away.

And naked they convey'd To caves the sleeping maid. O'er this desart bright. 37 the virgin view'd. Muir's facsim.So7tgs of Experience 'Frowning. lick] And her breast did lick DGR. While the lioness 49 Loos'd her slender dress. . 33 Come from caverns deep. The kingly And lion stood. Leopards. WMR. See note to ' The Little Girl Lost. View'd the maid asleep.' Sleeping Lyca lay While the beasts of prey. 41 While the lion old Bow'd his mane of gold. Let thy moon While I close 117 29 arise my eyes. . While the desarts weep. .' EY. frowning night.) The Little Found Girl All the night in woe Lyca's parents go Over vallies deep. Then he gambol'd round O'er the hallow'd ground. 45 And . (SoHgs of In. tygers. And upon her neck From his eyes of flame Ruby tears there came 45 . play Round her as she lay. And her bosom lick.

weak. arm'd 23 sorrow] sorrows DGR. Smelling to his prey 25 39 . Then he stalk'd around. way couching lion lay. 26 his] the Wilk. Rising from unrest. And silent They look upon his eyes with deep surprise wondering behold Fill'd And A spirit by them stands. in gold. 17 The trembling woman prest With feet of weary woe She could no further go. And dream they see their child 9 Starv'd in desart wild. With hollow piteous shriek. : In his arms he bore ai Her. But their fears allay When he licks their hands.T 1 8 Songs of Experience Tired and woe-begone. arm'd with sorrow sore Till before their A . Hoarse with making moan. Turning back was vain: Soon his heavy mane Bore them to the ground. weeping. Arm in arm seven days They 5 trac'd the desart ways. 33 . Pale. . thro' pathless The ways 13 fancied image strays Famish'd. Seven nights they sleep Among shadows deep.

But a Pebble of the brook Warbled out these metres meet Engraved on a single plate from the Without title in the MS. Nor for itself hath any care. The Clod and 52 lions'] lions orig. DGR. not for the maid 41 . EY. hair. 5 : 115 (reversed) of the MS. 38 shoulders] shoulder Wilk.' So sung a little Clod of Clay. builds a Heaven in Hell's despair.Songs of Experience On On his head a crown Flow'd his golden ' Follow me. palace deep lies asleep. fair copy on p. Trodden with the cattle's feet. 3 another] another's R'. lion's all edd. WMR. . 5 sung] sang MS. To this day they dwell In a lonely dell Nor fear the wolvish howl 49 . Nor the lions' growl. ' In 1 down his shoulders Gone was 1 said. vision led. And saw their Among tygers 4- sleeping child wild. Book.' Then they Where the followed. the Pebble Love seeketh not Itself to please. 7 brook] wood R'. ' But And i for another gives its ease. . Book. all their care.' he Weep my Lyca 9 37 . 4 in] to R^.

WMR. like a father. nor fasting. & drink. that drinks another as a The Little 9 Self] Vagabond Dear Mother. at the s our souls to regale. ' in pencil. And builds a Hell in Heaven's despite. ' and rds. But kiss him. And God. (p. rejoicing to see 13 His children as pleasant and happy as he. del. well.I20 Songs of Rxperience * Love seeketh only To bind another to Self to please. Church they would give us some Ale. 10: 'Can that be Love. del..\. Book 4 Such. Joys in another's loss of ease. changed to drink'] & apparel MS.. . a pleasant fire Then the Parson might preach. Book 2. nor birch. Nor ever once wish from the Church to stray. del. . apparel] But shake hands & kiss him & there'd be no more hell MS. & sing. 105 This poem is well] Such usage in heaven makes all go to hell MS. & give him both drink and apparel. . Book \st rdg. MS. We'd sing and we'd pray all the live-long day. . dear Mother. WMR. Book 15/ rdg.' 9-12 Cp. .?rf rdg. Book \st The poor parsons with wind like a blown bladder swell MS. 9 And we'd be as happy as birds in the spring And modest dame Lurch. DGR. EY. Engraved on a single plate from the version reversed) entitled The little pretty Vagabond omitted in Wilkinson's edition of the Songs. the Church is cold. 9 Its delight. Self DGR. bind] f. Would not have bandy children. Would have no more quarrel with the Devil or the Barrel. But the Ale-house is healthy & pleasant & warm Besides Such usage But And if where I am used heaven will never do can I tell in i . . Book ' ' [' pretty del. . and R' But kiss him & give him hoth food [_del. 13 rejoicing to see] that joys for 16 But to see MS. rdg. 10 bend R». who is always at Church. . well. Visions 0/ /he Daughters 0/ Albion (engraved 1793) ' sponge drinks Water? EY.

line DGR. (ii. EY. Book. For where. (written later in pencil) has and EY.. And 'Tis DGR. & their fields are bleak ways are their It is eternal fiU'd 9 bare. MS. that Blake . was angry with not.' of the been adopted by engraved version. . this stanza in the poem to end MS. . A WMR. Book (p. Book shows at this point. Gilchrist's Life copy on p. Book. where-e'er the rain does fall. can] should DGR. 13 For] But MS. my my friend my wrath my foe title. : MS. . MS. Book. Engraved on a single plate from the copy 4 It is] Poison Tree I The 7 . 8. Babe can never hunger there. Book. in preference to that in the in the 'Christian Forbearance. hand] Fed with a cold usurious hand DGR. EY. 15 Babe] Babes Wilk. Nor poverty the mind appall. 114 reversed). Engraved on a MS. 4 Fed . drawn below originally intended the WMR. did end. with thorns : winter there. .Songs of Experience 1 2 1 Holy Thursdaya holy thing to see In a rich and fruitful land. cold and usurous Fed with hand ? trembling cry a song ? be a song of joy ? so many children poor? Is that Can And It is a land of And And And poverty ! their sun does never shine. I was angry with I told my told it I wrath. A i : wrath did grow. WMR. 103 (reversed) of the reprinted from an electrotype of the original in single plate from the fair This plate is end). 12 poor] And so great a number poor MS. Is this i Babes reduc'd to misery.e'er the sun does And 5 it 13 shine.

it And And My 5 my I sunnM it with smiles. 103 The title written later. he wip'd my tears away. was mine. del. . Book. 9 both] by MS. it morning with And ii . . . stole 13 veil'd the pole: In the morning glad see I foe outstretch'd beneath the tree.1 22 Songs of Experience And water'd I & Night And And it grew both day and he knew that 9 night. And Till in fears. . design of this plate is found on p. on p. MS. 65 of the MS. Guarded by an Angel mild Witless woe was ne'er beguil'd I And that ! ? i I : ! And And And And I wept both night and day. So he took his wings and fled Then the morn blush'd rosy red 9 . written in pencil. Book. The Angel Dreamt a Dream what can it mean was a maiden Queen. I wept both day and night. from the fair copy. Book . it And into my garden When the night had foe tears bore an apple bright my foe beheld it shine. with soft deceitful wiles. The original coloured (reversed) of the MS. hid from him my heart's delight. Book. I dried With my tears. Engraved on a single plate. fears ten thousand shields and spears. & arm'd my 5 . And shine] I gave it to my 15/ rdg.

Engraved on a single plate. with Rahab. Book. 21 of the MS. 5 Has] Hath MS. Engraved from the copy in the MS. passint. symbolized by a female figure. A dark-secret love her MS. In the howling storm. It differs considerably from the engraved illustration.Songs of Experience 23 1 Soon my Angel came again I was arm'd. . del. is represented as a bright and beautiful being. 15. 16 For head] The same hnes. Book. Blake personifies Natural . or Moral Law. taken from Canticles vi. And grey hairs were on my head. take . generally associated Religion. And his Does thy dark secret love life destroy. . Has found out thy bed Of crimson joy 5 .' Shepherd prints this By the name Tirzah. Instead of the worm preying upon the heart of the rose there is a youth prostrate on the ground. To rise from Generation Then what have I to free: do with thee? Not in MS. 4. Book x\ and the first version of Ina Mirtle Shade' (MS. destroy] .' are used by Blake as the final couplets to 'Infant Sorrow' (MS. 7. In Jerusalem and Milton. 15 For] ' . 107 reversed). Spiritual Body. Doth life destroy MS. Book an erased and illegible word. 13 : . above Tirzah Whate'er is Born of Mortal Birth i Must be consumed with the Earth. 8 And . The original coloured design is found on p. Book. with the change of 'were' to are. as if in the spirit of the rose. Book (p. he came in vain For the time of youth was fled. . On the robe of one of the figures in the design at the foot of the page is written ' It is Raised a the rest omit. Sick Rose O Rose. Tirzah. Book. del. thou art sick The That invisible flies i ! worm. To is/ rdg. in the night. Book The \st rdg. ' But MS. Book xiii). 7 his] regret at seeing flight.

Image of truth new-born. Asserting the Self-righteousness against the Universal Saviour. WMR. EY. Songs of Innocence^ though sometimes placed by Blake among the Songs oj Experience. Milton^ f. 5 This poem is generally found as one of the Not in the MS. Eyes. Mocking the Confessors & Martyrs. does implicitly overrate its power upon the soul for evil or good. 41-45 : — ' Rahab created Voltaire Tirzah created Rousseau. come i hither. 122: '"Tirzah. things pleasant and good for the one can properly be loathsome or poisonous to the other. And see the opening morn. & Ears Didst bind Didst close my Tongue 9 . And with false self-decieving tears my Nostrils. making War upon the Lambs Redeemed : To War & perpetuate Laws Glory. 6 Blow'd] Blown la bind] blind DGR. Thou Mother of my Mortal part With cruelty didst mould my Heart. 20. and thus falls foul of fact on all sides by assuming that spirit and flesh are twain. Book. 11. in senseless clay. Dark disputes & & clouds of reason. p. also for the flesh which. mother of the perishing body and daughter of the " religion.' 5 sprung] sprang EY.124 So7igs of Experieiice The Sexes sprung from Shame & Pride Blow'd in the morn . to perpetuate the of Sin." in his mythology. WBY. artful teazing. and perverting the mild influences ot the lovely Enitharman. or Space : cp. In all the early issues of the former it occurs as verso to ' The . And me to Mortal Life betray Death of Jesus set me free 13 : The Then what have I to : do with thee ? preying upon and pitying her victims. s . and that . while pretending (and that in all good faith) to despise the body and bring it into subjection as with control of bit and bridle. represents the mere separate and human nature. II tears] fears The Voice Youth WMR. . in evening died But Mercy chang'd Death into Sleep The Sexes rose to work & weep." which occupies itself with laying down laws Cf. claiming Self-righteousness With cruel Virtue.' Swinburne. Doubt is fled. Essay. Swinb. DGR. of the Ancient Bard of delight.

DGR. to omit the e of the final ed in the preterite or participial termination. And feel— they know not what but care And feel— they know not what save care DGR..' i . jealousy] filled to my 8 Blake's pretty rose tree In the silence of the night . MS. Such a flower as May never bore But I said I've a Pretty Rose-tree.' invariable practice. 5 To The first in the poem original draft.Songs of Experience 1 25 an endless maze. But my Rose turn'd away with jealousy.. How many have fallen there! They stumble all night over bones of the dead. Shep. The only exception 4 passed] ' to this rule is in the case of words where the omission of the e might possibly lead to confusion with another word. del. Folly is lo Little Black Boy.' 6 To . tend her by day and by night. ii . Book 1st rdg. . forming a connecting link with the Introduction to the Songs of Experience. Pretty Rose Tree My A flower was ofifer'd to me. : facsimiles. Book (on p. care] Wilk. lo And . Without 115 reversed). See editor's Bibliographical Preface to the Songs. And her thorns were my only delight. And her thorns were my only delight. was me I . 7 turn'd] turned ' all except rdg. And feel they know not what but care. ' And passed the sweet flower I o'er. WBY when] where Muir's WMR. Then I went to my Pretty Rose-tree. reprinted in Gilchrist's Life (ii. Ri. Book 2nd rdg. title in the This and the two following songs are engraved upon a single plate. by night] In the silence of the night MS. Shepherd and other editors ruin the melody of this line It was Blake's almost by reading 'passed' or ' pass'd for 'passed. my rose was turned from me. g. her] it MS. e.' while in the latest issues it is commonly placed last.. Tangled roots perplex her ways. not only in manuscript but in engraved poems. 9 stumble] tumble "^nw' % facsimile {Songs of Experience). end). where he did not intend it to be pronounced as a separate syllable. And wish to lead others. preferable to that of the engraved went ' first Songs : 15/ version — . pined not pin'd. del.' But ' was turned from me MS. when they should be led. Book with Jealousy. . by night] R* omits by. EY. turn'd : and replaced by of this stanza seems to * Then .

and gave the poem an entirely different turn by changing the word lustful to modest. Book. it ' in its contrary state. the pale Virgin shrouded in snow. Where the traveller's journey done is . stain her beauty bright. substituting for it finished. from the first rough draft without title on p. In its present form this beautiful little poem might more fitly rank as a Song of Innocence than a Song of Experience but the first draft.' and completing the quatrain * ' (as in the three. with its successive alterations as seen in the MS.' and finishing the then went on lustful rose. ' ' ' ' engraved version) by a fourth line simply explanatory of the first .' ' he felt ' that envious ' Beginning by writing The did not express his three words.' ' ' — rose puts envious ' full .' but here. and deleted the — last line with The coward sheep a threat'ning horn While the lilly white shall in love delight. Where my Sun-flower Not in the MS.26 1 Ah Songs of Experience Sun Flower ! Ah. meaning. Who countest the steps of the Sun Seeking after that sweet golden clime. — the soldier peace. a thorn. 5 Arise from their graves. writing above them the words puts forth a thorn. Lilly The modest Rose puts forth a thorn. Where And the Youth pined away with desire. he cancelled this line also. Sun-flower! weary of i time. shows that Blake originally conceived . to & peace. and following song.' He . . 3 clime] prime The Engraved on the same plate as the preceding DGR. perceiving that his rime had disappeared. And at the lion increase freedom which point he drew a On line under the poem a subsequent reading he deleted the last * The & priest loves war. and aspire wishes to go. nor a threat. Book. . . Engraved on the same plate as the two preceding songs. The humble Sheep a threat'ning horn While the Lilly white Nor Love shall in i . 109 (reversed) of the MS.' and coward to humble. Book.' show that it was line. delight.

141) falls into the same error. ' Und ich sah ihn mit Grabern gefQllet. Garden of Love sweet flowers bore turn'd to the so many . Ich ging einst Und Am Wo ' II.). I never had seen A built in the midst. This is Idndisches 12 binding] choking R'. read 'filled' ( = fiird in all except Wilk. followed by and EY prefix as the first two stanzas of this poem the lines beginning WMR — DGR ' I laid me down upon a bank Where Love lay sleeping . Rasen stand eine Capelle. Der Blumen sonst brachte hervor. writ over the door 5 . saw it was filled with graves. Book. Und "du sollst nicht" stand auf dem Thor. So kehrt' ich zum Garten der Liebe. is . no authority for this in the engraved version. was ich nimmer gesehn. were] was Wilk. and Rossetti was evidently misled by the immediate juxtaposition of these two songs in the MS. 9 filled] filled MS. 9 tomb-stones where flowers should be Priests in black gowns were walking their rounds. Und senktcn in Schmerz mein licbendes Herz. I : Engraved on a single plate from the fair transcript on the first page (p. sonst ich pflog spielend zu gehn. ' i. Und zu war die Thur der Capelle. sah. Book and orig. I to the Chapel was Where used to play on the green. binding with briars my joys & desires. Book 15^ rdg.Songs of Experieitce 1 27 The Garden of Love went And saw what Garden of Love. I And the gates of And Thou shalt ' So I That And And And And i : this not ' Chapel were shut. Swinburne {Essay^ p. Without title in the MS. There . the Vater- . . Book. 7 So] And MS. del. 5 this] the R^.' . (1806) : — Dr. 2 And saw] And I saw MS. Book. Und Grabstein'. another of the poems translated by Museum. Julius in zum Garten der Liebe. and Shep. II in] with R^. wo Liebe sollt' sein Und Priester in Trau'r umgingen die Mau'r. where however they are clearly divided by Blake's usual line of separation. 115 reversed) of the MS. all edd.

MS. — ' The mother ''O. Book was . \st rdg. . Nor venerates another so. Book \st rdg. that I follow'd.' in the preceding line being deleted and replaced 12 the] his Wnnz facsimile. such a fiend should bear!'" These are deleted and replaced by — 'Then led him by To shew The last line is his little coat. how can I love you Or any of my brothers more ? I love you like the little bird That picks up crumbs around the door. his zealous priestly care. . 7 I bird] I love myself: so does the bird MS. . del. Book. Bk.' ' 5 The Priest sat by and heard the child. 11. here. del.' . Nor is it possible to Thought A greater than itself to know: i And. io6 (reversed) of the MS. And standing Lo what a ! ' on the altar high. Book 15/ rdg.28 1 A Songs of Experience Boy Lost Little ' Nought loves another as itself. sets reason up for judge ' One who fiend 13 is Of our most holy Mystery.' Engraved on a single plate from the rough draft on p. the by ' &. Book \st rdg. weeping loud. del. . 13-16 This stanza appears to have followed the fifth in order of composition. Father.' again cancelled and rewritten * And word 'Then' all — admir'd his priestly care. how 5 And] Then MS. In trembling zeal he siez'd his hair 9 : He led him by his little coat. 12 The first reading of these two lines in the MS. And all admir'd the Priestly care. you] I cannot love you 6 Or] Nor MS.' said he. . del.

20 They chain] They 19 They] And MS. things done on Albion's shore ? but the "Albion " of Blake's verse is never this not. Book ist rdg. piping loud. "Are such " " one is provoked to respond. si'mbolic of more than we can safely define or conceive. . Book xst rdg. bound the httle ivory limbs In a cruel iron chain MS. ai And place] They burn'd him in a holy fire MS. i . Book' (x). . ii. Experience. . To sulk Engraved upon a upon my I 5 thought best mother's breast. i26\ 'To the surprising final query. and peopled with vague pre-Adamite giants. and changed to above. . Swinb. Infant Sorrow My mother groan'd. del. altered as above. comments {Essay. my father wept. single plate. On the whole. the Rossetti K will be found . Are such things done on Albion's shore 21 : ? 19. Struggling in Striving Bound and weary. del. . the original of which is among the number reprinted by Gilchrist {Life. with shore ?] first and last words del. end). The weeping parents wept in vain They strip'd him to his little shirt. Like a fiend hid in a cloud. 24 Are Such things are done on Albion's shore MS. Into the dangerous world I leapt Helpless.' . Where many had been burn'd before The weeping parents wept in vain. my father's hands. 113 (reversed) of the MS. And bound him an iron chain in .Songs of Experience 129 The weeping child could not be heard. as far as we can see" weaving and spinning country of our working days it is rather some inscrutable remote land of Titanic visions. . And burn'd him in a holy place. Compare the much fuller form of this song found on p. Book. only the first two stanzas of which were engraved by Blake for the Songs of among 'Poems from SAMPSON The complete poem MS. p. . . . Book xst rdg. moated with silent white mist instead of solid and sonorous surf. against my swadling bands. 17 . Book \st rdg. . naked.

' the completion of the Songs of Experience Blake. like 'The Little Girl Lost. cruel eye outworn.1 30 Songs of Experience The School Boy I love to rise in a summer morn i When the birds sing on every tree distant huntsman winds his horn. See Bibliographical ' Preface to the Songs. in the On early issues. bower. transferred these poems to the latter series. it is always printed as verso to the last plate of 'Spring. his tender wing. what sweet company. WMR.' and 'The Voice of the Ancient Bard. This song. reprinted from an electrotype of the original copper in Gilchrist's Life (ii. Book. . EY. the sky-lark sings with me. The And O . How can a child. singing DGR. -where. Ah then at times I And Nor Nor many an my book can in sit Worn How I spend in learning's ii drooping sit. ! But to go to school O drives it ! Under a all in summer morn. 2 When .. thro' with the dreary shower. I in] on all except Shep. a joy away 6 .' 'The Little Girl Found. Not in the MS. when fears annoy. The little ones spend the day In sighing and dismay. end). sing] When birds are . in most cases. father ! And And Of forget his youthful spring? 21 if the tender plants are strip'd their joy in the springing day. anxious hour. In the editions of Wilkinson and Shepherd ' The School Boy appears among the Songs of Innocence. Engraved upon a single plate. if buds are nip'd blossoms blown away. . I take delight. WBY. sorrow and care's dismay.' originally formed one of the Songs of Innocence. But droop And O By & mother. can the bird that is born for joy i6 Sit in a cage and sing.

Book A mark istrdg. del. del. . Book istrdg. harlots' Wilk. harlot's rest. ? London wander thro' each charter'd street. Near where the charter'd Thames does And mark in every face I meet Marks of weakness. Or the summer fruits appear ? Or how shall we gather what griefs Or bless the mellowing year. 13-16 In the MS. Book this stanza was at first written Engraved on draft of this WMR . 14 Harlot's] No apostrophe in orig. 109. EY. — But most the midnight harlot's curse From every dismal street I hear. . And blasts the new K born 3 infant's tear. ' . Book. 6 In WBY. I i flow. marks of woe. however. ii. . MS. When the blasts of winter appear 1 3 1 26 destroy. . del. del. The mind-forg'd manacles How I hear. in every ban. del. 2 charter'd] dirty MS. a single plate. .Songs of Experience How shall the summer arise in joy. In every Infant's cry of fear. to have been Blake's first intention to close the poem with this stanza. It would appear rdg. (corrected. Book 15/ 9 How] But most etc. 8 The hear] The german forged links I hear MS. in some later editions). 10 Blackens o'er the churches walls MS. the hapless Soldier's sigh in blood down Palace walls. 5 In every voice. Book istrdg. Book. But most thro' midnight streets I hear 13 How the youthful Harlot's curse Blasts the new born Infant's tear. the Chimney sweeper's cry Every black'ning Church appalls And Runs 9 . . .(reversed) of the MS. fear] In every voice of every child MS. 3 And mark] And see MS.' . In every cry of every Man. Weaves around the marriage hearse. This plate is among the number reprinted by Gilchrist (Z-y^. I. with some important changes from the first poem found on p. And blights with plagues the Marriage hearse. Book 15^ rdg. end).

. Once a youthful Fill'd 10 pair. Strangers came not near. How the midnight harlot's curse Blasts the new born infant's tear. that place to man] of blood. 1-4 In the engraved original this introductory stanza is written indented roman characters. the body of the poem being in italic.' Sjxlt. in Engraved on a single plate. 107 same epithets — and 99 reversed): in a quatrain twice repeated in 'An Ancient Proverb. that marriage hearse. .' Blake's use of the Compare MS. There. ' Remove away Remove away Remove away 'Twill A [alt. Reading Know Love. Book the (pp. 15 There] Then all except Shep. Book. in rising day. Youth and maiden bright To the holy light. You'll] quite Girl Lost Little Children of the future Age. And hangs \alt. Parents were afar. 5 Free from winter's cold. the grass they play On 15 . to smites] with plagues the marriage hearse. And the maiden soon forgot her fear. that in a former time. with softest care. Not in the MS.32 1 Songs of Experie7ice — This was cancelled and followed by ' But most front through wintry] streets every \alt. remove the ancient curse. Met in garden bright Where the holy light Had just remov'd the curtains of the night. Naked in the sunny beams delight. to I hear. WBY. i this indignajit page. In the Age was thought a crime! of Gold. sweet Love. to that black'ning church.

p. Waves And 20 meet agree to the weary tired wanderers weep. Book. Ona To thy ' ! O O pale and weak father speak 30 ! : the trembling fear. the dismal care. The first stanza and title original draft of this at first intended the 103 reversed) to form a poem complete in are an afterthought. snow] MS. 7 clothed] .. father and mother. second and third stanzas (on itself. Book. . 6 winter's snow] wintery wind clothed MS. was happy upon the heath. Shep. The song in the MS. Book. say? MS. 4 to the church] to church \aU. They clothed me in the clothes of death. . They When the silent sleep o'er heaven's deep. 3 Where say] Where are they. Book. in notes of Where are thy father & mother. But his loving look. clothed] . ! ! That shakes the blossoms of my ' hoary hair ! The Chimney Sweeper A black thing little among ' ' Crying ' ' ' 'weep 'weep ! ! the snow. 5 among the winter's snow. the rest clothed [ = cloth' d]. to [= MS.Songs of Experience 133 Tired with kisses sweet. orig. To her father white Came the maiden bright 25 . say ? They are both gone up to the church Because I And smil'd And taught i woe ' ! — to pray. All her tender limbs with terror shook. me Engraved on a single that Blake Book shows to sing the notes of woe. . cloth'd Wilk. Like the holy book. written in pencil upon a diff"erent page (io6 reversed). . plate.

spreads his baits with care. He sits down with holy fears. sweet to eat it Ruddy and And In the its the MS. And are gone to praise God & his Priest Who make up a heaven of our misery. del. end) from the draft The first title of the poem was 'The The human Image' substituted: the present (p. . and ' MS. ' beginning I heard an Angel singing. . Book. And his bears the fruit of Deceit. 20 its] 1st rdg. erased.1 34 ' So7igs of Kxperience And because am happy & I dance & 12 Who. Book. If all And 1 5 . The Human Abstract Pity would be no more If we did not make somebody Poor And Mercy mutual fear brings peace. . knits a snare. And waters the ground with tears Then Humility Underneath takes its 9 . misery] . Book 15/ rdg. 114 reversed). our misery MS. 9 with the Swinb. 107 reversed). . plate. Engraved on a single in .' & King. Book Earth. Book I would] could MS. 2 If there was nobody poor MS. Soon spreads the dismal shade Of Mystery over 13 head And the Catterpiller and Fly Feed on the Mystery. this song the fine variant version. fears] with his holy fears EY. no more could be were as happy as we. thickest] blackest MS.' MS. They think they have done me no injury. Raven his nest has made thickest shade. reprinted in Gilchrist (ii. Who wrap themselves up in 9 sing. Book (p. Book.' This title is not in the is Compare with 17 . . root his foot. del. Till the selfish loves increase Then Cruelty And .

Compare the passage . chap. watered with the tears of a jealous God. shot up from sparks and fallen germs of material seed being after all a growth of mere the topmost stem of it made into error. ' : ' ' signifies — Moral Law. who dwells in Chaos. thro' . A : The Tree spread over him its cold shadows (Albion groan'd).' A very similar ' description of the growth of the Tree is found in Ahanta thus condensed by Swinburne {Essay. Book The Tree of Mystery ' 14-19 11. and underneath his heel shot up he nam'd it Moral Virtue. 28^ He [Albion] sat by Tyburn's brook. And Secrecy the Human Dress. See Jerusalem. Out of fifteen examples of the Songs of Experience . 121) . : 23.' SONGS OF EXPERIENCE] Divine Image Cruelty has a Human Heart. they felt the earth. iii. And The The The The i . Human Heart its hungry Gorge. a cross whereon to nail the [To The A dead redeemer and friend of men. Human Dress is forged Iron. They bent down. rock of separation. 5 I place this poem as appendix to the Songs of Experience in the absence of evidence that it was included in any authentic copy of the Songs issued during Blake's lifetime. hidden from the human sight. Jealousy a Human Face Terror the Human Form Divine. and the Law deadly Tree Of God.' is/ rdg. f. an endless labyrinth of woe. : .' MS. Human Form a fiery Forge. 24 ' But Till their search was all in vain they sought in the human brain. where the growth of it is defined . p. Human Face a Furnace seal'd.Sojigs of Experience The Gods 1 35 of the earth and sea 21 Nature to find this Tree Sought But their search was all in vain There grows one in the Human Brain. and again enrooting Shot into many a Tree.^ last line del. and vegetable (not spiritual) life . rooted in the 1795). . {engr.

and there the watermark of the paper. Since then it has been included among the Songs without comment by W. Blake in October. after the death of Mrs. H. and the of plates specified as belonging to this work in his prospectus ' the Public (see Bibliographical Preface to the Songs) would seem poem with this number To show to that this was was his intention in October. It is quite clear that Blake engraved total ' a view to its forming one of the Songs of Experience. as well as to Gilchrist. Wilkinson. It is fairly plain too that — first editor. who rightly represents 54 as the number of plates belonging to a complete set of both series of the It is first introduced into the Songs of E. Rossetti and all who follow Shepherd in placing it immediately after Blake's later editors. which he has reproduced in facsimile at the end of his beautiful edition of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. is years after Blake's death. British who probably took it from the posthumously printed copy which the Museum had acquired two years before.vperience by R. dated 1832. This poem seems to have been unknown to tisement issued. when this adver- Blake rejected the plate without destroying it — perhaps because it was one of those which were engraved on both sides of the copper leaving it possible for it to be inadvertently introduced into one or two copies which may have been printed when the plates passed into other hands. 1831. M. Blake's (1866). proves that it must have been printed at least five Museum. A Little Girl Lost.1 Songs of Experience 36 known to British which me. the uncoloured copy in the Reading Room of the contains this plate. one only. William Muir. Shepherd Songs.' . 1793. The only other existing specimen of the engraved song is a proof impression (also uncoloured) in the possession of Mr.

POEMS from THE ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT (circa 1793-1811) commonly known as 'THE MANUSCRIPT BOOK' .

descriptive title for Blake's MS. that the book is made up of one 30. signed 'D. less commonly correctly. alternately. 15.G. and 54. Among the sketches there are ' : one or two Rossetti profiles of Blake himself transcribed certain of the contents. 'Ideas of Good and Evil. Palmer knew Blake personally. of different and smaller paper forming two leaves.' Rossetti 's earlier signature. and MS. of the volume an attendant in the Antique Gallery at the British Museum.' and sometimes. beginning The poems which Paradise. 42. 5. drawing paper present but the stitching in the centre of the quires after ff. tells how he became possessed I purchased this original MS.C. in on the verso of the second leaf. of Palmer. In of all probability Blake intended it to refer to the series and afterwards on engraved p.' The latter title. is a foolscap quarto volume (7|x6| 1-116 by its inches) of 58 leaves.' A pencil note on the verso of the flyleaf. it was from the artist's wife that he had the present which he sold me for loj-. on the 30th April. written. designs. upon which are written part of 'The Everlasting Gospel' and of his Canterpart of the first draft of Blake's description ' bury Pilgrims. is found written. a pencil sketch. Rossetti MS. '47.. 18.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT The Rossetti MS. is the name used in this edition as a book of notes and sketches.R. shows four gatherings of 16 and 8 gathering of 10 leaves and Bound in at the end is a folded sheet leaves The . heading them 'Verse and Prose by William Blake (Natus 1757: All that is of any value in the foregoing obiit 1827). published as T/ie Gates of not then been had title this under some editors include partially covered by bold script characters. . 'The called Book. paginated consecutively is without watermark The owner.

Book covers a period of of Blake's when book it life. in full number a small. for poetry. He had served first used it ' at least twenty years and for sketches only. most of those for the Visions of the DaiigJiters of Albiofi (engraved 1793). — . converted still later. besides other lyrical poems which he himself never published. Blake began to use the sketch-book for the transcription of some of his poems. my transcript (in tains a number of footnotes 139 D. the Songs of Innocence and The Book of Thel (both engraved 1789). Avoiding at first the pages on which sketches of any importance appeared. reversing the volume and beginning on Here he the three blank pages at the end of the book. were neatly written in two columns in year 1789. Urizen. some of which he subsequently rejected in his version of the poems printed in Gilchrist's Life.Rossetti MS. but the greater page. it into a note- The sketches two drawings of the figure of Nebuchadnezzar which Blake afterwards engraved in the undated Marriage of Heaven and Hell. we may infer that his use of the sketch-book began not earlier. of which 5 (evidently containing Epigrams 1-19) have been '^'>^ Part of the cut out. but probably not much later. when most of the leaves were thus filled. These pieces. for prose. C. G. from in cases earlier most apparently rough drafts.' referred to as Rossetti's R^) con- emendatory readings. In most cases the titles were afterthoughts. Blake continued to write from the reversed end as far as p. than the include Some of the sketches are colour or sepia. and Afnerica (all engraved As there are no designs for Blake's earlier works. About 1793. and. separation lines being drawn between the different poems. 98. This transcript. Book proper. labelled Blake MS. bound in at the end of the MS.' The volume is bound in half-calf and The MS. as our facsimile shows. this purpose. and some for the Songs of Experience. Vertical pencil lines are drawn through those poems which Blake engraved as part of the Songs of Experience. paper bears the watermark 1H44. certain of the Songs of Experience. consists of leaves. all the designs for The Gates of Paradise (engraved 1793). R. 1794). copied. but fairly clear hand. a few are are small finished or rough pencil drawings occupying the centre of the page. All the poems in this section of the book Songs of Experience or lyrics of the same character must have been written before the end of — the year 1793. pages has here been copied out.

' both of which were afterwards engraved as part of Jerusalem. 181 1. but from the original beginning of the sketch . In the same category should be placed his great unfinished poem ' The Everlasting Gospel.book. 4th. in a more perfect form the break of at day appear virgins in the Pickering MS. and were obviously written down. part of the poem being written. writing them. they relate to his differences with Hayley. Aug.' which. On p. Book is the note on And if I live one it on p. 21 begins the series of epigrams which may be dated from the end of Blake's stay at Felpham to the year ' 1809.' few of the poems in the Rossetti MS. Among the last entries in the MS.' were left in an unfinished state. 59. animnm solvere. Book version of I saw a monk of Charlemaine was afterwards split up The Grey Monk of by Blake into two separate poems the Pickering MS. which are probably. On pp. day. such as Fayette. 12 are as the lines ' Each man is in his spectre's power. To the same period evidently belong the epigrams on art and artists. while others have elsewhere The lines beginning Three received Blake's revision.. without view to publication. where I print them with the readings from the MS. are Blake's 'Advertisement' and 'Additions to the Catalogue for the year 1810. The MS. 3 and 2 is the fine poem spectre around ' me and My Swinburne points out. which form the first section of the MS. Rossetti 140 After writing these poems. Taking it up again about the beginning of his Felpham period.' which are scattered here and there throughout the book with frequent encroachments upon the sketches.. ' ' . and Discourses.' the last written piece in the MS. Book (i-xxxvi). Hunt. 'I say I shan't live five years.' and the long poem I saw a monk of Charlemaine. obviously after the exhaustion of other space. not as before from the reversed end. Blake discontinued the use of it as a notebook for several years. Book. is an extract From Belts Weekly Messenger. as Ellis and Yeats conjecture. On p. an overflow from his marginal notes to his copy of Reynolds's Stothard. he added some new poems. will be a Wonder. Cromek. 10. upon a scrap of paper bound in at the end of the book. Book in footnotes. night embodies precisely the same theme as Jerusalem (1804).MS. The earliest dated entry in the MS. now preserved in the British Museum. and the 'Address to the Deists' in p. Fragments of this are drafted or copied on blank spaces left on the now crowded pages. ' A ' ' ' * ' — Jerusalem. June 1793 ' ! ^^ latest.

xli. Title-page. Sketch (sepia). 3. For the year t8io. lost. And a Wonder. Book [MS. 25 (Gilchrist's Life. 10. WMR Sketch (pen and ink) [see (a)]. 7. Daphne. — To engrave on pewter. 141 In the following Index to the Rossetti MS. and Engravings. p. Johanna Southcott. from p. Blake s Catalogue of Pictures. Rossetti Manuscript (followed by periejice number of poem in the present edition) Advt.] —A Sketch (pencil). 11. Rousseau. Book xxxix. con. Despair. [MS. the Index should be read backwards page by page. Book xxxviii. WMR. My spectre continued (stanzas 9. men p. Mock p. I I engrave on copper. p. Advertisement to Blake's Canterbury Pilgrims from Chancer. Memoranda.] I live it . of MS. M. &c. .] Mock on.. 1807. Book xl. without which the art is [Advt. Sketch. 5. [MS. poems. taining anecdotes of Artists (apparently intended as Blake's own title for piece which Rossetti and others call Public Additions to Address')..] — Sketch (pencil). Cat. and *3). . between Two & seven in the Evening one will be shan't Note.] p. no. Italics indicate sketches or prose. 13. young woman dressing. — If Prose. 2. and continued straightforwardly from p. if ii. Book. When When [MS. [MS. 8. ii. spectre around me night Ideas of Good & Evil. To p. ii. . weak capacities . 383-403). pp. Drawings. On the Virginity of the Virgin Mary p. Note.] & day. 3 to For the same point. 6. written from the To follow reversed end. Rossetti's Annotated Lists of Blake's Paintings. pp. reference may be made to Gilchrist to Ellis and Yeats (vol. 98. the sketches.] Klopstock England defied. p. *2. . — say years. 9. The or ii) — : MS. Book p.Rossetti MS. * ' INDEX TO 'THE ROSSETTI p. & on. I. of first last words are which few or the only prose passages. 115 to p. S. June 1793. Index.' xxxvii. 158. 242-243). Voltaire. are marked by an asterisk. W. Book xxxvii.] —Tuesday Jan' 20. roughly Blake's own order of writing the poems enumerated.E. To woodcut on pewter.. ID. live five [See Gil. Sougs of Exfollowing contractions are used in this quoted (vol. a man has married a wife.' List 2. 1810. . 4. and prose contents are given in the order in which they occur in the volume inverted pieces. 12.. My — [MS. *i.

Prose. — H [MS. 18. p. [Advt.] And in melodious accents L [MS. Three Virgins at the Break of day. : To Prose. Rossetti 142 p. 24) [Advt. Madman I have been called. —The WMR (h). — p. — Rubens' Luxembourg gallery Note. therefore of the Amateurs of [Advt. is . not.. [Advt. . Sketch (sepia).] [MS. 25..) Sketch. — Princes appear to me to be fools Sketch. Book xlvii.. [Advt.] Each man is in his spectre's power. 23. The Birds. 12. . [MS. [Advt. . Sketch. .] The Sussex Men are Noted Fools. Book xlviii.] 1. [MS. The Golden Net. [MS. . Sketch. Fool they call thee. (continued on p.— '^S^e WMR {Inferno. Book li.] You think Fuseli is not a Great Painter. 14. p. Book liii. [MS. p. WMR (b)]. I (g)]. p. — Columbus discovered America not because there cannot be any difference Prose. .~\S&& in this p. [^Jerusalem.] You don't believe. p..] Was p. [MS.. p. ill etc. 22.— For Gates 0/ Paradise. Prose.] Prose. To : find the Western path. Prose. —There should consider the following. — (The same. No real style of colouring ever appears. — In [Advt. (fi. P. p.] painters of England are unimployed intellectual riches. 15.] For Gates of Paradise. 16.] Canto xxxiv. — Art the encouragement which is my due nothing can hinder my course.] —The wretched state of the arts demand country . To F Book liv. .] Terror in the house does roar. . p. [MS.S. — For Gates of Paradise.'] I saw a Monk Morning of Charlemaine. Book xlvii. [MS. [Advt. Book Anger & Wrath my bosom rend. Book lii. storehouse of I angry with Hayley who used me so ill. Book xliv. 21.] p. [MS. as guilty of Prose.. — Oh rare wisdom.] I by thee am Mocked. MS. 26.] Note. Book xlii..)] — wonder who can say speak no of the dead Note. p.] p. [Advt.— Tor Songs of Experience— 'ThQ^ickRose: [See WMR p. confessed . [MS.. . William Blake.] . 20. Sketch. [MS.MS.] — (continued from p.] And his legs cover'd it like a long fork.. Book Prose. Book xlix. Book xlv. . though .] You don't believe continued. 17. 13. I'm glad. [Pickering — ? Lucifer discovering Judas. 24. Book xliii. ir. [MS. [MS. I won't attempt to make ye. in the journeyman's labour. Prose. as a public duty. 19.] a commercial : Iv.) [See Sketch.] nation I do not believe I mock thee . 25) .] Sketch. Sketch. — (The same. Book xlvi. ' ' I etc. is mental high treason. Sketch. etc.] Who that has eyes ..) Sketch.

all [MS. what the Prophets write. Ixxxiv.J The Angel that presided o'er my birth. A Pitiful To Sir Joshua sent his own portrait to. Ixvii. Mr. [MS. the Editions. Book Ixii. Book Of p. : Ixxii. Book : . 4). Book bring. WMR.] He is a Cock would. Can there be anything more mean. [MS. ] Sketch. does pretend continued : 3. Stothard : Fortune favours the Brave. S in Childhood on the nursery To Nancy F [MS. [MS. 29.] Sir Joshua praised Rubens with a smile. a.] Mr.] Sketch (pencil).] .] say. How : 143 [MS. [MS. Ixxvi. Book Ix.] p. Book Ixv. Book Ixxvii. Imitation of Pope.] On H do.] p. Ivi. Book Ixxiv. 28.] To F You call me Mad 'tis folly to do so. H can floor. He (i)]. Sir Joshua praises Michael Angelo.— [See Some men H WMR. [MS. p.] it is — : [MS.] Cosway Frazer & Baldwin of Egypt's Lake.] help thy husband's copying me.] Petty Sneaking Knave I knew. Ixiii. For Visions of the Daughters of Albion. Book Ixiii.] To H Book : Thy friendship oft has made my heart to ake.] P loved me not as he lov'd his friends.] I am no Homer's Hero you all know. Rossetti p. [MS. 33.] p. You say [MS. p. Cromek: For Fortune's favours you your riches [MS. [MS. [MS. Book Ivii. 30. (j).] reserve and modesty he has. old proverbs [MS.] He's a Blockhead [MS. [MS.] [The Everlasting Gospel. Book Ixi.MS. 34. the Case : The villain at Royal Academy: A the gallows tree. & the Ladies. Book Cr who wants a proof of what he can't Perceive. 27. [MS. To Book p. Cromek to Mr. [MS. [MS. Book Ixxxii. Book Ixxxi. [MS. Book Ixvi. Ixxix. : When H y finds out what you cannot [MS. Book Ixxx. [MS. Book Ixiv. 37. loves artists as he loves his Meat. On F and S I found them blind.] Sketch.] S d You all your Youth observ'd the Golden Rule. has observ'd the Golden Rule. lix. [MS. On S (11. Book Ixxv.] true. For Gates of Paradise.] To forgive enemies H does pretend. 35. 26. Stothard to Mr. 36.] p.] created for destruction come. Sketch. I Iviii. Florentine Ingratitude Book p. Book a compliment to [MS. Book lix.] to see. Book Ixxviii. A [MS. [MS. y's Friendship To forgive enemies Book Ixxviii.— [See : [MS. Ixxxiii. Book p. Book Strange Erratum in Ixxiii. [MS. 32. Book Ixx.] was birth this 's — the happy [MS.] 31. I taught them how If p.] [MS. Book Ixxi. Book lot. Book Ixxxv.

. I. My Ixxxviii. The Washerwoman's Song I wash'd them out and wash'd them in. but if he chooses to leave it before he has spoil'd it he will do a Better Thing. Book xciv.] Great things are done when Men & Mountains meet.] Machination. Another: I was buried near this dyke. 41. [MS. [MS. Book cviii. you look I always take [MS. [MS.— "^Invdcr. Book he and I my judgement from a Fool. Book Ixxxvii. (k).] For Marriage of Heaven and Hell Sketch (pencil).] Raphael Sublime Majestic Graceful Wise. 46. [MS.] title is prov'd.] When I see a Rubens Rembrandt Correggio.] These are the Idiots' chiefest arts. [MS. [MS. Sketch. The p. [MS. 38.] All pictures that's painted with sense and Book xcviii.] Note. Sketch. Book cvii.] cv. with thought.p. [Advt. Book xcii. Book xciii. 44. Sketch. MS. [MS. Prose.] : Book p. p. Book civ. Rossetti 144 An Come knock heads against this stone.] Here lies John Trot. [MS. 45. p. [MS. To English Connoisseurs You must agree : that Rubens was a fool. the Friend of all mankind. [MS. given [MS. [MS.] p. Book xcvi. On to the H Learned the Pickthank Pig. you always can at a picture English Encouragement of Art. [MS. 5. 42. For Gates of Paradise I have said to corruption etc. You say till cii.] Learn the laborious stumble of a Fool.] [MS. Bookxci. Book c] I : write the rascal thanks. Swelled limbs with no outline that you can descry.] Cromek's opinions put into rhyme. ci. but not the same genius. Epitaph Book : j'our Ixxxvi.] Cromek speaks: Book ciii. . They say there is no straight line in nature — — — . 43. — — — * produce a Picture or Painting. [MS. appear While Titian &c. Book cvi. Book xc] as a Genius thus am Rubens.' Let a Man who has made a drawing gt) on & on & he will Note. [MS. Science is soon got . On — the Book & great encouragement labours. 40.] — p. 37.] Sketch.] their Pictures well painted be. cripple every step drudges For Gates of Paradise. p. [See WMR.] A Pretty Epigram for the encouragement of those Who have paid great sums in the Venetian and Flemish ooze. the other never can be acquired but must be born.] a Statesman and a Saint. Book xcv. There is just the same science in Lebrun or Rubens or even Vanloo that there is in Raphael or Michael Angelo. 39.] If I e'er Grow to Man's Estate. Book by English Give Pensions p. [MS. : p. [MS. Book xcvii. Book cix. p. Book When Nobility. see. Delicate — as in the Book Hands & Heads will never of Moonlight.] Prose. xcix. [MS. [MS. Another [MS. . Nebuchadnezzar. [MS. Book Ixxxix.

. . Prose. Rossetti p. [Advt.] this is that e'er I — In knew. Book cxi. — (Continued from on 145 [Advt. [The Everlasting Gospel. But that is not — Every line Prose. 7-. p. — Prints art. Pro5^. Note.53- [Advt. [Advt. The Everlasting Gospel. .MS.] 72-92. 3. is which doubts and hesitates in the midst of its course.— Y\&xma. .] p. 53-71. Sketch. 50.. 51. I forget.] p. in [Advt. p.. plate Mr. 54.] [The Everlasting Gospel.. Sketch. Book being a Friend just in the nick. [The Everlasting Gospel.. — . asserted that Woollett's.] Sketch. 11.u cannot deny . is never correct. you play a Game of chance. 46. .5. this 11.] Everlasting Gospel. Prose. Everlasting Gospel.55. . 57.] people are so foolish . 27-52. 1-25. 26-83. — Of my Work & approbation Prose. 46) . 47).] [MS. —Woollett I know . It is only fumble and bungle which cannot draw a line. . containing anecdotes of Artists. beginnings of [Advt. 11.] WMR. 52.] I will tell you what Joseph of Arimathea. .— For these thirty-two Years . Book cxv. . . P.'] master's touch. [The [The [The [The Everlasting Gospel. This day is Publish'd Advertizements to Blake's Canterbury Pilgrims from Chaucer. 47. . 77.] Prose. Book cxiii. — — [Advt.] Prose.. [MS.] ] (7^ 11.— I do not pretend to Paint better than Rafael which they understand not. I hope this print .] Prose. 6. 56. This only is ugliness. B. Sketch (pencil). Prose. 48. It is very true what you have said. p.. p. p. 11. [Advt. [MS. [Advt. 93-96.) — The manner in which my character has been blasted Prose. [Jerusalem. [Advt.] p.] a line If [Advt. — Many 7'. cxii. condemnation.] Grown old in Love from Seven till Seven times Seven. 49. (or Mich.] has resumed .. Book ex. —This was spoke by My Spectre to Voltaire Bacon &c.— [See Why [MS.) . Ang. (continued *I give you the end of a golden string. [MS. 1-26.] were superior to Basire's because . 11. .] p. g.] p. cxiv.] Prose.] — Nebuchadnezzar. .] the line of beauty. 5. p.] Everlasting Gospel. . The only Man For 11. .. as Machlin told me at the time for P. (1).] [The Everlasting Gospel. [Advt.] was Cupid a Boy. [The Everlasting Gospel.. g.— The Cottager's . Prose. . . .] Note. Prose. paid what they put in on these ungracious subjects. 84-106. [MS. 5. Book [The Everlasting Gospel.Prose. . . reputation as a draughtsman. [Advt. [Advt.] Woollett's best works . 11.

] but not to (c). & Michael Angelo.] — What kind of intellect .] Prose. Noblemen follows nonsense for . . [Advt. Prose.] For Gates of Paradise.. [Advt. . to look at his print. 60.] Sketch. — Resentment for Personal Injuries has Prose. [Advt. no good workman Fools do often Me inspire. Book cxx. like Fuseli Milton. — In this de draw. Having given great offence by writing Prose. Sketch. Book cxviii. Men think they can Copy Nature Prose. .— TrofAQ of Blake. Shakespeare laugh at what others can see no crime in. . Book cxix. p.] I always thought that Jesus Christ was a snubby or I should Note.] detestable Falsehood .] time has crook'd. [Advt. — From Cratelos. [Advt. p. but he could not.] public address but love to my art and had some share my zeal for greater. . Vasari Prose.MS. tells us. [MS. Book cxviii.] To Venetian Artists Perhaps this little Fable may make us merry. [Advt. men will act like a maid smiling over a churn. manner the English public . . p. [Advt. Book cxxi. Is that he does. 66. [MS. [Advt] Prose. . O : [MS. manifest to . Human Characters as they exist age after age. — Let us teach Buonaparte & whomsoever else may concern Prose. not have worshipped him if I thought he had been one of those — long spindled nosed rascals. my Dear asked I .] [MS. 63.. Infirm is all me . 62. dear Mother Outline of wisdom most sage. 61. [MS. 58. it that it is not Arts that follow that attends Prose. & not the forms of Things. — It is upon & attend upon Empire but Empire The Arts. Englishmen rouse yourselves — —A — . Aug. 65. Book cxvii. & Sketch.] Colouring Newton does show.] [MS. Book cxx. which is their Error. ..] — — For Gates of Paradise What we hope we see. — is . If — Chaucer's Canterbury Pilgrims. . — From Bell's Weekly Messenger. Friend Orator Prig.. p. [MS. 64. but day do not draw . [MS.] p. Extract. [Advt. Prose.] Prose. That God Prose. he. 4*** 181 1 all. 59.] my — Later Note.] Some p.] etc. Sketch. . fine art. in this country a much — — Extract. Book cxxii. [See WMR.] [MS. Whoever looks at any . . [Advt.] For Gates of Paradise I found him beneath a tree. . trading competition.] Prose. Prose. Rosseiti 146 p.] Being a complete Index of in Prose.] Cooke wished to give to Hogarth . [Advt. — The English [Title for Advt. Sketch. . [Advt. [Advt. . 67. — For Songs of Experience — The Angel. I do not mean smooth'd up & Nigled Poco Pen'd and all the beauties [picked out] blurr'd & blotted but Drawn with a firm & & & decided hand at once. . — He who could represent Christ Men and *Great p.— I do not know whether Homer . p. Book cxvi. [Adv. Book cxx. artist Call that the Public Voice . — — I've given great Provision to Foes. Hogarth's works prove. God or man. . p.] make a Man. [MS.

. .— [See WMR. 83. p. Pros?. p. together by the feet .MS.] Prose. — old heavens Art proportion to his means.— A jockey that is anything of a jockey . 85. Pros?. . . 1810. Prose. 1810. 75. Evil . p. [Cat. In Eternity one Thing vegetable Nature also. Knowledge of good & evil. all will be well. 72.— Tot Gates of Paradise Death's Door. [Cat.~K man sets himself yourselves to be disgraced. 84..] The Combats of Prose.] will never buy a horse has got any brains will never buy is not for the sake of convincing but for the sake of defending those it it. [MS. 79.— [Cat. last &c. [Cat. 1810. a Protection. p. [Advt. . 69. . Some to Blake's Catalogue of Pictures [Title for Cat. . p. — perdition of the Hebrew. Sketch. — The Characters removing the [Cat... 73. cord in his hand. . 1810.] Prose....] Sketches. — —The greatest part of what are 1810. Note. begs public protection and [Cat. 1810.. cxxiii. . Rossetti p. Book cxxviii. [MS. . [Cat. Sketches. whitloes on their . 1810. p. work of a Fool. — [Cat. on the brink of [Cat. Book cxxvii.] people admire the Prose.] Pros?.] who I who any truth tell know do not . 1810. [Cat.] 1810. —When those who p. by the colour & a man a picture by the colour.] p.— No Man of Sense . 1810.) Sketch.] Nail his neck to the Cross. 70.. . Sketches. .] To God. . For Gates of Paradise (frontispiece). . p. cxxvi. for will perceive . 1810. Bock cxxviii. Book [Cat.~Yor Gates of Paradise— At for hatching ripe.] p. 1810. p. [MS.. — The painter hopes that his Friends Amytus Melitus & Lycon p.) [Cat.] mental Charms. 74. .—The— when they assert that Jupiter Note. 68.] Prose.] Pros?. [Cat.] . . 1810. — Note here that Fable or allegory [Cat..] Prose— (continued from 83. Book cxxiv. [Cat.] p. Pros?.] Sketch— [See WMR (n). Book {A quarter of this leaf has been cut out. 76. 71. — — — Prose. .— No man of sense . p. (d).— And heal Visions .] Since all the Riches of this World.] Prose.. 77. do. in .] p. . . . Prose. . 1810. . call'd p. . Nofe. 81. 1810. [MS.— For the year 1810 Addition [Advt. — Over the head . 86. (m). fingers. . [MS. . p. [Cat. iBic] Prose.— [See WMR. — Just above .] 80.] Sketch.~23 May 1810 found the Word Golden. 78. [Advt. . 1810.] Prose. [MS. 1810. — Good L & 2. p. — Pros?.] To Chloe's breast Now young Cupid slily stole.] Prose.. Prose. a Male & Female chain'd [Cat. Between the Figures .. nail it with a nail. .. 67. . . the golden Age. p.— The originality of this 147 production . & Intentions. 82. as to believe this. The Last Judgment is not Fable [Cat. p. 1810. Art has lost its — — Prose. a Cruel Church.] Prose.] Prose.

[MS. . 11. Extract. [Cat. . 1810.] Note and Qtiotatious from Aphra Behn & Dryden. Sweeper. ' p. it. loi. p. 4. my sparrows. [SE. 130-1. Book xxxiii.] *The Fairy Come hither. Sketch. tell me what [MS. 90. — Represented those who are Envy the Success. [Cat. 100. 7^ 11. [MS. Book xxx. — that Bad art not with [Cat. 88.] 92. Book xxxvi. (The same. . p. 9. 104. stanzas 2.] *Riches The countless gold of a merry heart. Book xxiii. p. *Day The sun arises in the East. 6)..p.] Shall know them . 105. p. .] Do what you will this life's a fiction. *Littie *Motto Book p.. The Chimney [SE. p. 1810. . 96) signed Birmingham L* Note. 98. Prose. [MS. be Painting. The Caverns Prose. [The Everlasting Gospel. Prose. . [MS. p. p. August 1807. — For Europe — an assassin. *Several Questions Answered.] *Lacedemonian Instruction : Come hither.] Fayette (Stanzas p.] For Gates of Paradise Fire. Rossetti 148 [MS.] of the Grave I've seen. [MS. . . Book xxiv. [MS. 4. 97. Book xxxvi.] : : p. : boy. Book xxxi. /3.] fly. Book cxxx.] *An Old maid early e'er I knew. Sketch.] *An answer to the parson Why of the sheep do you not learn peace ? [MS. stanza 2. xxxii. p.] *The Question Answer'd What is it men in women do require : ! : : [MS. [MS. 1810. dated Sunday. Book xxxvi. 1810.] 99. p. 1810.] *The sword sung on the barren heath.] —Adam and Eve. — Of Satan or of Og than. [MS. 89. [MS. 1810. Angels [Cat. 1-38.] *Fayette (Stanzas i. [See Swinb. Essay. [MS. [MS.] *Holy Thursday Is this a holy thing to see.) [Cat. [Cat. 2. 103.) rose up at the dawn of day. . Book xxxiv. 10). Sketch. [Cat. p. [The Everlastins: Gospel. . [MS.] *The look of love alarms. 11.] [The Everlasting Gospel. MS. 87.] : : . Sketch. . 93. 3. pp. . Extract. I . gi. I . [MS. my thou seest there. Sketch (sepia) Prose. Book xxii. 1810. Prose.] — For Gates of Paradise— Earth. 94. .] 3.] *Her whole Life is an Epigram. — Men because Last Judgment &. — Such as Rafael Mercy have. 102. Book cxxix.] — For Gates of Paradise— Water. . .] — — — — stature. Copenhagen.] [SE. Book cxxxi. — (Description of Last Judgment. . [SE. the to Songs of Innocence & of Experience. Sketch. Sketch. Prose.] — Lines written surrender of 96. 38-57. *The Angel I dreamt a Dream what can it mean. 95. Book xxxv.] *Because I was happy upon the heath. Book xxxv. p. ^. Prose. he rears from the pool his mighty p. p.] — For Gates of Paradise —happier kit. Book xxix. — Continued (from p. 1-37. p.

*The Tyger Tyger.] The harvest shall flourish in wintry weather. Book xxvii. [MS. [MS.] p.] p. [SE. Dear Mother. [MS.] *The Chimney Sweeper (stanza i). [MS.] *Nought loves another as itself [A Little Boy Lost. [MS. 149 [MS. [MS. [MS.] *The wild flower's song As I wander'd the forest (stanza i). Book xvi. MS.] around the heath. : Book *The sick *Soft Snow Rose I : O : Rose.] father wept. p.] *The wild flower's song continued (stanzas 2. Book xxvi.] *Are not the joys of morning sweeter. 3. Sketch. [SE.] *Love to faults is always blind. : : : cold. little Kid. SE.] : Remove away [MS.] walked abroad on a snowy day.] mother groan'd.] p. [SE. 2. [SE. Book xxv. Book xx. Book xiv. : Abstract. Book xix. did'st play. Book xviii. Book xv. the Church is *Abstinence sows sand *In a wife would I all over.] *The Tyger Tyger. *Thou hast a lap *Earth's Answer full : *In a mirtle shade : [MS. burning bright (stanzas : i.] *The Kid Thou. 110. [MS. 3. 109. — Continuation of above. SE. — Suggests Urizen. [MS. Sketch. [MS. my My wind. Book xvii.] *To Nobodaddy Why art thou silent & invisible. Book xiii. 112.] should I be bound to thee. 113. 5. SE.] *Eternity He who bends to himself a joy. [MS.] *London I wander thro' each charter d street. *Merlin's prophecy [MS. 5. Tyger.Rossetti p. Sketches (pencil). [SE. 105. [SE.] *If you trap the moment before it 's ripe.] *They said this mystery never shall cease. [SE. burning bright (first draft of stanzas i. SE. [The Human : p. Book xi. [MS.] *There souls of men are bought & sold. Book xxxvi.] *The modest rose puts forth a thorn. 107. : : : Song. desire. 108.] up her head. III. Book xii. [The Lilly. my viii. Book [MS.] my Mirtle To a lovely mirtle bound. 106. Book *To : xvii. Tyger. p. Book xiii.] care for the men of thames.] *Love to faults is always blind continued (stanza 2). [MS. SE. [Nurse's : p.] [MS. Book vii. *An ancient Proverb Book xxxvi. also should I [MS.] *The human Image Pity would be no more. xix. Book xxi. 3). [MS. Earth rais'd Why [MS. *0 lapwing thou fliest *I fear'd the fury of *Infant Book *Why Sorrow: X.] [MS. Book ix. that black'ning church. of seed. thou art sick. i.] *When the voices of children are heard on the green. .] [MS. Sketch. Book xxviii. 6). p. 4 and 6).] *The little Vagabond Dear Mother. *Silent Silent Night.

Book v. p. 114. the mother said. Sleep. sleep. . SE. *A SE. Book iv. To find the western path. Prose.] bound — (Description of Canterbury Pilgrims.] *A cradle Song Sleep Sleep beauty bright. I grow to man's If e'er estate. [117].Rossetii 150 me MS. 1810. [The Garden of Love. Locusts. give you the end of a golden string. saw a chapel all of gold. p. Angel singing. 116.] [The Everlasting Gospel. Hail. \^Here follow the contents of the two leaves at the end of the MS.] the Rossetii MS. — Ofplagues of Egypt. Giants ancient inhabitants of England. me. to tell thy love. I. I I The angel who presided o'er my I saw a chapel all of gold. I see.] [MS. Where thou dwellest. Book i. List (in pencil). heard an angel singing.) — [Cat. Prose.] please. p. *I asked a thief to steal *I heard an a peach.] I was angry with my friend. When the voices of children are heard on the green. etc. SE.] *I laid *I *I — Of twenty -two subjects for history of England. Lice. Spectre around me night and day. [My my love. 115. List (in ink).) — (The same.] flower *I told my was offer'd to love I *Love seeketh not Pretty Rose Tree. [The Clod and the Pebble.] INDEX TO THE ROSSETTI TRANSCRIPT (R^) The My Everlasting Gospel (part). Book ii. [118]. A flower was offer'd to me. [119]. [120]. The look of love alarms. I see. Why was Cupid a boy. beauty bright. [MS. Three virgins at the break of day. *Christian Forbearance [A Poison p. [MS. [End of in [Descriptive Cat. [MS. Book iii. I laid me down upon a bank. p. Boils. p.] me down upon a bank. p. [MS. in what grove. Never seek 1 wander'd the forest. birth. Great things are done when men and mountains meet. Book vi. itself to told SE. : : Tree.] [MS.'] Prose.] went to the garden of love.] e.

he writes lives next door to Carlyle. 1 walk'd abroad on a snowy day. To Chloe's heart young Cupid slily stole. and is as near him in other respects as he can manage) wrote to me the other day. [Hiatus offive leaves J\ Five epigrams numbered 20-4.MS. He 's a blockhead who wants a proof of what he can't perceive. talk of your doing something in the way of publishing I know William thought of doing so. Prose descriptions of Blake's pictures. rose thou art sick. or by his friend. though I have told him he can see it here if he will give me a day's notice. man (one Gilchrist. Love seeketh not itself to please. without distinguishing between the two separate sources. to Gilchrist in the following year. saying he was writing a life of Blake. prints for the first time a number of poems from the Blake autograph in his own possession. Tyger. and wanted to Was there not some see my manuscript by that genius.' Rossetti. a peach. and on the death of the latter helped to complete his unfinished work by editing the selection from Blake's poetical and prose works given in the second volume of the Life. The countless gold of a merry heart. Under the heading Poems hitherto unpublished. Book.' Rossetti. I A have not yet engaged myself any way to said Gilchrist on the subject. Dear mother. Rossetti appears to have contennplated publication of part of the contents of the MS. I was angry with my friend. but really think its contents ought to be edited. dear mother. Canterbury Pilgrims and Vision of the Last Judgment. together with others ' . Mock on. Tyger. Nought loves another as itself. In making his transcript. who November i. Wilham In a letter to the latter dated AlHngham. Voltaire. and I have no time. What do I care for the men of Thames. the church I asked a thief to steal me is cold. i860. especially " '' if a new Life gives a shove to the concern (as Spurgeon expressed himself in thanking a liberal subscriber to his ' : Tabernacle). Rousseau. but its contents ? fancy it might wait long for his efforts. The caverns of the grave I've seen. edited by his brother. burning bright. did lend the MS. the poet. I rose up at the dawn of day. mock on. as we know. Rossetti The errors of a wise man make your 1 5 1 rule.

Rossetti.g.' About the same time the Pickering MS. 1887. and his Vision of the Last Judgment' (i. published in the same year. Book in his Critical Essay (1868). which has since disappeared. Ellis. Book must be sought (vol. and Jerusalem (vol. who soon after lent time to the publisher of Ellis and Yeats' large edition of Blake's Works.1 Rossetti 52 MS. M. of The Everlasting Gospel. In their description of the MS. pp. Book. gives for the first time some adequate conception of Blake's great and extraordinary poem ' ' ' The Everlasting Gospel.333-403). ii. and the Aldine edition which appeared in the same year. ii. bears obvious marks of having been made in haste by a copyist unfamiliar with Blake's hand.' Blake's Memoranda on his modes of engraving. 202-32) Ellis and Yeats include for the first time a few minor poems which had been rejected or ignored by former editors. by his copious extracts and illuminative comment. ii. and the prose Advertisement and Additions to Blake's Catalogue (vol. My * elsewhere. Mr. ii. 24-7). Shepherd. pp. copy of the manuscript. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' PP. which had already been printed by his brother. Book also he excerpts the prose manifesto which he calls Public Address. Pickering's last edition. 221-4). Their versions of some of the longer poems and prose pieces in the MS. and. by Mr. 42-60). Additions to Catalogue 1810).. ' . and 1874 edited by R. ' present owner. H. White. W. iSg^. From the MS. though not as stated all. He adds to the number of new poems printed. mutually supplement each other. Swinburne was the next to make use of the MS. by it its for a A made for Mr. W. The Ever' To the Deists in lasting Gospel (vol. 38). M. prints more. Book as well as i. Rossetti was able to use that part only of the Pickering MS. became the property of Basil Montague Pickering. 37. pp. was used for their three-volume edition. Ellis' transcript.' as well as a few new poems. 'Fayette' (vol. who printed the whole of it foi the first time in his editions of 1866. He takes considerable liberty with the text and gives to several of the pieces titles of his own. W. Yeats' in his small 'Muses' Library' Blake. Mr. 1868. A. the publisher. Book was purchased January 26. chiefly epigrams. pp. from the borrowed Pickering MS.e. e. if one may judge by the text of these editors. The Rossetti MS. spectre around me night and day (vol. who generally follows his brother's text. while Shepherd was prohibited from using any part of the larger MS. pp. ii.

lyric lovely In a Myrtle Shade ') gains by the recovery Rossetti's Blake's final readings. From these made by the transcripts copies of the poems have been present editor. any differences of reading being again Some idea referred to Mr.' yet the latter is not only as Blake wrote The to the poem. it. these changes are the reverse of improvements. 1 '> 5 text of the poems has been prepared from the MS. with all Blake's deletions. •. and any obscure passage submitted to minute My own scrutiny. Book cxv). given by the editor to unravelling Blake's method of buildup a poem. insertions. or where the MS. for the worse or for the better.Rossetti MS. together successive numerations of stanzas and lines (without careful observance of which many of the poems would be uninthe advantage of having been made by telligible). enabling the reader to follow the same . are here uniformly adopted. whether of Blake's final version. been read by Mr. Not the least important result of the plan here pursued besides the light which it throws upon Blake's self-criticism apparent in his successive changes is the new form in which a number of the most familiar poems now appear. possess a Blake student thoroughly familiar with his author's handwriting and mode of composition. . One may hesitate to change the generally received line Sweet morning leads me on (xliii) to Sweet mercy leads me on. as in 'Cupid' (MS. White. and collated with the chief texts. Book made by Mr. This edition therea facsimile. version of some of the Songs of Experience may be preferred to the text of the engraved book.'existing • ing The proofs have lastly process by reference to the notes. G. The aid of the magnifying glass or of photography has also been resorted to. These transcripts. while it serves every purpose of he matter in a much clearer and more intelligible form. Book mirtle bound a To (MS. Similar care has been four or five hours' close labour. and his marks of with transposition corrections. of the care bestowed upon this part of the work may be gathered from the fact that in more than one instance the White original transcription of a single page has cost Mr. White for the of transcripts present edition. but also imparts a deeper meaning D. xiii. — — ' ' ' ' ' ' Instances will be noted where. White for further examination. which faithfully reproduce the relative positions of poems or stanzas on the and original page. presents fore. and the text and notes again checked from the original manuscript.

The poetical pieces forming part of the MS. with the readings of the MS. ' ' . Book version. but not printed in this section of my edition. Book.Rossetti 154 MS.' which I print in the poems from the Pickering MS. are part of the Songs of Experience. and the two — ' quatrains Each man is in his spectre's power and I give you the end of a golden string.' afterwards engraved as part of Jerusalem and here printed among poems from the ' Prophetic Books. the variant readings of which are Three virgins at the suppUed in the footnotes to that work break of day.

Book Written i-xxxvl. MS. pp.POEMS FROM THE ROSSErri MS. in the reversed circa 1793 115-98 book .

' ignoring the separation between the two poems. cold. fears. and EY print these two stanzas of 'The Garden of Love. Swinb. reads shall for can. Silently. WBY 2.I ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT my I told told I love. ! Soon as she was gone from me. in Never pain [seek del. . del. punctuate by comma after heart and period 4 doth] did all edd.. .411 edd. as the first line WBY separately with title * The Thistles and Thorns. 3 heart . Driven out. Trembling. traveller came by. Book. under the title ' Love's All edd. A 5 — Silently. Where love lay sleeping.' DGR Printed by and later add. I heard among the rushes dank Weeping. iii. To the thistles & thorns of the waste And they told me how they were beguil'd. print the first stanza deleted by Blake :— p. Secret. read doth for does.. 0!. Weeping. invisibly O! was no MS.] to tell thy Love that never told can be For the gentle wind does move * love. DGR. . . p. Then went to the heath I & the wild. after fears. WMR MS. all edd. Book ist rdg. and all edd.' drawn prints . 8 WBY deny] He took her with a sigh MS. in ghastly Ah she doth depart. 5 Soon as] Soon after all edd. 11 me down upon I laid a bank. except fears] All edd.. 115. EY however note this. Book. Not deny. 93. Swinb. invisibly. & compel'd to be chaste. 115.' read seek for pain. p. told her all I my my heart i love. . .

p. p. entitle ' asked] asked = ask'd all edd. EY . I saw a serpent The white rise pillars between 5 of the door. 157 111 saw a chapel all of gold That none did dare to enter I i in. . 13 Vomiting] all except who WBY. Weeping. turn'd into a sty. 114. WMR. in . IV I ask^d a thief to steal turned up his eyes. Book \st rdg. 8 Till Down . & 13 on the wine. And along the pavement sweet. turn'd all edd. (p.' his poison out On And 9 .' this I lie her down : cries. Book. 205). Till He vomited DGR. = . reads. And he forc'd & forc'd & forc'd Down the golden hinges tore. she MS. Book. The Will and the Way. Swinb. Not in DGR. tore] Till he broke the pearly door MS. del. down the golden Vomited WBY. mourning. 2 He] And he MS. worshipping. Book. All his shining length he drew. laid me down among the swine. Set with pearls & rubies bright. ask'd a lithe lady to me a peach: He I Holy & meek. turned] turned i. he the golden hinges tore hinges tore. Book (Index to MS.Rossetti MS. EY steal] steel 1st rdg. 115. And many weeping stood without. del. Till upon the altar white Vomiting the bread So I MS. Not Sanctuary. DGR and all later editors entitle this 'The Defiled Swinb. . 141) and later edd.

5 sun went down. haycocks looked brown. all edd. went an angel came 5 : at the thief. omit. As 5 . Book ist rdg. 15 At his curse] Thus he sang & ' 16 frown] Here. and maid] And 'twixt earnest & joke MS. DGR and later edd. 6 He] all edd. at the dame . 8 said] spoke MS." note iii. happy] All edd. 3 Pity. And pity no more could be. del. xst And he MS. . Book rdg. without one word said a peach from the tree. del. as Blake's line drawn beneath . p.' At his curse the sun went down And the heavens gave a frown. Book 1st rdg. Book. del. .' Swinb. p. I heard an Angel singing When . Peace Is the world's release. Pity. still as a 8 maid Enjoy'd the Lady. name this The Two Songs. as two lines. 12 was] were all edd. were as happy as we. 5 4 Is] Are all edd. 97. An earlier version of The human Image (engraved under the title The Human Abstract in the Songs of Experience). . Book .. del. as. * 13 If all MS. all edd. Till the And I heard a Devil curse Over the heath & 9 the furze: 'Mercy could be no more If there was nobody poor. 114. 147. Peace] Pity and Peace all edd. ' ' ' ' ' Thus] So all would Swinb. ii Enjoy'd] He enjoy'd MS.I s Rossetti 8 As soon as I He wink'd And smil'd And Had And MS. isi rdg. and i the day was springing: Mercy.' ' Thus he sang all day Over the new mown hay. EY WBY. 13 could] we] ye all except Swinb. print del. ID And came] . except 14 as correcting later in MS. Book ist rdg. p.

Peace descended . Peace " concluding. 16 ' At his curse the sun And WBY ' . which are not very legibly written. being ' at a : — Mercy Pity \_& del. and Poetical Sketches. Pity. Lastly follow several attempts stanza.] Peace {? Joy'd) at their increase {? With) Poverty's Increase Are And by distress increase Mercy.MS. pourd down'] 159 the Later he added a fifth heavy rain [17] new reap'd grain. Pity. 15. Peace [21] ' . with U. And Mercy. And Mercy Pity harvest was The Farmers were ruined Over the & & & ended'' This a fresh terminal line.' Is DGR Misery's increase prints as his third stanza {Songs 0/ Experience) and ' I 11. — 147) re-arranges and prints 11. 9-14. and [22] as his last 'Down poured the heavy rain Over the new-reaped grain . p. and again indicated the completion of the poem by stanza Blake afterwards deleted. the heavens gave a frown.' Swinb. Pity. Songs. the rejected readings. in their Notes to the EY. Peace. Peace By Misery to increase Mercy. from mine. : — went down. the stanza : poem — ' Down originally And [at first ended. II. 97. &c.' iii. [17]. stanza: (p. however. 1. Misery's increase Are Mercy. Book. [22] (slightly altered) : — ' version heard a Devil curse Over the heath and the furze " Mercy could be no more If there were nobody poor. Pity. Peace. [21].' EY follow DGR. 5 of ' The Human Abstract [21]. the final form of the only completed couplet of which reads 'And Is And new : Miseries' increase Mercy. print the poem as it is found in the MS. ' . Rossetti this stanza shows. And Pity no more could be If all were happy as ye : : And mutual fear brings Peace. as a separate couplet. [18]. their readings of the partially illegible words being rather different WMR. Pity.

the cunning wiles that creep little heart asleep. rdg. . of this stanza. . 10 steal] broke ibid. weep. DGR and all later editors include this poem among the Songs of Experience. . 3. Book 15/ Canst thou any secret keep ibid. ist rdg. del. at first consisted of stanzas i. as the line drawn below it shows. Smiles as of the morning steal O'er thy cheek. . Book 15^ rdg. ! Dreaming o'er the joys of night in thy sleep Sleep Sleep ! i . 13 In thy When Then thy little heart does wake the dreadful lightnings break. in the . . feel] touch MS. del. Stanza 2 was then added and a second boundary line drawn. . . 16 lightnings] light shall all edd.i6o MS. As thy softest limbs I feel. Book abandoned opening stroke ibid. . ' p. 2nd rdg. . Rossetti vi A Cradle Song Sleep Sleep ! beauty bright. but never engraved by Blake. . del. MS. in Soft desires I Secret joys & 5 secret smiles. 12. ! & Little sorrows sit Sweet Babe. Little pretty infant wiles. Obviously written as the contrary of the Cradle Song' Songs of Innocence . . . Book \st rdg. . 1-4 Sleep weep] The two couplets were written in reverse order. . . 2nd rdg. while still later Blake added the final stanza and numbered the whole in their present order. 15 does] doth all edd. 4. del. 9 As etc. del. Where thy O ! little & o'er 9 thy breast heart does rest. 114. del. del. Blake indicating the change by prefixed numerals. 8 Little wiles] Such as burning youth beguiles MS.'\ Yet a little while the moon Silent MS. in most cases with explanatory note. night] Thou shalt taste the joys of night MS. This song. Book 2 Dreaming 1st rdg. Book. all edd. thy face can trace. o'er] in 4 Little weep] Thou wilt every secret keep MS. . { .

113.' Svdnb. Book (i.. . . EY. Book. Thousand spirits stray That sweet joys betray. Vlll O lapwing! Nor thou fliest seest the net that Why They MS. i Quench the holy light Of thy torches bright . WMR. name Night and Day. . 133. Book. who reads Female female MS. EY. by Swinb. p. 17-20 From ' thine eye for thy eye in however. omit this stanza. . WBY. Without any corrections. 1. infant] 19 . No title in original. 124. p. i. Infant wiles & infant smiles Heaven & Earth of peace beguiles. Vll Silent. beguiles] all edd. ' . 113. 206. is correction. Without I SAMPSON around the heath. thou] that M Only printed by EY. Infant . Why 5 should joys be sweet Used with deceit. It has been printed. and obviously transcribed from an earlier draft. O'er the youthful harvests nigh. lo MS.MS. dost thou not fly among the corn fields? cannot spread nets where a harvest yields. DGR and later edd. For possess'd of Day. p. del. spread beneath. ' ' . Book 15/ rdg. Silent Night. . 17. 7 joys] love 205). 11 does] doth DGR. p. . Rossetti i6i From thy cheek & from thy 17 eye. Swinb. Nor with sorrows meet ? But an honest joy Does itself destroy For a harlot coy. EY omit in their Table of Contents to ' the MS.

as the different were afterwards engraved by Blake ink shows. 21. tho' fair to see. stanzas first thought best Mother's breast. shin'd. ' Cp. (MS. . grew Fruitless. Helpless. &c. I weary. p. Book \st rdg. fair or true 5 not found on any tree blossoms grew all i fair never blew. as one of the The Songs of by Swinb.. two my with added p. 113. X Infant Sorrow My mother groan'd. Book 4 Like .1 62 Rossetti MS. Printed by Blossom. 93. with roman numerals. my father wept 1 . verj' inaccurate and later edd. Book. with the i. who numbers the stanzas Not in DGR or WMR. altered to my father ') to many a Priest. my swaddling bands. 137-139. WBY (Notes). Like a fiend hid in a cloud. Sketches. . false. p.' making corresponding . title ' Barren wind] word EY (in their 4 And] But MS. naked. del. cloud] See note to ' Infant Sorrow ' {Songs of Exp. as in xiii. IX fear'd the fury of I Would And my And my sun For & & true. pp. del. . Book fury] roughness DGR ist rdg. Struggling in my father's hands. beginning with 1. piping loud. 94 To understand Blake's successive changes in the last part of this poem it should be noted that. with this poem ' In a Mirtle xiii). 240.' Not in Swinb. Book.) 1 .) iii. he changed a Priest' (afterwards. 205). index to the MS. 5 Striving against & Bound To MS. Into the dangerous world I leapt. MS. I MS. ' ' changes Shade ' in the other stanzas where required. it But a blossom Was shin'd it wind wind my blossoms all blight & . EY (Notes to the Poetical First printed Experience. Songs. sulk upon title later. 4. Book. 113.

MS. I 25 . Swinb. . Book ist 13 sooth'd] Book 2nd . embrac'd ing . EY.. Pronounced curses on his head Who the fruits or blossoms shed. grew MS. Book 15 smil'd] my smile] This stanza began to MS. and print in a final note the revised form of stanzas 6-9. vine] But upon the earthly ground No MS. look] fruits] fruit bright] book EY Swinb. delight beginning of first an afterthought. blossoms out to me. Book . .' give the earlier (and preferable) form of the remaining stanzas . upon the ground I stray. I rdg. 18 WBY. . 17 . Book 2rd 24 240. 29 : was to be found. retains this. Like a serpent in the day Underneath my vines he lay Like a serpent in the night He 9-12 When . grew MS. He I Where beneath my vines he lay. 29-32 originally written in . Seeking only for delight. 14 stray] lay Swinb. And . I And I And I 13 smil'd night after night. ii Turn. is 17.' this stanza del. beheld . In his hands a holy book. del. ' And I From \st rdg. These changes are all dependent upon the substitution of ' 21 But a Priest] My father many a Priest for ' a Priest in 1. me saw before shine 17 Clusters of the wand'ring vine And. would nothing gain. But a Priest with holy look. 21. . .. Rossetti When I saw And to sulk 163 was vain. EY . EY. . beyond. omit. 21 beheld the Priest by night embrac'd my mirtle bright: beheld the Priest by day. The two book couplets of this stanza M 2 (? look) WBY 28 vines] vine EY.. I ' MS. I And Till sooth'd day after day. del. Swinb. del. del. Book mirtle bright. smil'd MS. were (Notes). that rage 9 Turning many a trick & wile began to soothe & smile. rdg.. wile] I wile MS. rdg. Book .] ' then p. Seeking many an artful Twining many a trick and wile Swinb. ist rdg. this point onwards EY put asterisks for 'was to. . a mirtle tree Stretch'd its . znd rdg. del. .

But the time of youth is fled. 17-36 And I saw . ear? MS. Pronounc'd curses on my head And bound me in a mirtle shade. 4 my] mine all edd. p. *i7 . . EY. Book. Like to holy men by day Underneath the vines they lay Like to serpents in the night They embrac'd my mirtle bright.' . deletions and additions. *25-*32 I beheld . And grey hairs are on head. with title Thames and Not in Swinb. 2 Or] And r thames] the Thames EY (Index to MS. fled. I append here the The verses were version of the last five final not recopied. the reverse order. 113. i. the changes being And I saw before me shine Clusters of the wand'ring vine And many a lovely flower & tree Stretch'd their blossoms out to me. WBY. the cheating waves of charter'd streams shrink at the little blasts of fear That the hireling blows into my i .Rossetti 164 So & his gore my mirtle bore smote him. Underneath the vines they lay. 17). all edd. Stain'd the roots But the time of youth grey hairs are on is And 33 . But many a Priest with holy look. In their hands a holy book. *29 : So I smote them. . ' Ohio. head] stanzas (see note to 1. the final position of the lines being afterwards indicated in Blake's usual manner by Arabic numerals added in the left-hand margin. Printed by DGR and later edd. They embrac'd I *2i : . Book. & their gore *33 Stain'd the roots my mirtle bore . xi Why Or Or should I care for the men of thames. my *2i look] book *28 vines] vine EY. bright] WBY (Notes) omits. I MS. . WMR. 205). waves] waters DGR. my head. EY. I beheld the Priests by night the blossoms bright beheld the Priests by day *25 . .

del. 7-10 This end of I. where it precedes 'Earth's Answer' {^Songs oj Exp. . 5. Book 1st rdg. 6 Shall I turn] Oft I've I . with title Seed Sowing. On On the virgins of springing joy. And live in it Shall I And cast turn merrily? on the sand it 5 into fruitful land? it For on no other ground Can sow I my seed.). 7 del. Book ' at the EY. EY. The Ohio shall wash his stains from me I was born a slave. . . del. v. Ill. 1st rdg. is a fine country. it del. But MS. as arranged the lines as first DGR. WMR and turn'd 2 fine] fair MS. For . lo MS. . 1 this Why dost thou not cast thy seed. Ahania. Book. . he wrote can here printed. human soul to cast the The seed of eternal science. . but I go to be free. 7 For] 1st rdg. and later edd. Book EY print these intention. Tho' his waters bathed my infant limbs. Xll Thou And hast a lap full of seed. ' 9 tearing] pulling MS. with thy lap full of seed.' Not in Swinb. Rossetti 165 Tho' born on the cheating banks of Thames. The me] I spurn'd his waters away 8 go] long MS. may have been Blake's but he erased and Book 1st rdg. from me MS. stanza 12 : DGR ' — 'Then thou. del. .MS. . With thy hand "Walked forth from the clouds of morning.' WMR. Without tearing up Some stinking weed. : fc>* 6 bathed] bathed all edd. chap. full of generous fire. four lines as two. lap full] lapful DGR. p. weed] DGR. Book ist rdg. WMR. Cp. . 7. or Printed by WBY. . .

stanza 2 with the couplet. &c.. 137. ! 5 . Rossetti • • • Xlll \First Version] In a Mirtle Shade Why should I be bound to O my lovely mirtle tree? free love. WBY. ' 245.1 66 MS. marking the deletion. p. iii. Sorrow 5-8 DGR p. pp. this version Swinb. quotes stanzas ' O and is . Book x\ bound] This stanza was added . were written. 1st trig. by print this couplet without 5 sick] MS. laugh'd So smote him. my WMR omit head. Love. as else11 Oft saw] Oft the MS. To any O thee. x). Blake began printing the stanzas as written. with this poem the fuller form of Infant . Oft my To behold mirtle sigh'd in vain my heavy chain And saw us sigh. . at our simplicity. WBY italics. III. 13-16 So. afterwards deleted : ' To a lovely mirtle bound. i cannot be bound tree that grows on ground. Infant Sorrow. Book x. 94 and i WBY (Notes% . But the time of youth And grey hairs are on MS. .' 11 : cp. 13 fled. 33-6 (MS. Book weak EY. in 5 and 9 indicating the relative WBY. . misrepresents the true order. Songs. the left-hand column. where. . Poetical Sketches. by omitting these and after the rest 11. how sick and weary I Underneath my mirtle lie Like to dung upon the ground. . EY (Notes to the 3. all around. Book.) Cp. prefixed numerals to position of the second and third stanzas.' Blossoms show'ring Both EY and priest beheld ' head] cp. (MS. 138. 9 : . my Oft I father Stain'd the roots & his gore my mirtle bore. Book . del. Underneath my mirtle bound.

cannot be bound To any tree that grows on ground DGR's ! EY (Notes to the Poetical Sketches. follow text. but leave them meaningless by the omission DGR and all edd. Book. DGR and printing the poem as two four-line stanzas. lie] ' . end first stanza here. It will thus be seen that Blake began by transcribing. Rossetti into supposing that two more lines were required. indicating deleted Hnes by italics : — TO MY MIRTLE. and were written in the MS. (Notes). To a lovely mirtle bound Blossoms showring all around 1 2 Like to dung upon Underneath 3 O how 4 Underneath sick the my mirtle & weary my mirtle *S ground bound I *9 lie. ! 5 O my lovely mirtle tree? MS. otherwise he would have been the first to perceive how omission of the greatly the poem gains in freshness and sweetness by the rhetorical tag : — Love. beginning his second stanza with the couplet which he had rejected in the previous draft and adding but in transposed — order — two accepted couplets of the same stanza. find all Blake's editors following . it may be well to reproduce it in the exact form in the MS. O how sick & weary I Underneath my mirtle lie Why should I be bound to thee. All edd. Book. The original arrangement of the verses must have misled Mr.Rossetti MS. as it stood. the earlier version. ' Blake here compresses the sixteen lines of the preceding version has been As this poem has never been correctly obscured by editorial changes. 5 Why 6 O my should I be bound to thee *i lovely mirtle tree Love free love cannot be bound To any tree that grows on ground. io6. p. of Blake's marginal numbers. Book.' 6 tree] All edd. give this Alledd. Blossoms show'ring all around. *8. Songs.) iii. \6j \Final Versto?i] To My Mirtle To i a lovely mirtle bound. in which it is found printed. *4. in restoring the deleted lines *3. 95. *4 and *7. and by ignoring deletions. the first stanza of the earlier version. prefixing marginal numbers in his usual manner to indicate the Blake's intention is perfectly plain yet we position of the lines retained. free love.add\\. *3. print the lines in the order in which they &c. where it immediately precedes Nought loves another The simple and faultless form into which as itself ('A Little Boy Lost'). WBY poem the title used in 4 3 sick] weak all edd. *4- In a Myrtle Shade. He then struck out 11.*z.

' and by . 91.. Rossetti XIV To Nobodaddy art thou silent & invisible.. EY. in WMR ? under the title Father Printed by 209.del. ' * ' 'Nobodaddy' (obviously 'Nobody's Daddy. Book.1 68 MS. 7 dare] can EY. Book xxxvi. p. {sic). Book isi rdg. Secresy] applause] a later addition in pencil. Swinb. The p. ^o<^\strdg. 109. p. xxxix\ 2 Father] Man MS. with title 'Young — Cp. 264 EY. & sleep ? ' . ' : : XV Are not the joys of morning sweeter Than the joys of night? And i are the vig'rous joys of youth of the light? Ashamed MS. 140.WBY. Book. DGR. 4 Ashamed] Ashamed DGR. open. of Jealousy. (first Printed by two DGR and later edd. 4 searching] passing EY. females' loud] feminine MS. All edd. Swinb. print as two lines. 109. 9 Or 5 EY and WBY print both stanzas as one. in text as To Old Nobodaddy. gives Swinb. child of night . gains] Jealousy iwith note querying secrecy' as the true reading) Swinb. Father of Jealousy? Why dost thou hide thyself in clouds From every searching Eye ? Why Why & darkness i 5 obscurity thy words & laws. Swinb. subtil modesty. WBY title added females' loud applause Not later in different ink. ' ' . lines only).' p. The same name occurs also in Fayette and in the lines on Klopstock (MS. seeking : ' ! The vigorous Who open to virgin bliss.' and in notes as i. joys of morning light taught thee modesty. the Father of Jealousy. Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793) Innocence honest. del..' antithetical to 'Father of AH') was Blake's jocular nickname for Urizen. . . 'To Nobodady iii. That none dare eat the fruit but from In all The wily serpent's jaws? Or is it because Secresy gains MS. Love.

MS. p. poem. which was probably a hasty attempt at erasure Lawless. winged. 246. mind] MS. del. ' p. . And breaks all chains from every mind. but interest blind. unconfined EY. Book \st rdg. Modest. See also 3 Lawless (' WBY There souls of men are bought & sold ') as a single (Notes). to interest blind. is 15/ rdg. I EY WMR. 6 vineyards] vineyard all edd. to joy inclin'd. their connexion being obvious. written in pencil at top right-hand corners of pp. 107. & Lawful. unconfin'd] Always . Book. . 107. . & the soldier peace. though or Swinb. WBY Freedom and Captivity ') print the first (the latter with the title stanza and an altered version of the fragment by which it is immediately ' followed in the MS. XVI They said this mystery never shall cease: The priest promotes war. underlined. and not indicated by Blake himself. Deceit to secresy confin'd.' . . unconfin'd MS. cautious To anything And refin'd 5 . Book. Not in DGR. forges fetters for the MS. Book 1st rdg. : .Rossetti Let age & MS. chains in fetters every mind. 5-8 Deceit . wing'd & unconfin'd. ' Cp. print the two stanzas as one poem. Lawless. mind. . 169 sickness silent rob 5 The vineyards in the night But those who burn with vig'rous youth . WBY. . 2 promotes] loves MS. — ' Deceit to secresy inclin'd. 106. prudish Never And is & confin'd. Pluck fruits before the light. XVll Love to faults is Always is always blind i . ' Always Book ' . note to The Lilly {Songs of Experience^.

107. MS.del. new Joy met with scorn. beauty. Book 4 beauty] See note \st rdg.. milk fed infancy for gold youth to slaughter houses I Not p. heard a wild flower Singing a song. 1st rdg. ' I slept in the Earth 5 In the silent night. &c. i among. XIX The Wild Flower's Song As wander'd the I The green I leaves forest. for a bit of bread.. fears] thoughts R^ (though correctly in DGR). 109. 107 the introductory stanza and catchwords (' I slept in the dark. Book the] wandered in the all edd. WMR. : . DGR in EY. The second and third stanzas on p. cradled infancy i sold. WMR. . . WBY. EY p. sold 2 MS. 9 rosy as morn. Book. WBY.' seek for But I . . milk fed . and finally the title. WBY.. . del. is led. EY. 109 at first formed the entire poem later Blake added on p. Rossetti 70 XVlll & There souls of men are bought And And And MS. del. There] The EY. . and Swinb. maidens MS.^v4\v^. I wander'd 3 flower] thistle MS. Book. 7 5 I Earth] I was found in the dark ibid. I murmur'd And ' I felt my In the morning As To fears delight. I went. and to xvii.1 MS. WBY: \st rdg. . gold] 3 youth] youths Swinb. pp. 127. 107. WBY print as second stanza to preceding poem. Book And] In EY.').

last line is in pencil. should be thought a crime Swinb. i. p.Rossetti MS. WBY. Book. R'. Book and ask'd] wooed Swinb. 15/ rdg. WMR. {riote). Book. pp. all edd. a dreadful crime. MS. Croun'd with warlike fires & raging desires. 107. sun] day MS. EY she melted the winter call'd p. ! 4 : And MS. Cloth'd in robes of blood & gold Swords & spears & r . DGR. del. 105. 205. EY quote 4 title 5 and first bosom] ancles . MS. wrath increast All around his bosom roll'd. .' i ). EY {Index). wintry] windy the Priest] virginities EY a tether in 207. I i : p. XXI Merlin's Prophecy The harvest shall flourish in wintry weather When two meet together The King & the Priest must be tied Before two virgins can meet together. Book 1st rdg. Book. and & snow with me The it : in all her prime. 106. ! &c. Ah .. Book). that. I walked] walked MS. 205. MS. 135. Swinb. Book. del. Only printed by EY. Book . The king and priest EY. line in their I Printed here for first time. i. (Index to MS. Book 15/ rdg. del. 171 XX Snow Soft I walked abroad on a snowy day I ask'd the soft She play'd And MS. WBY ('Couplets 1 : to play added later. (note). 2 snowy] sunny Swinb. that sweet love . i. index to the MS.. crime] Oil. 136 Title and Fragments. 3 The King & XXU Day The sun arises in the East.

20 For . gives this instead of the later title indicating the author's deletion of the first. EY. . (afterwards erased) was 'The Marriage Ring. 10. and EY. Let him laugh. 19 is an addition. Book. del. 19.. From the leaves I sprung He leap'd from the spray To flee But He in away my .. 96. a sketch in the MS. Book 1.. arrows. 11 Swinb. — 9 fairy a king. 15 hat caught] Cp. 7.' So a fairy sung. Only in Swinb. If an amorous delay Clouds a sunshiny day. little i sparrows. 99. 105. 11 sung] sang Swinb. reproduced in Gilchr. pp. poem originally ending with ' 20 Of] And MS. Book isi rdg. i. 142. I've pulled out the sting the marriage ring. without Swinb. 143. afterwards engraved by Blake for The Gates of Paradise. the 7 step] tread stanzasasone. ' See preceding note. For Of MS. Book. soon shall be taught. If 5 the step of a foot Smites the heart to its *Tis the marriage ring Makes each root.. ring] 1. If a tear or a smile Will a man beguile.MS. He 's my him let butterfly 17 cry. 13 the] his Swinb. . Rossetti 172 xxiii The Fairy Come ' My my hither. hat caught. And 20 and a line now thoroughly erased the marriage ring ist rdg. . p. EY.' EY print both titles. del. iii. Title in pencil. Blake's first title : MS. : . no. prints both 12 sprung] sprang Swinb. ss .

3 sung] sang WMR. p. XXVll If you trap the moment before it's ripe. Book. as the second stanza of the poem immediately following in the MS. Rossetti 173 XXIV The sword sung on the barren heath.. WMR. a flaming] ? flowering ? beauty there. Several Questions Answered ' — ' (xxxv). : MS. del. XXVI In a wife I would desire What in whores is The lineaments of MS. (ii) and WBY ' (3) Couplets and flowery Swinb. p. MS. (' Couplets all edd. 105. 4 You can] You'll MS. Book 15^ rdg. once you let the ripe moment go can never wipe off the tears of woe. p. MS. The tears of repentance you'll certainly wipe But if You . p. 105. Book. in DGR I.MS. WBY or Swinb. del. 105. Printed by DGR and all later edd. XXV Abstinence sows sand all over The ruddy limbs & flaming hair. But could not make the sickle yield. Book. 137.' ' ' I trap] catch rdg. In pencil. Eternity ') under the title Opportunity.' Swinb. But Desire Gratified Plants fruits of MS. p. The sickle in the fruitful field The sword he sung a song of death. Cp. always found Gratified desire. EY Fragments. Not and Fragments. Book.' vii). Book (xxxv. & life DGR. 105. Book \st . EY.

EY. . all edd. Rossetti 74 xxviii The Kid Thou. All edd. Book. ivritten in error. the secret hoard up in his treasury. 103 (reversed). according to his usual practice.1 MS. little Kid. . Blake here. XXIX Lacedemonian Instruction hither. uses He never &c. fool tangled in a religious snare. and all edd. Come A my MS. of a loving of a loving eye. transcribed it into the MS. indolent never can bring to the mart..' second stanza of cxxv. 4 secret] cunning . Book. 103. I tell . 2 of a loving eye] In the MS. 105. there] Title added later. WBY ' ' 3 indolent] idle MS. did'st play &c. del. what see you there ? Only in EY. Book. Book. and the remainder of this piece is therefore ' lost to us. follow DGR in printing this as with title The Two Kinds of Riches. and 1st rdg. Book man MS. del. tell me what thou seest there.. MS. rubies & pearls of a loving eye. Book 15/ rdg. 2 tangled] caught EY.' to signify that the poem had already been noted elsewhere. XXX Riches The The The Nor countless gold of a merry heart. p. So in MS. p. boy.. p.

' Not Swinb. Platted quite neat to catch applause. 3 to catch] how to catch Swinb. His possibly I Her] Not plainly written . or WBY.. DGR (x). loi. WMR. (xii). 7 ends] end WBY. Book. in ' ' : smart] smack all edd. 124. Knave begins to snarl.MS. a hang-noose] strong noose all edd. Book. WMR (' Couplets and Fragments. p. 103. 238. Because in MS. EY p. and Placed WBY among Couplets and Fragments' by (14). 100. with a hang-noose at the end. prefixes p. the Eagle is known from the Owl.. xxxii Motto Songs of Innocence and the to of Experience The Good are attracted by Men's r perceptions. Swinb. Rossetti 175 XXXI An Answer the Parson to of the sheep do I don't want Why you not learn peace? you to shear my fleece. DGR and Swinb. to 5 .' MS. Till Experience teaches them to catch And to cage the Fairies And And And And then the & Elves. Songs of Innocence and of Experience with the title A Motto.' Not xiii). WMR Not in DGR or EY. xxxiii Her Whole Life is an Epigram smart. WBY ' (Notes) p. MS. . the Hypocrite to howl all his good Friends shew their private ends. And think not for themselves. EY. smooth & neatly pen'd. p. Book.

WBY. Book. short pieces.' as the first stanza of by the first draft of which immediately precedes it. 105 and 3 kisses] just kisses Eternity's] an eternal MS. o'er. p. p. DGR ' xxvii.' sunrise] First written on p. in EY's Index ' (i. 105 of the MS. ' . 99. The original order of pieces was indicated by Blake's usual marginal 4. with the title Opportunity. Rossetti 176 xxxiv Old maid early e'er I knew Ought but the love that on me grew An And now And wish O I ! that cannot cannot find For Early MS. I The undaunted courage Before & I'm cover'd o'er i my I was in love 5 Mind of a Virgin . Title 206) as Questions answered (again). Under the general title Several Questions Answered. crost. Book. WMR. : p. winged] winged 105 ist rdg. Book. stanza was Blake afterwards renumbering them in their present order. i.' incorrectly given Printed title Eternity. . 105 with 1-4 He and later edd. a Doth] Does Book. XXXV Questions Answered Several i. [Eternity] He who bends to himself a joy Doth the winged life destroy . flower of love was lost. had been a Whore.MS. Book. Book. p. originally the I first. MS. Book. del. The second 206. MS. the first drafts of which are written elsewhere in the MS. . 3 I'm cover'd] I am covered EY. But he who kisses the joy as Lives in Eternity's sunrise.' Blake here transcribes hastily in pencil. EY. p. del. 105 15/ rdg. Printed only by EY. . e'er] Read ere. 2) 3) I) 5» the revised sequence being None figures. it flies * MS. . of Blake's editors print these fragments together. on p. 100. all edd.

dress] MS. 11-14 Desire] Transcribed from MS. 103. DGR. soft deceit Shall win the lover's hire. Book. blackening sion. WBY. note to WBY. 4. ' 'tis . . 107.' Blake at ' Which are beauties sweetest first began this couplet with the deleted line What title ' 10 Beauty's] beauties MS. Rossetti 177 2. What is it women do in men require? The lineaments of Gratified Desire. version. I 18 You'll] 'Twill ' ' MS. 1st rdg. i.MS. EY. 5-8 The hire] Transcribed from Couplets and Fragments (iii). Book. 103. 3- Soft deceit & Idleness. WMR. that marriage hearse. man from the last rdg. 9 These are Beauty's sweetest dress. and all edd. p. in] of MS. 10 follows the pre- DGR and later ceding quatrain but with Blake's usual line of separation. del. p. ' (title omitted) WBY p.13 15-18 Transcribed from MS. 103. .). where it Among 6 it 's] 9. Book 1st ver17 man] dash in MS. 11 5- An ancient Proverb Remove away Remove away Remove away that black 'ning church. 206. place MS. where it bears the or 'The Question Answer'd. 182. Only in (Notes). the] . HW d'\ I5^z^<?rs2b«. dress ? . Book. DGR WBY WMR. 11. filled all edd. ist rdg. . p. Book. ' MS. it 's fill'd with fire Because But the look of 5 . Book Soft . Book ist version. of the earlier supply . 1st rdg. SAMPSON N 1st version. ' Couplets and Fragments (2). that ' del. (4). Book WBY. [The Question Answer'd] What is it men in women do require ? The lineaments of Gratified Desire.. print as the two last Unes of 'The look of love alarms. . edd. London ' 15 black'ning] {Songs of Exp. p. 103 of the p. 103. 15 — that [man] of blood You'll quite remove the ancient curse.' Not in Swinb. where the title is an addition. Book 1st version. 240. Transcribed from MS. Cp. EY p. . p. The look of love alarms. del. .

A iv. A.' WMR This re-arrangement. 14. 13. erasing and re-writing three lines in the These three stanzas form the beginning of B.' and 'Fayette. 9two stanzas of A as originally written. 2. and stands in the MS. Probably written about 1793. formed by and the second couplet of A iii: — Then he swore a great & solemn oath To kill the people I am loth. 98 he began a new stanza ('Fayette beside his banner stood') which he cancelled before com- process. ' ' adding the three verses 'Will the mother exchange her pletion. and by lower-case roman numerals. and Blake accordingly erased the whole passage from Then old — ' ' ' ' ' ' shall have a Priest and a passing bell (A 11. a companion stanza in the same metre ('The Queen of Nobodaddy 19). leaving aloft to only the They first France just touched this Globe '). 3 to A ii. some re-written. however unless with we transpose the relative leaves the pronoun he without positions of the second and third stanzas antecedent. 99. Turning to the vacant space in the first column below Several Questions Answer'd Blake added three Fayette stanzas (B iv-vi) followed by a fourth (' Fayette. and finished his work on p. being an amended version of the deleted stanza at the foot of the second column of the preceding page. Rossetti 178 XXXVl Note Prefatory MS.' : ' And ' said Every I bit as love hanging well as war & & — drawing & quartering slaughtering. 99 to the right of the space filled by Several Questions Answer'd. 99 by drawing a line of separation between the Fayette stanzas in both columns and the matter immediately above. Book. Without title. Fayette. pp. B. His next change consisted in placing smaller figures 1-12 before the lines which he meant to retain in the order specified. numerals 4. and final forms. thou'rt bought & sold ') in the second column underneath B iii. and stanzas into different orders.. Blake began his first attempt at the head of the second column of p. Fayette. Blake has left no fair copy of this piece.' This version (A) he next altered by erasing 11. This last he erased. A iii.' new born babe. mediate.MS. 15 prefixing the marginal refer to the stanzas in each ' . Resuming in the first column of p. and C. thou'rt bought & sold ' —the last 'Who will exchange his own fireside. to denote that the original second stanza was to be placed last. To the latter of these (' The King awoke on his couch of gold') he now added. The effect of this is to interpolate uniting the between first A A and i couplet of A iv ii a new second stanza [A *3]. below the deleted passage. and some numbered with a bewildering series of marginal figures marking successive attempts at the arrangement of lines into stanzas. this rough draft would prove I have therefore endeavoured to represent the various stages in the development of the poem by printing it separately in its I call these three versions initial. some separated from the rest by boundary lines. Some of the stanzas are erased. Reproduced as it a chaos to the reader. 98. These three .

' ' [i] 'Let the Brothels of Paris be opened With many an alluring dance. This gives us the poem in its fullest and best stanzas ' .' WMR A *iii B iv B v B prints the stanzas in the following EY (ii. As soon as he heard these tidings told 'Arise And & come. Passages of The Everlasting Gospel and one epigram are found upside down upon the same page. . 98 we reach the point at which Blake reversed the MS. 3. Rossetti 179 were then numbered 3. 2. the stanza O who would smile on the wintry seas. Blake seems to have lost his grip of the poem. i To awake the Physicians thro' the city. . added later. and later the figure 3 was struck out to mark the cancellation of Who will exchange dungeon floor. was to erase the two Fayette stanzas on p. On p.' Said the beautiful Queen of France. Book and began writing from the other end. at the head of the second column. . Book fife is/ rdg.' a boundary line being drawn around the two retained stanzas. I. no word substituted.' 8 Famine] MS.' the prefixed numbers 2.MS. del. indicating a new but not very happy revision of the ' viii) Who will ' arrangement of the three last stanzas. B vii. ["] The King awoke on his couch of gold.' and. and to have abandoned any further attempt at completion. the [Famine] shall eat both crust 3 Physicians] Pestilence MS. del.' which he re-transcribed below. form B. both & drum. N 2 5 : EY. In version C I print the poem as he left it. omitting one stanza (A iv) altogether and ignoring or misinterpreting the successive order : B i ii iii (is/ rdg. 2427 give a not very accurate account of the evolution of the poem. Cancelling the two stanzas above (B vii and Blake's next alteration iv. Under the B title ' Lafayette. . i to show that their position was to be inverted. & crumb. v). These changes are manifestly for the worse.) C v B vii B viii. 99 (B ' leaving only that beginning Fayette beheld the King & Queen. Book is/ rdg. "i re-arrangements of lines and stanzas indicated by Blake's marginal numbers. B Blake then added a slightly amended form of the lines beginning exchange his own fireside.

around] But the bloodthirsty people across the water Will not submit to the gibbet MS. And del. . they must go to hell: have a Priest & a passing bell.i8o MS.' . Rossetti [Hi] Then old ****** & And Nobodaddy belched ' said. the Famine shall eat both crust and crumb. . del. they rebel. But our good Queen quite grows to the ground. as he heard these tidings told As soon 'Arise And & his come. B [i] ' Let the Brothels of Paris be opened With many an alluring dance. Book all 9 1st rdg. 12 But a great . 12 a tree at Java found MS. . i ' [»] The King awoke on couch of gold.' Damn [iv] Then he swore a ' To But great the people kill I & am solemn oath loth 16 : .. & & love hanging I 9 .' [iii] The Queen of France just touch'd this Globe. both fife & 5 : drum. many suckers grow around. & war bit as well as Every aloft & drawing quartering slaughtering. around] There is just such . 13 praying & singing. Unless they will bring in The blood of ten thousand by fighting or swinging. bell] EY omit. WMR. cough'd. halter. And the Pestilence darted from her robe. Book snd rdg. To awake the Physicians thro' the city Said the beautiful Queen of France.' if shall They 15 swinging] surgery 16-19 Then EY. . & . ' . . And II.

tears sold Pity are exchanged for those selfish slavish fears. [vii] Fayette. Fayette. Thou'rt bought & sold EY reading I will see for well I see. From street to street to fly.' and King Lewis This again is followed by the stanza marked for erasure : ' ' ' ' ' ' : ' — ' for 'his banner. [vi] Fayette beheld the King In tears & iron bound & Queen 31 . His captains false around. the famine ragfe the fruitful land.' — and the deleted beginning of a stanza Fayette beside his banner stood. . Thou gavest the tears of Pity away In exchange for the tears of sorrow. thou'rt bought For well I see thy tears Of Of & : — . [v] Fayette beheld the Queen to smile And wink her lovely eye And soon he saw the pestilence 17 . of iron EY. the deleted stanza ' Fayette. floor] These stanzas were at first written in reversed order. thou'rt bought And sold is thy happy morrow & sold 25 .' Who will exchange his own fireside For the steps of another's door? "Who will exchange his wheaten loaf For the links of a dungeon floor ? ' and the two deleted lines Who : — exchange his own heart's blood For the drops of a Harlot's eye 1 25-32 Fayette . . But mute Fayette wept tear And fa' guarded them around. ' will ' . for tear. .MS. Fayette. Rosseiti i8i [iv] Fayette beside King Lewis stood He saw him sign And soon he saw About hand his 13 . 24 Here follow in the MS. WMR 22 tears & iron] curses and iron 17 beheld] liked EY.

tears .1 82 Rossetti MS. 21 around] These two stanzas were originally written in 14 stone] steps ist rdg. Book i-s^ ro'^g'. 18 curses] . rf^/. [vi] O who would smile on the wintry seas & Pity the stormy roar? Or who will exchange his new born child For the dog at the wintry door? 13-20 Who reversed order. Book . del. [viii] Will the mother exchange her new born babe For the dog at the wintry door? Yet thou dost exchange thy pitying tears For the links of a dungeon floor 29 ! [First three stanzas as B. MS.] [iv] Who will exchange his own fireside 13 For the stone of another's door? Who will exchange his wheaten loaf For the links of a dungeon floor? M Fayette beheld the King & In curses iron bound & Queen 17 . . MS. concluding as below. for tear. But mute Fayette wept tear And guarded them around.

2-98. II MS. Written circa 1800-1810 . Book.POEMS FROM THE ROSSETTI MS. xxxvii-cxxxi { pp.

is the stanza beginning the final stanza 14 (i.' and 'meant for insertion in some ' fresh instalment of prophetic rhapsody by way of complement or sequel It is. 2. are to the left a stanza numbered 2 Daphne. rather an offshoot of The Four Zoas. marked for insertion between 6 and 8. the latter are stanzas 9 and 10.II ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT xxxvii Prefatory Note MS. Blake's use of the terms spectre ' ' and ' emanation. Butts in Blake's having been written about the same time as the lines to xxxvii may therefore be dated October or letter of October 2. In the second column of the same page are the cancelled first version of stanza 2. with one or more arable numbers at the head of each. 5. their natural place would seem to be after stanza 3. in the MS. 1800 book as a notebook : November. 278. to The position poem the original beginning of the volume after it had been half filled by earlier soon poems written from the reversed end proves that it was composed when he resumed his use of the old sketchafter Blake removed to — Felpham.' and Thou hast parted from my side.' Throughout Poor pale pitiable form are not cancelled. in either column. however.' with stanzas 3. In the first column of the former page are stanza two deleted stanzas beginning Her weeping she shall ne'er give o'er. ' to come in ' ' love did between stanzas 3 and insertion 5.' the former to signify .' and numbered 1.e. which is almost illegible. 8. 6. and his final order of the eight retained stanzas. showing clearly Blake's successive arrangements. which contains internal evidence pages poem (xli). the same argument and symbolism of which are practically the as those of Milton and Jerusalem. stanzas 2 and 7. pale. ' cancelled stanza marked ' When my and stanza 4 (marked for first begin afterwards cancelled and then again Last follow in the position originally indicated). Swinburne {Essay. 1800. at the head of page 2. these and the two top stanzas. consecutive to 'Let us agree to give up love'). the ' I. and near the foot of the page. 3 and 2. and written later in pencil around a sketch of in the centre of the page. pp. stanzas II and 12 (all four written and numbered in ink) followed by stanza 13 Intermediately between (written in pencil and centred at foot of page). and the unnumbered stanza ('What transgressions form ' ' ' ' arrange them as part of the poem in If so. in pencil. a stanza without number (' Poor. The whole of these are written in ink. To the right. 279) describes 'My Spectre' as 'perfect Jemsakm both for style and matter. Book. pp. The next piece of any importance is the for poetry. numbered i and written The all stanzas. written to that work. Book— the first piece written from of this and Blake may have intended a final draft. numbered another and ') pitiable O'er my sins thou sit and moan. of further three on. in 1797. Eternity. In either column. I commit').

Iron tears and groans of lead Thou bind'st around my aching head. and has been accepted without question by the majority of editors who follow the text of the Aldine edition. 37-41. Swinburne (pp. 1 8s the reasoning power in man. Mr. 7. is the nearer to the Edition and elsewhere truth . and stanzas 5. which he thinks Blake must have so numbered 'by some evident slip of mind or pen. W. three pages before. but of Imagination in the opening lines of The Four Zoas of reason and emotion into — : — Daughters of Beulah. 6. Rossetti.Rossetti MS.' which must mystify readers who find.' Of this poem. it may be explained. W.' 4. Messrs. 14. printing stanzas i. G. 278. Mr. and the three unplaced stanzas (' appa' accuracy. The poem as printed in the Aldine a word is erroneously arranged. pp.' the poem is rather more correctly given by Mr. Yeats. not of Memory. 279) prints with commentary the two rejected stanzas 'Thou hast parted from my side.' The latter of these two contradictory statements. with the title 'Broken Love. through selfannihilation achieved by the infinite tolerance and forgiveness of sin. sing into Division and his resurrection into Unity. and the latter his imagination and emotion. formed by amalgamating couplets taken from the unplaced or rejected stanzas :— ' Poor pale pitiable form That I follow in a storm.' the unplaced stanza *2. . a.' They conclude with the note: 'The text of the poem here is reprinted from the Aldine edition. instead of in its revised form. ii. who prints the fourteen approved and numbered stanzas in the text. Cp. B. 3.' and stanzas 8-14. though the editors have rendered their third stanza meaningless by printing the second in its earlier and cancelled. the author's invocation to the Muses — in Blake's mythology the Daughters. and their reunion in a state of regained humanity and moral liberty. Ellis and Yeats print fourteen stanzas with S3'mbolic 'interpretation. From sin I never shall be free thou forgive and come to me.' descriptive of the meaning which he reads into it. M. supplies the clue to the meaning of this beautiful but obscure poem. Not is altered from the original. The theme is identical with that of the later Prophetic Books. the present editors not having seen the MS. transposing the position of 11 and 12. the rejected stanza 'Thy weeping thou shall ne'er give o'er. Rossetti gives a very corrupt text.e. 8. partly from numberings of verses put experimentally and then erased by Blake. 249). the above is the true text of this poem with the numberings of the The same . and their text contains one or two of their customary deviations from verbal Under the title Spectre and Emanation. i. ' His His fall fall into the generation of decay and death. the unplaced stanza *i.' and 'When my love did first begin. and his Regeneration by resurrection from the dead. D. then stanza version is adopted by Mr. ' verses as finally arranged after three re-considerations by Blake. rently rejected ') in the notes (p.' In vol. deep winter dark and cold Till ' A Within my heart thou dost unfold . the separation two contrary and conflicting selves. a fourth and fifth stanza.

& not with the daughters of inspiration I am that Evil One I in my Selfhood am that Satan : He 4 my is Spectre. Within my heart thou didst unfold A Fathomless There we & boundless deep wander. and passim. is 15. 1. . 28-31 : — 'What do I here before the Judgement without my Emanation? With the daughters of memory. — Man. Milton. in contradistinction to the Spectre. 13. Rossetti Spectre around me night & day Like a Wild beast guards my way My i . f. pride and agination and self-annihilation ' 14. of 'shall' to 'shalt' in 1. 11. . cp. 18 . by Martyrdoms and Wars. Her'] sin I the weeping thou \_she'] against thee \_her'\ more & more Thy . Spectre follows thee behind.' and comes to come in 1. EY. reason. f. 74. 7 36. It thence frames Laws & Moralities To destroy Imagination. 11. f.' WMR DGR and print the former as their eighth stanza. she forgives 'Thou hast parted from my side Once thou wast a virgin bride Never shalt thou a true love [lover'] : : My find : Spectre follows thee Behind. there we . f. overlooked by Blake. f. 4.' Here followed ' And Till two cancelled stanzas : — [ist rdg. . 54. f. — ' A deep winter. i. I around] before I Spectre] Cp. 34. . gave forth their Emanations Like Females of sweet beauty'). making the necessary changes. WBY.1 86 MS. There we wander. .' . the Reasoning is also Jerusalem. 1. 3 Emanation] In Blake's mythoalways personified as a female (cp. . & when separated From Imagination. f. never will from sin be free & comes to me. 1. f. 10-13: 11. Jerusalem. logy the Emanation in 1. 8. 'she 5-8 A . . 50 Power 11. 2 A Fathomless & boundless deep. Milton.' 'The Spectre See 1. 23 56. : shall ne'er give o'er. 42. 16 f. Emanation My Weeps far within my incessantly for Sin. . dark & cold. 12. there we weep On the hungry craving wind My 5 . and closing itself as in steel in a Ratio Of the Things of Memory. behind] EY adopt the first rejected form of this stanza : ' ' ' ' ' ' . self-righteousness. 14. 10. forgives to thou forgive. who is male. The Emanation represents imthe Spectre. Milton. the Divine Body. weep. self-hood.

11. Dost fears] 15/ rdg. another by and then : When my ' Thou Love did didst call that first f. Then thou wast lovely mild and gentle. 30. tears] DGR. . wilt thou return again? When 4 Dost thou not & Pride in Scorn 13 with tempests all my morn. Jerusalem.' loves thought that you would love Seeking for pleasures in my pleasures. the Spectre 'for Attends her as her Guard. 9 Thro' the wintry hail & rain.* ' On a dark cold winter night Within my Heart. 16 — fears Fill] ? 13 DGR. 2. :— f. now thou art terrible In jealousy. Book . 20 shuddering fears] shadowy fears WBY. 1 'winter night dark' for 'winter dark. and unlovely in my sight. Milton. Love a Secret trembling. hunts her footsteps thro' the snow & the wintry hail & rain. Daughter of Babylon. del. . . my I O 17 my] thy EY. Wheresoever thou dost go. begin. f. 11. WMR. WMR. . . because thou hast cruelly Cut off my loves in fury till I have no love left for thee. 19 built . 18 and joy in my delights. night — — : wherever the Emanation goes.' 9-12 "• 4. Spectre still wandering thro' them follows my Emanation. Cp. Hath DGR. 32. And with jealousies & fears Fill my pleasant nights with tears? Fill 5 Seven of my sweet loves thy knife Has bereaved of their 17 life. My He the Originally fourth stanza. . Loves away.' 13-15 Dost MS.MS. Cp. * He 5 . tears EY. .' my all Driving 8 Cp. Blake's previous deleted readings are 1. 3 7 : . Their marble tombs I built with tears. WMR .' This is followed deleted stanza quoted only by Swinb. And Dost] Didst 17. 3 & sin : day. Milton. build fears EY. And with cold & shuddering fears. . ' again] . . shadowy 18 Has] WBY. . 32*. Rossetti 187 3 He scents thy footsteps in the snow. . fill DGR. WMR.

' DGR. And 21 seven more loves attend each night my couch with torches bright. alone I'll have thee Living. Rossetti Seven more loves weep night & day Round the tombs where my loves lay. 24 Around] About R^ 30 to hfe] in life 28 Thy] My WBY. 10 'Thro' the Heaven Thou I will fly Night 23 each] at 26 wine] vine & Earth shalt never. When When & thou return & them to life wilt thou return & view renew live 29 ? ? wilt thou pity as I forgive ? 9 'Never. 32 as I] and MS. WBY. never quell and thou pursue & Morn & Hell : the flight renew. DGR. Around 7 And seven more Loves in Crown with wine & Pitying Thy my my bed mournful head. 8 When My wilt loves. 25 all forgiving transgressions great & small. 33-40 EY . And when dead I'll be thy Grave. Still for . 37 : del. Book 15/ rdg. I return: 33 Victory I burn. WMR. omit inverted commas (wtg. WMR.1 88 MS.) all edd. EY. Never. also in MS.

' 47. del. . . I come in Self annihilation & the grandeur of Inspiration To To To To Demonstration by Faith in the Saviour. Annihilate thee on the rocks. 43. Night vii. Indefinite or paltry Rhymes. To be my subservient to 41 I] thou MS. That it no longer shall dare to mock with the aspersion of Madness Cast on the Inspired by the tame high finisher of paltry Blots. And another form create And. i-io MS. Swinb. brutish. del. Book 11. . cast off Rational cast off the rotten rags of cast off Bacon Locke and Memory by Inspiration. 42 root] dig MS. del. rdg. 48 Cp. & . Book 15/ two stanzas. . That body For. 11. Newton from Albion's covering. f. or paltry Harmonies. to] And I to MS. : ' . f. cruel lust of murder. : ! also — The Four Zoas. & by Self-annihilation back returning To Life Eternal To be assur'd I am thy real self . 12 to end thy cruel mocks. . The Four Zoas. to wash off the Not Human. Book isi rdg. . consummating by pains & labours That coy mortal body. WBY. 43 I] : Thou 45-49 And . 43. When I was a ravening. & I cannot crave for any thing but thee ' The Spectres of the Dead. 1. del.. EY. 37 f. Rossetti 189 II from Female Love up the Infernal Grove. . H. & thirsting. ' : . 42. 8-11. 339-345 Thou art united with thy Spectre. Thou didst subdue me in old times by thy Immortal Strength. I 298-306 : — will destroy I created. is:- and passim. To cast aside from Poetry all that is not Inspiration. To bathe in the waters of Life. Let] Swinb.MS. ' — To cleanse the Face of my Spirit by Self-examination. rdg. Thou knowest that the Spectre is in Every Man insane. . Book 1st rdg. till that I am thus a ravening devouring lust continually devouring but my Eyes are always upon thee Oh lovely not so Delusion. ' 11. Infernal Grove] See Jerusalem. hungering.. we never can repass the Gates. 46 What is meant by annihilation' is rendered clear by the following passage from Milton. take off his filthy garments and clothe him with Imagination. . 45 Fate. for I am as the Spectre of the Living Deformed Craving . Night vii. transposes these 45 And. never worthy be Till I turn And shall I To 41 root step into Eternity. then shall we unite again in bliss these terrors planted round the Gates of Eternal life Are driven away & annihilated.

' f. MS. Book MS. WBY. which is f. said & 53 Cp. the last couplet of *3. ist rdg. Throughout] Through- In Forgiveness of Sins our dear Redeemer said] 55 dear I. 98. del. Rossetti go I Let us agree to give up Love. 1.' Redeemer. Book 1st rdg. Another body will be prepared For me. *3 thou sit] 15^ rdg. and *i and *2 as their seventh and ninth Swinb. : 'This the Wine. Book *4 thy] 15^ rdg. quotes in Notes. 11. [Appendix O'er my Unplaced Stanzas] : thou sins Hast thou no O'er my And lull sit sins of thou thy own sins sit & moan *i : thy own? & weep. & this the Bread.' my WMR. WBY. 2 of their fourth stanza.' See also Jerusalem. root up the infernal grove And & Then shall we return The worlds of happy 49 . As our dear Redeemer said I forgive you. f. thy] my ibid. EY. 8-12. del. 11. WMR and others. . 14. my] thy ibid. stanzas. WBY. thine DGR. thou] thou dost sit DGR. 14 & Throughout all Eternity 53 you forgive me. DGR. 15 Every Emanative joy forbidden as And my] thy MS. WMR.MS. Book — a Crime the Emanations buried alive in the earth with *i sit] : . and EY omit.' But if thou dost refuse. WBY *i. use the first See note above. del. sins fast asleep. *2 Hast thou] Have thine thou I DGR. WMR. WMR. Jerusalem.. wry . out DGR. . see Eternity. 4 of their fifth stanza . slightly altered as IL 3. 9. thou] I ibid. thou dost sit DGR. followed by couplet of *3 as 11. Jerusalem. 23. I pomp of religion. *2 ' Cp. & thou annihilate evaporate & be no more. Self Annihilation. WMR. WMR. WMR. del. my MS. 92. i.

iii.'' EY elbows. groans of lead aching head.MS.' and calling ' ' the piece ' droll and risque'.' which is not the case. . woman sitting ' : * When man a He — marries a wife. conveys the idea that it is found on the same page as Daphne. Book by the the And let [us go] to With many wiles Woman partly [? ! illegible unerased but day] your [? wiles] win back] your [? woe thou poor child of why compel me to bind thee?' the that does not love Will never O from Tirzah. Book. *3 Poor. ' . Jerusalem. pale. 67. They thy Harlots. Rossetti What Are Transgressions 191 commit I *5 for thy Transgressions fit.' The lines are certainly so divided in the MS.' XXXVIU When a Man Her knees & has Married a Wife. a graceful little sketch of man in bed. *8 my] thy WBY. 208) print as a quatrain MS. prove that Blake meant them to form a couplet. MS. ' 11. :— O thou poor Human Form Why wilt thou wander away *I2 Followed *6 Trans- WBY gressions] transgression in said she. and on the edge of it in a very elementary stage of FY's reproduction of this drawing (vol. finds out whether Her elbows and knees are only Glued together.. Bind around my *5-*8 This stanza was written after the following one. he finds out whether elbows are only glued together. Below 4. smiles.' which the colloquial ' ' ' miss the point of the allusion to knees and elbow-grease might have suggested. f. pitiable form That I follow in a storm & Iron tears *9 . EY (i. 43. 44 ! stanza : — ' *g Cp. as well as the indentation. thou their slave And my bed becomes their Grave. In altering has Married to marries. without pagination) dressing. a young p. but the absence of initials in the second and fourth.

blushed red] Supplied from Swinb. The same line 4 ****** I .. of 1. del. ' Fayette (xxxvi. . 14 And yell] EY omit. intripled] ninefold MS. . refers the origin of this Rabelaisian jeu d'esprit to the passages from Klopstock rendered into English by Hayley for Blake's benefit during the latter's stay at Felpham in 1803 (Hayley's Diary. all his MS. And all the devils that were in Answered with a Klopstock And felt hell. 11 sight] EY omit. Mar. . At Lambeth beneath the poplar From his seat then started he And 5 trees. 13. pp. . .] the intripled turn. 5. . . xxxix When Klopstock England defied. 5 made] would make trees] Blake was away. Book. 31. occurs in the first EY. turned him round] EY omit. This piece is verj' faintly which had reached a second edition in 1769. The Moon at that sight [blushed scarlet red.' EY. 13 ninefold yell. but the reference to Lambeth. Uprose William Blake in his pride For old Nobodaddy aloft ****** & & Belch'd cough'd i . and EY a few words which the present owner of the MS.Rossetti 192 MS. . bowels began to churn. called aloud to English Blake. written in pencil and a considerable portion of it is no longer legible. 8 Blake 7. 16 churn] burn MS. 26. Swinb. ' . . 32. del. * version of . Blake of course have been familiar with Collyer's translation of the Messias. 12-14 cups scarlet] quite EY. Then swore And a great oath that made heaven quake. .] The stars threw down their [cups and fled. . Book 1st rdg.' point rather to its having been written about 1793. . . His body was free At Lambeth beneath the poplar tree. 15 Klopstock] Astonished EY. 29) . yell] Supplied 12 cups] spears EY. cough'd] EY omit. A). Book 1st rdg. 4 in may supply in square brackets from Swinb. Although written from the unreversed end this piece probably belongs to the same date as those in the earlier section of the MS. 3 aloft] EY omit. . Blake was giving his body ease. p. . . from Swinb. 9 turned him round three times three. and the repetition ' Fayette. lo 9 From he] From Lambeth then shouted he EY. Book is unable to decipher. Book.

which apparently were Supplied from Swinb. Swinb. Book before him. one the no No one can take the pride. Anything] EY omit 29. Then 29 And Blake would do this when he **** ** **** ***** What might he not do if he sat down to write? If And And. . the title 2 you'll] you EY. Since] the old Anything [was created. Book 1st rdg. 25 fashion was created] 26 Since] Supplied from Swinb. 31. . 4 No one] .Rossetii And And MS. And none EY. Book. or evil none's to MS. added later. EY. Since Eve first chose her hellfire spark. Only legible when he had the MS. . i. hell-found EY.. he beg'd me to turn again And . you'll ask her she will swear it so. MS.. go naked] Supplied from Swinb.. locked in his soul with a ninefold key That from his body it ne'er could be Till to the last [judgment] it was his 17 . Then again old Nobodaddy swore 21 He ne'er [had seen] such a thing before. 30] Of these lines. EY . but Panurge could hardly have improved on the manner of retribution : : ' : devised for flaccid fluency and devout sentiment always running at the mouth. 32 A xl On the Virginity of the Virgin Mary & Johanna Southcott Whate'er And if is done to her she cannot know. SAMPSON O EY del. Since 'twas the [fashion] to [go naked. Book ist rdg.] And so feeling. 6..' marginal addition. . .. 25 . 193 bowels turned round three times three. EY 24 chose] EY omit hellfire] : had seen] supplied from. . 210. blame: Whether tis good shame. Only printed by swear it] tell you MS. . Swinburne writes in choice Attic or in archaic French could the rest be endured by modem eyes . del. it] EY omit. round] They turned around 19 ne'er] never EY.. Supplied from EY 17 .. . Since Noah was shut in the ark. p. omit 20 to] EY omit judgment] 22 ne'er] never Swinb. poor Klopstock never pain .

vain all in i . 'tis . 1803. As one 3 sand] dust WBY. before 11.MS. Yeats' textual alterations. it will . This page therefore cannot be dated later than April. by oversight.' The xliii). consists of fourteen stanzas which Blake later split up into two separate ' poems. 7.' being obviously suggested by ' first 11. Mock on. In the first column are found stanzas 1-9 and the first two lines of stanza 10. 52 of this tear shall melt the And every wound it poem : — sword of steel has made shall heal. 5 sand] stone poem WBY. Rossetti 194 xli Mock on. ' ' ' beneath this stanza. Mock on. Book. which A line of separation drawn is continued at the head of the second column. some title ' p. But still in Israel's paths they shine. Gem Reflected in the beams divine 5 . B. Mock on You throw the sand Rousseau Voltaire. Where Israel's tents do shine so bright. W. escaped at the hands of Blake's editors. written without title on p. shows that Blake's intention was to end with the lines : ' — & the widow's tear world from fear. Scoffers. 12 of the MS. which. 9 And MS. Blown back they blind the mocking eye. Without DGR and later editors with of the very few pieces which had hitherto. To the Deists in Jenisalenu and The Grey Monk in the Pickering MS. this beautiful little might well have been spared Mr.' Printed by title. 41-56 were added. is ' ' (see — The war of swords & spears Melted by dewy tears. xlii Note Prefatory The first draft of this piece.' The Hermit's prayer Alone can free the ' 14 comes the beautiful lyric Morning a different treatment of the same idea Below stanza be seen. The Atoms of Democritus Newton's Particles of light Are sands upon the Red sea shore. And the wind blows And every sand becomes a it back again. 51. Book. ! against the wind.

who. and ' we has find Blake been hitherto Sweet Mercy me leads still — 195 invariably misprinted on. : 3 to] with EY where] as EY. Book.' was probably when about to engrave Jerusalem that Blake returned to poem. and stanza two stanzas are common to both versions. except for a few Jerusalem. the Mother said. Ellis and Yeats. with the title The Grey Monk. lation of stanza 4 14 between 10 and 11. ' and ' The Grey Monk ' with editors' emendations will be found among poems irom Jerusalem and The Pickering MS. 220-26). I die.' This. Book.' and For a tear is an intellectual thing.' and between right-hand margin he made two attempts to rewrite stanza 2 which were not adopted in either of the final versions. with the interpo- between 5 and 6. begins with the original fifth stanza the line ' ' ' ' .' ' I saw a Monk of Charlemaine Arise. Charle' maine. or from the text of Messrs. and 14 to come in after stanza 4. gives us the poem entitled To the Deists' engraved at the foot off 52 oiJerusalem..' 'Titus Constantine. See Poems from the Prophetic Books.MS.' At the same time he added * — When — margin the stanza Charlemaine O Voltaire Rousseau Gibbon vain Your Grecian mocks [^mocks if iron del. he wrote the revised version of stanza 12 : ' Satan first the black bow bent And the Moral Law from the Gospel rent He forg'd the Law into a Sword And spill'd the blood of Mercy's Lord. Then below the couplet on Terror and 13. said' being changed to 'I die. o a i . are derived from the in their preface to Chapter III of Jerusalem (ii. Rossetti The reading * ' morning * mercy. the Mother I see.' This poem I see.' which in the line this connexion.' gains additional force in dwelling on the same thought in the couplet which immediately follows ' Terror in the house does roar : But Pity stands before the It this door. print the Blake's later text of ' To the Deists rejected readings and omitted stanzas. and prefixing the numbers 5-7 to When Satan first the black bow bent. His first change was to reduce its length to seven stanzas by drawing a separation line between stanzas 4 and 5. the Lastly he indicated clearly the order of the seven stanzas to be used in by marking the first four stanzas 1-4.' The remaining stanzas (6-1 1) are arranged in the order of the MS. These In the footnotes to the present poem I give such variant readings only as MS. and marking stanzas 12. before my sight I talk'd to the Grey Monk where he stood In beams of infernal light. Pity..] ' Against this image of his Lord Titus ! in the Constantine : ! ! ! ! ! & Roman sword — linked to stanza 14 the columns and in by the catchword 'A tear is &c.' Of the stanzas thus rejected Blake made a separate poem which he transcribed into the Pickering MS. ' unimportant verbal changes.

What more has the merciless tyrant said The Monk sat down on her stony bed. . . as * And Voltaire ' for ' hidden by the binding. in right-hand margin. in Clouds of learning roU'd. gold] Variants of this stanza are Sideways. 10 Thou . Book ' warriors ' for ' .' (i) Sideways.. top of page : ' ? — : 'Gibbon plied his lash of steel. Charlemaine & his Clouds ofWar [ Must[er around] the Polar ' In printing the above. . Charlemaine & his barons bold Stood by. del. Charlemagne and his warriors bold EY. .' (b) 4 'Must around the Polar 7 The roll'd] War] Seditious Monk said Charlemaine The Glory of War thou condemn'st . 15/ rdg.' — in vain. His body bent. racking EY. EY in (a) EY 'The glory of reading in last line war thou cursedst 18 will] shall EY. 9 ' War. 9. del.' Readings rejected by Blake. 'I see. MS. & bind him in his Cell ' ! The blood red ran from the Grey Monk's His hands & feet were wounded wide.' down] sat him down EY. . In vain condemning Glorious War. 5-8 Gibbon (fl) side.] Star. ' & his barons bold.' they said afar.' . 20 sat : in vain.' ' Voltaire. his arms & knees Like to the roots of ancient trees. Star. and mocked in iron & gold. War in iron & gold. Voltaire turned his wracking wheel. And in thy Cell thou shall ever dwell. Children will die for lack of bread. middle column. Voltaire with a wracking wheel schools. at top of page ' The Wheel Gibbon aloud his lash does ply. ist rdg.MS.' (a) 3 arouse the polar bear for ' Muster partially : of Voltaire whirl'd on high. I see. now These words are 6 wracking] 5 arose] armed EY. . Thou lazy Monk. 2 read barons.' the ' My Mother 13 17 said. Rossetti 196 Gibbon arose with a lash of And 5 : The Arose with * steel. Rise.

became a tyrant in his stead. . . He] Between these is an illegible line erased. He told me that all I wrote should prove The bane ' My of all that on Earth love. 26 studious] shadowy EY. 34 marched] Deleted in MS. of vengeance sought the bed To which The And 41 the purple tyrant fled iron hand crushed the tyrant's head. hollow groan first spoke his woe He trembled & shuddered upon the bed At length with a feeble cry he said A : ' 21 : When God commanded this — . 22 first spoke] bespoke EY. 22. no tear could flow. 31 I mock'd chain] I mock at the rack and the grinding pain EY. his thousands strong . Thy : . Note. Untill gain] This stanza was rewritten later. . . but no word 36 revenge] avenge EY. . Alone can The hand ' free the world from fear. . first the black bow bent. 21 could] would EY. 23 woe 24 At said] EY oitiit. children's cry soul appalls I mock'd at the wrack and griding chain bent body mocks at their torturing pain. See Pref. 37 They never can work war's overthrow The Hermit's prayer & the widow's tear .Thy brother has armed himself in steel To revenge the wrongs thy children feel. EY. . . Book 15/ rdg. My ' Thy With father drew his sword in the North he is [marched] forth 33 . shall Slaughter heap the bloody plain 45 The Tyrant who : Resistance & War is the Tyrant's gain. I brother starved between two walls my 29 . ' Untill the Tyrant himself relent. . . 197 His Eye was dry. 41 sought] found EY. . hand to write 25 In the studious hours of deep midnight. * But vain the sword & vain the bow. . del.Rossetti MS. 45-48 44 And usurped the tyrant's throne & bed MS. substituted.

he had at first written ' 1. the bitter groan of the Martyr's woe Is an arrow from the Almightie's bow. Daybreak. . . MS. I The war of swords & spears. and the Pickering heal] Omitted in both the Jerusalem 55 of the Martyr's] for another's MS.' MS. repentant moan see the break of day. Melted by dewy tears. . . 49-52 But .' The word 'Morning' was repeated in 4 of the song. 53 And And a sigh is the sword of an Angel King. ' editors with the title 4-6 Sweet added 12 morning to ' ' Mercy conveys a meaning received text. versions. xliii Morning To Western path. ' . read ' I and all later ' to the poem . 8 Exhales on high. For the tear an is 49 forgiveness sweet.Rossetti 198 'But the Tear of Love And The And ' —& MS. of a martyr's EY. Book. Morning supposing that the same word and 'Mercy' being somewhat alike in Blake's handwriting. p. Book show that some other word— probably the right one— before in the title may have misled him into 'morning. . is And with soft grateful tears Ascends the sky. . MS. G. every wound it has made shall heal. Book 1st rdg. Title 12. submission to death beneath his feet tear shall melt the sword of steel. — intellectual thing. The marks of entirely lacking in the ' ' Rossetti's transcript of all that is of any value in the an erasure in D. With soft repentant me on moan 4 : see the break of day. del.' soft ' correction of DGR :— Sweet morning leads me on With The Printed by later. The Sun freed from fears.' day] All edd. find the i Gates of Wrath thro' the Right I urge my way Sweet Mercy leads .

night hath heard my sorrows loud.MS. Book. Yonder stands a lonely tree. i8 hangs] 17 . 14. No italics in is sweet. But Pity stands before the door. Tell me. O 1 evening winds silent tear. See p. my sorrow bear. Dost thou truly long for me? And am I thus sweet to thee He. for the first time. ! She. sqq. Sorrow now is O my and lover at 13 ? an end. 5. p. Where thou dwellest. Fair one. 3 dost] doth EY. n . . have liv'd Each day And I 9 and mourn'd for thee mourn along the wood. and make thy calm retreat Among green leaves and blossoms MS. MS. MS. Prefatorj' Note Here printed to xlii. I. my Friend ! Come on wings of joy we'll fly To where my bower hangs on high Come. . Rossetti 199 xliv Terror in the house does roar . He . in what Grove. thou summer's harmony. She. Book. There I live and mourn for thee my Morning drinks And He. thou pride of every field i . mourn] moan EY. . 5 . She\ WBY. tell me love Where thou thy charming Nest dost build. hung all edd. xL The Birds He. 12.

cp. 266. ' : tisements in newspapers are no proof of popular approbation. I would attempt 2 ye] you to make you WMR. . in the News Papers. 5 MS. Rossetti xlvi No real Style of Colouring ever appears. . WMR. ever] now Gil. there — you'll see at his Pictures S"" Colouring —All Joshua's has taken Wing : ! WMR Gil. Book \st rdg.' and by EY among Couplets and Fragments (xvi) without title.' and by EY (xvii) without title. 21. p. Book. i. while in your pleasant dreams Sleep on Sleep on Of Reason you may drink of Life's clear streams. But advertizing Look Look MS. . 4 All has taken wing] 'tis quite another thing MS. 56) I . . p. they are quite two things For so the Swallow & the Sparrow sings. del. The King dropped a Tear All Nature And all his into the Queen's Ear.' 3 there] here EY.' xlvii You You — I won't attempt to make ye won't attempt to wake ye. cp. The epigrams on Art which begin on this page would appear to be an overflow from those jotted p. . WMR * I You ye] You don't believe won't] would MS. . don't believe — asleep are ! : 1 I ! Reason and Newton. Pictures Faded. the two stanzas separated by a sketch. Blake's Advertisement (^MS. but often the contrary. ' Epigrams from Reynolds' Discourses. Printed among as a single stanza with title 'Couplets and Fragments' (xv) by Reason.. Book.200 MS. del. EY. Printed by among Epigrams and on Art and Artists (xiv) with title Colour. 21.. Book. in the 2 But . Satirical Pieces ' ' down ' ' ' margins of Blake's copy of Reynolds' Discourses. Book 1st rdg.' iv : — 'When Sir Joshua Reynolds died was degraded. Papers] Save thro' advertisements Adverin the newspapers Gil. .

Book. 17. . 1 Reached all the way from Chichester to York. 11. Am I not Bacon & Newton & Locke. 15-30 being added This fragment. Try. Vain Foolish Man. who teach Humility to Man. * . and theirs is the p. .'] I demand If therefore of the amateurs of art the encouragement which is my due. 11. 12 ('Only . A World of Shapes. 1809. Doubt. & I ' cry ' I I ! ! These lines occur in Blake's Advertisement. & my two Wings Voltaire Rousseau Where is that Friend of Sinners. I go on. wilt thou believe without Experiment And build a World of Phantasy upon my Great Abyss. This is my glory. and beneath the notice of the Public del. theirs is the loss. O Sons of Men I am your Rational Power. like a ' ! Come hither into the Desart & turn these stones to bread. : — hoar frost & a Mildew. 1-14. That is the very thing that Jesus meant. From York all across Scotland to the Sea This was a Man of Men. p. 9 and 12. the beginning 11. and nothing can course. not mine. This world of dross is beneath my notice. Book. 15-24 No . 31-51 were first written. following Imagination is my World. When he said Only Believe Believe & try ' : 9 ' ! ! & Try. was probably composed soon after Sept. Who teaches Belief to the Nations & an unknown Eternal life? But the Spectre.' xlix And his legs carried it like a long fork. . never mind the Reason why ' ! WMR omits to 11. . MS. and marked is missing. Who teach Doubt & Experiment. Saying I am God. great reward. 14. 21. Rossetti Reason says Aye! ' Miracle that's the ' Newton says Doubt. . EY place 7-12 quotation marks in MS. as seems to me.' make all Nature out. around 11. in craving lust & devouring appetite ? ? ' xlviii MS. 54. of which for insertion after 1. the prose passage : [' contempt of posterity. ' : to way 20 1 & * don't believe without experiment Doubt. And in Will sit melodious accents me down. and hinder my I have enough my exceeding in the approbation of fellow labourers.MS. that Rebel against my Laws. II. in the margin. 22. rose over Albion. why'). 7-12 ('Doubt why') with enclosed single quotation marks to 11. Jerusalem. they continue to refuse. f. Cf.

weekly EY. here called christ.202 Rossetti MS. Malkin. go) and may have been part See note to Ixxviii. Book 15/ rdg. So Stewhard's Soul he buckled to his back. del. 16 trembling Book 15/ rdg. MS. Horseback with Death. . . . Clap'd Death into the corner of their jaw. Bowyer and (i. Book 1st rdg. 13 His under jaw drop'd as those Eggs he laid. But my soul also would he bear away. possibly because of his association with Blair's Grave. And Stewhard's Eggs are addled and decay'd. Felpham Billy. Only printed by EY in their ' Memoir ' 78-79).. 8 So Stewhard s 4 This] That EY. ' EY ' ' Quibble .' and Scotland refers to the latter's visit to that country Death' is a nickname search of material for his Reliques of Bums (1808). and Jack Hemp. del. Jack Hemp's parson. my soul . But once. del. over the fields of corn Who with iron hand cuff'd. in the afternoon. but see footnote. alas! committing a Mistake. mistakenly suppose that Boydel and ' of the following piece may be the true names of the lawyers Cur ' Hemp's speaker. of is of course Stothard. del. Book is/ rdg. . EY. trembling for the affront 17 Like trembling Hare sits on his weakly paper On which he used to dance & sport & caper. ignoring the play upon words. Yorkshire Jack Hemp & Quibble. He would bear EY. 9 He bore the wretched Soul of William Blake That he might turn it into Eggs of Gold But neither back nor mouth those eggs could hold. Jack the Fathers Memoirs.' the parson. chap. when Examiner ' ' . xix) in Screwmuch. i. . Blake's Exhibition' appeared in Leigh Hunt's of the poem which Blake alludes (no. of Blake's trial for high treason. I carried] covered Soul] .' 'Yorkshire Dady. Call'd Death a Madman. ' ' for Flaxman . Stewhard.' for Hayley . Chichester was the scene to in his Advertisement. and Dady. daw] saw EY. at the instance of the Dragoon (see GilYorkshire was the birthplace of Cromek. The Examiner. 25 Both went to Law with Death to keep our Ears on. the article on 'Mr. EY. EY. whose very name is Hunt. 14 Stewhard's] all my MS. And Cur my lawyer. The Ears of Billy's Lawyer & Dragoon. blushing daw. ' ' for Blake. EY. 17 weakly] affront] Deadly the affront 18 sport] shout EY. 10 of] and MS. 21 And Felpham Billy rode out every morn. 5 Like as a Pedlar bears his weary Pack. MS.' for Dr. Not only in his Mouth his own Soul lay. 19 Yorkshire] And Yorkshire 20 their] his EY.

For sorrow that our friend Bob Screwmuch 's gone. 51 Stewhard] Stothard EY. Then Screwmuch at Blake's soul took a long leap.' Here again. I'll my own dear epitaph. Who — all Mankind one enemy behind. changing the name to John Trot. 43-4 But 27 design . ! 33 37 ! And Death sits laughing on their Monuments On which he 's written Received the Contents. however. ' See Ixxxviii. EY. And I.Rossetti MS. as aqua- that] I This Epitaph so sorrowful my thought is MS.' the Friend of has not left explaining that a later page of the notebook completes the epitaph. 47 upon] in EY.' like: * 31 how] now EY. 203 For how to starve Death we had laid a plot Against his Price but Death was in the Pot.' 41 ' — But — I have writ so sorrowful my thought is for my tears are aquafortis. O that I ne'er had seen that William Blake. Because he makes designs so very cheap. Twas death in a disguise. who finish the couplet fortis. knock your head against this stone. Book 1st rdg. — aquafortis] EY. be buried near a dyke 45 also write And I'll 49 That my friends may weep as much as they Here lies Stewhard the Friend of all &c. they misinterpret the force of Blake's ' &c. del. 36 designs] have writ with tears. 'Twas not a Mouse.' And now the Muses upon me smile and laugh . that such a thought could be That Blake would Etch for him and draw for me. ne'er] never . He made them pay his Price. Or could from Death Assassinette wake — ! — We 29 — thought Alas. alas live to weep out my Eyes. . . : ' . But EY omit. His epitaph 'Come. . Artists.' which is always a reference to a passage already written. For 'twas a kind of Bargain Screwmuch made That Blake's designs should be by us display 'd. . alackaday! He knew both Law and Gospel better than they.

Only ptd. Book. their brain H pan — the painter Sussex Man. . Mirth at the Errors of a Foe. . II. But all my limbs with warmth glow: I I MS. . poor Schiavonetti. confusing Macklin for whom Blake engraved Stothard's 'Fall of Rosamund (1783) with . Malkin {Fathers Memoirs of His Child. written after June 1810. 5 Macklin] Malchin EY. whom they to death bother'd I i can angry with Macklin. 212. or Cromek.' xiii) as above. 204 1 Was Or Or Or Or angry with Hayley who us'd me so ill. 7. WBY and Coup. i. Book. del. . ' Boydel] Read 'BoyBlake engraved Hogarth's Scene from the Beggar's Opera Dr. Book.' Frag. ? 5 ' ? 8i). 24. 3 Or Stothard] Or angry with Boydell. p. and Frag. Only printed by EY WMR and WBY print as beginning of (i. or Bowyer. to which William Haines and Blake both contributed engravings. WMR 3 ' warmth glow] warmth do glow EY. ' MS. and . 23.' xvi) prefixed by 1. Because they did not say O what a beau ye are At a Friend's Errors anger shew. Written in margin of preceding piece. 23. which the allusion to Schiavonetti's As li. .Rossetti AIS. . Book ist rdg. p. WMR (' find them the Errors of the foe. death shows. (1788) : : sumptuous illustrated edition of li Anger & Wrath my bosom rends: i thought them the Errors of friends. p. except last couplet. 8 by EY with title Friends and Foes. or Boydel. 1806) dell. by EY i. Written about 1809. 2 is] in EY. Cp. MS. Printed by ('Coup. the date of the publication of Hayley's Life of Romney. I be angry with Felpham's old Mill ? angry with Flaxman. or Bowyer or Bu MS. or Stothard. Hi The Sussex Men And weak I wonder Is not a is if are Noted Fools. 178.' for whom of the Bowyer] publisher Hume's History (1806). Gilchrist.

They will : foolish to think they can find themselves mistaken they could not : wound even Mr. call thee. p. p.' Cp.' EY. Sept.' xiv). Barry Fuseli is] Fuseli I so.MS. one of the best compliments he ever had. 181. Gil. Only ptd. Ivi Can there be anything more mean. Epigrams. 213. Gil. Probably addressed to Flaxman. 75. June 4. Book ist rdg. 4 That man] Which he ibid. i.. More Malice in disguise.' while EY think this and the preceding epigram are addressed to Haines. Fuseli over my shoulder. Than Praise a Man for doing what That Man Reynolds When does most despise? i 4 lectures exactly so he praises Michael Angelo. 90. ' To DGR the and Same' WMR [i. liv To H You think Fuseli This is I'm glad. prefatory note to Epigrams from Blake's copy of Sir Joshua Reynolds' Discourses U798).e. title WBY omits. 3 what] that MS. (wrongly) expands title <To Hayley. MS. 53) wound Mr. and Frag. Book. so] This Reynolds' lectures plainly shew ibid. no. (' thee I am Mocked: thee Blockhead. 26.. also Blake's Advertisement (MS. del. Book. the latter's references to Fuseli and Blake. by EY i. and Frag. 25. 's Iv To F I mock thee not. Rossetti 205 liii ' Fool. Only printed by EY 213. Book. p. MS. 26. call Coupl.' Flaxman]. ' ' . Examiner. i. is not a Great Painter. EY i. xvii) with p.' I have been call'd Thee or Me? I wonder which they Envy ' : — MS. without doubt. Cf. 25. Book. Cp.' ('Coupl. 5 Reynolds . 17. 1809. Both are. but MS.' they Madman. 213. Book. Ixxix. and no. To H[unt]. though I by Thou call'st me Madman. EY ' viii. ' ' Many people are so 1809. p.

(' p. 2 Mother . : : MS. EY i. his p. Iviii To Nancy F How can I help thy Husband's copying Me? Should that make difference 'twixt me and thee? MS. this] there EY.2o6 Rossetti MS. 213. 27. on] upon EY. I on H 's] his Father] Hayley's Swinb. 4 & extreme] and is ' Epigrams from Reynolds' Discourses (v). Cp. 213. Book. on the nursery in floor. Cp. WMR (' Coupl. EY i. was the happy lot: Father him begot. and I S ] Stothard WBY.' 20). 38. 27. and at the same time he was blasting ' P' 53) my • character to Macklin How much of his know. mother or WMR. WBY. extreme WBY. 213. Flaxman cannot deny that one of the very first monuments he did I gratuitously designed for him. his father EY.' 19). will allow to be mine I do not Homer and Dante he far enough off to publish them. p. Advertisement (MS.' lix H Of 's birth this His Mother on MS. but the public will know. Was extreme Old and most extremely poor He has grown old & rich & what he will He is extreme old & extreme poor still.' xxi. Book. even to Italy. Ivii S Childhood. Book. WBY Coupl. 4). ' Frag. as he went my employer.. p. Book. as Macklin told me at the time. 27. Swinb. WBY (' Coupl. Only in EY i.

p. Cp.MS. 5 Christ ist rdg. . 214 print first line Meat] meal EY. . & the poisoned feast.' xiii). del. [ii] Discourses to the Royal Academy as the Simulations of the Hypocrite who Smiles particularly where he means to Betray. note Blake's ' in : : me the Mischief is just the Same whether a Man does it Ignorantly or Knowingly. MS. . Book MS. EY viii). later. Whether Reynolds knew what he was doing. WBY . (' Epig. Rossetti 207 Ix Sir Joshua praises Michael Angelo. is nothing to p. i. del. foe] And counts . all cdd. EY Cromek i. Book. Book. only. ('Coupl. I alwaj's consider'd True Art & True Artists to be particularly Insulted & Degraded by the Reputation of these Discourses.' 2 'Tis . the Hysteric Smile of Revenge. & that Such Artists as Reynolds are at all times Hired by the Satans for the Depres: sion of Art. the hidden trap. must MS. Book ist DGR. MS. would] that line added way] This we all outrage thus to praise his foe when Knaves] thus to it mildness] meekness rdg. . His Praise of Rafael is like His Softness & Candour. 3 all . loves artists as he loves his loves the p. Gil.' II). DGR p. Ixii Cr He MS. all the world would say. a fool who tries make such to a Blockhead believe. (' Epig. Book. 28. I Cr Gil. . ] Art 208. (' CoupL' WMR.' 6). WMR. 29.' x). but . . others I consider Reynolds' Reynolds' Discourses. He praises Michael Angelo for Qualities which Michael Angelo abhorr'd & He blames Rafael for the only Qualities which Rafael Valued. ('Coupl. Should Michael Angelo praise Sir Joshua i . As much as they were Degraded by the Reputation of Reynolds' Paintings. 28. Ixi He's a Blockhead who wants a proof of what he Perceive And he 's can't . — Christ M S. 'Tis Christian mildness when Knaves praise a foe But 'twould be Madness. the Pharisees in a rougher way. 'tis Meat : the art to cheat. vis'd 5 WMR DGR omit.

WMR. p. Ix^ He is a Cock would And would be a Cock MS. Book. ibid. Rossetti Ixiii A MS. 2x4. Heis]He'sEY. become the Golden Fool. . of hair MS. p. 2 Cr Gil. . Cp. . — WMR ('Coupl. . 29. Ixvi He has observ'd the Golden Rule. Cr p. 5 6 As hair] Like a filthy infectious head A crooked stick & a louzy head of hair. Book. By calling his the ornamental style . But sure such ornaments we well may spare As crooked limbs and louzy heads of hair. Ixiv Sir Joshua praised Rubens with a smile. in Only praised] praises EY. 214. 30. ye] you Gil. I knew how do ye do? Petty Sneaking Knave O! Mr. Book 15/ rdg. Ixvii.' Cromek Gil. del. Till he's MS. .' xxn) headed 'Cromek. MS. t Only in EY 2 he 's] he has i. 214. 29. Book. EY I 2nd i.2o8 MS. . del. 29. p. 208. rdg. Only in EY I i. Book. And yet his praise of Flaxman was the smartest. ] i. EY. if he could . When he called him the Ornamental Artist.

Swinb. In its original form this epigram was written in the third person. old proverbs say But not with Money. ' ' his for ' your. 3 be ungrateful] prove ungrateful Swinb. all i Till you're at last become the golden fool I sport with Fortune.' and He has ' for ' Take you ' in 1. 31. 5 Take you] You have EY. 214) 'addressed to (Who was d I 5 A similar misreading of Blake's capital S for I occurs in their text This and the preceding epigram refer of course to Stothard. Merry. p. 4 sneaking lane] Sneaking Lane Swinb. Rossetti 209 Ixvii To S- You your Youth observ'd the Golden Rule. Sneaking. Why should you be ungrateful to your friends. WHY ('Coupl.. I EY i. be unfaithful EY. & backbiting. 215. d I ?). Take you the hide & horns which you may wear. . Mine is the flesh the bones may be your share. EY i. ' he ' for ' you. p. p. & Odds-&-Ends? MS. But Fortune says she gave you no such thing. — MS. 214. Book. Ixix Mr Cromek to Mr Stothard Fortune favours the Brave. MS. 5. . in EY (i. 53. 30. Only p.' 6) without title. Swinb. Book.MS.' of Ixxvi.' ' I Youth] life EY. . 53. favours] favour Swinb. Book. : Like to the Lion sporting with his Prey. 31. that is not the way. Ixviii Mr Stothard to Mr Cromek For Fortune's favours you your riches bring. Blithe and Gay. SAMPSON P . Turn back. p. turn back you travel all in vain Turn through the iron gate down sneaking lane.

' ' ' . And becomes the Enemy & MS. Mus. form'd of Joy and Mirth. Only in EY i. p. 1st rdg. 215. not Generosity to a Foe. . 311. EY. Gil. 5 Betrayer of his Friends.' enemies betrays his friends. . 1. the paper. I profess is my to Friends. In 1776 Reynolds was elected a member of the Florentine Academy. i. p. Generous to Enemies promotes their Ends. Ixxii Florentine Ingratitude Sir Joshua sent The his own Portrait to i birth Place of Michael Angelo. MS. MS. now in the Brit. 32. in the hand of the simpering fool And He put And on a dirty paper scroll.'is). art form'd for mirth live WBY. WMR (< Coupl. to be polite. Rossetti Ixx I am no Homer's Hero you My Generosity That The all know i . 5 This and the other epigrams on Sir Joshua Reynolds were probably written about the same time as the marginal notes in his copy of Sir Joshua's Discourses. Everlasting Gospel. 7^. . Mirth] thou . and in accordance with their rule. 215.' xiv). Go. 6 And Friends] Cp. Book. 25 : He who loves his Ixxi The Angel that presided o'er my birth Said 'Little creature.' MS. p. 32. Title an addition. 3 love] WMR. . Only in EY i. Book of] for .2IO MS. Did 'Sketches by Michael Angelo' write. EY 215. sent his portrait painted by himself. 2 form'd o'er] at Gil. Book. WBY ('Coupl. Book. love without the help of anything on Earth. 31. del. for their Friendship I may make amends. i. I that] who Gil.

' Ixxiii A Pitiful Case The Villain at the Gallows tree. . . 33. 14 Tis mean .' on Rembrandt's door But you must not bring in your hand a Lie If you mean that the Florentines should buy. Ghiotto's Circle or Apelles' Line Were not the Work of Sketchers drunk with Wine ' . ' ' rejected .' 19-22 Ghiotto's EY incorrectly call this a 13. . Only in EY i. door] .t. . If . 11. ' for 19-22. Nor Nor 7. EY omit ih. In virtue's praise does cry. . 21 . that] . EY insert here. 216. This epigram refers to the concluding words of the last Discourse delivered by Reynolds at the Royal P a . are the lines ' : — after 18 ' 1. . Nor of the City Clock's Idle Facilities Which sprang from Sir Isaac Newton's omit futilities 11. For Michael Angelo never did sketch Every line of his has Meaning. .' couplet after 1. and act Rembrandt. reading rejected sprang of for ' sprang from. Who whatever likeness he may have to Michael Angelo Never can have any to Sir Jehoshuan. and print this ' facilities ' and ' great Abilities.MS. .a. . 14. The Michael] who .Venetian cant 13 To speak Michael Angelo. p. 19-22. . Another reading was ' EY omitYor. 9 — 'Tis the trading English. Rembrandt] 'Rejected' EY. It will set his Dutch friends all in a roar To write Mich. When he is doom'd to To assuage his misery 1 die. an incorrect version of the 14. 17 calculation] : — These lines written later at foot of page. Rembrandt's door. 8 of the City Clock's running fashion of Sir Isaac Newton's calculation. Rossetti The Florentines said Michael Angelo's ' 'Tis a Name 21 I Dutch-English bore. MS. lo For couplet.' writ on The Florentines call it an English fetch. Ang. first reading of buy] Following this These verses were written by a very envious man. And needs neither Suckling nor Weaning. Book.

33. . 15/ rdg. Book. note to will know now wished Ix. 1790 pronounce in this Academy. Ixxv If it is true.212 Rossetii MS. Feed them with the juice of our marrow-bones? MS. .' 5 ' Read Rembrandt for it is fit To make mere common honesty ' . 216. 7 mere common] either sense or MS. what the Prophets That the Heathen Gods are all write. Only p. Book 15/ rdg. del. Book.' i .' MS. p. might be the name of Michael Angelo. 6-8 for . del. for the sake of being Polite. del. Book 15/ rdg. Book 8 In] Of EY. writ] & * That Sir you Joshua Reynolds to speak Of Michael Angelo. In all MS. Shall we. 33.' 3 his misery] his bitter misery EY. WMR and EY with title 'Idolatry. ' : Ixxiv To the Royal Academy A Strange Erratum in all the Editions Sir Joshua Reynolds' Lectures Should be corrected by the Young Gentlemen r Of And the Royal Academy's Directors. Dec. and from this place. 7 did howl &] was heard to MS. Instead of ' Michael Angelo. So Reynolds when he came To to die. 5 his bitter woe. Cp. that he has writ. stocks and stones. in EY i. assuage Thus aloud did howl & cry 'Michael Angelo Michael Angelo : ! ' ! I should desire that the last words which I should Academy.

Ixxvi To F and S found them blind I And now I : they know taught them how to see . neither themselves nor me. Rossetti 213 And if Bezaleel and AhoHab drew What the finger of God pointed to their View. 53. The Wood and Stone were call'd the And their And Criminals to Sacrifices turn'd. All the Atonements of Jehovah spurn'd. ' are an addition. 34.' viii) with title MS. themselves] himself »6/rf. And worshiped them that they might make Inspired art abhorred. del.' prints first couplet only. del. . certain Friends. A Fool to a bolt. Swinb. del. Holy Things. i. Book 1st rdg. ist rdg. ' Epig.MS. 9. WMR EY I. to make MS. Book ist rdg. me] Blake introduces this couplet into his Descriptive Catalogue 2 they knowl he I them] him MS. knows I . 217 with 2 a ' ibid. WMR and EY print as quatrain — lo : •They stole them from The Temple of the Lord. Knave ' and S On to a glass of gin. Book. . and I title On F . del. Shall we suffer the Roman and Grecian rods To compell us to worship them as Gods ? 5 them from the Temple of the Lord 9 worshipp'd them that they might make Inspired Art They stole And abhorr'd . p.' lo that make] . The words p. . (' (1809).' See note to Ixvii. . \st rdg. 'Tis excellent to turn a thorn to a pin. . u Sublime Intent given to their kings.

but from malice. livelihood . 52) 'The manner in which my character has been blasted these thirty years both as an Artist and a Man may be seen particularly in a Sunday paper called the Examiner. Only & for gain. Life] The same line occurs one of the Poetical Sketches. Descriptive Catalogue. Cp. not from : interest. p. When a base but have never been so good an occasion of poetic imagery. and that they are always paid for what they put in on those ungracious subjects. Ixxviii H To does pretend. . . by DGR ('Coupl. EY Hayley DGR. Book. 34. We all know that editors of newspapers trouble their heads very little about art and science. : published in Beaufort's Buildings. to serve his for no Gain at all. rejoice p. Cp. By the phrase bereave my Life ' Blake here probably means.Rossetti 2 14 MS. p. Fair Elenor. and the manner in which I have rooted out the nest of villains will be seen in a poem concerning my three years' Herculean labours at Felpham. 217. Secret calumny and open professions of friendship are common enough all the world over. done this I am aware of you. 4 Hired . notes to xlix. cp. WMR. Ends : fall. which I shall soon publish. deprive me of my means of ' in ' this is another reference to the critiques in the Examiner (cp. Coupl. as you well know. 217.' xi). triumph in EY i. Book. Ixxvii P loved me not as he lov'd his friends them For loved He me. at foot of p. Book. even 3 and] EY to your omit. 34. of what interest is it to me to do so and so?" It is of malice and envj' that you have but the contrary."' 4 in] at EY. i. WMR I (' H ] First couplet only ptd. 68.' XXI. i). that men are led by interest are knaves. liv). my in P . forgive enemies never in his life forgave a friend. and he lov'd But to MS. "of none at all. he always begins with being your friend. because I know that you act. wife And when he could not act upon Who my my Hired a Villain to bereave MS. own destruction. man means to be your enemy. 26 knavish character will often say. Advertisement (MS.' 1. is probably Thomas Phillips Those who say the portrait painter. Life.' . ' : A '• I answer.

That is MS. Book 2nd rdg. 'tis not his fault But pecks of poison are not pecks of salt. 3 Neck] back EY. Be they as Vile and Base as e'er they can.' 7). 36. you are an Ass. . . Rosseiti 2 1 5 Ixxix To F You call me Mad 'tis folly to do so To seek to turn a Madman to a Foe. . If If ' — you think as you speak. To Flaxman. .' EY i. 3. He'll still be called "The World's Honest Man. ' in EY i. p. but as EY. Book. Book 1st rdg. Only 2 & make] to make EY.' xvi) both with title (' 218. . p. 4 Be . MS. Book.' MS. p. the very thing he'll set you to If you break not your Neck. you are but what you was. They'll still be called 'The World's Honest Man. omitted). Man] Friend Caiaphas is one. 4 but what] just what MS. you do not. del. 3 Be they as] For they are EY. do what he can.MS. 218. del.'" MS. 218 (title . 35. . Only EY in i. 35. come Into the World. Ixxxi created for destruction. DGR (' Epig. & make the World their home. Ixxx On H y's Friendship When H y finds out what you cannot do. Some men. Book. WMR Epig.

' p. his head wood. ! MS. Only in Imitation of Pope.' xii) < i. 307 (last couplet only). 4 Blake uses this couplet in his Descriptive Catalogue (1809). (' face brass. . and his The Fox. ' (' heart to ake for Friendship's sake. EY i. with title 'To the Same' (i. Beetle] spider Gil.' 17) without title. Epig. WMR. 2) with general title On Hayley. the Owl. WMR title. XXI. i. 37. Book. the Beetle. 218. 3. 4 get] DGR. 36. Ixxxiii Imitation of Pope : a compliment to the Ladies Wondrous the Gods.. Whose heart is iron.' etc. 218. MS. WMR has — made my CoupL' : Gil. mo\e Descriptive Catalogue. Wondrous still.. more wondrous are the Men. 218. Ixxxiv H To Thy friendship oft Do be my Enemy MS. and the Bat By sweet reserve and modesty get Fat.e. Book. Hayley). out DGR withGil.. DGR. (' Coupl. 181. the Cock and Hen.' xviii) with title On Stothard.2i6 Rossetti MS. More Wondrous.' p. EY. Ixxxii On S You say reserve and modesty he has. i. ' Title. Stool and Chair But ah more wondrous still the Charming Fair. and a Compliment. p. 3 Owl] WMR. More wondrous still the Table. i. Book. 2 Do] Do Gil. 37. grow Gil. WBY EY ('Coupl. EY .

37. II. EY (' Memoir' chap. That my Friends may weep MS. Book. & Stothard are also in doubt Lest their Virtue should be put to the rout. p. : 5 MS. Book. Ixxxvii Another I was buried near this dyke.Rossetti MS. as much WMR (' as they like. 8i. . 11. 7 fother] other EY. 37. 46). EY (ist . Ixxxvi An Epitaph Come knock your heads against this stone. and in corners hides. Hayley. 6 Virtue] friendship EY. addition. This and the two following epitaphs were obviously written before the Stothard lines (cp. 49. Flaxman. This Life is a Warfare against Evils They heal the sick he casts out devils. . i. 219. MS. 50. p. xlix. 219. line only) i. One grins. & Baldwin of Egypt's Lake Fear to associate with Blake. t'other spits. 45. 8 One backsides] A marginal 8 shewn] shaved EY. without title. 37. Frazer. with last couplet. For sorrow that poor John Thompson 's gone.' xviii). . xlix. 7. 219. Coupl. i . And all the Virtuous have shewn their backsides. Only in EY i. 217 Ixxxv Cosway. p. Cp. vii) i. Book.

' xxi. Cp. old authors say But now they stand in everybody's way. p. which have not been previously printed. EY. the Friend of all mankind left one enemy behind. A. Epitaph '. But by my conjunction with Flaxman. EY. . 51. . Angels stand round my spirit my friends upon Earth. 3) with title 'On 219. I could not subsist on the Earth. i. 1. . EY Hayley. 1800. Coupl. Fuseli was given me to for a Season. 18). Book. xlix. i. G. DGR xvii. man's O Father of Heaven and Earth lines that ever I : saw Flax- face.' 2 nor] or as a Genius thus p. nor Gil. 37. Ixxxviii Another Here John Trot. i. . WBY (' Coupl' xiv. Book on Flaxman and Hayley the verses written some eight years earlier these interesting lines. 12 Sept. B. (« prov'd : by Flaxman lov'd. the rest omit Gil. is by Hayley.' . He lies : has not MS. WMR. I owe to the courtesy of Mr. xv. And now Flaxman such my lot Now my lot in hath given upon Earth the Heavens me Hayley. have told me that seeing such visions. Friends were quite hard to find. who knows to forgive nervous fear. with this and other epigrams in the MS. . but Shakespeare in riper years gave me his hand terrors appeared in the Paracelsus and Behmen appeared to me Heavens above The American War began All its dark horrors passed before my face Across the Atlantic to France Then the French Revolution commenc'd .2 1 Rosseiti 8 MS. Cp.. Ixxxix My title Not prais'd MS. Book. WMR 181. and shew'd me his face Ezra came with Isaiah the Prophet. : Russell. ' entitles . in thick clouds And my Angels . title. to be mine — ! is this : Milton lov'd me in childhood. ' I To MY Dearest Friend John Flaxman these bless thee. 38. DGR. his friend. the blessed of Heaven are Italy. i8r (last couplet only). When ! Flaxman was taken in to Heaven.

paint] Rubens had been a Statesman or a Saint . around clumsy and ricketty princes and — princesses. "EY omit. Cp. p. A word illegible in MS. out i yet you p. WMR (' Epig. p. Book.] xci To English Connoisseurs You must And And give Than you I agree that Rubens was a Fool. and the rattle-traps of mythology. . 219 xc Rubens. del. in And EY so learn to paint. . 5. Only in EY i. 6 I Sir] An addition. 220. a Statesman and a Saint. and imbecility's journeyman . my good And MS. It bears this evidence in its face. i. : xcii Swelled limbs. Coupl. . He mixed them both and so he learn'd to Paint. I.Adveriisew^h/ (MS.' 5. ? p. Cp. Book 1st rdg. Book. Advettisement (MS.' MS. make him master of your School. Deceptions MS. xi). 38. That stink in the nose of a stander-by. I. higledy-piggledy. . finish'd with labour. Cp. am] Rubens was EY. 38. . i I. . Juno.' . circa 1810) : . DGR. 18. painted. Book. Only . a EY. ' — 2 . 38. journeymen's] journeymen EY. Of an hundred journeymen's how-d'ye do Neighbour — ? MS. p. Book. money upon the life's . and these must be queer fellows who give great sums for such nonsense and think it fine art. Book. Advertisement (MS. How can its execution be any other than the work of a blockhead? Bloated gods Mercury. more money for his slobberings will give for Rafael's finest things. 3 But] For EY. 4 things] thing EY. But all the pulp-wash'd. 19) Rubens' Luxembourg Gallery is confessed on all hands to be the work : ' of a blockhead. 4 an] painted] EY omit. and the lumber of an awkward French palace are thrown together. am .' xix) with- title.' 2 stander] passer EY. with no outline that you can descry. ' What man of sense will lay out his * labour of imbecility. . I'll 219.Rossetti MS. p. Venus. 2 I . . understood Christ was a Carpenter not a Brewer's Servant. Rubens. EY (' 5 Sir. Book. 63) :' He who could represent Christ uniformly like a drayman must have queer conceptions consequently his execution must have been as queer.

pp. in Courts of Kings.' xcv and xcvi. and broken colours. broken masses. xciu A the for encouragehave paid great sums in the Venetian and Flemish Pretty Epigram ment of those Who ooze Nature and Art in this together suit: is Most Grand is always most Minute. p. 27 EY ' : could never have been produced with [Blake's 'Canterbury Pilgrims'] Rubens' light and shadow. Descriptive made Cp. who arable numerals. p. a hand. XCIV These are the Idiots' chiefest arts: To blend and not define the parts. 4. 38. and unbroken colours.2 Rossetti 20 MS. Rubens thinks Tables. Book finishings] . xcviii To Particularize is the Alone Distinction of Merit. 7.'s practice is unbroken lines.' I the] EY 15/ rdg. The Swallow sings. . 220. 11. EY i. B. Blake's copy of Reynolds' Works. unbroken masses. 2 of title. del. . 221. Book. omit. i. Flemish. and 3. i MS. 38. 7. General Knowledges : ' : are those Knowledges that Idiots possess. WMR who ' ' xii). 8. To Generalize is to be an Idiot. . have given high Prices for Bad Pictures. MS. EY read ' be 3 The Swallow sings] Let it known '/or told. for those p. Their art is to lose form his art is to find form and His arts are opposite to theirs in all things. stanzas as two up arrange The character and expression in this picture Catalogue (1809). 2.) read 'a Pretty Epigram prints this. as a single poem with the title Raphael and Rubens (' Epig. Only in of 11. That Fools have their high finishings. What where the original title {del. 5. omitting ' ' in paid 1. Mr. or any thing Venetian or The Venetian and Flemish practice is broken lines. The correct position of the lines is indicated by prefixed i. or with Rembrandt's. 26. 8 being a marginal addition. Chairs and Stools are Grand. a foot. Book.* 4 That told ' .' Also Notes in to keep it. But Rafael thinks a Head.' MS. 6.

vol. " These I said to Moser. show clearly that the last line should be read as an — indignant question involving an answer in the negative : are we to be told that Masters who Could Think. note on flyleaf of his copy of Reynolds' Discourse no. 126. v. ' 6 The . study these old Hard. p. grant] point of this epigram by punctuating the last line . & Dry Unfinish'd Works of Art. .' The following extracts. . Advertisement (MS. 'The following Discourse is written with the Same Works. Book xcv Wise Rafael. Namely To Represent Vulgar Artists as the Models of Executive Merit. Rossetti And 22 1 this the Princes' 5 golden rule." 8 Game] aim EY. . 220. Must admire Rafael's Execution. (as continuation of xciii). Ignorant His power of Execution I must grant ? — — WMR MS. i. Sublime. who does not admire Rafael's Execution. 265. How He then went and took down Le Brun's and did secretly rage. 55) high-finished ignorance. how can they then be Finish'd ? The Man who does not know The BeginI ning never can know the End of Art. . & to Learn to Perform from Underhngs Learn to Design from Rafael. Blake's ms. The Laborious Stumble To make out the parts ' I allow that there is such a thing as Cp." Rubens' Galleries. Vulgar. Low. Book. the Judgment to Perform the Inferior parts of Art. . and to Execute from Rubens Can any Man be Such a fool as to believe that Rafael & Michael p. Graceful. had not p.' 2. Correggio. & I will shew coat ' : . Cp. Blake's notes to Reynolds' Discourses. [114] : End in View that Gainsborough had .' He who Admires Rafael.' calls ! ' I ' ' . 167. xcvi. Stiff. 39. & That Such Idiots as Rubens. Stupid. . as there may be a fool or a knave in an embroidered : ' I was once also. His Executive Power must I despise? Rubens. you what you should Study. Angelo were Incapable of the meer Language of Art. of a Fool. p. things that you call Finish'd are not Even Begun. & Titian knew how to Execute what they could not Think or Invent. But to loose them the Fool makes his foolish Game. . however. 4 His . xxix. Cannot Admire Rafael. as Reynolds artfully ' Why them ? But that we are to Learn to Think from Great Masters. . Stay a little. MS. I also spoke my Mind. 4 Power] powers EY. Majestic. : ' His power of execution I must — EY obscure the whole grant. EY i. He p. Fool] Cp. taken from Blake's marginal notes to Reynolds' Discourses. xlvii looking over the Prints from Rafael & Michael Angelo in the Library of the " You should not Royal Academy. Moser came to me cfe said. i.MS. Gil. p. p. is the wise man's aim. Book.

Book. send] Go and send EY. between lines EY and 2 the And ' WMR 39. of Good to walk Come. MS. 39. Book.222 MS. I DGR. a Go. Slobbering] globbering EY. e'en I] EY (Index. learn me. del. rare wisdom I drudges] smudges EY. : — ! interpolating ' rule I 221 invert order of the two lines. WBY Coupl. I e'er] e'er I Book. there 's no doubt MS. from an as conclusion of presumably his own form idiot's action my xcv.' 12). .' says ' : Sir Joshua in astonishment cries out: ' See. (first 4 11. Give to ! govern all. Book ist rdg. (' Grow to Man's Estate. I p. i. XCVll If I e'er O May Have MS. send your Children to the Slobbering School MS. p. i. p. EY ('Coupl. others. 19): 'Who that has eyes cannot see that Rubens & Corregio must have been very weak & vulgar fellows ? And This is like what Sir Francis Bacon are we to imitate their execution ? that a healthy child should be taught & compelled to walk like says : — a cripple. while the cripple must be taught to walk like healthy people. Gil. 4 See Doubt] His pains are more than ' ! .' ix). the last word. WBY. 222. O. 265. Pain in] springs from Gil. asi). both great & small. 221. Book. XCVlll The And 1 cripple every step drudges & labours. xciii.' xi). and take the wall. Rossetti XCVl Learn the laborious stumble of a Fool ! Go. Advertisement (MS. WMR. EY i. ('Coupl. only) i. 4 . EY insert this after 1. DGR WMR. what Great Labour ! Pain in Modest Doubt ! MS. as part of the poem. Neighbours. EY. Cp. . 39. p. Book. i line. me a Woman's fate.

and insert ' Rembrandt after ' ' EY 222. every step 5 ! ' Being badly Nurst. For Col. if ' high labour'd Newton and Bacon cry He 223 6 labour'd] finished EY. Du Crow. c.]. or a Cutlass. 7 cry] EY XCIX On the great encouragement given & English Nobihty by Cor- to Gentry reggio. MS. DGR an addition. . a bead.' The ' before ' 'English. to destroy Picture And I call upon Colonel Wardle To give these Rascals a dose of Caudle.. i . learned ibid. DGR. 6 Warble . xcix. del.' all is he crep. ..MS. Gainsborough. or Knife So the savage taught. 3 taught] wise MS. . MS. Rubens. del. del. Catalani. ' . EY . Experiments from last to first. del. p. spends Fortune On a smear.' ix) Du Crow. insert ' (' ' Epig. ci. EY. whole his Englishman. DGR." omit 'and Gentry. . EY. jst 5. Book . del. WMR. 1st rdg. Book 15^ rdg.' 2 For Knife] For a button. to destroy] that is not And Caudle] EY EY. a Bauble [buckle 2nd rdg. and Dilbury Doodle As the Ignorant Savage will sell his own Wife For a Sword. 7.. 8 Experiments] marginal addition. Newton experiment EY. Wardle see Examiner. 4 On] For rdg.. i. . An first] addition. Book print this couplet after ist rdg. Reynolds. 1809 passim. 5 WMR WMR omit Epig. . 40. or a knife MS. Rossetti He & walks And how stumbles as is 5.' and read Catelans for 'Catalani.' 3). or a squall. del. omit. in title EY . title prints under this title c. . 5 Wardle] ibid. Book. EY. 2nd rdg. Rubens ' (' or tune. a dagger. He 6 . 8 . A step] .

these impostors Advertisement (MS. For the Greater the Fool is the Pencil more blest. ' i. Give Pensions to the Learned Pig. Book. WMR. p. extending H I are quite ' to drawn ' Hayley. Book. Book. as sure as a Groat 's i . . 40. 3 is the Pencil] in the art the DGR. p. p. them] All men have drawn outlines whenever they saw them DGR.' EY dry. EY i. . "WMR (see note to xcix). 7 When 4 As] And DGR. . In the art of painting. Cp. either copied or improved. p. I i. 223. 41. EY 222. . 181.' 3 Anglus] Bunglers EY. . DGR. DGR. 47) Englishmen have been so used to journeymen's undecided Even Hogarth cannot be ' : bungling that they cannot bear the firmness of a master's touch. p.2 Rossetti 24 MS. As when they are drunk they always paint best. Gil. i. CI All pictures that Are painted by painted with sense and with thought Madmen. WMR MS. 25^! sedulously propagate an opinion that great inventors cannot execute. 5 nor] or EY. pray how can they make it? When Men will draw outlines begin you to jaw them Madmen see outlines and therefore they draw them. WMR. Fuseli it. (see note to xcix). Book. and] or . Can Anglus ever ' discern perfection but in the journeyman's labour ? Cp. nor Blake it If they can't see an outline. This ' : opinion is as destructive of the true artist as it is false by all experience. WMR. cu On H I write the Pickthank the Rascal thanks. Or the Hare playing on a Tabor Anglus can never see Perfection But in the Journeyman's Labour. 222. MS. . WMR. 40. DGR. 5 They never can Rafael it. also Advertisement (MS. Book. he and till With Thanks and Compliments MS.

Book . Rossetti 225 cm Cromek speaks I always take my judgment from a Fool Because his Judgment is so very Cool . 41. Jenny sink awa'] Blake's purposely grotesque spelling of Je ne sais quoi. . Not prejudiced by feelings great Amiable state he cannot feel at ! MS.. I . 223. Cool] Because I know he judgment is] judgalways judges cool. menny wouver in the next piece. we can Say all was owing to the Skilful Man i 5 .' Cp. . 5 we] all MS. MS. 223. del. 208. you always can see has Painted he. [cxxvii] of his copy of Reynolds' Discourses. p. Book 15/ rdg. del. 4 Amiable state] Because wc 3 or] and Gil. For the smell of water is but small So e'en let Ignorance do it all. 1st rdg. That Blake probably read ' 4 ' ' French with ease may be inferred from his quotation of a passage from Voltaire's Essai stiy les iiiceurs et F esprit des nations. all. CIV When you look at If a Man of Sense a picture. Book. or small. Book 15^ rdg. 2 Because judgment] judgments Gil. but keep up a jaw About freedom. SAMPSON EY. EY. EY i. 41. As when it smells of the lamp. i. and Jenny sink awa'. p. know MS. copied with indignant comment on p. Then never flinch. Gil. del. ments are EY. Book. Only in EY i..MS. : MS.

'Twill hold forth a huge splutter with smoke and damp . *8 Of] For EY. WBY last couplet only. See note to civ. Book ist rdg. . skill to them seems raving and rant. The errors of a wise man make your Rule. as it seems to me. And make 'Twill For there Of 2 Menny written. 3 God] heaven EY. MS. 4 Obscurely cxvi You And say their Pictures well Painted be. Book. by a sketch. Like putting oil and water in a lamp. Fool] To learn to admire the works . DGR separate epigrams . 41. For it 's all sheer loss. when you don't wish to see. To . last couplet is WMR 223. 4. you both Bunglishness & For a great conquest are Bunglers. Of displaying up a light when we want not to see. and 5. 6 as distinct pieces . MS.' wouver] read manoeuvre. 223 (with Encouragers' for 'Encouragement' and 'opinion' for 'opinions' in title) print the earlier and clearer version ' which reads : ' — If you mean to please everybody you work both ignorance and skill. *i will Set to For a great multitude are ignorant. yet they are blockheads you all agree Thank God I never was sent to school To be Flog'd into following the Style of a Fool. is *5 a great splutter with smoke and damp. Rossetti cv CroEnglish Encouragement of Art mek's opinions put into rhyme : If you mean to Please And like Like displaying oil will Everybody. Menny wouver and water skill mad i . separated from the two preceding print the second and third couplets as the 1-4. . i : ! 5 Rather than the Perfections of a Fool. Book. *s in] into EY. 42. The p. 4 del.2 26 MS. EY i. no use as it seems to me lighting a lamp. of a Fool MS. and EY i. ranters ! in a 5 lamp. 1. p. 11.

he loads it with hellish brownness. ' whose whole delight enter his mind. in Italy. thought . civ. 7. Cp. Descriptive Catalogue. and Q 3 . 1. 42. 56-59 a most outrageous demon.. think of the Crippled Harry and Slobbering Joe And then I question thus Are artists' rules i 1 . O pray! Rather than be such a blind Human Fool I'd be an Ass. ' 8 an Ass] EY omit. Book ist rdg. MS. pp. del. EY let's DGR. Book is^ r-dg. except one. Rembrandt or Correggio MS. Book ist rdg. Correggio is a soft and effeminate and consequently a most cruel demon. i. 227 cvii The Washerwoman's Song wash'd them out I And they told me & it wash'd them in. Book. : To be drawn from the works of two manifest Then God defend us from the Arts I say fools ? 5 ! Murder. 2 I Joe] Of crippled Harry I think and slobbering Joe DGR. the allusion to water in an epigram on the preceding page of the MS. a WMR . or slobbering Joe EY. 7 blind] EY . and blocks up all its gates of light. so that the is : and though the original conception was all fire and animation. EY. about Correggio being poor and but badly paid for his Pictures. a Hog. . DGR. Correggio. I think of crippled Harry. p. and by infusing the remembrances : Rubens is of his Pictures and st^-le of execution. sudden death.Rossetti MS. . Book. Rembrandt. Book. O] we MS. WMR . till the victim is obliged to give up the Florentine and Roman practice. and employed numerous Journeymen in manufacturing (as Rubens and Titian did) the Pictures that go under his name. he was a petty Prince. Possibly a reference to Blake's manner of using water-colour. is altogether false . The manual labour in these Pictures of Correggio is immense. ' ' cvni When I see a Rubens. EY iii. WMR (' Epig. 3 question thus] say to myself MS. a Worm. 43. hinders man who all power of individual possessed by this demon loses all admiration of any other Artist but Rubens. . was a great sin.. . is to cause endless labour to whoever suffers him to The story that is told in all Lives of the Painters. a Stool Send Battle. p. and those who were his imitators and journeymen he causes to the Florentine and Roman Artist fear to execute. MS. . Correggio] Seeing a Rembrandt or Correggio DGR. WMR. 6 Send] For DGR. WMR. del. Only in EY 224. omit. ! 86. EY. When When I see I . a Chair. and that one he closes with iron bars. del. Cp. and adopt the Venetian and Flemish.' 4 and x).

. in . . (' Epig. 43. p. If you are benevolent You will never win. Only in EY 224. and of endless reflected lights. how do you do Who — : ' ? MS. before you begin. that confuse one another. Book. he will make any true artist so.' v. . but it shall be at your own peril. Esq''^' which probably belonged to the deleted passage. where a month would with judgment have finished it better and higher and the poor wretch who executed it would be the Correggio that the life-writers have written of a drudge and a was paid for originally at the tories of art . Know. Book. and it would be weak. del. like his own works but then it would have softness and evenness. compelled to softness by poverty. miserable man. vii. with the title William Cowper. 50. — I say again. Men & Mountains meet (' EY Coupl. Christian . WMR. by a twelvemonth's labour. 2 This is] These are all edd. del.' O Artist! CIX Great things are done when This is not done by jostling MS. cx you play a Game of Chance. If i.' xv) WMR I ' that e'er I] that ever almost make me EY. WBY DGR. though Correggio was not poor. Book 2 make me almost] 15/ rdg. and thick-headed. 47. you may disbelieve all this.' EY i. printed as a quatrain. and lumbering. with title Fuseli. 225. But. p. These hnes are written over an erasure.28 2 MS. who permits him to enter his mind. and 8). and for if one of hinder all correct drawing from appearing to be correct Rafael's or Michael Angelo's figures was to be traced. and take possession of his affections he infuses a love of soft and even tints without boundaries. 4 dear] ibid. there would soon be an end of proportion and strength. and pappy. i. p. dear Christian Friends. Rossetti immense prices that those who keep manufacalways charge to their employers. ist rdg. sweet MS. Friends] Christians I WMR. MS. I ever EY. the street. Book. CXI The only Man that e'er I knew did not make me almost spew Was Fuseli he was both Turk and Jew And so. and Correggio"s reflections and refractions to be added to it. while they themselves pay their journeymen little enough. 224.

12] Cp. 19 : for the ' 2 was was — Bacon EY. he is a & & Genius ! obedient to Good Man. . was therefore written before the preceding Coupl. Soul his in & 5 lie. Gil. . his by being you love 9 To tell you anything that he can't prove. to say the least of it. and piece. This Opinion originates in the Greeks calling the Muse[s] Madness. i. he must be Starved. has Talents a Virtuous Ass. Rossetti 229 CXll For this being a Friend just in the nick. EY. . You him spend see Do you believe some Till it wants are prov'd. & that all Pretence to Inspiration is a Lie & For if it is a Deceit the whole Bible is a Deceit. : Daughters of Memory. Book \st rdg. are you here ? will tell I Said to i : Priestly before Joseph of Arimathea.' xix) with title Blake's Friends. Only in EY i. For Joseph cp. Until.^ iv. & when Joseph has done make a fool laugh. I'll EY. p. MS. Book. is x Not when He he's well. This p. Prove there For sick. Book. truth in his extravagant claim. 'Reynolds' Opinion was ir. •The Enquiry in England But whether he is Passive Noblemen's Opinions in Art Not.MS. If he is. 5 That Genius May be Taught. 225. And 'tis most wicked in a Christian Nation For any man to pretend to Inspiration. 6 I will] 3 Priestly done] when Joseph & is a Fairy] at a Fairy's EY. p. is atrocious in a Friend 'tis Prophecy: a confounded Bookseller. the Public Fame. Only in WMR ' (' 12 man] one WMR. Fairy see footnote to Poems from Jerusalem. 9 atrocious] most wicked MS. & it .' is Man not whether a & Polite & & Science. & Bacon] Priestly done EY. 5 I will MS. 52. legibly written. ! Come Listen patient. probably the continuation of the erased stanza. . Notes to Reynolds' Discourses. & a Fairy fun. not queer . del. but waiting till he's sick calls you to his help be you not mov'd . If cxiii you what Joseph of Arimathea my Fairy was not it very queer ? & Bacon What. 50. perhaps 'Twill. queer] 5 Not .' is referred to in note to cxi. .

p. ' *ii). 225. WBY. And then he's so pierc'd with cares. And . For a boy ne'er learns so much he Till all and is reading 'never' for 'ne'er' WBY 13 he 's . Book. ' for ' Then cares] he is become a man ' . WMR. WMR. DGR. by Swinb. MS. For aught that I can For he shoots with see. i And why a boy was he? He should have been a Girl. 9-12 And man] All edd. (p. 5 And And And the Girl shoots with her Eye. cxv Why was Cupid a Boy. And wounded with arrowy smarts. . EY i. EY (iii. make Cupid a boy 9 the Cupid girl's mocking plan. 144). is) ' ' ' *9) and to mock for so much (1. preferable first draft of this stanza ' Then : — . Book. 248). . For a boy can't interpret the thing Till he is become a man. That the whole business of Is to pick out the 13 his life heads of the darts. ' ' (1. p. 56. for Hell. And Was to they both are merry & glad. *i i). Ease from Heaven. Apparently written 54. so pierced through WBY. all with title Cupid and omission of last stanza (except R') which is printed separately (notes. and 6 the] a WBY. for or after in 1806. ' . till Seven times Seven. make Cupid to a Boy *9 Was surely a Woman's plan. 69). p. Ri. ' (1.'v). his bow. all except R' 'has for is' (1. EY ('Coupl.MS. laugh when we do cry. Rossetti 230 cxiv Grown I oft Love from Seven old in have wish'd MS. print the infinitely ' ' WBY .

EY.' xxi).'' my DGR. I my] of And thrust out his cheeks and 2 part of] thing in MS. dancing a jig he said d bowing profoundly. DGR. : ' a leer in his Eye. EY.' 13 erhaps this is all a Painter can want: of Remhouse is the house that look But. . . p. 5 A ' great wig. 17 Greeks'] Greek 18 Turn'd] That turned Swinb. Book 1st ydg.MS.' which indicates that more Prig. Swinb. . EY ' ' ' in Bany : a Poem. there WBY omils. II he'll] He will EY. great wig. 7 So push] 8 he'll] he'd So if tp a painter the question you push DGR. . Book. WMR. . Rosseiti 231 'Twas the Greeks' love of war Turn'd Love into a Boy. a] all that a EY. .' but 17-20 'Twas is no trace of deletion in the MS. WBY. So if a Great Painter with Questions you push 'What's the first part of painting?' he'll say: 'A Paint. . del. 60. WBY. 20 And] fled] flew EY. ' 9 A He'll smile like a cherub. of this piece was written elsewhere Blake has added the words to come MS. WMR. i? of Stone — Joy] Swinb. out] EY. and say paint-brush. 12 he'll] and DGR. .' ' And what is the third ? he'll bow like a rush.' (' Coupl.' And what is the third ? Then he snored like a 'And what the second?' is ' : ' A ' puffing his cheeks out. calls this 'the last (rejected) stanza. yonder With — brandt ! &c.' ' And what is ' the second ? with most modest blush. . 6 And EY. WMR. Book.' And. WMR WMR ('Epig. he'll reply: 'A Paint-brush. CXVl Dear Friend Orator Prig my asked I 'What's the first i : He part of Oratory?' said : 'A great /wig-' Then. .' of Orator i) with title in Following the &c. 13 all EY. Brush. . Love] Cupid EY. replied pig. And Woman into a Statue And away fled every Joy.

'v). . 9. EY. this little Fable. ' .' And what is the Second. before] . omit. p.Rossetti 2 32 MS. Cp. 61. there 's no such thing Outline Perhaps : A A . — ' ! ! — 9 : ' it 's all Chiaroscuro. 61 : the first ' couplet with the catchwords Perhaps with the title. pp. Book \st 10 Outline Colouring] marginal addi. Book. perhaps the continuation of the preceding epigram (cxvi). She frowned h'ke a Fury. too] and lost the 12 them both] both these EY. 13 A. This is CXVlll To Venetian Artists That God And is Colouring Newton does shew. the rest. . 11 for one. xv. Book. &c.' ! ' : ' WMR MS. Ruth a drawing' : 64. 6r. and said Patronage.' And what is the Third she put off Old Age 5 And smil'd like a Syren and said Patronage. . This is quite Perfection one Generalizing Tone There 's no outline. one] EY too . 14 taste] have tasted omit. tion . He . 5 . . 63. 60. Snap. to Please and Engage. on p. shadow and the substance do ye] d'ye EY.' 2). Blake's Descriptive Catalogue. .' occurs at foot of p. A . . i What's the First Part of Painting." xxii). EY (' Coupl. is a black outline. ! ! great deal better than Those who MS. EY. DGR. WMR ('Epig. rest as a separate 8 This rdg. EY poem. EY print first couplet ('Coupl. i the devil this little P'able may make us merry dog went over the water without a wherry bone which he had stolen he had in his mouth He cared not whether the wind was north or south. As he swam he saw the reflection of the bone.' 13 taste colouring love pp. cxvii O dear Mother Outline of wisdom most sage. (' Epig. No. all of us know. del. snap All is He ^A had them both before. Poco-Pen Colouring He has lost shadow and substance too.' xxiii) followed Tone] Here 's by the two EY omit. she said 'Patronage. what a brilliant tone MS. ' I Now how do ye do ? ' was before: it more and more. 60.

will never be so foolish as to do one. . me] we EY. But September Nobody (p. . The verses were then transcribed on p. 63. and to all Artists who study in the Florentine and Roman Schools. B. and wirey the boundary line. 8 and 9 (or 4. i and a between 11. whose enmity to the Painter himself. 62). i] Cp. I EY in Only 63 (reversed). lineation in the first draft. which Blake. Only in EY (' Memoir' i.' CXIX Men and Fools do often me inspire But the Greater Fool.MS. 2 Fool] fools EY. Mr. 5 in the original Lines 13 and 14 are also an interdraft). Book. 76). The greater is the evidence of weak Great inventors. interlineating 11. by means of that infernal machine called Chiaro Oscuro. may be removed by an exhibition and exposure of their . 54 'These pictures. Also Descriptive Catalogue. . Rhyming MS. at all sees •" Prose] harm EY in omit in. in i . Such art of losing the outlines is the it loses all character and leaves what some art of Venice and Flanders * . the more perfect the work of art. 12. sharp. . Exarjiiner. p. 65. Rossetti 233 If losing and obliterating the outline constitutes a Picture. p. knew this. and the less keen and sharp. the Greater Liar. go. and bungling. 65. 5-8. . no. p. Great MS. 15-18. The rough draft of most of this piece occurs on p. added in a slightly changed form. 1809. Rhyming] 15. 17. were the result of temptations and perturbations. cxx offence by writing in Prose. 384. plagiarism. in the hands of Venetian and Flemish Demons.' imitation. p. Hunt's reference to Blake's Descriptive Catalogue. 4 But . write in Verse as soft as Bartolloze. 11. — : vile tricks. people call That the more great and golden rule of art as well as of life is this distinct. ii. among numerous others painted for experiment. — . 19-22. Book. del." rc/g. Having given great I'll Some blush at what others can see no crime But nobody sees any harm in Rhyming. . 4. Book . in all ages. •* The expression" but this is a false notion of expression. with the couplet 11. labouring to destroy Imaginative power. MS. from the first draft on and the addition of 11. where the lines were composed in the following order. afterwards renumbered 1-12. 3. 62.

' Cries Some say I've given great Provision to my foes. and Dryden has finished let Dryden's Fall and Milton's Paradise be read. Schiavonetti. proves from circumference to Center MS. 62). HY omit. * An example of the contrary 6] Cp. and perhaps he wrote said that IMilton's it. del. Cry. .vaminer. and mass. . . p. and monotonous sing-song sing-song from beginning to end. 57) to give Hogarth what he could take from Rafael. 63). in rhyme. But at the same time I will allow that stupidity will prefer Dryden. Such are Bartolozzi. del. 1810. 10 Cries] Says MS. 13 Cry Blakefied drawing spoils painter and Engraver While I. Book. Book. p. Now poem is everybody of understanding must cry out shame on such niggling and poco-pen as Dryden has degraded Milton with. 19. del. Thus. 20 A reference to Cromek's 'Account of 20 around] about EY.' 7] Cp. (p. 's That put them may I in mind of ! 21 their latter ends. center] Cry Tom Cooke 1st rdg. 12 Some ' . Hayley on his Toilette seeing the sope.' Thus Poor Schiavonetti died of the Cromek 17 ' — A thing that tied around the Examiner's neck This is my sweet apology to my friends. Homer is very much improv'd by Pope. smelling a sweet savour. 62\ . Book 15/ rdg. my A 11 Some say] marginal addition. Advertisement (MS. 12 that] . ' ' Milton only plann'd his bells throughout the land. cries Dryden. (p. and I will assert never wrote. . in which it is a rough.' in the E.2 Rossetti 34 MS. : . . arts is written in a paroxysm of insanity. No one can finish so high as the original Inventor. unfinished piece. (p. 1st rdg. July i. Every Fool shook 5 : Tom Cooke cut Hogarth down with his clean graving: Thousands of connoisseurs with joy ran raving. because it is rhyme. which perhaps he : 5. Resolv'd to be a very contrary fellow. looking up to my Umbrella. II. Advertisement (MS. Book great] "EY omit. 9 ' And now that Flaxman and lead I my false friends by the nose.' But now MS. 20) us in the characters of Milton and Dryden as they are given in a poem signed with the name of Nat Lee. Stothard. looking quite from skumference to center. ' ' . del. Book Mr. Woollett that 'Cooke wished and Strange. . outline. 9 Thus] An addition Then EY.^ marginal addition . nose] I've given great Provision to my Foes ril lead false Friends by the Nose. 8 Thousands and colour but he could not. 17 Cry. that is.' raving] How many Thousands of Conoisseurs ran raving MS. .. Book 1st idg.

cxxiv To God If you have form'd a Go into MS. EY. . it 's sure to keep your judgment cool . ? Written in continuation of a passage in Blake's Adverp. Only in EY 2 & i.ix. Cp.Rossetti MS. cxxii Call that the Public Voice which is their Error Like as a Monkey. . 226. MS. 5 Printed here for the time. Book.' with title Colour and Form. 66. as Vasari tells us. del. i.' EY i. And never once perceives his ugly form. ciii. WMR. 266 with title nature.'vii. Book ! \st rdg. Mb. p. del. 235 CXXl men will act like a maid smiling over a churn. when it comes to another's turn.andio). i. which he says that Rafael and Michael Angelo abhorr'd studying On Colourists. . ^ If False Friends. ' iiseimiit. (' Epig. Book. it p. 65. They ought not. Book. I MS. Book. how] what EY. 11. first 5 Perhaps a continuation of cxx. Admires all his colours brown & warm. does not reproach you with want of wit is not like a lawyer serving a writ. fie ! O fie !] MS. Book shall \st rdg. Gil. Circle to see go into. 3 Admires] Admireth Gil. in ' ' WMR * cxxiii Some For It It people admire the work of a Fool. 6 In spite] For 15^ rdg. yourself. del. you shan't] ne'er now MS. do. Book. how you would 226.' vi) 2 Like as] Like to EY. fie fie! Our Friendship you shan't sever In spite we will be greater friends than ever. WBY('Coupl. 2. MS. 73. peeping in a Mirror. p. 70. To grow sour at what a friend may utter. Book no MS. DOR. Knowing and feeling that we all have need of Butter.

79. 78. DGR. slily stole.' 5). in at DGR. And France shall fall down & adore. p. CXXVll •Now Art France lost its mental Charms subdue the World in Arms.MS. CXXVl To Chloe's breast young Cupid But he crept MS. Book. 4 upon] on the EY. 66): that it is ' .' Also Blake's notes to Empire that attends upon & follows The Foundation of Empire is Art Works [cxxv]). p. Empire follows Art. may concern p. Book. as for WMR The Two Kinds WBY ' of Riches. 73 (reversed) with and EY with title Riches. & the Empire is No More.' stanza of xxx .' iv). 227. apparently the beginning of a second in EY i. Cp. And War MS. & not Vice Versa as Englishmen suppose. breast] heart R^ (' Coupl. I should suspect that I worship'd the Devil Since all my God If I thank'd first title ' worldly things. With works of Art their Armies meet i . or Degrade them. EY I (' Coupl.' has shall So spoke an Angel at my birth Then said Descend thou upon earth Renew the Arts on Britain's shore. Book. MS. Advertisement Only 'Let us teach Buonaparte and whomsoever else it not Arts that follow & attend upon Empire. Myra's pocket-hole. (vol. p. Reynolds' & Science. 5 feet. was shall sink beneath thy 13. ' .' 7 their] her EY. i. DGR in printing All add. but The Arts. 14 are left unfinished. follow in pencil. (MS. Rossetti 236 cxxv the Riches of this World May be gifts from the Devil & Earthly Kings. stanza which Lines p.' 4 my God] WBY omits my. Book. Remove them. WBY WMR.

EY. p. CXXIX The Caverns of the Grave I've seen. Swinb. 87.' headed 'For the Year 1810 iii.' p. 1st rdg. shore] . Who shall I dare to shew them to? What mighty Soul in Beauty's form Shall dauntless View the Infernal storm? And these i I 5 MS. . with WMR (p. on same page as part of Blake's descriptive account of Addition his picture of 'The Last Judgment.' this as part of The Everlasting * Gospel. 57 wrongly regard for which no place can be assigned. I Caverns] Visions MS. Book. p. In a commercial nation the greatest enemies of are These in all are abroad professions. Book. Book. all except Dedication.' But if 9 if who lov'st Brittannia's Isle Round which the Fiends of Commerce smile Spirit 12 And . del. MS. Advertisement (MS. impostors Genius. But now the Caves of Hell I view. Book save thy works from Britain's shore 14 Spirit — smile] lovest Britannia's shore Round which Commerce the Fiends of roar. Book isi 6 daunt'ess] dare to . shew'd to England's Queen. p. : 140. &c. p. to Blake's Catalogue of Pictures.' Swinb.' EY. Book 4 Who] Whom 15/ rdg.Rossetti MS. 15/ rdg. 13 MS. Book rdg. EY ii. 55. 25). France shall the arts of Peace restore And save thee from the ungrateful shore. And they scorn the immortal Muse. . 3 But] And MS. . 79. WBY Judgment p. del. * Spirit And who . del. 170. Book. MS. WBY.' ' 14 Cp. del. Nail his neck to the Cross: ye all have power over his tail. WMR. CXXVlll Nail his neck to the Cross: nail it with a nail. 13. 237 thy Nation Arts refuse. : WMR 74. title ' EY For a Picture of the Last 144) seems unaware that this poem forms part of the MS.

9 Re-engrav'd Time after Time. the to be this. 7 with title The place stanzas in correct order. < . Gil. .. For everything besides It is away ? i ! I have I can crave. For above Time's troubled Fountains. cxxx — up at the dawn of day Get thee away get thee away I rose ' ! Pray'st thou for Riches This is Said I took I the Throne of It only ! grey. On the Great Atlantic Mountains. crave] It's only can crave EY. 6. 7 II MS. Time may 17 There they shine Eternally. " ' . the first couplet of 6. . del. . ibid. 15 unchang'd] shall rdg. but rage in vain. Two Gil. 128 (with title Prayer') arranges stanzas in the of 5. : Riches that written immediately under and partly around an entry R' has stanzas i. 2. ' Thrones. 5. 309. p. I still go on Till the Heavens & Earth are gone. i. 8 It only riches I . Still admir'd by Noble minds. Egremont's Countess can controll flames of Hell that round me roll If she refuse. prints I. p. WBY. I R^ EY. is( rdg. 310. del. WBY. a fifth stanza formed of the second couplet of 4 and the first couplet Swinb. then 4 and 7 .. 1807. 89. 3. del. in their Youthful prime. the latter 228) and MS. isi Noble] worthy ibid.' 5 Said said 1] I WMR riches that It WMR . dated Aug. 2. 2. Gil. WMR . del. sure. then 7 EY follows Gilchrist with title Mammon order i. It's For everything] Everything R'. 3.' is very odd Throne of God. Book. Follow'd by Envy on the winds. 4. 3. 13 Ever My Designs unchang'd remain. rage.ROSsettI 238 MS. 7 WBY. still ibid. can crave is] It's R». The . ist )dg. . Everything else EY. WBY (i. : away ! Mammon for 5 . In my Golden House on high. Book can] dare 8 flames] doors ist rdg. a fourth stanza formed of the first couplets of 6 and 4.

omit 'And. here for first time. ' . God And Mental 25 please. 21) & Evil In the Accusation of Sin. And God's presence night & day. I shall eat coarser food. For my am in And he I The . as I don't value such things as these. . 98. 19 And so j-ou] And j-ou 22 God EY. .' Monej^. and marked for insertion here. if I don't worship him EY. i6 money bag] money-bags EY. And Mental Friends. He You must do.. margin. never turns his face away accuser of sins by my side doth stand. omit 'And. Gil. . above stanza C 4 of Fayette' (MS. pray it must be for other People. if I do not worship him for a God. WBY. 25 if say RV. 21 of Prayers need say .. to you] Written later in 14 And he] R^ and all edd. & Mental Health. WMR. as a If I says. EY. WBY. MS. So. Church is known by its Steeple. more if to him I would pray he'd pay worst you can do do the so you may And And Be 13 17 worldly things for . except Swinb. Mr assur'd. WMR WMR. xxxvi). 15. So. I must not Pray. WBY.' and all edd. WBY.. . & that loves me I've all But Riches Bodily. i6 Cp. . p. edd. I I little won't pray to you. Gil. & go worse shod. 9 Joy] joys R' and Mr Devil. Rossdti 239 have Mental Joy. Riches for God knows. WBY. written from the reversed end of the book. cxxxi Do what you And is made will this life's a fiction. ii ' : . EY. . which is The Great Satan or Reason the Root of Good Books. . up of contradiction. 9 I . Then if Devil.' 15 doth] does Swinb. except Swinb. 'The Laocoon' (Prophetic except Swinb. EY. 27 So] But RS Gil.. . just as 10 all edd.MS. say] God knows it 's little prayers I need him] if I worship not him R'. he holds my money bag in his hand. Friends] R* and all Wife I love] Wife that I love R^ 13-20 I am . Book. Book. which Printed appears upside down. & Mental wealth I've a Wife I love... God makes him pay.

i

POEMS
FROM

THE ROSSETTI

MS.

Ill

'THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL'
^

Written

SAMPSON'

cxxxii
circa

R

1810

ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT
III

cxxxii

THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL
Prefatory
This poem — or

Note

rather rough studies for a poem which
Blake never carried to completion consists of a series of
fragments scattered throughout the MS. Book. As these
occur for the most part on vacant spaces of pages already

'

partially filled with the draft of his catalogue for the year
1810,' it is plain that 'The Everlasting Gospel' was written
not earlier (though probably not much later) than this

date.

Three of these fragments (/?, y^, and y^) are different treatments of the same theme, Christ's gentleness or humility
one (S) is a mere note or suggestion
while all but the
first few lines of another (77) have been lost to us through
;

;

Blake's neglect to transcribe the remainder of the passage
MS. Book. The several fragments in their present
form contain repetitions of lines and overlapping of thought
and expression which the author would doubtless have
removed on final revision. At one stage in the evolution
of the poem Blake marked the order in which he intended
the parts then written to be placed, and this clue, with
careful observance of the position of later marginal insertions, enables us to arrange the different sections of the
poem in their proper sequence. To carry further the
attempt to give unity to this unfinished piece would involve
editorial omissions and transpositions contrary to the plan
of the present work.
Fragment (3, the 57 11. beginning Was Jesus gentle,'
seems to have been the first draft of the initial section of
the poem.
Handling the same theme again in a different
manner, Blake re-wrote the entire passage in the new form
into the

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y^ (the 38 11., or with marginal additions 46 11., beginning
'Was Jesus humble' and ending 'And take Revenge at
the last Day'), and this again was further altered and
expanded into the revised version y^, to which the title
'
The Everlasting Gospel was prefixed for the first time.
This last section contains 106 11. which Blake, in a marginal
note, reckons as 78, showing that the calculation was made
before the interpolated 11. 21-24, 31-50 and 85-88 were
added in the margin. At this point he indicated the
connexion of y^ with ^, which he then meant to be the
next section, by adding the catchwords was Jesus chaste
or did he &c.,' followed by the couplet {Q) with which the
'

'

poem was

apparently meant to conclude

:

am sure this Jesus will not do
Either for Englishman or Jew.'

'I

The fragment ^ Was

'

'

Jesus chaste contains 96 11., the
being a marginal addition, written after Blake had
noted 94 lines as the length of this passage. Below 1. 94,
without apparent break, he added

two

last

'

'

:

*

Seeing this

made my

I

What

and passion
over the nation.

false Christ in fury

voice heard

all

are those, &c.'

followed at the side, a little lower down, by the two-line
It was Blake's practice to add
epilogue quoted above.
&c.' where a poem or passage had already be jn written
elsewhere, and it seems clear that these three lines were
merely catchwords marking the position of the imperfect
section r],
Messrs. Ellis and Yeats point out that the 7th
stanza of 'To the Jews {Jenisalevi, 1804) begins with the
words What are those golden builders doing ?
As that
poem, however, is written in quatrains with a different
rime-arrangement it could not well have followed here,
'

'

'

'

though Blake

may have

repeated this particular

Of the remaining

line.

portions the four-line fragment 5 Did
Jesus teach doubt is written transversely on the page
opposite the beginning of y^, which it was apparently
meant to precede. Blake does not here add &c.,' and it
is probable that these lines are
merely suggestions of a new
train of thought which he did not develop further.
The
48 II. (e) beginning Was Jesus born of a virgin pure' p^e
found on a scrap of different paper now bound in at the
end of the MS. Book. It can hardly have been written
earlier than May 18 10, since it occupies the fourth page
'

'

'

'

R

2

' The omission of y^ and a few odd couplets rejected for various reasons. ' Woman taken selection in Adultery.. The fourteen lines beginning The Vision of Christ that thou dost see (a) are introductory to the whole poem. Swinburne's extracts have part. obviously been chosen with a view to elucidating his author's meaning. . or merely loosely inserted in. Rossetti 244 of a folded sheet. but its natural position would appear to be immediately before ^. upon separate pieces of paper. enriched by running commentary.' Probably all the fragments of . G. This passage has no place assigned to it. 8. W. Rossetti states that this wholly amazing and partly splendid poem is now published in full for the first time. such as This life's dim windows of the soul for This life's five windows of the soul'. In the Aldine Edition (1874) Mr. M. and there is consequently no attempt at is who 175). 4 omitted) and 43 of 96 ^. and the loss of 77 (perhaps also of 5) may be attributed to the same cause. like e. which were afterwards copied The into. 3. 148altogether 253 11. reduce the entire number of lines in this version to 313. the reader must judge. reverently treated.' adding I have done my best to arrange the verses into some sort of order and method with what success. found in y^ But there are no grounds for Messrs. Yeats' conjecture that these lines are intended to supersede much of the rest of the poems \read poem '] but rejected by the author before he made up his mind how to fix them in. of title The (11. Here and there slight emendations are made. comparatively small number of corrections made in /? show that it must have been copied from an earlier draft. Ellis and and y^. small part only of The Everlasting Gospel was included among the Poems hitherto Unpublished in Gilchrist (1863) Mr. an afterthought. but Blake's text is. Rossetti there printing the prologue 11. Swinburne [Essay. given prints ' ' ' strict sequence. the preceding page of which contains part of the draft of Blake's Additions to his Catalogue of Pictures for the Year 1810 and it must have been written later than jS as it has the amended form of 1. to ' ' which they are probably meant to serve as prologue. for the most Mr. The interpolation e still leaves the epilogue at the end of the as at first intended. 1868. W.MS.' A much more comprehensive by Mr. the MS. D. ' ' . pp. ' ' ' The ' Everlasting Gospel were first written. Book. The poem as reconstructed by Mr. M. under the poem A ' ' ' ' . where I print it in the present arrangement.

marked The numerous y^. 42-60) have made the only attempt up to the present to reproduce the frag- They first give y^ and y^ in and previous version. y^. ' * — ' ' a separate scrap 21-25.91. generally adopted the emendations introduced into the text by his predecessor. 6. ^. 52) passages show the correctly printed by Blake's earlier editors carelessness with which they transcribed their original.92. though its proper place is followed by e. they regard as a cancelled passage.ai-34.MS. 25-40 4. 11. but now unfortunately lost to us. of " The Everlasting Gosin favour of 77 " terminates for us with a loose end. Rossetti Rossetti is divided 245 the following six sections. 25-106 is scarcely e and of The e. 11. — — WMR ' . due rather to simple blundering than to any attempt to amend their author. : a (except P. 11. which. 4. the latter followed by /? ('Another version. Rossetti has 11. are merely catchwords marking the position of a complete passage. 41-50. Mr.' final version as parallel columns. 'all day long' •ten years old' for 'twelve years old (y^ 1. Such misreadings as Doth read for Both read ' ' ' ' for 'three days long' (y\ 1. 11. 11. (a. but Mr. 13-57. Seeing this I made my 2. I. ' 11. Messrs. 5). 11. y^ 11. — 1-80. in the inaccuracies in their text are. 6. 1. ^. pp. 4).yMl. W. not with those of the author i a into always corresponding (except 11. 5. ii. 8\ y^ 93-96. 1-20. (.. Later they print as ments as Blake left them. which they think was cancelled and so the MS. 6.11. and passion — — climax destroys voice heard all over the nation ' to which the epilogue forms the natural the force of this concluding couplet by making it diately follow the speech of Caiaphas (e. 5.e. 1-20. y\ 3. for no MS. 13).' Here they fail to pel see that the 2^ 11. happy. All-i3>57. such as we find in Swinburne and Rossetti. apparently earlier ') . clearly discernible reason. ^. 3. written down elsewhere. here as else- where. a. false Christ in fury . Yeats gives ten lines less than arranges the fragments with more regard for Blake's own His order of the passages is as follows subdivisions. and the omission of rj. Ellis and Yeats (vol. 51-106. B. then 8 and ^ (treating the former as a continuation of the latter). ( transposition 3. 11. then 6. . 17-48). 81-90 . 4). imme- . 3. of 7.

3 great] long EY. 4 Thine . Both read the Bible day & night. should not have worshipped him if I thought he had been one of those long spindle-nosed rascals. f. Mine has a snub nose like to mine. 8 12 MS. WBY. 14 read'st] readest EY. . Book xlix and Ixxxviii) and the reference to the 'great hook nose. p. So Cai[a]phas I .' 3. . And Caiaphas was in his own Mind A benefactor to Mankind. mine] This couplet omitted by all except EY. where on stretched arms and accusing forefingers are engraved the words Anytus Meletus & Lycon thought Socrates a very Pernicious Man. ' thought Jesus. Thine loves the same world that mine hates Thy heaven doors are my Hell Gates. But thou read'st black where I read white. Book.THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL a \Prologue\ The Vision Is my of Christ that thou dost see Vision's Greatest Enemy. On the strength of the phrase Friend of all Mankind' MS. Thine has a great hook nose like thine. See also prose note or p. . Mine speaks in Parables to the Blind. Socrates taught what Meletus Loath'd as a Nation's bitterest Curse. EY in suppose this prologue to be addressed to Stothard. 13 Both] Doth EY.' WBY. 5 Friend] fare DGR. 33. Book. Thine is the Friend of All Mankind 4 . the bodies of three figures with outJei-usalem. 4 to] EY omit. 9-12 Cp. 93. snubby.' ' (cp. 64 : 'I always thought that Jesus Christ was a MS.

col. 47-57. And left his Parents in dismay. Book has no punctuation. pp. 51.' WMR inserts 11. earthly parents. 8 No . come away. by punctuating ' ' No. Obedience force me to obey. Come. 6 trumpet-sound] trumpet's sound EY. First printed in full by EY.' John from the Wilderness loud cried Satan Gloried in his Pride. 16 you'll] you EY. the same lines as 106. 100. understand not what I say. 35-40. The MS.. 7'. 18 stones] stone WBY. 50. following 1. And.' EY make 10). But you can turn the stones to bread.' still weaker readings in 7^ and 7. . 168-170. 11. business] .Rossetti MS. ii. 44 and WBY places 51. mistakenly calling these 'a later division of the poem. I confess I am doing My Father's business. the very slight alterations made after writing. In 7' (1. God's high king & God's high Priest Your Shall Plant their Glories in 20 breast. pp. Cp. Swinb. 13-57 between conclusion to 7^. 2. 23. WBY. or did Give any marks of Gentility? When twelve years old he ran away. a duty then. 247 /8 Was He Jesus gentle. earthly parents. pp.' It should not be overlooked that in its present form the poem is merely a rough draft. 11. A fair copy of an earlier draft. Loud * No My Ye as Sinai's trumpet-sound Earthly Parents I confess 4 : : 8 Heavenly Father's business. as another sentence of equally slovenly construction. is favour gains with God & Men. When after three days' sorrow found. I'll soon see if you'll obey ' ' 16 ! John for disobedience bled. and e (1. And 12 . 8). 10 1. 22. as appears from MS. 34) Blake changes Father's business. . the last line of this couplet to I am doing my an heroic attempt to accept the lines as they occur here. angry.(abandoned No. (1. quotes with commentary 11. Book. 17-32. My which necessitates however in i) : — their * I : — confess heavenly Father's business. 7* 7.' said Satan.

Broke down from every Chain & Bar And Satan in his Spiritual War Drag'd at His Chariot wheels loud howl'd 40 .' lightnings broke around. He curs'd the Scribe & 36 Pharisee. WBY. WBY. EY. in thunders' sound voice Jesus' Obedient And ' I 24 & : Thus Ye fall . 48 out the Temple of his Mind..writing . . WMR 28 make] give ire. ' ready.. bursting forth his furious 40 There] Those Swinb. i68 " with the sacrifice of bloody prey. : The God of this World The Chariot Wheels. Throughout the land he took his course. And. The WMR. And in his hand the Scourge shone He scourg'd the Merchant Canaanite From 44 still bright . His Chain. . I sieze make way. And . And trac'd diseases to their source. Herod You with bloody Prey Feed with the Sacrifice & be If down. worship me. smiters with disease. WMR. . : . Thunders the spiritual Prey.MS.. WBY. 22. his furious ire Became a Chariot of fire." meaning of course 25 Thunders] Thunder Swinb. WBY. . Where'er His Chariot took its way. smiter with disease?' of this He bound Old And. ire] . 23 If . There Gates of death let in the Day. 'An ugly specimen of Herod Sacrifice] Swinb. And thus with wrath he did subdue The Serpent Bulk 52 of Nature's Dross. 26 thunders'] thunder's Swinb. come your King Is God a The God & God 28 to sieze. 50 does] did WBY. p. in 32 forth. Trampling down Hipocrisy. the thunder's EY. and : louder roll'd louder His voice was heard from Zion's Hill. EY. WBY. Rossetti 248 If You Caiaphas will obey. WBY. And in his Body tight does bind Satan & all his Hellish Crew. lightnings] lightning Swinb. bursting World raged Satan in vain . 33 . 41 &] a EY.

surely not what Jesus intends : must mean the mere love of civility. not like a Scribe. Book by the can55 took] put Swinb. I Came He He to consult him secretly. Only printed separately by EY. 2. 5. . 50. 'Follow me. pp. Book) end here in marked here for insertion ' . which this section of the poem originally ended celled line with : 'but on the Cross he sealed Was Jesus Humble. 7. first draft of this passage. 2. EY. 8. is Blake's 98. 18 trap] MS.' its He Give any proofs of Humility? When but a Child he ran away. And so He must mean concerning humilitj'. 4.' He says. 49. 7. And left His Parents in dismay. prefixed to 11. II. or did — doom. 249 to the Cross. II. 56 Womb] Followed in MS. Upon his heart with Iron pen He wrote Ye must be born again. with most consummate art. . 16 heart] Quotation marks (wanting in 13-16). . 6. Book has the marginal addition 11. MS. When they had wander'd three days long These were the words upon His Tongue: 4 No Earthly Parents I confess am doing my Father's business. 8 No business] See note 5 three days long] all day long EY. indicate the transposition of this and the succeeding . was too Proud to take a bribe . : — He who This He is loves his enemies hates his friends.' . col. Book. ii.Rosseiti he had Till nail'd it MS. I am meek & lowly of heart. i. spoke with authority. 10-15. to ^. . couplet (as found in 7-. 3. He took on Sin in the Virgin's Womb And put it off on the Cross & Tomb To be Worship'd by the Church of Rome.' When the rich learned Pharisee 8 ' . 12 He Scribe] Marginal numbers.' that MS. p. 12 ' As The 16 the only way to escape Miser's net and the Glutton's trap.

. If. Then descended the cruel rod. lasting Gospel. God is no more. God's Mercy & Long Suffering Are but the sinner to Judgment to bring.' dost thou humble thyself 31. And thy Revenge abroad display In terrors at the last 32 Judgment day. 43-54. Obey himself to Caiaphas. 24 28 ' . God wants not Man to humble This Omitted in EY. elf. 52. del. 1-4. Haughty toward Man. . Rossetti 250 But he And acts with triumphant. 35-8.MS. Thou art a Man. He'd have done anything to please us: Gone sneaking into the synagogues And not used the Eiders & Priests Hke Dogs. with title of poem added for first time. 1st rgd. 32 Cp. is the Reason Jesus died. Book the trick of the ancient is If 29 MS. Thou on the Cross for them shalt pray. fore God becomes . Book ist rgd. 10 me? to ' : There- 35-38 thou shalt torment at the last EY day. Natural Religion (A. thou humblest Me Thou also dwelst in Eternity. pp.' 23 the] EY omit. honest pride. Me] Why himself. Day] Whom f. The revised draft of 7'. 59-106. quotes 11. But when he humbled himself to God. 53. Book has the marginal addition marlted — 24 Not humble as a lamb or an ass. r The Everlasting Gospel Was Jesus Humble? or did he Give any Proofs of HumiHty? MS. are. this 20 he had been Antichrist. creeping Jesus. 159-167. 54. for insertion here: ' Dogs] MS. 38 MS. Humble toward God.' del. we And 36 as . If thou humblest thyself. 11-16. Cp. the ever: . Thine own Humanity learn to adore. . otnit.' Swinb. This is the Race that Jesus ran.). Descriptive Catalogue (1809) 'All had originally one language and one religion this was the religion of Jesus. And take Revenge at the last Day. with . . pp. that we may be as he is. Book.

. except the same lines. EY as his fifth 21-24 '" their given separately on p. called pride WMR. 58. they . ' WBY WBY. . 21 such] those . division of the poem. note to . 1.' He wrote Ye He was too proud to take a bribe He spoke with authority. was EY. WBY. . . And the Scribes' & Pharisees' Virtuous Rules For he acts with honest. and 11. 10 No .' When the rich learned Pharisee Came to consult him secretly. 16. ' : 12 his heart with Iron Upon pen must be born again. not like a He says with most consummate Art Follow me. WBY. 11. 11. pp. triumphant Pride. i) and (. 8 These . . Pride. . WBY. 29 For] But EY. three days] 9. 16 ' heart. 13. jS. Book is/ li^d. 41-50. not what Jesus intends his This surely is But the Sneaking Pride of Heroic Schools. day business] See and . . 18 heart] See Jiote to 7^. . col.. del. As that is the only way to escape The Miser's net & the Glutton's trap. . WMR. running commentary. 21-24. as the division following the prologue. 1-20. And give with Charity a stone? When but a Child he ran away. lines are EY. all 28 the cause that Jesus died. And left his Parents in dismay. And this is WMR prints by prefixed 5. all . 7 words] This was the word EY. interspersed with parts of print . 51-106. 25-40. When they had wander'd three days These were the words upon his 4 long tongue 8 : No Earthly Parents I confess I am doing my Father's business.MS. 21-24 a marginal addition. Pride] What they called humility. Scribe.' What can be done with such desperate Who was standing by when Jesus died I Fools Heathen Schools? follow after the What I call'd He who loves 20 Humility. . . What EY. I am meek & lowly of ' . call'd 24 Enemies betrays his Friends. . These I 7. Rossetti 251 Boast of high Things with Humble tone. EY Pride] omit. All except 24 26 is] . What WMR EY. 3 Humble] a humble EY. WBY. as his fourth division. 8." except 11.' the omitted passage being prints all. 49-51. Final Version. (ii. 25 betrays] hates MS. .

of Christ His Father. . Isaac EY. *40 WMR prints 11. He had only to say that God was the Devil. And the Devil was God. marked for insertion still later in the margin. . 45 as for] as to Swinb. o»f^ 52 twelve] ten EY. — indicating the order followed in the text {a) For affronting him thrice in the Wilderness : Like (i) (2) (3) (6) (c) d"" Priestly & Bacon *38 & Newton Poor spiritual knowledge is not worth a button For thus the Gospel St. *44. WBY. and *43. WBY.. WMR. EY. here. 37-44 Mild Attributes] Thus in MS. That disdains To vanity of the imagination. is only known WBY. print the lines as in this footnote. And at last he would have been Caesar himself. . 46 Or of] Or to Priestley . *42. 47 the] Swinb. For thus the Gospel St. 48 . What was he doing all that time. disdains] did wrong Swinb. Isaac confutes God can only be known by His Attributes He had soon been bloody Caesar's Elf And at last he would have been Caesar himself. Asking Pardon of his Enemies 32 : he had. . His] the Swinb. . ignoring Blake's marginal rearrangement. EY. Isaac] Gospel of St. it's all a boast & And & pride. and Newton . . like a Christian civil 36 Mild Christian regrets to the Devil confess For affronting him thrice in the Wilderness He had soon been bloody Caesar's Elf. known] 44 can Gospel . 40 he] Like Like . Bacon. . 41-50 as continuation of 5. 43 For] But EY And WBY. interchanges the omits. And Or as for the Indwelling of the Holy Ghost. Rossetti 252 He did not die with Christian Ease. .' teach doubt & 48 experiment Certainly was not what Christ meant. And] Or EY. . . vanity] fallacy EY. Newton] Like Doctor Priestley. Book. WMR. WBY. 41 position of couplets *4i.MS. 40 Like d"" Priestly & Bacon & Newton (Poor spiritual knowledge is not worth a button !) If . to follow this world's fashion. omit. WMR. Isaac confutes God can only be known by His Attributes — : ' 44 . WMR WBY and Bacon and Newton EY. . . WBY. WBY WMR . Blake's prefixed letters and figures 31-50 . From He twelve years old to manly prime? 52 meant] These lines are an addition. Caiaphas would forgive Sneaking submission can always live. the last couplet being written .

. That quite unnerved the seraph band? 56 He had been Antichrist. Book 1st rgd. 58 seraph band] Not legibly ? seraph hand EY written. creeping Jesus] a creeping Jesus MS. the yea. humanity Thy : For that Awake. God's Mercy & Long Suffering Is but the sinner to judgment to bring. God wants not Man to humble himself: That is the trick of the ancient Elf. WBY. This is the Race that Jesus ran 64 : Humble to God. WBY. ' — 82 Is] shall Are EY. 55-58 Or band] Swinb. . . seraph's hand seraph hand WBY. WMR . WMR. art a Man God is no more own learn to adore. He'd have done anything to please us Gone sneaking into Synagogues. And not us'd the Elders & But Humble as a lamb or Priests like dogs . del. creeping Jesus. 83 shalt] .MS. and no too.. is my : 76 Spirit of Life. from supposing up and down to be the same thing. . 1827 of yes. : — judgment] justice Swinb. And when he Humbled himself Then descended the Cruel Rod. nay. arise to Spiritual Strife. the Rulers before the People Cursing Even to the temple's highest Steeple.. 59 Antichrist.. dated April 12. Antichrist aping Jesus Swinb. And thy Revenge abroad display In terrors at the Last Judgment day..' 76 80 terrors] terror Swinb. ' humblest If thou Thou Thou thyself. 68 God to 72 thou humblest me. creeping Jesus. WBY. omits. Thou on the Cross for them shalt pray 80 — . Cf. WMR. EY. Rossetti Was he then 253 Idle. WMR. a passage from Blake's letter to God keep j-ou and me from the divinitj' Cumberland. as all experimentalists must suppose. or the less About his father's business? Or was his wisdom held in scorn Before his wrath began to burn In Miracles throughout the Land. all edd. If 60 . Haughty to man. Thy] Thine Swinb. also dwellst in Eternity. ass Obey'd Himself to Caiaphas.

89 96 Can 85 &] in EY. EY. Self Contradiction] 1. 1. Once I did so when I pray'd in the Garden I wish'd to take with me a Bodily Pardon. carry on the quotation marks to the . its Windows 100 of the Soul Heavens from Pole to Pole. The Gates of Paradise. Rossetti 54 And take Revenge at the Last Day. 'Two Horrid Reasoning Cloven Fiction. 98 Humility. conclusion: 'Can that reason itself into redemption?' 89 woman] women EY. . 106. Book by the lines This Corporeal And is life 's made up : — a fiction of contradiction. 'The Keys of the Gates. They'd immediately Go Out. WBY. .' Can that which was of woman born.' 11. did WBY. ' is Self contradiction. . 96 Reasoning (? heard) archangels Swinb. . Perhaps Can that which was of women born.' 85-88 Jesus Pardon] These lines are an addition. & thunders hurl'd 84 : never will Pray for the World. 8 ' : If we are wrathful loi. dark Hermaphrodite. 43. Pick. 13-15: 11. etc.' Jesus replied. which A 97.' end of . 98.' This couplet. . Jerusalem. . supplies the pardon?' or possibly sentence left unfinished. take with it a bodily Swinb.' Distorts Swinb. And Archangels round it weep. MS. Albion will destroy Jerusalem with rooty Groves. can hardly have been intended as part of 'The Everlasting Gospel. Humility And does the Sun & Moon blot out. .' of Innocence. . 102 Five WMR. ' I . . If the & Moon Sun We MS.2 MS. In the absence of the Morn. 95. which was afterwards erased in ink and retranscribed in a slightly altered form on p.' 99 Rooting] Roofing alledd. Reasoning upon its own dark Fiction. In Doubt. Rooting over with thorns & stems The This & buried Soul Five life's Distorts the 84] Followed in the ' all Gems. no: — should Doubt. Distorts] dim window . out] Cp. . f. . Cp. it] Self Contradiction] Cp. In doubt which is Self Contradiction ? 96 is only doubt. five Windows windows . 'Auguries stood. ' . 92 And Archangels] And 91 When] While Swinb. . perhaps rightly. . 92 Shooting out against the Light Fibres of a deadly night. . 88 When the soul fell into sleep.. WBY. 109. .

wise for not Believing? The beginning of a new passage. p. which. Or Men call MS. 11. Jerusalem. but he will not. f. 7-16. 106 the beams] 105 That] Which EY.MS. the Eye in a night.' 11. 41-50. Thro' one himself pass out what time he please. MS. ing power' has been already noted. WMR WBY omits. p. ' ' WMR rearrangement. &c. 106] This line has Blake's marginal numeration followed by the couplet : — 'I'm sure this Jesus will not do Either for Englishman or Jew — ' and the catchword 'was Jesus Chaste or did he. Blake's use of the word spectre' in the sense of reasonthe same page. his poem. . Which was Born in a Night. . 10. of Mr. . on — f. EY misquote 'This was spoken by my spectre to Bacon. seem in his to regard it as a continuation of 2 any] ^*. to perish in a Night. 3. ofj in EY. 11. apparently left These lines are written laterally in pencil. Swinb.' WBY omit the. Rossetti And leads you When you see That was born When Distort to Believe a Lie with. EY.' a connecting line See Introduction to indicating that ({) was then intended to follow 1. And see small portions of the eternal world that ever groweth. prefixes these two couplets to 7^^. When the Soul Slept in Beams of Light. copy of Europe ' 255 : Cp. 104 the soul slept in the beams of light. 125-128 : — When we see \with delJ\ not Thro' the Eye. the lines in the preface. 48. ontits. to perish in a night. . We * ' & light] Cp. Auguries of Innocence. 103 leads] EY. &c. not through. WBY. form the penultimate section of the poem. in margin of page opposite the beginning of ^. 164. Pick.' are led to Believe a Lie ' . 106. Cp. . ? Charge Visionaries with decieving. John Linnell's Five windows light the cavern'd Man thro' one he breathes the air Thro' one hears music of the spheres thro' one the eternal vine Flourishes that he may receive the grapes thro' one can look . Book. while pointing out that this fragment has no place assigned to it. WBY. . For stolen joys are sweet. The heading is written in pencil at the top of unfinished.' lead WBY. 103-106 And 78 bread eaten in secret pleasant.' and. or did he Did Jesus teach doubt Give any lessons of Philosophy. Newton and Locke. lines. This ivas spoken by my spectre to Voltaire^ Bacon.

but they say he never fell. nurs'd] Interlineated in . marks in MS. the immediately' before the epilogue. 13 might] 9 which] that a!/ except WMR. and so mock the sabbath's God ? murder those who were murder'd because of him ? turn : away the law from the woman taken in adultery ? steal the labor of others to support him ? bear false witness when he omitted making a defence before Pilate ? covet when he pray'd for his disciples. 170-174. And more sucking devils nurs'd ? Or what was it which he took on. 8 7. WBY. hear how he law of ten commandments did he not mock at the sabbath. pp. Book. out of him " : if in the greatest Jesus Christ degree . you ought to love him has given his sanction to the the greatest man. and He ' Written on the fourth page of a folded scrap of paper. such a body as might not feel Body From 12 Or The passions that with sinners deal? Yes. — 16 . and when he bid them shake off the dust of their feet against such as refused to lodge them ? I tell you no virtue can exist without breaking these ten commandments : Jesus was all virtue. He mock'd ' the Sabbath.MS.. and he mock'd unlock'd The Sabbath's God. 47. 17-48 He Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790). prey] No qitot. been] (have) been Swinb. yet shall not his folly be beaten 4 The] Uisalledd. . and acted from impulse not from rules. See prefatory this Swinb. WMR makes 1-16. ff. is . containing Blake's note to Chaucer. With seven devils in her Pen. and also print in WBY EY full. . poem.' etc. Book. Cp. . "bray a fool in a morter with wheat. WBY.. neither pain nor grief Exempted. bound in at the end of the MS. Book. 25-38. now . Or were Jew virgins more still curs'd. have been 8 more] MS. Ask Caiaphas for he can tell. it WMR. Just such a one as Magdalen. with more EY. That he might bring Salvation? A 8 subject to be Tempted. Or . 23. EY. 48. prints second section of the poem. 24: 'The Devil answer'd. this the latter placing 11.' . Rossetti 256 Was Jesus Bom of a Virgin Pure & looks demure? With narrow Soul If He intended to take on Sin The Mother should an Harlot been 4 . could Swinb.

written transversely 33. That he might The live above controll.MS. Where He the devil combs — 24 his lice. Selected for his company. ." Obey your '•Woman. Halls of justice. ']. EY. turn'd Fishermen to Divines 20 . WBY. Publicans and Harlots he And S33 40 . 43 labour] labours EY. to II. A wand'ring vagrant without Home And thus he others' labour stole. 48 its] all its . to ^. 36 other's] other EY. 'Tis WMR. And him their Cruel Murderer tell. hating Vice. . O'erturn'd the tent of secret sins. a Pig has got a look That for a Jew may be mistook. . 25. . WBY. perhaps 'Pass'd. plainly written. " What Parents. 34 No God MS.^ marginal addition. And its golden cords and Pins. . del.' 2a 21-24 O'erturn'd star]. 24 Pour'd] Not 26 Halls 21-24. . marginal addition.' his . lice] A later 29 which] when 35 Earth's God] WMR. His Seventy Disciples sent Against Religion and Government They by Sword of the Justice — fell. WBY. that 44 away lost its Prey. WBY. Business] See note rdg. EY. from the Adulteress turn'd God's righteous Law. Since which. In the Bloody Shrine of War Pour'd around from star to star. turn'd the devils into swine That he might tempt the Jews to dine 28 ." He scorn'd Earth's parents. Book ist all edd. scorn'd Earth's And mock'd the one and the other's Rod : God. 8. Rossetti The And 257 Evil spirits from their Shrines. what have I says he ? do with thee? to 32 No Earthly Parents I confess I am doing My Father's Business. . In] Not plainly written . 36 . He left his feather's trade to roam. .

As she heard by Eden's flood Good and Evil are no more 16 . Lines 7-16. makes 11. WBY. 50. All away began to roll. . 168. 20.Rossetti 258 MS.. 83-96. They brought the trembling woman there. in silent awe. and Heaven above Trembled at discovery of Love. to write The Heavens are not clean in thy sight. 91. of] in the latter putting this passage before EY. Moses commands she be ston'd to death. Thou art good. . Putting 21-26 Good . 8 trembling] 17 felt] Swinb. 152-154. The Earth trembling and Naked lay In secret bed of Mortal Clay On Sinai felt the hand Divine Pulling back the bloody shrine And she heard the breath of God. Book. sitting] sat omits. 51. 48. 18 was DGR [or ? Putting] it by DGR. . adulterous R'. and Thou alone ! 24 . pp.92. 53-64. 18 Pulling] Pulling 20 heard by] heard 7 17. stone] EY. fell WMR. with the Prologue. WBY. Jesus was sitting in Moses' Chair. were first printed by DGR under the title The Woman taken in Adultery. 19. 1-80. 27-32. 1-80 his third division. 93-96 among parts of /S and 7'^ as his fourth division of the poem. MS. finger of God. : 4 . DGR omits. EY and ' WMR WBY print in 2 full. What was the sound of Jesus' breath ? He Law His hand on Moses' laid The 8 .. 81-90. prints II. WBY.' Swinb. 39-50. 49. pp. . DGR. 20 : ' ! Sinai's trumpets cease to roar ! Cease. ancient heavens. 169. 261. f. Was Jesus Chaste? or did He Give any lessons of Chastity? The Morning blushed fiery red Mary was found in Adulterous bed Earth groan'd beneath. Nor may the sinner cast one stone. Writ with Curses from Pole 12 to Pole. and places 11. EY.

. 38 jail] goal Swinb. WBY. WMR. EY. 47 Has] Hath DGR. EY. To be 56 A 27 Good only. Lord.ROSsett MS. 39 didst] dost 41 does] doth DGR. WMR. shall lick the dust for Meat . the breath Divine is love. is . . is to be God or else a Pharisee. bow before her feet driven shall 52 . 37 thy] thine Swinb. WBY. 50 Fallen] Ye fallen DGR. 43 Mary] Woman DGR. but Hate. 36 Impure] not clean EY. Mary. Has no Man condemned thee?' No Man. Meat] meet EY. Pale. Thou Angel of the Presence Divine. 44 torment] trouble DGR. WBY. Though thou didst all to chaos roll With the serpent for its soul. Fear Not.. is to marginal addition. 28 A God] As God EY. 28 be] good only has Svvinb. Though thou wast so pure and bright That Heaven was Impure in thy Though thy Oath turn'd Heaven 36 sight. WBY.. Swinb. That forgiveness thou may'st win. . though you cannot Love.' Then what is he 48 ' ' Who shall accuse thee ? Come ye forth. That have forgot your ancient love. Still And 40 the breath Divine does move. And You You And away my trembling Dove. 55 You] Ye DGR. S 2 . 44 Hide not from my sight thy sin. Wherefore hast thou writ these Laws A And My created Hell's dark jaws? I will take from thee Presence 28 3a : A cold Leper thou shalt be. 31 hast] 33 My] My Swinb. I 259 To be Good only. Fallen fiends of Heavenly birth. 56 Shall be] Ye shall be DGR You shall be 27. to Pharisee] be WMR. 54 You] Ye DGR. The Seven Let me see Devils that torment thee. WBY. That didst create this Body of Mine. 53 You] Ye DGR. Shall be beggars at Love's Gate. Though thy covenant built Hell's jail. 46 forgiveness] full forgiveness DGR.

Love it ' . 85 Crying] Saying Friends] An addition. call DGR. &] EY. blaspheming Thee. WMR. 87 The] All Swinb. ' Who don't keep the secrets of holiness! The Mental Powers by But he heals the 57 see 63 That it] . . WBY. Diseases . . 84 Glittering] Glistering EY. When O first Lord. the dumb. 'Twas covet. the Blind 88 59 has] hath 64 dwelleth in] 68 its] her addition.26o MS.. WMR. wing] all edd. The Naked Human form divine. to make them sin . WBY. EY. or Some trifle not worth caring for That they may call a shame and 60 . But this. to earn my bread What was Was . 76 ' So his prey. WMR. Glittering with festering Venoms bright Crying Crucify this cause of distress. we bind deaf. . . thence did covet also rise. . the WBY. 70 these] those DGR. . does not WBY. Rossetti thy love ? Let me see it or dark deceit?' Love too long from me has fled *Twas dark deceit. Swinb. DGR. this was these devils let I my 68 sin. And in my burning bosom dwell? And canst Thou die that I may live? And canst Thou Pity and forgive ? Then RoU'd the shadowy Man away From the limbs of Jesus. DGR's WMR. in.. secrets] secret EY. 84 . . WBY omit. An ever devouring appetite. Thence rose And 72 secret adulteries. WBY. by] with 88 the dumb] and the dumb Swinb. But these would And 65-68 WMR . In dark pretence to chastity Blaspheming Love. . An WBY. . see't call] extract ends. And render that a Lawless thing On which the soul expands its wing. Thou hast forgiven me My Canst Thou forgive my Blasphemy ? Canst Thou return to this dark Hell. sin Love's Temple that God dwelleth And hide in secret hidden shrine 64 in. & . 85-90 Crying 86 don't] EY. or 'twas custom. Diseases] disease EY..

Pref. WBY. For Dust and Clay is the Serpent's meat.' But. Book. 1. Eat] made] meant A marginal all edd. 52.' 94 he] EY. WMR. In three Nights he devour'd his prey. is lost. p. comforts and Heals and calls them Friends. the] this addition. when Jesus was crucified. & Passion over the Nation. 96 Which] That EY. 95. ' : WBY EY. 96 93. 7] Seeing this False Christ. a passage. . And still he devours the Body of Clay . 89. Book. WBY.MS. They are See treat them as the termination of the poem. the rest of only quoted by EY. 96. In . In three days he devour'd the rejected corse Cp. Either for Englishman or Jew. 91-96 But eat] Swinb.. WBY. Note. follows (. Originally meant to follow WMR this epilogue follows I I 7^. omit. in WBY am] I'm Swinb. . f. 1. 50 . . p. EY. 1. I made my Voice heard What are those. 94 89 has] hath EY. 96 For WBY. Jerusalem. 13 of death.. MS. Which never was made for Man to Eat. . 93 Nights] days Swinb. These which who in fury all lines. Then was perfected his galling 9a pride. 261. catchwords marking the position of immediately follow f. it See Prefatory Note. &c. . 54. Rossetti 261 Whom God He has afflicted for secret ends. I MS. d [^Epilogue] am sure this Jesus will not do. p.. f. .

I ll .

THE PICKERING circa 1801-1803 MS. .

' says Shepherd. or combine. means of the same kind have occasionally been resorted to.' somewhat more ' fairly copied. and the purchase eventually of a number of inedited Poems of Blake. led the Publisher to re-issue his father's volume The together with the newly-acquired pieces in 1866. it passed into a second edition (now also exhausted) years later (1868). In 1866. was bought by Basil Montagu Pickering. as regards the first-mentioned source."] to which frequent reference has been made in the Life.' adds Rossetti.. G. have been reclaimed. volume was welcomed .PREFACE TO THE PICKERING The Pickering MS. three years after the publication of Gilchrist's work. his father's ferring to the inaccuracy of Rossetti's text. 76-116). and partly from another small autograph collection of different matter lished. reExperience. from as chaotic a mass as could well be imagined amid which it has sometimes been necessary either to omit. as satisfying a public want. name used throughout this edition for the smaller of the two Blake holographs from which D. former connexion with the Songs of Lnnocence.' ' (pp. transpose. Note Book ["the Rossetti MS.' ' . ' The poems. Rossetti selected the poems hitherto unpub' printed in the second volume of Gilchrist's Life In his introduction to this precious section' he explains that its contents have been derived partly from the MS. where they seemed to lessen obscurity or avoid redundance.' little and two . the MS. . is the MS. son of the William Pickering who in 1830 had published the first letterpress edition of Blake's Songs of Innocence and of These considerations. ' ' . as we learn from Shepherd's introduction to his edition of 1874. so as to render available what was very seldom found in a final state. And even in the pieces drawn from the second source specified above.

Mr. is a foolscap quarto volume (6x8 drawing paper. was thought to be permanently lost. describes it. bore no must have been removed when. the volume was bound by F. without water-mark. The MS. cation of my text. the great importance of which would was indeed to have been overlooked by its last owner. through which a cord had evidently once been laced. and the present editor had accordingly decided to reproduce Shepherd's as the best available text. Inserted on the inside of the cover is the armorial book-plate of Mr. in one of his letters to me. Dodd. about i^ inches apart. it is to be presumed. The original covers. of 11 leaves of writing or then. the top and bottom lines of pages 17 and 18 being slightly grazed by the binder's knife. who saw the MS. Ellis and Yeats and later editors were thus obliged to follow the versions of these poems given by D. and. seem who was surprised to find among them the long-missing I owe to Mr. White's kindness the rectifiPickering MS. paginated consecutively by Blake 1-22.. The leaves were trimmed down somewhat in binding. to the best of his recollection. It was lost sight of presumably about the date of Pickering's death in 1 878. the only two editors who had made use of the original autograph. W. their efforts were unsuccessful. though occasional attempts to trace its subsequent ownership were made by the two or three students who realized that this MS. by Messrs. Traces of this simple binding may be observed in the three punctured holes. The Pickering MS. . several Blake originals and other works were bought en bloc by Mr. A. G. which. as well as the following details respecting this undescribed MS. W. when in his brother's hands. M. This portion of the work in proof. Rossetti and Shepherd. Pickering. The Pickering MS. enabled him to print this section also with the literal fidelity observed in the rest of the poems. Bedford for B. Messrs. must have passed after the death of Pickering and before inscription. On the purchase of the Locker Lampson collection in June. M. of New York. as the binder's stamp shows. White. Meade & Co. 265 For over thirty years nothing further was heard of the Pickering MS. 1905. when the opportune reappearance of the original MS.Pickering MS. constituted the sole authority for the text of some of Blake's loveliest and most extraordinary poems. had lain perdu for years in the Rowfant Library. into whose possession the MS. as being inches). William Mitchell. Rossetti. stitched into a darkish olive-tinted cover.

Book. convey the impression of having been written at one time. is obviously a fair copy of pieces already There is not a single alteration written in approved form. There is no note of the last-named owner to indicate how it was obtained.266 Pickering MS. on the first seventeen pages.' are only to be understood by reference to parallel allusions in The Four Zoas^ Milton. and Catches his Shrieks in Cups of gold. there is no punctuation. the Pickering MS. It is noteworthy that all the poems have titles. Rossetti 's of ' The Mental Traveller. Mere allegorical interpretations such as W. And return'd to its own ' delight — or the figure in The Mental Traveller of the Woman Old who nails the babe down on a rock. with numerous deletions. but the illumination as Swinburne observes of a similar Blake himself is none of the author's kindling. As in the Rossetti MS. or Jer7isaleni. Unlike the Rossetti MS.' however acceptable to readers eager for any light thrown upon Blake's darkness. 67-70) in the 'Auguries of Innocence ' ' ' * ' ' ' ' ' — ' ' — Every Tear from Every Eye Becomes a Babe in Eternity This is caught by Females bright . ascription or other indication of the circumstances under which. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' — — ' ' ..' uncouth and grotesque like Long John Brown. The light may be there. the poems of the Pickering MS. Locker Lampson. corrections. the literary contents of which extend over a period of nearly twenty years. The pages are without illustrations and contain no prose matter of any kind. where most of the poems are found in rough draft. Verses such as the two couplets (11.' or outwardly simple as Mary all alike are characterized by a strain of profound mysticism which is not quite the same as that of the Prophetic Books. Whether of pure lyrical loveliness like The Golden Net and The Land of Dreams. being acquired by Mr. Differing in this respect from the larger MS. or the person for whom. and the few corrections which occur are mostly in the use of capitals. M. though each helps to explain the other. There is no title-page. which with Blake are generally afterthoughts. which Blake here as elsewhere employs for the sake of emphasis. are not warranted by the poet's theory or practice. None of the poems are dated.' attempt Fable or disdained the use of mere allegory of this sort. this special collection was transcribed. and re-arrangements of stanzas.' obscure as The Mental Traveller and The Crystal Cabinet.

' is — ' ' — ' ' ' . This MS. Fable. The original drafts of two of the poems. by fourteen years. 135) and two lines of 'Mary' (p. and in a different manner. is a representation of what actually exists. M. Vision. or imagination. when Blake in a letter to Mr. Rossetti and Swinburne concur in regarding as the first of the series of the Prophetic Books. a fact liable to be overlooked. moreover. In identifying the style of 'The Mental Traveller' with that of Tiriel. W. B. and from those of later date in their avoidance of the mythological names which crowd the pages of Milton and Jenisalem. and in a different sense. written probably in the same year. Yeats (Notes. meaning thereby wholly or partly unintelligible to all save the highly initiate they differ in their more fully developed mysticism from the earlier prophetic writings.' which appear in a more perfected form in this MS. p. supply clues to the author's meaning which are absent in these poems. really and unchangeably. or allegory. either in regarding the several poems in the Pickering MS. have a certain unity of their own. may confidently be referred to Blake's Felpham period. 'The Golden Net and The Grey Monk. for these names. are called Jerusalem. which W. they are scattered among pieces written at different times. consistently used by Blake in a definite sense. in whole or part. when. 'Mary' was certainly written before August i6. Swinburne quotes with comment two stanzas of The Land of Dreams' (pp. who. in several of the poems phrases repeated in Milton and Jerusalem^ both of which were engraved. 1803. as in several editions of the poet's works. Butts introduces two of its lines in a slightly altered form.' ' Judgment. M.Pickering MS. or by antedating the whole MS. as having been written at widely different times. 349) would appear to date this poem at least as early as 1789. To the latter fact indeed part of their difficulty is due. are found on two leaves of the latter part of the Rossetti MS. 134. in the aggregate. in the latter instance using Shepherd's text instead of Rossetti's. Rossetti prints the same pieces as his allegory. In so doing it will be seen that he differs from me. 267 * he says in his account of the Vision of the Last a totally distinct and inferior kind of poetry.' The poems of the Pickering MS.. Imagination is surrounded by the daughters of inspiration. Among the deepest of Blake's writings if I may use the adjective in the sense in which English gypsies apply it to language. in 1804. is formed by the daughters of Memory. 177). W. There are..

pp.myth and a story In the same volume (pp. of Good and Evil.. 220-225). the Island in the Moon. brother. 72-83. under the general heading. Ideas authority. with the exception ' of ' Long John Brown. but with some new readings of their own for which there is no W.' arbitrarily arranged among poems taken from the Rossetti MS. B. 31-36) print 'The Mental edition. but rejecting others in favour of readings evidently taken from Shepherd's Ellis and Yeats (ii. and other late and early sources. of the Incarnation.' and The remaining poems.' they print in vol.' but ignore the Pickering variant called The Grey ' ' Monk.' prints all the poems.268 Pickering MS. adopting some of his emendations. text generally follows that of the Aldine edition. including Long John Brown Mary Bell.' they give the MS. Yeats. Traveller. Book version of the Monk of Charlemaine.' with interpretation as 'a sun. Their Little ' ii. .

entitle 'Smile and . is a Smile of Deceit. 11-16 And . evade the anacoluthon by reading followed by : was smiled But only one smile alone ' (And betwixt the cradle and grave It onlj' once smiled can be). That when it once is smiled There's an end to all misery. WBY. The omits the round Crystal Cabinet. ' 1. adopts DGR's reading of 12 Cp. It . 9 But only one Smile alone.' with less violence.' .17. ' 11. except Shep. Misery] WMR and EY. ' And no smile ever DGR. a Frown of Frowns there it 5 strive to forget in vain. Frown of Disdain.' 4 these] the DGR. edd. p. ' 1.THE PICKERING MANUSCRIPT The Smile There And And is a Smile of Love. There's an end to Pickering Frown MS. sticks in the Heart's deep core And it sticks in the deep Back-bone — And no Smile that ever was smil'd. . when it once is Smil'd. DGR and all all Misery. and retains the And in 1. i there there a Smile of Smiles is In which these two Smiles meet. brackets. i. & That betwixt the Cradle Grave 13 only once Smil'd can be And. 15. . And And And is a there is a there is Which you For Frown of Hate.

' — Beneath a white thorn's lovely May Three virgins at the break of day "Whither. Pickering Note Prefatory The original version of MS. Book. 10 is meaningless. 14. sighs. Book. In this early draft Blake's marginal numbers. young man. — See note to ' The Crystal . 9-12).' — ' A further change consisted in the deletion of opposite to which are written ' 11.' rimeless. del. first line is & left ! ! tears for ever flow. that the to 9. There Blake's hand column of ' ' ' to The Golden Net The Golden Net first without draft. except for the omission of p. Dazzling bright before my eyes. i first ' it into attempt at emendation was to indicate by 11.y]. 5-13 (MS. : — ' Three Virgins at the break of day.' was now meant to follow 1. ' Blake's terminal line marking the end of the poem. and The first revision is found below the opening passage twice re-written. 11. and runs as follows Beneath the white thorn's lovely May.' This again was erased.' in 1. Blake evidently omitting to recopy the second line of the couplet which he had already twice written Three virgins at the break of day. The other clothed in iron wire [sweet desire The other clothed in tears & (15/ rdg. whither away?"' one of Blake's * threefold ' poems. Blake omitted the line with which the poem originally began 'Beneath the white thorn's lovely May. Blake recommencing at the head of the next column Beneath the white thorn's lovely May.)'] ' This unfinished passage is also struck out. woe Alas for alas for ! woe ! — 11. 2.. Book. : Wings they had that soft enclose [& when they Round their body when they chose. del. and tears for ever flow coincides generally with the form in which he afterwards transcribed the smaller autograph collection. without which the reference to the branches Rossetti restores this line. " Alas for wo alas for wo alas for wo " : ' ! They Here the cry. 3-1 1). 11-14 (MS. ' found in the Rossetti is written in the left- is title. prefixed to couplet. They would let them down at will Or make translucent chose {1st rdg. The one was clothed in flames of fire. beginning the poem with the triplet : ' ' : ' : This is Cabinet. The initial couplet was next deleted. 3 and 4 — ' They cry. and. In transcribing this poem into the Pickering MS.270 MS. 11. They bore a net of golden twine To hang upon the branches fine. the source of the present text.

14. 'Whither. The Pink. . followed by ' WMR and EY.' cp. waving among the reeds. the mild Lilly. the Jessamine. Book. wo second R'. — 50-62 : — " ' For ' the white morning breaks joy opens in the flowery bosoms. The Jonquil.' woe] Alas for wo K\ DGR. EY. 1st rdg. Pickering MS. ! . . ? the white-thorn's. the Rose still sleeps. young man. whither Alas for woe woe alas for ! i away? ' ! They cry. . WMR. Book ist tears and sighs] sighs & . Three virgins at the break of day " Whither. Opens her many lovely eyes listening. Milton. Men 3 Alas 5 one] DGR. a] opening of the poem (MS. The other cloth'd in iron wire. WMR. lovely . & first cloth'd] are sick with Love. which the Sun rising dries first the Wild-Thyme to tears. alas for wo ! 6 other] iron wire] sweet 7 other cloth'd] third was clothed tears MS. opes her heavens every Tree And Flower & Herb soon fill the air with an innumerable Dance. EY. None dare to wake her soon she bursts her crimson curtained bed And comes forth in the majesty of beauty. MS. The Honeysuckle sleeping on the Oak. MS. desire in . 2. And Meadow-sweet downy & Light springing on the air. Book. 31. RS DGR. begins with the triplet— Beneath a white thorn's lovely May. Book rdg. The other cloth'd in tears & sighs. lead the sweet Dance they wake soft . the Carnation. ' First e'er the Joy even ' ' to f. young man. . the Wall-flower.) — Beneath the white thorn stood in May Three virgins at the break of day ' . order sweet flow] R' omits. my Dazling bright before 5 Eyes. & tears for ever flow. . The one was cloth'd in flames of fire. p. R' begins with an amended version of Blake's second draft of the 1. ! . del. Yet 3. the flaunting beauty Revels along upon the wind the White-thorn. all 4 Alas alas for . EY. WMR.MS. was clothed R^. del. .' 11. DGR. lovely May. . i del. col. Pickering 271 The Golden Net Three Virgins at the break of day. every Flower. ' p. whither away : WHY ' changes a white thorn's thorn's lovely May.

10 silken net They fine] R in MS. . . Visions of the Daughters of moral of Albion. 30-32 When : the ' the Albion rent thy beautiful net of gold and silver twine. Over the Morning of my Day. 25 Tears & sighs] Tears-and26 O rise] When. 17 21 Now intreating Burning Fire. WMR. . Book. As on downy Pinions soft. C^. Book Iron-wire R* and all edd. did] might DGR.' 1. thou hadst caught me in the bands : lines in — Thou hadst woven it with Of love thou refusedst to 9. weep Ri. Pitying I wept to see the woe That Love & Beauty undergo. Underneath the Net I stray. is developed into the veil or net of Vala. also the references to f. Book. When they saw my Tears. Sighs R' and all edd. 13 consum'd] following Blake's revised order of EY. WBY. O when will the morning rise ? 9 Cp. 23 Burning by MS. Fire] flaming fire MS. Now intreating Tears & Sighs. . R'. 16 Melted] It melted R' and all edd. Now intreating Iron Wire. del. 20. ' let me places after go. . desire WBY. except Shep. And in tears cloth'd night & day Melted all my 13 Soul away. art. ' 11. Flaming-fire R' and all edd. In Blake's later mystical writings the simple idea restrictions placed upon love. WMR. 1st rdg. Bore the Golden Net aloft. Book. R'. 14 ungratified desires] unsatisfied burning Fires] flames of fire WBY. del. . Jerusalem. Book 1st rdg.Pickering 272 They bore MS. will Morning rise? MS. 21 Over] O'er MS. 24 Iron Wire] iron wire MS. a Smile That did Heaven itself beguile. . except Shep. and WBY. Book sweet desire ibid. except Shep. O when. 17 my Tears] me 20 on] 18 That] which R>. clothed R\ DGR. . a Net of Golden twine To hang upon the Branches 9 fine. . . To be consum'd in burning Fires And in ungratified desires. the lines in Sketches) : ' — ' How He And sweet I roam'd from ' field to field caught me in his silken net shut me in his golden cage ' 25 {Poetical ' . EY. 2. expressed by the silken net and golden cage of the earlier poems.

but states remain for ever. Swinburne's commentary on this poem will be found on pp. are visions and not allegories. to distinguish the Eternal Human. 49. 11.' to the point from which he started. in endless circle. f. who may well suppose that the places he has passed through exist no more as a man may suppose that the states he has passed through exist no more. Difficult to define precisely. must be understood as a picture of man's spirit. or to separate from their context. Rossetti's ingenious 98) and repeated in the Aldine edition. ' ' second volume of their large edition of Blake's Works. In other words it is a restatement of ' Blake's favourite doctrine of constant generation and regeneration.' Such figures. Pickering Note Prefatory 273 'The Mental to Traveller ' A passage in Blake's description of his picture of the Last Judgement (MS. M. they serve as useful catchwords to more detailed expositions of the same myth elsewhere. Everything is eternal. Ellis and Yeats' interpretation as at the same time a sun-myth and a story of the Incarnation on pp. in bliss & woe Alternate. then. SAMPSON . Book. 1810) supplements the clue supplied by the author's title to the meaning of this most obscure poem. He passes through them like a traveller. as 'catching shrieks in cups of gold' are in the nature of ideograms. The same ' — idea is repeated in Jerusalem. The complete picture must be pieced together from the fragments discovered and identified. it should be premised that the chapters quoted from will not supply the reader with ' a consecutive narrative of the exact myth presented in this poem. passing through successive mental states. first meaning turn to Mr. read with their context. from those States or Worlds in which the Spirit travels. In bringing together these parallelisms from the Prophetic Books I allow to be his own interpreter.' symbolized by the twenty-seven Heavens in Jerusalem. O Sisters. In my footnotes to The Mental Traveller' I give references to passages in the Prophetic Books. printed in Gilchrist (ii. throwing light upon allusions otherwise uninWhile these.' ' These states exist . f. 'After which Adam begins again ' ' ' ' ' in endless circle ' — Blake adds — : now. for Blake's parables. more' ' ' over. as he himself insists. Man passes on. of the particular lines or stanzas to which they are appended. 75— Adam to Luther. and Messrs.' : The poem. Those who prefer a shorter cut to a mean- Blake — may W. That walks about among the stones of fire. The myth itself admits of no glib paraphrase. 178-181 of his Critical Essay.MS. used invariably in the same sense and the same connexion. c. and must always be understood symbolically and not metaphorically. render plain the sense telligible. Referring to the three States or enumerated Churches. 34-36 of the ing—if not to his exposition. 72-74 Learn therefore. and at last returning.

. — . which is feminine. Picker i7tg 74 The Mental Traveller Land I travel'd thro' a A Land of Men. And As For there the Babe is born in joy That was begotten in dire woe 5 . same manuscript ' tear return'd to ' is in Eternity its own : ' delight . 17. 68.' 5-8 Cp. 67-70 Every Tear from Every Eye : ' Becomes a Babe This is And where of course gives rise to it. 53. and passim). for their food is — — blood of the Captive. 11. in contrair The distinction to the 'emanation. 71 my feet & hands are nail'd : ' . ' ' rock' is the druidical altar of Albion {Jerusalem. caught by Females bright.' . gold. — poem (* For a Tear is an Intellectual Thing. Night vii. 38. they hand them to one another. heard & saw such dreadful things cold Earth -wanderers never knew. 31-34 My Streets are my Ideas of Imagination My 9 Old. 37 saw] saw and heard EY.2 MS. 3. & these the sweet delights of amorous play. ' p.' 5 Cp. him down Catches his Shrieks Pickering MS.' or reasoning power in man.' 12 Cp. Inhabitants. the place of torture of the victims of natural religion. & they drink the howl & groan. . without pain. Just as And if the Babe He's given Who nails to a born a is I. These are the sports of love. 35-39 ' The cruel joys of Luvah's Daughters lacerating with knives And whips their Victims. & the deadly sport of Luvah's Sons. Boy Woman With children of & : pleasure. 1. walking within my blood vessels. — and Four Zoos. my thoughts. Jerusalem. human emotion which The Grey Monk ') of this be understood as the to Cp. . : They dance around the dying. upon a rock. 36. 67. 9 In Blake's prophetic writings the spectre. we reap in joy the fruit Which we in bitter tears did sow. 11. f. f. See also Jerusalem. f. 24.' 11. the line in another collection . 1.' 8 Which] That EY. Affections. ' f. 11. f.' or affective self. Breeding Women walking in pride & bringing forth under green trees 3 heard ' Cups of in 2 Cp. They catch the shrieks in cups of gold. too Men & Women of i . — to the burning rock. : Houses are Thoughts The my . Milton. . is always represented as masculine. 'Auguries of Innocence. Jerusalem.

7. ' Is his garden of delight away thy stolen Emanation garden of pleasure. Night are not divided. once in the the apple trees and Jerusalem. repli'd : watered Enion Among 11. Pickering 275 She binds iron thorns around his head. 265-71 : lovely Vision. Thou vii. 11. • 17 . Four Zoas.' also Jerusalem. Cp. & I the spirit in the garden. Just as a Miser counts his gold She lives upon his shrieks cries. 'Tharmas I vii. He plants himself in all her Nerves. 81. 1. & And she grows young as he grows old. Mutual there we dwelt. ' 17 Cp. and f. 28 By dwelling in a garden of delight Blake symbolizes man in a state of unity whose spectre and emanation ' ' ' Cp. 80. 6i. Four Zoos. thou my garden of Delight. 67. 23.' T 2 : . 1. 20. Jerusalem. 1.. She cuts his heart out at his side. 22. Her fingers number every Nerve. & drinking tears of woe.MS. every vein & lacteal. i. : " : morning & I liv'd in a she lived ' — . threading them among Her woof of terror. f. 13 iron] strong DGR. she becomes a Virgin bright Then he rends up his Manacles. f. : — 'every nerve She counted. Night 114-6 11. 66. 14. torturing their victim. 11. f. 27. Just as a Husbandman his mould . 'The Spectre said. he becomes a bleeding youth. & Is given us for a Shelter Till once again the morn of ages shall renew upon To reunite in those Where thou & I in — ' — mild fields of us. happy Eternity. And she becomes his dwelling-place And Garden See 25 fruitful seventy-fold. this delightful Tree from the tempests of void Solid. To make feel it & both cold 13 heat.' See also Jerusalem. bind his forehead with thorns of iron. I. where the daughters of Albion. Terrified. : around] about EY. for his delight. undivided Essence walk'd about Imbodied. in one anothers joy revolving. 15 — Vala. 717-719 "O! f. She pierces both his hands & feet.' See also Night ibid. Till And And binds her down ai .

49 young or old. except Shep. . Not the ctlnning hdard up in his treasury.' 40 For door] Forever opens his 44 does] doth all edd. Until he can a Maiden win. or rich or poor They soon drive out the aged Host. 45 hand his Dares stretch to touch her Baby form. Or wrap her in his swadling band. f. Full-filled all with gems Which he by gold industry had got. countless gold of the akeing heart. 33 pearls of a love-sick eye. 37 : For ever open His grief is They make Till A their eternal joy & the roofs from the fire 41 . 35 Cp. . sore distrest. except Shep. But She comes to the Man she loves. A Beggar at another's door. . some other take him in 55 . MS. They are his meat. The idle man never can bring to the mart. the description of Jerusalem (spiritual liberty). If . He wanders weeping Untill far away. Rossetti The countless gold of a merry heart. 43 on] upon all edd. they are his drink He feeds the Beggar and the Poor And the wayfaring Traveller is his door. Wand'ring round an Earthly Cot. 86). & martyr's groan the lover's sigh. the emanation of Albion (Jerusalem. Shep. The rubies & pearls of a loving eye. & age-bent. . Oft blind 32 had] has EY. 46 Cp. all edd. An Aged Shadow. soon he fades. 45. walls to ring. on the hearth Female Babe does spring little And she is all of solid fire And gems & gold. XXX : — ' 39 And] To 34. door EY. 31 gems] gains Shep. except . And these are the The The The rubies & & 29 gems Human of the Soul. that none .276 Pickering MS.

Sun. 4-20 ' If ' ' ' : — 'The Sky is an immortal Tent built by the Sons of Los.MS. Stars. f. The honey of her Infant lips. shrink away. The Garden and its lovely Charms. For every Space larger than a red Globule of Man's blood Is visionary. And nothing left to eat or drink.' 65 Cp. moon and sun ' . And The the Earth becomes a Ball flat Moon. in several passages. the Clouds bow To meet the flat Earth & the Sea in such an order'd Space : The Starry heavens reach no further but here bend and set And & the two Poles turn on their valves of gold. f. such space is his Universe: And on its verge the Sun rises & sets.' 64 Blake. he move his dwelling-place his heavens also move Where'er he goes & all his neighbourhood bewail his loss. except The Shep. Does him to Infancy beguile 62 Cp. 1. Milton. or in his garden on a mount Of twenty-five cubits in height. On And sides all if As to that false appearance which appears to the reasoner As of a Globe rolling thro' Voidness. 11. Pickering And 277 to allay his freezing Age. . 61 . every Space that a Man views around his dwelling-place Standing on his own roof. f. . And a dark desart all around. The Guests are scatter'd thro' the land. it is a delusion of Ulro. 28. 77 :-^ wheel of religion] the Sun was roll'd into an orb. The bread & wine of her sweet smile. 51. 34. all 65 desart vast without a bound. 11. The Microscope knows not of this nor the Telescope. 55 : 69 . . EY. Do 72 Does] 66. The wild game of her roving Eye. Cp. Jerusalem. 50. 'By it By it [the the f. 57 The Poor Man takes her in his arms The Cottage fades before his sight. — Perceptive Organs vary. Jerusalem. A . they alter The ratio of the Spectator's Organs but leave Objects untouch'd . Moon] Stars. all edd. Objects of Perception seem to vary. refers to the flat earth becoming a ball as a delusion of the modern scientific spirit. .' See also Jerusalem. Such are the Spaces called Earth & such its dimension. Moon faded into a globe Travelling thro' the night. For the Eye altering alters all The Senses roll themselves in fear.

With every pathetic story possible to happen from Hate or : — ' Wayward Love. : . behold. 62. 86. here is the lovely wayward form That gave me sweet delight by his torments beneath my Veil. look. Jerusalem^ 75. Where roam the Lion. terrified at each others beauty. 82. passions they kiss'd not nor embrac'd for shame •Alternate Love Hate & fear. 11. ' Also ' 1.' 11. & every Age renews its powers from these Works. 26.' f. look. many a City there is Built.' 80 arts] art flies 80. 11. Wolf. 11. Then many a Lover wanders here The Sun & Stars are nearer roli'd And The To . And many a pleasant Shepherd's home. 81 he becomes a wayward Babe. various arts of love beguil'd . 81 Cp.' 85 Cp. Pickering 278 eats & drinks he grows & younger every day. & day. hers Scorn Jealousy. 217. Night i. 83 wayward Love] Cp. — & his breast. they shrink themselves in fear. 63: wander'd hand in — hand like two Infants wand'ring m the desarts. Younger And on the desart wild they both For as he Wander & in terror dismay. 37-39 =— him lie Look. Jerusalem. trees bring forth sweet extasy who all in the desart roam 89 . .' ' The Crystal Cabinet. WBY. Like the wild Stag she Her many fear plants 73 flees away. in Four Zoos. and Boar. 25. 11. 85 various arts of By Till the Till she a weeping Woman Old. wide desart planted o'er With Labyrinths of wayward Love. Hyle is become an infant Love. ' Silent they f. While he pursues her night By Love & Hate. f. . 16. the description of the wanderings who in the Brain of Man live. Till 76 Cp. except Shep. 50 The See also : — desarts tremble at his wrath. and in his circling Ner\'es From Enion WBY. 218. In embryon & . 61-64 All things acted on Earth are seen in the bright Sculptures of Los's Halls.' 82 desart] desert 's all edd. see Upon my bosom. Jerusalem. ' ' . 77 a thicket wild .MS. 77 flees] of Los and Enitharmon.

had no two 10 Thomas] This name is plainly written and cannot quotation marks. Wolves. DGR and other edd. Night ix. my Why but cp. EY. Boars] Bears. ! *0. all howling flee. 103 him] it DGR. 5. every Tree does shed its fruit. of course. 99 Lions. awake. the] a little Boy Thou wast thy Mother's only joy 84. 4 Awake] except Shep. done as I have told.MS. And And none can touch that frowning form. Among the lambs. of Dreams Awake. dost thou weep Awake in thy gentle sleep? thy Father does thee keep. its 5 Streams Father I saw my Among the Lillies by waters fair. The original MS. . 6 O streams] I follow Shepherd in making these . The Land its] who lions all edd. i ! . Boars. Except it be a Woman Old 10 1 . . mourn. ! ? ' She walk'd with her Thomas 1 O for joy. in 9 sweet delight. 7. as in part of the father's opening speech. the EY. Terror strikes thro' the region wide: They cry 'The Babe! the Babe is Born!' And away on every flee 93 side. above. like a dove I when shall I again return wept ! Pickering MS. . EY. 122128). 94 wide] wild EY. Pickering 279 But when they find the frowning Babe. She nails And all is him down upon the Rock. His arm is wither'd to its root 97 .. 98 100 does] doth all edd. IMountains. pp. lines part of the boy's reply. O wake DGR Oh wake WMR. bears.. ' ? p. Land are its is the Land of Dreams? & what are Mother there.. Lions. clothed in white.' as might be conjectured from several analogies in the story of Vala and Tharmas {^Four Zoas. reads Lions. what What 1. therefore be a misreading of ' Tharmas. . instead of. For who dare touch the frowning form. except Shep. does] doth all edd.

6 again does return] All edd.' 5 . Essay^ p. In the Morning the Villagers rose with delight. And these are the words upon every tongue i . tho' 'Father. Pickering MS. except Shep. According to and Swinburne. 8. And repeated with pleasure the joys of the And Mary arose among Friends to be free. DGR ' this poem appears to be.' See note to 11. 22. Came into the Ball-room among the Fair The young Men & Maidens around her throng. the first time she ever was there. 13 night.2 8o Pickering Dear Child. 9 all the joys of the Night. I also Have wander'd But I pleasant streams in the Land of by all MS. Or again does return the Golden times Her eyes outshine every brilliant ray. 9-12 Shep. But no Friend from henceforward thou. on one side. to the rest of the Fair beauty Nor once blushes to own That sweet Love and Beauty are worthy our care.' Mary Sweet Mary. 21. could not get to the other side. . Morning Star. Mary. makes this stanza part of the preceding speech. 177. omit does. and this view of it is corroborated when we find Blake applying to himself two lines almost identically taken from it. p. : 'An Angel is here from the heavenly Climes. shalt see. O father! what do we here In this Land of unbelief and fear ? The Land Above the of Dreams better is light of the 17 far. She opens her lips 'tis the Month of May. Night 13 Dreams . — & Mary moves in soft To augment with sweet smiles conscious delight. an allegory of the poetic or spiritual mind moving unrecognized and reviled among its fellows . & warm calm the waters wide.

not dress fine. except Shep. still ' WMR. And came home in Evening bespatter'd with mire. Butts. Her soft Memory imprinted with Faces of Scorn 37 . 35 Morning] in 36 in Evening] in the evening all cdd.. She forgot it was Night. shut to the door damp cold came o'er her. this stanza in his edition of 1866.' I will . but thine . 1803 O why was I born with a different face ? Why was I not born like the rest of my race . when she passed by. . she forgot it was Morn. She went out in Morning attir'd plain & neat 33 Proud Mary 's gone mad. . But if you raise For planting such humble will I & Heaven adorn me with bountiful hand. spite in the my 25 is Beauty. . her blushes all fled. . 29 keep from the Ball. me down in an envious Land ? did And ' 17 . Cp. Fiends inhabiting Mary's mild Brain foul 41 . except Shep. and my Eyes shall not shine And if any Girl's Lover forsakes her for me I'll refuse him my hand. call'd Christian Love. ? in ' 33. She remembers no Face like the Human Divine. some call'd her a whore.Pickering MS. weak I will & the tame. & from Envy be free. She trembled & wept. WBY. Race] of Blake's letters to Mr. — 17 some O 21. . the morning all cdd. sitting on the Bed-side. some. & she trembled & cried She forgot it was Night. dated Aug. 17-20 Shepherd omits . And A Her & HUies 'O why was Why Why was I roses are blighted I shed. . 31 forsakes] forsake Shep. EY. Envy your Merit 's to blame as a not to raise Envy. .' said the Child in the Street She went out in Morning in plain neat attire. whore] some reviled her more DGR. With Faces Like of Scorn and with Eyes of Disdain. sweet Mary. All Faces have Envy. ' . the lines occurring in one 16. 22 why . born with a different Face? 21 not born like this Envious Race ? then set *To be weak And Lamb and smooth as a Dove. 281 Some said she was proud.

& fears. On her white marble & even Neck. most beautiful. to destroy Imagination. Creating form Creating the beautiful House for the piteous sufferer. Pickering MS. with many tears and afflections. shining Over her beautiful Female features. Others. in is i . or moral law this poem p. They labour incessant. A passage its bier. lo. unform'd & wretched & melancholy of Death weeping Spectre stands on the threshold little . feminine. 70. Cabinets richly fabricate of gold & ivory For Doubts The Eternal . Giving to airy nothing a name and a habitation Delightful. Rahab Sat deep within him hid his Feminine Power unreveal'd Brooding Abstract Philosophy. . O who can Time her name is withstand her Rahab. Terrified the Spectre screams Of kindness & compassion & & is rushes in fear into their Net born a weeping terror. Milton. three-fold Three-fold embrace returns consuming lives of Gods & Men. soft flourishing in beauty. 11. the DivineHumanity A Three-fold Wonder. a Face of wild terror & fear be quiet laid till Crystal Cabinet The Maiden caught me Where on She put me into her Cabinet. Three-fold Each within other. Beams mild. Jerusalem.282 Pickering And And And thine is thine is thine is That shall never The MS. : In fires of beauty melting them as gold & silver in the furnace. a Face of sweet Love in despair. 11.' . a Face of mild sorrow & care. And me up Lock'd with a golden Key. a threefold kiss returns From the press'd loveliness so her whole immortal form. 17-31. ' f. the Wild. her Heart Inorb'd and bonified with locks of shadowing modesty.' — surround the Passions with porches of iron & silver & beauty around the dark regions of sorrow. f. in Eternity 1-26 of Los : in : wills . in was dancing merrily I 45 : — it plain that the subject of 'Imputing Sin & Righteousness to Individuals. all love and all perfection. that when the lips Recieve a kiss from Gods or Men. : : : . makes Rahab. Her Brain enlabyrinths the whole heaven of her bosom & loins To in put act what her Heart power ? Her name is Vala 3 Cp. with bounds to the Infinite putting ofi" the Indefinite Into most holy forms of Thought (such is the power of inspiration). Some Sons 27.

. 13 Translucent. within it opens into a World a little lovely Moony Night. 42. like a Weeping Babe became And A weeping Babe upon the 21 — wild. ' Woman Old.' see Jerusalem.' and original draft of MS. 5 And And And Another England there I saw. Another London with its Tower. which Blake afterwards separated into two poems eight stanzas into the Pickering MS. The MS.. ' Translucence and ' Opake26 Cp. Another Thames and other Hills. Threefold each in the other clos'd. she a weeping Prefatory Note to The 25. 25 And Weeping Woman pale reclin'd. Another Maiden like herself. found a Threefold Kiss return'd. 85. 1 And I strove to sieze the With ardour fierce & inmost Form hands of flame. 11. bent to kiss the lovely Maid. where it engraving seven as the untitled lines at the end of his — ' Address to the . And in the outward air again I with woes the passing Wind. 1. f. 'The Mental Traveller. lovely. shining clear.Pickering MS. fill'd 14 For Blake's definitions and comparison of ness. But burst the Crystal Cabinet. 29 sqq. O what a pleasant trembling what a smile Fill'd me ! fear — ! a threefold smile that like a flame I burn'd 17 .' ' 86 :— ' Till And he becomes a wayward Babe. And 9 another pleasant Surrey Bower. under the title 'The Grey Monk. Book version consisted of fourteen transcribing stanzas. 283 This Cabinet is form'd of Gold Pearl and Crystal shining bright.' The Grey Monk ' 'The Grey Monk' is found on p. 12 of the Rossetti forms part of xlii.

hands His His Body bent. In the footnotes to the present poem I give only the final readings of the MS. MS. and still omitting the second stanza 'The blood red ran from the grey monk's side. printed in Gilchrist he adds the two final stanzas. Rossetti follows Shepherd in number and arrangement the of verses. I ' 2 die] will die 4 sat down] WMR. see. 247). 52). Ellis and Yeats. . WBY. his own text which is entirely unarbitrary. Book. Yeats falls into the same error. 306). Book. when. WMR. The April 25. DGR. G. Butts. he says. the] her MS. adopting two out of the three important ' I die 'for and found ' I see (1. — and not from the MS. f. My What more has the merciless Tyrant said ? The Monk sat down on the Stony Bed. (ii. here as elsewhere. sought (1. I die] I . i). 'The arrangement of the verses in the Aldine edition is quite It is. B. The latter includes two stanzas which occur in greater part of Jerusaletn. Book xlii. die I ! the Mother said. with a few verbal changes of his own. side. ' Mr.. In his second version. Book. 1804. For deleted words and passages see MS. WHY. first version of this in his early transcript of poem is based solely on the draft which he gives stanzas 5-10. DGR. taking these from the Pickering MS. . on the other hand. Rossetti's in the MS. and adopts four of his brother's emendations. DGR shall die WBY. in his note to this poem (p. Book. as under the title The Grey Monk he prints stanzas 5-14 of the MS. Book. Pickering MS. 1803. had been written before ' The Grey Monk ' version also. 33). . D. Pickering (Jerusalem. 12. Book version — ' ' ' He makes. and WBY omit. Messrs. . and generally as to text. 11.six changes on the authority of the MS. DGR. W. though its actual completion in engraved form was probably This dates The Grey Monk' as later than the date on the title-page.284 Deists ' MS. The Grey Monk * ' ' I die. belonging to the earlier part of the Felpham period. Book. i Children die for lack of Bread. one from the engraved version in Jerusalem. W. Mr. Book version. ' and sometimes made on his of which are own his transposition ' responsibility — among the most meaningless and misreadings of 11. changes from the MS. with readings sometimes adopted from the Aldine. and omit 'The Grey Monk' as a separate poem. 3 has] hath R^ sat him down DGR. The blood red ran from the grey Monk's & feet were wounded wide.' authorized. his arms & knees Like to the roots of ancient trees. I see MS. seem ignorant of the fact that Shepherd's edition preserved for us the text of the ' ' for Pickering MS. 5 p. as we gather from one of Blake's letters to Mr. 5-8 The trees] R^. I die. 12. Book version. M.' Mr.

said] 10 first spoke] bespoke RS DGR. WMR. Mr. He told me the writing I wrote should prove The Bane of all that on Earth I love. DGR. DGR. DGR. bent body mocks their torturing pain. The Hermit's Prayer and the Widow's Tear Alone can free the World from fear. 19 griding] grinding Cry] crying DGR. WBY. 13-16 DGR. wrongs] . A . : ' When God commanded this hand to write 13 In the studious hours of deep midnight. With his thousands strong he marched forth 21 . * My brother starv'd between two Walls. . WBY. He trembled & shudder'd upon the Bed At length with a feeble cry he said 9 : . WBY. . also the lines in an earlier letter to the same friend ' : — Must Flaxman look upon me as wild ? And all my friends be with doubts beguil'd Must my Wife live in my Sister's bane ? Or my sister survive on my Love's pain ? ? ' 18 His] Thy R^. WBY. WBY. . WBY. MS. 17 . Blake speaks of Hayley's aversion and contempt for his prophetic writings. Cp. WBY inverts the order of these two Hnes. WMR. DGR. Thy Brother has arm'd himself in Steel. 14 studious] 35 shadowy DGR. WBY. 12 He . . Butts. WMR. 20 mocks their] mocks at their Shep. 23 has] hath marched] is marched MS. 12 with] 15 the In a letter to writing] that all MS. WBY omits. * 9 tear] tears II. They never can work War's overthrow. 285 His eye was dry no tear could flow hollow groan first spoke his woe. Book. 1803. 21 See note to version in MS. WMR. WMR.Pickering MS. His Children's Cry my soul appalls I mock'd at the wrack and griding chain. the grinding WMR. My 'Thy Father drew his Sword in the North. To avenge the wrongs thy Children feel. dated July 6. that R^ wrongs 24 avenge] revenge MS. Book. WBY. WMR. But vain the Sword and vain the Bow. WMR. Book. DGR. Book. 22 With his thousands strong] By his strong courage R' Book xlii.

is an Intellectual Thing. shall heal. : ' — tear of love and forgiveness sweet. became a Tyrant in his Stead. But the And The And every wound 29 a Tear] the tear it has MS. p. Auguries of ' Pickering MS. inverts the order of stanzas 8 stanzas Bed the Purple Tyrant fled iron hand crush'd the Tyrant's head. Prefatory Note to ' Innocence DGR.2 86 ' Pickering MS. The few exceptions to this rule have the appearance of being marginal interpolations. or numerical rearrangement of lines. WBY. . The first five stanzas (11. The couplets are not divided into sections. Book. a Sigh is the Sword of an Angel King. WMR.' — and Following the MS. For a Tear 29 And And The hand * of Vengeance found the To which The And 29-36 For ' : 33 . it vcxa. Book. 5-24) deal with cruelty or kindness to animals. seen that the poem consists of an opening quatrain. . without marginal 13. Book version 9. The tyrant who the first [MS. submission to death beneath his feet tear shall melt the sword of steel. folTurning to the latter. WBY Stead] R^ omits. marks of transposition. and inserts between them the two Until the tyrant himself relent. as if forming quatrains with the rime-arrangement aabb or sometimes aaaa. Slaughter shall heap the bloody plain Resistance and war is the tyrant's gain. nor is there a terminal line or other mark of separation between the opening stanza and the proverb-couplets which follow. the bitter groan of the Martyr's woe Is an Arrow from the Almightie's Bow.' 31 the Martyr's] a martyr's 33 found] sought MS. WBY. additions. The conjecture. therefore. — made WBY. Written in a single column. that Blake intended the title to refer to the initial quatrain only is not supported by the evidence of the MS. its penalty or reward a theme which may have It will be lowed by sixty-four couplets.y be noticed in the first place that the couplets are almost always arranged together in pairs. — been suggested to Blake's mind while engraving the plates for Hayley's . "Book first the] black bow bent. .

to jottings. and Stanzas 20-22 (11. with exquisite compassion. denunciation of doubt. 85-96) pass on from reverence of infant faith to pauper. a theme returned to (after a short digression contrastIn stanzas 15-17 songs. 1. aspect of animal life. 111-118. This paragraph discusses a new topic. The couplet which follows (11. 287 25-28) Blake wanders off into a different (11. 1 19-132) expressing. {e) 11. MS. {b) 11. 76. 55-88 and 5962) appear to have been mistakenly copied down in inverted order. 55 the return to the quatrain unit is clearly marked by the rimearrangement of the next three stanzas. This theme is continued later in the couplets following 44. 37-44 and 45-52) are continuations respectively two themes. 18.Pickering In the sixth stanza Ballads. and 23^ Three more stanzas (11. 27 recall be regarded as a continuation of stanzas 18. 63-74) 75-84) marks of weakness.' and in stanzas (11. I my . 103-110. The subjects of the remaining stanzas are strongly reminiscent of those of the Songs of Experience.' conclude this truly ' great poem.' and may in stanzas 24. 54- id) 11. all. (/) 11- 11. The foregoing have treated two like the v^n-ote rimes in down from loose tinuity analysis reveals the curious fact that Blake the couplets in the order of composition or transcribed them rearrangement for future consideration. a theme entirely different from the darker one of predestined misery or delight (11. 77. as in the last stanza of 'The Grey Monk. 54) Stanzas of these — ' A Truth that Beats all 's told with bad intent the Lies you can invent — ' not very closely bound to the preceding lines. 63-74. 25-28. 78. 59-62.' having four identical rimes. 5-24. 97-102. It appears probable that he either different : — to its 1-4. perhaps in the nature of a personal reflection is on one of the chief modes by which 'slander. 25 (II. 12 (II. 52. 85-96. own print the text as in the original MS. 29-44. 1 19-132) with which Rossetti links it in his rearrangement. pity for those whose lot is cast in the land of eternal winter. At 1. obscene or noxious animals symbolizing human faults or vices.' and 'jealousy' work for evil. marks of woe in beggar. alternate pleasure and grief in human life. soldier. Stanzas 13 and 14 (11. divided as follows (a) 11. 51. It has the appearance of being an afterthought. 55-58. Con- may be It given the poem by following each theme separately would then form seven sections. 75.. 19 ' ing war and peace) ' ' (11. 19. {g) would seem themes alternately. 79-84. 9. 45-50. 10 and 11. 53.' 'envy. London. 1 19-132. (c) 11. deferring conclusion. followed in smaller type by revised version for those who may prefer to read the poem as a whole. 108-110). interweaving one with another a canto of terza rima. and often compress within the narrow limit of a couplet the strength and tenderness of some of the most familiar of the we have 'Infant Sorrow. Stanzas 26. instead of as a number of disconnected proverb-couplets. 53.

288
With

Pickering
this

(a)

11.

(6)

11.

may be compared

MS,

Rossetti's rearrangement

:

1-4.

5-10, 17, 18, 11-12, 19, 20, 13-16.
29-32, 41, 42, 33-38, 21-24, 39> 40» 43» 44, 67, 68, 71, 72,

(c)

11.

(rf)

11.

25-28, 45-50, 97, 98.

{e')

11.

99, 100, 77, 78, 101, 102, 75, 76, 51, 5a, 81-84, 79, 80, 113-118.

(J)

11.

85-90, 63-66, 93-96, 103, 104, 91, 92, 105, 106, 53, 54, 107-H0.

{g)

11.

1

19-124, 59-62, 55-58.

ih) 125-132.

The latter arrangement (which has been adopted by all later editors
except Shepherd), readable as it appears on first glance, seems to me to do
great violence to the author's meaning. Passages are torn from their context
and given an entirely different sense, by being placed in an artificial position.

An

example of

this

may

be seen

in Rossetti's

penultimate section, where,
is made to argue that
to misery and endless

by the juxtaposition of two separate passages, Blake
a correct apprehension of the fact that some are born
night will enable us to go through

with safety.

life

Auguries of Innocence
To see a World in a Grain

of Sand,
a Heaven in a Wild Flower,
Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand,

i
.

And

And

Eternity in an hour.

A

Robin Redbreast in a Cage
Puts all Heaven in a Rage.
dove-house fill'd with Doves & Pigeons
Shudders Hell thro' all its regions.
dog starv'd at his Master's Gate

5

A

A

9

Predicts the ruin of the State.

A

Horse misused upon the Road
Calls to Heaven for Human blood.
Each outcry of the hunted Hare

A
A
A

fibre

from the Brain does

13

tear.

Skylark wounded in the wing
Cherubim does cease to sing.
The Game Cock dipt and arm'd for fight
;

Does the Rising Sun

17

affright.

Pickering MS. p. 13.
I

on

a] the Shep.,
all edd. except

WMR.

Shep.
sing all edd. except Shep.
Doth all edd. except Shep.

EY.
15 in]
14 does] doth DGR,
16 A . . sing] Doth make a cherub cease to
18 Does]
17 The] A all edd. except Shep.

WMR,

.

MS.

Pickering
Every Wolf's

&

289

Lion's howl

Human

Raises from Hell a

Soul.

wild Deer, wand 'ring here & there,
Keeps the Human Soul from Care.

The

21

The Lamb

And

misus'd breeds Public Strife,
yet forgives the Butcher's knife.
Bat that flits at close of Eve

The
Has left the Brain that won't Believe.
The Owl that calls upon the Night
Speaks the Unbeliever's

He who

25

fright.

shall hurt the little

Wren

29

by Men.
wrath has mov'd

Shall never be belov'd

He who

the

Ox

Shall never be

to

Woman

by

The wanton Boy

lov'd.

that kills the

Fly

33

Shall feel the Spider's enmity.
He who torments the Chafer's Sprite
Weaves a Bower in endless Night.

The

Catterpiller on the Leaf
Repeats to thee thy Mother's
Kill not the

Moth nor

37
grief.

Butterfly,

For the Last Judgment draweth nigh.
He who shall train the Horse to war

41

Shall never pass the Polar Bar.

Beggar's Dog & Widow's Cat,
Feed them & thou wilt grow fat.
The Gnat that sings his Summer's Song

The

45

Poison gets from Slander's tongue.
The poison of the Snake & Newt
Is the sweat of Envy's Foot.

The poison

of the

Honey Bee

49

Is the Artist's Jealousy.

Prince's Robes & Beggar's Rags
Are Toadstools on the Miser's Bags.

The

22 Keeps]
in the

all edd. except

Keep

Songs of Experience.
'

Paradise,

Keys

44 wilt] shalt
SAMPSON

.

of the Gates,'
'

24 Cp, footnote to 'The Fly'
Shep.
.
37, 38 The
griefj Cp. The Gates of

11.

i,

2

:

.

The Catterpiller on the Leaf
Reminds thee of thy Mother's

all edd. except

Shep.

U

Grief.'

290
A

MS.

Pickermg
Truth that

Beats
It is

's

told with

bad intent

53

the Lies you can invent.
right it should be so
all

;

Man was made for Joy & Woe
And when this we rightly know,

;

57

Thro' the World we safely go.

& Woe

Joy

A

Clothing

are

woven

fine,

for the soul divine.

Under every grief & pine
Runs a joy with silken twine.
The Babe is more than Swadling Bands
Throughout all these Human Lands

61

;

& Born were hands,
Farmer
understands.
Every
Every Tear from Every Eye
Becomes a Babe in Eternity
Tools were made,

65

;

This

is

And

returned to

caught by Females bright,

own

its

69

delight.

The Bleat, the Bark, Bellow, & Roar,
Are Waves that Beat on Heaven's Shore.
The Babe that weeps the Rod beneath

73

Writes Revenge in realms of Death.
The Beggar's Rags, fluttering in Air,

Does

to

Rags the Heavens

tear.

&

The

Soldier, arm'd with Sword
Palsied strikes the Summer's Sun.

Gun,

77

The poor Man's Farthing is worth more
Than all the Gold on Afric's Shore.
One Mite wrung from the Lab'rer's hands
Shall buy & sell the Miser's Lands

81

;

protected from on high,
that whole Nation sell & buy.
who mocks the Infant's Faith
if

Or,

Does

He

Shall be mock'd in
58 Thro'

.

.

.

Age &

85

Death.

go] Safely through the world

we

go

all edd. except

Shep.

'

63, 64 All edd. except Shep. omit semicolon after Bands and punctuate with
.
and
semicolon after ' lands.'
69, 70 This
delight] DGR,
omit ;
73, 74
69 bright] aright
prints in Notes.
a;:^
The Babe
omit;
prints in Notes.
Death] DGR,
'

.

EY

WBY

76 Does]

Do

.

.

.

all edd. except

WMR,

.

WHY.

WMR,

Shep.

EY

WBY

48 Does] Shall

all edd. except

Shep.

Pickering
He who
The

MS.

shall teach the Child to

291

Doubt

Grave

shall ne'er get out.
respects the Infant's faith

rotting

He who

89

Triumphs over Hell & Death.
The Child's Toys and the Old Man's Reasons
Are the Fruits of the Two Seasons.

The

Questioner, who sits so sly,
Shall never know how to Reply.

He who replies to words of Doubt
Doth put the Light of Knowledge
The Strongest Poison ever known
Came from

93

out.

97

Caesar's Laurel Crown.

Nought can Deform the Human Race
Like to the Armour's iron brace.
and Gems adorn the Plow
Arts shall Envy Bow.

When Gold
To peaceful

A

101

Riddle, or the Cricket's Cry,
Doubt a fit Reply.

Is to

The Emmet's Inch & Eagle's Mile
Make Lame Philosophy to smile.
He who Doubts from what he sees

105

Will ne'er Believe, do what you Please.
If the Sun & Moon should Doubt,
They'd immediately Go Out,
To be in a Passion you Good may do.
But no Good if a Passion is in you.

109

The Whore & Gambler, by

the State
Licensed, build that Nation's Fate.
The Harlot's cry from Street to Street
Shall weave
92 Cp. Milton,

'To

f.

43,

Old England's winding-Sheet.
11.

12-17

:

cast ofT the idiot Questioner

But never capable of answering
Silent, plotting

Who

113

when

publishes doubt

who is always questioning
who sits, with a sly grin,

:

to question, like a thief in a cave.

&

calls

it

knowledge, whose Science

is

Whose pretence to knowledge is Envy, whose whole Science
To destroy the wisdom of ages to gratify ravenous Envy.'
100 Armour's] armourer's
103 Riddle] puddle

DGR,

all edd. except

WMR,

WMR, EY omit; WBY prints in

EY.
2

is

102 Arts] hearts

111-112 To

Notes.

U

Shop.

Despair,

.

.

.

you]

EY.

DGR,

MS,

Pickering

292

The Winner's shout, the Loser's Curse,
Dance before dead England's Hearse.
Every Night and every Morn
Some to Misery are Born.
Every Morn and every Night
Some are Born to Sweet Deh'ght.
Some are Born to Sweet Delight,
Some are Born to Endless Night.

We

117

121

are led to Believe a Lie

125

When we
Which

When

see not Thro' the Eye,
was Born in a Night to perish in a Night,
the Soul Slept in Beams of Light.

God appears, & God is light,
To those poor souls who dwell in Night
But does a Human Form Display
To those who Dwell in Realms of Day.
118 Dance] Shall dance all edd. except Shep.

Cp.

'

'

Everlasting Gospel

'And

7",

11.

103-106

:

125-128

129
;

We

.

.

.

Light]

leads

you to believe a lie
you see with, not through, the eye
That was born in a night, to perish in a night.
When the soul slept in the beams of light.'

When

126

When

.

\st rdg. del.

.

.

Eye]

and

;

When we

all edd. e.xcept

see with, not through, the eye, Pickering

Auguries of Innocence
{Revised A rrangemen t)
To

Hold

And

A

World in a Grain of Sand,
Heaven in a Wild Flower,

see a

And

a

Infinity in the

all

Heaven

j"our hand,

dove-house fill'd
Shudders Hell thro'

dog starv'd

in a

Cage

in a

A

A

palm of

Eternity in an hour.

Robin Redbreast

Puts

Rage.
with Doves
all

its

&

regions.

at his Master's

Gate

Predicts the ruin of the State.

A

Horse misused upon the Road

Calls to

Heaven

for

MS.

131 does] doth all edd. except Shep.

Shep.

Human

blood.

Pigeons

MS,

Pickering

of the hunted Hare
from the Brain does tear.

Each outcry

A
A
A

fibre

Skylark wounded

in the

Cherubim does cease

wing,

to sing.

The Game-Cock dipt and arm'd
Does the Rising Sun affright.
Every Wolfs & Lion's howl

for fight

Raises from Hell a Human Soul.
The wild Deer, wand'ring here & there,
Keeps the Human Soul from Care.
The Lamb misus'd breeds Public Strife,
And yet forgives the Butcher's knife.

He who

shall hurt the little

Wren

by Men.
wrath has mov'd

Shall never be belov'd

He who

Ox

the

to

Woman

Shall never be by

The wanton Boy

lov'd.

that kills the Fly

Shall feel the Spider's enmity.
He who torments the Chafer's Sprite
Weaves a Bower in endless Night.

The

Catterpiller

Repeats

to thee

on the Leaf
thy Mother's

Moth nor

Kill not the

grief.

Butterfly,

For the Last Judgment draweth nigh.
He who shall train the Horse to war
Shall never pass the Polar Bar.

The Beggar's Dog

&

Feed them

& Widow's

thou wilt grow

Cat,
fat.

The Bat that flits at close of Eve
Has left the Brain that won't Believe.
The Owl that calls upon the Night
Speaks the Unbeliever's

fright.

The Gnat

Summer's Song

that sings his

Poison gets from Slander's tongue.

The poison
Is the

& Newt

of the Snake

sweat of Envy's Foot.

The poison

of the

Honey-Bee

Is the Artist's Jealousy.

A

Truth that's told with bad intent
all the Lies you can invent.

Beats

& Woe are woven fine,
Clothing for the soul divine

Joy

A

;

Under every grief & pine
Runs a joy with silken twine.
It is right it

should be so

;

Man was made for Joy & Woe
And, when this we rightly know,
;

Thro" the

World we

safely go.

293

MS.

Pickering

294

is more than Swadling Bands;
Throughout all these Human Lands
Tools were made, & Born were hands,
Every Farmer understands.
Every Tear from Every Eye
Becomes a Babe in Eternity
This is caught by Females bright,

The Babe

;

And

return'd to

its

own

delight.

The Bleat, the Bark, Bellow, & Roar,
Are Waves that Beat on Heaven's Shore.
The Babe that weeps the Rod beneath
Writes Revenge in realms of Death.
He who mocks the Infant's Faith
Shall be mock'd in Age & Death.
He who shall teach the Child to Doubt

The

Grave shall ne'er get out.
respects the Infant's faith
Triumphs over Hell & Death.
rotting

He who

Child's Toys and the Old Man's Reasons
Are the Fruits of the Two Seasons.
The Questioner, who sits so sly,

The

Shall never

know how

to

Reply.

replies to words of Doubt
put the Light of Knowledge out.

He who
Doth

A

Riddle, or the Cricket's Cry,
Doubt a fit Reply.
The Emmet's Inch & Eagle's Mile

Is to

Make Lame Philosophy to smile.
He who Doubts from what he sees
Will ne'er Believe, do what you Please.
If the Sun & Moon should Doubt,
They'd immediately Go Out.

The Prince's Robes & Beggar's Rags
Are Toadstools on the Miser's Bags.
The Beggar's Rags, fluttering in Air,
Does to Rags the Heavens tear.
The poor Man's Farthing is worth more
Than all the Gold on Afric's Shore.
One Mite wrung from the Lab'rer's hands
Shall buy & sell the Miser's Lands;
Or,

if

Does

The

protected from on high,
whole Nation sell & buy.

that

Soldier, arm'd with

Sword

&

Gun,

Palsied strikes the Summer's Sun.
The Strongest Poison ever known

Came from Caesar's Laurel Crown.
Nought can Deform the human Race
Like to the Armour's iron brace.

MS.

Pickering
When

295

Gold and Gems adorn the Plow

To peaceful Arts shall Envy Bow.
To be in a Passion you Good may
But no Good

if

a Passion

is

do,

in

you.
The Whore & Gambler, by the State
Licensed, build that Nation's Fate.

The
Shall

Harlot's cry from Street to Street
weave Old England's winding Sheet.

The Winner's

shout, the Loser's Curse,

Dance before dead England's Hearse.
Every Night and every Morn

Some

to

Misery are Born.

Every Morn and every Night
Some are Born to Sweet Delight.
Some are Born to Sweet Delight,
Some are Born to Endless Night.

We

are led to Believe a Lie

When we

see not Thro' the Eye,
in a Night to perish in a Night,
the Soul Slept in Beams of Light,

Which was Born

When

God appears, & God is light,
To those poor souls who dwell in Night,
But does a Human Form Display
To those who Dwell in Realms of Day.

Long John Brown
Little

Bell

Mary

&

Little

had a Fairy

in

Mary

a Nut,

Long John Brown had the Devil in
Long John Brown lov'd little Mary

And

Bell
i

Gut

his

;

Bell,

the Fairy drew the Devil into the Nutshell.

Pickering MS. p. 19.
In Jerusalem, f. 36, 11. 35-37, fairies are described as one of Four ravening
States Permanently Fixed by the Divine Power.'
deathlike Forms. .
Cp. from the Motto to the Songs of Innocence and of Experience,^ in the MS.
'

.

.

*

Book

(xxxi)

:

'The Good are

And

attracted

by Men's perceptions.

think not for themselves

;

Experience teaches them to catch
And to cage the Fairies & Elves
lines perhaps explained by the quatrain which almost immediately precedes
Till

'

:

them

in the
'

MS. Book

The

(xxvii)
trap the moment before it 's ripe,
tears of repentance you'll certainly wipe

But

if

If

:

you

You

once you let the ripe moment go
can never wipe off the tears ot woe.'

;

he had the Devil. And woe & And Title\ 13 . 20. Pickering MS.' the adjectives 3 Little] Pretty Pickering MS. o)tnts &. del. EY being an addition. And I wonder whether they mean to kill. 5 & her] Pickering MS. At first ' John Brown & Mary Bell. ! 17 . I. his dinner. 3 Long] 2. Joy. skip'd out. And the Devil enter d into the Young Man's broth. and three But the Angels of Providence drove them away. p. 15/ rdg. and Pride. And he laugh'd at the Devil till poor John Brown Died. & her Fairy skip'd in laugh 'd at the Devil saying. Love is a Sin. EY. He ' He was soon in the Gut of the loving Young Swain. except Shep. one. For assuredly he is very ill. there goes Miss Bell with her fusty old Nut. del. And he return'd home in Misery. & they guess'd right The fairy skip'd about in his Glory. two. 5 in] on all edd. And I wonder if William Bond will die.' The Devil he raged.296 Pickering MS. & the Devil he was wroth. Though he eat & drank as much as ten Men for 9 . I He went to Church in a May morning. For John eat & drank to drive away Love's pain But all he could do he grew thinner and thinner. Young 15 Joy] love . Attended by Fairies. alack for Pretty Mary Bell For the Devil crept in when the Fairy skip'd out. Her Fairy 5 . William Bond wonder whether the Girls are mad. . had a Wolf in his stomach day & night. is/ rdg. Some Some said he said Then the Fairy skip'd out of the old Nutshell.

'O William. 297 He He went not out to the Field nor Fold. And Mary Green shall her Servant be. Experience ^ To Tirzah. an Angel of Providence at his Head. if thou dost another Love. in the midst the Sick Man on his Bed. I do another Love. And took to his Bed. on thy Head is the cold Moon's Shine. And saw her William Bond so near. And their tears fell thro' the black black Cloud To drive away the sick man's pain.' oniiis 1. IMary trembled And Mary fell When Mary woke & found her laid On the Right hand of her William dear.' ' 29 And & Mary chill'd. Another I Love far better than thee. 28 Then . But she is ruddy & bright as day. in the midst a Black Black Cloud. But he came home in a black black cloud. in Songs vf . Go & take that other to be thy Wife. down on the right hand That William Bond & his Sister Jane Scarce could recover Mary more. Then what have I to do with thee? 25 For thou art Melancholy Pale. And the sunbeams dazzle from her eyne. And Another I will have for my Wife.Pickering MS. 33 floor. 4. . On the Right hand of his loved Bed.' 'Yes. and there lay down. O. And on his Right hand was Mary Green. 21 O William] Shep. . 9 13 17 21 Dost another Love better than poor Mary. Mary. went not out to the Village nor Town. 37 thee] Cp. And on his Left hand was his Sister Jane. And And And And an Angel of Providence at his Feet.

In the gentle relief of another's care. Seek Love in the Pity of others' Woe. EY. rather as that of the narrator of the story. In the darkness of night & the Winter's Snow. he I in the lives in the thought to find Love But sweet Love is left the Bed. hot sunshine. In the naked & outcast. place in inverted commas as Bond's. Moony light 45 ! in the heat of Day. seek Love there 49 ! 45-52 All edd. And I the Angels of Providence thought Love lived But O. I the in poem treat the it if the speech were William who begins DGR. WBY. Pickering The Fairies that fled from William Bond Danced around her Shining Head They danced over the Pillow white. the Comforter of Night. 41 .298 MS. WMR. 52 In] With . first person.

POEMS FROM LETTERS 1800-1803 .

immediately Four of the before the Blakes' removal to Felpham. Butts is taken from the originals. Flaxman. 144) from an autograph of Blake's on the back of a small pencil-sketch. 1800. It was first printed by Swinburne {Essay. The taken from earliest of these are the stanzas enclosed in a letter from Mrs. Blake to Mrs. Essay.e. pieces are contained in letters to Mr. pp. I follow Gilchrist for the lines to Mrs. i. the grandson of Blake's friend. dated September 14. text of the poems in the letters to Mr. kindly lent me by Capt. being unable to trace the present whereabouts of the original and for the same reason take my text of 'A fairy leapt upon my knee' from Swinburne's My . Butts written from Felpham. I place here also a little fairy poem which seems to belong to the same period. The first Shepherd : five poems are printed by all editors except by Swinburne and Ellis and Yeats only. the last . Anna Flaxman. Butts.PREFACE TO POEMS FROM LErrERS Five of the letters written six poems in this section are by Blake or his wife. 1 800-1 803. 143.

1800. Anna Flaxman This song to the flower of Flaxman's joy. or all that you may. all ' : are probably Gilchrist's. 150. i. at my cot it does end. entice him to Felpham and far away. Lambeth. .' is in a letter H^ercules] B[uildings]. you can. from a man. the village then winds. that all Away to sweet Felpham. signed ' biographer by Miss Den- W. constantly refers to himself as the italics Eartham ' or the ' Hermit of the Turret ' 15 William Hermit of ' in liis letters to his friends. print in roman. 149. and my friend and thine Descend and ascend with the bread and the wine. at his own door the bless'd hermit does stand. Dispensing unceasing to Gilchrist. 11 w. copy supplied to the The poem. does softly descend.' though obviously Blake's own composition. for Heaven is there of Angels descends through the air 5 . Mrs. Blake. the blossom of hope for a sweet decoy To Do To i . Blake's patron. The bread and the wine of delight of sweet thought 13 Feed the And village of Felpham by day and by night. see note to 1. other edd.v] The 7 turret] the turret of Hayley's house dated ' sister. . The Ladder On the turret Through You The its spiral . Flaxman's the wide land. Hayley. And my brother is there. Mrs.POEMS FROM LETTERS To my dear Friend. 14 Sept.' and signed Catherine Blake. stand in the village and look up to heaven precious stones glitter on flight seventy-seven 9 . 15.

Blown back they But still blind the mocking eye. Amazed 20 . 'The Atoms of Democritus And Newton's Particles of Light Are sands upon the Red sea shore Where 20 gazed do shine so Israel's tents bright. tho' not such as she produces by her Eldest Son however. Morning Heaven's Mountains adorning : In particles bright. in Israel's paths they shine. Blake's precise use of the spelling ed when he intends the final syllable to be pronounced. I Astonish'd. read gazed . 2''. 15 The jewels of Light Distinct shone clear. . Rousseau (MS. Butts. iSi.' addressed to 'Mr. and entitle To Mr. My i first On The Sun was Emitting His Glorious beams From Heaven's 5 high Streams. Oct'. over Land. . Butts. Mock on. all Into regions of fire. ii. My Eyes did Expand Into regions of Away from air. ignoring Amazed] All edd.' amazed. Remote from Desire The Light lo Care. of the . I cannot resist the temptation to send them to you. the stanzas in the verses beginning ' Voltaire. 19.Poems from 302 Letters m • U To my Friend Butts I write Vision of Light. And every sand becomes a Gem Reflected in the beams divine . the yellow sands sitting. Written in two columns on the first and second pages of a letter dated Felpham. .' (See Gilchrist. Book ' xli) : — 'Mock on. Great Marlborough Street. i8o.) These verses are prefaced by the lines Recieve from me a return of verses such as Felpham produces by me. Over Sea. & Amaz'd & in fear each particle gazed. . ' ' .* WMR. EY.' * : ' . WBY ' 13-17 Cp. . such as they are. 1800.

Poems from Letters 303 For each was a Man Human. My Eyes. more & more. Till the Jewels of Light. limbs to infold In his beams of bright gold Like dross purg'd away All my mire & my clay.' I stood in the Streams Of Heaven's bright beams. Soft he smil'd. Saying ' : as Every Stone on the Land. knew. descend In our Shadows on Earth. Continue Expanding. & Star. hill. Meteor. Like a weak mortal birth. Heavenly Men beaming Appear'd as One Man. Each grain of Sand. Cloud.form'd. & sea. The Heavens commanding. In soft Female charms And in her fair arms My 30 . earth. Soft consum'd in delight. Remote by the Sea. Swift I ran. wife's Sister. . Friend. Each herb & each tree. 45 Like a Sea without shore. Are Men Seen Afar. Mountain. like Infants shadow & 40 too. 55 . In his bosom Sun-bright I 50 remain'd. For they beckon'd to me. Each rock & each hill. Who Complacent began My bright. Each fountain & rill. And Saw Felpham sweet Beneath my bright Shadow And my And My We I 35 feet.

known bright Shone & your wife saw you ' ! to : 75 life. Butts Wife of the Friend of those I most revere.' which this . The loud Sea.Poems 304 And fj^oni Letters heard his voice Mild. horn'd with gold These are guards of thou And 1 the voice faded mild remain'd as a Child All I ever had me Before I Ram My By the fountains of Such the Vision 70 : .. To the Christians ' ' : — ' Imagination. O thou Ram Who awakest On On 60 I horn'd with gold. 5 ! W. B. the real & eternal World of Vegetable Universe is but a faint shadow. Parent of Youthful Minds. & Behold Your Harvest Springing to Eternal Life. iv. the passage in Blake's introduction to Jcnisaleni. Saying: 'This is My Fold. These ' ' chap. Recieve this tribute from a Harp sincere Go on in Virtuous Seed sowing on Mold Of Human Vegetation. & deep gulph. Fold. & happy Wife i . & in which we shall live in our Eternal or Imaginative Bodies when these Vegetable Mortal Bodies are no more.' which the author hopes Mrs.' conclude the letter from which the preceding poem is taken. me Appear'd on the Sea. from Sleep the Sides of the Deep. signed excuse. 4 Human Vegetation] Cp. HI To Mrs. Butts will lines. the Mountains around 65 The roarings resound Of the lion & wolf.

the evil one. Los the Terrible.' Blake says 'were Composed above a twelvemonth ago while Walking from Felpham to Lavant to meet my Sister. fears— 20 With a thousand Angels upon the Wind. And my Brother Robert just behind. the position being also indicated by Blake's catchword ' 16 See note to ' Mad Song {Poetical Sketches).Poems from Letters 305 IV With happiness stretch'd across the hills In a cloud that dewy sweetness distills With a blue sky spread over with wings.' WMR * 3. Silver Angels across my way. (i. e. 44 : — & silence that they had created. 4 Cp. And my Brother John. And a mild With trees And little Sun & & sings . moony night a blue sky spread over with wings and a mild moon. Tho' dead. Fill'd full of hopes. Nov"^ 22. they appear upon my path. and EY entitle 'Verses. they my wrath terrible ^ . Jerusalem. written in two columns in a postscript to a letter dated 'Felpham. ' 8 These These 2 f. 43. were omitted when transcribing : ' after line 6.' two lines lines are written sideways & — with the note ought to come in at x in the margin. of Fairy elves. & my way before A frowning Thistle implores my stay. 19.' Printed by all editors except Shepherd. fill'd full of tears. 11. ' In a sweet With 7. In a black cloud making his mone. 17. . in And God With And Golden demons lo that none can stay Father my hovering upon the wind. 1802. i . These verses. 'Rememb'ring'). What to others a trifle appears Fills me full of smiles or tears 25 . they drop their intreat. 1. With 15 — Notwithstanding They beg. Pouring disconsolate from behind To drive them off. that mounts fields full who devils fight for themselves Rememb'ring the Verses When my that Hayley sung heart knock'd against the root of With Angels planted 5 — my tongue — Hawthorn bowers.' WBY. himself in the passing hours. S/VMPSON X .

f. as the sons of Los. 23. 1). If Thou woe art to endless betray'd 30 . 1. 15). the emanation of Los {ibid. to God alone. A 40 27 See note to 1. In Blake's reference to his own terrible wrath (1. by mortals nam'd Time. 39). . 35 Poverty. passint). not of Demonstration ' . And a double vision is always with me. 1. as to the supreme importance of cultivating and recognizing what he terms 'Minute Particulars.' meaning thereby those personal characteristics which constitute the identity of the individual. 11. 1. f. 23. 33 Theotormon. 31. 47. L 42 69. thine little is Holy'. is probably a transposition of Sol (cp. 1. f. building Heavens Twenty-seven-fold. Shall bring thy Wife upon a bier And Butts shall give what Fuseli gave. 43. one of the Four Zoas {ibid. 30. and inspiration {Jerusalem. 8. 71. 4) and one of the daughters of Albion {ibid. S&e Jerusalem. 10. I. 87. elsewhere referred to He is described as fill'd with care {Milton. .' . ' ' the passage from Milton quoted in the footnote). f. f. 50). 53. With my inward Eye. is depicted as a blacksmith working Los is Time (see note to 1. . . 1. is the third of the Four Sons of Jerusalem that never were Generated (^Jerusalem. own Minute Particulars ones are holy. are of Faith. 17. and * ' ' ' Visions of the Daughters of Albion. & fear. Envy. f. 34 lovely Enitharmon {Jerusalem. 3. 'tis an old Man grey. 11. f. 42. f. Enitharmon is nam'd Space. 16-23 • & and all . 40 This allusion is only to be understood by a knowledge of one of the chief articles of Blake's faith in ethics and art. Oliver Madoxin his capacity of prophet and seer. : — 'Every Minute Particular ' . and 'Los 35 ' Los is . f. 8.' the thistle said. 1. a Thistle across my way. Brown conjectured. — '.Poems from 3o6 For double the vision my Letters Eyes do see.. 44-46 : — f. 55-57. With * ' my outward. thy . Because thou backward dost return. 68 :— 1. 42).' Form of strong Urthona' {Jerusalem. the Vehicular . thou goest back. Heavens over Hells Brooding in holy hypocritic lust. f. ibid. f. II. ' ' ' f. old age. 90. dark black Rock & a gloomy Cave. see Milton. and f. 4). 16. 12) and associated with storms and weeping {^Jerusalem. 34). 1. 1. drinking the cries of pain From howling victims of Law . the spirit of prophecy at his furnace. as Mr. Belong They ibid. U. For here does Theotormon lower. . symbolizes space . 39. 18) he appears to identify himself with Los The name Los. And here is Enitharmon's bower And Los the terrible thus hath sworn. first mentioned in Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793).

note X 3 to ' The Grey Monk. every one in their own identity ibid. are invariably used as sj'mbols of the state opposed to Jerusalem (or the life of spiritual liberty and imagination). unimaginative Instead of the Mutual Forgivenesses. the Minute Particulars. 43. 56-62 : — easy acknowledge a man to be great & good. MS. It is to Instead of Albion's lovely mountains. 49 Cp. General Good is the plea of the scoundrel. in which 'Minute Particulars' of personal identity are crushed under the weight of reason and natural religion. The Infinite alone resides in Definite & Determinate Identity. All broad & general principles belong to benevolence Who protects minute particulars. This is rendered clear by the passage in Jerusalem. & seek with love & sympathy. hypocrite. descending before Swell'd & bloated General Forms repugnant to the Divine Humanity. The Rock and the Cave. a Tree deadly and poisonous. 55. 16.' wrath The old man weltering upon my path. ' f. liii and Iv. ' f.Poems fro7n I struck the Thistle with Letters my 307 foot. I see : Pits of bitumen ever burning. the terrible shade. while we Derogate from him in the trifles & small articles of that goodness. I see a Cave. 11. To which all Lineaments tend. who is the Only General and Universal Form.' 1. And all my friends be with doubts beguil'd? ' Must my Wife live in my Sister's bane. a Rock. Then Los appear'd in all his power: 55 In the Sun he appear'd. Those alone are his friends who admire his minutest powers.' 47 Cp. Must the duties of life each other cross ? Must every joy be dung & dross ? Must my dear Butts feel cold neglect Because I give Hayley his due respect? Must Flaxman look upon me as wild. 11. 60-64 He who would : ' . — do good to another must do it in Minute Particulars. & make me struck in my 45 ? 50 afraid.' . Book Pickering MS. And his So I dismal terrors spoke. And broke him up from his delving root. And not in generalizing Demonstrations of the Rational Power. & the curtains of Jerusalem. Or my sister survive on my Love's pain The curses of Los. constantly recurring figures in Blake's later Prophetic Books. .. & flatterer For Art & Science cannot exist but in minutely organized Particulars.

The Sun stood trembling in heaven The Moon. 'Twas too late now to recede. Six Thousand Years & Space obey my will. ago. .Poems from 3o8 Letters My face in fierce flames in my double sight 'Twas outward a Sun. Nor yet the Space that I do see My Mind is not with thy light array'd. : : ' I am that Fell from Shadowy Prophet who. Los had entered into my soul His terrors now posses'd me whole I arose in fury & strength. Los flam'd in With the 55-58 Cp. Milton. Six Thousand Years my station in the Eternal bosom. Time w^alk . me 6-25 : — stood. Felt affliction.' Are I. . My Wife has no indulgence given Except what comes to her from heaven. arrows Swinb. my path. up and down for not one Moment Of Time is lost. . .' are not . 78 the Arrows] with . 75 & sorrow. : : 60 Ease] rest Swinb. . that glow'd remote below. inward Los in his might. I Los stood in that fierce glowing fire And I became One Man with him arising in my strength. tho' on the Earth. This Earth breeds not our happiness. drink 60 less. in Six return I : both Thousand Years. 11. ' And Los behind f. * We eat we little. & sickness. all things vanish & are seen no more. But leave their destin'd lineaments permanent for ever & ever. When I had my 70 Defiance given. Behind my back. 20. My hands are labour'd day & night. Thy terrors shall not make me afraid. finish'd. They vanish not from me & mine we guard them first & last The generations of men run on in the tide of Time. And Ease comes never in my sight. . & the Sun was hot bows of my Mind & the Arrows of Thought. a terrible flaming Sun. We 65 warmed with thy beams Thou measurest not the Time to me. Another Sun feeds our life's streams. and behold. just close turned round in terror. . where Satan Fell and was cut off. & dearth. Became leprous & white as snow And every Soul of men on the Earth . nor one Event of Space unpermanent But all remain every fabric of Six Thousand Years Remains permanent. 75 men] man : all edd.

which abounds in fourfold correspondences always conveys the idea of perfection and harmony. lest they fall into Eternal Death. Mental forms Creating. To whom be Glory & Dominion. Amen Walks among all his awful Family. and OrUlro. Jerusalem. : ' : : : As the beloved infant in his mother's bosom. gore.' — See also the opening lines of the second book of Milton There is a place where Contrarieties are equally True. feminine. The Daughters of Beulah follow Sleepers in all their Dreams. Into this place the Sons & Daughters of Ololon descended With solemn mourning into Beulah's moony shades & hills. f. And it is thus Created. of man are Beulah. Al-Ulro. threefold in soft Beulah's night. and the later Pro- — 86 Beulah] In Blake's mythology the four states phetic Books. As the breath of the Almighty such are the words of man In the great Wars of Eternity. 8-1 1 : And the Four States of Humanity in its Repose — ' Were shewed them. within without the Universal Man. Milton. given in Mercy to those who sleep. brothers & The heavens drop Now And with human my supreme . in fury of Poetic Inspiration. round incircled With arms of love & pity & sweet compassion. Sweet Female forms winged or floating in the air spontaneous. Because of those who Sleep. Pure. a fourfold vision is given to 'Tis fourfold in And march before father me . S5 delight. Creating Spaces. Alia. lovely. . f. Beulah is evermore Created around Eternity appearing To the Inhabitants of Eden around them on all sides.-^. To build the Universe stupendous. mild & Gentle. First On Couches soft with mild of Beulah a most pleasant Sleep music tended by Flowers of Beulah. 85 Fourfold the basic idea of Blake's symbolic system. But Beulah to its Inhabitants appears. Weeping for Milton mute wonder held the Daughters of Beulah.Poems from My My My Letters 309 bowstring fierce with Ardour breathes arrows glow in their golden sheaves . Eternally Created by the Lamb of God around On all & sides. 11. But to The Sons of Eden. 11. This place is called Beulah It is a pleasant lovely Shadow Where no dispute can come.' See also The Four Zoas. 80 . the moony habitations of Beulah Are from Great Eternity a mild & pleasant Rest. I a fourfold vision see. 0. within each district. — 81 brothers] brother all edd. Lo ! the Eternal Great Humanity. /ass«V«. 34. Evermore. Night i. 98. seen in every face. a Soft Moony Universe. Cp. 197-203 'There is from Great Eternity a mild & pleasant rest : — Nam'd Beulah. Enraptur'd with affection sweet and mild benevolence. ! : to man.

1803. I'm despis'd.' 11. All the pen my my is Talents 1 am either When Elate I & dishonour. And starts & my . not 'divided 27-30.' contrasted with the ' — to ' : MS. Book xxxvii. 1 1 : : — he to believe a and 'emanation' see introductory note 88 Cp. ' Printed by DGR. 9 . 11. or too highly priz'd I'm Envy'd. the pencil bury. In a letter addressed to 'M"". e. From . in Blake's Letters language. 103.' 2 See note to 10 I'm Envy'd] I ' am Mary. pre- burn what I have I have been very much degraded peevishly written about my friend. August which led to his trial for high treason (see Gilchrist's Life. person degrade. you see with. a comparison repeated and into 'spectre ' And ' leads When for 'spectre' you f. Pickering envied EY. faced by ' Give me your advice in my perilous adventure : i. MS. if it all arise from my own fault. my shame my Fame. xix). each my passive. where ' ' in a state and 'inward eye' of imagination is of reason. 7^.' Cp. . when ? my I ? speak. or. 21. ' the outward eye emphasized in a couplet of The Everlasting Gospel. 3 When] If EY. & injuriously treated . My pictures despise temper chastise terror. 11. Butts Gr. Jerusalem. not through. lose every Friend. Marlborough S* London' dated i6.' in which Blake describes the circumstances ' Felpham. 104 11. chap. the latter with the Verses. and WMR. 10. EY.' title I. & Single visioHj ' twofold ' By 87 twofold] is 'emanation. WMR. I offend .3 Poems from o 1 And May God us keep Newton's sleep twofold Always. but. i race . I ought to blame myself. and dead is When Meek 5 . the eye 53. why was was Why When I born with a different face I not born like the rest of I Then I'm silent & Then verse I My one look. too low. ' incomprehensible the Vegetated Mortal Eye's perverted & single vision To [i. to reason separated from imagination]. 22. . ! meant man's reason and imagination own of harmony.

naked. Pins.' Swinburne's text (pp.' 6 paltry] pretty EY. 144. he And ' fell upon my 5 worm thigh. thus in tears did soft reply Knowest thou How much not. in silence. gilded. joy and please. Alcmene and he grasping her hand. Thou paltry. rings. . on the back of which is a pencilled sketch of Hercules throttling the serpents. 143. note\ copied from a loose scrap of paper.Poems from Letters 3 1 r VI A upon my knee and dancing merrily Singing I i fairy leapt 'Thou thing said. O fairies' : lord Therefore in pity lives to 9 ! by us contemned. Amphitryon watch the struggle 9 O] EY omit. poisonous Weeping. abhorred. falls back in terror with sharp recoil ' : of drawn-up limbs . Disgracer of the female form. Whatever hides the female form That cannot bear the mortal storm Our ' ! we give the female live ? still make And what would turn into disease We will turn to what 13 . and such-like things. necklaces. of patches. . whose twisted limbs make a sort of spiral cradle around and above the child's triumphant figure an attendant.

.

1807 . 1808 1806.DEDICATION OF BLAKE S ILLUSrRATIONS OF BLAWS Published Written 'GRAVE' May circa ist.

H. . appeared with the recommendations of West. and submitted by the artist to Cromek. February. and the list of subscribers Blake's twelve alone considerably exceeded five hundred. 1852. Cromek. to dedicate the work to her honour w*^ have been yours exclus^ but that you might not be deprived of any advantage likely to contribute to your reputation. R. Schiavonetti ten guineas for etching a plate from the drawing in question. not me. and reprinted by Gilchrist with* great surprise. had the remotest suspicion that you*^ for a moment entertain the idea of writing me to supply money to create an ' : Sir. The dedication of this work to Queen Charlotte. on the understanding that the engraving of the plates was also to be entrusted to the artist. The Queen in w'* I cannot possibly participate. I was willing to pay Mr. was actually prepared. I never to it. I have returned the drawing with this In note. was to have formed an additional engraved The design plate with a vignette of Blake's invention. I do not think it merits the price you affix In the next place. employed instead a talented pupil of Bartolozzi's. but was returned by the latter upon grounds sufficiently clearly stated in his letter dated May. however. the first place. Louis Schiavonetti an action resented by Blake. Cromek. Flaxman. which was first printed in the Geiitletnaiis — Magazine. for designs or 'inventions' were purchased by Cromek the sum of twenty guineas. This letter. Fuseli. which is printed in ordinary type on the recto of the leaf following the title-page.' honour ! . 1807. whose strong feeling with regard to this transaction is evidenced in several of the epigrams in the Rossetti MS. begins your letter demanding four guineas for the sketcJied vignette ded" to the Queen. or brought his name prominently before The edition.PREFACE Blake's Illustrations of Blair s Grave is the only work which. violating this unwritten agreement. 205-207). and I will briefly state my reasons for so doing. during his lifetime. and others. under any circumstances. achieved any degree of poputhe public. not (i. I rec''*. widely advertised by its publisher. The allowed you. larity.

Drawings.The Grave 3 1 5 The original design. 309) special care and completeness in pale semi-neutral tints a very beautiful work.' ' ' : . W. A . M. . are two angels. Between the upper angels a space is left for the inscription. . ii. and the Ascension of the Above. another holding the unequally-poised balance and a sealed roll a third descends with a key to unlock the fetters of the grave.Rossetti in his Annotated Lists of Blake's Paintings. their rises to the left chains riven. is thus described by Mr. one sheathing the sword. no. . Just.' Executed with most List I. clasp their upraised hands in thankfulness for the great deliverance. preserved in the British Museum. mother with her adolescent and infant family a man and children to the right. and Engravings. The subject is the deliverance of the Human Soul from Death. 70 (Gilchrist.

20 . and poor around it wait . Sov'reign's Feet. Shep. when the Mortal Eyes are clos'd. by Her kind permission. The Dedication 14 solemn] silken Wilk. Behold this Gate of Pearl and Gold 10 ! To The dedicate to England's Queen Visions that my Soul has seen. 5 . That Mortal Eyes cannot behold But. these Blossoms sweet The Grave produc'd In mild repose from Earthly strife The Blossoms of Eternal Life . is signed 'William Blake.. bring What I have borne on solemn Wing. sees The Door i . From Before the vast regions of the Grave. wond'ring.To the Queen of Death is made of Gold. ' ! Blair's Grave. The Soul awakes and. In her mild The Grave And rich Hand is the golden Keys : Heaven's golden Gate. O Shepherdess of England's Fold. Shep.. And.' 15 regions] region Wilk. Her Throne my Wings Bowing before ' my I wave 15 . 1808. And cold and pale the Limbs repos'd.

EPIGRAMS FROM ANNOTATED COPY OF REYNOLDS' WORKS BLAKE'S circa 1808 .

' Blake's later and more prejudiced view of the President of the Academy is forcibly expressed in his note on the titleThis Man was Hired to Depress Art. This is the page my Proofs of this Opinion are Opinion of Will. 315) there can be no doubt that at the time Blake was writing extracts from the Discourses to Butts. This is obviously a conclusion from the words Aged Sixty-three in the lines beginning. Butts dated Felpham. 1802. November 2. intrinsic evidence.' a letter to Mr. however.' adding. all his thoughts on art. in which he quotes with approval a passage from the Discourses. When Nations grow ' ' ' ' ' * ' Old.' saying. So says Sir Joshua. Book. to Reynolds is in them. and So say I. and afterwards copied over and supplemented in ink. According to Ellis and Yeats (ii. he was looking over his pencilled notes and adding to His only reference. while those on the following Discourses are jotted down As the latter are mixed with verses in the MS. These marginal notes were made at first in pencil. and reconsidering. on tions and epigrams in the 'Discourses' to the year 1820. moreover.' written in Blake's autograph on Reynolds' the margins of the first volume of his copy of Reynolds' among ' Works (2nd edition. are precisely of the same order as those scattered through ' ' ' ' ' ' : : the pages of the later part of the Rossetti MS. those written in the copy of Reynolds being probably rather the earlier of the two. ' Whatever Blake may have meant by it this cryptic certainly cannot refer to his own age at the time . referring to his quarrel with Cromek and Stothard the whole of the epigrams may be dated circa 1808. The annotations in Blake's Reynolds all refer to the first eight Discourses contained in the first volume of the Works.' attributes the annotaGilchrist. as he says.' These epigrams.PREFACE TO THE EPIGRAMS The nine epigrams which follow are found interspersed a number of prose annotations to Sir Joshua Discourses. 1798). Blake given in the following Notes.

Epigrams 3 1 9 A of writing. which is now preserved in the British Museum. very similar reference to being born old occurs in one of his epigrams in the MS. Book written about the same period : ' — S[tothard] in childhood. upon the nursery floor. .' : : My text is taken from Blake's annotated copy of Reynolds. Was extreme old and most extremely poor He has grown old and rich and what he will He is extreme old and extreme poor still.

EY i. 4 Labours of Ignorance] 11 Some look to see the sweet Outlines. Give high Price for the worst.' (' Epig. I am happy I cannot say tliat Rafael Ever was from my Earliest Childhood hidden from Me. written at foot of title-page. Gil. unless they are born with Determinate Organs. labour of idleness Gil. xv. I you'd] you would Gil. the difference between Rafael & Rubens. And beauteous Forms that Love does wear Some look to find out Patches. i. Paint. 320. vol. & Blake's of his disappointment at his preceding these lines runs : first — ' . comment on Sir Joshua Reynolds' account impressions of Raphael. Powder'd Hair. The prose passage Men who have been Educated with Works of Venetian Artists under their Eyes Cannot see Rafael. Hire Idiots to Paint with cold light & hot shade. vol.EPIGRAMS Advice of the Popes who succeeded the of Rafael Age first the Arts if you'd Mankind Degrade. ' 318 {reading to the popes who succeeded to the age ')• 2 hot] not EY. i. i. ' . I saw & I knew immediately Gil. 259. & Stays p. Bracelets Reynolds. of Rafail 257. leave the best in disgrace. ii. Degrade Reynolds. iii). WMR EY ii. And with Labours of Ignorance fill every place.

And all his Pictures Faded. . vol. & after— Slaves. Suggested by the following footnote memoir of Reynolds prefixed to the Discourses: — 'How in Malone's justly may we apply the immediately following lines of the same great Poet to those demagogues among us. to France. Cf. They led their wild desires to woods and caves. . first i. And thought that all but savages were slaves. by laws less circumscribed and bound. cix. beneath Reynolds' dedicatory letter to the Members of the Royal Academy and following Blake's prose comment The Rich Men of England form themselves into a society to Sell & Not ' : — to . Reynolds. ciii. below the account of Reynolds' death. . Ear] Gil. Aged Gold. p. Began to dream they wanted liberty And when no rule. free. Sixty-three. the Arts grow And Commerce settles on every Tree And the Poor & the Old can live upon Cold. 259 and EY ii. Europe. but by every other mode incessantly endeavoured to debase and assimilate this free and happy country to the all model of ^& ferocious and enslaved Republick of France ! — "These Adam-wits. have not only on occasions gratuitously pleaded the cause of the enemies of their country with the zeal of fee'd advocates. For all Reynolds. i. i." . . 'twixt fools & Knaves. V When Nations grow Old. p. 323. are Born Poor. i. Reynolds. IV When S' Joshua Reynolds died All Nature was degraded The King drop'd a tear into the Queen's Ear.Epigrams 321 111 When France got Were Savage vol. p. 3 The . Only in Gil. ' This couplet is printed only by EY ii. [iv]. Book xlvi. 323. vol. no precedent was found Of MEN. too fortunately free. prints as two lines. who since the era above mentioned. MS.

in italics.' iv). 333. WMR print as a separate line. 98. and WMR print as two lines. & to the Destruction of ail Form or OutUne. seemed to be engrossed by the study of colours. Interest or his Duty. in the opinion of Michael Angelo. Ang. VI On the Venetian Painter He makes the Lame But then he Strives to walk.' Gil. had seen but One Picture of Mich. As if Mich.Epigrams 322 Buy Artist who does not The Pictures. Purposely & Intentionally. i. Put on. Reynolds. or propriety But if general censure was given to that school from the of expression. to blind all Suggested by the following passage in the fourth appears that the principal attention of the Venetian painters. and Gil. p. See Introduction. we all agree. . 264. Cold] Gil. 324. i. . 3 And WMR print as two lines. this it ' : — ' tempt & Neglect of Form Itself. i. who can see. : . (' Epig. I When Gold] .' Printed only by EY ii. does not WMR 258. and more especially on Tintoret ? Venetian attention is to a ConBlake prefaces his couplet by the note Reynolds. WMR (' Epig. how much more heavily and more justly would the censure fall on Paolo Veronese. XIX throw his Contempt on such Trading own either his '). Discourse : — vol. EY ii. 259. EY ii. sight of a picture of Titian. vu A pair of Stays to mend the Shape Of crooked Humpy Woman. vol. know Exhibitions. his Shadows would destroy it & deform its appearance. 4 Aged Sixty-three] Gil. ' By i. . . .' Titian ! Gil. and . knew & despised all that Titian could do. p. 99. — I ' If the Venetian's Following Blake's prose note Outline was Right. to the neglect of the ideal beauty of form. Ang. O Venus now thou art Quite a Venetian Roman.

when I speak of the Venetian painters. ! He vol. 147. which.' This couplet follows Blake's prose note Bacon's philosophy has Destroy'd true Art & Science. thy Colouring Boulster'd Plasters Reynolds. ' — followed by the present couplet. Suggested by the following passage in the fourth 'For my own part. yet there is a sort of senatorial dignity about him.Epigrams 323 Vlll Venetian Than all ! is no more on a Crooked Whore.' Blake's note on this is Titian. p. so far from : — ' Senatorial Dignity appear to me to give always the Characters of Vulgar should Titian and the Venetians be Named in a Discourse Stupidity. course : — * — art may be acquired. Discourse: — . vol. this : ' Y 2 . whether there are any means by which Reynolds. IX O Reader. 333. behold the Philosopher's grave was born quite a Fool. p. Why on Art Such ? Idiots are not Artists Printed only by EY ii. i. but he died quite a Knave. coldly. The Man who says that the Genius is not Born but Taught. I wish to be understood to mean Paolo Veronese and Tintoret. to the exclusion of Titian for though his style is not so pure as that of many other of the Italian school. loo. than he who attempts to examine. seems to become him exceedingly. as a gift bestowed upon peculiar favourites at their birth. seem to insure a much more favourable disposition from their readers. Suggested by the passage in the sixth DisThose who have undertaken to write on our art and have represented it as a kind of inspiration. i. as well as the other Venetians.' Printed only by EY ii. is a Knave. 337. however awkward in his imitators. and have a much more captivating and liberal air.

i .

POEMS FROM THE 'TROPHETIC 1789-180- 'BOOKS' .

' The Prophetic Books fall under a category of their own. they are in content a verbal and pictorial rendering of Blake's visions. no less than Digestion : . Broadly epic in character. varying from the semirhythmic Ossianic verses of Tirielto the short irregular metre The of Ahania or the pseudo-hexameters of Jerusalem. is nowhere used by the poet himself. and epithet must . is conducted by do nothing of ourselves Spirits. and a fervent exposition of his mystical gospel. ' ' poem ' is We — written dwell on Earth can : who every thing or Sleep. In the earlier of these writings symbolism is wholly. in imitation of Milton. The greater number of the Prophetic Books are written a variety of forms of free verse.' and ' ' ' two of the number the sub-title A Prophecy. a storehouse of his mythology. absent in the later books nearly every phrase. latter may possibly have been suggested to Blake's ear by the passages from Klopstock's Messiah which Hay ley read and translated to him during his stay at Felpham. first employed by Gilchrist to describe Blake's Visionary Writings. be interpreted symbolically. the following account of the measure in which the in . is almost entirely in prose the others are composed in different measures.' This name. or almost wholly. Either more or less than literature according to the point of view of the reader.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO POEMS FROM THE 'PROPHETIC BOOKS' In the present section I group together the lyrical poems from the works commonly known as the * Prophetic Books. name. T/ze Marriage of Heaven and Hell. In Blake's Address to the Public which serves as Introduction to the first chapter of Jerusalem^ he furnishes. it is impossible to subject them to any ' prefixes to ordinary standard of criticism without ignoring the primary intention of the author. though he refers to them as inspired or dictated. One book.

the artist appears to have resorted to the simpler is less process of ordinary etching.Prophetic Books 327 'When a this verse was first dictated to me. however. and in Blake's next hooks. offered No for sale by his widow to a Mr. relief. Art. pictorial design plays an increasingly prominent part. . complementary to and scarcely less important than the text itself. Milton and Jemsalem. attributed to Blake. ceasing to be mere illustration as in the Songs of Innocence. H. into whose hands they passed after the death of . TJie Book of Los and Ahattia. A MS. such monotony was not only awkward. Tiriel and The Four Zoas. grand. Crawford. survive in MS. to be a necessary and indispensible part of Verse. but by far the greater number were destroyed.\\& In the works engraved in reverted to his original method. and probably for this reason in two works. This is the work called Outhoonl included in a list of books by Blake. W. which was at Sotheby's in March. A few of these engraved Prophetic Books are known to by two or three examples only. and Music are Destroy'd or Flourish The Primeval State of Man was Wisdom. Ferguson (Gil. on religious grounds. and the prosaic for inferior parts: all are Poetry Fetter'd Fetters the necessary to each other. the mild & gentle for the mild & gentle parts. both published in 1795. in the mouth of a true Orator. ii. and developing into a species of secondary symbolism. Blake. like that used by Milton & Shakspeare & all writers of English Blank Verse derived from the modern bondage of Rhyming. an 'Angel' of the Irvingite church. The labour of this must have been very great.. of the Lakelands Library of Mr. But I soon found that. both of cadences & number of syllables. forming part Mrs. by Frederick Tatham. but as much a bondage as rhyme itself. Painting. Other of the Visionary Writings were never engraved. 262). was sold This MS. while one at least would appear to have been lost or destroyed. Human Race Nations are Destroy'd or Flourish in proportion as Their Poetry. I consider 'd Monotonous Cadence. 1891. Two of these. The effect. us ' copy is known to exist. I therefore have produced a variety in every line. : ! ! and Science ' ! The greater number of the Prophetic Books were produced by the method of relief engraving which Blake first employed in the Songs of Innocence. Every word and every letter is studied and put into its fit place the terrific numbers are reserved for the terrific parts.

In the following list of the Prophetic Books the term is interpreted in its broader sense to include some of the earlier writings in which the mythological element is not very prominent. inscriptions to the 7 sections.Prophetic Books 328 — Blake (W. and phrases symbolically used. names and most readable introduction to the Prophetic Books. and by the introduction of private opinions not drawn from Blake's writings. of any adequate apparatus for the study of his text.) purchased by Mr. The Keys of the Gates. any attempt at interpretation must necessarily be of a somewhat tentative character. indeed. Russell and Maclagan. to their theory of his symbolic system. is too incomplete to be of any and an index which. words. Quaritch. Ellis and Yeats. The latter editors. both entitled Ther'e is 7io Natural Religion^ and two of the socalled Sibylline Leaves.' a sequel to The Gates of Paradise^ should also be accounted one of the Prophetic ' ' Books. neatly mounted on cartridge paper. in their much space devote and paraphrased The three-volume edition of Blake. the difificulties of the Prophetic Books. . was catalogued Angels and Devils. who print Jerjisalem with a brief introduction. however. autograph manuscript. was proved to be not by Blake it was put up again at Sotheby's. notably through the want of legible and properly indexed reprints. and of a concordance displaying in chronological sequence the names. Quaritch that the MS. Swinburne's Critical Essay (1868) still remains the greatest real utility. under the heading Dogmatic Writings. in many ways helpful and suggestive.' The former consist of a series of propositions couched in purely abstract terms. Few of Blake's editors have endeavoured to grapple with ' . and resold for a small sum. Strictly speaking. as my introduction and footnotes to that poem show. commentaries of the different books. cf. value of their work. In the absence. the latter being small leaflets treating of art and classic poetry. I append also.' I am informed by Mr. is somewhat lessened by the omission of references to the passages upon which their conclusions are based. 4"*. An initial step towards supplying the former want has been taken by Messrs. containing poems. descriptions of two small early works. In the exegetical field the only important are those of Swinburne and Messrs. and 34 original drawings by this celebrated artist.

I. and thought Embrac'd Her. .' 'The Couch of Death. It contains two pieces. W. between the year 1777 (when. dost thou ' : | | [ I accost me ? " | ' The Second Piece ends {p. then She bore Pale desire. ' [6]. a Virgin ever young. from whom came Ignorance. according to Mathew's 'Advertisement.EARLIER WORKS no symbolism.' The MS.." I cried. indicating where two of Blake's afterthoughts should be inserted. consists of four crown 8vo paper. is plainly Pages MS. There is also a red ink note of Mr. the division into metrical lines being marked in red ink by Mr. tears started at the Sound. Both are written straightforwardly as prose. The First Piece begins {imperfectly) (p. and tunes her Notes ? When Buxom Joy doth fan his wings. its former owner. Grief perch'd upon my brow. The MS. but Single | Pregnate bring forth mighty powers — or.' " The Second Piece begins (p. And after Leaden Sloth. 7^ x 5 inches. and Strengthen her weak arm.. if they list.' and a few other of the last I have therefore dated it as falling pieces in Blake's Poetical Sketches. She knew them not ] . I the ties of marriage love thou Scarce Shalt . the year in which the book was printed. evidently belongs to the same period as 'Contemplation. the first of which begins imperfectly in the middle of a poem. & Golden Pleasures Beam around my head. find but Self love | Stands Between. written in ink. M. 22) : " O'er yonder lake [ the winds their . [i]) father of Curiosity. These are the Gods fear which came from [interpolated for Gods like these nor male nor leaves of blank. which is incomplete. This extremely early autograph MS. on the outer cover of which is written 7 (seven) The handwriting of William Blake. circa 1777-1783. These leaves are now mounted upon rather larger paper. Rossetti's. "What does this mean. but or little (Characterized by some extent of the Prophetic anticipatory to Books proper) Seven-Page MS. 1. with a few deletions." cried the muse. the verso of the last leaf being There is no dated watermark. "'when all around Summer hath spred her Plumes.' friends Join'd Hand in The First Piece ends (p. [6]) Woe. together ming|ling yet they all war with Shame.' the last pieces in that volume were written) and 1783. Grief. who brought forth wonder. and ink and pencil corrections and additions. more — I ' : ! | : : ! ! | strong. [5]) Go see the City Hand Go see the Natu ral tie of flesh & blood Go see. Rossetti. why. ' : ' : | | — | | female are.

formerly the property of Mrs. Gilchrist. of handwriting prevails up to near the close of the poem. and additions. or even before that. corrections. or love in a golden bowl ?' which Blake afterwards engraved as ' : ' part of the Motto to The Book of Thel. "Mne" are scratched out M. begins at the top of a new page. B. the verso off 8 blank. In the original blue-grey paper cover bearing the inscription in Blake's in Blake's earlier autograph.) Another line on the same page. Quaritch. W. Written upon both sides of the leaf.Prophetic Books 330 Sad Complainings bear for Conrade lost. 6. Rossetti ascribes this piece to a rather early date in [Blake's] career say 1785.' as well as of another line in the Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793." a new and : This character With the words less precise kind . [7] are two passages belonging to the first piece. pp. and afterwards altered this to The daughters of the Seraphim without erasing the meaningless Mne from ' : ' ' ' ' the plate. ' King of the West. by Mr.' I owe the above description to the courtesy of Signora Rossetti Angeli. who entitles the poem 'The Passions. 22) And is there not one law for both source of the ' last line ' : the lion and the ox ? An ' additional proof that Tiriel was written before Thel is found in the The daughters of Mne Seraphim led round opening line of the latter book their sunny flocks. Its correct place. Autograph MS. though with several deletions. There is no date on the watermark of the paper. 133-129). 1903. Neatly written. he conceives. W." it Said no more. hand. divided into metrical lines by the editor. f. my time is gone.. Tiriel M. [4]. xii.' This MS. Mr. would have ' | ' ' ' seen just before or just after TheV It is evidently just before. it seems probable that Blake at first intended to write The daughters of Mnetha' (one of the personages first introduced in Tiriel). M. thy Conrade once. Mr.. untimely lost. but vanished ever from my Sight. (See footnote to that poem where the erased passage is quoted in full.' On grounds of the character of the handwriting Mr. circa 1788-1789. Referring to the handwriting of is 'neatly executed. Blake. and now in the possession of Mr. Each section of the poem. was first printed by Mr. Tiriel. thee I from approaching ill. S. | I | — ' eight years of age. when he was twenty| When . 2. The whole of the first fragment has been printed by Mr. upon eight leaves of foolscap quarto paper 8| x t\ inches. W. vol. and is Tiriel. Rossetti in his Aldine edition (1874). (in section 8) " I am Tiriel. the handfirst draft evidently not the rough writing appears to me to belong to no late period in his life. for an erased Can wisdom be put in passage on the verso of f 7 contains the line a silver rod. Rossetti says the MS. One Law for the Lion & Ox is Oppression. Yeats' statement that 'the letters in the Bodleian copy' is incorrect. B. Rossetti in the Monthly Review (August. W. M. Yeats conjectures. farewrell. ' ' is one law given for the lion the patient Ox ? is obviously the ' & Why of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790). 1. who has been kind enough to lend me the original MS. I'll guard thee living.' On p. lov'd even unto Death now Dead. as Mr. headed by arabic numerals 1-8. marked for insertion on p.' Here.

which at least of Blake's commentators. insects & warbling birds. that Blake." . . Rossetti's remarks on The style of the poem. but this latter page is as purely mystical as "Europe. dent upon mystical knowledge for its interest. took up the poem and finished it.' WBY. look on her that bore you. 7 ends) humble the immortal spirit.Prophetic Books of handwriting begins . Consuming all.' Begins (f. The point is worthy of notice since it appears to have misled one Referring to Mr. Come. 1-7) : Such was Myratana. & a drear sandy plain Returns my thirsty hissings in a curse on thee. Tiriel stood before the [But dark were his once piercing eyes del.] arms I here have borne your dying mother. & Heva's feet in awful death. makes it clear that "Tiriel" It was belongs to an earlier period than any other of the prophetic books. once the Queen of all the western plains . you accursed sons. recto." or "Jerusalem. Yeats says ' : resembles rather that of "The Mental Traveller" than the more vehement and broken style of the later prophetic poems." or "America. the quality of the handwriting is the same throughout. ' [Hypocrisy the ideot's wisdom to Compell'd Till I am 11. clearly indicating. (f. It is more directly mystical.] (f. O ! * He ceast. & his wife fading in death They stood before their once delightful palace. f. that his sons might hear in their gates. ' . W.] With Myratana. Reprints : WMR. Har. And now my both flowers & fruits. and much more wholly depen. " The Ghost of Abel. I 1. sons of the Curse. the wise Ct" & pray repugnant forth. 7 verso. the two handwritings Mr. Moreover. The rest of the poem has a certain interest and meaning as a story. and thus the Voice : Of aged Tiriel arose. 8 recto. I 331 think. [aged del. after an interval some years.] father. the erased line referred portion to repeated in Thel proves that this page could not have been written later than 1789.' In the opinion of the present editor. outstretch'd at Typ. 1. i) : — 'I. perhaps in much more summary fashion than he had at first intended. Mistaken father of a lawless race my voice is past. & forth my weak Come Ends come forth. The probably followed by style of the later lines seems to the present writer to be much later than the style of the rest of the poem. 31 ." It is symbolical rather than allegorical. '"Accursed race of Come In Tiriel! behold your [aged del." — Tiriel — man's folly del. and the slight difference perceptible between that of the last page and a half and the earlier of is merely such as may be attributed to the sharpening of a quill pen which had grown somewhat coarse. see the death of to subtil as a serpent in a paradise. paradise is fall'n. And Aged ' Gates of his beautiful palace. EY Har iii. But now his eyes were darkened. more of a direct appeal from the soul of Blake to the soul of the reader. B.

embracing the flame of fire. 79-89) and may have been an addition to ' ' . relief engraving.' ' Text begins (f. & The Author Thel of | | | I Printer Will"^ Blake 1789. H. M. 2. who is now Isaiah Attraction | | | | : ] | | : | I ! | is my particular friend we often read the Bible to. iii. : (Gil. I beheld the Angel. The Argument ' begins 1. & he was conbecome a Devil. Down by the river of Adona her soft voice is heard. L.' is the active springing from Energy.Prophetic Books 332 Book The 3. read 'the ') Seraphim led Begins (f. All but the youngest To fade away like morning beauty from her mortal day. 8. and it is : now thir | ty-three is years since its advent. the return of Adam into Paradise . 3. which the world shall have whether they will : 1 I | [ | . and arose as Elijah. The 4.' would seem to have been wanting described by Gilchrist {Life. Reprints: Gil. Text ends (f.' started from her seat. i. W. From these contraries spring what Evil Good & Evil. And lo I Swedenborg the Angel. i. 1. WBY. 1876. sumed. ii. : This the book as originally conceived. relief engraving. 11. but written and probably engraved in 1790. The Argument i plate. she in paleness sought the secret air. 27 plates. text 25 plates Collation title-page i plate. Thel's Motto ' i plate. Reason and Energy. The last three plates. Without Contraries is no progression. 24. 2-10) 'When he had so spoken. ' Collation : i plate. title-page 8 plates. & with a shriek she came into the vales of Har. 11. And thus her gentle lamentation falls like morning dew. Heaven of Marriage I | and Without Hell. which the world shall have if they behave well. sitting at the tomb . containin the copy ing *A Song of Liberty. Fled back unhinder'd till B. Evil is Hell. The daughters of Mne {sic. his writings are the linen clothes folded up. & shakes his fires in the burden'd air Hungry clouds swag on the deep. (f. I have also The Bible of Hell.' ' : : Why a Tongue impress'd with honey from 16-22) (f. about 6 x 4^ inches. Now is the dominion of Edom. WMR. Rintrah roars. every wind ? Why an Ear. the Eternal Hell revives. who stretched out his arms. 3) round their sunny flocks. 71-5). Note This Angel. about 6x4 inches. Extracts: 76. | j date. Love and Hate. 3) : As a new heaven is begun.gether in its infernal or diabolical sense. 2) : ' — ' Song also occurs separately. EY Muir (coloured). a whirlpool fierce to draw creations in ? Ends ' : a Nostril wide. trembling & affright? a tender curb upon the youthful burning boy? a little curtain of flesh on the bed of our desire? Why Why Why ' The Virgin Facsimile Reproductions DGR Typ. and Repulsion. 'Thel 6 ' plates . Good is the passive that obeys Reason religious call Good is Heaven. see | | | & XXXIV & XXXV | Chap. are the necessary to Human existence. inhaling terror.

but I did not think it at Prophetic memorable performance it in no esteem. this work of Blake's.' In a letter to the present editor dated June 21. W. : | | ! | I | ' 1 | Facsimile Reproductions EY ! | : W. Mrs. Johnson. 5. curse the sons of joy Nor his accepted brethren. According from : Poem a Seven Books. 1. or even nothing six other books. 208- 78-86. is. This was at the time. Palmer's handwriting. Reprints'. after . unillustrated. copy of the poem. . : The Eternal Female groan'd it : ' Let the Priests of the Raven of dawn no longer.' * A Song of Liberty was heard over ' ' i. the best which must have been among the residuum your brother it. like the Poetical Sketches and Descriptive Catalogue. as far as I know. I send by dated November 18 of the same year. 1863 {Rossetti Papers. Linnell is the only possessor I know of an original copy. Rossetti writes: *I myself have actuallj' seen & read B. i. M. iii. ought nevertheless to be looked up. in The French Revolution. & (if I in itself. Gilchrist in relation to the Life. Gilchrist refers to her MS. begins (f. held all Swinburne also read that copy Brother. the possessor of an original copy The statement is incorrect. without illustrations. little The . Contrary to his usual prac- gives no description or extracts from this book. 2) the Earth . being Blake's work. in 1791. adding: 'Mr. was published anonymously. .Prophetic Books or no. I thought I had (and still believe I have. 1905. in quarto format. Rossetti. L. Mrs. M. 224. ends (f. by J. consisting mainly of mere wind and extant. or build the roof! Nor pale religion's letchery call that For every thing that lives is Holy virginity that wishes but acts not all I ' 14-21) 11. whom tyrant he calls free. Gilchrist In a letter to W. 15) he says that this ' poem or apology for a poem. though I cannot. in Mr. to Gilchrist. lay the bound. WBY. right) about the same time. that . not in the tone of the Prophetic Books. if as they can hardly be without some personal interest or empirical value. Swinb. find it) a copy of this piece about the prisoners in the Bastille. Book I. when I was lending some help to Mrs.' now be traced. That French Revolution & is Book to dealing with historical facts as such. Typ. dated July 19. called The French Revolution (the first of seven projected books).'s French Revolution. was printed in ordinary typography.'] for the & Ox Lion Oppression. the only original work of its author worth splutter. One Shilling. with hoarse note. 25. I am grieved to say. destroyed. Linnell is or was my who Its interest is a striking or also looked into it. Gilchrist writes Mr. Rossetti. . My remember Brother. & concurred with Neither original nor transcript can Mr. in deadly black. whom the above title is transcribed. even if no better in workmanship than this first book. H. p. Muir (coloured). Gil. tice. is ^^^iZ One Law \half-page picture of Nebuchadnezzar. ' : this post passage . but it comes much nearer than any . Mr.' Swinburne also would appear to have seen either this transcript or the original. since in his Essay (p. 27). The French Revolution Book the First. Camden Hotten (coloured). Severely realistic not. a long hunt. minus. 27. which. necessarily great in a certain way. it of course is an ordinary piece of typography.' In a later letter to Mr. say 1862. Extracts.

. sometimes placed full-page towards America. behold their eternal joy. Begins ' and title-page : design. Visions ' 8 plates. 3. Prophecy | in the frontispiece : Prophecy Begins a I William Blake ' lives is Theotormon but . Reprint : WBY & echo back her sighs. about 9J x6f inches. Typ. * ' I the wintry blast for a cov'ring to her limbs . 'Preludium 2 plates. glancing wings. 18 plates. W. conversing with shadows dire. Muir (coloured). a bow like that of night. Oothoon wander' d in woe. in their valleys. and title-page ' 3. The shadowy daughter of Urthona stood before red Ore. his drink in cups of iron When Crown'd with a helmet A quiver with its by year 1793. for every thing that Thus every morning wails Oothoon Upon I holy. Along the vales of Leutha seeking flowers to comfort her . weep a trembling lamentation . relief engraving. 229-234. — birds. Daughters of the of | ] more than the Heart knows sees | Albion The Eye | Printed by Will'^ Blake | : 1793Collation I plate ' The Argument (f. For the ** soft soul Art thou a flower ? Now ' a nymph Ends (f. EY iii (reduced). & men bliss . Extracts : Gil. the Daughters of Albion their mountains Upon ' i plate each. 179-183. M. 'The Daughters of Albion hear her woes. last plates. 6| x 4f inches. relief engraving. 10. 2) : — Enslav'd. 2) : — | Lambeth Printed j .' . of America. i. 1876. And thus she spoke to the bright Marygold of Leutha's vale. 1. you * now a flower. fourteen suns had faintly joumey'd o'er his dark abode : His food she brought in iron baskets. . 105-108. 6-13) " The sea fowl takes And And : art thou a nymph & trees. ' i plate each. America Collation A (f. & beasts. 7. Swinb. 11. " dewy bed ? I see thee dare not pluck thee from thy I 1 & dark hair the nameless female stood. 179-187.' B. the wild snake. the pestilence to adorn him with gems & gold Arise. Facsimile Reproductions : H. and sing your infant joy little and drink your Arise. L. ' and sometimes as frontispiece. sighs . burning stores." sits the margin'd ocean. about 1 1 . 14 plates 1.Prophetic Books 334 II THE PROPHETIC BOOKS Visions 6.

And thus her voice arose Ore. 2) ' . 242-245. 130. They slow advance to shut the five gates of their law-built heaven. 129. shook all nature to the utmost pole. and with mildews of despair. With fierce disease and lust. And & the fierce flames burnt round the heavens. Reprints (Extracts) by W™ . (f. plates varies somewhat in different copies. that my place may not be For I am faint with travel.' : Typ. Spain & Italy In terror view'd the bands of Albion. & their bolts and hinges melted. Colophon Lambeth Urizen of | | iii (reduced). ' — 3-11): 'The I [First] Blake 1794. terrors flew The Lions lash their wrathful tails. EY W. & suck And Enitharmon * Then Los arose And. : '"O mother Enitharmon. The Tygers couch upon the prey. Prophecy | Lambeth Printed By | Will'» Blake 1794. without text 2 plates ' plate each. relief engraving. raging with red wheels dropping with blood 11. a Europe \ | W. unable to stem the fires of Ore. and the ancient Guardians. around golden chariots. Printed | : The End of the book first [ of Urizen. about 9^ x 6f inches. France. But the five gates were consum'd. 27 plates. anguish and dismay. To cause my name to vanish. Swinb. 235-237. B. ten full-page illustrations without text variously arranged in different copies ' 10 plates . Muir (coloured). 1876. found ? Like the dark cloud disburden'd in the day of dismal thunder. with a cry Call'd all : his that The the ruddy tide. full-page illustrations of the :— The nameless shadowy female rose from out the breast of Her snaky hair brandishing on the winds of Enitharmon. M. Swinb. : Book i. 1797. in snaky thunders clad. 3. The word First ' ' . The furious On sun glow'd fiery red. Muir. Gil. his sons to the strife of blood. about 6x4 inches. chapters i-ix 15 plates. 17. Stiff Filled with blasting fancies. wilt thou bring forth other sons.Prophetic Books Ends * :— 16-23) 11. smitten with their own plagues. i. Fainting upon the elements. : Typ. round the abodes of men. B. relief engraving. ' Preludium 2 plates. 1. 335 shudderings shook the heav'nly thrones. 109-112. i Begins (f. ' Collation : title-page and Preludium i plate each. M. head he rear'd. EY iii (reduced). Gil. 18." Ends (f. Collation frontispiece and title-page : 'A Prophecy' two 11 plates.' Facsimile Reproductions 8. Reprints {Extracts). 8c cries in groans Facsimile Reproductions 9. The arrangement 17 plates.

3. the salt ocean rolled englob'd. In heart-formed Africa. Song of Los Lambeth Printed by W. (f. is Begins 1. ' 1. (f. the Eternal Prophet. | 'Africa' 2 plates. desire. ' 2. Trembled. 2. i. about 9 x6|^ inches. Ariston shudder'd. and shook the steadfast Earth.' 27.' Facsimile Reproductions Typ. Los 3 ' text. three fulltitle-page page illustrations variously arranged in different copies . 6) : ' When And Obscure. : Gil. gave him a place in the north.^6 in the title-page. Swinb. Reprint {Extracts) 10. blood. Muir (coloured). Book of Los Lambeth Printed by W. solitary ! hear your call gladly. col. B. & On mountain. 2) sung : — ' I will sing you a song of Los. dale. He 1. i. Eternals spurn'd back his religion. & shout. & Egypt it : left it. W. Who the chariot of Leutha guides Since the day of thunders in old time. 8 plates.' plates . Reprints {Extracts) plain. relief Collation r plate. (f. And thus her speech broke forth. & milk. Begins (f. 1876. Sitting beneath the eternal Oak. 1876. 2) : i. Dictate swift winged words. type. 5 plates.Prophetic Books 2. [ I | | Colophon: Collation etched EY iii (reduced).' : ] frontispiece and title-page i ' plate each. & clasps Her bosom swells with wild & And delight. 5-9) — '8. void. 'Asia' 2 plates. call'd all together the pendulous earth left they They So Fuzon children of Urizen. 11. Urizen faded. thus the 35-40) : Song began. shadowy. Begins 2. 131. & shakes the solid stem. Eternals. 132-134. . : The remaining And called And ' 9. to four harps. Blake The Song of Los is Ended Urizen Wept. : B. Eno.Blake The End of the Book of Los. & fear not ' To Ends I unfold your dark visions of torment. col. : Typ. it at the tables of Eternity. 2. glandous wine dance In rivers rush. which was probably purposely erased from Blake's stereomost copies. : engraving. EY iii (reduced). The | I | Colophon: 1795. The 1795- Gil.' — 'The Grave shrieks with Her hollow womb. : i. 6. (f. M. 255-257. And Ends 11. and Facsimile Reproductions 11. M. in wanting — Of the primeval Priest's assum'd power. Aged Mother.

col. 5. Till his Brain in a rock. 21-26) : '9. etched text. In a fleshy slough. : — These 70 loose sheets are made up as follows drawing paper. the paper same size and date where marked. and Collation: frontispiece 'Ahania' 4 plates. i. Obscuring the immense Orb of fire.' 21 sheets. Flowing down into night till .' 11. 2. working proofs of Blake's " illustrations to Young's "Night Thoughts (published 1797). 135.. 337 11. According of Urizen. chariot. about i title-page 5|x3| plate each.. 47 sheets old engraving by Blake cut in two : . Jun. the following admirably clear and exact account of this autograph MS. . EY : I ' iii. a & his Heart Form Was completed. The I EY : iii. bones from the birth are buried Before they see the light Facsimile Reproduction Typ. But now alone over rocks. : Self-destroying. a Human Illusion In darkness and deep clouds involv'd. Extracts : Gil. 14. mountains. 3. Description John Linnell. blank. to Swinburne The Book of Ahania may have been originally intended as the second book 6 plates. in ? Man | | I | | by William Blake 1797. col. inches. The Four Zoas The Torments of Love & Jealousy The Death and Judgement of Albion the Ancient 13. size 16^ by i2f in. On ' 1. On clouds of And his right the thunder-stone Son of Urizen's Ends (f. SAMPSON Z . Whatman 1794.' Facsimile Repmduction 12. col.Prophetic Books Ends (f.. ' 6. how can delight in these chains of darkness. with watermark 'J. Reprint : WBY. 252. in its cloud. 136 . 'The MS. 253. Moulding As smoke rages his hand burns red is moulded. i. silent burnings. 2. spiked flames rose : his hot visage Flam'd furious sparkles his hair & beard. i. Renew Where On the Where bones of beasts are strown bleak and snowy mountains. I owe to the kindness of Mr. 13-21) Cast out from thy lovely bosom Cruel jealousy. into a vast globe his wrath. Ellis). as stated by Mr. Shot down his wide bosom and shoulders . formed four rivers. consists of 70 separate leaves or sheets of paper (not 70 pp. 2) : Fuzon on a chariot iron-wing'd. Book of Ahania | Lambeth J Printed \ by Blake 1795. together with 4 small fragments. selfish fear. W. Begins (f. Swinb.

but it cannot of 'The date of the MS. Ellis " " Ephesians iii c. Had they marked in their printed copy where the beginning and the end of each sheet of paper MS. followed in bold script capitals by the heading *'VALA. occur. I consider this work more as a private study that Blake executed for himself. 298. left for the text of Young's poem and here Blake has written." and this date not altered by subsequent revision. 295-300. 3'''* chap." " is specified on the title-page. only the first 14 pages were numbered by himself. must be Mr.) which are marked by Blake. and himself printed and published. 1794. 1797. According to Messrs. " Vala" I do not." This. consequently the position of many of the sheets as determined by Messrs. as written in ink. 'The title is written on one side of the first sheet of paper. this MS. and a large part a first draft of the poem. " many erasures'' and corrections are made. "the MS. There is no other evidence as to when the MS. Now besides the beginning and the ending of each Night pp. ro"' verse). the only available space on the printed side was the blank rectangular space in the middle of each sheet. with 7 exceptions (where one side only is written on) i. 'The poem is written in ink throughout. In its first — — . as in the title-page. and add by what slip Blake gave the Epistle 14 chapters is incomprehensible. on the grounds of fairness. Mr.e. . is the motto from Ephesians vi. The text of The Four Zoas appears to be in an unsettled condition." which is not here. Ellis' own error in transcription. and Yeats say that Blake in the ninth Night quotes '" " Ephes. and that he never once intended this MS. ii. hold that this poem should be placed in the same category with those poems or "Prophecies" that Blake wrote. ii. the head of the second sheet." " to conjecture the sequence. was course have been begun before 1794." (i. Ellis considers it was in progress for some years. the page upon which the poem begins. afterwards some alterations and additions were made upon the text or upon the margins. Ellis and Yeats' description of it. is in an unfinished condition. The 68 sheets. 61 sheets have the text of the poem written upon both sides of the paper with regard to the 47 sheets with the engravings to Night Tlioughts printed upon one side of each sheet. of the Ancient Man I it | read: "VALA A DREAM of | | The Death and Judgement Nine Nights by William Blake or | ] | | 797." " it it is only possible was unpaged and unsorted.Prophetic Books 38 and written upon on one side only (back) 2 sheets = 70 sheets. xiv. and not put in order. however. Ellis and Yeats must be in a degree conjectural. with its pencil illustrations for publication." "the arrange- ment of the loose sheets occupied us during several long days." This was afterwards altered in pencil to the final form given above. parts written fairly. wherein he registered and expressed his ideas without any restriction. e. nor even as a whole for any public inspection . without 1 At accents. written in Greek characters. there are good and substantial reasons why he never did or could have done ' .'" (See vol. 10. was written except that afforded by the date of the paper. for Blake himself has written plainly in ink (in his usual form) * In vol. critics would have been enabled to judge for themselves as whether the arrangement or order of the sheets as printed has been of the to correctly made or not. 12. erased in favour of "The Four Zoas. finished for publication. was never properly looked over b3- the author or finally sorted into Nights. p. 10 v. form.

all For The Dark Religions are departed. just as he had left it. 41 and 45 being full-page The Beckillustrations) . 3-28 (ff. & sweet Science in 12 Books 14. life a private gift of it. The heavens quake. as Mr.' — Night the Ninth ends ' Urthona is arisen in his strength no longer now Divided from Enitharmon. EY entitle the poem 'Vala. was afterwards rejected in favour of T/ic Four Zoas. end). rather than that which The saw the completion of the entire work. 38. Mil|ton a Poem Printer W. Hearing the march of long resounding strong heroic Verse. lacks the Preface and has five additional plates of text numbered plates. M. about 61 x 4^ inches. 33. Rossetti. which shook the heavens with wrath. 29-45 (ff' 29. Short extracts are printed by WBY 196. New York. Collation: 26 title-page and 'Preface' i plate each. in a somewhat incorrect text. Following Mr. wail'd in dismal fear. which is also identical in arrangement with the copy described in the catalogue of the Blake Exhibition held at the Grolier Club of New York in 1905. 45 plates. ! In his ancient strength. ' 15 The order of the plates in this copy differs somewhat 17. now in the Lenox Library. to my father. the was earth & moved shudder'd. The war of swords departed now. and at last made this.' which title.' The Author & Ways of God to | Men. ff. Book the Second' 17 plates. W. Blake 1804 To Justify the | 1 | ) reigns. 'Book the First' and 21 being full-page. Marshalled in order for the day of Intellectual Battle. Where is the Spectre of Prophecy? where the delusive Phantom? Departed & Urthona rises from the ruinous walls. the three books constituting a group in which one may trace the highest development of Blake's mysticism. date on the title-page probably represents the j'ear in which the engraving of the First Book was begun or finished. ff.' The Four Zoas exhibits in a less condensed and consequently more intelligible form the same set of ideas that characterize Milton and Jcntsaleiii. relief engraving. with facsimiles of a few pages of the original. & the mountains. In quoting from Milton in my footnotes the folio references are to the Print 3> 5? 8*. no longer the Spectre Los. ^ Night the First begins : — •The Song of the Aged Mother. With all their woods. 197. from that of the example in the Print Room of the British Museum. 32*. Only printed by EY (^iii. 8. to form the golden armour of science intellectual War. the streams & valleys. Z 2 . Detached lines and lengthy passages of The Four Zoas were engraved by Blake as part of Jerusalem. Linneirs note shows. : . 13. Room copy. ford copy from the Hamilton Palace Library.Prophetic Books 339 Therefore he kept this study in an unfinished state by h'm during his with his other papers that were never made public. however. illustrations).

even till Jesus. 3 (f. in the heavens of Albion. Muses who inspire the Poet's Song. & mild lustre. 184-195. 36-39 . 78-99). 51). Swinb. 4' 22 plates {ff. . Muir : Typ. 11. Beneath your land of shadows. : i. of its sacrifices and Its offerings. ' To the Christians' (f. 27) Deists (f. 53-75). H. . frontispiece to Chap. WBY 207-209. 195-198. To the (f. see Poems from Jenisalein. 100) ductions to chapters 1-4.'' ' ' Chap. 1. 26). To the Public ' i plate each (ff. I begins ' (f. 77) 'Chap. the former and longer work being probably the last to be completed. vegetated In likeness of himself. an offering and an atonement For Death Eternal. about 9x6i inches. title-page. 15. 4) : — Of the Sleep of Ulro and of the passage through Eternal Death and of the awaking to Eternal Life ! ! ! I . ' ' ' .Prophetic Books 340 Book the First begins 1. 22 plates (ff. & before the Gates Of Jerusalem. full-page end100 plates. 259-274. in it caus'd the Spectres of the Dead to take sweet form And Tell also of the False Tongue. to delight the wanderer and repose thirst & freezing hunger Come into my hand. in all their strength. 'To the Jews' Chap. 52) Chap. (f. W. f. 45. 4 (f. relief engraving. (coloured).' Book ' the Second ends (f.' . his Emanation. 76). a curse. EY iii. 2 (f. in soft sexual delusions moony varied beaut}'. 2 23 plates (ff. For intropiece (f. From out the Portals of my Brain. 1804. the image of the Invisible God. Blake S*"^ Molton St. I Colophon Collation : The Emanation of The Giant by W. As in the case of Milton the date on the title-page. 4-25% frontispiece to Chap. To go forth to the Great Harvest & Vintage of the Nations. . The End of The Song of Jerusalem. frontispiece to Chap. 4. : 3) — Daughters of Beulah. must be understood to represent the year in which the first chapter was begun er finished. and not that of the completion of the whole work. Became its prey. Reprints {Extracts) Gil. I ' ' ' . 1-3) . ' 'Chap. The Waggons ready terrific Lions & Tygers sport & play All Animals upon the Earth are prepar'd. 44. your mild power descending down the Ner\'es of my right arm. i) : — Rintrah & Palamabron view the Human Harvest beneath Their Wine-presses & Barns stand open the Ovens are prepard. Jerusalem Albion 1804 | | | | Printed I | ' : frontispiece. 3 23 plates (ff. Record the journey of immortal Milton thro' j'our Realms ' Of Of terror. . . 28-50). where by your ministry His burning ! By The Eternal Great Humanity Divine planted his Paradise. in the heavens beneath Beulah. Facsimile Reproductions L. 3. 1. ' The engraving oi Jerusalem was apparently begun about the same time as that of Milton.

1904. Collation Begins ' : 2 plates. and you in me. .Prophetic Books 'This theme me calls Awakes me & ev'ry morn see the Saviour over me. Earth & Stone. 1-5) :— the Cry from all the Earth. ' Human Forms identified even Tree.' doest thou here. (f. but Imagination has. and not. of Abel A Revelation In the Visions Seen by William Blake. Death. 4 Such ' ! : And And ends (f. Colophon: 1822."' ! ! ! I ' ' Chap. | of Jehovah W. . 4. Nature has no Supernatural & dissolves. Typ. night after night. The Ghost 16. EY iii (reduced). as has been commonly supposed. dictating the words of this mild song. 99. Nature has no Time. i. f. Extracts: Gil. * 341 I & "Awake awake O sleeper of the land of shadows. in sleep. relief engraving. 198-207. 183-194. & All . from the Living Creatures of the Earth.' Facsimile Reproductions Pearson. going forth. Forth. from the Thirty-two Nations of the Earth among the Living is Creatures. Days & Hours reposing. 11. 98. at sun-rise : then Spreading his beams of Love. after To Lord Byron What title in the as above) : — Wilderness. 276-292. from the great City of Golgonooza in the Shadowy Generation. Metal. about 4I x6i% inches. in the midst of the darkness of the Oath. Months. i. And And heard the I Name of their Emanations : they are named Jerusalem. : WBY Swinb. then Awaking into his Bosom in the Life of Immortality. 2. 11. Reprint: Russell and Maclagan. 11. all returning wearied Into the Planetary lives of Years. Blake's Original Stereotype was 1788. mutual in love divine Fibres of love from man to man thro* Albion's pleasant land. Jehovah | ? | | Ends ' On [i. Human Forms identified living. Can a Poet doubt the Visions of Elijah ? Nature has no Outline. 1. 54-56 . Brotherhood ? O Holy I Is this . but Imagination has. | The reference to Blake's first stereotype probably refers to his earliest use of this process in the Songs of Innocence. to an earlier issue of The Ghost of Abel. Imagination is Eternity. wake expand am in you. All Clothed In thy Covenant of the Forgiveness of Sins. 26-31) : — each side a Chorus of Angels entering Sing the following of the Heathen Swore Vengeance for Sin Then Thou : The Elohim I stood'st O Elohim Jehovah.

Brotherhood. Collation: frontispiece. 175.' Typ. 295-297. a among number of works by Blake offered for sale by his widow to Mr. Typ. I think. ' : WMR An ' : " Outhoon ingenious friend suggested that Visions of the Daughters part.' ra-|tio of all when | Facsimile Reproductions: W. with small pictorial designs. that we may be as he is' i plate propositions I. of Albion. ii. by Peace. about 2 x iJ inches. 12) : ' II I Reason or the not the same that it | shall be we have we know more. But the number of plates in in '' might be another title for the which one Oothoon plays a prominent the two not corresponding decisively negatives such a supposition. Reprint: L. . Relief engraving. Linnell has never heard of it. and Love. already known .' Ill DOGMATIC WRITINGS 18. Muir (coloured). [«]. title-page.*^ I have never seen a copy of this. 6 plates . 3") but from Education. All that 7 known is EY W. 230. H. ] | | ' . Reprint : Outhoon. hnt probably circa 1790. each in his station fixt in the Firmament. 2s. . But the above must be taken.' Ends is I (f. in reversed writing. Blake. Price (C2. 17. of this book the entry is iii. Ferguson (Gil. nor been able to find adds anyone who has. Even Mr. od. Naturally he ' : Man & Printer W. II 2 plates 12 plates. called Outhoon. There is j No Natural Religion f j WitJwutdate. as indisputable evidence that such a book does or did exist. WBY 229. the imprint is 'The Author The Argument Begins (f.Prophetic Books 342 The Elohim saw their Oath Eternal Fire they rolled apart trembling^ over The Mercy Seat.' Therefore God becomes as we are. propositions I-VI. Facsimile Reproductions : Date 7inhioivn. 262) A work 12 plates. 'The Argument' i plate each. Extracts: EY | iii. 176. Muir (coloured). On the frontispiece.' has no notion of moral fitness | | only a natu]ral organ subject to is | Sense. 6 inches more or less. relief engraving. Swinb.

while the whole of the surrounding space is filled with disconnected aphorisms on art and the conditions under which it is fostered. 9. War carried Governed the . the true faculty of knowing must be the faculty which exThis faculty I treat of.' 'Art Degraded. 160. Art cannot be Read Matthew c. Principle i" ' — in the Principle 7"^. is : | Eternal Existence. relief engraving. 159. as Babylon & Egypt. ii. Collation frontispiece title-page. . 'Grecian is Mathematic Form: (11. & not Goths nor Monks. 7 plates 2 X 1. 10. 4^x3! inches. 26) Sacred Truth has pronounced that Greece & Rome. On Homer's 30. v. but circa 1 816-1820.1 As 7'''.' ' ' ' : | ' : | | ' ' ' : | Ends Gothic 37) \\. Reprint : Principle & Religions. Small print. 10) So all Typ. Extract: L. were destroyers of all Art. EY : 1 8 1 6. 22-24) The Classics. On Homer's Poetry begins (1. Withotit date. A drawing of the Laocoon occupies the centre of the plate. At foot of leaf Nations. No is | Natural j 343 Religion | Without \b\ date. but why Homer's is peculiarly so I cannot tell. but circa as (On Poetry. all all similars men are alike (the' infinitely have one source The true Man. about relief engraving.' iii. H.Prophetic Books There 19. 5f X4I inches. hit probably circa 1790. Small Broadside. is : Living . As the true method of knowledge is Begins (f.' periences. 8 20. 232-233.' On Virgil begins {\.' : Typ. | | the Reasoning Memory Living Form Facsimile Reproduction EY iii. line engraving. ' : Ends various) ' (f. Facsimile Reproduction : EY iii. ('The Voice of one crying ' i ' plate each. it is. 39 at right) Form. At head on but of leaf: War only.2 inches. x. (11. 38-40 at left^ Mathematic Form is Eternal in .' Ends (11.) date. ." : 'Where any view of Money exists. Drawn & Engraved by William Blake.' ' with surrounding designs. the Classics. 3) experiment. that Desolate Europe with Wars.] Imprint'. 38. [The Laocoon. Imagination Denied. Without Virgil. Reprint: Gil. so far from being parents of Arts & Sci-| ences as they pretend. 2) Every Poem must necessarily be a perfect Unity. : Wilderness ' '). 21. The Argument. The Argument 10 plates.

O Har! & Tiriel's wisdom. lines occur in a passage in 7"«V/f/ of which all but 11. note to song from An Golden Net' (Pickering MS. and were deleted by Blake. one of the preceding proverbs. or with infernal brands Flinging flames of discontent & plagues of dark despair. Prayers plow not Sorrows not weep not. g. poisons inhaling from the morning rose. 1.POEMS FROM THE PROPHETIC BOOKS From THE BOOK OF THEL Motto Thel's Does the Eagle know what is in the Or wilt thou go ask the Mole ? Can Wisdom be put in a silver rod. whose teeth the gates of eternal death little ? Can wisdom be put in a silver rod. end together in a curse. 4 f.' the rest being in prose. so God rewards prayers. of Hell. 1. Or Love in a golden bowl ? Thel. Cp. breathing out blood Some close shut up ! . Island in the Moon. 2 i. From THE MARRIAGE OF HEAVEN AND HELL Praises reap not. & poison in their tongue With daggers Or eyed with . or does he cry with a Of thunder does he look upon the sun & laugh. Thy God of Love. As the plow follows words. These 3.' ' . sparks of Hell. "O weak."] patient Ox? Dost thou not see that men cannot be formed all alike Some nostril'd wide. and & spread to ' The 9. or love in a golden bowl? Is the sun a king warmed without wool. hid beneath their lips. father of a lawless race! Thy laws. mistaken. . In silent deceit. 4. title. f. Joys laugh : : Among the ' Proverbs Marriage of Heaven and Hell. DGR I. two last lines. His little hands unto the depths of the sea to bring forth scaly tribe [word above illegible] The deadly cunning of the it to the morning?"' 4 Cp. 27. or stretch voice . thy heaven of joy Why is one law given to the lion &c the [Ox del. iii. Or those whose mouths are graves. and WMR omit pit .). 'He said.

28). WBY. I hid in Leutha's vale! And plucked Leutha's Flower. 1. . and the Prophetic Books. passim. work Oitihooii. 1. Night ii. round the fiery king. The speaker here is Oothoon. The song which Enitharmon reviving him to Life.Prophetic Books 345 From VISIONS OF THE DAUGHTERS OF ALBION The Argument loved Theotormon. See of Prophetic Books.' iv. 9-14. I rose up from the vale But the terrible thunders tore My virgin mantle in twain. nine bright spheres of harmony rise silver locks. 2. a daughter of Los. The Eccho wakes the moon to unbind her The golden Sun bears on my song. kissing springs upwards from the petals of a flower. 11. one of the daughters of Beulah (cp. list I See note to Poems from Letters. is depicted as a bird of paradise ' in a vale of flowers : see Europe. 12. From THE FOUR ZOAS At the And first Sound the Golden Sun arises from the Deep. f. 4 Leutha. I was not ashamed I And trembled I in i . 33. I And 5 . my virgin fears. whose story references to which occur in several of the Prophetic Books probably formed the Visions. a sprite f. above an illustration of a nude kneeling female figure. who — — subject of the lost engraved no. Four Zoas. f. And i shakes his awful hair. ' sang O'er Los. Milton. 9. 17.' 3 to unbind] again to unbind EY.

. ' written in the MS. WBY. The birds & beasts rejoice & play.. WBY. And & Furious lifts & sport rend the nether up rugged head hovering wings. For the Earthworm renews the moisture of the sandy plain.Prophetic Books 34^ The joy of woman Who Love dies for the Death of her most best beloved is 6 of her In torments of fierce jealousy & pangs of adoration. WBY. stretch abroad. n every one seeks for his mate to prove his inmost joy. the bubbling springs of life in regions of dark death. 27. Arise. Song Liberty. they i6 deep The deep The The terrible . you Arise & ! . The Lovers' night bears on my song And the nine Spheres rejoice beneath my powerful controll. . this EY word . . The solemn silent moon Reverberates the long harmony upon my limbs. vanishes with a his lost in infinite And. . wake sweet joy in dens of sorrow. In forests of And wake & I plant a smile affliction. its 21 little glancing wings & sing your infant joy. Heaven and of Hell. They sing unceasing to the notes of my immortal hand. 26 stretch to] f. is inmost joy. of her most best] even of her most WBY unceasing] unwearied EY. even to EY. is of her most not distinctly- 13 upon] sounding upon of the holy] The same words end the chorus 23 For EY. drink your bliss For every thing that lives is holy for the source of life Descends to be a weeping babe. ever dying. ' 30 regions] region WBY. Now my left hand stretch to Earth beneath.' II . fading cry ever living in is voice living cry. 6 is] in WBY. WBY. and may be unweary.' Mmtiage of 28 dens] dews EY. I 26 And I strike the terrible string.

. fall & they faint. palace walked in gardens of delight. . EY. & fading. my palace in gardens of delight. Nine virgins cloth'd in light compos'd the song to their The immortal And at my voices. once of wisdom dwelt. Night ' v. . are rocks of Desolation. And 31 answer'd thee.Prophetic Books am weary 347 lay thine hand upon me. The houses of my harpers are become a haunt of crows. I ! For thou hast touched Now And am I my five & nothing. fine : — Thus sang this Lovely one. now breed the 5 scaly tortoise. once the haunt of Swans.' 11 Ah ! how shall mansion Ah! how submit to this dark Urizen the King r ? Once on the heights this? is I stretch'd my throne sublime. where the sons of And the Virgins sang. on whose tops silver. The gardens of wisdom are become a field of horrid graves. outstretch'd the immense. till thou awakest me. II compos'd the song] made songs EY. Four Zoas. The Woes of Urizen shut up in the deep dens of Urthona. EY. the harpers follow'd with harps. banquets of new wine my head was crown'd with joy. & water them in vain.' 9 Once 3 of Urizen] EY omit. weeping. . in Rapturous delusive trance. like a bright rainbow. The mountains of Urizen. 12 banquets] banquet EY. O. My fountains. WBY omits. end. 33 five] awakest me] The poem continues 31 thine] thy on EY. Los heard reviving: he Siez'd her in his arms. Upon & smiling. She led him into Shadows & thence fled. delight] Once how I from my 10 follow'd] came EY. sink I on the bed of solemn sleep 31-35 35 And on] • senses I EY. 9 drop Once how I walked from sons of wisdom stood around. delusive hopes Kindling. or I faint beneath these beams of thine. And on the bones I my tears.

He I holy workmanship. did I close my treasuries with roofs of solid stone. Go forth & guide shine. O O O I keep the horses of the day in silver pastures? 21 refused the lord of day the horses of his prince. my land & my darken'd is men wise are departed. envyings] envying EY. than the swifter light. Deep] Saying. Because the Steeds once of Urizen.Prophetic Books 348 Then in And walked ivory pavilions I slumber'd in the noon. golden crown. & holy voice & I sprang crown'd me 29 up with a Son who wanders on the ocean. 30 Saying . up from the deep EY. Were kept back from my Lord & from his chariot of mercies. And darken all my Palace walls with envyings & hate ? O did ! I ! ! Fool to think that ! I could hide from his all piercing 25 eyes The gold & Fool silver could ! I & costly stones. & sweet dreams round me . 15 round me hover'd] hovered round EY. light that filled bright the deep. for who call'd & And ' said.' 13 pavilions] palaces EY. Saying. 24 darken] darkened EY. . on Till my silver hover' d But now bed I slept. 17 soags are turned into cries of Lamentation under & my palace deep sighs my Mountains. Light spring up and shine. and lo.' & my my me from heard the mild 'O Light spring up from the Deep. My Heard on roofs . I sprang 31 & crown'd me] crowned EY. gave to me a silver scepter. his forget the spheres Was a reflection of his face 1 well remember. 25 eyes] eye EY. . 13 in the silent night among sweet smelling my flowers. .

love shows roots in deepest hell . Thy pure feet other feet. from fell my throne sublime. wither'd by winds. . 47 Steeds] steeds of light EY. by winds] by the winds EY. 42 the] this EY. that they might run chariot of pride. Then love shall shew its root in deepest Hell. And thy fair divine. drunken with the immortal draught. 46 steeds of Light] EY omit of th}-] the EY. 37 And like a lilly is thy wife Vala. I call'd I siez'd thee. didst Then thou keep with Strong Urthona the gates of heaven But now thou gates of on the steps step'd art living . 38 is EY omit is. night] That shakes my cavern with strong shudders. & find that pulsation That shakes deep 49 my caverns with strong Shudders . dens. will I these Explore arise. too pure for 41 locks shadow'd thine eyes from the divine effulgence.Prophetic Books went not wrath I forth hid myself on black clouds of I : 349 my 33 : the stars around my feet in the night of councils dark. When thou didst bear the golden cup at the immortal tables Thy children smote their fiery wings. 52 When . The stars threw down their spears & fled naked away. night EY. Because thou gavest Urizen the wine of the Almighty 45 in thy golden For steeds of Light. We fell. 34 councils] council EY. beauteous Luvah thou art faded like a flower. way from Enitharmon. I I pour'd the stolen wine. I siez'd thee. 41 on the steps] on steps EY. . dark Urthona. perhaps this is the night Of Prophecy. even to the hell. bow'd down with him. Light 50 That . & Luvah When Thought is hath burst his clos'd in Caves. This may be the thy wife] . And. In my left hand falling. gave to thee the Steeds. . When thought is closed in caverns. . 35 spears] spears of light EY. crown'd with the gold of heaven. Hell] EY.

we reluctantly leave the deciphering of the word that It would have biographical interest.' cannot be injui-e to future editors. let them die . by supplied kindly passage. John Linnell. .' The argument of this conexplanatory of that of the couplet.' or improve.' but was unable to see how this could ' ' ' ' ' I have come to the conclusion that this is the right reading. shall never have peace within thy breast. but worthy of quotation. or nearly twenty years after the date Since then of his boyish effort 'King Edward the Third. runs: — Compell the poor to live upon a Crust of bread by soft mild arts gove[r]n over all: let Moral duty tune your tongue But be your hearts harder than the nether millstone. Jun. worldly-wise advice. Both are as to the attitude to to the addressed man.. and causes the couplet to read as follows 'One conquer] I illegible in : "Till thou dost Thou (?) — injure the distrest never have peace within thy breast. not be in sorrow too?* I in Night vii. even too many. . temptuous be cultivated towards the poor and oppressed— in fact the antithesis of Blake's own sentiment passage seems to me : — 'Can And This passage. Written in pencil on the right-hand margin of the verso of the third sheet of Night vi. With pomp give every crust of bread you give. me to of this Linnell. say he is ruddy. in as an interesting illustration of the note of Elizabethan imitation surviving his prophetic writings as late as 1797. & drowns his wit tho' you know that bread & water are all In strong drink if Preach temperance.' inspire. & our Earth will be overrun Without these arts. when his children sicken. there are enough And. Say he is overgorg"d.Prophetic Books 50 111 Till thou dost [conquer] the distrest. & pomp. man looks pale With labour & abstinence say he looks healthy & happy. as conquer. the doubtful word might be From a photointended for compose. graph make good sense. In the opinion of Mr. not only as a specimen of Blake's shrewd satire. The lines are connecting the couplet with a passage in The Four Zoas. and when a So shall we . Born. .' I read the word Mr. frown when they smile.' conquer. Thou Four Zoas. Smile when they frown. If you would make the poor live with temper. word. Say he smiles you hear him sigh." shalt After fruitless efforts. With regard to this word EY comment: the original. with gracious cunning then give with Magnify small gifts: reduce the man to want a gift. If pale. looks like nothing but an impossible term. which occurs ' see another's woe.

symbolize See Four Zoas. depress Mental & prolong Corporeal War. is From MILTON And did those feet in ancient time Walk upon England's mountains And was the holy Lamb of God On 1 ? green England's pleasant pastures seen ? And did the Countenance Divine Shine forth upon our clouded hills And was Jerusalem builded here Among these dark Satanic Mills? 5 ? ' 2. passage & f. is Prophetic Books. Ellis.' which is formed of the 8 Mills] ' tears them hills Gil. if they could. For we have Hirelings in the Camp. or the expensive advertizing boasts that they make of such works believe Christ : & his Apostles that there is Men whose whole Greek or Roman Models a Class of We do not want either Destroj'ing.' For the context see Ellis and Yeats (iii. Shakspeare & Milton Memory were both curb'd by the general malady & infection from the silly Greek & Rouze up. ! Sculptors! Architects! Suffer not the fash[i]onable Fools to depress your powers by the prices they pretend to give for contemptible works.' Beside rooted the tree of Mystery. and the Blake's conception of natural religion. but when the New Age is at leisure to Pronounce. which we WMR. all will be set right. our will. the Court & the University. however. ' : professedly Inspired Men will hold their proper rank. true to our own Imaginations. Perturbed black and deadly. in different aspects. this passage printed with such extraordinary inaccuracy as to suggest that the whole poem has been practically rewritten by Mr. where. WBY. mountains] delight is in we are but if of Eternity. These lines occur as part of the Preface following the prose The Stolen and Perverted Writings of Homer & Ovid. 71). for ever Painters on you I call.. In Blake's mythological world the mills of Satan are ' not situated eastward of Golgonooza (or Law). . as spaniels are taught with we 1 can art. ! your foreheads against the ignorant Hirelings. of Plato & Cicero. and sighs and death-sweat of the victims of Urizen's laws.Prophetic Books He can Flatter his wife afiford. which all Men ought to contemn. O Young Men of the New Age set Latin slaves of the Sword. & those Grand Works of the more ancient & consciously ' Milton. those just & Worlds shall live for ever. All these. on the strand of a lake of waters but of spaces. in Jesus our Lord. & the Daughters of shall become the Daughters of Inspiration. Night viii.in mountain Gil. are set up by artifice against the Sublime of the Bible. Reduce all to : 35 pity his children till .' 2 upon] over Swinb. 70. who would. passim.

to see. .. sinful ! ! to . .. will never enter there. The Spirit of Jesus is continual forgiveness with trembling & amazement. who is the God and Lord . My . converse with daily as man with man. wholly One in Jesus our Lord. I will not cease Xor 13 Sword sleep my shall From JER USALEM [To the Public] Reader And of books Jemsalem. . Swin- . & .. which is ' ' ' ' words Sheep on the banks of the Ocean. the and . .. . of Sin he who waits to be righteous before he enters into the Saviour's I am perhaps the most kingdom.. me for this energetic exertion of vay talent. begins After m}. of those with whom to be connected is to be . ' ' : I again display my Giant forms to the Public former Giants & Fairies having reciev'd the highest reward possible. I. unfold my Chariot of fire me me me me ! 9 ! ! ! ! from Mental Fight. Reader. approve. The gaps here and in the preceding prose passage are the result of flaws in Blake's stereotype.Prophetic Books 352 Bring Bring Bring Bring my Bow of burning gold my Arrows of desire my Spear O clouds. I cannot doubt that this more consolidated & extended Work will be as kindly recieved. The Enthusiasm . the Author hopes . . I pretend not to holiness of men yet I pretend to love. . the missing words having been chipped out It may have been Blake's intention to insert either by accident or design. in my hand. 2 them by hand.. to whom the Ancients look'd and saw his day afar off.. . ..three years slumber f. & the more to have an interest in Therefore what you do not the Friend of Sinners. of heaven God from whom of that forming part of Blake's introduction to Chap. but I know of no copy in which this has been done. 3. the Divine Body. Till we have built Jerusalem In England's green & pleasant Land. . WMR. of the following Poem. address.' Printed only by Swinb. and WBY. i. This headed To the Public (flanked on either side by the and Goats ').' ' After this come the lines above. .. I also hope the Reader will be with me. . Poem is written... followed by Blake's account Of the Measure in which the .

Among Jerusalem. Earth. Jerusalem is called Liberty among the Children of Albion. 26. Male & Female Clothings. 11. white on a black ground. p. C'p. 1-5 : — In great Eternitj'. & flames of fierce desire. burne.' Reader ' ! my the passage might be better preserved by continuity of reading as : 9 Hell.Prophetic Books Who 353 mysterious Sinai's awful cave the wondrous art of writing gave. which SAMPSON 27. is headed ' To the Jews. 2. preface. f. Jerusalem. And A This is Jerusalem in every Man. henceforth shall live in harmony. every particular Form gives forth or Emanates Its own peculiar Light. thus supplies the lacunae. have appear'd to order'd race have run Engraved in capital letters. Essay. 284. the Sons of Albion. is his Garment.' begins A a : — This . • • • 111 [To the Jews] The fields from Islington to Marybone. f. in very happily 5 And ! 9 types] type WBY. forming part of Blake's introduction to Chap. on a plate containing a full-page illustration of the figure of Jerusalem watching Hand ' in flames. & the form is the Divine Vision. 11 Such visions As my I Jerusalem f. he speaks in thunder and in fire. Even from the depths of Hell his voice I hear in To Man Within the unfathom'd caverns of my Ear. — : Reader ' And The lover of books ! of that — opinion. be. though not. Therefore I print nor vain my types shall : & Heaven.' the Light Tent And & 2 race] course Russell and Maclagan.' some such — — [best boon] of heaven [lover] of books ! of that God from whom [they first were given]. lover of heaven God from whom all things are given. Jerusalem. Again Thunder of Thought. i To Primrose Hill and Saint John's Wood. Tabernacle of Mutual Forgiveness. me is named : Liberty. 54. Were builded over with pillars of gold And there Jerusalem's pillars stood. .

& is. Paraplirases of this poem may be referred to in Ellis and Yeats It will as little ' ' . f. divided under his fourfold sj'stem into four quarters. is explained by a passage in the same chapter. Amen ness. Pancrass & Kentish-town repose Among her golden pillars high. what I — both see and hear In regions of Humanity. & the Everlasting The Wicked will turn Huzza Selah Gospel. in London's opening streets. followed by the paragraph ' Satan : ' If If Humility is tradition that your Christianity you.' Sacrifice & War. Man O Jews. Shem. the Emanation of the Giant Albion that the Learned have explored ? Patriarchal Religion ? If it is true. the Lamb of God. this you received from the Druids. It is True and cannot be controverted. the Eternal. that Jerusalem was. who were Druids. and Noah. the Emanation of the Giant Albion. 42. 11." 'Your Ancestors derived their origin from Abraham.Prophetic Books 354 Her Little-ones ran on the fields. Among her golden arches which 9 Shine upon the starry sky.& : they were separated from him by cruel Sacrifices and when compulsory cruel Sacrifices had brought Humanity into a Feminine Tabernacle. the Righteous to Righteous- ! & End in Albion's Ancient Druid Rocky Shore. the most Ancient. the Saviour. This poem summarizes the principal myth told in more detailed form in Chap. Ye are united. : ' I write in South Molton Street. 5 The Lamb And fair Jerusalem. 'Jerusalem. in One Religion.' After this come the lines above. ' ! ! " All things Begin it to Wickedness. The former signifies merely the dwellers in Jerusalem or state of spiritual liberty. contained in his Limbs are all — the true Christians Animals is True. The Return of Israel is a Return to Mental as the Prophets had foretold. as the Druid Temples (which are the Patriarchal Pillars & Oak Groves) over the whole Earth witness to this day. O ye Inhabitants of Earth. ' ' " But now the Starry Heavens are fled from the mighty limbs of Albion. in the loins of Abraham & David. became apparent on Earth. his Bride. Heber. 2." Albion was the Parent of the Druids. The Religion of Jesus. 43 . . O Israel. of God among them seen. Take up the Cross. You have a tradition that Man anciently contain'd in his mighty limbs all things in Heaven & Earth.' be unnecessary to explain to any student of Blake that 'Jews' here mean the Hebrew race as 'Jerusalem' means the city so named. Can I it be ? Is it a Truth Was Britain the Primitive Seat of the my title-page is also True. The geographical symbolism under which Blake typifies mental states by London districts. & in his Chaotic State of Sleep & Adam & the whole World was Created by the Elohim. 38. & follow Jesus. Among the little meadows green.

' Is : : ! : : : See also the conclusion of prose note A to vi. 17 our] her Shep. ' . (ii. Children of Jesus & his Bride. 15 William's] This name is obscurely Willan's Shep. Standing above that mighty Ruin. a 3 . thanksgiving Lambeth. And every English Child is seen. the Lamb's Wife. 12. Jerusalem. 25-44 II.Books Pj^ophetic 355 The Jew's-harp-house & the Green Man. The Ponds where Boys to bathe delight. The curtains. For comfort woven the hearths. . The cielings. builders in hope tho' Jerusalem wanders far away. What WMR. '• — where was the burying-place that Of soft Ethinthus ? near Tyburn's fatal Tree ? is Mild Zion's hills. Go on. Where Satan the first victory won : 196-198) and in the Introduction to the reprint of Jerusalem edited by Russell and Maclagan. The fields of Cows by William's farm. & With Moral Self-righteous Law. Shine 13 in Jerusalem's pleasant sight. humility And And : . and the bricks. well wrought affections Enamel'd with love & kindness. are those golden builders doing ? f. Labour of merciful hands the beams & rafters are forgiveness The mortar & cement of the work. Welhng's Gil. firm fixing. tears of honesty the nails ! : : : : the screws & iron braces are well wrought blandishments. most ancient promontory. written in the original stereotype WBY. & the tiles engraven gold. in Satan's Synagogue. near mournful Ever weeping Paddington ? is that Calvary and Golgotha Becoming a building of pity and compassion ? Lo The stones are pity. into lovely forms there the secret furniture of Jerusalem's chamber wrought Lambeth the Bride. 25 Cp. never forgotten. Always comforting the remembrance the floors. Forgiving trespasses and sins Lest Babylon. with cruel Og. : thy pitying looms wrought . devotion : O Prepare the furniture. tears & in sighs. I Marybone] Marylebone WBY. The Lamb 7 .. well contrived words. Should Crucify What 21 are those golden Builders doing 25 Near mournful ever-weeping Paddington. loveth thee Thou art one with her & knowest not of self in thy supreme joy. She walks upon our meadows green of God walks by her side 1 . Without the gate of Los among the dark Satanic wheels.

Satan his name He . Create a Heaven in which all shall be pure of Chastity Striving to In their Own Selfhoods. : * 53 O Withering the By Laws Human Form by Laws of Sacrifice for Sin. They groan'd aloud on Tyburn's Brook 33 : Albion gave his deadly groan. ! translucent all within. 29 the Druid's golden Knife Rioted in human gore In Offerings of Human Life? They groan'd aloud on London Stone. wither 'd up sweet Zion's Hill every Nation of the Earth From 49 . The Rhine was red with human blood The Danube roU'd a purple tide 45 . in Natural Selfish Chastity And to & holy banish Pity dear Mutual Forgiveness & to become One Great Satan to the most powerful Selfhood to murder the Divine : Inslav'd In : : Humanity whose sight folly r all are as the dust. And in a dark Land gave her birth. He wither'd up the Human Form By laws of sacrifice for sin. Thro' Maiden. f. 11. Jerusalem. & Abhorrence I am wither'd up. Till it But O became a Mortal Worm. his pride. Poplar & Old Bow. from Lambeth's Vale.Prophetic Books 356 Where Albion And beneath the slept fatal Tree. 37 in flames of fire stretch'd his Druid Pillars far. O Spectre over Europe and Asia. . 49. & acros the Sea. 24-31 Polypus of Death. Jerusalem Down War & In fell 41 thro' howling. all the Atlantic Mountains shook. On the Euphrates Satan And over Asia stretch'd He stood. & who chargeth his Angels with . He wither'd up Jerusalem's Gates. And Albion's Spectre from his Loins Tore forth in all the pomp of War. death 8: woe. — 53 Cp.

Planting thy Family alone. 1 here reclaim thee as my own. The time will come. Destroying all the World beside ? A man's worst enemies are those Of his own house & family And he who makes his law a curse. mortal clay. cruel Patriarchal pride 77 . The Bride and Wife of the Lamb. warlike Fiend Spectre of Albion In clouds of blood & ruin roU'd. By his own law shall surely die. O God. 61 Entering thro' the Gates of Birth. Art thou return'd to Albion's Land. thine ! & thine & Breath. Jerusalem.' — 81 Cp. — Satan arm'd in 73 ! gold ! thy soft Family-Love. to destroy by Sin and Atonement happy Jerusalem. 33. 25-28 79 alone] above Shep. f. 46. And Jerusalem thy Bride? is Come to Depart arms my & : never more but dwell for ever here . The Human Hands. 18 So spoke the Spectre to Albion : — ' Satan. ! My Selfhood Is this Thy 69 . ' ! . Worship'd as God by . Jesus And Vision ! in still was seen. thou art Not an Avenger : ' ! — . And passing thro' the Gates of Death. And O Lamb thou of God whom ! I 65 Slew in my dark self-righteous pride. Form was the still 357 Human Face & Feet. thy Love my Spirit to Subdue my Spectre Create . f. 84 law] hand Russell and Maclagan.Prophetic Books The Divine Still Weeping. Human Form was the & weak thine the 57 Divine . 81 . when a man's worst enemies Alas in a Religion Shall be those of his own house and family Of Generation. 17. he is the Great Selfhood the Mighty Ones of the Earth. 76 Cp. to thy Fear. Jerusalem. 11. 11. .

Subdue to the Divine Mercy. 42. Book \st rdg. ' f. afterwards deleted. And cast his Spectre into the Lake. 41. Seated on the scroll is a sprite holding a pen in his hand.. Book \st rdg.' . that ever burneth with fire. & in heart 11. walk'd in every Nation. I Each Man] This world MS. 2. written immediately below one of the stanzas of 'The maine' ('When Satan first the black bow bent'). 10-12 Awake. Albion. Amen. mutual in love In the Exchanges of And London & harmony. 24. 4. Till then the Lamb of God 4 Cp. Both heart 85 Cp. written in reversed characters on a scroll to the left of a large bowed figure. Cast him down into the Lake ! Los. 43 : hand hand. Book the MS. .' MS. Mutual shall build Jerusalem.' IV Each Man is in his Spectre's power Untill the arrival of that hour When his Humanity awake. 11. 3. Each Man is in his Spectre's power. * f. At some time Blake numbered these four lines in the MS. awake Him Of : ' — reclaim thy Reasoning Spectre. del. Book. f. And cast his own Spectre into the Lake — Untill the arrival of that hour. del. in — London every Nation walk'd. 3 When his] Untill MS. Jerusalem. Monk of Charle- his] the MS. 40. ever & ever.Prophetic Books 35^ Exchanges every Land my In Shall walk 85 & mine. 4 his] his own MS. The original draft of these lines is found on p. to read : — 'When his Humanity awake. intending the stanzas . 'And there to Eternity aspire The selfhood in a flame of fire. here apparently intended as a continuation of the time. 12 of the MS. Milton. Jerusalem. in every Land. Book \st rdg. opposite these In the margin of the printed for the preceding : — first lines is an unfinished stanza. del. Book. i.

which State must be put off before he can the State named Rahab perpetuate Tyrant Pride. he .' and The Spiritual States of the Soul are all Eternal. therefore. Righteousness. Rousseau. Human Race who is the Preacher of he is a flatterer who means to betray. & pretend not 'Voltaire. Distinguish between the Man. & will erect the Synagogue of Satan. ! . & requires Selfhood continually & must continually be changed into his direct But your Greek Philosophy (which is a remnant of Druidism) Contrary. i : Grey Monk talk'd with the I 359 as we stood light. Gibbon. when a Religious Man falls into Sin. but how cannot concieve. are so : O Deists you are ! profess yourselves the Enemies of Christianity and you the Enemies of the Human Race & of Universal also Man is born a Spectre or Satan. be the Friend of Man. teaches that Man is Righteous in his Vegetated Spectre— an Opinion of fatal & accursed consequence to Man. the Selfish Virtues of the Natural Heart. 3. to We be holier than others . & his present State. can be a Hypocrite are Men of like passions with others. shall shortly be destroyed He is in . or Natural Religion to . ! — by the means of what you call Natural Religion and Natural Philosophy. ' To the Deists are the bracketed sentences Rahab is an Eternal State.' The address either side of the title ' ' ' runs ' : — He never can be a Friend to the Natural Morality. Nature. " God. and many believed what they saw. & the Laws of that Babylon which he foresees with the Spiritual and not the Natural Sword. & is altogether an Evil. & ends Religion of the Pharisees who murder'd Jesus. 52. or a Methodist either. and not of the Forgiver of Sin and their God Deism Your Religion. and Prophecied of Jesus. Will any one say "Where are those who worship Satan under the Name of God?" Where are they? Listen Every Religion that Preaches Vengeance for Sin is the Religion of the Enemy & Avenger. as the Ancients saw plainly by Revelation. This was the Deism is the same. ' You." and destroying all who do not calling the Prince of this World to the intire abrogation of ' : worship Satan under the Name of God. On f. O Deists is Satan Named by the Divine Name. Hypocrisy I . Hume. charge the Spiritually Religious with a Monk. Man must & will have Some Religion if he has not the Religion of Jesus he will have the Religion of Satan. and of Natural Morality or Selfthe is Worship God of the of this World. in the same.Prophetic Books [To the Deists] Monk saw a I of Charlemaine my Arise before sight In beams of infernal Jerusalem. following the conclusion of Blake's preface to Chap. New a Experimental Theory.

War. in clouds of learning roU'd. This Blake afterwards separated into two distinct poems. But you also charge the poor Monks & Religious with being the causes of while 3'ou acquit & flatter the Alexanders & Caesars. you shall ever dwell ' ' Thou 9 ! ' . Forgiveness of Sin. is an apology & cloke for his sin.Righteous. Book version. 'When Satan first the black bow bent. In my footnotes I give here the final readings For deleted readings see MS. Book WBY. they sound afar. & Fredericks. and The Grey Monk in the Pickering MS. Gibbon arose with a And The 5 Voltaire with a wracking wheel Schools. 12 of the MS. ' ' ' ' four stanzas are practically the same as those of the version in the MS.). call'd his Confessions. Book. but never can be The Glory of Christianity is To Conquer by Forgiveness. himself one. as he WBY. who alone are its causes & its actors. All the Destruction therefore in Christian Europe has arisen from Deism. in your Cell. Foote in calling Whitefield Hypocrite was . . Rise. is version in the Pickering MS. & especially the Religious whose errors Rousseau found no friend. MS. scribing others. Book. Book version of the stanzas. 3 as beams we] where he MS. probably added by Blake when about to Stanzas 4 and 6 occur also as stanzas 2 and 8 of the this poem. and traninto the Pickering MS. & bind him ^ : ' in his Cell ! to ought not to be call'd a Hypocrite this title is more properly to be given a Player who falls into Sin. of the MS. can never be the cause of a But the Religion nor of a single War Martyrdom. engraving seven stanzas here as part oi Jerusalem.' The original version forms part of a larger poem found in first draft on p. this display of pretended Virtue chiefly design to expose. The Book written by Rousseau. he found them Evil. Those who Martyr others or who cause War are Deists.' The first (see MS. stanza 7 is also the final version of the original draft and a marginal addition.' is a revised . of Jesus. original stanza 12 stanza 6 engrave . for Whitefield pretended not to be holier than others but conVoltaire Rousseau You cannot fessed his Sins before all the World. that vou by you may accuse others. which is Natural Religion. Book xlii. Book xlii. whose profession is Virtue & Morality & the making Men Self. . under the title The Grey Monk. Book. Men Good by Nature.Prophetic Books 360 lash of steel. Forgivers of Sin. and particularly of your ! ! stantly own. & Friendship cannot exist without Forgiveness of sins continually. . the Lewis's thought ' War. for you are talking of the Virtues of the Human Heart. 4 In beams] In the 11 your] thy MS. Book. 9 sound] said you] thou MS. lazy Monk In vain condemning glorious War And. Arose with War in iron & gold. . conescape my charge that you are Pharisees & Hypocrites. & not a confession.

the Martyr's WBY omits the. When Satan first the black bow bent And the Moral Law from the Gospel rent. For a Tear 13 red ran] ran red 11. And spill'd the blood of mercy's Lord. Book.' which is found both in the MS. Night bow draw . his arms & knees Like to the roots of ancient trees. Again the black Four Zoas.Prophetic Books 361 red ran from the Grey Monk's His hands & feet were wounded wide. vii (EY. VI [To the Christians] give you the end of a golden string. is an Intellectual thing a Sigh is the Sword of an Angel King the bitter groan of a Martyr's woe Is an Arrow from the Almightie's Bow. : Again the elemental strings to your right breasts draw. WBY. draft on p. MS. Jerusalem. version. 77. WMR. And let the shadowy drum speed on the arrows black. Only wind it into a ball. And And WBY. Titus O ! 17 Charlemaine Rousseau Gibbon Vain Constantine ! Voltaire 21 ! ! 13 ! ! Your Grecian Mocks & Roman Sword Against this image of his Lord . 18 And the Moral] 24 this] 27 a Martyr's] 25 a Tear] the tear MS.' These lines occur as continuation of a passage which in its reference to the and the northern drum are reminiscent of the stanza Thy father drew his sword in the north. 46 (reversed) of version being the first deleted . Book and in the ' battle Pickering the MS. Book. ' 17 Cp. f. Book. He forg'd the Law into a Sword. His body bent. The blood side. It will lead you in at Heaven's gate I Built in Jerusalem's wall. 642-644) : — 25 . engraved from the the MS. the only difference in the first MS.

3. & thundering course round heaven & earth. than the liberty both of body & mind to exercise the Divine Arts of Imagination. is not so in the sight of our kind God. but that which is a Sin in the sight of cruel Man. and devour'd all things in its loud Fury. This stanza forms the opening The Chap. are they not all Mental Gifts ? shipped in Spirit & in Truth. the real & eternal World. Every moment lost is a moment that cannot be redeemed every pleasure that intermingles with the duty of our station is a folly unredeemable. discountenance every one among you who shall I call pretend to despise Art & Science upon you in the Name of Jesus What is the Life of Man but Art & Science ? is it Meat & Drink ? is not the Body more than Raiment ? What is Mortality but the things relating to the Body.Prophetic Books 362 ' have given ' ' ' in 1. before all the World. mocks Jesus. i. . & is planted like the seed of a wild flower among our reading for give ' lines of Blake's preface to ' ' ' ' ' We . in some Mental pursuit for the Building up of Jerusalem. ' I stood among my valleys of the And saw a flame of fire. calling it pride & selfishness & sin. wheat. Imagination. of this Vegetable Universe is but a faint shadow. which Dies ? What is Immortality but the things relating to the Spirit. even as south a . not this plain : ! which always appear to the ignorance-loving Hypocrite as Sins. are they any Performances ? What are all the Gifts of the Is God a Spirit who must be worGospel. the struggles of intanglement with incoherent roots. & in which we shall live in our Eternal or Imaginative Bodies when these Vegetable Mortal Bodies are no more. The Apostles knew of no other Gospel. Saul. devastation of the things of the Spirit ? Answer this to yourselves. Why persecutest thou me ? runs :— are told to abstain from fleshly desires that we may lose no time from the Work of the Lord. & expel from among you those who pretend to despise the labours of Art & Science. and of no other Gospel. Wheel Of fire surrounding all the heavens it went From west to east against the current of : Creation. What were which all their spiritual gifts ? What is the Divine Spirit ? is the Holy Ghost any other than an Intellectual Fountain ? What is the Harvest of the Gospel & its Labours? What is that Talent which it is a curse to hide? What are the Treasures of Heaven which we are to lay up for ourselves.' Devils are False preface. which Lives Eternally? What is the Joy of Heaven but Improvement other than Mental Studies & ! ! What are the Pains of Hell but Ignorance. which alone are the labours of the Gospel. which has the two mottos in the left margin Religions and Saul. I know of no other Christianity. Is in the things of the Spirit? Bodily Lust. Let every Christian as much as in him lies engage himself openly & publicly. & & manifest to the thought ? Can you think at all & not pronounce heartily. Idleness. addressed To the Christians. and are not the Gifts of the Spirit Every-thing to Man ? O ye Religious. the giver of every Mental Gift. That to Labour in Knowledge is to build up Jerusalem and to Despise Knowledge is to Despise Jerusalem & her Builders? And remember He who despises & mocks a Mental Gift in another. All the tortures of repentance are tortures of self-reproach on account of our leaving the Divine Harvest to the Enemy.

& of punishment. Shepherd prints note to the preceding poem.' * 4 close] chase Swinb.' vi and vii as a single poem with the title Jerusalem. Into a root a fathom long. wept. But to the Publicans & Harlots go Teach them True Happiness." forth out of thy For Hell : is : ' Vll [To the Christians] England ! awake ! awake awake ! ! r Jerusalem thy Sister calls Why wilt thou sleep the sleep of death. Book. forming the conclusion of the address 'To the and immediately following the long passage quoted in the footNot in the MS. from its dire Travelling thro' the night And restless fury Man himself shrunk up By it the . "It is the Wheel Its Name of Religion. Moon faded into a globe for. the dark Preacher of Death. Heal thou the sick of spiritual disease." " Is this the law of Jesus. But Jesus is the bright Preacher of Life. cast out devils in Christ's name. Of sin. It is Natural Religion. To smite with terror Those that are & with punishments sick. . but let no curse : Go mouth to blight their peace open'd to Heaven thine eyes beheld The dungeons burst. & said. And close her from thy ancient walls? ! f. at foot of Christians. & the Prisoners set free. little And I asked a Watcher & a Holy-One he answer'd. This terrible devouring sword turning every way?" He answered: "Jesus died because he strove : I its Name Against the current of this Wheel Is Caiaphas. Pity the evil for thou art not sent . like to the Pharisees Crucifying & encompasing sea <& land For proselytes to tyranny & wrath. 77. . Creating Nature from this fiery Law By self-denial & forgiveness of Sin. Opposing Nature. of sorrow.Prophetic Books By it Sun was roU'd the into an orb 36 o . Go therefore. To the Christians.

couplets. also written in reversed writing. f. : Thy And now Our . 2 and 3. . the time returns again & London's towers : souls exult. Vlll [Especially to the Female] In Heaven the only Art of Living Is Forgetting But You & Forgiving on Earth Forgive you shall not find where to Live. Recieve the Lamb of God to dwell In England's green & pleasant bowers.. . 8r. are the words Especially to the in ' Female.' and place between Russell and * 11.64 Prophetic Books Thy hills & valleys felt her feet Gently upon their bosoms move Gates beheld sweet Zion's ways Then was a time of joy and love. where this stanza is engraved in reversed characters Below the two the left margin of a three-quarter-page illustration. if Jentsahyn.' which seem intended as title to the lines above. Maclagan misread especially the Female.

VERSES from FOR THE SEXES THE GATES OF PARADISE Written between 1805 and 18 10. later date and revised at some .

The Britons' distress depopulation. copy. : 3. & Corineus throws {^del. Boadicea inspiring the Britons against the Romans. beth The book in this form consisted of a frontispiece. ' The History Price. Alfred in the countryman's . The i. Blake No. The Druids. but by ordinary line engraving. was a small foolscap octavo picture-book with the title For Children The Gates of Paradise [ru/e] \_aflying figure'] 1793I Published by W. Women in a Siege {these three frontispiece 8. Museum Print Room copy is an example of this first The Beckford issue. 9. are executed. not by the artist's usual cameo etching At the foot of process. 13 Hercules Buildings Lamand J. The Ancient Britons according to Caesar. title-page. each is a short inscription or legend. or edition. The plates. Women fleeing from War. the original pencil sketches for which are found in the Rossetti : \ \ \ — \ \ \ \ | I I MS.) 6. 4. The book is advertised in Blake's prospectus of October 10. where it is described as The Gates of Paradise.and Sketch-book supplies a clue to the contents of this missing work \ Blake may also have intended to * This entry reads Landing of Brutus. 1793. Giants ancient inhabitants of England. 7. King Lear. and sixteen numbered plates of emblematic designs. Paul's Church Yard. The Landing of Julius Caesar. sold at the Hamilton Palace sale. with Blake's imprint as publisher. jfohjison St. 3J. has the in their earliest state. a small to refer to of which no copy is known to exist. dated [Lambeth] May 17. of The Gates of Paradise. The British 1793. 5. a companion volume of England.' Price. 2.. in 1882. It appears to me probable that the rough draft of subjects for a history of England written on the outer page of Blake's Manuscript.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE GATES OF PARADISE Blake's GaUs of Paradise. as first issued. before the date and imprint and publishers' imprint on plates were added. The Gogmagog the Giant into the sea. y' The would seem preceding entry. which vary in size from 2| x if to 4I x 2| inches. a small engravings on title ' book of Engravings. book of Engravings. unnumbered subjects are a marginal addition). {del).

19 {16. 20 (77.). 18 are a marginal addition. A pro- . stirring the Con" crown'd. Cloud. subsequently The fire of London. Engravings. The Reformation by H.). as the contrary to 'For Children. ' ' ' ' ' and Jerusalem.' represented in the earlier gospel. house. the Gates of Hell.' as Doubt self-jealous. of Jane Shore. is an error into which the original motives.' ' now represented as blind in order that the descriptive text. 102) regards the Keys.). printed several years later though Blake has left unaltered the original imprints. up the Londoners to resist W. 16 (75 del. ' the Black Prince brings his Captives to his father. 17. These lines. containing the Keys of the Gates and To the Accuser appear also for the first time.' Gil. 'themselves a little obscure. and Drawings. deleted).' The Gates of Paradise a book which is known to us only from its title-page For Children. watry folly. poet's biographer could not have fallen had he made any serious attempt to trace the gradual evolution of Blake's symbolic system. it may 14. are additions.Gates of Paradise 367 engrave and issue.' (See — W. 22 {20 del. 10. issue by the figure of a survivor of the Deluge. M.' merely as versified explanations of the artist's This.' while the ' ' ' ' dark hermaphrodite — ' (or a humanity divided against itself) somewhat violently — favourite figure in Jerusalem is offered as the interpretation of the picture illustrating original plates have been worked over and elaborated in this second issue. beheaded {subjects 77. Charta. the A King John & Mag. The lines on the new title-page beginning Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice/ and some part of the The three supplementary plates legends. The Cruelties used by Kings & Priests. W. however. 18 del.) The Gates of Paradise also appeared with the new Rossetti's t/nda ted tit\e-pa.ge : For The the Sexes \ Gates | \ of Para| This is in reality a second ^prologue of ten lines\. — ' 'Annotated Lists of Blake's Paintings. dated 1793.). ^^ ^^^ ^oot of the frontispiece and sixteen plates of emblems. Edwin & Morcar Conq^ II. ij del. Edward Edward 15. and considerably changed edition. 13. interpreted for the sexes. spect of Liberty.). 250. The Penance 18. VIII. belong to the same period as Miltofi dise I . at Calais. Famine occasioned by the Popish interdict (a marginal addition). Ch. as my footnotes to the Keys amply demonstrate. the figure of Fire being ' The Fire. Gilchrist (i. I agree with 12. A 21 (7p del. The Plague. i. reading into what were at first simple allegorical pictures for children the later developed elaborate symbolism in which Blake clothed his full-fledged mystical Thus we find Water.

Gates of Paradise

368

authority for the text of TJie Gates of Paradise
second form is the copy in the possession of
Mr, John Linnell, junior, formerly belonging to his father,
The twenty-one plates are
Blake's friend and patron.
printed upon separate sheets of paper measuring about
There is no dated watermark. One of the
51. X 4f inches.
two copies from the Rowfant Library is an example of
the first issue, with imprints, but without the legends to the
and the Keys of
plates, and with the second title-page
the Gates inserted from the later impression, probably by
Mr. Frederick Tatham, to whom it formerly belonged.
The plate To the Accuser who is the God of this World

My

in

this

'

'

'

'

is

lacking.

At

a

some

still

later date

Blake retouched the plates and made

further alterations in the text.

These

last revisions

the prologue on the title-page, and in the change
'
in the
of I to
Keys of the Gates.' In the present
edition I follow Blake's final version, taking my text from
a copy in the possession of Mr. W. A. White, of Brooklyn,
New York. This copy, which must have been one of the
There are
last printed, bears the dated watermark 1825.
two other examples of this book in its final form one a copy
in the possession of Mr. James T. Linnell, and the other
a duplicate from the Rowfant Library since acquired by

occur

in

'

'

'

We

'

Mr.

W. A.

White.

Gilchrist, misled perhaps by Blake's retention in the
later issues of the original dated imprints, appears to regard
'

the two forms of The Gates of Paradise For Children
and For the Sexes as contemporaneous issues of the
same work with different title-pages. He also ignores the
'

'

'

fact (first, so far as I
aware, suggested by Mr. W. A.
White in a letter to the present writer) that the Keys
must have been written long after the first
of the Gates

am

'

'

appearance of the little book in 1793.
A comparison of the metaphorical figures found in the
Keys of the Gates with those used by Blake in his
earlier and later prophetic books has convinced me that
could only
the verses in the two issues for the sexes
have been written about the same time as Jerusalem
'

'

'

'

or Milton.
Blake, it is true, not infrequently in certain
earlier writings anticipates the complex mystical formulae
found in those written several years later, or repeats,

long intervals, thoughts or expressions adumBut in the Keys of the
brated in his simpler poems.
Gates
we find no such confusion of earlier and later

after

'

'

Gates of Paradise

369

The whole is a harmonious composition,
repeating in an extremely condensed form, often in identical
words, the full evangel of Jcriisalein.
further clue to the date of the Keys of TJic Gates of
Paradise ' for the sexes may be found in the repetition
In
in 'The Everlasting Gospel' (y^, 1. 96) of the line

symbolism.

A

'

'

'

*

The Everlasting Gosdoubt which is self-contradiction.'
pel,' which was written about 1810, itself contains a con'

number

siderable

of striking parallelisms with

passages

Jerusalem which I have given in the footnotes to that
poem. Jenisalcin bears on its title-page the date 1804,
but this represents the year its engraving was begun rather
than finished, and its completion may well have been the
work of several years. The first issue of TJic Gates of
Paradise in its altered form for the sexes may thus
be assigned with some certainty to the last half of the
decade ending 1810 ^.
Mr. W, M. Rossetti, followed by all later editors^ dates
the 'Keys of the Gates' 1793, with the remark that it
should, strictly speaking, be placed chronologically between
the Songs of Linoccnce and the Songs of Experience.
Messrs. Ellis and Yeats stumble at the threshold of the
The Gates
truth in curiously stating it in its converse form
"
"
value
of Paradise soon after Lafayette are of incalculable
"
Their " keys
will
as interpreting the Prophetic Books.
open the meaning of all the myth, though they will not,
in

'

'

'

:

of course, explain its story.'
All editors follow Gilchrist's text (based apparently upon
B^), but omit the numbers referring to the engraved plates.
facsimile by Mary Hughes and William Muir reproduces

A

*

on the strength of a passage in Blake's Adver(ii. 260),
Public Address,' which refers to the Examiner's attack upon him,
place the first appearance oi Jerusalem at some time later than August, 1808.
'The manner
This passage, which is found on p. 52 of the MS. Book, runs
Ellis

and Yeats

tisement or

'

:

which my character has been blasted these thirty years, both as an Artist
and as a Man, may be seen particularly in a Sunday paper called the
Examiner, published in Beaufort's Buildings the manner in which I have
in

;

poem concerning my three
Felpham, which I shall soon publish.' This,
however, can hardly refer to Jerusalem, though Blake's allusion to his three
years" Herculean labours at Felpham are reminiscent of the opening words
But
of the Address to the Public with which that poem commences.
Jerusalem, though part of it may be the result of his three years' labours at
Felpham, is certainly not a poem conceriiiug ihem and only a very esoteric
school indeed could interpret it as an allegory of his quarrel with Hayley
and Hunt.
rooted out the nest of villains will be seen in a

years"

Herculean labours

at

'

'

'

'

;

SAMPSON

B D

Gates of Paradise

370

the frontispiece, plates 1-6, 8-16, and the plate 'To the
Accuser,' apparently from B^ or B^, with the title-page of
Plate 7, as the legend shows, also
A, For Children.'
belongs to A. Prefixed in ordinary letterpress is the prologue from the title-page of B \ and in a somewhat corrupt
version The Keys of the Gates,' which would seem to have
been wanting in the copy facsimilized.
Appended is a list of the plates of The Gates of Paradise
with their several legends, in the first issue For Children
For the Sexes
(A), and in the first and second issue
'

'

'

'

'

*

(B^andB^).

Frontispiece.
[A caterpillar on a leaf. On a second
human chrysalis like a babe in swaddling-clothes.]
B^ and B^. What is Man
The Sun's
A. What is Man
on
he
it
when
unfolds
the
Depends
Organ that
Light
[i]

leaf a

!

!

|

|

beholds

it.

\Title-page?^

[ii]

A. For

Children

B^ For

etc.

the

B^. For the Sexes etc. (with changes in text of
prologue, for which see footnotes).
1. [A woman under a weeping-willow, holding a babe in
her left arm, and pulling a mandrake out of the ground by
its hair.]
A, B\ and B-. I found him beneath a Tree.
2.
[Old man, resting his hands on his knees, sits upon
a rock beneath a leafless tree in a deluge of rain. The
encroaching flood rises to his feet.] A. Water. B^ and
B^. Water
Thou Waterest him with Tears.
from a crevice
3. [Crouching figure of a man emerging
in a rock.]
A. Earth. B^ and B^. Earth He struggles
into Life.

Sexes

etc.

|

|

4. [Man seated upon a white cloud clasps his forehead
with both hands and gazes steadfastly before him. Behind
him the sky studded with stars.] A. Air. B^ and B^.

On Cloudy Doubts and Reasoning Cares.
[Fiend, blind in B^ and B^, but not in A, standing in
flames, armed with spear and shield.] A. Fire. B^andB^.
That end in endless Strife.
Fire.
6. [Cherub issuing from an Q%g.\
A, B^, and B^. At
the
breaks
shell.
he
for
ripe
hatching
length
7. [Boy in garden, hat in hand, chases flying fairy.
second fairy lies face downwards crushed at his feet.]
A. Alas!
B^ and B^. Alas! [the original inscription
written in centre of page with the addition of the words on
the Female
either side and below] What are these ?
Air

[

5.

|

A

.

Martyr
8.

Is
|

She

also the Divine

Image

.

.

?

[Seated old man, with sword in right hand, leans

Gates of Paradise

37

1

sorrowfully on his elbow, averting his head from the figure
son!
of a joyfully departing youth.]
A, B\ and B'-.

My

my

son

!

of world prepares to mount
9. [Man standing on edge
Two lovers
ladder reared against the crescent moon.
I want
watch him.] A, B^, and B-. I want
One arm upthrust, and head
10. [Man drowning in sea.
A, B^, and B-.
just disappearing beneath the waves.]
!

!

Help! Help!

under a tree, an old man with spectacles
wings of a boy who struggles to escape. Before
him the setting sun. Sec facsimile?^ A. Aged Ignorance.
11. [Seated

clips the

B^ and

B-.

Aged Ignorance

|

Perceptive Organs closed,

their Objects close.
12. [Old man and four sons

and daughters in dungeon
A, B\ and B'-^. Does thy God, O Priest, take such
vengeance as this ?
bed on which
13. [Man, woman, and two children, beside
lies a corpse, watch the ascending spirit of an old man
who points upward.] A, B\ and B^. Fear and Hope are
cell.]

|

Vision.
14.

[Man with

walking-stick striding along country lane.]

A, B^ and B-. The Traveller hasteth in the Evening.
15. [Old man, leaning on crutch, passes through gateway of tomb.] A, B\ and B-. Death's Door.
16.
[Woman in white grave cerements, seated on the
|

A huge worm crawls around her
in burial crypt.
A, B\andB-. I have said to the worm Thou art
my mother and my sister.
Sec text.
[17, 18]. Keys of the Gates.
is the God of this world.
who
Accuser
To
the
[19].

ground
feet.]

See

;

text.

Bb

|

Gates of Paradise

372

FOR THE

THE GATES OF

SEXES.

PARADISE
\Prologue\
Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice,
Such are the Gates of Paradise,
Against the Accuser's chief desire,
Who walk'd among the Stones of Fire.
Not in the first issue of The Gates of Paradise, 'for Children' (1793).
Engraved, in sHghtly different form, on the title-page of the undated first
issue of the Gates for the Sexes' (B'), and, as above, on the later issue of
'

EY (iii. 62), and WBY,
(B"). Printed by Gilchrist (i. 102),
the three latter with the title Introduction,' and by W. Muir with title
Prologue.'
the

WMR,

same

'

'

I
'

Cp. Jerusalem,

f.

49,

11.

25-29

:

Withering the Human Form by Laws of Sacrifice for Sin,
By Laws of Chastity & Abhorrence I am wither'd up.

&

Striving to Create a Heaven in which all shall be pure
holy
In their Own Selfhoods, in Natural Selfish Chastity
to banish Pity
:

And
also
'

f.

dear Mutual Forgiveness
92,

When

15-20

11.

:

'

;

their Crimes, their Punishments, their Accusations of Sin,

all

Al} their Jealousies, Revenges, Murders, hidings of Cruelty in Deceit,
Appear only in the Outward Spheres of Visionary Space and Time,
In the

Shadows

of Possibility by Mutual Forgiveness for evermore.
& in the Prophecy, that we may Forsee 8c Avoid

And

in the

The

terrors of Creation

Vision

&

Redemption

&

Judgment.'

also Jerusalem, f. 7, 1. 66, and f. 43, 1. 61.
Here also may be added
Blake's daring and beautiful perversion of the Agnus Dei, which forms the

See

concluding lines of the second chapter oi Jerusalem: —
'

Come,

O

thou

To Sin &
To Sin in
To record

Lamb

of God, and take

to hide the Sin in

away

sweet deceit

is

the remembrance of Sin.
lovely

!

the open face of day is cruel & pitiless
But
the Sin for a reproach, to let the Sun go down
In a remembrance of the Sin is a Woe & a Horror,

A

1

brooder of an Evil Day, and a Sun rising in blood
then, O Lamb of God, and take away the remembrance of Sin.'
!

Come

3 See note to
11.
'

18-27.

'

Epilogue.'

4 Cp. Jerusalem,

4,
f.

49,

5 Cp. Jerusalem 'To the Public,'
11.

72-74

:

Learn therefore, O Sisters, to distinguish the Eternal Human
That walks about among the stones of fire in bliss & woe
Alternate.'

f.

3,

Gates of Paradise

373

Jehovah's Finger Wrote The Law
Then Wept then rose in Zeal and Awe,

5

;

;

And

the Dead Corpse, from Sinai's heat,
Buried beneath his Mercy Seat.

O

Christians

You

rear

.

Christians

B and all cdd.
'

5 Finger] fingers
.

!

me Why

tell

!

on your Altars high

it

6 Then]

He

9

?

all edd.

7,

8

And

Seat]

.

'

And
Hid

WMR,

B\

Gil.,

W.

Muir.

in the midst of Sinai's heat

beneath His Mercy Seat.'
EY, WHY.
'And in the midst of Sinai's heat
Hid it beneath the Mercy Seat.'
it

The Keys
The

Catterpiller on the Leaf
Reminds thee of thy Mother's

i

Grief.

of the Gates
I.

My

Man

Eternal

set in

The Female from

Repose,

his darkness rose

Engraved upon two plates of 23 and 29
printed to follow plate
Sexes.'
I,

;

lines respectively,

which arc

16 in both issues of Gates of Paradise 'for the

2 Cp. 'Auguries of Innocence' {Pickering MS.),

37, 38

11.

:

'The

Caterpillar on the leaf
Repeats to thee thy mother's

The 'Eternal Man,' or Fourfold Man'
when fallen into mortality) is Blake's term
'

3
'

Four

states of
'

And

Humanity

in its

grief.'

(called by the name of 'Albion'
for Universal Humanity. For the

'

Repose see

Milioti,

the Eternal Man, even Albion upon the

4 This refers to the

'

division

'

'

of

Man

into his

'

f.

34,

'

:

'

He

When

divides into

8, also

&

46

'

(imagination)

the Individual appropriates Universality
Female.'

Male

I.

:

Male and Female Con-

Spectre (reasoning power) and Emanation
chief theme oi Jerusalem.
Cp. f. go, 11. 52, 53
'

trarieties,'

1.

Rock of Ages.'

— the

Gates of Paradise

374

found me beneath a Tree,
Mandrake, and in her Veil hid me.
Serpent Reasonings us entice
Of Good and Evil, Virtue & Vice,

And She

5

A
2.

Doubt

3.

Struggling thro' Earth's Melancholy,

4.

Naked

5.

Blind in Fire, with shield and spear,

Two

Self Jealous,

f.
'

Veil

'

and the

Natural Religion.'
'

And

Also

'

ii,

He

22

1.

:

13

Self contradiction,

is

is like

a mandrake in the earth.'
'

'
7 Serpent is one of Blake's names
lines immediately following referring to his hete noir

see note to

for Nature, this
'

Fear,

Horrid Reasoning Cloven Fiction,

6 Cp. Jerusalem,
'

9

folly.

Shame and

in Air, in

In Doubt, which

For the

Watry

1.

19.

Cp. Jefusalem,

f.

1.

29,

76

:

the vast form of Nature like a serpent play'd before them.'

The

'

Everlasting Gospel

{Rossefti

MS.

cxxxii),

j3, 1.

53

:

'The Serpent Bulk of Nature's Dross.'
8

all edd. omit.

&]

Is

whether he

For definition of

'

description of the
f.

29,

11.

Cp. Jerusalem,

whether a Man

'I care not

39, 40

is

a

f.

is

Wise Man

91,

11.

Good

54,

55

:

or Evil

:

all

that

I

care

or a Fool.'

'

Good and Evil see Jerusalem, f. 10, 11. 7-16. 9 Cp. the
Shadow from Albion's wearied intellect,' Jerusalem,
'

:—

'A sweet entrancing

self-delusion, a wat'ry vision of Albion,

Soft exulting in existence

;

the

all

Man

absorbing.'

interesting to note (a fact hitherto, I believe, overlooked) that the whole
of the page of Jerusalem in which these lines are found occurs also, with
It is

Man or Ancient Man
The Four Zoas was written or
The Four Zoas (Night iii).
begun about 1797, the date on the title-page, though its completion may
perhaps be some years later. Forty-seven out of the seventy leaves of which

a few trifling differences such as the substitution of

'

'

'

'

for 'Albion,' in

the manuscript

is

composed are proofs of Blake's

illustrations to

Young's

Night Thoughts, published in the same year.
II, 12 Cp. Jerusalem, f. 7, 11. 38, 39
Vala comes from the Furnace in a cloud, but wretched Luvah
Is howling in the Furnaces, in flames among Albion's Spectres.'
:

'

13 Fiction] fictions all edd.

13-15 Cp. Jerusalem,
'

...

A

64,

in self contradicting agonj-

dark Hermaphrodite they stood.'

Cp. also 'The Everlasting Gospel,' 7',
'

f.

11.

95, 96:

Reasoning on its own dark Fiction,
In doubt, which is Self Contradiction.'

11.

27-31

:

Gates of Paradise
A dark Hermaphrodite We stood, —

375

Rational Truth, Root of Evil and Good.
Round me flew the Flaming Sword;

17

Round

her snowy Whirlwinds roar'd,
Freezing her Veil, the Mundane Shell.

where the Dead dwell

rent the Veil

I

6.

When weary Man enters his Cave.
He meets his Saviour in the Grave.
Some find a Female Garment there.
And some a Male, woven with care

21

;

Lest the Sexual Garments sweet
Should grow a devouring Winding sheet.
One Dies Alas the Living and Dead
!

7.

One
We]

15

:

and One

!

B ^ and all edd.

I

wept &

'I

!

!

slain

is

said

is

fled

17 Cp. Jerusalem,

"Is

:

25

this the

f.

!

77,

11.

56-62:

law of Jesus,

This terrible devouring sword turning everj- waj- ?
It is Natural Religion.'
He answer'd ...
18 Cp. Jerusalem,
'.

.

f.

19 Freezing] Freeing

Of
also
'

f.

Mundane

the
59,

1.

7,

73

:

indignant self-righteousness like whirlwinds of the north.'

.

11.

2-9

:

W.

Muir.

Shell,

Cp. Jerusalem, f. 63, 1. 44
'among the Caverns

which

froze on all sides

;

f.

64,

i

I.

:

'
;

For the Veil of Vala, which Albion cast into the Atlantic Deep
catch the Souls of the Dead, began to Vegetate & Petrify
Thus, in process of time, it became the beautiful Mundane Shell,

To

.

23, 24 Cp. Jerusalem,

f.

II.

54,

3,

4

:

&

.

'

Tent

.

of the Spectres of the Dead & the Place
& of awaking again into Eternity.'

The Habitation
Of Redemption

A

Tabernacle

of

This

Mutual

is

Jerusalem

Forgiveness,

in

Male

every Man,
and Female

'

Clothings
also
'

f.

61,

Man

1.

51

in the

:

;

Resurrection changes his Sexual Garments at Will.'

25 Cp. Jerusalem, f. 90, 1. 37
Lest the Sexual Generation swallow up Regeneration
and Mt'ltou, f 43, 11. 25-28
:

'

'

:

;

'These are the Sexual Garments, the Abomination of Desolation,
Hiding the Human Lineaments, as with an Ark & Curtains
Which Jesus rent & now shall wholly purge away with Fire
Till Generation is swallow'd up in Regeneration.*
;

27 Dead] the dead

W.

Muir.

In the later Prophetic Books Blake uses

from the Womb : . 20. 30) see Jerusalem. 50 Cp. I clip'd the Wings Of all Sublunary Things. 41 The Immortal Man 14. ! -^ : 10. Jerusalem. passim. Cp. 11. over the Web death' as the equivalent of bodily or 'vegetative' 90. 59. and passim. description. . Milton. 'Death's Door.Gates of Pai^adise ^^6 In Vain-glory hatcht and nurst. f. Self Accurst. 21 31. double Spectres. But when once I did descry 12. & Albion saw his Form.' See also Jerusalem. — War and deadly contention.' ' 39 my] icy all edd. they conversed as 1. And weeping ' f. 49 of Life. 96. . 1. 1. Climbing thro' Night's highest noon In Time's Ocean falling. :— ' & when the Male & Female Appropriate Individuality. and 7. 13. 8. Man with Man. f. 45 Worm Weaving in the Ground my Mother. For references every Man. . 15. i. life. The Door And the Thou'rt 16. : In Aged Ignorance profound. 29 By My Son my Son thou treatest me But as I have instructed thee. Albion 43 shades] shadows W. 37 And in depths of my Dungeons Closed the Father and the Sons. 45 Cp. 54. Muir. and The Four Zoas. 31. 53-55 11. they become an Eternal Death. Jerusalem. W. . f. Sister. speeches Power in Muir. too long for quotation. 4-6 : — knew that it Humanity. 42 Cp.' ' . On the shadows of the Moon. Thro' evening shades I haste away To close the Labours of my Day. Blake's illustration to Blair's Grave. f. 32 See description of plate 8 ness. Was A the Lord. to the Tomb: Weaving to Dreams the Sexual strife. 8. also Jerusalem. Jerusalem. the Universal & Man. 3 17. 11. Daughter. 6. and light and love. in Ages of Eternity. ' f. 11. Wife. Spectres] spectre (' Reasoning Pride & Self-righteous- the divided to 1. that cannot Die. Holy and cold. . f.' Jerusalem. f. Hermaphroditic worshippers of a God of cruelty & law. drovvn'd ! 9.' ibid. 1. 30 . Between Father and Son. : . of the Daughters of Los weaving the Web of Life with tears and lamentations. 18. 26-55.' 49. f. of Death I open found. .

' : Every Harlot was once a Virgin : ' 5-8 Cp. 52. which in the Rossetti Rossetti calls and Swinburne 'Prayer' (MS. I : : : 'Satan. f. Tho' thou art Worshipped by the Names Divine Of Jesus and Jehovah. 11. in In the untitled War. making to himself Laws from his own identity. f. Truly. 48. setting himself above all that is called God . 10-14 : God by — the Mighty — Ones of the Earth'. calling the Prince of this World. 18-25) Man must & will have Some Religion if he has not the Religion of Jesus. 1. And the Spectres of the Dead. Worship'd as and Milton. Will any one say. Sexes. poem & in the 49 : — where are his all Human Sacrifice Druid Temples of the Accuser of MS.' all In his . 1.' — ' Sin. 11.Gates of Paradise 2>77 \Fjpilogiie\ To who the Accuser The God is World of This My Satan. Being call'd God. thou art still The Son The lost Morn of in Traveller's weary Night's decline. 18 ' : — ' : . f. Devil. the 'accuser of for Satan or * 5 ' Mr. Where are those who worship Satan under the Name of God ? Where are they ? Listen Every Religion that Preaches Vengeance for Sin is the Religion of the Enemy & Avenger and not of the Forgiver of Sin and their God is Satan. thou art but a Dunce. calling themselves Sons of God. God and destroying all who do not worship Satan under the Name of God. ' For Sin. Nan. last leaf of the issue 'for the All edd. 11. ' f. canst thou ever change Kate Nor into i Man .' Title\ Cp.' Mammon ' sins' stands 3 Cp. Book. Jcnisaleni. Where Satan. Named by the Divine Name. Compell'd others to serve him in moral gratitude & submission. print as a single stanza. 52 every Criminal an Infant Love. Dream under Engraved on a single plate printed as the the Hill. 98. & will erect the Synagogue of Satan. Synagogues worship Satan under the Unutterable Name. 61. Blake's Address to the Deists at the beginning of the third chapter oi Jerusalem (f. And dost not know the Garment from the Every Harlot was a Virgin once. 33. 9. cxxx).' See also Jerusalem. Jerusalem. he will have the Religion of Satan.

. 4. according as the Organs of Perception vary. : cloudy Doubts and Reasoning Cares. All edd. 98. when he unfolds it. Air and Fire. 34. B and B° ^ these four lines. Jerusalem^ f. 3. to Frontispiece of The Gates ' — for the Sexes' (B' and Cp. 55. occur as legends to plates respectively illustrating Water. 56 : — Objects of Perception seem to vary Perceptive Organs close their Objects seem to close also Perceptive Organs vary If the : : : note also the repetition of the latter to the legend of plate 11 in B^ and line. Not B ') A. 11 Thou He On waterest in A. 2.^ If f. That end Not him with Tears struggles into Life. 38 such was the variation of Time : & Space. to be read and 5. ' : in the addition B^.' * Which vary See ' also ibid. Depends on the Organ that beholds it. which seem intended consecutively. 37. Earth. In in endless Strife. slightly changed. 11. omit. in Legend all edd. forming a quatrain.o Gates of Paradise yS \^From the Legends to the Plates^ The Sun's Light. omit. 11.

Fortune favours the Brave. Sun-flower weary of time All pictures that 's painted with sense and with thought All the night in woe little — A A ! ! . my Deep ! sparrows Come. dear Mother. my boy.INDEX OF FIRST LINES PAGE A crowned king A fairy leapt upon my knee A A flower was offer'd to 62 3" me black thing among the snow A pair of Stays to mend the Shape Petty Sneaking Knave I knew Strange Erratum in all the Editions Abstinence sows sand all over Ah how shall Urizen the King submit to this dark mansion Ah. and listen to my song Come knock your heads against this stone Cosway. Human Heart Dear Mother. & Baldwin of Egypt's Lake Cr loves artists as he loves his Meat . Frazer. old proverbs say 120 320 239 344 358 107 363 102 209 229 209 . 125 133 ! ! . ! ! ! 345 279 235 lOI 205 132 174 172 17 217 217 207 135 is Do ! 117 204 168 60 170 223 Call that the Public Voice which is their Error ? Can I see another's woe Can there be anything more mean Children of the future Age Come hither. tell me what thou seest there Come 173 347 126 224 35 1 201 201 As As my 322 208 212 176 Are not the joys of morning sweeter As I walk'd forth one may morning Awake. awake. Kings. An Old maid early e'er I knew And did those feet in ancient time And his legs carried it like a long fork And in melodious accents I Anger & Wrath my bosom rends I wander'd the forest the Ignorant Savage will sell his own Wife At the first Sound the Golden Sun arises from the little Boy hither. the Church Cruelty has a cold Degrade first the Arts if you'd Mankind Degrade what you will this life 's a fiction Does the Eagle know what is in the pit Each Man is in his Spectre's power Earth rais'd up her head England awake awake awake Father father where are you going ? For Fortune's favours you your riches bring For this is being a Friend just in the nick .

am a Statesman and a Saint saw a chapel all of gold saw a Monk of Charlemaine saw a Monk of Charlemaine my 213 361 89 158 156 13 summer morn lovM Theotormon mock thee not. smooth & neatly pen'd Here lies John Trot. . ! He makes the Lame to walk. 55 233 208 207 20S II asked cry 21 233 228 230 89 225 ! am no Homer's Hero you all know ask^d a thief to steal me a peach I 15 224 130 345 205 238 219 157 195 359 my told love love. the Friend of all mankind Honour & Genius is all I ask ! How How How I help thy Husband's copying sweet I roam'd from field to field sweet is the Shepherd's sweet lot always take my judgment from a Fool can Me ? ' Mother said Dreamt a Dream what can it mean I die ! the ! my 60 284 122 162 ? wind found them blind I taught them how to see give you the end of a golden string : have no name heard an Angel singing laid me dowTi upon a bank love the jocund dance love to rise in a . made of Love Having given great offence by writing in Prose He has observ'd the Golden Rule He's a Blockhead who wants a proof of what he can't Perceiv He is a Cock would . Hear the voice of the Bard Hear then the pride & knowledge of a Sailor Her Whole Life is an Epigram smart. we He who bends to himself a joy . till he and I 171 131 121 . the merry year Give Pensions to the Learned Pig Golden Apollo. Rubens. fear'd the fury of 322 176 106 59 210 my Dear Friend Orator Prig my matches as far as Guildhall die. all agree . 217 227 127 229 296 224 . though I by rose up at the dawn of day . .Index of First Lines 8o PAGE Fresh from the dewy hill. that thro' heaven wide Great Men and Fools do often me inspire Great things are done when Men & Mountains meet Grown old in Love from Seven till Seven times Seven Hail Matrimony. . 175 21S 59 206 157 231 . I told travel'd thro' a Land of Men 156 274 walked abroad on a snowy day wander thro' each charter'd street was angry with my friend was buried near this dyke wash'd them out cS: wash'd them in went to the Garden of Love will tell you what Joseph of Arimathea wonder whether the Girls are mad write the Rascal thanks. —thee am Mocked .

I Mock on. Voltaire. what the Prophets write men will act like a maid smiling over a churn If you have form'd a Circle to go into If you mean to Please Everybody. O leave [me] to my sorrows Let the Brothels of Paris be opened Little Little 222 212 lot 237 220 200 128 236 6 232 40 8 61 161 323 123 26 5 5 310 7 206 100 . who lookest down O why was born with a different face O Winter bar thine adamantine doors I ? ! Of H 's birth this was the happy Once a dream did weave a shade thee 119 169 205 14 96 194 372 129 162 Nail his neck to the Cross nail it with a nail Nature and Art in this together suit No real Style of Colouring ever appears Nought loves another as itself Now Art has lost its mental Charms O Autumn. before you begin If you trap the moment before it 's ripe In a wife 1 would desire If If it is true. and stained O dear Mother Outline of wisdom most sage O for a voice like thunder. hither come Merry. my father wept mother groan'd. behold the Philosopher's grave O Rose. thou art sick ! 40 222 58 179 109 88 295 59 59 ! ' 235 235 226 228 116 364 In futurity In Heaven the only Art of Living Is this a holy thing to see Justice hath heaved a sword to plunge Learn the laborious stumble of a Fool Leave. 121 in Albion's breast ! Little Fly Lamb who made .' I have been call'd Little .' they Madman. My My My My silks and fine array My Spectre around me night & day My title as a Genius thus is prov'd 90 12 186 218 : ! ! ! ! . you Joe O lapwing thou fliest around the heath O Reader. to whose fury the nations are O thou who passest thro' our vallies in O thou with dewy locks. ' : Memory. laden with fruit.Index of First Lines 38 1 PAGE If e'er I Grow to Man's Estate . Mary Bell thee ? had a Fairy in a Nut Phebus came strutting in Lo the Bat with Leathern wing Love and harmony combine Love seeketh not Itself to please Love to faults is always blind Fool. Merry Sparrow Mock 12 call . and a tongue O holy virgin clad in purest white O. O thou. Know. Rousseau Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice mother bore me in the southern wild mother groan'd. I say. my father wept on. you will If you play a Game of Chance.

175 171 103 177 282 126 228 . on the nursery floor Samson. created for destruction. come Some people admire the work of a Fool Sound the Flute Such visions have appear'd to me ! Soft deceit 160 177 320 215 235 ! & . when he unfolds it The Sussex Men are Noted Fools The sword sung on the barren heath The veiled Evening walked solitary down the western 8 237 174 222 316 353 .. ! 91 353 92 2 So 219 199 232 210 Sweet dreams. Sublime. Villain at the Gallows tree . Silent Night Since all the Riches of this World Sir Joshua praised Rubens with a smile Sir Joshua praises Michael Angelo Sir Joshua sent his own Portrait to Sleep Sleep I sing . how he 44 161 236 208 207 210 beauty bright Idleness Some look to see the sweet Outlines Some men.Index of First Lines 382 P loved Phebe drest PAGE me not as he lov'd his friends like beautie's Piping down 214 Queen 55 the valleys wild Pity would be no Prayers plow not 86 134 344 41 221 352 177 206 more Praises reap not Prepare. the strongest of the children of men. 171 . of heaven : Remove away that black'ning church S in Childhood. of books .. Graceful. prepare the iron helm of war Rafael. was foiled Silent. and 42 211 246 . Majestic.. form a shade Sweet Mary.. the first time she ever was there Swelled limbs. Wise Reader . Silence The The . Vision of Christ that thou dost see 99 87 378 204 173 hills. and shook the silent tower The Catterpiller on the Leaf The Caverns of the Grave I've seen The countless gold of a merry heart . with no outline that you can descrj' Terror house does roar in the That God is Colouring Newton does shew The Angel that presided o'er my birth The bell struck one.Iarybone The Good are attracted by ]Men's perceptions The harvest shall flourish in wintry weather The little boy lost in the lonely fen The look of love alarms The Maiden caught me in the Wild The modest Rose puts forth a thorn The only Man that e'er 1 knew The sun arises in the East The sun descending in the west The Sun does arise The Sun's Light. The cripple every step drudges &: labours The Door of Death is made of Gold The fields from Islington to l^.

Peace.Index of First Lines PAGE The wild winds weep 14 61 . . S3 23 47 . . . ! 323 ! Welcome. Rembrandt. 236 198 214 98 302 288 377 'Twas on a Holy Tnursday. . . thou art but a Dunce 167 56 . their innocent faces clean Tyger Tyger burning bright Venetian all thy Colouring is no more Want Matches ? Was I angry with Hayley who us'd me so ill ! 95 no . . Who is this. he finds out whether WTien early morn walks forth in sober grey When France got free. What 60 204 47 177 123 193 stranger. There's Doctor Clash There is a Smile of Love There souls of men are bought . in what Grove Whether on Ida's shady brow 321 91 . 43 . did'st play Thou waterest him with Tears Thy friendship oft has made my Three Virgins at the heart to ake break of day thou dost [conquer] the distrest Till 350 To a lovely mirtle bound To be or not to be To Chloe's breast young Cupid slily stole To find the Western path does pretend To forgive enemies H To Mercy. that where only 94 108 225 199 17 with unerring step dares tempt the wilds. this country has brought forth This frog he would a wooing ride This song to the flower of Flaxman's joy Thou fair-hair"d angel of the evening Thou hast a lap full of seed They Thou. Europe. little 169 57 61 many mayors 301 7 165 174 378 216 271 Kid. Pity. and Love To my Friend Butts I write To see a World in a Grain of Sand Truly. to this place men in women do require is Born of Mortal Birth is it Whate'er Whate'er to her she cannot know has Married a Wife. 'twixt fools & Knaves When H y finds out what you cannot do When I see a Rubens. . W'hen S'' Joshua Reynolds died W^hen the green woods laugh with the voice of joy When the voices of children are heard on the green When the voices of children are heard on the green W hen you look at a picture. the Arts grow Cold When old corruption first begun When silver Snow decks Susan's cloaths When silver snow decks Sylvia's clothes I . Correggio When a is done Man 191 16 321 215 227 192 97 321 When Klopstock England defied When my mother died was very young When Nations grow Old. My Satan. you always can see Where thou dwellest. & 269 170 220 sold These are the Idiots' chiefest arts said this mystery never shall cease This city &.

With happiness stretch'd across the hills Wondrous the Gods. . M.Index of First LhZ7tes 84 Why art thou silent & invisible Why of the sheep do you not learn peace Why should be bound to thee Why should I care for the men of thames Why was Cupid a Boy PAGE 168 . I ? 166 164 . 230 304 305 216 209 215 2CO 219 216 226 205 124 d Oxford : Printed at the Clarendon Press by Horace Hart. . Wife of the Friend of those I most revere . I "^ O? y I .A. come hither . more wondrous are the Men You all your Youth observ'd the Golden Rule You call me Mad 'tis folly to do so — You don't believe— I won't attempt to make ye You must agree that Rubens was a Fool You say reserve and modesty he has You say their Pictures well Painted be You think Fuseli is not a Great Painter. . Fm glad Youth of delight.

.

I .

na 2 8 1969 / PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRAF .

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