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reversed), showing early draft of some of the Songs of Experience
written circa 1793.
.See p. 149, Index to Rossetti M.S.

and other poems.

THE POETICAL WORKS
OF

WILLIAM BLAKE
A NEW AND VERBATIM TEXT FROM
THE MANUSCRIPT ENGRAVED AND
LETTERPRESS ORIGINALS
WITH

VARIORUM READINGS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL
NOTES AND PREFACES
BY

JOHN SAMPSON
LIBRARIAN IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL

OXFORD
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
1905

V

HENRY FROWDE,

M.A.

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

LONDON, EDINBURGH

NEW YORK AND TORONTO

4/40

P05
J UN 2

1366

1086280

/ Memoriam FREDERICK TORK POWELL ./.

.

prose. natural question whether most editors of Blake are competent to effect improvement in the works of a man of singular and individual genius. with one of these critics. that what he styles a disservice is done to the poet by reprinting his works finish so ' ' without correction. of Blake's poems. it may perhaps be pertinent no writer would have more strongly resented to recall that interference with his held that ' own mode of expression than he and that is holy ' every minute particular who ' no one can high as the original inventor. there desire to refer to his itself to their be some so curious as to form which commended restoration of text should be necessary at modern writer whose works have passed the case of a through The still in the author. however.GENERAL PREFACE TEXT I. including all lyrical and metrical pieces scattered throughout his prose works and collection visionary writings. literally reproduced from the original manuscript. and printed sources. First should be specified the difficulties encountered in It should be remembered that referring to the originals. The literary remains of William Blake fall into three broad and generally recognized divisions. The primary object has been to recover and present Blake's own version of his poetry without the Apart from the customary attempts at emendation. This edition furnishes readers with a new text. during Blake's lifetime few of his poems were either N . engraved. and The present work is a complete the prophetic books. poetry. on the surface. That such a all in may poems many editions may seem lie to require explanation. reasons.' Even if we assume.

these are found have always been private possessions. in which self never engraved or published. and Blake's various changes. mode of indicating his successive rearrangeand additions. but only a few copies were issued to friends. is and necessary Still greater poems which Blake himThe MSS. exact careful study before his A few misfinal intention can be accurately determined. in his desire to present an almost unknown poet to the public in as favourable a light as . to the be attributed inability of editors readings must also author in to decipher their own transcripts. followed by all later editors. Many of the poems are hastily or not over legibly written. originating in this way errors which tend to become fixed. accounts for a number of errors which have crept into the published texts.' ' ' A and more important source of error is to be changes which some of Blake's editors have It is comprehensible that Dante introduced. are still very deficient in Our great first national libraries Most editions of Blake. examples of the engraved works are widely scattered the libraries of private collectors in this country and in America. deliberately further found in the Gabriel Rossetti. His first work. and even when the courtesy of owners has permitted them to difficulties exist in be made use the case of the work of transcription is full of pitfalls for the copyist.' though the latter is clearly engraved in the original impressions of The Keys of the Gates. Again several pieces are left by their rough draft. ments of lines and stanzas.General Preface vi printed or published in the usual manner. that until its recent acquisition by the British Museum it might be regarded as generally inaccessible. and unfamiliarity with Blake's hand of. and since the various impressions of the same in V^ book often \ '""'^ differ from one another in contents arrangement. the collation of several copies if incorrect conclusions are to be avoided. ' ' misreading icy dungeons for my dungeons. was indeed produced in ordinary typography. and the little volume remained so rare. Thus we find Gilchrist. the Poetical Sketches.

the variorum readings given in the footnotes to the which this passion present edition will show the extent to It will be seen that for emendation has been carried. of sort become a poor palimpsest where each new short. which. as in the case of Broken Love/ impart to the poem a meaning undreamt of by its author. Liberties such as no one would venture on with Burns or Shelley. suffered scarcely a single poem or even epigram has been Words and phrases are to remain as Blake wrote it. . possible. new readings. are found in conjunction with professions Reference to of scrupulous regard for textual fidelity. which can hardly be regarded especially if as improvements. syntax. stanzas are transposed or omitted. even in to remove what he regarded as blemishes. in the ingenious and modest editor. ' welded piece has been created out of three shorter poems together by a line which is apparently the composition of Blake's text has. be made should for the perversions of more recent editors. and prosody are introduced Unauthorized titles are added without obvious reason. and readings destructive of sense. every lover of Blake must feel that the intended emendations not only are made on no consistent principle. involving additions of syllables and important changes of meaning. are everywhere taken with Blake by those who still profess their admiration for his 'exquisite metrical gift and rightness It is not a little bewildering to find one great of form. Two or more lyrics In one instance a new are printed as one.General Preface vii have considered himself justified in making grammatical and other changes in the endeavour Yet. changed. this case. and vice versa. while he introduces and ' the five short stanzas quoted no less than seven emendations of his own. but are often destructive of the happy grace and artless No equally valid defence can simplicity of the original.' poet and critic extolling Blake for the 'glory of metre' ' sonorous beauty of lyrical work in the two opening into lyrics of the Songs of Experience. owner has overwritten his own poetry.

as a rule. I have accordingly supplied my own punctuation though Blake's pointing. and. in his .' and lilly. while all earlier or cancelled readings are supplied in footnotes. Both in his system. he followed latter the was never ' or ' ed. "d practice the final have thought it of books using the be syllable better to preto vent any misconception on this point by retaining the 'd in the former case. while those in the engraved books are inserted in such a haphazard manner that. without points of any kind. or in the engraved form of songs found also in rough draft. In all existing editions the melody of many of the has been marred songs by ignoring the fact that Blake's use of participle or preterite. by supplying an accent which is not in the original. Blake's autograph MSS. are. engraved as well as in his manuscript writings. they would only serve to confuse the reader.' is an indication of the in which a particular passage was intended to Blake omitted apostrophes and inverted commas way be read.Ge7teral Preface viii In the present edition Blake's final version is uniformly adopted as the text.' but also the ' ' ' by fact that in some instances his own spelling is a valuable aid to the just reading of lines or stanzas. The spelling and capitalization of the original are adhered to throughout. and . That Blake himself attached some importance to the use of capitals for the sake of emphasis or artistic effect. if reproduced. in the latter. has been taken into consideration. is apparent from the careful manner in which he has added them as corrections in the revised versions of several of his MS. In the matter of punctuation the poet has left his editors almost entirely to their own resources. but based on manuscript and engraved only when he intended separately pronounced. In my retention of Blake's orthography I have been influenced not only by the desire to preserve as far as possible the colour of the original in such pleasant archaisms as desart.' in contemporary I the arbitrary.' tyger. where it occurs. poems. and occasionally. as in the third stanza of 'The Tyger.

4. this who it necessarily print no part of MS.General Preface ix . II. I have . since Blake's omission of quotation marks contributes to the difficulty of obscure poems by leaving it questionable to whom particular Instances of possible conspeeches should be assigned. the page or folio of the printed. add also. the source of every poem is stated. fusion arising from cause this may be noted The ' in which it is sometimes not apparent where quoted speeches end and Blake resumes the disEverlasting Gospel. Differences are noted in all cases except where they consist only of trivial variations of spelling. The detail is not a purely trivial one. excludes Wilkinson and Shepherd. or in the poem beginning ' My me night and day. I ' ' In the case of the Rossetti MS.' and ' emanation. where necessary. the names of the editors or The commentators by whom the poem has been printed. In every case where a poem has been left in rough draft.' — characters whose respective parts are not immediately obvious to those who with the visionary writings. reference to with precise book from which each is taken. his spectre./ it should be understood that when these are found in the text they have been added at the discretion of the editor.. capitals. or has been subjected to repeated alterations. of all 3. for example. The notes to the poems will have no dealings NOTES are of several kinds. All Blake's earlier or cancelled readings are given in footnotes in the order of composition. or manuscript 1. engraved.' in course in his own person spectre around persons of the his ' .' where the untabulated drama are the narrator. 2. or punctuation. These are followed by the variant readings editors who have not merely reprinted some existing text. In the first place. phrase all editors must of course be understood to refer to those only who print some version of a particular poem.

M. it is impossible to study the prophetical writings without becoming aware of the extreme precision of his In the books of Euclid such terms mystical terminology.' or 'parallel' are not more absolutely descriptive of certain mathematical figures or relations. for the light ' voyagings.' These not only Fayette.' or bolic meanings in the writings of Blake. W.' spectre. coupled occasionally with brief explanations of what I conceive to have been his meaning. indicating the successive changes by which he arrived at his final version. Interesting examples of the pains taken by Blake in perfecting his verses will be found in the notes to The Tyger.' 'pentagon.' 'equal. turn from the visionary writings after a hasty and half-shuddering glance.Ge7teral Preface endeavoured to explain the author's mode of composition by longer prefatory or appended notes.' natural religion of sym' hermaphrodite. emanation.' ' ' ' supply the student with data which. While Blake has been at little pains to supply the world with a chart of his mental 5. could only be ascertained after considerable study. than are such locutions as ' ' ' ' ' Jerusalem. Many poems would prove unintelligible were it not thrown upon them by the Prophetic Books. and the absolute uniformity with which definite symbolical figures are used to express definite conceptions. ' ' or 'The Mental Traveller' in the Pickering MS. with Mr. as 'radius. Readers of Blake's simpler poetry only who.' I have therefore endeavoured to make the poet his own interpreter by appending to these poems elucidatory passages from the Prophetic Books. The value of these references in the interpretation of difficult poems like My spectre around me in the Rossetti MS.' and The Everlasting Gospel. will not . but enable him to follow for himself the reasons that have led the editor to arrange lines or stanzas in the order in which they appear in the text. where the key to obscure mystical allusions is generally to be found. before him. were the actual MS.' will be ignorant of the consistency with which his self-invented system of mythology is expounded. Rossetti.

40 may only be understood through the associations of the same figures in The Four Zoas and Jerusalem. Mad Song' {Poetical Sketches) and Infant Sorrow' {Songs of Experience). I As ences to lines or passages repeated in different pieces. I have similarly illustrated Blake's epigrams on art and artists by quotations from prose writings where his opinions or prejudices are expressed with his customary energy and conviction. Blake never seems to have regarded the privately printed Poetical Sketches as one of his actual publications. and with some knowledge of the written around them. Blake's of these repetitions have been adduced as evidence poverty of thought and language in Mr. it may exfrom which identical the that to out writings point proper pressions are borrowed were not published by their author. at give also occasional indications of the date or place referwell as cross as were which particular poems written. And even in such comparatively simple With happiness lines as the verses to Butts beginning ' stretch'd across the hills.' If to make out the parts. ARRANGEMENT most of the existing have fallen under the would groupings of Blake's poems are to blend and poet's lash for those whose chiefest arts not define the parts.' the allusion to the ' rock ' and ' cave in 1. 7. III. ' While interpretation is here restricted to passages in the seem to require explanation. the editor lyrical poems which may claim that the parallelisms from the Prophetic Books have been selected after many readings of the visionary chief literature writings.' as he assures There is some reason to suppose that ' ' ' ' . work to another. has a line been transferred from one printed nor was it ' ' and as I have elsewhere explained. Henry Gay Hewlett's be ingenious article in the Contemporary Review. probably contemplated by him that they would In only a single instance.General Preface xi pass unnoticed. that of the ever see the light. 6.

during which Blake wrote and engraved the shorter Prophetic Books.' are arbitrarily used to comprehend pieces collected from a number of undefined sources belonging to widely different periods. extend over a period of more than twenty years and are of the most diverse character. This arrangement is of course a bibliographical. rather than a purely historical one. In one case at least the heading Later Poems is made to include a ' * song written in Blake's early youth. It is also in cases a valuable aid to the dating of many particular pieces. consists chiefly of lyrical poems. about 1793.' culty when such editorial it becomes a task of no titles as ' Ideas of little diffi- Good and Evil. 'everyone in its own identity. the earliest poetic entries in which antedate the publication of the Songs of Experience and the latest postdate most of the Prophetic Books. whether letterpress. including the original drafts of many of the Songs of Between the first and second section interExperience. Before more highly developed mysticism. drafts of certain lyrics afterwards transcribed into the Pickering MS. The three broad sections into which its contents fall are however clearly marked and occasion no confusion.Xll us. vened a period of about seven years. a plan which has the advantage of illustrating how poems found in juxtaposition have often been suggested by or grown out of one another.' or Later Poems.' ' 'Miscellaneous Poems. While the contents of the Pickering MS.. present arrangement conserves the integrity of the various books. are obviously all of a kind and written about the same time. or in manu- The script. those of the larger Rossetti MS. written The first of these. which were .* is Geiteral Preface the wise man's aim. engraved. The latter is indeed of the nature of a notebook.' In each of these groups the poetical contents are printed in the order in which they occur in the original. or engraved as part of we reach the epigrams. The earlier pieces in the second section include a few poems written in a strain of among them first Jerusalem.

is given.. and Blake's successive arrangements tabulated and classified. portion at least of Jerusalem and Milton have the we third as the section.' * notes to this book I have drawn attention to a hitherto ignored publication of Blake.' This may of course have been merely an experimental draft of a notice for insertion in the newspapers in case he thought fit to publish as a pamphlet with this down in his paragraphs jotted hand. or A * smaller autograph collection. fragments of Lastly.' I have is described for the first time. the two later only including the In my verses which distinguish the issue For the Sexes. Book may be the means of bringing this lost work The attention of the curious bibliophile may also to light. containing anecdotes of Artists. it On title the the other may have been printed . the letters to Butts. and the Pickering MS.. also supplied brief bibliographical descriptions of the manuscript and engraved Prophetic Books. a companion volume to The Gates of Paradise . it is not improbable that notebook. be directed to the entry in the Rossetti MS. (p. his History of Ettgland for Children. 56) that • This day is Publish'd Advertizements to Blake's Canter- bury Pilgrims from Chaucer. ' ' The — the latest of Blake's surviving Everlasting Gospel poems with the possible exception of The Keys of the ' ' Gates. and have made some corrections in the dates of their composition or Comparison of a number of copies has publication. and some had been written. All accessible have copies of the Songs of Innocence and of Experience been collated. complete index of the contents of the Rossetti MS. established the fact that there were three several editions of The Gates of Paradise.' In the bibliographical prefaces to the various sections I have tried to give fairly full and accurate accounts of hitherto been printed books or manuscripts which have somewhat slightly or incorrectly described.General Preface xiii an overflow from Blake's marginalia to Reynolds' Discoursesl the Pickering MS. and possibly the list of its contents recovered from the MS.

D. Shury. which may be traced to a loose statement of Gilchrist's. case. BLAKE'S ILLUMINATED PRINTING It is to Blake's singular mode of publication that must attribute the scanty recognition accorded we to his lifetime. printing. said to have been published by Johnson in 1 791. and of his extreme indigence which prohibited him from bringing out the book in letterpress at his own cost. by the same printer. Works referred to by Blake himself. that Blake to resort to the laborious expedient of was driven engraving and Verisimilitude is printing the Songs by his own hand. preserved perhaps. and the engraved Book of Outhoon. IV. but of which no trace is known. as is so often the by being bound up with contemporary tracts.' a detail of but little relevance when it is remembered that the engraving. Among other lost works of Blake may be mentioned the first book of the French Revohition. In the first place it may be observed that the supposition . are The Book of Moonlight.General Preface xiv for him possibly same manner as the Descriptive Catalogue. According to the commonly received account it was in consequence of his failure to secure a publisher for the Songs of Innocence in the ordinary way. and colouring of the first issue ' occupied an entire year. and Barry : a Poem.' The circumstances under which he first conceived the idea ' of producing his books by his invention of relief engraving possess therefore much more than the merely technical interest attaching to a new and curious art process. added by the picture of the poet's wife going out with their last half-crown to buy the necessary materials. to be without foundation. as his public restricted to the few friends or patrons who necessarily was had poetic genius during his own obtained copies of his works from the Author and Printer. and that a copy in the may still be discovered. I believe this story. N.

Blake. regardless of toil which he loved. Sketches.xv General Preface that Blake desired to put his Songs into circulation through the medium of a publisher is altogether at variance with that characteristic independence which led him throughout his life to do most things for himself in his own way. a bookseller copies through While there is no positive evidence that such was the case it is not improbable that he himself may have destroyed the greater part of this small edition. The method then in vogue admitted of artistic embellishments steel or wood engravings. stiffly or clumsily placed in juxtaposition to the surrounding of the text. and the same attitude of mind which caused him on being shown ' a number of the Mechanic's Magazine to exclaim these doubtless led him to regard as things we artists HATE in which his conceptions were him book of a unworthy ' ! inadequately presented by a merely mechanical and somewhat unlovely process. and disdainful of external In the case of Blake's earlier work. type and colouring into one harmonious whole with the happiest only in the shape of and most exquisite effect. printed in letterpress at the expense of Mathew and Flaxman. was an artist as well as a poet. to conclude that Blake brought more reasonable out his books himself by his own process. Relating the story of the invention Blake's biographers have represented of this process. the Poetical assistance. His deliberate exclusion of the Poetical Sketches from the catalogue of his works offered a list which includes books produced by for sale in 1793 — ordinary engraving as well as seems to It is me by * ' illuminated printing — to support this view. handed to the author to publish or sell privately as he saw no attempt to dispose of the fit. as Smith tells us. he seems to have made or even to sell them personally. were. because no for him the new publisher or printer could have produced kind of illustrated work which he had in his mind. it must be remembered. the sheets of which. design. rather in the it . while that of Blake interwove text.

" .. " who- ever will not have them. Sicknakers. this engraving was revealed him mode of a vision by the spirit of his favourite brother Robert. Blake may have solved a problem which had long occupied his to in Striking confirmation of the fact that at least thoughts. at the head of the recto of the ninth " " " leaf Illuminating the Manuscript Ay.. They all would Print off two thousand. ing to the account derived from Smith. in a dream or daydream." " Then. & I was my speaking of the Women who people but their nasty hearts. abilities. Blake that may have had already unlikely Innoce^ice appear in Songs of seems not in view the it perhaps completion of a series of songs for children and Dr. I would the writing Engraved instead of Printed. and sell them a hundred pounds a piece. known as An Island m the Moon. profits of such a work — some new kind of illuminated printing is found in the early MS." The the last unfortunate loss of one or more leaves preceding page may have deprived us of a description of the literary contents of the Cynic But (or book which the speaker Quid the Blake) designed since three of the most to bring out in this manner.General Preface xvi a happy accident than as a deliberate attempt Accord- light of to deal with a clearly realized artistic difificulty. me my my abilities." " " Then. poor devils. characteristic of the rough draft in this MS. are eat up with envy —they envy your envy abilities. imperfectly. ." said — ' : she. . entirely." I was at Mrs. Watts' Divine Moral Songs for suggested by . that would be excellent. are of higher abilities than their nasty filthy ' Selves. all in three Volumes folio. and there is no particular reason to doubt that." said she.. five years before the publication of the — he had contemplated and not without a view to the superior Songs of Linocetice it may be noted. In the preface to that popular book Watts . This passage begins. " . Children. will be ignorant fools & will not deserve to live." said he. dear & all they hate . & at have every other leaf a high finished print.

Though nowhere definitely stated by the poet himself. provided that it exceeds in elegance all former methods.' and it is likely enough that Blake may have rightly himself to be this destined genius. as I find. more ornamental. the Author is sure of his reward.' says Blake. that the subjects of several of Blake's songs felt ' are identical with those of Watts. while it produces works at less than one-fourth of the expense. has invented a method of Printing both Letter-press and ' ' in a style. informs us that W. any before discovered. and perform much better. he styles this process illuminated printing. It has been pointed out by Mr. If a method of Engraving Printing which combines the Painter and the Poet is a phenomenon worthy of public attention. Blake's Original Stereotype was 1788'. first of his works colophon to the Ghost of Abel^ 1822.' a phrase the first ' evidently suggested by the passage quoted above from the Island in the Moon. as suggest that this illuminated SAMPSON it of printing seems to cannot be intended to printing was cheaper than . 1793. and than grand.' while noted that the moral it with which may the also be ' Chimney songs somewhat tags ' Holy Thursday. such as I could wish some happy and condescending genius would undertake for the use of children. but since this statement cannot possibly refer to an earlier ' issue of the same sibylline leaflet. The Author. who.' prototype. In Blake's prospectus 'To the Public' of October. the last of Blake's Prophetic Books. recall the manner of Blake's didactic Sweeper.' and other abruptly conclude. uniform.' parative require Blake's observation as to the com- mode cheapness of this some explanation. we have no grounds for questioning Smith's statement was the that the Songs of Innocefice in engraved this A manner. anticipated me in this conjecture. Hewlett. it probably means that plate of the Songs was engraved in the year preceding the publication of the completed book.Ge7ieral Preface xvii ' modestly refers to his songs as a slight specimen.

' the somewhat illiterate. some degree of intellectual sympathy with an uncommon mind and temper is desirable. rather than petty contemporary gossip. Such a task should not be undertaken with slight equipment. LIFE V. Blake's real life was a mental and spiritual one. Little is known of the life of William Blake.General Preface xviii ordinary typography. are made the foundation of an endeavour to trace this mental and spiritual development. and printer. And the only true biography must be that in which own writings. of little consequence.' was capable now and then of happy flights of fancy which are to be sought for as oases in the Sahara of his writings. To understand him.' ' some deeper study than has yet been attempted of the sources from which he received and absorbed his ideas — notably the influence of the Wesleyan revival. but amiable enthusiast. that to produce books in Blake's manner the author must be. as he was. To some of those who have . though our comfortably veiled from us in several existing It may be confessed at once that with regard biographies. of our knowledge however. the manner in which the doctrines of the French Revolution affected one who. although the very opposite of reactionary. his precise debt to Swedenborg. engraver. and later. and a larger visionary endowment his than that which he esteemed the merely deceptive faculty We need too of seeing with. of course. ' The slightness of the events of his material career is. his own artist. was printed separately by two different processes. though 'slightly touched. to what Blake called his vegetative existence we are ignorance is * almost wholly in the dark. fication should. The quali- be understood. Probably what he meant was that the engraving and printing of lettering and design simultaneously less expensive than intaglio engraving and letterpress. was antagonistic to the scientific spirit in all its works and ways. who. or in a spirit of condescension towards ' our good Blake. and not through. the eye.

were Blake's remaining works destroyed by a new Tatham. in the fullest sense. as also in his engraved works or in various facsimiles. by him for the expression of his philosophical and religious views. letters. published and unpublished writings. ' ' Blake's pictorial art may be studied at in the British first Museum hand from or in private collections.' To represent this mental. and criticisms examples preserved ba . This true line of investigation first apprehended by Wilkinson. Blown back they blind the mocking eye 'And But still That Blake's nor is it less in Israel's life was paths they shine. borrowing the phrase which Shelley applied to his own. still remain a sufficing monument to his genius. Autobiographical. poet. Despite the destruction of the of the MSS. grasping at such pieces of self-revelation as the writings afford. the converse is rather the case.' to himself a clear that it harmony was also is undoubted. and artistic harmony is the difficult work awaiting him who would present Blake aright. every sand becomes a Gem Reflected in the beams Divine. studying the influences which touched him and the degree in which they were modified by a naturally heretical mind and tracing step by step through the surviving Prophetic Books the evolution of the extraordinary system of mythology created . and finely expressed with entire insight and sympathy by the author of The City of Dreadful Night. an impassioned pursuit of virtue. MS. ' moral. delineating Blake in his threefold character of artist. has been carried further by Swinburne in that Essay which. and I. marginalia. and mystic.General Preface xix essayed to follow with more or less success Blake's almost untrodden path. His views on the province of art. would The chief sources of our knowledge of Blake's life are particularized below. much autobiographical material greater part survives in his pictures. Book.

and Laocoon. the shorter rhythms being evidently suggested by the choruses in Samson.' of 1810. ' ' We ' elegances terse in the youthful Poetical Sketches. like shadows. as Malkin field was of the Elizabethans. & all the troops. and epigrams in his MS. the Barry: « P^^w must unfortunately be numbered lost works. except in the purely imitative Poetical Sketches.' or may century in the contemptuous reference to tinkling rhymes and tells us. among in the aphorisms in the in his sibylline leaflet. in his Advertisement or Public Address. His attitude to eighteenthin lines To the verse be noted his Muses. in the jottings ' copy of Reynolds' Discourses. are expounded at length in his Descriptive Catalogne of his exhibition of 1809. continued but a more lasting and potent influence was that of Milton. and in TiricI dj\d Thel\ the preface to Jeriisalem showing that in this attempt at a new cadence Blake was deliberately following the example set by the author of Paradise Lost. Book. thro' the orient gates of the eternal day. fled to their abodes. In the of literature Blake's early study. are almost entirely his own. and in . time the secret child Descended War of winter ' ceas'd. which. reminiscent of the Ode on the may ' Morning * of Christ's Nativity The deep What : — came .' Blake's Prophetic Books tell us what is known of his ' mystical religion and philosophy. . Even Blake's phrases and subject-matter.XX Geiieral Preface of schools of painters. to which may be attributed the metrical experiments of the Prophetic Books. meet here also with the imitations of Macpherson. occasionally be traced to the same source.' Minor influences may be detected in the epigrams in the manner of Wolcot in the lyrics from the Prophetic Books which often recall the hymns of Charles Wesley. It is in the message. as in the opening lines of Ezirope. the grotesque Hudibrastic lilt of The Everlasting Gospel.

for whose book Blake designed the frontispiece. Paul's Epistle to the Romans can they be regarded as the practice of literature for its own sake.' impugning * the artist's sanity offensive in indignantly referred to by Blake written in the Rossetti MS. terms. portrait and landscape painter. of Bristol. twelve years his junior. The facts there given were evidently derived from the poet himself. This 1806. The value of Blake's letters to Butts. is enhanced by the fact that they belong to the period when he conceived and in part produced his J ertisalem. while among other entries in his private journal are notes of several transactions made on Blake's These documents are now Mr. Linnell left certain memoranda for Butts. was written when Blake was forty-nine years of age. of which almost nothing is known. assistance his * we owe the Inventions to the been executed great To work of Blake's old his age. Johnes. contains a critique of Mr. Book of Job/ designs which had but were only engraved at the Mr. Blake's Exhibition. John Linnell. was introduced to Blake by Mr. of Hafod. 1809. obviously worth As lies. A short but valuable account of Blake's early life and literary and artistic predilections is given by Malkin in his Father's Memoirs of His Child. in 1818 (not 1813 as stated by Gilchrist). and Doctor Malkin. Book illustrate Blake's and patrons while certain of them (as perhaps cxiv) throw light upon his private life. 3. behalf.General Preface rather than in the xxi manner of its delivery. and thenceforward remained Blake's steadfast friend and supporter. George Cumberland. Hunt's Examiner for Sunday. in the possession of . This attack in several of the is epigrams 4. dated January 4. junior. little whom written to a friend to he could speak without fear of misconception. great works Milton and Most of the epigrams in the MS. that their chief as S. referring to the poet. September 17. instance of his friend. in an introductory letter to relations with his Thomas friends . 2. John Linnell.

which I have not been able to see. the younger Tatham met Blake and. is limited to the extracts quoted therefrom by Swinburne and others. 1887. Aders on December 10. Blake's acquaintance through Linnell. Tatham 's misstatement of the date of Blake's birth (which misled and Swinburne) does not suggest habits of accuracy . became one of made the small group of neophytes. My knowledge of Tatham's Memoir. 1862This MS. 6. on religious grounds/ This person wrote a memoir of Blake which he appears to ' have parted with for purely secular reasons. and is now the property of an owner who prefers that no description of its contents be given. possess the interest of having been derived from Catherine Blake.General Preface xxii 5. who met him later in life. which no one seems to have j^'jo passim). Ellis and Yeats. of Charles Heathcote Tatham. Tatham acquired. life. who. as we are told. it reappeared in the Blamire sale in 1863. to a London dealer. refers to him as a man on whose word no reliance could be placed. presumably importance. however. On the death of the poet's wife in October. thought worth printing in full. Frederick Tatham. His diary and letters contain accounts of Blake in his last years. Henry Crabb Robinson. or appropriated. had been an of real inmate of the miniature painter's household. 1825. Lost sight of for some time. and fruitlessly sought by Gilchrist. unfortunately for the world. The copy of Jeriisalem with which it is bound up was re-sold at Sotheby's in June. 1831. when a youth of twenty or twenty-one. architect. has been used and quoted by Swinburne. which he afterwards destroyed. bound in with an illuminated copy of Jerusalem (see Rossetti Papers. interesting and valuable both as to his mystical opinions (not very clearly or sympathetically apprehended . though they do not appear to have gleaned from this source any new facts Those given. and others. for a short time before her death. then in his fiftieth year. the whole of Blake's literary remains. Richard Garnett. first met Blake at the home of Mr. sculptor and miniature painter. who was the son About 1825.

Alexander Gilchrist began his Life " Pictor Lgnoitts. and Reynolds. the poet were still living. is the contrary view. sufficient refutation of among which is This gaily and mainly derived from a biography of Blake. in Rossetti's words. 10. Samuel Palmer. sanity. prehends Memoirs the time of Roubiliac. to that of Scant justice has hitherto Fuseli. and lofty character. Blake's genius. when Linnell. which has been not inaptly described 8. Most Eminent British Painters. i860. and Architects. Hogarth. and the Annual Register for the same year. the Gentle- Yeats' mans Magazine. i. most candid biography written in the English lan- as the title-page states. This contemporary one who knew picture drawn with intelligent sympathy by him well is of the utmost value and Smith's tribute to . which gives for the ' time the greater part of the material upon which Cunningham and Gilchrist based their biographies." Gilchrist. coming from the pen of one who was the reverse of a hero-worshipper. comof several contemporary Artists from The second volume. In 1828 John Thomas Smith. as the guage.Ge7ieral Preface by xxiii the diarist) and as to his views on the poetry of WordsThese passages are reprinted together in Ellis and worth. Memoir ( Works. Smith's first acquaintance with Blake dates from his early days at the Mathews' to the close of the poet's life. Sculptors. rather irreverently written little life is Smith's Nollekins. 1827. lived next door to Carlyle and was as near him in other ' . Short notices of his Blake 7. and Blake. of Blake. published his Nollekins and his Times.' been done to this admirable little life. 142-150). Allan In published his Lives of tJie Cunningham 1830 9. and while it shows no particular research or regard for accuracy has preserved a few anecdotes of Blake which probably would have otherwise disappeared. Keeper of the Prints and Drawings in the British Museum. and a few other friends and contemporaries of About Richmond. Tatham. life and works appeared in the Literary Gazette. Flaxman. died August 12.

if factorily dealt with by Gilchrist. daughters . James O'Neill. a certain John O'Neill. or to discuss in greater detail aspects of Blake's life which they consider unsatisOf much importance. also London.' which gives the portrait a lack of proportion. when Gilchrist died on the 30th of November. his grandfather. was completed by his widow. was published in 1880. having assumed the name of Blake borne by his second wife. with some new letters. Life. This account. the former supplying a supplementary ' and editing the Selections from ' chapter to the biography. aided by D. Ellis and Yeats' Memoir. 1893. prose and verse. and W. M. 1 86 1 The book. published in the same year. The letters to Blake's Butts. substantiable on good evidence. G. however. is at variance with another. on the authority of two ladies. and the latter contributing a serviceable list of his pictures and engravings. handsomely produced. first given in Mr. and settled in the took previous union.General Preface xxiv respects as he could manage. Practically the whole of the first volume had been written. his son by a name of Blake. though his manner of writing sometimes leaves it doubtful whether he is embroidering supplementing our knowledge or merely more simply narrated by earlier bio- facts graphers. of Rathmines. Storey's William Blake. achieved its main purpose in popularizing the poet. and embellished with facsimiles of Blake's own glorious designs. which was published two years later. prefixed to their large edition of the Works. where he became the father of the poet. as the editors state. Alfred T. is the discovery that Blake was of Irish ancestry. appear here A for the first time. II.' There influence of his model. and is his style betrays the also a tendency to dwell ' unduly upon unimportant incidents such as the Visionary Heads. to supply new facts. and in preparing the way for SwinGilchrist incorporates burne's great critical appreciation. most of the material drawn from the preceding sources. Rossetti. Dublin. and the first eight chapters printed. where. second This edition. 1 800-1 803. . is especially intended.

Hewlett's curious essay in depreciation.' nowhere claims interpret the Irish descent. Rossetti^ Laurence Housman and W. Yeats to their editions of the poems. Storey's la. following I is a list EDITIONS of the editions quoted in the footwhere use has been made of the refer to those only original printed and manuscript sources. Maclagan and Russell's Introduction to their reprint of Jerusalem. Biographies of Blake derived from the above sources.xxv Geiieral Preface John Blake. in the of the author article ' hired a villain to bereave my life. Willimn Blake. entitled Imperfect Genius {^Contemporary Review. and that the English poet. claiming to be of William second cousins of the poet. In pure aesthetic criticism D. more concisely stated. Rossetti's prefatory notes to the in Selections Gilchrist.' in to these editors' interpretation of Blake's mystical writings. VI. Character. Ellis reference to mysterious and Yeats Hayley's having the sense of his having Blake of his means of Flaxman with to deprive conspired villain with Hunt. B. and Genius. and where the . Blake's descent is traced to the Somersetshire family with which the Commonwealth Without attempting the Admiral was connected. but of interest as embodying personal appreciations of Blake's work. The notes. 1^93. of Southampton. the hired the and livelihood. in also be noticed. his Life. Messrs. who in one instance describes himself as ' Blake. G. James Thompson's printed ' ' Essay. 1895. in Richard Garnett's monograph in the Portfolio. it may be pointed out that Blake's father was certainly a Protestant. should ' ' An elaborate attempt to expound Blake's symbolic system in detail is contained in Ellis and Yeats' edition of the Works. vol. 1905. and in the introductions of W. identify I refer elsewhere Examiner. and Swinburne's masterpiece hold the first place. Henry G. and. difficult task of reconciling these rival claims. 28). M. will be found in Alfred T.

Esq.. authority. Volume ii contains poems from Poetical Sketches and Songs of Innocence and of Experience.) W. in Photolithography with In two volumes. excellent preface by J. (Dedication of the Poem of the Grave. . Heath Malkin.' but as a matter of fact Wilkinson's The first letterpress edition of the emendations are somewhat fewer than those of Dante Gabriel 4. Rees. in facsimile by W. London. 16°. Wilk. . the translator of Swedenborg.General Preface xxvi given might for this reason be understood readings possess some to authority.' a youth. the text of this edition is described as 'much altered. Malk. furnished me by Mr. Book. M. 1. . London. These readings. printed presumably from copies supplied by Blake to the author. Sculptors.S. 1829-1833. London. Newbery. Life of William Blake. Blake's Poems from the was probably made about Preface to later editors. To Cunningham's corrupt version of The Tyger may on MS. Hurst. Contains five songs from Poetical Sketches and Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Poems quoted by 1863. i.A. White.. London. By Longman. In the Dictionary of National Biography and elsewhere. a portion of Rossetti's original transcript of MS. Garth Wilkinson. are here quoted for the first time.A. Murray. Gilchrist in the first own works volume of the Life. Macmillan. The Lives of the most eminent British Painters. by Allan Cunningham. Malkin's version of 'The Tyger' contains an interesting variant reading of 1. many Songs of Innocence and of Experience. J. Rossetti MS. 12. 8°. and Orme. 6 vols. Benj. ' Gil. . Shewing the two Contrary States of the Human Soul. 8°.' with Selections from his poems and other writings by the late 5. 1839. Ctmn. Alexander Gilchrist. ' See Bibliographical This transcript was still Rossetti when 1847. Vol. J. and Architects. W. R"^. . F. Illustrated from Blake's Linton and a few of Blake's original plates. John 2. Edited with a short but Songs. A Father's Memoirs of his Child. 1806. Pickering and 3.' which has be traced the second or later version ' ' ' deceived so of Blake's editors. Pictor Ignotus. 8°.

Comprising So7tgs of Innocence and of Experience^ together with Poetical Sketches. and some copyright poems not in any other edition.' A i^See Dante Essay. London.] George Bell and Sons. Gabriel Rossetti.) 7. Edited with a Prefatory and Miscellaneous. 1874. all of which were Songs of Innocence and [q/"] (reprinted in 1868) published by B. given by D. Book. By illustrations from Critical With WMR's Blake's designs in facsimile. William Muir's coloured facsimiles of the Songs of Innocence and the Songs of In the footnotes to The Gates of Paradise Experience. by far the most accurate . Shepherd was not able to print in his edition any of the poems from the Rossetti MS. Contains poems quoted by Swinburne from Blake's published works and from the Rossetti MS. The Poems of William Blake. [Aldine Edition. Basil Montague Pickering. W. 1883. Charles Alp-ernon alterations. ' Poems printed in the Selections from Blake's works. Lyrical in This popular edition has been frequently reprinted. The Volume same. with other poems. From the latter source Swinburne prints several poems omitted by Rossetti. M. 1874. ID. is. 1868. C. Muirs Mr. and not ' to these and infrequently adopts the readings of Wilkinson. in the second volume of Gilchrist's Life. DGR. but retains others. Mr. Szvinh. 8°. 165. make so many William Blake: Swinburne. With reference other attempts at emendation introduced by him into Blake's text we may note Rossetti's later statement that he would not now.xxvH General Preface 6. Memoir by William Michael Rossetti. 8°. Muir's text of the prologue and of the . London. however. I refer also to facsim. Hotten. London. p. J. The Poetical Works of William Blake. WMR. Rossetti rejects some Rossetti. 9. The readings quoted my footnotes are taken from a copy of the fourth edition. of the changes made in his earlier transcript. including the greater portion of The ' Everlasting Gospel. ii. if the work were ' before him to be done. 1866 and that of the Poetical Sketches. His text of the poems included of any hitherto published. coloured and plain. 1868. Shep. G. 8". Pickering.' 8. This edition collects in a single volume Richard text of the Heme Shepherd's earlier Experience.

while part has been derived from Mr. Poetic. R. (e. I An Kegan quote this edition only for the variant reading in the song taken from MS. Purports to be a verbatim and literatim reprint. Housman's hands. and some of their remarks WBY. 4°. Russell The and Maclagan. Selections from the writings of William Blake with an introductory essay by Lawrence Housman. since this 14. W. G. Russell and E. his facsimile of Admirable as facsimiles of Blake's coloured illustrations. 1893. The Poems Yeats. Prophetic Books of Edited by E. These editors. left by himself. and Co. Ellis' transcripts of the MS. Maclagan]. For some of their text apparently Messrs.General Preface xxviii ' of the Gates Keys ' prefixed in ordinary typography to The Gates of Paradise. lay claim to special knowledge produced by the evocations of symbolic magic (i. Book and The Four Zoas.' and a Memoir and Interpretation by and Critical. LH. G. g. Symbolic. Ellis somewhat confusing arrangement In this edition the of the Poems may perhaps be due to the editors' scheme of interpretation. The Works of William Blake. Paul. Edwin John and William Butler Yeats. 1893. William Blake. Edited with Lithographs of the Illustrated Prophetic Books. 11. In 1893. Maclagan and A. London. . Ellis and Yeats have trusted to the Aldine edition. ' EY. but contains such misreadings as course for race. B. Apparently intended as the first of a series of typographical reprints of Blake's Prophetic Books. Russell \on cover A. in expounding Blake's system. London. Jerusalem. was in Mr. D. Large 8°. 1904. Island in the Moon. Edited by Lawrence and 8°. In three Bernard Quaritch. volumes. B. 13. these reproductions cannot be followed with any certainty for the text of the poems. and passim) 12.] [The Bullen. Trench. Bullen. Triibner. 288 ' ' 299) would seem to suggest their belief that the possession of these occult powers enables them to produce a text through which Blake's mind is reflected more accurately than in the MSS. B. 8°. R. Reprinted by Routledge (1905).' ' . London. some respects a more ii. D. of William Blake. correct text than the preceding. Muses' Library.' and By his own hand ' shall surely die' for ' By his own law ' ' shall surely die.

and an accurate produce Mr. White has for the past three years collaborated with tion of his share in the work. W. I owe the correct text of the songs. White the correct text of the smaller Pickering MS. must have been ' produced. photographs .. after a study of the symbolic references in the couplets explanatory of the plates. and answering a very great number of questions of detail. not in 1793. To Mr. White for the two facsimiles of the MS. John Linnell. can best be made clear by an explana- Entering into my desire to final text of Blake's poems. and details of copies of The Gates of Paradise. t>ut somewhere nearer 1810. of Brooklyn. Linnell has also furnished me with Linnell family. White. which led me. New York. I owe also to Mr. and other Blake originals in the possession of the Mr. to form the conclusion that the two issues For the Sexes.. with gratitude that I acknowledge the invaluable aid rendered me in various ways by collectors and students of the works of Blake. the Pickering MS.. as well as the description of this MS. White's conjecture that The Gates of Paradise belonged to a later date than had been previously supposed. I am indebted to Mr.. of obscurely written lines in The Four Zoas. the owner of the Rossetti MS. and other Blake originals. A.' in which the poems first appear. Lastly. Book. not omit to explain that it was Mr. which after me in this a disappearance of over thirty years was opportunely I should rediscovered while this edition was in the press. and passages quoted in the footnotes from The Four Zoas.xxix Gene7^al Preface VII much In a work involving reference to material not any public library an editor is dependent upon the goodwill and co-operation lying ready to hand in necessarily It is of the owners of precious books and manuscripts. The Ghost of Abel. endeavour by furnishing me with exact transcripts of the poems in the MS. Book given in this edition. My debt to Mr. junior.

known as An Island in the Moon. W. containing The Passions and another piece. Mr. I am Mr. C. To Signora of Tiriel. B.General Preface XXX and has replied with great minuteness to several questions of mine relating to different works of Blake. Mr. Beach for research work in the British Museum in the early stages of this book. Bernard lifelong friend and patron. to Mr. in the to Mr. G. Fortescue of the British first place. and Mr. the of the Pickering me with his re- French Revolution. I am indebted to Mrs. Russell illustrates the me by and happier relationship between the two artists. as well as extracts from original letters of Flaxman throwing light upon the cause of Blake's estranged attitude towards his A former friend. have to thank Captain Butts for the loan of Blake's letters to his grandfather. I have to acknowledge the courtesy of the various owners of copies of the Songs of hmocence and the Songs of ' ' Bibliographical Preface (pp. Mr. earlier I Quaritch for lending me the MS. 218) Mr. the artist's I am obliged to Mr. My thanks are also due to Miss Isabelle Linnell and Mr. Madan to . M. William Linnell. . which has since come to light. John Lawler has been good enough to supply me with information as to Blake originals sold by auction. thanks for her kindness Helen Rossetti Angeli I tender my in sending me from Italy the early and curious Blake MS. since presented by him to the Fitzwilliam Museum. Thomas Butts. for collations Mr.Frederick Macmillan has taken which great pains to clear up the question of the process by reprints of the plates of the Songs were reproduced in Gilchrist's Life. Fairfax Murray the loan of the autograph MS. and my Rossetti kindly furnished collection of the lost book. details of the several impressions. courteously sent hitherto unprinted poem (see p. A. Experience^ enumerated in 72-77). John Pearson in several communications has given me the benefit of his expert knowledge of original issues and works of Blake. and also MS. I owe to the kindness of Mr. Cowley of the Bodleian Library for a grateful courteous response to questions submitted by me.

for the care and patience with which they have texts ' ' minute particulars of this book. cursory comparison of existing A showed me the impossibility of giving a reliable version of Blake. Professor John Macdonald Mackay has been good enough proofs and prefaces. E. Librarian to the Biological Library. Yates. in a somewhat light-hearted mood. fain to dedicate to his which. Lyster and Miss D. has contributed greatly to the ac- curacy of this edition. given by carried out the generously at the outset of my task. The of death Professor York Powell me of untimely deprived of advice and him so advantages encouragement. and especially Mr. without preliminary collation of the original engraved and manuThis view was accepted by the Delegates script sources. In concluding this long list of obligations I desire to add that it was at the suggestion of the late Professor York to read certain of my Powell that I undertook. of the Press. 20. JOHN SAMPSON. especially by Miss M. Nov. Peter Cowell of the Liverpool Public Library for obtaining for me the loan of certain rare books. The help rendered by the members of my class in bibliography. am favourite poets. 1905. To Mr. Harkness Graham. even in the form of selections. and the aid in Wilberforce various ways given me by Miss May Allen. assistant in the University Library. . T. S. and the present critical edition undertaken besides the smaller work at first proposed. I Liverpool. the preparation of a small edition of Blake's Lyrical Poems for the Clarendon Press. E. in the reading and correction of the proofs.Ge7teral Preface xxxi Museum for personal replies to like inquiries and to Mr. . I have pleasure in acknowledging the help of Mr. I wish to thank the authorities of the Press. and robs me now of much of the pleasure with which I bring to completion this edition though of one of his it be. Milford. H. imperfect memory. Eames I owe information regarding the unique example of Blake's Milton in the Astor-Lenox Library.

• . . .. ... ... . .. I roam'd from .. .... Poems from the Poetical Sketches 2 Bibliographical Preface To To To To To To 5 Spring Summer Autumn .. 17 . . . ... '5 . Norway ...... . .. . .. .. Appendix I King Edward the Third Prologue.. ... .. field to field Song: Song: My silks and fine array Song: Love and harmony combine Song Song : : love the jocund dance Memory... .. .14 14 Song: Fresh from the dewy hill.... hither come I . Imitation of Spencer Blind-man's Buff .. King An of . .. the merry year Song When early morn walks forth in sober grey 15 16 To ^7 : the Muses Gwin.. . I2 ... intended for a Dramatic Piece of King Edward the Fourth Prologue to King John Song to Englishmen The Couch of Death A War Contemplation Samson .. ... la 13 .. . Morning Fair Elenor How sweet . Mad Song 8 ii . 7 8 .21 23 26 40 40 41 42 43 44 . . ... 6 Winter 7 the Evening Star .. ....CONTENTS PAGE . .

. O leave [me] to my sorrows Appendix 55 56 . first 47 47 begun 53 .. . made of Love To be or not to be This city and this country Leave. . The Song of Phebe and Jellicoe Hail Matrimony. .xxxiu Contents page II Appendix Song by a Shepherd Song by an old Shepherd . Moon Island in the Bibliographical Preface When old corruption ' 50 . Songs from ' An . 65 .. 57 5« 59 Songs of Innocence and of Experience Bibliographical Preface Songs of Innocence ..

..XXXIV Contents PAGE . Songs of Experience Introduction ..

. . . .302 .. of Illustrations Blake's 305 . • .. 300 . .. : Argument ... .. The Pickering Manuscript Preface The Smile The Golden Net The Mental Traveller The Land of Dreams Mary The Crystal Cabinet The Grey Monk . 286 295 .. .... . .. Poems from Letters Preface To my dear Friend.279 280 .296 . . 311 . ... . . .. .. 264 . . . 270 .. • • S^^ 320 Poems from the 'Prophetic Books' Bibliographical Preface From The Book of Thel Thel's Motto From The Marriage of Heaven and Hell From Visions of the Daughters of Albion ... 3^4 316 Epigrams from Blake's Annotated Copy of Reynolds' Works Preface Epigrams .. .. Butts -304 . . .XXXV Contents PAGE . : 326 344 344 The 345 ..273 . Blair's Grave' Preface To ..310 .283 . the Queen .. . Auguries of Innocence Long John Brown and Little Mary Bell William Bond • .. .. 269 • . . . Mrs. With happiness stretch'd across the hills why was I born with a different face ? Dedication upon ' of my knee . ... . . O h. .. Anna Flaxman To my Friend Butts I write To Mrs..... fairy leapt 301 ..282 • . ... .

. have appear'd to the Jews .... . . 345 347 350 351 me ^^^ 353 . . p.. . Especially to the Female The Keys . . .Contents xxxvi PAGE From The Four Zoas At the first Sound the Golden Sun Ah how shall Urizen the King : ! Till thou dost [conquer] the distrest From Milton And From Jerusalem To the Public : To visions . . .. . did those feet in ancient time : Such . ... To the Accuser who is The God From the Legends to the Plates Index of First Lines - ZS?.... 242 . 366 yjl 373 377 378 379 ILLUSTRATIONS Facsimile of Rossetti MS.. . .. . . 109 Facsimile of Rossetti MS. . . . Each Man is in his To the Deists To the Christians To the Christians Spectre's power .. 358 359 361 363 364 The Gates of Verses from 'For the Sexes. p. .. . 52 . . Bibliographical Preface Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice of the Gates .. Paradise ' . Frontispiece To face p. .... of this World . .. ..

SAMPSON B 1783) .POEMS from the POETICAL SKETCHES (Privately Printed.

is the only one of Blake's poetical writings. ' fine array II . except the first book of the French Revolution^ which made its appearance in is . How ' ' : My 7 sweet silks I and roam'd . : .' The book is without index or table of literary contents. Song: 'Love and harmony combine' I love the jocund dance Song 12 ' ' .. 29 Prologue intended for a dramatic piece of King Edward the Fourth 56 . is a slender volume of 38 leaves.. The title-page reads POETICAL SKETCHES. 17 18 19 24 36 King Edward the Third. : . . Winter the Evening Star Morning 4 5 6 .. hither come Mad Song Fresh from the dewy hill Song When early morn walks forth Song To the Muses Gwin. ByW. then nine quires in contains the title and advertisement : I | | [ ' ' B — K (K^ blank) and paginated 1-70. signed are no half-titles There the section 'Miscellaneous Poems' or to 'King Edward the Third. Prologue to King John A War Song to Englishmen The Couch of Death Contemplation Samson The little book. .' 10 . B. . fours.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE POETICAL SKETCHES The Poetical Sketches. Fair Elenor Song: Song . Blake's earliest work. which are as follows to : Miscellaneous Poems To To To To To To PAGE I Spring Summer Autumn 1 . 3 . An Imitation of Spencer Blind-man's Bufif . 13 * Memory. LONDON: Printed The first quire of two leaves in the Year MDCCLXXXIII. which SI 58 60 63 64 exceedingly rare. King of Norway Song — ' : ' . .. privately issued. withoctavo demy out publisher's or printer's name.' 14 15 16 ' : .

and occasionally resumed by the author till his twentieth year since which time. or perhaps Mathew. and by no means warrants such violent changes as D. and of it Blake seems to have issued a few copies only. These their opinions remain. as might have rendered them less unfit to meet the public eye. King of 'Arouse thyself! the nations.' The printer. See ' Gwin. As we learn from Cunningham.' where the lines. : — 'Advertisement The following Sketches were the production of untutored youth.Poetical Sketches 3 ordinary type. 1-28. runs . omitted capitals. The other pieces gives the title 'Miscellaneous Poems. 13 . come rolling o'er ' ! In the present edition punctuation is amended and the inlines of the printer abandoned in favour of Blake's own invariable and more artistic alinement. who handed the unbound sheets to the author to dispose of for his own advantage. ' Conscious of the irregularities and defects to be found in almost every page. talents having excellence in been wholly directed to the attainment of his profession. and supplied his own yet its ' ' ' ' y ' punctuation. commenced in his twelfth. to be now reproved or confirmed by a less partial public' While the book contains a few obvious as ' ' her ' cares ' for for ' ' his ' ' ears ' misprints. which merited some respite from oblivion. Like clouds. he has been deprived of the leisure requisite to such a revisal of these sheets. his ' . black Like clouds.' dented B % / . has evidently corrected Blake's spelling. The Preface. however. to which Blake. such An Imitation of Spencer. in ' ' general inaccuracy is far less than has been represented. his friends have still believed that they possessed a poetical originality. which was the composition of Mathew. frequently a faulty one. while generally respecting Blake's use of 'd or ed where the latter is to be pronounced as a separate syllable. respect the text of the original edition is exactly reproduced.' and in the fourth stanza of the Song on p. it was printed at the expense of Flaxman and Mathew. In every other. The lyrics in Poetical Sketches include the whole of the poems on pp.. G. come rolling o'er ' ! are printed : 'Arouse thyself! the nations black. Rossetti's rustling birds of dawn for rustling beds of dawn in the Mad Song. Norway. The size of the edition is not stated but it was probably a small one.

' To Spring. W.' D. and (as Pickering's copyright) could not be included in W. they were apparently unknown to D. M. Shepherd in Pickering's editions of 1868 and 1874.' and selections from scenes i. with the exception of the Prologue fall ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' * ' ' . the publisher.' To Summer. about 1868.ong the poems in the Poetical Sketches. Selections from the Poetical Sketches were first given by Malkin and Cunningham. M. First printed by R. W. ' ' ' ' ' and Samson which he prints as blank and Yeats follow the Aldine edition. Yeats omits Fair Elinor. and together with that work in the edition of 1874. though all Blake's editors arrange them among poems written in a different manner and at a much later date. in the selection given in Gilchrist's Life. Rossetti..' and the latter the Address to the Muses. To the Muses.Poetical Sketches 4 somewhat outside the scope of this edition. Song by a Shepherd and Song by an Old Shepherd. G.' ConThere is an excellent facsimile templation. the former printing How sweet I roam'd from field to field. M.' Norway. The Poems from the Poetical Sketches together with the pieces in the first Appendix give therefore.' with a few passages from King Edward the Third. Shepherd the whole book with his customary accuracy. prints six of the eight songs (excluding the two last). G. but are supplied in an appendix in order that the reader may be enabled to judge of Blake's first volume in its entirety. H. but were found in Blake's handwriting on the fly-leaves of a copy which was lent to Mr.' To the Evening Star.' Blind-man's Buff. Rossetti and later editors have availed themselves of this excellent text.' and Samson. (fifty copies printed . iii. Rossetti's Aldine edition. H. where they are placed at the end of the poems from the Pickering MS. 1890). Shepherd makes a few trifling corrections he omits Blake's general heading 'Miscellaneous Poems' and inserts a half-title to King Edward the Third which is not in the original. in their proper order.' Gwin of Samson. Rossetti places the pieces in an order of his own and omits the prose. Griggs in May.' the two prologues^ The Couch of Death.' These songs are not printed am.' to ' King John verse. Ellis * ' ' ' ' ' reproduction of the Poetical Sketches by W. In a second Appendix I have placed two short poems. the whole contents of the book. v. They clearly belong to the same period as the Poetical Sketches.' R. omitting W. B. and vi of King Edward the Third. prints separately in 1868 as a supplementary volume to the Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Rossetti. Basil Montague Pickering.

2. p. hair] Cp. 5 : And let our clime. 6 ruddy . xxv. 7 pavillions] DGR. MS. feet visit thy holy Come o'er the eastern hills. pp. That flames from ! O Oft pitched'st here thy golden tent. pour Thy soft kisses on her bosom and put 13 . 'Abstinence sows sand The ruddy limbs & all over flaming hair. 2.POEMS FROM POETICAL SKETCHES To Spring O thou with dewy locks. while we beheld With joy thy ruddy limbs and flourishing hair. . ! r. and let our winds let us taste Kiss thy perfumed garments Thy mom and evening breath scatter thy pearls Upon our love-sick land that mourns for thee. who lookest down Thro' the clear windows of the morning. curb thy fierce steeds. To Summer O thou Thy who passest thro' our vallies in i strength. all our longing eyes are turned Up to thy bright pavillions issue forth. . O deck her forth with thy fair fingers. and the list'ning Vallies hear. Which in full choir hails thy approach. Thy golden crown upon her languish'd head. Book. 9 . turn Thine angel eyes upon our western isle. Summer. tell each DGR : 14 soft] softest to each tell EY. Whose modest tresses were bound up for thee Poetical Sketches. Poetical Sketches. and oft Beneath our oaks hast slept. 5 tell pavilion each] do DGR.' 5 . . O i Spring! The hills tell each other. allay the heat their large nostrils thou.

And 10 Summer breaks forth into singing. Till clust'ring The spirits of the air live on the smells Of fruit and joy. and Flourish down the bright cheek of modest eve. Hills fled from our sight. roves round The gardens. there thou may'st And tune thy jolly voice to my fresh pipe. Poetical Sketches. 3. nor instruments of joy. To Autumn O Autumn. throw thy Silk draperies off. and in our mossy valHes. Nor laurel wreaths against the sultry heat. 15 . nor waters clear as heaven. laden with With the blood of the fruit. girded himself.6 Poetical Sketches Beneath our thickest shades we oft have heard Thy voice. all ! 5 Sing now The narrow bud opens The sun. and love runs ' her beauties to in her thrilling veins . and stained grape. II thy] all DGR. but left his golden load. Blossoms hang round the brows of morning. . 15 youth] youths DGR. p. and o'er the bleak ' . the daughters of the year shall dance the lusty song of fruits and flowers. with pinions light. pass not. and rush into the stream . on Some bank beside a river clear. when noon upon his fervid car Rode o'er the deep of heaven beside our springs Sit down. or sits singing in the trees. Nor echoes sweet. but Beneath my shady roof. 12 Silk] Thy DGR. feather'd clouds strew flowers round her head. Our bards are fam'd who strike the silver wire Our youth are bolder than the southern swains Our maidens fairer in the sprightly dance : 15 : : We lack not songs.' Thus sang the jolly Autumn as he sat Then rose. lo : Our vallies love the Summer in his pride. And i sit rest.

— He takes his seat upon the cliffs. 5. 5. while thou drawest round The sky's blue curtains. EY. 16 and the monster 15. . . 1-4 no quotation marks in original. and in his He 5 his storms are unchain'd. . pillars not. and freezes up 9 : hand frail life. whose skin clings groaning rocks his strong bones. . Shake not thy roofs. whilst the sun rests angel of the evening. . EY. scatter thy 5 .' but o'er the yawning deep I dare not lift mine eyes. scatter silver dew. ! now with thine iron car. and smile upon our evening bed Smile on our loves. ! 13 — Poetical Sketches. 3 bright] brilliant DGR. p. that deal'st Cries in vain. ! Poetical Sketches. the direful monster. dew. p. Swinb. light Thy bright torch of love thy radiant crown Put on. The curtains of the sky. 6 while . mount Hecla] and drives the monster Yelling beneath To Mount Hecla to his caves. and the monster With storms Is driv'n yelling to his caves beneath mount Hecla. on the mountains. DGR. 4. till heaven smiles.] whilst thou drawest round dew. and while thou drawest the i . Winter Nor bend thy He hears me Rides heavy . rear'd his sceptre o'er the world. there hast thou built thy dark Deep-founded habitation. sheathed In ribbed steel For he hath Lo To i : ! Unclothes the earth. the Evening Star Thou fair-hair'd Now. the mariner Poor little wretch.Poetical Sketches To Winter * O bar thine adamantine doors The north is thine. strides o'er the withers all in silence. .

radiant morning. EY. and issue forth that sleeps in heaven let light Rise from the chambers of the east. : fleeces of our flocks are cover'd EY then the omit. Unlock heav'n's golden gates. 12 And the] influence] protect with influence EY. . To Morning O holy virgin ! clad in purest white. p. and with Thy buskin'd feet appear upon our hills. Poetical Sketches. . that O cometh on waking day. Soon. hollow groan ran thro' the dreary vaults. WBY. 6. Poetical Sketches.8 Poetical Sketches Blue curtains of the sky. scatter thy silver dew On every flower that shuts its sweet eyes In timely sleep. pp. and looked in. And wash the dusk with lo . r : A The theme of this very juvenile poem was by Walpole's 'Gothic story.. EY. where Isabella descends into the vaults of the Castle. 7-10. bell struck one. fair Elenor graves give up their dead Walk'd by the castle gate. 7 shuts] closes DGR. Dost thou withdraw then the wolf rages wide. full soon. DGR.' The Castle of Otranto. Swinb. And The Thy 6 silver] And the lion glares thro' the dun forest with sacred dew: protect them with thine influence. first . 14 protect . Let thy west wind sleep on The speak silence with thy glimmering eyes. Compare the incident in the first chapter. and shrieks on meeting what she believes to be the ghost of Conrad. lake. salute the sun Rouz'd like a huntsman to the chace. Fair Elenor The The and shook the silent tower. silver. and bring Awake the . evidently suggested published in 1765. dawn The honied dew .

rushing sound. froze to stone with fear. 13 grinning skulls. no fancy but reality Distracts her. crying Take this. howling Pale death. approaches. 33 . Ellen stood Like a dumb statue. 29 arriv'd. She On Of And 5 but the sighing vaults. and howling after Take : — me .' he cry'd wet napkin. for blood ! and thrust into her arms this. and now she thinks of bones and corruptible death and now fancies she hears shroud in his Wrap'd and sees pale sickly ghosts gliding. and the feet A 17 — Of one that fled. Howling. till at her 6 cheeks] cheek house all edd. fled from fear. and strikes in darkness. thro' narrow passages Walking. : the wretch pass'd swift thro' the outer gate wall the o'er the into moat. . Sickly smells death issue as from a sepulchre. all is silent and she revives Chill death withdraws his hand. Amaz'd. the cold stone her pale cheeks. leap'd Fair Ellen pass'd the bridge. 9 . as the arrows that fly night. and follow'd on the wings of fear. Stifling in mud. and send it by whom thou wilt send ' : my It is He 's ' life — send to Elenor it dead. At length. wrap'd about then rush'd she receiv'd into her arms Past. A 21 25 . destruction flies.Poetical Sketches 9 shriek'd aloud. Fancy And returns. like a ghost. And. They And As The By She . feeling the cold walls with her hands. The deed is done The wretch approaches. Ellen flew over pathless plain . . and sunk upon the steps. heard a gloomy voice cry ' Is it done ' ? the deer wounded. she finds herself upon her feet. . Deep sighs.

sleep to death beware the cursed duke seeks thy love Hired a my it 57 dead . I am thy husband's head. woe with fill'd 49 . But he Clouded ' darken'd is like the . she raised up her head. fall'n like weak woman. Disclosing to her sight the murder'd head Of her dear lord. ! ' : My Of O was ! ! a flower upon the brows Ah. With gory blood. I 6r ! my ! 65 . 49 summer's] summer Swinb. am who. . clotted . in the night. cut down breath of heaven dwelt among his leaves. Her eyes were fix'd the bloody cloth unfolds. 68 Hired life. woman's fear Ah. sleeping on the stones of yonder Was A 'reft of O Elenor. O give not ' He life by the accursed duke hired villain turn'd him thy hand. my dear lord ah. wretched Elenor ' ' ' ! . bereave spake: tower. . groan'd.] This line is repeated by Blake . life. yj falls. the bloody napkin by her side. it unfold itself.' 61 I am] 47 eyes] eye Swinb. ghastly death lord May lusty like ! 41 ! ! Seek'st thou that flow'r to deck thy horrid temples? ' My was lord like a star in highest heav'n Drawn down to earth My like was lord When spells western winds creep softly o'er the flowers.lo Poetical Sketches Her maids await her on her bed she . cursed duke Ah. now villain to . . behold all edd. The O 45 and wickedness. That bed of joy. coward. saw . where erst her lord hath press'd she cry'd Ah. the opening eyes of day by . tenfold 53 And saw Which More terrified. Who. all ghastly pale. life as frail as flower withdraw thy cruel hand. and thus it *0 Elenor. ' ! Thus having spoke. summer's noon the stately tree. Elenor. in her arms she brought and now.

And blushing roses for my brow He led me through his gardens fair 5 . 12 golden cage] Cp. p. He loves to sit and hear me sing. Then. xxxiv. golden wing. cured of all your pains In Matrimony's Golden cage. sports and plays with Then stretches out And mocks my my 13 me . Ixxviii). and groan'd her last. quotes this poem. is perhaps imitative of the line quoted by him. Poetical Sketches. With sweet May dews my wings And Phoebus fir'd my vocal rage He caught me in his silken net. the prince of love beheld in the I field i all sunny beams did glide ! He shew'd me lilies for my hair. And shut me in his golden cage.' who . loss of liberty.* Song How sweet And tasted 'Till I Who roam'd from field to the summer's pride. in his Descriptive Catalogue : in ' one of bereave ' his as a transitive verb Hath me ' bireft my beauty and my pith. Blake's use of epigrams on Hayley (MS. Book. . from Chaucer. it was written by Blake before the age of fourteen.Poetical Sketches 1 She sat with dead cold limbs. Island in the Moon (c. 1785) iii : ' Come & be 9 . xxxvi). were wet. Where all his golden pleasures grow. . . lo. 1 69 . stiffen'd to stone She took the gory head up in her arms She kiss'd the pale lips she had no tears to shed She hugg'd it to her breast. laughing. According to Malkin (pp.

. 11. giv'n wintry cold lo ? love's all worship'd all love's pilgrims come. 12. Song Love and harmony combine. His face fair is as heav'n When springing buds O why to him was't Whose heart His breast unfold . And around our souls intwine While thy branches mix with mine. And our roots together join. True love doth pass away ! Poetical Sketches. Joys upon our branches sit. a winding sheet my grave have . i smiles and languish'd love are driv'n away By And air. p. mournful lean Despair Brings me yew to deck my grave Such end true lovers have. 2 intwine] entwine all except Shep. made Let winds and tempests beat Then down I'll lie 1. Where Bring Bring is me me When I 6 : is tomb. . . p.5 : as cold as clay. Chirping loud and singing sweet Like gentle streams beneath our feet Innocence and virtue meet.Poetical Sketches 12 Song My My and silks fine array. Poetical Sketches. an axe and spade.

. 13. is love. I love the innocent bow'r. Poetical Sketches. play. 17 . . Where white and brown is our Or fruit in the mid-day hour. I hear her tongue.Thou Poetical Sketches 13 the golden fruit dost bear. DGR. I love the pleasant cot. air. r The softly-breathing song. I .' 17 charming necessary correction. p. There she sits and feeds her young. Beneath the oaken tree. There he sleeps the night away There he sports along the day. the jolly swain laughs his fill. 5 vale] gale Malk. Sweet I hear her mournful song 13 . Where mirth And the maiden's tongue. All Blake's editors . 9 am clad in flowers fair Thy sweet boughs perfume the And the turtle buildeth there. does never 5 fail. I love the oaken seat. lay. 4 And where] Where DGR. Where And all 13 the old villagers meet. Song I love the jocund dance. And thy lovely leaves among. And where I love I love lisps the laughing vale. the echoing hill. Where innocent eyes do glance.] make the charm'd nest he doth lay. . And among our branches doth 16 her] An obvious misprint for 'his. laugh our sports to see. 9 lot. There There his charming nest doth lay.

I'll drink of the clear stream. 15. And fish for fancies as they pass Within the watery glass. go woe. : But lo the morning peeps Over the eastern steeps. And : 5 Where sighing lovers dream. Walking along the darken'd valley With silent Melancholy. Poetical Sketches. Mad Song The wild winds weep. Kitty. 4 unfold] infold Shep. But thou art all to me. DGR. EY. 7 beds] birds . WBY. Sleep. . And my griefs unfold . WBY. But. enfold WMR. p. hear the linnet's song And And 10 . I'll pore upon the stream i Memory. 15 Poetical Sketches. there The day lie I'll along and dream : And when night To places fit for I'll comes. 5 ! And The the rustling beds of dawn earth do scorn. Son g hither come. I better love thee And love them I ever shall . 14. . while upon the wind Your music floats. i And the night is a-cold Come hither. tune your merry notes And. p.Poetical Sketches 14 I love our neighbours 17 all.

9 Like as] As when . . haked. Poetical Sketches. Like a fiend hid in a cloud. ! lo With sorrow fraught My notes are driven : They strike the ear of night. cloud] Cp. with night will go I turn my back to the east And 30 . p. light doth seize With frantic pain. like angels' feet bless those limbs. 16. piping loud.Poetical Sketches 15 Lo to the vault Of paved heaven. 6 angels'] angel's Gil. With howling woe After night I do croud. ' Infant Sorrow' in the Songs of Experience: 'Helpless. Like a fiend in a cloud. Gil. 17 Like . Ossian.' The in picture was probably suggested in Blake's mind by passages 22 From whence] Whence DGR. . joyful shepherd stops his grateful song hear the music of an angel's tongue. 5 like] with Gil. From whence For comforts have increas'd my brain . Make weep the eyes of day. the merry year car his Smiles on my head and mounts flaming Round my young brows the laurel wreathes a shade. Like as an angel glitt'ring in the To 9 sky In times of innocence and holy joy The 5 : . And 15 with tempests play. 12 an] that Gil. And rising glories beam around my head. while o'er the dewy lawn. .' Mac- ' pherson's Song i Fresh from the dewy hill. feet are wing'd. beaming with heav'nly light. maiden risen like the morn I meet My my Oh Oh bless those holy feet. They make mad the roaring winds. .

. the voice of Heaven I hear So when we walk. 17. 5 my that sweet village. and does my song 13 17 inspire. I O walk the village should she And throw all 10 . to my black ey'd maid I haste away. and pensive as I go and bless my pleasing woe. The And To I go. forgot. Doth drop a I turn Curse my eyes my black Oft when the Whisp'ring . maid village where my black-ey'd Closes her eyes in sleep beneath night's shade. away the vale darkens at pensive woe. Whene'er I enter. Song When Then early morn walks forth in sober grey. Each village seems the haunt of holy feet. nothing impure comes near. village bell alarms. where my black ey'd maid tear beneath the silent shade. That made my love so high and me so low. ao . 15 prove false. his limbs I'd tear pity on the burning air e'er I'd curse bright fortune for then I'd die in peace And Poetical Sketches. p. And gently sighs away the silent hour. I curse my stars in bitter grief and woe. and each calm retreat. i When evening sits beneath her dusky bow'r. Each field seems Eden. breeze.1 Poetical Sketches 6 So when she speaks. stars summer sleeps among the murmurs to the scanty faint trees. my mixed and be lot. round if at her side A youth doth walk in stolen joy and pride. . more than mortal fire But that sweet Burns in my soul.

Poetical Sketches To the 1 7 Muses Whether on Ida's shady brow. that now From antient melody have ceas'd . many Fair Nine. p. King of Norway Come. i8. and The needy from their door. 19-23. Or the blue regions of the air Where 5 the melodious winds have birth. Whether on chrystal rocks ye rove. and When listen to my song : Gwin. SAMPSON C drive . pp. Whether in Heav'n ye wander fair. the notes are few 13 ! ! ! Poetical Sketches. Over the nations of the North His cruel sceptre bore . Or the green corners of the earth. 12 Poetry] poesie Cunn. Beneath the bosom of the sea Wand'ring in 9 a coral grove. 13 you] ye Cunn. i The chambers of the sun. Gwin. The Nobles of the land did feed Upon the hungry Poor They tear the poor man's lamb. Kings. the son of Nore. 15 do] now Cunn. Poetical Sketches. forsaking Poetry! How have you left the antient love That bards of old enjoy 'd in you The languid strings do scarcely move The sound is forc'd. Or in the chambers of the East. .

his palace shakes. Seeking their nightly food. 33 Gwin. weeping loud. 21 hills] . Beneath them roll'd. ! Their wives and children. the son of Nore. chiefs come rushing round 37 . roaring abroad. 'and let ten thousand Pay for the tyrant's head. voice of solemn sound With 9-12 The hill EY.' They cry. 25 29 Let Gwin be humbled. ' down Pull the tyrant to the dust. . black Like clouds. furious as wolves In the bleak wintry day. like an awful thunder cloud. whelps.1 8 Poetical Sketches The ' land is desolate our wives . Follow in wild array. And children cry for bread Arise. Let Gwin be humbled ! ' ! Gordred the giant rous'd himself From 13 sleeping in his cave shook the hills.' From ' O tow'r to tow'r the lives watchmen cry. troubl'd banners wave. Each. Their cry ascends the clouds The trampling horse and clanging arms Like rushing mighty floods 21 . Arouse thyself! the nations. come rolling Gwin His o'er * ! rear'd his shield. and in the clouds He The . . : . The num'rous sons of blood Like lions' like tempests black. Down Bleron's hills they dreadful rush. humbled] No quotation marks in original. and pull the tyrant down 9 . Howling like ghosts. 17 .

Gwin all his — hand the nations halt war he cries Prepare Gordred appears his frowning brow ' lifts his ! ! — Troubles our northern The armies Held — ' for 6r .' in th' . Like clouds around him roll'd. skies. 45 . like balances 65 — Almighty's hand Gwin. And 49 sounds the trumpet shrill The workman throws his hammer down To heave the bloody bill. C 2 . And leaves the trading shore The shepherd leaves his . as black as night When With And stormy sky. clashing steel does ring. thou hast fiU'd thy measure up Thou'rt swept from out the land.Poetical Sketches 19 Like reared stones around a grave They stand around the King Then suddenly each seiz'd his 41 . And spear. a piece from which Blake would also seem to have borrowed the name 'Leutha' in the Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793). horses and with chariots — 57 spearmen bold March to the sound of mournful song. mellow pipe. stand. . Like the tall ghost of Barraton 53 Who sports in Gwin leads his host. pestilence does fly. ' 53 Barraton] Probably a reminiscence of 'Berrathon' in : Macpherson's Ossian. The husbandman does leave his plow To wade thro' fields of gore The merchant binds his brows in steel.

and groans and shakes 73 To drink her children's gore. of might is men all his 77 . 97 . seen raging afar. sea of blood nor can the eye See to the trembling shore A . The dust ascends the skies ! Earth smokes with blood. ! The god of war is drunk with blood The earth doth faint and fail The stench of blood makes sick the 93 . and riven men toil for life on steed. groan upon the plain The battle faints. ! And on the verge of this wild sea Famine and death doth cry The women and cries of Over the field The King With doth of babes fly. 80 doth] do WMR. . And Now death is Labour and Steed Sunk 85 . 69 . and shield on in this sea 89 .20 Poetical Sketches And now the raging armies rush'd Like warring mighty seas The Heav'ns are shook with roaring war. '&' like sheep they die. And ghosts accusing groan 78. rolls sick. Ghosts glut the throat of hell O what have Kings to heav'ns answer for Before that awful throne When thousand deaths for vengeance cry. . and bloody men Fight upon hills of slain. ! ! EY. of strife shield. . Like blazing comets scattering death Thro' the red fev'rous Beneath arm his nierht. 81 .

In lucent words my darkling verses dight. Golden Apollo. That wisdom may descend in fairy dreams. ababbcbcb.Poetical Sketches Like blazing comets That shake the 21 the sky in loi stars of light. And when thou yields to night thy wide domain. pp. Blake's successive attempts are: ababbcbcc. And the first blow decides Down from the brow unto the breast Gordred his head divides 105 Gwin fell the Sons of All that remain'd alive 109 . 24-26. Title] All edd. ababbcbcB. and ababbcbcbB—aW different all wrong. 2 truth's] truth his alledd. 8 yields] yield'st correct Spencer all edd. roll'd their Into the northern sea Who fled. in spite of its metrical faults. that thro' i And wash my earthy mind in thy clear streams. . ! Norway : The rest did fill the vale of death. Imitation of Spencer heaven wide Scatter'st the rays of light. 5 All while the jocund hours in thy train Scatter their fancies at thy poet's feet . For them the eagles The river Dorman The An mourn'd strive. Like these did Gwin and Gordred meet. Representing the Spenserian stanza by the formula ababbcbcC. blood 113 . . and truth's beams. to Spenser. Poetical Sketches. This piece has not the air of being one of Blake's earUest efforts. Which drop like fruit unto the earth Thro' the fierce burning night . ababbabb. his sons. Let rays of truth enlight his sleeping brain. and overwhelm'd pleasant south country. aiabbcbB.

thrown on the dusty floor. bosom'd in an amber cloud. Folly's leesing nurse (For ignorance love of Folly needs none other's curse) Midas the praise hath gain'd of lengthen'd cares. Entering with holy feet to where on high Jove weighs the counsel of futurity. yet in his rude affray. like a falling star. Sports in the clouds to hear the And see the winged lightnings as they fly. tow'ry fence aery.Poetical Sketches 22 For brutish Pan in vain With tinkling sounds Sound without sense . i. And cause in sweet society to dwell Vile savage minds that lurk in lonely cell. 40 Then. Blake's editors. lo might thee assay to dash thy nervous verse. correct who this ndsprinifor ears. leasing nurse. And o'er the surface of the silent deep dost fly 25 : thou arrivest at the sandy shore Where nought but envious hissing adders dwell. thunder's sound. 15 C2X&%\ All edd. And judge of tinkling rhimes and elegances terse. 15 20 Dost mount And thro' Heav'n's halls thy airy flight dost throw. from autumn sky. assist my lab'ring sense That round the circle of the world wou'd As the wing'd eagle scorns the Of Alpine hills round his high And searches thro' the corners 35 fly. 19 brow] bow all edd. around Plumes his wide wings. Can charm to harmony with potent spell. dost go Down. For which himself might deem him ne'er the worse To sit in council with his modern peers. is And And thou. O Mercury. that does dispel If Envy and Hate that thirst for 30 human gore. and seeks Sol's palace high. Such is sweet Eloquence. Mercurius. . one 13 leesing nurse] Read. Thy golden rod. Then. with all holds her charge in a lease or leash.e. of the sky. laden with eternal fate. that with winged brow aloft into the yielding sky.

Minerva. Arm'd with 23 warrior maid invincible. for Jenny her ! red. Roger from Dolly twitch'd the She. The laughing jest. With lad and lass. falling. with side-long glance hob-nail Dick. Lov'st thou to walk the peaceful solemn grove. tir'd of chat. how fair the show The merry can of nut-brown ale. In solemn gloom of branches interwove? Or bear'st thy Egis o'er the burning field. Poetical Sketches. the love-sick tale.Poetical Sketches And O thou. Shepherd' (Appendix * II) : — When And 15 griev'd the chance. maiden terrible. blear-ey'd Will the black lot holds. jewel hangs at shepherd's nose. 45 Pallas. 'Till. like the sea. a circling row. and my i care. the terrors of Almighty Jove. I. ' . silver snow decks Sylvia's clothes. . 50 Or have thy soft piteous eyes beheld The weary wanderer thro' the desert rove? Or does th' afflicted man thy heav'nly bosom move? Blind-man's BufF When silver Snow decks Susan's cloaths. ' 20 Song by an Old . kiss'd the ground. silken 'kerchief folds. The lasses prick the lads with pins ! 10 . walls so fair * Heap the sea-coal. 26-28. The well-wash'd stools. heap The oaken log lay on the fire it . the waves of battle move? Where. She blush'd so At Of poor fool who Blind-man's Buff they each incumbrance clear the hall And call — . the game begins. come. pp.' 3 blushing bank] chimney nook DGR. But now stool. And jewel hangs at th' shepherd's nose. 2 nose] Compare the opening lines of When . . The blushing bank is all With hearth so red. 5 higher.

pert. Kitty. '' ! ' : Kitty. And Roger turns him round three times. unskill'd in art. Kitty. — ! — ' : * " Now. now what chance hast thou. ' ! 29-31 Now . Now. repeats the rhymes. Must. and WBY . arms. pursues the chace. Roger so near thee. Kitty. now what chance hast thou. . 40 Roger.' is. him] This seems punctuation of the original ' Now. to be the sense intended by the faulty : Kitty. EY. ! 30 35 — ' ! Where cheating But Roger ' ' He sees there's mischief there. Trips She catches him — DGR reads . with And Peggy Pout gives The Blind-man's Sam ' Silence Sam hush ! ' ! a push. go thro' thy part Now Kitty. Sukey is tumbled on the ground See what it is to play unfair . . now Roger so near thee She catches him — WMR. For thro' the slender cloth he sees. — I ' hast thou? " .Poetical Sketches 24 Now laughing stops. Roger so near thee Trips. I vow ! ' : 'Now. . I vow hast thou. now! what chance Roger so near thee trips. ! ! . clumsy Will Is pen'd up in the corner strait ! 25 ! And now Will's eyes beheld the play He thought his face was t'other way. I vow She catches him '"Now. I vow She catches him then Roger ties His own head up but not his eyes. who slips with ease ' ! — ! — — ' ! His clumsy hold and. what chance trips. . dodging round. surer bound. And runs at Sam. extended wide. between O woe betide slips : — ' — ' but titt'ring Kate Thee. now! what chance hast thou! I vow Roger so near thee trips She catches him ! Shep. still he sees ' O — Grace cries softly thou.

and ran With hood-wink'd chance sure of his man ' ' ! But down he came. as. — —Alas. one man lay in another's way Then laws were made to keep fair play. how soon they fail With crimson drops he stains the ground ! Confusion startles . . 65 as] So DGR. And And 65 . And Hodge again holds up his head. till wantonness liberty began t' increase.Poetical Sketches Then pauses ere he starts — but 25 Dick Was mischief bent upon a trick Down on his hands and knees he 45 . on the blinded man impose in his stead When men were . long a-gone. how 50 frail Our best of hopes. first Lawless they liv'd. the blood is stay'd. fain would cure the hurt he made And 55 . Then cries out Hem Hodge heard. 70 . 57 hasted] hastens DGR. a nation grown. all Poor piteous Dick supports his head. And down his back they strait convey The cold relief. But Kitty hasted with a key. Who Stand 60 of the game. around. Such are the fortunes And those who play By wholesome laws should stop the same such as all those . lay- Directly in the Blind-man's way.

The letters. ! Vent'ring their lives in my most righteous cause. i ! And forged helm. the flow'r of England. but without variorum readings in footnotes. Won by our fathers in many a glorious field. Lord Audley.' Reprinted from the original edition. That death can never ravish from thy brow. and spear. a Sir Walter Manny. whose fury the nations are King. 29-70) containing the blank verse and prose pieces following the Miscellaneous Poems. be strong thou fightest for a crown 17 21 . Soldier. Enerve my soldiers let Liberty Blaze in each countenance. The enemy fight in chains. and fire the battle. 9 . the cries of blood tear horror from heav'n. Let Liberty. when the field is in a flame. A crown of glory but from thy very dust — beam a radiance. King Edward. Their minds are While. William. and shield of seven times beaten brass. Lord Percy. to fire the breasts Of youth unborn. Queen Philippa. O sheathe their hearts with triple steel. Our names are written equal 'tis ours to gild In fame's wide trophied hall Shall .APPENDIX I TO THE POETICAL SKETCHES [The latter portion of Poetical Sketches (pp. to The Army. Dagworth's Man. invisible chains. Are idle trophies of the vanquisher. Duke of Clarence. The Black Prince. and to make them shine with gold 25 . King Edward and Nobles O before it. my son. maintain thy servant's right Without thine aid. 13 ? mounting flame. Bishop. spring to battle o'er the floods of death these fair youths. thou. PERSONS. the charter'd right of Englishmen.] ' KING EDWARD THE THIRD. common Peter Blunt. The Coast of France. And yelling death runs up and down the ranks. We And like the fetter'd. And thou. Sir Thomas Dagworth. But as dust. that they May emulate their fathers' virtues. Sir John Chandos. how then but heavy can they be free . the twisted mail. SCENE. When When 5 confusion rages.

for 'twas your advice we landed here in Brittany. [^Exeunt. 41 Stand only for to gaze upon their splendor. no less glorious than those of war. Is in his hand to whom all men are equal. should not our thoughts be first to commerce My Lord Bishop. with uptum'd eyes. Bishop. and turns his eyes on this 5 His native shore.Appendix I That never tarnishes 27 whether Third Edward. shall gain the brightest fame. Into three parties we divide by day. Or the Prince of Wales. Lords. throng'd with shining spires 9 With And corded ships. and all the golden cities In his land overflowing with honey. : 29 33 . and other young Nobles. Each clad in glory according to his sphere But we. Queen Philippa I And my My My task . my burden heavier than is unfledg'd years . but join again at night Each knows his rank. Thanks. Glory may not be dimm'd with clouds of care. let Brave Lords. my Parent Clarence. Yet.l Now us take a just revenge for those who fell beneath the bloody axe Paris. and sees his golden London And her silver Thames. and sees commerce fly round his white wings. 13 ? 17 . My Lords. call'd you together. while my father Toils in his wars. Grow larger as we The most obscure To and some. that scarce were seen sphere. all. or Mortimer. Lionel. with your kind assistance. Say. or Montacute. \He here knights the Prince. great. have by the advice of her am doubly bound to obey. that. that wander from our native seats And beam forth lustre on a darkling world. 49 I i Sovereign. perhaps home. and Heav'n marshal English Court. Ditke of Clarence . At By A 45 country not yet sown with destruction. may so advance advance 37 : at twinkle in their That the astonish'd world. The world of men are like the num'rous stars That beam and twinkle in the depth of night. her merchants buzzing round Like summer bees. I hope England shall dwell in peace . Lords. the fiery whirlwind of swift war Has not yet swept its desolating wing. Lords . Bishop . And where And separate march. SCENE. Whom . Or ev'n the least by birth. the arts of peace are great. noble Harcourt. and those that once were bright. you would recommend us agriculture? And Sweet Prince. ifc. Regardless of the moon.

for now : You to go 49 : represent the sacred person of Your If not father. And England is the land favour'd by Commerce . My Lords. I hope their Lordships will excuse your giddiness. fear Lord Percy will not give me leave. and beg our aid. Religion will flourish . My 29 tho' the child of Agriculture. Infest our English seas. I'll endeavour to take Lord Percy's advice I have been used so much To dignity that I'm sick on't. When I sit at my home. thoughts take in the gen'ral good of the whole. Well. Fie. My thoughts are on my gardens and my How employ the hand to 21 fields. I Mayor of London 41 : have another boon To I ask. who else must sweat and toil. 65 69 . Clar. which is the favour of your company. 6r to business. I ask your leave To If dine to-morrow with the I obtain your leave. and we. Fosters his parent. Looking to the gain of this O my Clar. my dear Lord. Forgive. that lacketh bread. Fie. 33 like honey as from a worship'd oak. Dear 45 a prince should always keep his state. Then. Lord. by the Queen's advice. each and Is cultivated This is my But. 37 my talkative youth. my If Industry is in diocese. I . Pick'd up. we grow weary 53 Of his officious glory. And grant his favours with a sparing hand. For Commerce. My me leave to shine sometimes. Queen Phil. as tradesmen. Percy. devouring all Our burden'd vessels. 'tis with the sun. Lordi Thou hast a gallant which fear 57 Will be imposed on by the closer sort. my Not merely our native land. the French have fitted out many ! Small ships of war. as I man's heart 25 will bring forth fruit. spirit. These are my thoughts yet it were best But keep a proper dignity. And gain but scanty fare. a private man. Then you will give Clar. The merchants do complain. Sir. like to ravening wolves. Lord Clarence you proceed not But speak of your own pleasures. Now.clouded. true wisdom drops From your tongue. that. that speaks what my narrow observation has Lords. private duty and council with my my sit in pleasure. prince. Be England's trade our care . Or they are never rightly valued. good Lord. spoiling our naval flocks. 'tis sometimes with princes as o'er. Clar. \Aside.Poetical Sketches 28 Perhaps more glorious in the philosophic mind. but what I have concluded from your lessons.

Can they not help themselves ? Bish. Lord Percy. ere long. the merchants She was seated His mighty in the 81 . When almost singly he drove six thousand French from the ford. Thanks. Lord Percy cannot mean that we should suffer This disgrace if so. and may but how to gain 29 . if you please. Edward 's afraid of Philip. we are not sovereigns Of the sea our right. When that they find they must. if they will. 85 . 'Tis not Mine. Ha. me your hand. Yes. that Heaven gave Bish. They can. You say. Requires our countenance and help. Must be aggriev'd The heart doth fail. the head if but one member suffer. Did you ere see him fear? At Blanchetaque. and own'd his awful Queen. their will . when at the birth of nature deep the Ocean ceas'd and fawning play'd around Her snowy feet. Aud. Audley. \Exeunt. Yet will I. and now I'll tell you what think you do not know. I dare not own the plan. fear that made him fight so. 89 Worthy Lord Bishop. At Sir Cressey. is wise 93 Quickly to the Lord Mayor.I Appeitdix The merchants are rich enough Percy. Sir Thomas you but joke Give I ! . Thomas Dagworth and meeting. Exultingly Dagw. on which cast I'll set But my whole we estate. my Lord morn don't know. In you . if the heart is sick. my Lord. of England. did he fear then? Dagw. my Lord. and will. By the same reason That makes you fight. 77 : — To England. Ha. Aud. 97 Queen Phil. Can. the brave Lord Percy. and the gallant sun Springs from the hills like a young hero . and as worthy His generous aid to put it into practice. they will: Percy. SCENE. roar. Good morrow. what was rash in me Percy. shaking his golden locks this is a promising day. the bright Into the battle. brave Lord Percy you have the thanks Of England's Queen. Let them but suffer awhile. Lord Audley. I I 5 : Why. brave Sir Thomas Smiles on our army. . — Aud. and you shall see They 73 will bestir themselves. These rovers : defend themselves against this is a noble scheme. will bring these Gallic rovers under. I might say 'tis 9 13 fear . and work him onward To this most glorious voyage .

To-morrow we shall know.Poetical Sketches 30 look upon Edward's But -when he turns Mayhap you may Dagw. then I will say He is afraid : : it he makes us cannot bear the Now here we are I enemy at face. fears to turn his face. and I am very much afraid. I hope so. have not heard. Sir Thomas The Prince may I Chand. Aud. Why. and you to turn your back. For. France of running away. Of having my back laid open we turn Our backs to the fire. . And so will the whole army. when the coward runs. Aud. perhaps he takes it by fits. That Edward runs away from Philip. look you here. do you call that fear? I don't know. I'm sure he's not afraid. Is of He do not think. I wish not catch the distemper too. strive against 57 it . and strike a bargain for The enemy he has danc'd in the field Of battle. Sir Thomas. He is a young lion. the The King caught here 53 in Perhaps the air of the country I feel it coming upon me. and lightning has flashed From his eyes across the field I have seen him Shake hands with death. His back. noble Chandos. Good morrow. 17 to his face. bell-weather is tainted. Attd. And this. Chand. Why. you say you have caught it too. Sir Thomas. 33 : Dagw. No God forbid I'm sure he is not. like the youth at morrice play. so I is 61 the cause. Sir Thomas. : 45 for Philip. And. One rotten And if the sheep spoils the whole flock 49 . all afraid. Enter Sir John Chandos. Sir Thomas. what distemper Distemper. 21 where to-morrow. Generals I give you joy Here we stop. I say. No one can say he fears. O I have seen him fight And give command. Welcome And wait Dagw. you I know what fear 41 is. brave man totters. And. Lord Audley. Chandos. Are you afraid too. till we shall burn our skirts. There. know you understand me a distemper ! ? . back. . None of us but me. nor none. you are a wise man. to the fields of Cressy. nor Warwick. I Dagw. you call fear? Your 37 . at Cressy my . Dagw. fear a different kind then from the King's. : 29 . Dagw. 'tis very catching. Perhaps you think the Prince too is afraid? Dagw. Sir Thomas? I believe that as much as I believe The King's afraid but what are you afraid of? 25 ! .

but his disorder Sir Dagw. Prince. Dagw. Plainly. and such a Nay. having such command the man 77 * : Were who were base not fir'd to deeds Above heroic. while you can fight as you did at Sir King. was I 85 have been wing'd inspir'd these brave troops. my courage shrunk and wither'd. were I not forbid By him whom I am bound to obey: my hands Are tied up. Sir would not have sooner parted with Than such a soldier as you have been. nothing conquerors every where Can stand our soldiers each man is worthy Of a triumph. I . I think retreating Too often takes away a soldier's courage. I've told him before. And in each countenance the soul of war Curb'd by the manliest reason. Sir Thomas Dagworth ask that Edward What can King. I will know the most remote particulars Of this your strange petition that if I can I still may keep you here. Down goes But we are our right to when . That 10 r Thomas. The Ford. I my boast. 69 deaf. but. friend : 109 . refuse? 97 hope your Majesty cannot refuse so great A trifle I've gilt your cause with my best blood. And shall. nor shook the field. When I have seen the field glow. with respect and deference I look 8r Upon such noble souls. Makes him Enter King Edward and Black Good morrow. France. I 93 have a small petition to your Majesty. 65 Here comes the King himself: tell him your thoughts Thomas. With And By certain victory be shall and . and my voice scarce heard. Prince. . thou art Most happy. Can 89 Your Grace had Dagw.Appendix I You yet are whole we Retreats. what you could have ask'd. . Sire. Such an army of heroes 73 . Edward. Dagw. after a few more know how to retreat all shall — 31 Better than fight. my son. and wish myself Worthy the high command that Heaven and you Have given me. Generals King. My sinews slacken'd. And would again. To be plain. all Thomas Dagworth. I I beg know I may not return to England. you must have your joke. Them better make Generals. my still 'tis glory. Chand. Therefore King. English courage fails. Ne'er shouted to the Heav'ns. having such examples. 105 I .

Furbish our armours bright. 117 moment of their idle fear. your Majesty's afraid of Philip. Crane o'ertaken fighteth with the Hawk. In the dairy For to I 149 : King. he was ' pig enough To light another pattle. Else he would never dare to attack us. fight. The If. now I understand your mirth. us. Which often plays with Wisdom for its pastime. candle half Burn'd out he answer'd. Now my heart dances. Stag turns head and bays the crying Hounds. the fields of Cressy we are settled Philip springs the tim'rous covey again. 'Twill be a gallant thing to fight or die . and I am as light As the young bridegroom going to be married.Poetical Sketches 32 Here on Dagw. Then I can never be afraid of Philip.' Welchman with I pass'd by 157 . Now. Now 145 them ready. Eagle. Startled. my soldiers. fearful Crane springs from the splashy fen. I Dagw. for another battle. If all my soldiers are as pleas'd as you. and thinks we flee from him. Fears the small fire that plays about the fen. Wolf is hunted down by causeless fear.' Last night. are more like a Lion than a Crane Therefore I beg I may return to England. beneath . and fear usurps 113 his heart. Dog doth seize the Wolf. The The The The The The 125 shining Snake glides o'er the bending grass. tim'rous Stag starts from the thicket wild. And You I : hope And and see us you'll stay. new plume our helms. 'Till The The Lion flees. A raw-bon'd fellow t'other day told him to put off his hungry looks — He answer'd me. and bite the padding foot. get my feet are wing'd. that doth gaze upon the sun. ' I saw a I told him he look'd little hunger like a a fiery face . reap rich harvest Then go And 129 if to England. the fields of Cressy them how fire to 133 be with we 137 . Now the quarry's set! and Death doth sport is Philip 141 In the bright sunshine of this fatal day. Sir Thomas. And brings good counsel from the breast of laughter. hearts on set all in tell fight this battle. King. And we will sing like the young housewives busied must flight. Negro in the crevice of the rock at this The The Doth seize the soaring Eagle They tame submit . the Forester the Lion. On noble souls. 153 me . Dagw. plum'd. undone by such the effect : 121 flight. Snake doth turn. has flight Now hear its opposite. but not an please your grace. astonish'd at the clam'rous Cock .

with Thy wide-stretch'd plumes . and more A hero to the servants of his house Than to the gaping world he carries windows 181 : \ExH Dagworth. Thou'dst laugh his fury into nerveless shame I 169 . and Confirm the strong with strength.Appendix I The moon walk'd abroad. my Chandos. ' 165 Another wept. he should wed a maiden Fairer than snow. while . Courage. And hath the is a genuine Englishman. how glorious art thou see thee hov'ring o'er my army. Chand. The ditty was.' I all i6i . . If Philip came arm'd in the ribs of death. : He will move onward to plan conveniences. Liberty within him. I see thee King. 197 . and hedge A spot of ground this he'll defend 'tis his By right of nature thus set in action. all May He Prince. To 20I rest at night. Thy heart richer than the vales of France is with such a man as thee. and build himself a hut. and rich as midsummer. glory fires his breast to enlarge his castle While the poor slave drudges all day. These are the minds that glory in the battle. for thou art suited to the Throughout the camp Blow up the sluggish work. enflame the timorous. Thomas Dagworth. 189 spirit of my prejudice. the weak inspire. to think he's a free agent. And wing their brows with hope and expectation Then to our tent return. I chid them both. Chand. and wish'd health to his father. Sir John I think Englishmen the bravest people on Forgive My The . proceeds from self-dependence. that see what's done within. . and meet to council. and at each pause he wip'd His dropping eyes. but gave them noble hopes. face of the earth. 185 . be thou near our person Sir King. sons shout the strong shout of victory ! noble Chandos. Teach man 193 my Lord. And shook his mortal dart against my head. ! I 205 Lead them on to battle I see thee blow thy golden trumpet. Thy O SAMPSON D 209 . he'll shake Off sloth. when 33 had pitch' d Their tents. think thyself a gardener. in hope still 'Til! . O Liberty. That man's a hero in his closet. In that enlarged breast of his. And leap and dance to hear the trumpet sound. and all were still I heard a blooming youth singing a song He had compos'd. : 173 ! 177 will not part Go now. into ardour. if he Return'd victorious. Give but a slave his liberty.

are posting up and down. Commission'd to this fatal f^eld of Cressy. and string each stubborn bow. Methinks And see them I gird the 225 And dance to the neighing of our steeds. . That my full-blown sails overset me not In the wild tempest condemn my 'ventrous youth. son a vine.Poetical Sketches 34. and 'tis our duty. Now we are alone. dear son learn to think lowly of ! — Thyself. in her Frail bark. and fit Each shining helm. I will unburden. us down. till may have tir'd at length. impatient takes the wing. unregarded. and view our former joys sit 257 . And. old variety. be our pleasure. the swiftest Find prey With We . And may our duty. my Edward. where no bounds Then. 213 Water him with thy advice and Heav'n Rain fresh'ning dew upon his branches. attacks experience. Are tir'd set. swOrd upon each thigh. arm my gallant soldiers. thou seest my weakness strong nature Will bend or break us my blood. 249 each rolling year the mind's treasure-house: While vacant youth doth crave and seek about Within itself. the strongest sated and tired the changing sameness. my Chandos. Chand. 1 . Chandos. sin to love the noise of war. 245 : Or but expected as a Age is contemplative Brings forth fruit to thing of course. Come. as we may all each prefer other Tis the best policy. but your heat If I can judge of actions Is the effect of youth. \Exeunt Prince. can see no shore or bound for vast Ambition. . And roar the wild flame of fierce war upon The thronged enemy. Seizes the fruits of time. and guide Th' ambitious tendrils in the paths of wisdom My Thy : . and want of use Use makes the armed field and noisy war Pass over as a summer cloud. 233 : . It is my In truth I am too full 229 . room. And breathe my hopes Where thousand deaths 217 King Edward. like a springtide. Chandos. Roams round vast Nature's forest. 221 into the burning air. Sir John. and a brave man. take the helm. which I commit unto care prune all extravagant shoots. You are a man. 237 : 241 : am a coward in my reason. 253 of thought. and findeth discontent. Chandos. Methinks I see them perch on English crests. Methinks the shout begins. the battle burns. Does rise so high to overflow all bounds Of moderation while Reason. my prince. That plays with danger as the inndcent child Unthinking plays upon the viper's den .

Are finer than any we have in England. Shall warble round the snowy head. Chandos.Appendix I With and distaste Prince. it grows most in lands most cultivated. Sir? Dagw. Williayn his Man. 289 pulse Beat slow. Dagworth and Bring hither my armour. D 2 ? . Sir John. I know the wolf : we fall. neither warbling voice Nor trilling pipe is heard. 293 \Exeunt. disdaining Little sport. and leave them all forlorn Yet not forlorn if Conscience is his friend. Is it a little creeping root that grows in ditches Thou dost not understand me. and taste and touch and sight and sound and smell. that if it please Th' Almighty to stretch out my span of life. I know That youth has need of age to point fit prey. good Nor is the hide a comely vestment so have our battle for our pains. 26t we must tug for experience. But do you not think. I ever saw Dagw. I shall with pleasure view a glorious action . Let us not fear to And rouze the strongest prey then if fall with glory. These are the tricks of the world but the pure soul Shall mount on native wings. . not dangerous 35 265 for food. We And oft the stander-by Of th' other's labour. Which my youth Chand. 377 when 38t my Lord. We Is to fight. beat round Nature's wilds. Does it grow in England. . Aye. Shall flee away. Leaving a track of light for men to wonder 373 at. Dagw. not acts . It is it. What is the tree you mentioned ? I don't think Dagw. William. SCENE. but the oaks are not. And master'd? Considerate age. Aye. Sweeter than music in a summer's eve. Ambition is . Will. I'm glad my father does not hear me talk You can find friendly excuses for me. . views motives. That sing and dance round Reason's fine-wrought throne. Will. Ambition. tn Sir Thomas Dagworth' s Tent. and cut a path into the heaven of glory. Dagw. 269 shall steal the fruit This is philosophy. nor pleasure sits With trembling age. William a root that grows in every breast . if Then. and keep Sweet symphony to feather'd angels. dislike. Will. sitting As guardians round your chair then shall the . Then it grows most in France the vines here Will. the growth of ev'ry clime. the voice of Conscience 385 then.

and to know that little wrong of course . But when our first ideas are wrong. And whoever Will. what follows must all be 'tis best to know a little. Enter Peter Blunt. an endless moralist. have I I . only e'nt so good natur'd. Thou art a natural philosopher. if ambition is a sin. . for all our blood and bones are in France and a great deal more that we shall all hear by and by and I came to tell your honour. and I can't tell whether he don't mention us all one by one and he is to write another about all us that are to die. Only remember. guilty in in fighting for him. this is no time for No. and we are all coming with him. while reason runs aground. thou dost thrust the question home but I must you that. tell . I forgot to tell that . aright. Then. Dagw. Tho' the knowledge of that will not profit thee much. war-songs. story-telling : story. such is that worthy Chandos. William. that the prince is always with the wise man that knows us all as well as your honour. and 'tis a sin to act without some reason. and fitted to the finger of an emperor. Yes. I compliment. dost know? aye. your information. Then. and given him I don't know what. Sir. set in rich gold. Now Will. Dagw. save it till another time but here comes one who is as entertaining as a good Dagw. none are guilty but those whose minds are prompted by that same ambition. there's as . song about the French and English. Dagw. . Yonder 's a musician going to play before the King it's a new Peter. I should be glad to know if it was not ambition that brought over our King to France to fight for his right? Dagw. as we have run our argument. yet I you that it was ambition. . Now. And who is this minstrel. all have it in their power to know the motives of their own actions.Poetical Sketches 36 Ambition Has But is the desire or passion that one man to get before another. honour if acts without reason may do a great deal of harm it. that we may be remembered in Old England. . which is for not true. guilt being an act of the mind. without knowing Thou Dagw. Will. and knowest truth by instinct . in any pursuit after glory I don't thinlc you have any of it. . Peter. he has got the same name as Sir John Chandos. know every thing. Sir. but not for your much difference between him or shining glass and me as between glittering sand and fruitful mold and a wrought diamond. have a great ambition to . Peter. Will. that I will tell j'our leave. Will. William. because you love to hear . Dagw. Dagw. art there's a story you'll give me come into my head. Peter. Now. will tell Will. O — thank you. I always thought that a man might be guilty of doing wrong without knowing it was wrong. and the Prince has made the minstrel a 'squire. William.

does not think any thing of yourself. Dagw. know your honour I 37. brave Sir Walter.xit Peter. the very sky. walketh about. Talking with death. Sir. When men sleep in their beds. Resting in quietness. Go. \Exeunt. O Dagworth. he look'd very foolish . I Dagw. Sir Thomas Dagworth. when we were in England. palms of victory. \E. and the Earl of Warwick was tumbled over. lie and rot.Appendix I Peter. you or Sir Walter. destruction How many 9 is sleep 13 In earth. seems to me as pale As the pale fainting man on his death-bed. Dagw. ai Whose face is shewn by light of sickly taper. Dagw. terrors are round The curtains of their Ready at the door. Thousands must fall to-day. whose spirits walk Upon the clouds of heaven to die no more. How many walk in darkness. Sit singing in the azure clouds. never I your honour. 29 . know. Yet death is terrible. flattery is delicious. SCENE. get you gone . in cities' Turning themselves upon their beds. How many in walled cities lie and groan. makes me sad and sick at very heart. Peter. Why. answering his hard demands. France is sick. Why you Will. at . Tho' sunshine light it. have been weeping i Over the men Dagw. Cover'd with silence and forgelfulness. and you was very angry with me for not flattering you. tho' borne on angels' wings. I know this I may breathing flesh must fall. that are to die to-day. you ask'd me if he did not look well when he fell and I said No. You mean that I was angry with you for not flattering the Earl of Warwick. Sir Tent. How terrible then 17 the field of death. Where And shake is the gates of hell. Thousands of souls must leave this prison-house. Sir Thomas Dagworth^ s Dagworih — Filter Sir Walter Sir Walter. but every body else does. cover'd with stones and deathy dust. Will. flatter don't know that. It To be exalted to those heavenly 25 fields. beds. and in still night. Thomas to hint I Manny. even from the lips of a babbler. and strew Flowers of heaven's growth over the banquet-table. Where songs of triumph. he doth rend the vault of heaven. at the tournament Windsor. Where peace and joy and love and calm content. Death wons 5 smoke.

in the Camp. Shall be no more. — ! ! . Stop. Well. rattling guns. seem to hear the dismal yells of death. . With helmets hewn. Grim war shall laugh and shout. . till this fatal day of Cressy. I'll fight and weep. the sun Rolling dark clouds o'er France. Put on the robe of preparation. Whose eyes do glare against the stormy fires). Sir Walter. In navies black. broken with wind and tide (Like lions rouz'd : 9 . lay stretch'd upon the field SCENE. and black and dreary war. Dagw. field of war. let the trumpet sound. 'tis in my country's cause. cloath'd in war. of death. 65 England blow the trump of victory. The flowers of immortality are blown Let those that And those that fight fight in . and I 45 . Her mariners shall use the flute and viol. and the 57 And Let war stain the blue heavens with bloody banners it up I'll draw my sword. Heated with war. And blood shall flow like streams across the meadows. Burning up nations in Song: i O 5 your wrath and fury! Your ancestors came from the fires of Troy. by light'ning from their dens. I'll weep and shout for glorious liberty. to scent the rotten carcases. While the black gore drops from his horrid jaws Yet I not fear the monster in his pride But O the souls that are to die to-day a tear. And Has my I seem 37 good stedfastness. nor ever sheath 'Till Or I 6r drum beat. decked in tears. brave Sir Walter let me drop Then let the clarion of war begin. fall Sir Walter. to And seem be in one great charnel-house. shall rise in victory. her fields shall Her ships shall sing across the foaming sea. Several of the Warriors meet at the King's Tent with a Minstrel. as fire Threatening as the red brow of storms. I've often seen the burning often heard the dismal clang of arms But never. fill'd with the blood of Greeks. That murmur down their pebbly channels. and shields covered with gore.Poetical Sketches 38 33 Bind ardent Hope upon your feet like shoes. service Spend their sweet lives to do their country Then shall England's verdure shoot. Whose voices are the thunder of the field. 4^ soul fainted with these views of death. 49 53 : smile. muffling In sickly darkness like a dim eclipse. \Exeunt. who sings the following sons of Trojan Brutus. The table is prepar'd in shining heaven.

Book. for plenty shall bring forth. No. lean on their spears. p. inspir'd . from whence Shall rise cities. Hercules Buildings. 1793. 35 Giant voices England.Appendix I 39 They landed in firm array upon the rocks Of Albion they kiss'd the rocky shore Be thou our mother and our nurse. and awful pow'rs. O how oft have they Spoil'd of their verdure. would seem to show that Blake engraved these subjects as a companion volume to The Gates of Paradise. and thou shalt be our grave. Giant voices Are heard from the hills. sweating. . Defy'd the storm that howled o'er their heads 33 ! Our fathers. no copy of which is known to exist. . ' Our fathers swarm from the ships. the parched heavens Lights on some woody shore When . .' is included ' 19. our fathers sit 37 Attentive on the melancholy shore Hear ye the voice of Brutus 'The flowing waves Of time come rolling o'er my breast.' October 10. the red lightning. but they shall roam nor shall the young Like eagles for the prey Crave or be heard. : — And my Our sons * heart labours with futurity : shall rule the empire of the sea. . The History of England. Giants ancient inhabitants of giant bodies] Cp.' the first entry in Blake's list of subjects for a history of England (MS. The smoaking trees are strewn upon the shore. . Price 3s. Lambeth. hurling rocks. and view The mighty dead giant bodies streaming blood. * . forest. Cities shall sing." he said . 116). and thrones. Naked and roaring like lions. Their nest is in the sea. The sepulchre of ancient Troy. Shall laugh. 13. and vales whose in rich fruitful laps 45 array bend down with fulness. which is described in the same leaflet in identical terms. the enormous sons Of Ocean run from rocks and caves wild men. 41 ' Their mighty wings shall stretch from east to west. a small book of Engravings.' 13 . Like as a forest roars with crackling flames. In the prospectus of 'Works now published and on sale at Mr. Blake's. . And 17 wielding knotty clubs. and arms. like oaks entangled Thick as a ready for the axe. Dread visages frowning in silent death. ' This work. : Then Brutus spoke. 21 . Rain fire into 29 the molten raging sea. Our fathers move in firm array to battle The savage monsters rush like roaring fire 25 .' they said Our children's mother. . borne by furious storms.

O land most hapless O beauteous island. families. calls to battle. O who can stand O who hath caused this O who can answer at the throne of God ? ? 13 ? The Kings and Nobles of Hear it not. Brother in brother's blood must bathe. Albion's breast with her own children's gore. Stretching her mighty spear o'er distant lands While. Casting her blue eyes over the green ocean . with her eagle wngs. thy Land have done it ! Ministers have done it ! the Prologue to King John Justice hath heaved a sword to plunge in Albion's breast . ' 49 .Poetical Sketches 40 Our sons shall rise from thrones in joy. To drown the throat Are shaken. and each knee grows slack. when Tyranny hath stain'd fair . Heaven. Round his majestic feet deep thunders roll each heart does tremble. and her all 57 . for Albion's sins are crimson dy'd. intended for a Dramatic Piece of King Edward the Fourth O for a voice like thunder. Or. rivers of death. And fiends of Hell rejoice upon the slain. Each one buckling on his armour Morning Shall be prevented by their swords gleaming. ! ! . surrounded with shining spears. . how forsaken Weep from thy silver . she covereth Fair Albion's shore. Then Patriot rose full oft did Patriot rise. the trumpet. tow'ring. : 53 Their daughters shall sing. when the frowns of his countenance Drive the nations together. The stars of heaven tremble the roaring voice of war. the flood of Death. and the Who can stand of soul When ? and a tongue war When ! l the senses driven to madness. and the red scourge follows her desolate sons. who can stand Sin claps his broad wings over the When And sails rejoicing in When ? 9 battle. souls are torn to everlasting fire. stand upon the roaring waves. And Evening hear their song of victory Their towers shall be built upon the rocks. is the souls of the oppressed Fight in the troubled air that rages.' Prologue. ' Liberty shall stand upon the cliffs of Albion. who can stand? 5 When the whirlwind of fury comes from the Throne of God.

your bodies for the earth . O troops. Bring forth the lots. for Tyranny hath stretch'd his purple mother feeds him for the slaughter! ! ! 'the chariots and the horses. I'd die in such a cause. Th' Angel of Fate turns them with mighty hands. rise. is smitten. prepare the iron helm of war. prepare. . that are to fall to-day ! Prepare. the noise of shout. 15 Prepare.I Appendix 41 The angel of the island weeps fountains. weep from thy gentle rivers Thy widowed virgins weep beneath thy shades Thy aged fathers gird ! ! ! themselves for war The sucking ! infant lives to die in battle . and raise her golden head exultingly throng about her gates. prepare ! Our cause is Heaven's cause Be worthy of our cause Soldiers. thine iron heart. prepare Prepare to meet our fathers in the sky ! . And casts them out upon the darken'd earth i ! Prepare. cast in the spacious orb . ! ! ! daughters sing as to the rising year A War Song to ! Englishmen Prepare. though O yet may Albion smile again. Her citizens shall peaceful arms. and myriads shall to her temples crowd Her sons shall joy as in the morning Her . prepare. The arrows of Almighty God are drawn ! Angels of Death stand in the low'ring heavens Thousands of souls must seek the realms of light. "Whose Why Had And fatal scroll is that sinks my heart. 5 Prepare your hearts for Death's cold hand prepare souls for flight. : : Prepare. arm. prepare. Soldiers. over the well-fought ? I field. And walk together on the clouds of heaven ! ! 20 Prepare. prepare. the weeping The husbandman doth leave his Blood cries afar! The land doth sow itself! The bending harvest! The aged senators their glittering youth of courts must gleam in arms ancient swords assume The trembling sinews of old age must work the work of death against their progeny. with ghosts. thou shalt be humbled thy cruel brow. Prepare your arms for glorious victory Prepare your eyes to meet a holy God ! Your ! ! 10 Prepare. 25 . ? why Methinks faultereth 'tis my mine ! tongue three lives. prepare. her mariners shall sing upon the sea. and stretch her lingering Fate is slow. and 'blood' he cries and dreadful thunder of the battle heard afar I' Beware. O Proud.

when the cold clay breathed with life. far . like lilies dropping tears in each other's bosom. the aged woman raised her cry. pray ye for me Stretch forth your hands that cloak. replied. when the thin beams of the moon give a faint light such was this young . I know but little of the path thou goest. can I not cry. alone and comfortless wind the is Parting valley. and make his harp The Norman William. and the learned rejoice . when the evening they stood by the bed like reeds bending over a lake.' The youth is a God. and our ancestors. . Like the sound of a broken pipe. and the visions of Heaven unfold their visitation. my son. His voice was low as the whisperings . and black-brow'd Edward. by the brooks is thy of water. ' O my son. walked on the stedfast globe. ' face in the dust. without a lantern to direct Thus he laments through the still my me. sinful my helper may come Through the void space I viralk. and welcome us And ! 30 Prepare. My hand is feeble. there is Horrors stare me in the face upon me no returning Death follows after me. the aged woman raised her voice. another's necks alternately. and said. there stretch out thy hand to Him. when ' is asleep. I stretch it out ? My ways are sinful. But lo. Lion Heart. rustling and the owl and bat flew round the darkening in brakes and thickets In former times. how should I call on Him who is Truth ? My breath drawn. As the deer wounded. 'O Voice. who made the world how should a from heard a voice like sepulchre. sin covers me as a O my dear friends." steps. man's voice to his friends. The Couch The veiled of Death Evening walked solitary down the western hills. trees such an evening.Poetical Sketches 42 Alfred shall smile. . who now sleep in their graves. if I lift up my head. I seem to walk through a deep hard and death is terrible The damps of death from the light of day. on all is silent when Nature takes her repose. : youth. breath infected? So is mine. so the arrows of sin stick in my flesh . tree is . Clerk. were gathered to Sorrow linked them together leaning on one the sick bed of a . and lift my eyes to Heaven? Thinking of this my spirit is turned within me into confusion. the remains of a family of the tribes of Earth. Like the bubbling waters of the brook in the dead of night. where no fall thick ! ! . the poison hath entered . with His loyal queen shall rise. when the few inhabitants cling trembling together as the voice of the Angel of Death. O my child. and Silence reposed in the valley the birds of day were heard in their nests. I walk in regions of Death. a mother and a sister. without a staff to support till the curtains of darkness were evening. . I loathsome. that dwellest in my breast. of the woods drops trickle down. my child. ! I look behind. how should he not be offended ? If lay my the grave opens its mouth for me . how should I raise mine eyes ? My voice hath used deceit. prepare. between the O for a hand to pluck Beneath me burns eternal fire world and is ! ! eternity As the voice of an ! ! me forth ' ! omen heard in the silent valley.

thou then art lord of all. arm was under his head . how little thou seest thou where Mirth sits ! ! . where only 'Tis Contemplation. breathes out his soul with joy into eternity. them. and the nimble air kisses the leaves . and the stars faintly glimmered in the summer sky the breath of night slept among the leaves of the forest the bosom of the lofty hill drank in the silent dew. while the airy jingling trappings. numberless beauties the brook stretches springs in joy. whispers in mine ear. take it. where. true joys descend heart ! . and with her pure quill on every flower writeth lowly bending. till the into my sun shine. . Sorrow slept with me in my cradle he followed me up music I fills am wrapped . he was my schoolfellow thus he in my play. and a ray of light beamed around his head. and the youth . the sky glitters with the Like a triumph. a visionary hand wiped away his tears. till he became to me as my brother. Staff . hovering Angels are around night. he was like a cloud tossed by the winds. 'Heavenly goddess ! the world with joyful sounds. . the yellow harvest breathes. voices of comfort are heard over the Couch of Death. and Discontent runs like a brook. : . lord of eternity on the painted cheek? doth it not seem ashamed O what an humble of such a place. that with unerring step dares tempt the wilds. and grow immoderate to brave it out? Those who want Happiness must stoop to find it garb true Joy puts on Vain foolish man. Contemplation Who is this. the its arms along the velvet meadow. Even in childhood. slave of each moment. The moon hung not out her lamp.' and down house steps and in the when I grew up : . eyes the distant country with joy. youthful sun joys like a hunter rouzed to the chace. Such smiles were seen upon the face of the youth. and wear it in thine Clamour brawls along the lord of thyself. The traveller that hath taken shelter under an oak. daughter of the grey Morning » ? Nature's foot hath trod Majestical she steppeth. blow the green grass delights blossom around . is grown into a giant Lo. my flesh is a prison. my bones the bars of death. and destruction hovers in the city's here build thy nest here fix thy in these silent woods. and the thankful eyes of the villagers are turned up in smiles. sighs succeeded his mother's sighs. I answered. ! lofty rocks. its silver inhabitants sport and play the sky. 'O man. how O man. .' Like rolling waves upon a desert shore. then. Now great. was in my I walked through dreary places with him.Appendix I 43 marrow. The youth lay silent. he rushes up and lays hold on the immortal coursers of day. . they covered their faces and wept. and the drops of rain glisten.' in mortality. he fancies he Wisdom's name. 'cause his garments are swoln with wind. and in church-yards . Misery builds over our cottage roofs. and streets. while on his majestic brow the voice of Angels is heard. smoak but on these plains. . season follows season. that roams on it is a flower that grows in every vale. and stringed sounds ride upon the wings of The sorrowful pair lift up their heads. Humility. and I oft found myself sitting by Sorrow on a tomb-stone. All was still.

! then should I lay at quiet and have O Dagon furious. noon-tide while in dark pavilion. that strong rest. and all ye gods of am but a weak woman. death. guide my timorous hand to write as on a lofty rock with iron day. turning our earthly night to heavenly of the Almighty Father thou visitest our darkling world from . and seeks to hide her bruised head under the mists of night. Who saj's Destruction was thy father. I sing how he was death. arm would ease my pain Pity forsook thee at thy birth . by by that shinest with propitious beams. . Though I should tell this heart. Night. By night I am deceived. council sat Philista's lords . fair in vain she wept in many a treacherous tear. Death. all .' For now. tear put honest-seeming brow.Poetical Sketches 44 Samson foiled Samson.' visage tell her my birth. thou shalt overcome. bringing good news of Sin and Death destroyed. ' ! ! ! ! ! suckled thee. do . Come hither. and the transparent on fair linen that with the lily vies. my Lord.' and thus she day by day oppressed his soul he seemed a mountain. O of the to wife Truth. . Alas. . . ' the sky I should secret of . do the deed : one blow of master's wife no. his Though was troubled his soul was distressed. purple and silver neglect thy hair. ' Samson. stay. Shut up. art thou not Samson's servant ? 'Tis Dalila that calls . a false woman's gates brought arts. For Dalila's fair arts have long been ambush lay. where strength failed. darkened. she bath'd his feet. deceit and Lord for gold. Dark thoughts rolled to and fro in his mind. black thoughts Their helmed youth and aged warriors in dust together ly. and let thy master thy . . thou art not love death cloathed in flesh thou lovest. thy young hands tore human limbs. wedded ! to . a lioness that thou wast born of mortal kind ? ' tried in vain . and thou hast been incircled in his arms! To thee Thou art my God Alas. breeding dark plots. presence with blessed feet. and upon her sumptuous couch reclined in gorgeous pride. . I am I withdraw your hand I'll run I will go mad. ! ! : . from his secret and wrest unconquerable. that all who pass may of damned spirits. to seem more lovely in thy loose attire put on thy country's pride. hold me not thou lovest about. Thou lov'st me not still she grasps his vigorous knees with her fair arms. with sorrow. and conquer him by Call thine alluring arts and him. I'm thine . and death approaches fast. like thunder clouds troubling Palestine. O whiterobed Angel. : Go on. the holy kiss of love. and tear my crisped hair your enemy O Samson. and gorged human flesh. O foolish Dalila O weak woman it is thou'rt war. the strongest of the children of men. ! \ . my She saw him moved. over the silent earth spreads her Now read. . what can I fear? the utmost may be warded off as well when told as now. in and. her prowess lost. and Desolation spreads his wings over the land of Palestine from side to side the land groans. his brow among the clouds she seemed a silver stream. what am I calling thee ? My days are covered I pour my tears for sacrifice morning and evening. pens the words of truth. and pierce the ears o' th' gods Thou wouldst my Look not upon me with those deathful eyes me not Thus. his feet embracing. in false tears. ere once again the changing moon her do thy guileful work traitress force circuit hath performed. eyes of love decked in mild sorrow and sell thy she still intreats. and thus resumes her wiles.

when in thy sleep I bound thee with them to try thy truth. She saw the maidens play. I cried. and he shall be called Israel's Deliverer. O Dalila ! appease her then. . when I cried upon thee to bewail that Samson loved me not. Alas. ! . where it shall lie at rest for sorrow is the lot for care was I brought forth. for holy unto Israel's God I am. . as a neighbour. a Nazarite even from my " Grant mother's womb. and blessed their innocent mirth . thus he spoke. but thought his God knew best. Childless he ' : . after that. he saw . and in Israel he lived. revered of man. shall spring. conceive. with new ropes to bind thee fast ? I knew thou didst but mock me. and drew the curtains of heaven : pensive she sat. how Philistines be upon thee. twice a sacred vow enjoined me that I should drink no wine. Thrice hast thou mocked me and grieved my soul. son. Samson!" Thou fearest nought. an angel from Israel's grief. Twice was it told. : : : . kind Heaven. and inward griev'd. what canst thou give when such a trifle is denied me ? Thou toldest me to last thou mockest me." Then. nor eat of any unclean thing.Appendix I 45 I am with me what thou wilt my friends are enemies ray life is death a traitor to my nation. and heart of man hide sorrow. that it might not be broken. highly favoured! Israel's and and bear a strength shall be upon his shoulders. weave thee to the beam by thy strong hair. thou shalt said he mild he hailed her. " The Then did suspicion wake thee. to shame my over-fond inquiry. I did even that to try thy truth " " The Philistines be then didst thou leave me but. when I had found thy falsehood. his blessing leaving. time for contemplation. though not obscure. like the summer grass. therefore. ! . . for he shall be a Nazarite to God. Is burdened Israel his grief? The son of his old age shall set it free. nor could conceal aught that might Hear. Didst thou not tell me with green withs to bind thy nervous arms.' He sat. Pensive. alone she sat within the house. But God joys in store. Manoa left his fields to sit in the house. and. rose from and thought on east. an army of mighty men are as flocks in the vallies what canst thou fear? O worse than wolves and I live upon sorrow I drink my tears like water But O at tygers. and eat not any unclean thing. his flocks increased. nor every gift enjoyed. when lo. . In solitude. and labour is my lot of all of woman born nor matchless might. can from the Twice was my birth foretold from heaven. mourned. departs. using deceit to the wife of his bosom. the fields of light entered the house. what shouldst thou didst thou rend the feeble ties fear ? Thy power is more than mortal. and calm evening." Manoa cried but Heaven refused. Now. till venerable age came on hath other plenty crowned his board beloved. doubt no more of Samson's love for that fair breast was made the ivory palace of my inmost heart. nor knew he so seemed he to depart was an angel. she blessed each new-joined pair but from her the long-wished deliverer : : . The venerable sweet'ner of his life receives the promise first from Heaven. and silent prayed to Israel's God His form was manhood in the prime. nor wisdom. me a son. drink no wine. when his evening tale is told. and despised my joy is given into the hands of him who hates me. ! . none can hurt thee thy bones are . she wondered with exceeding jo}'. thy sinews are iron. and from his spacious brow shot terrors through the evening shade. leaning on her bosom. " Hail. and take his evening's : rest from labour — the sweetest time that God has allotted mortal man. But " "for lo. ! and lov'd the beauteous suppliant. Ten thousand spears are brass. when busy day was the forsaken fading. He . .

feeble. who came and talked with him. and Israel groaned oppressed. Let us detain thee while I make ready a kid. My name is wonderful enquire not after it. The wolf teareth them. and tell us of thy name and warfare that. when thy " sayings come to pass. the plow-share rusted.Poetical Sketches 46 and heard with joy. while sat. our vintage is gathered by bands of enemies. Oppression stretches his rod over our land. she ran and called her " O man of " thou said husband. and praised God. Stretch forth thy hand. seeing it is a secret but. The sword was bright. offer an offering unto the Lord. the ox goad : " O Instead of peaceful pipe the shepherd turned into a spear. is God. comest from far." Thus prayed Manoa. and lo. we may honour thee. that thou mayest sit and eat. The aged woman walked into the field. our The echoes of country is plowed with swords. : . thy flock is scattered on the hills. and save. and reaped in blood. . O when shall our Deliverer come? The Philistine riots on our flocks. hill." he. The time rolled on. if thou ' wilt. Clad as a traveller fresh risen on his journey. doubting : then prayed till hope grew Manoa slaughter reach from hill to bears a sword. and was ready to give place to Lord. again the angel came. who Israel still doth keep." The Angel answered." .

That makes our limbs quake. if our hearts be warm. That makes our limbs quake. Whilst Virtue is our walking-staff. p. 154). 5 And Truth a lantern to our path. if our hearts be warm. . to this place. Song by an Old Shepherd When silver snow decks Sylvia's clothes. and here reprinted from Shepherd's text (ed. Blind-man's Buff {Poetical Sketches). 1-2. That makes our limbs quake. 154. The jewel health adorns her neck. I stranger] little stranger EY. We can abide life's pelting storm. . 2 When p. vi. also his Introduction to that edition. Where joy doth sit on every bough. Paleness We flies . I. . found in Blake's autograph on the fly-leaves of a copy of the original edition of Poetical See Sketches. And jewel hangs at shepherd's nose. we'll abide life's pelting storm. Innocence doth like a rose Bloom on every maiden's cheek Honour twines around her brows. boisterous wind. 11. Shepherd. 154. 8 That] Which EY. . Shepherd. from every face reap not what we do not sow. if our hearts be warm. stranger. Blow. stern Winter frown. 1874. p. Cp.] Song by a Shepherd Welcome. nose].APPENDIX II [The two songs referred to in editor's introduction. p. . Innocence is a Winter's gown. 9 So clad. We can abide life's i pelting storm.

.

SONGS from ^^ ISLAND (an untitled SAMPSOM IJ^ THE MO 03^ Autograph MS. E circa 1784) ..

as being quite out of date. that think was would you among your friends. and the vanities are the same. but which. & what & is more extraordinary the people are language so much the same. Etruscan Column. in this Island you so much alike. names of those sects tho' the sects are not ever mention'd however the things still there. in comes sophers sat together thinking of nothing. soiled appearance of this last verso proves it to have been the original outer leaf of the MS. as . Suction the Epicurean. with the exception of the verso of the last leaf. The autograph is in Blake's early hand. near by a mighty continent. which small island seems to have some affinity : — ' 'to England. their dwells three Philosophers. known a thin foolscap as An Island in the Moon. now the seventeenth page. when the book was complete.. and begins at the head of the first page (recto of first leaf) In the Moon is a certain Island. were employ 'd when Mrs.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO AN ISLAND IN THE The Blake MS. which is scribbled over with rough sketches and pen-trials. the three Philo. The remaining pages are blank. and Sipsop the Pythagorean.' or rather is left unfinished by the It ends abruptly author on line nineteen of the recto of the leaf following the lacuna in the text. lacking is two perhaps four) leaves through the loss of one (or two) sheets from the centre of the single quire of which it is (or composed. the Antiquarian. remain. Quid the I call them by the Cynic. Gimblet came in. and since it is also. volume of sixteen folio MOON leaves. must have been page 21 or 25. & after an abundance of Enquiries to no purpose sat himself down & so they described something that nobody listen'd to. among them Blake's signature — — The written backwards as if engraved on copper-plate.

Smith tells us. there are no grounds for Messrs. The brochure itself. 1784. 186-201 and Mr. who . Mathews' salon in Rathbone Place but. Messrs. to have been still a . i. . has reprinted three chapters as specimens of his prose. which reached its height in 1782. The MS. probably in the latter year. were this done. was perhaps intended by the author as a satire on the little coterie of distinguished personages which met at Mrs. pp. and that Blake's gratitude for Mr. dates the MS. and December 20. with tolerable cerJohnson's death. though Quid the Cynic may possibly stand for Blake himself. with copious though rather inaccurately printed extracts. which may be described as a somewhat incoherent and pointless precursor of the Headlong Hall type of novel. ElHs and Yeats' conjecture that the MS. in their edition of Blake's works.' and had these beautiful lyrics been written in 17H3 it is difficult to believe that Blake would not have included them in his first The doggerel lines on Dr. ' ' ' We topic of conversation. Ellis and Yeats have given a synopsis of the chapters. from this MS. if so.. when Blake wrote. moreover. circa 1789. Chatterton controversy. Johnson published work. Blake's relations with the Mathews and their circle had become somewhat In chapters 5 and 7 there are references to the strained. tainty. as we know from the epigrams in the MS. vol.' The work has never been printed as a whole nor. the other half of the sheet on which the work begins. when. would it £% ' . the originals of the portraits are not now to be identified. . at one time possessed a first leaf containing a title-page. placing one of the songs among the Later Poems.Island in the Moo7t 5 1 the watermarks show. contains the first drafts of Holy Thursday and the Nurse's Song. I am unable to agree with Mr. date it between the publication of the Poetical Sketches in 1783. Book. T. strangely. and would seem. This is to attach a to trifle unnecessary importance evidently dashed off by Blake for his own amusement without thought of publication nor. Mathews' share in defraying the cost of printing the little volume caused the author to leave the present work unfinished. are more likely to have been written before than after may therefore. as J. Lawrence Housman. Yeats' surmise that An Island in the Moon preceded and even led to the publication of the Poetical Sketches in 1783. while. was it the poet's wont to allow social patronage or material assistance to interfere with his Celtic privilege of free satire.

. kindly lent to me by Mr. in its evidence. some years beforehand. a number of choruses and nonsense verses are placed in Some of these. Since these pieces have been referred to and partly quoted by Messrs. trivialities or doggerel sung by children or drunken boon-companions. which all lovers of Blake may pass over. . the illuminated printing which he afterwards employed in the Songs of Innocence and in the Prophetic and experiment. . I have thought it necessary to print the whole of them in an Appendix. My text of these poems is taken from my transcript of the original MS. even at this early date.' variant readings to which are given in the footnotes to the Songs of Innocence. and ' * Books. the first drafts general readers must lie in its giving us of three of the Songs of Innocence. Cambridge.' are plainly not Blake's at all while others are. Charles Fairfax Murray. such as This frog he would a wooing ride and the London I do not repeat here ' ' ' ' I cry my matches as far as Guildhall. Ellis and Yeats. ' the early versions of Holy Nurse's Song. Besides the six songs which follow.' or The Little Boy Lost. as the writer intended them. who has since presented it to the Fitzwilliam ' street-cry. Museum. the mouths of several of the characters. of Blake's rooted antipathy to science add to Blake's in its foreshadowing.Bibliographical Preface 52 Its chief interest to literary reputation.' the Thursday.

For flesh & he could ne'er agree She would not let him suck. & tell them that he'll scrape their bones if they don't lay still & be quiet What the devil should the people in the hospital. Adorn'd in yellow vest. make such a piece of work fori" "Hang that!" said " let us have a Suction. 5 then] there EY. 13 in] on EY. and thrust his fist in. t>» And old To think For now corruption smil'd his race should never end." Then the Cynic sang ' . & keep them down with his fist. 193. ' . in Moon. : — : Only printed by EY i. He committed on flesh a whoredom O. — p. vi "Ah !" said Sipsop. he had a child. . "I only wish Jack Tearguts had had the cutting of Plutarch he understands anatomy better than any of the Ancients he'll plunge his knife up to the hilt in a single drive. song. 3 He call'd The babe him Surgery with his & fed own milk y . t^ . And ran about with bloody hands To seek his mother's life.FROM THE ISLAND IN THE MOON When old corruption first begun. — Isl. that have it done for nothing. chap. : 4 And this he always kept in mind And form'd a crooked knife. what a wicked beast — ! From then a callow babe did spring. and all in the space of a Quarter of an hour he does not mind their crj'ing — tho' they cry ever so. he'll Swear at them.

' With that he tied poor scurvy down. stopt up all its vents. Shall do the world He thro' the holes first & 29 soon more good. 33 . father grinn'd skipt about. He fell in love & married her — A deed which is not common She soon grew pregnant. which he had made.' He took up fever by the And cut out all its spots And. discover'd guts. And brought forth 21 & & ' For now ' ! spott'd fever. ao which] that EY.Moon Island in the 54 And as he ran to seek his mother He met with a dead woman. said I'm made for ever 1 Scurvy The & 17 I have procured these imps 25 I'll try experiments. & 8 And when the child began He shouted out aloud — * I've found the dropsy out. . to swell neck.

chap. iii. 13." said The subject and metre of Quid. people." He that intends to take a wife. made of Love i ! To thy wide gates how great a drove On purpose to be yok'd do come Widows & maids & Youths also. — Then ' Then said Miss Gittipin. purge Melancholy. and 25-7. p.Moon Island in the 55 11 [The Song of Phebe and Phebe drest like beautie's Jellicoe] i Queen. she repeated these verses. 106. know i. do you Moon. ix '"Hang Italian songs! let 's have English. 196.' Pills to this song were perhaps suggested by 11. loves a sporting. Scopprell. lightly trip sit — Isl. in Moon. 7. 10 with] to EY.' EY p. " Mr. 144. Maidens dancing. 95 with — title ' The Pilgrim. 7 Bob] Bab LH. LH WBY. 8. chap. Where the lambkins little trot. 198) print ' ' . Sitting all beneath a grot. toe." said Scopprell. in Hail Matrimony. Isl. in WBY p. WBY. p. Jellicoe in faint peagreen. 5 All the country folks a courting. Miss.' 5 loves a sporting] lovers sporting EY. while steelyard walk'd about the room. p. "English Genius for ever— here I go—. who can be In happiness compar'd with ye? The Pilgrim with his crook & hat Happy 9 Sees your happiness compleat. & Joe. . Susan. EY (i. Lightly tripping on a row. viii the song of 'Phebe and Jellicoe'?'' "No. 18. Johnny. That Or on beauty's on beauty's bum. Bob.

sang time. Without you we shoud never Breed. is 19 amiss Widow gay smile. 10. or 's her heart To . looking on the corner of the cieling. Or Nature's hand has crooked her For Or if Yet. 1783. and EY. hanged you have the face to make " The phrase in the last line. founder of the Charterhouse (1532-1611). explains game of matrimony ? the ' golden cage in the third stanza of How sweet I roam'd from field to ' ! ' ' ' field'. if a Damsel 's blind or lame. Tis you that come in time of need. 6 Sutton] Thomas Sutton.5 Moon Island in the 6 Hail fingerfooted lovely Creatures! 7 The females of our human Natures. s^e Poetical Sketches. & he. ye maidens come. for a Bride. Or Sherlock upon death I'd rather be Sutton — ! Isl. " said " Go and be " how can Scopprell. in Printed here for the first ' & Then Quid called upon Obtuse Angle for a Song. 25 maidens] maids. Or Locke. : — ' . (? friend) or EY. Or any Comfort find. is tender lover she shall find That panteth The is 13 frame. 27] Here the song abruptly breaks off. ! makes them skip it . makes them Like Birds. ye Come & be cured of all your pains ! swains 25 ! — 7 In Matrimony's Golden cage 17 Some tender lover] Some Hail] EY omit. cure whatever In damsel or in It wall-eyed well inclined. she if Some deaf. universal Poultice this. or Doctor South. i Like Sir Isaac Newton. Then come. iv To be or not to be Of great capacity. ix wiping his face. chap. Formed to suckle all Mankind. p. just cured of the pip. — MooH. They chirp & hop away. as EY point out.

or Doctor South. Or Sir Isaac Newton ? This city & this country has forth brought many mayors To i in state. And to the Carpenter He was so fervent. .Moon Island in the S7 For he did build a house For aged men & youth. He sinks & gutters made. for convenience. sit & give forth laws out of their old oak chairs. He furnish'd it 7 within With whatever he could win. Whose name was Sutton As 25 Locke. 19 . score. With brown face as ale — Good English Isl. With walls of brick & stone. — — Was not this a good man Whose life was but a span. chap. He drew out of the Stocks His money in a box. Moon. The chimneys were three The windows many more And. preceding song] as ix — * O then it did not The Lawgiver was very beg'd to have it sung over again fail ! attentive & again . [to the till the . And all his own. 13 And sent his servant To Green the Bricklayer. Or Sherlock upon Death. And all the way he pav'd To hinder pestilence. in & any nut with drinking of strong hospitality.

' WBY EY i. EY. I lose this form of clay. 198-9. With stockings roll'd above their knees as jet With eating & shoes as black . WBY. they were stout & haleGood English Thus the at sitting O hospitality.' in Chatterton's Antiquity of Christmas Games. WBY. 4 and 8 Good] Old EY. with A Song of ' Isl. pp. Thro' the gloom he'll see my shadow. WBY (p. make would 5 . me EY. WBY. insisted which he readily complied with : on the Lawgiver singing a song — himself. 200.Moon Islaiid in the 58 With scarlet a gowns & yeoman sweat broad gold lace. (p. 10 law] VI Leave.' following the inaccurate version given of the refrain in the first and second stanza by EY. ' Sorrow. WBY.' I me] omitted in orig. i . each eat as much as : The hungry poor enter'd the hall to eat good & aleGood English hospitality. with which work Blake appears to me to have been familiar. sit I'll I'm nothing but a spirit. 4 lose] love . 'Old English hospitality is long since deceased. Any if 5 walk Hear my voice upon the Breeze. has] have laws EY. Then chance along this forest in pathless ways. and Miss Gittipin sung — EY p.' an essay reprinted in the Miscellanies of 1778. in Moon. & beef O drinking beer. xi — Here a laugh began. 135) entitles this song Old English Hospitality. Here Till And O leave [me] to my sorrows & fade away. ' Cp. O then it did not fail beef ! company were & tired. 102) prints as a single stanza. I ' WBY. . sorrows] sorrow EY. table then it wide did not fail ! Mayor & Alder- the men Were fit 9 to give law to the city ten . WBY. .' title i. chap.

iii.v. i ! — A Isl. 190. Honour And I let go at only so it & Sung by Quid the Cynic. ht Moon. •X* sl^ . blinking. ix — '"I •4' ^l' . in Moon. iii. i blinking. I know no greater sinner than John Taylor. O ho ' ! said Dr. fore sail. in Moon. & Genius is all I ask. & his mizen. No more No more f ! ! Isl.U. chap. chap. chap. Sung by Quid the Cynic. the Lawgiver. EY i. . Lo ! Sung by viii. ' Quid. Like Dr. 'If you don't own me a Philosopher ^ •^ '^ *<^ ^ ^Ir ^X* ^L« •1' Is/. p. Not in the Bat with Leathern wing. blinking. & his round chin. is it you would please to have? Little With his fat belly What Ho! Ho! I won't IsL in Moon. p. Steelyard. chap. main sail. this evening we'll "4^ all f get drunk. Hear then the pride & knowledge of a Sailor His sprit sail. ^X* •>!' *4' say. I say. i8g. ! Winking Winking Winking & & & EY. Johnson. 6 Johnson To Scipio Africanus. 5 so & so] so so EY. so EY ! i.APPENDIX TO AN ISLAND IN THE MOON a Phebus came strutting in. ask the Gods no more! No more! No mox&\\ the three Philosophers bear chorus. poor frail man god wot I know none frailer.

' EY (i. \st Vo.6o Moon Island in the Suction. p. *T» *X* 'i^ 'I* And lo ! ** *!* vv ^ vT '^ y\ the Cellar goes •rgi 'T* *(^?^^^*l>^?J^»I>'f»^ down with a step {Grand Chorus). 'A ha ' to Dr. !" said Suction — . an Anthem! an Anthem stanza. Johnson Said Scipio Africanus. dash. 196) print this .

— & ' Here nobody could sing any longer.' Not in EY. let O. Isl. Kitty alone & I Ting cock. xi Lally pluck'd up a spirit. chap. they sweep in the cash Into their purse hole Fa me la sol La me fa Sol O ! Isl. Kitty alone Kitty alone This frog he would a wooing ride. That Bill a foolish fellow 's 9 . 13 till Tilly i And Sinior Falalasole. ix your bounty descend to our fair ears. And runs without shoes to save his pumps. * — I you Joe. I cary. I've a And And leave to clean it with my 5 hankercher Without saying a word. chap. Kitty alone Kitty Alone! Kitty alone! Cock I cary Kitty alone. Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes of England (Percy Society). variant of this song. jn Not in EY. xi — ' The Lawgiver all ! the while sat delighted to see . He does not know how to handle a bat Any more than a dog or a cat He has knock 'd down the wicket. and favour us with a fine song. in Moon. I never saw such a bowler To bowl the ball in a tansey. He has given me a black eye. : 1st." Then she sung w' Cp. chord tn . with same refrain. us the ball i say.'' said he. And broke the stumps. chap. 1842. in Moon. — There's Doctor Clash. Kitty alone & I ! ! ! ! ! — " " Miss Gittipin. you sing like a harpsiMoon.Moon Island in the 6i This frog he would a wooing ride. he sung . Throw ! good mind to go you all.

And not like clumsy bears. — . ii A Fa me La me la sol Gentlemen fa sol Gentlemen ! ! i6 ! Rap! Rap! Rap! Fiddle! Fiddle! Fiddle! Clap! Clap! Clap! Fa me La me la sol fa sol ! " Mr. Bouncing B Play away. his trumpets sounding." said he.62 Island in the Moon Great A. "funny enough.' Not in EY. let's Isl. 1 A crowned king.' Not in EY. victory. who refer to it as a song in praise of William the Conqueror. acquainted with a great many songs?" ! ! . you must be " O." They all declined. Play away. in Moon. With And And Banners flying Thro' the clouds of smoke he makes his way. dear sir. of his thousands fills his heart with & victory. " Scropprell. & he was forced to sing himself. And Long fingers & thumbs." Then Sipsop sung . them Jn such a serious humour. On a white horse sitting. 6 little A. ix have handel's waterpiece. Ho Ho Ho! I am no singer I must beg of one of these tender hearted ladies to sing for me. — 'Then said the Lawgiver. the shout of his thousands fills his heart with rejoicing And the ! & shout rejoicing Victory . 'twas Victory I William the prince of Orange. chap. You'r out of the key ! ! Fa me La me la sol fa sol ! Musicians should have pair of very good ears.

SONGS OF INNOCENCE and OF EXPERIENCE .

J. .

and a third drawing called 'An Ideal Hell.' These designs. or he would undoubtedly have included them in his exhaustive 'Annotated Catalogue of Blake's Pictures and Drawings' (Gilchrist. This would seem to be pure assumption. M. the illustrated had been executed conveys the imdesigns in colour pression that before engraving Blake had completed an entire series of coloured illustrations to the Songs of Innocence. W.' are the Piper frontispiece. which were then etched in a bath of aqua fortis until the work stood in relief as on a stereotype.. impressions were printed. .BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE AND OF SONGS OF INNOCENCE EXPERIENCE The Song's of Inriocence (1789) was the first of Blake's works produced by the novel method which. P. he styles 'illuminated printing.' The text and surrounding design were written in reverse. ' . in tints meant to harmonize with the colour scheme afterwards applied in water-colours by the artist. in the ordinary manner. which are described as being in Blake's usual rich style of colouring and as differing considerably from the published engravings. In the dexterous interweaving of text and design Blake anticipates the modern school of book illustration. the Introduction ('Piping down the valleys wild'). ii. Gilchrist's statement {Life. From these plates.' which is probably attributed by a cataloguer's error to the Songs of Innocence. 201-64). in a medium impervious to acid. . Rossetti. — designs known to the present writer are the following (i) In Quaritch's General Catalogue (1887.935) there is an entry of three coloured sketches for the Songs of Innocence 'from the collection of a friend of Blake's. and it is evident that no such sketches were known to Mr. : ' ' ' SAMrSO!* F . which to economize copper were in many cases engraved upon both sides. 68) that 'by the end of 1788 . upon small copper plates about 5" by 3''. in his prospectus of 1793.. The only original i.

in most cases by the rough process known as * stabbing. at one time. must of course be regarded as the only authoritative text even where.' ' ' — generally transferred by Blake to the So?tgs of Experience. have no reason to believe that Blake first executed for all the songs coloured sketches which have since disappeared. To the Public. though the two last were still sometimes placed by him among the Songs of Innocence. the plates in this earliest issue were printed upon both sides of octavo paper. 10 of the same Experience. while others. Songs. These loose leaves were then stitched by Mrs. Several of the latter have the appearance of being fair copies. In 1793 Blake completed the engraving of the Sottgs of His prospectus. title-page.66 Bibliographical Pi^eface (2) There are besides in the Rossetti MS. Original autograph versions of three of the Songs of Innocence are found in the unpublished Blake manuscript known as An Island in the Moon. ' ' ' Little Girl Lost. the earlier manuscript readings seem preferable.' are evidently the first rough draft. All these variant readings are here given in the footnotes to the . Blake into paper covers. transcribed.' and The School Boy which were afterwards containing thirty-one plates. The Songs of Innocence was at first issued as a separate work. With the exception of the frontispiece. complete copies of the little book in its original form — These include five The The Little Girl Found. The engraved version of the Songs. Book. Manuscript versions of eighteen of the twenty-six Songs of Experience form some of the first entries in the Rossetti MS.' The Voice of the Ancient Bard. dated Oct. as in a few cases. addressed ' .' and giving a list of ten year. from an earlier notebook or from loose scraps of paper. Book the original designs for two of the Songs of Expei'ience^ The Angel and The Sick Rose the latter different in many respects from the version subsequently engraved. the thirty-one plates occupying seventeen leaves. such as 'The Tyger. issued by the author without change during a period of nearly forty years.' a cord being laced through holes punctured an inch or two apart. Probably many of the originals were merely pencil draw' to quote Blake's own phrase ings with nothing to seek ' ' ' ' — We ' — — engraving on pewter which would recipe naturally be destroyed in the process of rubbing off on to in his for the copper. and introduction.

Songs of hmocence works ' 67 now published and on Sale at Mr. each being priced at ^s. Blake's. This is the form in which most copies of the Songs occur. prospectus must have reckoned 'A Divine Image (' Cruelty has a Human Heart ') among the number. were printed from electrotypes which have every appearance of having been made from the actual plates engraved by Blake. Sets of impressions were struck off as required. does not include either frontispiece or titlepage. the issue of the Songs extending from the completion of the Songs of Innocence in 1789 to the close of Blake's life. It should be noted that there was never any true edition. In 1863 ten of the original plates. Gilchrist in the second volume of his Life of Blake. The present whereabouts of these plates I have been unable to trace. and were used by Mr. including the general title-page which had not then been engraved. As this is the full number in a perfect copy of the Songs of Innocoice atid of Experience. in other cases. as the watermark shows. and is known to us by only two examples. One of these is in the uncoloured co'py of the Songs in the Reading Room of the British Museum. which. it would seem to have been deliberately rejected by the poet himself. according to his practice twenty-five designs. Though this poem is inserted without question in all editions of Blake since Shepherd's. which would make the entire number of plates in the two. of this or of any other of Blake's engraved works. Frederick Macmillan. was containing printed not earlier than 1832.' advertises the Songs of Innocence and the Songs of Experie7ice as two separate books. yielding sixteen impressions (six being engraved on both sides of the copper). The plate Blake in this ' it is not found in any authentic copy of the So7igs issued in the lifetime of the artist or his wife. The outline designs there. series fifty-four. no. and described as containing Hercules Buildings. and the other is a proof impression in the possession of Mr. According to Gilchrist {Life. 13 Lambeth. F a i. which thenceforward were issued by him as one work. as I learn from Mr. William Muir. Blake here. In 1794 Blake added a general title-page to both series. 125) a few copies were . were still in existence. the plates printed on one side of the leaf only and numbered by hand consecutively one to fifty-four. in the ordinary sense of the term. which he has reproduced at the end of his facsimile of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell.

each) at which Blake advertises the Songs of Injiocence and the Songs of Ex^ '^^^ thirty shillings perience in his Prospectus of 1793. vines. The second is the very beautiful reproduction made by Mr. and.' This agrees with the modest price {^s. the edition being limited to fifty copies. Besides the sixteen plates reprinted by Gilchrist. while it affords a fairly good general idea of Blake's designs. were added with a fine brush. The earlier examples of the Songs of htnocence are distinguished by the simplicity and delicacy of their colouring. These last issues are printed upon larger paper and upon one side of the leaf only. and each plate has the additional embellishment of a wide wash border instead of the simple red line with which Blake ordinarily surrounded the designs. The Monckton Milnes copy. and even drapery. — Works of William Blake. as Mr. the plates are sur- rounded by delicate borders of trees. already referred to. which. 1831. in which part of the plates at least were printed after the death of Blake and his wife. of Experience. and in lacking the superadded water-colour tinting there are three modern The first of these is given in The facsimiles of the Songs. uncoloured poor copy of the So?igs acquired by the British Museum in January. perhaps F. into whose possession they passed after Catherine Blake's death in October. This is a made-up copy. G. In a copy exhibited at the Grolier Club at New York in 1905. 124) tells us the artist received for the first issue of the collected Songs probably refers to coloured impressions. is coarsely executed and exceedingly inaccurate as to the text. which are not more than a quarter of an inch in width. in the Reading Room of the British Museum. The only uncoloured copy of the Songs of Innocence and of Experience known to the present writer is the very unworthy example. produced after 18 18. These frames. reprodiiced in facsimile from the original editions (100 copies printed for private circulation)^ This has evidently been prepared from the very 1876. D. The out- . measures 13'' x lof". William Muir in 1884 and 1885. Rossetti points out. or two guineas which Gilchrist (i. Tatham. are as absolutely the originals as those appearing in the copies printed by ' Blake ' — except of course in having been printed from electros instead of direct from the plates. contrasting in this respect with some of the later more elaborately illuminated copies of the Songs of Innocence ajid by Mr. 1864. or blue and white.68 Bibliographical Preface ' issued plain in black and white.

fails to represent the clearness of the originals where the copies have been made from Neither of these facsimiles. as the editor points out. In the Songs of Experience.Songs of Iiinoceiice 69 drawings are here facsimilized by lithography.' and The School Boy ') the body of the text is in minuscule roman. only Sunflower. originally belonging to a Mr. 1903). There is also a useful facsimile of the outlines of the line — — by Mr. A. tinted impressions. The early issues of the Songs of Innocence are without manuscript pagination or border lines. plates are here reproduced by a photographic process. a sharpness and definiteness of outline impossible to achieve by printing from stone. Songs. are foliated at the top rightis ' ' ' ! . and a collation of various copies of the Songs shows that the order in which the plates are arranged varies in almost every instance. Muir fails in the difficult technical feat of reproducing the grace. on the contrary.' *Ah Poison Tree. There is no engraved Table of Contents. The plates are without engraved foliation or pagination.' being written in the former style of lettering. and now the property of Mr. The Little Girl Lost. printed upon one side of the leaf only.' which is in italic. July 4. as in the first ' issue. which.' and 'A songs. Later issues of the two series. to Flaxman copied from the volume which Blake gave it may be noted. edited The though a trustworthy guide for Blake's text. Quaritch at the Hamilton Palace sale. however. Edwin J. much more accurate than the reproduction of 1876. Edwards.' 'London. White of Brooklyn. however. W. and delicacy of Blake's lettering. Ellis (Quaritch. purchased by Mr. and the colouring added by hand from the finest examples accessible The tinting of the Songs of Innocence is to the artist. with the exception of The Voice of the Ancient Bard. and catchwords are only used where one of the longer songs is continued on to a second plate. and partly no doubt for this reason Mr. 'The Tyger. 1882. These exquisite facsimiles leave little to be Blake's desired in their general fidelity to the originals. beauty. are arranged in a different the plates.' with the introductory stanza to 'A Little Girl Lost. Blake substituted for roman the more easily formed italic characters which he first adopted in the Book of Thel four (1789) and used in all his subsequent works.' The Little Girl Found. though order that of the Songs of Experience from the famous Beckford Library copy. In Blake's Songs of Innocence (including. cameo plates have.

title-page. Ditchfield. of the same juxtaposition is the example in the Print Room of the British Museum. This is evidently a made-up copy. Muir has given in facsimile at the end of his reproduction of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. . M. Some copies bearing Blake's own foliation seem to be arranged regardless of system.Bibliographical Preface 70 corner. at an early date. which is written on two opposite leaves of quarto paper. and C. must have disappeared These coincidences of arrangement. A ' ' ' ' ' ' which we may reasonably conjecture have gone to supply the lacunae in the Print Room copy. the table showing the order in which the songs should be paged and arranged. and it was probably with the intention of rectifying this defect that Blake compiled. in the same brown or red ink with which Blake added the border lines surrounding the plates. B. in which. either for his own guidance or that of his wife. It will be seen from these tables that although the order of plates is not identical in any of these six copies. This index. April 24. bound by C. In a sale at Sotheby's of the library of J. to face the title-page..D. the frontispiece. The Ecchoing Green (two plates) and the Nurse's Song and Holy Thursday are printed upon either side of the same leaf. and Introduction. Blake's earliest arrangement is found in the extremelyrare first issue of the Songs printed upon both sides of the In Table I I give the collations of five copies of leaf. B. yet in four of these the same designs are invariably found further instance either as recto or verso of the same leaf. are printed upon one side of the leaf only the frontispiece was generally bound. as if printed on the verso. plates printed upon the same leaf being bracketed together and those on hand the recto being placed first. are as likely to have arisen from the fact of a number of impressions having been printed at one time. as from any deliberate intention on the part of the author. so that the two missing leaves. 1H93. which Mr. as in A. among the books sold is recorded an incomplete copy of the Songs of Innocence This volume was in which these four plates are wanting. however. Lewis in 1782. the deficiency of the original being supplied by two leaves of the earlier issue. may be dated approximately . The first three plates of the Songs of Innocejice. the Songs of Innocence and in Table II of one copy of the Songs of Innocence a7id of Experience.

Chimney Sweeper. General Title. 27. 29. Poison Tree. 14. 12. A 52. Ancient Bard. A Little Girl little Black thing. Title-page to ^t'w^. 40. Night.'>. 21. II. Little Girl Lost. Spring. The Garden Little Boy Lost. Title Page of Songs of Experience. The Sick Rose. 42. Experie7ice. On . Cradle Song. 26. 4. 21. 30. Song. issues. &c. The Angel. Laughing Song. Title page to Songs of Imiocence. Nurse's Song. Nurse's Song.' This arrangement. [2nd leaf of index begins] page 24. 9. five copies (N. of Love. 0. The Ecchoing Green. 54. The Chimney Sweeper. The 19. The Blossom. The Little Boy Found. Little 8. The Little 26. 49. Cradle Song. 23. 45. is followed in the present edition. Night. 22. 7. 38. 15. 5. 31.P. My The School Boy. 3. 7. 16. The Chimney Sweeper. Ditto. 23. The Shepherd. This later arrangement of the Songs is as follows: I. The Clod & Pebble. Ditto. Dream. 13. pretty Rose Tree. Lost. 8. however. Frontispiece of Child on the Shepherd's head. Ditto.. 46. Hear the voice of the Bard. 13. To Tirzah. The Shepherd.f Later — of Innocence. The Divine Image. Infant Sorrow. Holy Thursday. Ditto. 15. 51. Ditto. Introduction The Fly. 25. 37. 22. 36.Songs of Innocence 7 1 by the watermark (1818) of the Monckton Milnes copy. 17. with which coincides in arrangement. 19. The Voice of the 43. in which the Songs of Innocence Experience ought to be paged & placed. as the only one in which Blake is known to have laid down explicit instructions regarding the order of the songs. Frontispiece. 32. Ditto. Holy Thursday. 6. Laughing Song. 12. show an entirely different order. The Little Vagabond. Introduction Piping down the Valleys. End of Softgs of Lmocence : then Begins ' So?tgs of [page] 28. General Title. 18. London. 10. — '>. A A 50. Spring. Ditto. dream. it *The Order & of Page I. &c. 10. 20. Nurse's 20. The Divine Image. and others approximating closely to the same standard.Q. 16. A The Little Boy Found. Ecchoing Green. 44. The Lamb. 14.R) placing the plates in identical sequence. &c. 47. 17. A 24. 41. Another's Sorrow. The Lamb. 11. Infant Joy. Frontispiece of Piper. 34. Infant Joy. 9. 5. 2. Earth's Answer. Holy Thursday. 6. The Tyger. Boy 25. 4. Introduction. 48. 2. ' — Black Boy. Lost. The Little Black Boy. On 27. 39. 35. The Human Abstract. The Little Boy Lost. The Blossom. 3. 18. 53.

Little Girl Found. 44. Earth's Answer. Simple colouring. The Little Vagabond. The Nurse's Song. In the original blue-grey paper binding. The Chimney Sweeper. Coloured very beautifully with extreme finish. . Without pagination. Without No dated watermark. levant morocco. The property of Robert Hoe. No dated watermark.'] fairly satisfactory test of the date of a copy of the later issue of the Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Title-page to So?igs of Experience. 32. Coloured with pagination. Bound Size 61^^ x 5 inches.53. 30. Boy. 51. . The Little Girl Lost. 33. 43. : 31 plates. The Fly. as in Blake's in later first impression printed upon recto and verso issues both are placed among the Songs of Experience while. New York. Esq. Pebble. Holy Thursday. 52. 48. printed upon 17 leaves. 34-6. 45. No dated watermark. My pretty Rose Tree. Originally in worn-out red leather binding. 40. The copies described in this and in the two preceding tables are A. The Without sa7ne. London. 38. 42. 49. 41. now re-bound in red Size 7| x 5x\ inches. in two of the very last copies produced. printed upon 17 leaves. B. may be obtained by noting the positions of The School Boy and The Voice of the Ancient Bard.' In earlier copies these two songs are included in the So7igs of Imioccnce. 39. 46. printed upon one side of the leaf only. with autograph of his sister. printed upon 17 leaves. Now in the possession of Mrs. 50. George Barclay Moffat. pagination.. The Angel. [End of Songs of Innocence?^ 29.72 Bibliographical Preface Another's Sorrow. Little Little Boy Lost. Printed in yellow. 31 plates. C. The Sick Rose. The Clod and 31. 31 plates. Size 7^ x ^\ inches. Printed in golden brown. [End of Songs of Experience. Introduction. School Girl Lost. The Human Abstract. The Tyger. Frontispiece. Sold at Sotheby's. Songs of Innocence. Poison Tree. New York. Infant Sorrow. In Table III I give the collation of the sixteen examples known to me. Flaxman's copy. 47. ' ' ' ' the Songs of Innocence. 28. 37. 54. The Garden of Love. The same. in citron morocco by Bedford. The The To Tirzah. predominating tone of yellow brown. Voice of the Ancient Bard. Now . The School Boy is retained among the Songs of Experience and The Voice of the Ancient Bard is retransferred to the end of A A A A ' ' ' .

Songs of Innocence. The probably error -^ in mistake. from the covers of which it was rescued Now in the Rowfant by Mr. In olive green calf binding.. ^ .' one being placed among the Songs of Experience. Perry of Providence. Watermarks dated 1802 and 1804. Without border lines. Pearson. Purchased in 1900 from Quaritch. 28 plates. as may have nude boy. Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Printed in golden brown. E. though not bound up with. 20. it. G. Pasted upon a fly-leaf at the end of the book is a pen and ink sketch by Blake. Robert Hoe. The same. 1897. who Copy describes John Linnell's originated through the fact that a pen and ink portrait of Blake. Size 7 inches in height. Coloured in green tone throughout. Formerly in the possession of Mr. Foliated consecutively by Blake. ham. Size 7i x 5 inches. SydenThis was the copy used by Mr. and an autograph letter of Blake's to the same friend were inserted in. representing a woman and copy. Bound in original mottled calf.Songs of Innocence t^ the property of J. Copy presented by Blake to his physician. each on separate leaf. nated in pencil. Bound in green morocco by Bedford. America.. 1900. Printed in sepia. owner to meet the dimensions of an old weekly washing book. New York. The same. F. William Muir his coloured facsimile of the Songs of Innocence. Nov. Cecil House. Pagi31 plates. H. Feb. this copy. Foliated consecutively by Blake. Size Coloured. Locker-Lampson. printed upon 17 leaves. There are duplicate impressions of The Laughing Song. Butts. No dated watermark. Songs of lujiocence and of Experience. No dated watermark. in the possession of Mr. Sold Now the property of at Sotheby's. 22. ^^ plates on 32 leaves. Esq. Esq. in D. ' Coloured. Library. An incomplete copy forming part of a miscellaneous collection sold at Sotheby's. Blake's The volume was cut down by a later friend. Paginated consecutively throughout. about 1830. Coloured. 54 plates. by Linnell. printed on one side of the leaf only. 6yf X 4y| inches. Bound in cloth.

beautifully coloured. is now in the possession of William Linnell.' Very In old calf binding circa 1830. printed Each book only.74 Bibliographical Preface bearing the autographs. which was bought from Blake by Mr. The inclusion of ' The School Boy among ' the Songs of Innocence points to the original having been rather an earlier than a later issue. 54 on one side of the leaf plates. 181 9. and later. each printed on a separate leaf. Watermark without date. Shepherd includes among the Songs of Experience the rare poem *A Divine Image. in ink. Copy L. separately foliated. Delicately coloured. Songs of Innocence. New John R. The same. in Pickering's three editions of 1866. of Gerald Massey the poet. Size 12x8^ the leaf inches. printed upon one side of General title-page without foliation and the remaining leaves numbered by Blake 1-53. March 30. Now the property of Mr. however. W. with wide wash borders. Size 5 x 7^^ inches. The same. in Brooklyn. Esq. Bound in the original white vellum binding. have taken from the posthumously printed copy in the British Museum Reading Room. possibly part of the original binding. but no bibliographical details are available. Printed in greenish grey. is ' Following the general title-page the Songs of Experiby an error of the binder. of H. 54 plates. Bernard Quaritch. Foliated by Blake 1-54. the possession of Mrs. Presumably a copy followed by Shepherd Copy Phillips the painter. The same. 1868. Coloured. and 1874. Monckton Milnes. Modern binding. 54 plates. of the Songs of Innocence is Whatman 1808. 1903. I. R. Formerly the property of Mr. and sold at the Crewe sale. Linnell. This copy. Plates are printed in brown. Wade. . A sheet of brown paper is inserted between the two series.' which he may. in the same sepia as the border lines. afterwards Lord Houghton. 13 X io| inches. Size John M. the general The watermark title-page being without foliation. are placed before the ence. Dated watermark 1818. K. The same. York. August 27. in pencil.

This is the copy bought. 54 plates. who considered it the best he had seen. Muir in his reproduction of the So7igs of Experience.. 54 plates. in this covered with unglazed calico or holland of a warm red colour. Wainewright (' Janus Weathercock ') bought from Blake. J. of James Weales. 3 x 10 inches. This copy was used by Mr. on separate 75 leaves. The same. and in width from 4^ to 5 inches. Foliated consecutively by Blake 1-54. Coloured with extreme finish and beauty. which was then considered to be a somewhat enhanced price for a coloured copy of the Songs. illustrated by Blake]. Watermark 18 15. Linnell. Esq. Foliated by Blake 1-54 consecutively. W. Esq. G. Esq. in the library the possession of John Subsequently now in whose father purchased it Dec. Printed in dull orange-red. from Blake by Mr. Linnell. Richly and elaborately coloured. New York. Lewis. and now in the possession of James T. Aders. 1883. Bound in green morocco by C. Printed in red. 54 plates. Foliated by Blake.Songs of Innocence N. Linnell.. probably during his connexion with the London Magazine 1830-3. Half-bound in morocco. the Beckford copy. Aders in July. and now the property of W. The plates copy are printed upon pieces of drawing paper varying in height from 6 to 7^ inches. 1836. The same. The same. Esq. and bound in boards colour. 1843. for the sum of five guineas. They are now mounted in a book of white consecutively ' ' O. sold at the Hamilton Palace sale. or Mrs. Edwards the publisher of Young's Night Afterwards Thotig/its. A pencil note in this copy reads Edwards May 1828 [? R. printed on one side of the leaf only. Printed in reddish orange. The size of the drawing paper upon which the plates are printed is io| x 8| inches. with added border lines of same colour. These sheets were originally bound in boards covered with light green calico. This was the copy which T. These sheets are mounted on white paper \\\y.() inches. . j or shortly afterwards. with added border lines of same Richly and splendidly coloured. Size 8| x ^-^^ inches. White. A. Linnell from Mr. White. P. of Brooklyn. Acquired by Mr. through Mr.. from a Mr. 13. drawing paper. printed upon one side of the leaf only. 1797.

of tints. 43. Esq. as Rossetti points out. Now in the possession of Mr. and are foliated in pencil. all printed in a reddish brown. N. as Mr. 28. as the watermark shows. S. 38. to whom it was bequeathed by Sir F. 54 plates. These plates. printed upon both sides ot The same. binding. 32. was issued not earlier than 1825. for the sum of five guineas. with MS. Size 7I x 4^ inches. . 1826. mark dated 1825. 54 ' : Edwin W. Burton. Y. ' ' ' Songs of Experience. and the copy. The same. Paginated consecutively by Blake in red. Field as a gift in memory of her husband.(last figure wanting). This set of impressions is apparently made up from three different copies. Supplied from the early issue of the Songs of Innocence. Now in the possession of C.76 Q. Bound in morocco circa 1830. Robinson. Watermark dated 182. viz. Size 8i X 5| inches. 40. 42. 54 plates. These. is a very poor one. Field. Fairfax R. Perry Blake's friend. Printed in orange. printed upon one side of the leaf Foliated consecutively in ink 1-54. W.. printed upon 52 leaves. 1863. are foliated by Blake between the outer and inner borders with which he surrounded the designs. In modern binding. bought this copy in April. Printed in golden brown. are printed in a variety : The colouring of some of the plates is rather muddy. Bibliographical Preface plates. belong to a copy which. 33. Richly coloured and gilt. The majority of the plates. with added borders of Brilliantly Size 6-^^^ x ^\ inches. Modern mount floral tracery. 50. Wateronly. H. 47. Formerly the property of the artist Edward Calvert. Linnell to Blake at the same date. note I received from Blake himself and coloured by his own hand. This copy Crabb Robinson's copy. 38 in number. 41. Linnell informs me. 49. paid through the elder Mr. printed on recto only. who had received it from Mrs. ' are the second plate of The Ecchoing Green printed as recto to The Lamb (verso) and The ' Chimney Sweeper' recto with The Blossom' verso. of Providence. 51. Murray. which lack the border lines. which I present with great pleasure to The same. Supplied from a third copy are twelve plates of the the ' leaf. C. March 1 1.' Crabb Robinson. and coloured gilt.

Richly coloured and gilt. some sheets of which bear the watermark somewhat darker ink and thinner paper. dated watermark. The same. 54 plates. larger paper io| x 7^. It was sent by Mrs. to any engraved original. marked Blake's own. Copy in the Reading Room of the British Museum. printed on recto only. Esq. but. New York. Blake. purchased January 7. as a return for a sum of twenty guineas which he had handed to her through Mr. Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Songs of Experience only. not probable that the whole impression of the Songs in number the twenty-two above. Watermark dated ' V. Ff. delicately executed according or as harmonious as some of the earlier examples. 41.' to whom the author copies It is issued by Blake much exceeded ' . 1825. printed No Foliated 30-54. 54 plates. smaller paper 9-| X ']\ inches.Songs of Innocence Purchased by the British Museum (Print 77 Room) in 1836. sepia upon large thin paper. tained the Sofigs of Innocence also. In 1863 this copy was in the possession of the Rev. The described Public. and may be the editor's 1831. Foliated in pencil. T. This is the copy followed by Gilchrist and most later editors in the arrangement of the So?igs. 43. Foliated The colour. Ff. Under this heading I give the order of the Songs as they occur in the first letterpress edition This is not traceable edited by Wilkinson in 1839. having at one time formed part of a copy which conby Blake. printed from the original plates after Blake's death. 1-40 and 42 printed with leaden grey ink upon thick paper.' to Dr. as not is to Gilchrist. Haviland Burke. Size. X. 25 plates. Charles Forster. The sa7ne. printed in own arrangement. Obviously printed on recto only. 44. Bound Size 7| x ^\ in modern English maroon morocco. modern binding. Ff. Now in the possession of Robert Hoe. 1864. on one inches. each leaf separately mounted on a guard. side of the leaf only. Y.. Bishop of Limerick. 45-54 are printed in reddish In a Uncoloured. as the foliation shows. 43 bearing the upon larger watermark 1832. f. Jebb.

D. He introduces into the Songs of Experiejtce the Cradle Song taken from the MS. with the Poetical Sketches. the correction of some few glaring grammatical blemishes These alone excepted. . volume of Gilchrist's Life of Blake. Rossetti. Book. who has in several instances retained Wilkinson's alterations. and from the same source prefixes two stanzas. twelve years after Blake's death. The order of the songs in this edition differs from that of Wilkinson or Rossetti. that the Songs of Innocence and of Experience were printed for the first time in ordinary types. while the particular copy from which this arrangement is borrowed has not been traced by me. Biog.' and prints the poems in an ' order which apparently is not derivable from any engraved In 1863 the Songs were reprinted in the second authority. His text of 'The Tyger' is based upon the corrupt version of Cunningham. had thus only the remotest opportunity of becoming acquainted with his poems save by the two or three examples quoted by Malkin and Cunningham ^ It was not until 1839. The Gilchrists of Wilkin{Life. and was reprinted. i. v. Nat. in 1874. and only a very small edition can have been printed. This little volume. passed into a second edition two years later. and Diet.' In reality his reprint compares not unfavourably in this respect with those of later editors. is now itself somewhat of a bibliographical rarity. the biographer states the poems are now given in strict fidelity to the original.' 'corrections' are the work of Mr.' Songs. 1812-99). and Cunningham's Lives of British Painters (1830). and in others introduced new readings of his own which cannot always be commended. but. it is most improbable that so faithful take ' ' A ' ' In Malkin's Fathers Memoirs of His Child (1806). together with other of Blake's poems. in themselves a complete poem. to far more accurate edition of the The Garden of Love. published by Pickering and edited by James John Garth Wilkinson (Swedenborgian. G.Bibliographical Preface 78 appeals in his Prospectus and elsewhere. and such changes as ta'en for took in the lines ' ' ' ' ' — ' fields and happy groves have took delight' Farewell green Where flocks away something of the charm of the original. was published by Pickering in 1866.. who make greater pretensions to literal fidelity. Wilkinson omits The Little Vagabond. which seemed a pious duty. 124. 184) speak son's text as 'much altered.

Yeats in his smaller Muses' Library' edition of Blake. and has been frequently The editor's remarks on the last pages of his reprinted. The Aldine edition of Blake's Poems. and do Blake the disservice of again presenting him without At any rate. Rossetti These into the poems printed in Gilchrist's Life. an editor as Mr. G.' renders it sufficiently clear that Blake's text has been restored only in the case of the Poetical Sketches. as it assuredly is. Ellis and Yeats. and were then printed in their original shape (which term includes their occasional original shapefelt justified in recurring to another lessness). Since 1874 the Aldine edition appears to have been generally accepted as the standard text of Blake's Poems. : : — — ' ' This explanation hardly also less absolutely exact. he says emendations were indeed great improvements. as the compositions in their aid. D. R. W. It is followed in most of the subsequent editions and selections. and they rectify various annoying and inexcusable laxities in point It is of metre or syntax.Songs of Innocence 79 Heme Shepherd would have rearranged the poems in a way of his own. if better. or here and there of expression. which. Rossetti. with a few fresh changes. W. taken perhaps from the copy in the British Museum.' and later question have been already reproduced at a date intermediate between that of my brother's editing and of the present volume. The Song of Experience with the title 'A Divine Image' ('Cruelty has a Human Heart') appears in Shepherd's edition for the first time. in the large Collected Works of William Blake edited by Messrs. Referring to the changes introduced by Mr. D. among others. is A ' . and that the Songs of Innocence and of Experience are still printed with Mr. therefore with considerable reluctance that I abandon them. Prefatory Memoirmayhavegiven rise to some misconception. Rossetti's emendatory readings. G. B. M. was published in 1874. I have not form of the same poems. edited by Mr. different and more accurate text is given by Mr.

8o Bibliographical Preface .

I On Another's Sorrow Spring Spring .1 The School Boy Nurse's Song "•! H-l Holy Thursday -! i6. General Title-page I. A IS- Holy Thursday My Pretty Rose Tree. The Human Abstract The Fly 6. Little Girl A Little A Poison Tree Infant Sorrow 12.3. The Lilly. 17- The The Little Little Boy Lost Boy Found 3- 4- 5- Little Girl Little Girl Lost Lost Found Boy Lost The Chimney Sweeper The Tyger 7 •1 London The Garden of Love 8. Night (2 plates) A Dream SAMPSON Laughing Song The The The 14. II. The Sick Rose Nurse's Song 9The Angel The Little Vagabond 10. Frontispiece to Songs of Ex- 2.1 The Voice of the Ancient Bard The Divine Image The Chimney Sweeper Cradle Song (a plates) lO. Title-page Introduction Earth's Answer 3- perience cence 4- Introduction A The Shepherd Infant Joy The Blossom The Lamb Laughing Song 7Little Black Boy Little Black Boy 8. Ah Sunflower. Little Girl Lost To Tirzah The Clod and the Pebble ! .8i Songs of Innocence TABLE II FIRST ISSUE OF SONGS OF INNOCENCE AND OF EXPERIENCE (Printed upon both sides of leaf) F LEAF LEAF I. The Ecchoing Green (2 plates) II. Frontispiece Title-page to Songs of Inno- 2.

82 .^ < Bibliographical Preface .

Songs of Innocence O w N COCOI>00 c r CO CO 4) TS ••-* <-* X C "*"*lO^O O M fOa** coco'<i-coco^i.J 10 VO CO CO NlOC0MMO\C«rl- bo Tj--<«-io-<riO'^ir)cO'*> CO >* OvOO co»0 :u^co-^coirt'^coio>o O r- r'^ CO CO Oh u-)vo c .5co"> <*•^OT^lD>*•S t~oo irno W C« comr^'^'^ON-'i-ONO'O •*« CO CO O M tlO C» >1- « CJ •- CO CO CO « lOvO o\ o\ ** * CO '^ '^ oovO O N ON o ** 10 vO^ f'^'^COiOvCO'^i.>M I •^ •<1-'^COCOC0q-„'~'^IOM <J-C0C0'^'<*- 83 00 c^ « N o »-< CO CO CO CO o M * ^^w mcoo\M o\Pi rf T«- ^ r» t~ Tt.5 i-i -"l- o ON >> 00C0ClC0«O\i-i00l>O .o 00 covo w <i-T)-iO'<i-iO'*-mcO"iJ-> CO CO en o coovOwmcot^'^ c« c c< cOjq ov o " n CO ^ 10 cococococOu. CO CO • ITi 00 0\ « « O " 00 CO CO CO o « -"i- •^ e« ".^(Q~cocO'<*-'^'i-'*'«-'* O w « co^^£P *T^<J••<l-u^lO'0>Olo'5 VO r«oo Ov CO CO VO t~ Ov 01 ns td CQ 1 c o 'C o c '-' •5< o " C» Ov •-< CO CO CO CO Tf ^o be n o co'^^'covo <!cO'*coio-<»-^in> ^ CO CO ^^ CO «co^voS?r^l?./.0-Ov|rg-'i r^locoo^^^-ncoco rf \n if ^ bf rt- V^ *lOC0'«-> « ii Tj-vo o T^„ CO ih01>-'-i'5OO'"i-i . COOO t^ '^ '* CO c c c •ivO Ov'^'^CJ >-iOO r-Wi ^COCOCO'S "1u^-*-<l-'> cococo>ococo^(^coioioco'*co"*'S .

WBY of Innocence and Experience. In the MS.' W. were never engraved or published by Blake. M. and Shep. These lines. WMR.' which.SONGS Of INNOCENCE and Of EXPERIENCE Shemng the of the The general 'Two Contrary States Human Soul title-page to both series of the Songs. however. under the title 'A Motto. . loi) are two stanzas entitled Motto to the Songs of Innocence & of Experience. 1793. Rossetti prefixes to the Songs in the Aldine edition. writes incorrectly read Songs 'showing' for 'shewing. This plate was probably engraved after Oct. issued together as one work.' In notes DGR and WBY . lo. when Blake issued his prospectus 'To the Public' Omitted in the editions of DGR. EY. nor are they known to occur as ' an inscription in any copy of the Songs. Book (p.

SONGS of Inn c enc e 1789 The Author & Printer. facing the engraved frontispiece is printed on the verso of the preceding leaf (recto blank). The engraved title to the Sottgs of Innocence. or in conjunction with the Songs of Experience. W. which leaf. Blake. this plate is printed on the recto of the piper. of the original plate. as well as in the later issue. with verso blank. end^ from an electrotype Reprinted in Gilchrist . (Z. of the earlier. ii.^/^. when published either as In the a separate work.

thy happy pipe Sing thy songs of happy chear So I sang the same again. 1811. . ' Drop thy pipe. ii.SONGS OF INNOCENCE Introduction Piping down the valleys wild. H. pipe that song again So I piped: he wept to hear.. Wilk. Sah ein Kind von Luft getragen. Hort' es lachelnd zu mir sagen : " Pfeifer. Pfeifend Lieder ohne Zahl . And I 13 pluck'd a hollow reed. and subsequent issues of the Songs of Innocence printed on the verso blank.' So he vanish'd from my sight. in the Vaterldndisches Museum. Dass sie sing' der Kinder Mund. II sang] Thus sung Cunn. 'Piper. On a cloud I saw a child. that all may read. Schnitzte eine Feder dran. In the recto of first leaf. setz dich hin und schreib.. Macht' aus Wasser Tinte dann. Schrieb die Lieder hin zur Stund. 9 ' : sit thee down and write In a book." So erklang's vor meinem Ohr. Dass dein Lied im Sinn verbleib'. WBY. This poem was first printed in ordinary type in Cunningham's Lives of British Painters.. Hefti : ' — Pfeifend ging ich durch das Thai. While he wept with joy to hear.' . And he laughing said to me: i Pipe a song about a Lamb So I piped with merry chear. II. ' ' * • 5 ! Piper. with the omission of the second and third stanzas. ]ahrg. Shep. N. 150 (1830). Julius. Bd. translated. Und ich schnitt ein hohles Rohr. by Dr. Piping songs of pleasant glee. .

Songs of Ifmocence
And
And
And

I

made a

I stain'd

I

Every

rural pen,
the water clear,

j?

my happy

wrote
child

87

may

songs
joy to hear.

The Ecchoing Green
The Sun does arise,
And make happy the
The merry bells ring

To welcome

i

skies

the Spring

;

;

The sky lark and thrush,
The birds of the bush,
Sing louder around

To

the bells' chearful sound,
sports shall be seen

While our

On

the Ecchoing Green.

Old John, with white hair,
Does laugh away care,

ii

Sitting under the oak,

Among

the old folk.

They laugh

at our play,

And
'

soon they all say
Such, such were the joys
:

all, girls & boys,
In our youth time were seen
On the Ecchoing Green.'

When we

Till the little ones, weary,

21

No more
The

And

can be merry;
sun does descend,
our sports have an end.

This song was engraved on two plates.

The

first

of these (to fourth line

of second stanza) is among the remnant reprinted by Gilchrist {^Life, ii. end).
In the first issue of the Songs of Innocence the two plates are always
printed as recto and verso of the same leaf
i8 When we all, girls
8 bells'] No apostrophe in orig.
punctuation in on'g. ; When we, all girls and boys Wilk., Shep.

&

boys]

No

88

Songs of Innocence
Round

Many

the laps of their mothers
sisters

and brothers,

Like birds

in their nest,

Are ready

for rest,

And sport no more seen
On the darkening Green.

The Lamb
Little

Lamb who made

thee?

i

Dost thou know who made thee?

Gave thee

By

life,

the stream

&
&

bid thee feed,
o'er the

Gave thee clothing of

mead

Softest clothing, wooly, bright

Gave thee such a tender
all

Making
Little

;

delight,
;

voice,

the vales rejoice?

Lamb who made

thee?

Dost thou know who made thee?

n

Lamb, I'll tell thee,
Lamb, I'll tell thee:
He is called by thy name,
For he calls himself a Lamb.
Little

Little

He is meek, & he is mild
He became a little child.
I

;

a child, & thou a lamb.
are called by his name.

We

Little
Little

This
to

'

The

bless thee

!

bless thee

!

the original plates reprinted by Gilchrist {Life, ii. end).
In
Songs of Innocence this plate is found as recto or verso
*
Blossom,' or as recto to Nurse's Song or Spring.'

is

t'le first

Lamb, God
Lamb, God

among

issue of the

3 bid] bade

'

DGR,

WMR,

EY.

'

Songs of

Innocejtce

89

The Shepherd
How

sweet

From

the

is

the Shepherd's sweet lot
to the evening he strays

i

!

morn

;

He shall follow
And his tongue

his sheep all the day,
shall be filled with praise.

For he hears the lamb's innocent

5

call,

And he hears the ewe's tender reply
He is watchful while they are in peace,
;

For they know when
In the

first

issue of the

'

their

Songs of Innocence
'

Infant Joy,' or as recto to
follows the Introduction.'

The

Little

is

Shepherd

nigh.

this plate is printed as

In almost

Black Boy.'

all later

verso to
issues

it

'

5, 6 lamb's
ewe's] No apostrophe in
8 whenj that Wilk., DGR.
.

Infant

.

.

orig.

lambs'

;

.

.

.

ewes*

all edd.

Joy
*

I

have no name

am
What
I

'

I

i

:

but two days old.'
shall I call thee?

happy am,

Joy is my name.'
Sweet joy befall thee

!

Pretty joy!

7

Sweet joy, but two days
Sweet joy I call thee

old.

:

Thou
I

dost smile,
sing the while,

Sweet joy
In the

first

issue of the

recto or verso to

'

befall thee

Songs of Innocence

The Shepherd,'

!

this plate is printed either as

or as verso to

'

On

Another's Sorrow.'

Songs of Imiocence

go

The

Black Boy

Little

mother bore

My
And

I

am

me

southern wild,
my soul is white

in the

O

black, but

White as an angel is the English
But I am black, as if bereav'd of

My

me

mother taught

i

;

child,
light.

underneath a

5

tree,

And, sitting down before the heat of day,
She took me on her lap and kissed me,
And, pointing to the east, began to say
:

'

Look on

And
And

— there

God

does

9

live,

gives his light, and gives his heat away
flowers and trees and beasts and men recieve
;

Comfort
'

the rising sun,

in

And we

morning, joy in the noon day.

are put on earth a little space,
learn to bear the beams of love

13

That we may

;

And

these black bodies and this sun-burnt face
but a cloud, and like a shady grove.

Is

'For when our souls have learn'd the heat to bear,

17

cloud will vanish, we shall hear his voice,
"
come out from the grove, my love & care.
Saying

The

:

And

my golden tent like lambs rejoice.'"
my mother say, and kissed me;

round

Thus did

21

And thus I say to little English boy.
When I from black, and he from white cloud free,
And round the tent of God like lambs we joy,
he can bear
To lean in joy upon our father's knee
And then I'll stand and stroke his silver hair.
And be like him, and he will then love me.

shade him from the heat,

I'll

till

25

;

Engraved on two plates of four and three stanzas respectively. In the
Songs of Innocence the former is printed as verso to
the Laughing Song or The Shepherd,' the latter as recto to The Voice of

earliest issue of the

'

'

'

'

the Ancient Bard.'
ii beasts] beast Shep.
like a cloud Svvinb. p. 115.

9 does] doth Muir's/rtcsi'w.
.

.

.

cloud]

Are

.

.

.

cloud all edd.

learn'd] learnt Shep.
omits out.
23-28

;

Are

18 cloud]

When

I

from

.

.

.

i6

Is

17

clouds Willc, Shep.
19 Wilk.
will then love me] Quoted Shep.

Songs of Innocence

9

1

Laughing Song
When the green woods laugh with the voice of
And the dimpling stream runs laughing by
When the air does laugh with our merry wit,
And the green hill laughs with the noise of it

i

joy,

;

;

When the meadows laugh with lively green,
And the grasshopper laughs in the merry scene,
When Mary and Susan and Emily
With their sweet round mouths sing Ha, Ha, He

5

'

'

When

the painted birds laugh in the shade,
table with cherries and nuts is spread,

!

9

Where our

Come live, & be merry, and join with me,
To sing the sweet chorus of Ha, Ha, He

*

'

!

In the first issue of the Songs of Innocence this plate is generally printed
The Little Black Boy.' In the Brit. Mus. Rdg.

as recto to the first plate of

'

This song was first printed in ordinary
type in Malkin's Fathers Memoirs of His Child 1806).
10 Where] When Wilk., Shep.
6 the merry] this merry MalL
11 merry] happy Wilk., Shep.

Rm. copy

this plate is lacking.

1

Spring
Sound the Flute

Now

it 's

i

!

mute.

Birds delight

Day and Night

;

Nightingale
In the dale,

Lark

in

Merrily,
Merrily, Merrily, to

Sky,

welcome

in the

Year.

Upon two plates in the engraved original. In the first issue of the Songs
of Innocence the former is usually found as verso to 'On Another's Sorrow,'
and the latter as recto to The School Boy.'
'

2 it's]

'tis

DGR, WMR, EY,

Umr'sfacsim.

Songs of Innocence

92

lo

Little Boy,

Full of joy

;

Little Girl,

Sweet and small

;

Cock does crow,
So do you
;

Merry

voice,

Infant noise,
Merrily, Merrily, to welcome in the Year.
Little

Here

Lamb,

am

I

Come and

lick

My

white neck

Let

me

Your
Let

Your

;

pull

soft

me

Wool

;

kiss

soft face

:

we welcome

Merrily, Merrily,

A

>9

;

in the

Year.

Cradle Song
Sweet dreams, form a shade
O'er my lovely infant's head
Sweet dreams of pleasant streams
By happy, silent, moony beams.

i

;

Sweet

sleep, with soft

Weave thy brows an
Sweet
Hover

sleep,
o'er

down

5

infant crown.

Angel mild,
happy child.

my

Engraved on two plates of six and two stanzas respectively, which in the
of the Songs of Innocence are always printed as recto and verso
The first of the two plates is among the number reprinted
of the same leaf.
by Gilchrist {Life, ii. end). Compare with this the Cradle Song on p. 114
insert among
reversed, of the MS. Book, which DGR and most editors
first issue

'

the Songs of Experience.
published by Blake.

'

The poem, however, was never engraved or

Songs of Innocence

93

Sweet smiles, in the night
Hover over my delight
Sweet smiles, Mother's smiles,

9

;

All the livelong night beguiles.

Sweet moans, dovelike sighs,
Chase not slumber from thy eyes.
Sweet moans, sweeter smiles,
All the dovelike moans beguiles.
Sleep, sleep,

happy

13

child,

17

All creation slept and smil'd

;

Sleep, sleep, happy sleep.
o'er thee thy mother weep.

While

Sweet babe, in thy face
Holy image I can trace.
Sweet babe, once like thee,
Thy maker lay and wept for me.

ai

for me, for thee, for all,
he was an infant small.

Wept

When

25

Thou

his image ever see.
Heavenly face that smiles on

Smiles on thee, on me, on all
became an infant small.

thee,

29

;

Who

Infant smiles are his

&

Heaven

own

smiles

;

earth to peace beguiles.

WMR,
WMR,
WMR,

EY.
.
.
beguile Wilk., DGR,
beguiles] smile
II, 12 smiles . .
EY.
15 moans] moan DGR,
14 thy] thine Wilk., DGR,
EY.
15, 16 smiles
beguiles] smile . . . beguile Wilk., DGR,
EY.
20 thy] doth DGR,
EY.
beguiles]
31, 32 Infant
.

.

WMR,

.

.

.

WMR,

'

Wilk.,

DGR.

Infant smiles, like

His own smile

Heaven and earth

to peace beguile.'

.

.

.

Songs of Lmocence

94

Nurse's Song
When the voices of children are heard
And laughing is heard on the hill,

My

heart

And
*

is

at rest within

everything else

Then come home,

And

is

my

my

i

breast,

still.

children, the sun

the dews of night arise

is

gone down,

5

;

Come, come, leave off play, and
morning appears in the

us

let

Till the
'

on the green,

away

skies.'

no, let us play, for

No,

it is yet day,
cannot go to sleep
Besides, in the sky the little birds fly,
And the hills are all cover 'd with sheep.'

And we

9

;

'Well, well, go & play till the light fades away,
And then go home to bed.'

The

ones leaped

little

And

Nurses Song

orig.

the

first

In

recto to

&

shouted

laugh'd

the hills ecchoed.

all

plate.

&

13

in Gilchrist {Life,

Reprinted

ii.

end')

from the original

Songs of Innocence this plate occurs as
(generally) or as verso to 'The Lamb,' or as recto

issue of the
'

'

Holy Thursday
'The Chimney Sweeper.' The original version of this song is found in
'After this [' H0I3'
the MS. known as The Island in the Moon (chap, xi):
Thursday' sung by Mr. Obtuse Angle] they all sat silent for a quarter of an
" it
puts me in mind of my [^raW-]mother's
hour, and Mrs. Nannicantipol said
to

song
I

the

:

When

the tongues of children are heard on the green," eic.^
2 And . hill] And laughing upon
Isl. in Moon.
znd rdg. (afterwards re-corrected to its earlier and present form).

voices] tongues
hill ibid,

5 Then
1st rdg.

.

.

.

.

.

down] Then come home
8 DGR, WMR, EY, and

10
eight-line stanzas.
dark Isl. in Moon ist rdg.

And

.

.

.

children, the sun is down ibid.
divide this poem into two

WBY

And we cannot

sleep]

11 Besides

.

.

.

fly]

The

sleep

till

it 's

flocks are at play

&

12 And
go away ibid, ist rdg.
sheep] And the meadows
are cover'd with sheep ibid.
14 go] come Wilk.
15 leaped
leaped and
laugh'd] leap'd, and shouted, and laughed Wilk., Shep.
16 ecchoed] I have found in
shouted and laughed WMR. EY, WBY.
a library copy of Blake's poems the joyous emendation of some youthful

we

can't

.

.

.

.

;

reader

:
'

And

all

the hills echoed, ed, ed

'
!

.

.

where The erased passages. this stanza stood * : — Then like a mighty wind they raise Or like harmonious thunderings the When to heav'n the voice of song. the Moon) the Isl. the whole multitude of innocents their voices raise Like angels on the throne of heav'n. O what a multitude they seem'd.' or (once") as recto to The Divine Image. are here given in the footnotes. Or 9 harmonious like among. This poem was first ' ' printed in ordinary type in Malkin's Father's Memoirs of His Child (1806). 2 The] Came DGR. into the dome high of Paul's like they Thames' waters flow. waiting the chief chanter's in companies 8 Thousands commands Isl. . all in 6 Seated Moon. they sit with radiance all their own. xi). version of this song is found in The Island in the Moon (chap. which E and Y have it is sung by Mr. Thousands of little boys & girls raising their innocent hands.' The original MS. lest you drive an angel from your door. WMR. Isl. . in Moon. Now like a mighty wind they raise to heaven the voice of song. in Moon ist rdg. in Moon. EY. in Moon 9-12 In Blake's first draft (in the Island in . pronounced illegible. Beneath them sit thunderings the seats of heaven the aged men. in Moon. And Isl. sit] Seated Moon.' . Then cherish pity. wise guardians of the poor.. order 7 sit was] were . in DGR. raising the voice of praise. in red & blue & green. etc. I 'Twas on a] Upon a Isl. seats of heav'n among. in . .Songs of Innocence 95 Holy Thursday 'Twas on a Holy Thursday. Obtuse Angle. The hum of multitudes was there. 11 aged] rev'rend Isl. these flowers of London town 5 Seated in companies. red] grey they were Wilk. Grey headed beadles walk'd before. but multitudes of ! lambs. 2nd rdg. ibid. In the first issue of the Songs of Innocence this plate is generally printed as verso to Nurses Song. deleted Thousands of little girls & boys. with wands as white i Till as snow. hands] . The children walking two & two. their innocent faces clean. wise] 9 Now] Then Isl.

gekleidet in roth und in blau und in grun GraukOpfige Zuchtmeister mit schneeweissen Ruthen voran. .' found as recto or and as verso to the . Pretty. and began * Let cherubim and seraphim now : — raise their voices high.Songs of Innocence 96 Blake then deleted the entire stanza. Abgetheilt sitzend in Rotten. zum Himmel Gesanges Chor ein harmonisch Gewitter zu den Sitzen der Engel empor. and the stanza rewritten with the slight changes This song is thus translated by Dr. ' ' II. oder du treibst einen Engel — fort. Pretty. Museum. Pretty Robin Under leaves so green. this plate is Little Girl Lost.' second plate of EY and my Bosom. man sahe die Kinder ziehn. O ! wie zahllos erscheinen sie da. 1811): — Es war am grunen Donnerstag. swift as arrow.' print as one stanza. der Armuth weiser Hort Drum erbarme dich vor deiner Thur. ganz in der eignen Unschuld Pracht Es ersummt wie eine Menge. sobbing. 7 ! A happy Blossom Hears you sobbing. doch der Lammer Menge nur allein. Pauls hohen Dom wie der Themse Fluthen strOmen sie dann. Near In the verso to first ' issue of the The Lamb. Merry Sparrow Under A i ! leaves so green. happy Blossom Sees you. Pretty Robin. i. Songs of Innocence as recto to ' The ' WBY Spring.' This also was cancelled. Zwischen den Kleinen die Alten. Seek your cradle narrow Near my Bosom. In St. ! Tausend kleine Knaben und Madchen erheben ihre Handchen so wie 'Jetzt Wie ein Wirbelwind steigt rein. paarweis'. diese Blumen von Londons Macht . Sauber gewaschen. Julius {Vaterldndisches noted above.' The Blossom Merry.

Ned & Jack. Dick.Innocejice Songs of 97 The Chimney Sweeper When my mother died I was very young. 5 was shav'd so I said for when your head 's bare curl'd like a lamb's back. He'd have God for his father. And my father sold me while yet my tongue Could scarcely cry So your chimneys There's That * Tom little ' ' 'weep I 'weep ! sweep. They rise upon clouds and sport in the wind And the Angel told Tom. Tom was happy & So so do their duty they need not if all In the first issue of the 21 . laughing. And And Tom awoke and we rose in the dark. 5 Dacre] (Ch.' as recto to the first plate of Spring. Tom ! never mind who it. Songs of Innocence warm : harm. cried when his head. with our bags & our brushes to work. that very night. got Tho' the morning was cold. Were And by came an Angel who had a bright key. Montgomery . and shine in the Sun. ! in soot I sleep. Then down And wash a green plain leaping.' This poem was first printed in ordinary type in James Montgomery's Chimney-sweeper' s Friend and Climbing-boy's Album recto or verso to ' ' ' (1824) from a copy supplied to the editor by Charles Lamb. & never want joy. he had such a sight! 9 — That thousands of sweepers. all of them lock'd up in coffins of black.' or as verso to Nurse's Song. Then naked & white. in a river. Dacre. 17 . 3 'weep!] No apostrophe in orig. & sleeping. & ! 'weep ! 'weep Hush. And he open'd the coffins & set them all free 13 . You know i : that the soot cannot spoil your white hair.' And so he was As Tom was a quiet. fear found printed as this plate is The Divine Image. all their bags left behind. if he'd be a good boy. Joe. Lamb). aAMPSOS H Toddy jVt J. they run.

Pity. the human form divine.' The original plate is among the number reprinted in Gilchrist's This poem was first printed in ordinary type in Malkin's Life (ii. has for many years been used as one of the hymns of the Positivist congregation in a northern Father's city. or jew. Peace. Peace. Love. Pity. Love. 13 in his distress. the human Then every man. And Peace.' with the omission of stanza 2. Mercy. 9 Pity a human face. and Love All pray in their distress And i . 'The Divine Image. Peace. his child and care. 17 In heathen. our father dear. And Love. and Love Is Man. Pity.' or as verso to Holy Thursday. occurs either as recto or The Chimney Sweeper. For Mercy. & Pity There God is dwelling too.Songs of Innocence 98 The Divine Image To Mercy. That prays dress- of every clime. turk. 5 Is For Mercy has a human heart. and Love God. Return Pity. Where Mercy. verso to ' * ' Memoirs of His Child (1806). In the first issue of Songs of Innocence this plate dwell. end). . to these virtues of delight their thankfulness. Prays to the human form divine. And all must love the human form. And Mercy.' or recto to A Dream. Peace.

23 head] heads W. shine i . and WBY. of the Songs of The poem. all If they see any weeping That should have been sleeping. 13 blessing] blessings W. silent moves The feet of angels bright . 10 3 nest] nests W. 105 of the MS. Ha . To keep them from harm. 24 by] on Wilk. And sit down by their bed. Sits Farewell. in the first issue. Engraved upon two plates. EY.' antithesis of this Song may have been designed by Blake as the of Innocence. mine. Ii moves] move DGR. Muir. ' or part of a poem. With silent delight and smiles on the night. In heaven's high bower. And joy without ceasing. took] ta'en all except Sh^^. WMR. 9 groves] grove DGR. EY. They look in every thoughtless nest. are always found as recto and verso of the same leaf. Book. 9 Where flocks have took delight. Muir. entitled * Day and beginning •The Sun arises in the East. On each bud and blossom. 17 . Unseen they pour blessing. on p. their nest. for the west. WMR. Where lambs have nibbled. like a flower. which. Where birds are cover'd warm They visit caves of every beast. They pour sleep on their head. And each sleeping bosom. green fields and happy groves.Songs of Innocence 99 Night The sun descending in The evening star does The birds are silent in And I must seek The moon. Muir. Innocence.

And there the lion's ruddy eyes 3. And pitying the tender cries. most heedful. EY. bright mane for ever Shall shine like the gold My As 33 eyes] eye DGR. 39 Is] Are A Dream Once a dream did weave a shade O'er my Angel-guarded bed. And. Graze after thee and weep. Songs of Innocence this plate is printed as recto to verso to Laughing Song or to The Divine Little Girl Lost. Seeking to drive their thirst away. But if they rush dreadful. 41 . 'And now beside thee. Saying 'wrath.I oo Songs of Imtocence When wolves and tygers howl for prey. 36 fold] folds W. Recieve each mild spirit.' or as Image. Muir. bleating lamb. And keep them from the sheep. Muir. by his meekness. by his health. The angels. And walking round the fold. sickness Is driven From away our immortal day. New worlds to inherit.' guard W. For. That an Emmet Where on In the first issue of the * The lost its way grass methought I lay.' i ' ' ' .3 Shall flow with tears of gold. I can lie down and sleep Or think on him who bore thy name. pitying stand and weep They 25 . 46 mane] name Wilk. I o'er the fold. wash'd in life's river. WMR.

All heart-broke I heard her say: or 5 * O. hie thee home. But saw a glow-worm I Who ' replied Calls the 'I am : What 13 near. travel-worn. and forlorn. I drop'd a tear. 'wilder'd. sorrow's share? I And not feel Can a mother sit and hear never can it be never can it be! Never. nor be with sorrow An i ! 1 Songs of Innocence this plate Spring.' The original .' On Another's Sorrow Can I see another's woe. end). In the plate first plate of is issue of the ' fill'd ? 9 infant groan. Over many a tangled spray. not be in sorrow too? And Can see another's grief. I And not seek for kind relief? Can see a falling tear.' and as recto or verso to reprinted in Gilchrist's Life (ii.Songs of Innocence i Troubled. Little wanderer. benighted. ' is found as recto to the Infant Joy. While the beetle goes his round Follow now the beetle's hum ly. an infant fear? No.' 9 ! : Pitying. wailing wight watchman of the night ? set to light the ground. Dark. my children do they cry ? Do they hear their father sigh? Now they look abroad to see Now return and weep for me. no first 5 my Can a father see his child Weep. : .

in Moon. speak to your Or else I shall be lost. 30 by] nigh Wilk. Hear the woes that infants bear. 21 day. 34 grief] griefs Wilk. DGR. never can it be ! He He doth give his joy to all becomes an infant small He He doth becomes a man of woe feel the 25 . Think not thou canst sigh a sigh. Father in ! Moon.. ! Speak. And O ! he gives to us his joy grief he may destroy That our Till He Little 33 . father Isl.I02 Songs of l7mocence And who can he smiles on all 13 Hear the wren with sorrows small. Boy Lost * where are you going ? Father father O. And not both night sit & . xi). our grief is fled & gone doth sit by us and moan.' The this plate is original draft of this (chap. do not walk so fast. O boy.' to issue of the In the first 'The Little Island in the I Isl. . The ^^i . sorrow too. father. Boy Moon i ! little Songs of Innocence Found.' 3 Speak] O speak . 17 Pouring pity in their breast And not sit the cradle near. And not sit beside the nest. thy maker is not by Think not thou canst weep a tear. introduced by the words father !] father. Hear the small bird's grief & care. no ! ! Never. Weeping tear on infant's tear . Wiping all our tears away? never can it be O. . always found as recto poem is found in the — 'Then sung Quid . And thy maker is not near.

but God. 5 . & by the hand And to his mother brought. the vapour flew. Who Her In the first in i fen. EY. boy weeping little issue of the verso to the preceding. The The there] . Began to cry Appear'd . . like his father. ever nigh.So?igs of Innocence 103 The night was dark. thro' the lonely dale. 8 Her] The DGR. And away 5 Isl. . Boy Found Little The little boy lost in the lonely Led by the wand'ring light. in white. 5 sorrow pale. sought. this plate always occurs as . Songs of Innocence WMR. night child] it And was dark the child Isl. & in no father was there Moon. The in . no father was there The child was wet with dew The mire was deep. He kissed the child. led. 6 The Moon. & the child did weep.

.

when pubHshed either Songs of Innocence or separately. In some copies the date has evidently been inserted by hand. Blake Songs of Experience. . plate. Reprinted in Gilchrist's Life (ii. W. In Gilchrist's reprint the date 1794 is omitted and the cross stroke to the letter/ has a downward instead of an upward curve.SONGS of EXPERIENCE 1794 The Author & Printer. facing the frontispiece of the Shepherd on The engraved title to the in conjunction with the the verso of the preceding leaf. end) from an electrotype of the original This title-page would appear to have been twice engraved by Blake. The plate is printed on the recto of the leaf.

Past. Closely connected this poem are The Voice of the Ancient Bard. * Turn away no more Why wilt thou turn away? i6 . 19 shore] floor Swinb. by which it is immediately ' ' with preceded in followed in some copies all of the Songs. the morn Night And ii . sees Whose ears have heard The Holy Word That walk'd among the . 18 floor] shore Swinb. version. Rises from the slumberous mass. ancient trees. And fallen fallen light renew ! 'O Earth. prints as a single stanza. EY. & i ! Future. weeping in the evening dew. WMR. The The starry floor.' One engraved plate. O Earth. Calling the lapsed Soul. Is giv'n thee till the break of day. 5 ancient] silent Swinb.' by which it is copies. wat'ry shore.SONGS OF EXPERIENCE Introduction Hear the voice of the Bard Who Present. 11-20] Swinb. 4 Holy] ancient Swinb. Not found in any MS. i-io] Swinb. prints as a single stanza. return! Arise from out the dewy grass is worn. 6 And That might control! The starry pole. and ' Earth's Answer. I . 20 Is] Are Swinb..

arrangement abaab breaks down in this Cruel MS. On the bleak and snowy mountains Where bones from the birth are buried Before they see the light?' 3 Her . Father of Jealousy?' Cp. p. . the lines immediately preceding this poem in the MS' Book. 6 den my Starry Jealousy does keep : Cold and hoar. jealous. iii reversed). selfish fear.Shep. in and the next stanza. 'Prison'd on wat'ry shore. weeping MS. h'ght fled. over rocks. also the final * stanza oi Ahania {engraved 1795) : — But now alone. . . MS. dread. EY. mountains. 7 my den :] Punctuation as in my den Wilk. . how can delight Self-destroying . . Cp.Songs of Rxperierice 107 Answer Earth's up her head Earth rais'd From the darkness dread Her i & drear. Book) first word deleted. Engraved on a single plate from what is obviously the original draft in the MS. Book and engraved Songs (Stony 6 Prison'd dread !) shore] Stony. word erased. . and replaced by some 11-15 MS. del. . Essay. fled] Blake's successive changes of this line are Her : — eyes fled orbs dead light fled (pencil). Book (p. The original rime- 10 father of the] del.. Cold and hoar . Bk. ' beginning: — 'Why art thou silent & invisible. . del. . I 'Selfish father of men! ii Cruel. 4 Stony dread !] Punctuation as in MS. so also in Swinb. Book cancelled. . Book 1 1 Selfish] 14/ rdg. selfish fear! ' The Earth's Answer (MS. Book 13 selfish] illegible 1st rdg. . Stony dread And ! her locks cover'd with grey despah*. . DGR WMR. Weeping o'er hear the father of the ancient men. 118 other edd. Renew in these chains of darkness Where bones of beasts are strown. Cast out from thy lovely bosom Cruel jealousy. Prisoned on this watery shore Swinb. WBY. read .

Book (p. Does the sower sow His seed by night MS. face turns green Then come home. . 4 SongWilk. 25 Eternal bound] Thou. del. del. fair copy (without title) in the 109 reversed). night] : . Nurse's Song] R' omits. Book is/ rdg. Chain'd The in night. Book xst rdg. my bane Hast my love with bondage bound MS. Book 15/ rdg. 19 Does 16 joy] delight MS. Book xst rdg.' i6-ao This stanza was 14 Chain'd] Clog'd MS. an addition written in place of the third.1 08 Songs of Experience Can delight. My] And my R'. 2a freeze] close MS. \ . del. 24. the sun And is gone down. Book 15/ rdg. . . my children. del. No apostrophe in original. . in my i mind. plowman darkness plow? in ' Break this heavy chain That does freeze my bones around. 5 the dews of night arise Your spring & your day are wasted in play. engraving. And your winter and night in disguise. Book. . Can the sower sow by night Swinb. vain ! Eternal bane ! Selfish That ! free 21 Love with bondage bound. but restored when 18. Engraved without material change from a MS. youth rise fresh and pale. which Blake cancelled. children are heard on the green in the dale. Nurse's Song When the voices of And whisp'rings are The days My of my . 3 my] green] grave R'. del. Nurses' rise] are MS. virgins of youth and morning bear? Does spring hide ' its joy buds and blossoms grow? Does the sower 16 When Sow by Or the night.

which he has just struck down. since writing the poem..Songs of Experience 109 The Fly Little Fly. hat in hand. fled . labile another. . lies crushed at his feet. which stanzas in their present form. 8 rdg. deviations from the engraved text are given in the footnotes. title. And And dies in peace. followed Blake then preis an afterthought. 9 And & Shall brush my drink. loi of the from what deleted stanza shows that before hitting upon this Blake began to write the song in a less sprightly strain 'Woe! my alas! guilty is evidently the An MS. Book). on p. Book. uncompleted and felicitous tiny metre — hand Brush'd across thy summer joy All thy gilded painted pride Shatter'd. probably because. del. f. preserving the guilty hand in the of stanza i. Am not A fly like I Or A 5 thee? art not thou man For I me ? like dance. MS. Book jst same idea occurs in The pictorial representation of the Gates of Paradise (engraved 1793. omitted by him in the ' first draft engraved version. ' He ' then turned to the shorter metre.' Then come the second. 11. Below is the inscription 'Alas ' 1 Cp. also Milton. Book. numbers to the stanzas indicating their present order. i Thy summer's play My thoughtless hand Has brush'd away. 27-30. Till some blind hand Engraved on a single first draft. and fifth by two versions of stanza four. fixed a summer's] summer MS. plate. without wing. third. . so do thou. chases a butterfly of human shape. sing. A A few trifling 3 thoughtless] guilty MS.. 18. from the original pencil sketches in the in which a youth. in double columns. Then follows a deleted stanza. he had used Proverbs of Hell {Marriage of Heaven and its first two lines as one of his ' * Hell) : 'The cut worm Forgives the plow.

bum'd Wilk. die. frame] Framed Cunn. if I death] is life 'Thought And strength But the want Of thought MS. Cunn.. R'. DGR. DGR. Lamb (quoting from memory. 109. fire] . The MS. WMR . which exhibits an important variant reading of the last line An early corrupt version also appeared in Cunningham's Lives of the British Painters (1830). in a letter to Bernard Barton. Book is & breath. p.. 7. 2 forests] forest Malk. Thro' the desarts Chas. ..' This poem was first printed in ordinary type in (reversed) of the Malkin's Fathers Mentotrs (1606). 144. 8 dare] dared DGR. I A 17 fly. xxxix. WMR (2nd version). from a copy probably supplied by Blake himself. are given in full in the appended note on the different versions of 'The Tyger. death. ii. May 15. 108 MS. 1824). . WMR (and version). Cunn. 6 Burnt] Burned the] that of] within DGR. ! i ! What immortal hand Could frame thy or eye fearful symmetry? In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? "What the hand dare sieze the fire? 5 Engraved on a single plate from the first draft of the poem on pp. (and version). fervour Cunn. If I live Or 13-16 If . the want Of thought Then am happy is death . The Tyger Tyger burning bright Tyger In the forests of the night. R' ..iio Songs of Experience If life is thought And And 13 strength & breath. 4 Could of the third stanza. Book. (2nd version) WMR WMR (2nd version). too numerous to be readily intelligible in footnotes.' del xst rdg. readings.. DGR. ..

... . 2. WMR (and version).' written upon two opposite pages (pp. This.. a 1-24 This TYGER. upon a verse which has proved a crux to many of Blake's readers and of stanzas commentators. 108 reversed) ef the MS. 13. WMR . what the chain. 16 Dare] Dared Malk. On the left page is found the first rough draft In stanza 3 the manuscript version throws light i... DGR 18 water'd] watered Malk. 14 What brain] What the hammer what the chain Formed thy strength and forged thy brain ? Cunn.. DGR. Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to beat. DGR.. thy Cunn. . It ' will be seen that Blake at first intended the line What dread hand and what dread feet — ' merely as the beginning of a sentence running on into the next stanza. Malk. . 17 Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the Lamb make thee? 21 Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night. Wilk. R^ What the hammer. enables us to follow every step in the composition of the poem. EY. . EY... WMR Cunn. . What immortal hand Dare frame thy or eye. their] and shining Cunn. What dread hand formed thy dread feet ? What dread hand and what dread feet Cunn.. Knit thy strength and forged . WBY. WMR (2nd version). ii . and 6. ! ! . & what art. (2nd version) What dread hand framed thy dread feet? Swinb. Cunn. leaving the preceding line as it stood. WBY stanza is sprinkled Cunn. 109. did not escape his . DGR. its] 17 spears] spheres Cunn. WMR (2nd version). (and version).Songs of Experience 1 1 1 shoulder. R'. Book. WMR (2nd version). 12 What. And water'd heaven with their tears. 3.. omitted by Cunn. See also editor's note to this poem. NOTE ON 'THE WMR. fearful symmetry? And heart] When 10 thy] thine Wilk. .' The original draft of 'The Tyger. . thy heart. thy brain? DGR. feet?] What dread hand forged thy dread feet ? Malk. of course. What dread hand? & what dread feet? And what What the hammer? what 9 the chain? 13 In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? what dread grasp Dare deadly terrors clasp? its When the stars threw down their spears. Unable to complete this stanza to his satisfaction he cancelled it altogether. DGR. WMR. 4.

Book. is altogether lost in the languid punctuation of the Aldine edition — 'And. Book is the first draft of the fifth stanza.' At a later which there is no reason to doubt was supplied by the date. is a revised version of stanza 2. meaning to erase the first word "And. 'Then I think the glorious line occurred to him. Blake again remodelled this line into the slow and solemn form — 'What where the gain of much dread hand forged thy dread feet?' in definiteness and technical accuracy at the sacrifice is of the fiery energy and vague suggestion of terror conveyed by the It is probably with an imperfect remembrance of this final emendation of Blake's. I think that he struck out the number "3" in front of the first line of this stanza by accident. the present owner of the MS. misled by the spurious version of Gilchrist. and by a change of punctuation he converted the unfinished passage into its present notice shape — 'What dread hand? a line exactly parallel in form to ' What the & what dread feet? — hammer ? what the chain ? ' of the following stanza. The terrible. which differs from that finally adopted. The difficult ' ' ' ' . making this the fifth. p. which burst forth with a momentary pause between them like shells from a mortar. or wings aspire ? ' I . ' line — ' Could heart descend. W. Malkin. though probably written after it. he struck " it out and inserted the word over it. 120) refers to ' the recovery of that nobler earlier text. which seems to be ankle. reading — What ' dread hand framed thy dread feet ? ' The word is no printed or manuscript authority. moreover had already been used in the first stanza. the composition of which Mr.' or Mr. compressed force of these two short sentences. White. seeing that he had used the word "shoulder" before.1 1 2 Sojtgs of Experience when engraving the poem for the Songs of Experience." Above the fifth stanza. when thy heart began to beat. What dread hand and what dread feet?' and it is only the failure of critics to observe the significance of the revised pointing of the engraved version which caused Swinburne to speak of this ' passage as a rock of offence. in the version author to Dr. thus explains to me in a letter " What the shoulder ? What the knee ? " ' I think that [BIal<e] wrote first and then. that Swinburne (Critical Essay. A. and numbered them in order to make this order clear the same time numbered the stanzas. Then Blake re-arranged the order of the lines in the and also at stanza.'' but is not a variant for which there ' frame ' : — very clearly written. " Did He who made the lamb make thee ? " Probably after that he erased the line above. and wrote above it And did He laugh H is work to see ? and then added the two lines about the stars. On the opposite page of the MS. Yeats to remark that when engraving the ' poem Blake forgot to alter the last line of the third stanza.

but contains such inexplicable misreadings as 'filch' for 'fetch. In what distant deeps or skies Burnt in Burnt the fire of thine eyes ? The cruel On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare sieze the fire And what shoulder. deleted words or The manuscript itself is unpunctuated lines being printed in italics. 92).Songs of Experience 1 1 3 God bring down his heart to Or could any lesser daemonic high enough to assume power Could has been interpreted by Swinburne the making of a thing so deadly and strong ? ' : wings and force of nature take to itself Could equal to such a creation ? force so far aspire ? fly spiritual force so far descend. 5.' and did for dare ' ' ' ' ' Muses' Library ' — edition of Blake (notes. & what ? art Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to beat What dread hand & what dread feet Could fetch it from the furnace deep. and 6. or material ' Upon the same page. ' in the throughout. except for unimportant differences of ' ' capitalization. Ellis and Yeats (iii. Tyger. THE TYGER. 91. 238.' ' ' ' errors repeated in Mr. And in thy horrid ribs dare steep? the well of sanguine woe In In what clay Were thy 4. which. 3.' 'horn'd' for 'horrid. pp. Tyger. What the — & in eyes of fury rolVd? hammer ? what Where In t SAMPSON what mould the chain ? where what furnace was thy I brain ? . Blake's variant readings being indicated typographically by placing them in consecutive order. pp. 3. for identical with the text ' ' and first last stanzas. one below another. burning bright In the forests of the night. to the right of these two stanzas. What immortal hand If eye or Could frame thy fearful symmetry? Dare 2. ' ' and ' hand and eye ' hand or eye in the of the engraved Songs. and the readings dare frame for could frame in the first. 239). follows a fair copy of stanzas i. Yeats' inspire for aspire. which not only fails to make clear the sequence of Blake's alterations. Book. It will be seen that this version differs in important details from that given by Messrs. is The following is a faithful transcript of the original draft of 'The Tyger MS. 1.

version and the like. as Mr. Did he who made the lamb make thee ? Dare 1. Yeats complains. Rossetti. and thence reprinted by later editors under such headings as a later MS. is the version which figures in Mr.. This. as he himself states in a note prefixed to his first transcript (R^).' adding that it shows certain variations on MS. M. When 2. Book. Rossetti explains in a footnote. G. is not stated. he assumes that they owe of ' ' ' The ' ' ' ' their origin to changes introduced into the text by D. The version given by the latter. Tyger. and as there is obviously no warrant for these readings in the MS. authority.1 1 4 So7tgs of Experie7tce What the anvil ? what arm arm the grasp clasp dread grasp Could Dare its deadly terrors clasp'i g^nsp ? clasp ? 6. or wings aspire? What J. What & immortal hand Dare form thy fearful eye symmetry ? frame the opposite page'\ \On Burnt in distant deeps or skies The cruel fire of thine eyes ? Could heart descend. burning bright In the forests of the night. Gilchrist's What book. where the last three stanzas run Lives of British Painters (1830. 144). Mr.' MS. 5. And the hand dare sieze the fire ? work did he laugh his dare he smile U 'hat the to see ? laugh shoulder ? what the knee ? ankle ? 4. W. And the stars threw down their spears. water'd heaven with their tears. : 'And what shoulder and what art Could twist the sinews of thy heart? When thy heart began to beat What dread hand formed thy dread feet? * What what the chain the hammer Formed thy strength and forged thy What Dared ! the anvil its ! What dread grasp deadly terrors clasp ? ! brain ? — . however. is based upon that printed by Cunningham in his ii. A ' few words must be added with regard to the so-called second version Tj'ger in the Aldine edition. Tyger.

welche Kunst. Bd. Did he smile. Dir der Augen Feuerquell'? Welche Flugel tragst du kuhn ? ' Welche War wagt wohl. aus der HoU'. appeared. countrymen. No manuscript authority of Blake's can therefore be claimed for this version.Songs of Experience 1 1 5 'When the stars threw down their spheres. unknown ' The Tyger from the Vaterldndisches Museum. his work to see ? Did he who made the lamb make thee?' A comparison of the versions of the other poems and passages quoted by Cunningham with their in originals the Poetical Sketches shows that unauthorized readings are introduced into almost every line. schuf er dich? Tiger. Flammenpracht In den Waldern dustrer Nacht ! Sprich. ' ' DER TIGER. Tiger. welch Gottes Aug' und Hand Dich so furchtbar schCn verband ? ' Stammt vom Himmel. Kettenklirr'n ? Welche Esse schmolz dein Him ? Was ist Amboss ? Welcher Held Muth in deinem Arm behalt ? 'Aus den Sternen flog der Speer. Welch ein Fuss und welche Hand ? 'Was ist Hammer. Heft translation of i. This spirited and admirably literal rendering will be noticed. wess Gottes Aug' und Hand Dich so furchtbar schOn verband?' I % ? . Thranend ward der Himmel Meer: Schaut' er lachelnd da auf dich ? Der das ' Lamm schuf. it ' own to his 1806). at a time when Blake's Songs were almost (Hamburg. Tiger. and it is plain that Cunningham treated Blake's text with the same freedom which he entitled to use in an old Scots ballad. And sprinkled heaven with shining tears. Wob so sinnreich HerzensbruQ^t ? Als dein Herz den Puis empfand. Julius's would have thought himself ' German II. Tiger. Flammenpracht In den Waldern dustrer Nacht ! Sprich. called by Swinburne the most famous of Blake's lyrics. The interest attaching to everything relating to this poem.' may be thought sufficient excuse for adding to the length of this note by reprinting Dr. zu nah'n dem Gluh'n Starke.

and the second the conclusion of the same with the first three stanzas This song. mother sleep. come to Underneath this tree. . weep? Where can Lyca ' me my Lyca let Lyca wake 25 . last plates are Gilchrist. . . niarhs.' are engraved upon three plates. 2 I 17-32 Wilk. see] I prophesy WBY. can Lyca sleep mother weep ? her heart does ake Then If sleep? in desart wild your How 17 mother. In the southern clime. omit quotation . the summer's prime 9 Where Never fades away. .1 1 6 Songs of Experience The Lost Girl Little In futurity i prophetic see That the earth from sleep (Grave the sentence deep) I Shall arise and seek For her maker meek And 5 . the first of which contains the first ten stanzas of the present poem. No among manuscript and Shep. and and half the its of the fourth of the next song. number reprinted from The first the originals by and versions of these songs are known to exist. Lost Is If her ' If ar little child. Lovely Lyca lay. Do father. shall not weep. Seven summers old 13 Lovely Lyca told She had wander'd long Hearing wild birds' song. 'Sweet sleep. the desart wild Become a garden mild. sequel 'The Little Girl Found.

37 the virgin view'd. While the desarts weep. And her bosom lick. Leopards. View'd the maid asleep. See note to ' The Little Girl Lost. Let thy moon While I close 117 29 arise my eyes. And upon her neck From his eyes of flame Ruby tears there came 45 . (SoHgs of In. lick] And her breast did lick DGR. The kingly And lion stood. O'er this desart bright. Then he gambol'd round O'er the hallow'd ground. WMR.) The Little Found Girl All the night in woe Lyca's parents go Over vallies deep.So7tgs of Experience 'Frowning. And naked they convey'd To caves the sleeping maid. tygers. While the lioness 49 Loos'd her slender dress. frowning night. . .' EY. 45 And . Muir's facsim. 41 While the lion old Bow'd his mane of gold. 33 Come from caverns deep. . play Round her as she lay.' Sleeping Lyca lay While the beasts of prey.

17 The trembling woman prest With feet of weary woe She could no further go. . in gold. 26 his] the Wilk.T 1 8 Songs of Experience Tired and woe-begone. With hollow piteous shriek. Seven nights they sleep Among shadows deep. Smelling to his prey 25 39 . arm'd with sorrow sore Till before their A . : In his arms he bore ai Her. weak. Hoarse with making moan. arm'd 23 sorrow] sorrows DGR. Rising from unrest. Arm in arm seven days They 5 trac'd the desart ways. Pale. But their fears allay When he licks their hands. thro' pathless The ways 13 fancied image strays Famish'd. Turning back was vain: Soon his heavy mane Bore them to the ground. way couching lion lay. And dream they see their child 9 Starv'd in desart wild. Then he stalk'd around. weeping. 33 . And silent They look upon his eyes with deep surprise wondering behold Fill'd And A spirit by them stands.

hair. DGR. Book. 3 another] another's R'. But a Pebble of the brook Warbled out these metres meet Engraved on a single plate from the Without title in the MS. To this day they dwell In a lonely dell Nor fear the wolvish howl 49 . fair copy on p. not for the maid 41 . 4 in] to R^.' So sung a little Clod of Clay. 5 : 115 (reversed) of the MS. . . Book. ' In 1 down his shoulders Gone was 1 said. WMR. Trodden with the cattle's feet. ' But And i for another gives its ease. 7 brook] wood R'. 38 shoulders] shoulder Wilk. the Pebble Love seeketh not Itself to please.Songs of Experience On On his head a crown Flow'd his golden ' Follow me. EY. Nor the lions' growl.' Then they Where the followed. builds a Heaven in Hell's despair. palace deep lies asleep. vision led. 5 sung] sang MS.' he Weep my Lyca 9 37 . lion's all edd. And saw their Among tygers 4- sleeping child wild. Nor for itself hath any care. The Clod and 52 lions'] lions orig. all their care.

DGR. rejoicing to see 13 His children as pleasant and happy as he. . apparel] But shake hands & kiss him & there'd be no more hell MS. well. . del. & give him both drink and apparel. WMR. But kiss him. & drink. changed to drink'] & apparel MS. ' and rds. Joys in another's loss of ease. We'd sing and we'd pray all the live-long day. . MS. like a father. Self DGR. . . Engraved on a single plate from the version reversed) entitled The little pretty Vagabond omitted in Wilkinson's edition of the Songs. Book 4 Such. well. and R' But kiss him & give him hoth food [_del. 9 Its delight. nor fasting. Would have no more quarrel with the Devil or the Barrel. 105 This poem is well] Such usage in heaven makes all go to hell MS. . And builds a Hell in Heaven's despite. the Church is cold. And God. 13 rejoicing to see] that joys for 16 But to see MS. a pleasant fire Then the Parson might preach. Book ' ' [' pretty del.. Visions 0/ /he Daughters 0/ Albion (engraved 1793) ' sponge drinks Water? EY. that drinks another as a The Little 9 Self] Vagabond Dear Mother.\. Book 2. ' in pencil.I20 Songs of Rxperience * Love seeketh only To bind another to Self to please. WMR. del. Would not have bandy children. Book \st The poor parsons with wind like a blown bladder swell MS.. 10: 'Can that be Love.' 9-12 Cp. Church they would give us some Ale. But the Ale-house is healthy & pleasant & warm Besides Such usage But And if where I am used heaven will never do can I tell in i .?rf rdg. & sing. bind] f. EY. (p. Book 15/ rdg. 10 bend R». . . Book \st rdg. rdg. del. Nor ever once wish from the Church to stray. nor birch. who is always at Church. at the s our souls to regale. dear Mother. 9 And we'd be as happy as birds in the spring And modest dame Lurch.

(written later in pencil) has and EY. Book. Book. Book. Engraved on a single plate from the copy 4 It is] Poison Tree I The 7 . And 'Tis DGR. 4 Fed . Babe can never hunger there.' of the been adopted by engraved version. that Blake . Is this i Babes reduc'd to misery. can] should DGR. where-e'er the rain does fall.e'er the sun does And 5 it 13 shine. 8. For where. MS. 15 Babe] Babes Wilk. A WMR. drawn below originally intended the WMR. & their fields are bleak ways are their It is eternal fiU'd 9 bare. MS. line DGR. Book (p. . WMR.. did end. this stanza in the poem to end MS. with thorns : winter there. Engraved on a MS. was angry with not. Nor poverty the mind appall. 114 reversed). my my friend my wrath my foe title. 13 For] But MS.Songs of Experience 1 2 1 Holy Thursdaya holy thing to see In a rich and fruitful land. I was angry with I told my told it I wrath. Gilchrist's Life copy on p. (ii. . 12 poor] And so great a number poor MS. Book shows at this point. cold and usurous Fed with hand ? trembling cry a song ? be a song of joy ? so many children poor? Is that Can And It is a land of And And And poverty ! their sun does never shine. Book. . A i : wrath did grow. EY. EY. hand] Fed with a cold usurious hand DGR. 103 (reversed) of the reprinted from an electrotype of the original in single plate from the fair This plate is end). : MS. in preference to that in the in the 'Christian Forbearance. .

So he took his wings and fled Then the morn blush'd rosy red 9 . . Engraved on a single plate. . it And And My 5 my I sunnM it with smiles. Book. del. with soft deceitful wiles. 65 of the MS. stole 13 veil'd the pole: In the morning glad see I foe outstretch'd beneath the tree. & arm'd my 5 . fears ten thousand shields and spears. written in pencil. design of this plate is found on p. . The Angel Dreamt a Dream what can it mean was a maiden Queen. it morning with And ii . hid from him my heart's delight. it And into my garden When the night had foe tears bore an apple bright my foe beheld it shine. Book . Book. . Guarded by an Angel mild Witless woe was ne'er beguil'd I And that ! ? i I : ! And And And And I wept both night and day. Book. 9 both] by MS. I wept both day and night.1 22 Songs of Experience And water'd I & Night And And it grew both day and he knew that 9 night. he wip'd my tears away. The original coloured (reversed) of the MS. And Till in fears. from the fair copy. was mine. And shine] I gave it to my 15/ rdg. on p. I dried With my tears. MS. 103 The title written later.

Engraved on a single plate. taken from Canticles vi. Has found out thy bed Of crimson joy 5 . in the night. 16 For head] The same hnes. Book xiii). 7 his] regret at seeing flight.' Shepherd prints this By the name Tirzah. Book. 15. he came in vain For the time of youth was fled. Book. Book. 13 : . with Rahab. It differs considerably from the engraved illustration. take . And grey hairs were on my head. Blake personifies Natural . del. generally associated Religion. Engraved from the copy in the MS. 107 reversed). 15 For] ' . above Tirzah Whate'er is Born of Mortal Birth i Must be consumed with the Earth. . Book. On the robe of one of the figures in the design at the foot of the page is written ' It is Raised a the rest omit. Instead of the worm preying upon the heart of the rose there is a youth prostrate on the ground. with the change of 'were' to are. passint. To rise from Generation Then what have I to free: do with thee? Not in MS. . Spiritual Body. 5 Has] Hath MS. In the howling storm. Book The \st rdg. The original coloured design is found on p. destroy] . In Jerusalem and Milton. as if in the spirit of the rose. 7. thou art sick The That invisible flies i ! worm. Book an erased and illegible word.' are used by Blake as the final couplets to 'Infant Sorrow' (MS. ' But MS. Tirzah. .Songs of Experience 23 1 Soon my Angel came again I was arm'd. Doth life destroy MS. 8 And . 21 of the MS. symbolized by a female figure. A dark-secret love her MS. del. Book x\ and the first version of Ina Mirtle Shade' (MS. To is/ rdg. And his Does thy dark secret love life destroy. 4. Sick Rose O Rose. Book (p. or Moral Law. is represented as a bright and beautiful being.

mother of the perishing body and daughter of the " religion. DGR. in evening died But Mercy chang'd Death into Sleep The Sexes rose to work & weep. 122: '"Tirzah. in senseless clay." which occupies itself with laying down laws Cf. s .' Swinburne. 6 Blow'd] Blown la bind] blind DGR. & Ears Didst bind Didst close my Tongue 9 . Dark disputes & & clouds of reason. Image of truth new-born. Milton^ f. or Space : cp. And me to Mortal Life betray Death of Jesus set me free 13 : The Then what have I to : do with thee ? preying upon and pitying her victims.124 So7igs of Experieiice The Sexes sprung from Shame & Pride Blow'd in the morn . 5 This poem is generally found as one of the Not in the MS. EY. Doubt is fled. represents the mere separate and human nature. also for the flesh which. . to perpetuate the of Sin. Essay. 20. while pretending (and that in all good faith) to despise the body and bring it into subjection as with control of bit and bridle." in his mythology. Asserting the Self-righteousness against the Universal Saviour. Songs of Innocence^ though sometimes placed by Blake among the Songs oj Experience. And see the opening morn. In all the early issues of the former it occurs as verso to ' The . does implicitly overrate its power upon the soul for evil or good. and thus falls foul of fact on all sides by assuming that spirit and flesh are twain. artful teazing.' 5 sprung] sprang EY. come i hither. and perverting the mild influences ot the lovely Enitharman. And with false self-decieving tears my Nostrils. Thou Mother of my Mortal part With cruelty didst mould my Heart. making War upon the Lambs Redeemed : To War & perpetuate Laws Glory. things pleasant and good for the one can properly be loathsome or poisonous to the other. Mocking the Confessors & Martyrs. and that . p. WMR. claiming Self-righteousness With cruel Virtue. 11. Swinb. II tears] fears The Voice Youth WMR. of the Ancient Bard of delight. Book. WBY. 41-45 : — ' Rahab created Voltaire Tirzah created Rousseau. Eyes.

. DGR. turn'd : and replaced by of this stanza seems to * Then . Book (on p. Tangled roots perplex her ways. Such a flower as May never bore But I said I've a Pretty Rose-tree. by night] In the silence of the night MS. The only exception 4 passed] ' to this rule is in the case of words where the omission of the e might possibly lead to confusion with another word. How many have fallen there! They stumble all night over bones of the dead. when they should be led. .. Pretty Rose Tree My A flower was ofifer'd to me. 9 stumble] tumble "^nw' % facsimile {Songs of Experience).Songs of Experience 1 25 an endless maze. title in the This and the two following songs are engraved upon a single plate. MS. by night] R* omits by.' But ' was turned from me MS. Book with Jealousy. 5 To The first in the poem original draft. Shepherd and other editors ruin the melody of this line It was Blake's almost by reading 'passed' or ' pass'd for 'passed. 7 turn'd] turned ' all except rdg. Folly is lo Little Black Boy. reprinted in Gilchrist's Life (ii. forming a connecting link with the Introduction to the Songs of Experience. preferable to that of the engraved went ' first Songs : 15/ version — . not only in manuscript but in engraved poems. ' And passed the sweet flower I o'er. her] it MS. del. e. Book 2nd rdg. But my Rose turn'd away with jealousy. lo And . And her thorns were my only delight. ii . tend her by day and by night. And her thorns were my only delight. Book 1st rdg. And feel they know not what but care. : facsimiles. was me I . g. care] Wilk. See editor's Bibliographical Preface to the Songs. WBY when] where Muir's WMR.' while in the latest issues it is commonly placed last. end).. Then I went to my Pretty Rose-tree.' invariable practice. Shep. And feel— they know not what but care And feel— they know not what save care DGR. Ri. del.. jealousy] filled to my 8 Blake's pretty rose tree In the silence of the night . where he did not intend it to be pronounced as a separate syllable. to omit the e of the final ed in the preterite or participial termination. Without 115 reversed).' i . my rose was turned from me. pined not pin'd. EY.' 6 To . And wish to lead others.

he cancelled this line also. Sun-flower! weary of i time. delight. and aspire wishes to go. . with its successive alterations as seen in the MS. 5 Arise from their graves. 109 (reversed) of the MS. Where And the Youth pined away with desire. . Book. The humble Sheep a threat'ning horn While the Lilly white Nor Love shall in i .' ' ' — rose puts envious ' full . stain her beauty bright. Book. Engraved on the same plate as the two preceding songs. Lilly The modest Rose puts forth a thorn. and deleted the — last line with The coward sheep a threat'ning horn While the lilly white shall in love delight. from the first rough draft without title on p. substituting for it finished.' ' he felt ' that envious ' Beginning by writing The did not express his three words. 3 clime] prime The Engraved on the same plate as the preceding DGR. it ' in its contrary state. ' ' ' ' engraved version) by a fourth line simply explanatory of the first .' and coward to humble. Where my Sun-flower Not in the MS.' and completing the quatrain * ' (as in the three. Book. meaning.26 1 Ah Songs of Experience Sun Flower ! Ah. nor a threat. shows that Blake originally conceived . the pale Virgin shrouded in snow.' and finishing the then went on lustful rose. perceiving that his rime had disappeared. Who countest the steps of the Sun Seeking after that sweet golden clime. — the soldier peace.' He . Where the traveller's journey done is . a thorn.' show that it was line. and following song.' but here. to & peace. and gave the poem an entirely different turn by changing the word lustful to modest. writing above them the words puts forth a thorn. . In its present form this beautiful little poem might more fitly rank as a Song of Innocence than a Song of Experience but the first draft. And at the lion increase freedom which point he drew a On line under the poem a subsequent reading he deleted the last * The & priest loves war.

binding with briars my joys & desires. Und zu war die Thur der Capelle. Und "du sollst nicht" stand auf dem Thor. 2 And saw] And I saw MS. 9 filled] filled MS. no authority for this in the engraved version. where however they are clearly divided by Blake's usual line of separation. Julius in zum Garten der Liebe. was ich nimmer gesehn. I : Engraved on a single plate from the fair transcript on the first page (p. Rasen stand eine Capelle. followed by and EY prefix as the first two stanzas of this poem the lines beginning WMR — DGR ' I laid me down upon a bank Where Love lay sleeping . Swinburne {Essay^ p. . Book.' . ' i. saw it was filled with graves. Book and orig.). II in] with R^. (1806) : — Dr. Ich ging einst Und Am Wo ' II. So kehrt' ich zum Garten der Liebe. and Shep. wo Liebe sollt' sein Und Priester in Trau'r umgingen die Mau'r. 141) falls into the same error. the Vater- . 7 So] And MS. writ over the door 5 . 115 reversed) of the MS. Der Blumen sonst brachte hervor. del. sah. Book. There . Book 15^ rdg. read 'filled' ( = fiird in all except Wilk. Without title in the MS. Und Grabstein'. Garden of Love sweet flowers bore turn'd to the so many . ' Und ich sah ihn mit Grabern gefQllet. Book. I never had seen A built in the midst. I And the gates of And Thou shalt ' So I That And And And And i : this not ' Chapel were shut. 5 this] the R^. and Rossetti was evidently misled by the immediate juxtaposition of these two songs in the MS. 9 tomb-stones where flowers should be Priests in black gowns were walking their rounds. This is Idndisches 12 binding] choking R'. is . sonst ich pflog spielend zu gehn. were] was Wilk. all edd.Songs of Experieitce 1 27 The Garden of Love went And saw what Garden of Love. I to the Chapel was Where used to play on the green. another of the poems translated by Museum. Und senktcn in Schmerz mein licbendes Herz.

how 5 And] Then MS. MS. del. Bk. . io6 (reversed) of the MS. weeping loud. his zealous priestly care. here.' Engraved on a single plate from the rough draft on p. .' in the preceding line being deleted and replaced 12 the] his Wnnz facsimile. you] I cannot love you 6 Or] Nor MS. And all admir'd the Priestly care. such a fiend should bear!'" These are deleted and replaced by — 'Then led him by To shew The last line is his little coat.28 1 A Songs of Experience Boy Lost Little ' Nought loves another as itself. . Book. Father. Nor venerates another so. . 7 I bird] I love myself: so does the bird MS. 13-16 This stanza appears to have followed the fifth in order of composition.' again cancelled and rewritten * And word 'Then' all — admir'd his priestly care. sets reason up for judge ' One who fiend 13 is Of our most holy Mystery. And standing Lo what a ! ' on the altar high. del. — ' The mother ''O. Book was . Book \st rdg. Book \st rdg. 11. del.' ' 5 The Priest sat by and heard the child.' said he. Nor is it possible to Thought A greater than itself to know: i And. Book 15/ rdg. how can I love you Or any of my brothers more ? I love you like the little bird That picks up crumbs around the door. . del. that I follow'd. the by ' &. In trembling zeal he siez'd his hair 9 : He led him by his little coat.' . \st rdg. 12 The first reading of these two lines in the MS.

Into the dangerous world I leapt Helpless. i . Experience. 20 They chain] They 19 They] And MS. the original of which is among the number reprinted by Gilchrist {Life. . del. The weeping parents wept in vain They strip'd him to his little shirt. end). Swinb. And burn'd him in a holy place. Book xst rdg. bound the httle ivory limbs In a cruel iron chain MS. single plate. "Are such " " one is provoked to respond. 17 . And bound him an iron chain in . . Infant Sorrow My mother groan'd. as far as we can see" weaving and spinning country of our working days it is rather some inscrutable remote land of Titanic visions. si'mbolic of more than we can safely define or conceive. . On the whole. naked. Book ist rdg. moated with silent white mist instead of solid and sonorous surf. . Are such things done on Albion's shore 21 : ? 19. . the Rossetti K will be found . my father's hands. 24 Are Such things are done on Albion's shore MS. ai And place] They burn'd him in a holy fire MS.' . . del. Book. with shore ?] first and last words del. . only the first two stanzas of which were engraved by Blake for the Songs of among 'Poems from SAMPSON The complete poem MS. and peopled with vague pre-Adamite giants. ii. and changed to above. altered as above. Like a fiend hid in a cloud. 113 (reversed) of the MS. Struggling in Striving Bound and weary. against my swadling bands. . Book xst rdg. p. . i26\ 'To the surprising final query. things done on Albion's shore ? but the "Albion " of Blake's verse is never this not. Book \st rdg. Compare the much fuller form of this song found on p. my father wept. .Songs of Experience 129 The weeping child could not be heard. Book' (x). comments {Essay. Where many had been burn'd before The weeping parents wept in vain. To sulk Engraved upon a upon my I 5 thought best mother's breast. piping loud.

can the bird that is born for joy i6 Sit in a cage and sing.' 'The Little Girl Found. like 'The Little Girl Lost.1 30 Songs of Experience The School Boy I love to rise in a summer morn i When the birds sing on every tree distant huntsman winds his horn. The little ones spend the day In sighing and dismay. See Bibliographical ' Preface to the Songs. if buds are nip'd blossoms blown away. reprinted from an electrotype of the original copper in Gilchrist's Life (ii. The And O . . .' the completion of the Songs of Experience Blake. thro' with the dreary shower. WMR. bower. singing DGR. I in] on all except Shep. But droop And O By & mother. EY. anxious hour. I take delight. WBY. -where. sing] When birds are . Engraved upon a single plate. Book. This song. How can a child. sorrow and care's dismay. when fears annoy. in most cases. transferred these poems to the latter series. in the On early issues.' originally formed one of the Songs of Innocence. 2 When . end).' and 'The Voice of the Ancient Bard. the sky-lark sings with me.. it is always printed as verso to the last plate of 'Spring. a joy away 6 . ! But to go to school O drives it ! Under a all in summer morn. Ah then at times I And Nor Nor many an my book can in sit Worn How I spend in learning's ii drooping sit. his tender wing. cruel eye outworn. father ! And And Of forget his youthful spring? 21 if the tender plants are strip'd their joy in the springing day. Not in the MS. what sweet company. In the editions of Wilkinson and Shepherd ' The School Boy appears among the Songs of Innocence.

marks of woe. It would appear rdg. with some important changes from the first poem found on p. to have been Blake's first intention to close the poem with this stanza. Book 15^ rdg. . This plate is among the number reprinted by Gilchrist (Z-y^. the hapless Soldier's sigh in blood down Palace walls. harlot's rest. I i flow. harlots' Wilk. And blasts the new K born 3 infant's tear. fear] In every voice of every child MS. . 13-16 In the MS. And blights with plagues the Marriage hearse. 10 Blackens o'er the churches walls MS. 3 And mark] And see MS. Book A mark istrdg. . 6 In WBY. . Book 15/ 9 How] But most etc. . Near where the charter'd Thames does And mark in every face I meet Marks of weakness. Or the summer fruits appear ? Or how shall we gather what griefs Or bless the mellowing year. 2 charter'd] dirty MS. del.' . 14 Harlot's] No apostrophe in orig. del. But most thro' midnight streets I hear 13 How the youthful Harlot's curse Blasts the new born Infant's tear. Book. in some later editions).Songs of Experience How shall the summer arise in joy. ' . Weaves around the marriage hearse.(reversed) of the MS. In every cry of every Man. 8 The hear] The german forged links I hear MS. . . The mind-forg'd manacles How I hear. however. I. In every Infant's cry of fear. (corrected. MS. — But most the midnight harlot's curse From every dismal street I hear. EY. 109. in every ban. the Chimney sweeper's cry Every black'ning Church appalls And Runs 9 . When the blasts of winter appear 1 3 1 26 destroy. ? London wander thro' each charter'd street. end). Book this stanza was at first written Engraved on draft of this WMR . Book istrdg. del. 5 In every voice. Book. ii. Book istrdg. del. del. a single plate.

with softest care. the body of the poem being in italic. You'll] quite Girl Lost Little Children of the future Age. 5 Free from winter's cold. remove the ancient curse. i this indignajit page. that place to man] of blood. to that black'ning church. in rising day. 15 There] Then all except Shep. Naked in the sunny beams delight. to I hear. WBY. that in a former time.' Sjxlt. In the Age was thought a crime! of Gold. How the midnight harlot's curse Blasts the new born infant's tear. Once a youthful Fill'd 10 pair. And hangs \alt. And the maiden soon forgot her fear. that marriage hearse. ' Remove away Remove away Remove away 'Twill A [alt. There.. Not in the MS. Strangers came not near. in Engraved on a single plate. Youth and maiden bright To the holy light.32 1 Songs of Experie7ice — This was cancelled and followed by ' But most front through wintry] streets every \alt. the grass they play On 15 . Reading Know Love. to smites] with plagues the marriage hearse. Book the (pp. . 1-4 In the engraved original this introductory stanza is written indented roman characters. Book. Met in garden bright Where the holy light Had just remov'd the curtains of the night.' Blake's use of the Compare MS. sweet Love. 107 same epithets — and 99 reversed): in a quatrain twice repeated in 'An Ancient Proverb. Parents were afar.

. father and mother. was happy upon the heath. The first stanza and title original draft of this at first intended the 103 reversed) to form a poem complete in are an afterthought.. 3 Where say] Where are they. written in pencil upon a diff"erent page (io6 reversed). second and third stanzas (on itself. ! ! That shakes the blossoms of my ' hoary hair ! The Chimney Sweeper A black thing little among ' ' Crying ' ' ' 'weep 'weep ! ! the snow. . me Engraved on a single that Blake Book shows to sing the notes of woe. 4 to the church] to church \aU. Ona To thy ' ! O O pale and weak father speak 30 ! : the trembling fear. Waves And 20 meet agree to the weary tired wanderers weep. to [= MS. They clothed me in the clothes of death. To her father white Came the maiden bright 25 . . the dismal care. But his loving look. Book. The song in the MS. say ? They are both gone up to the church Because I And smil'd And taught i woe ' ! — to pray. cloth'd Wilk. . plate. 5 among the winter's snow. Shep. the rest clothed [ = cloth' d]. Like the holy book. Book. say? MS. 6 winter's snow] wintery wind clothed MS. All her tender limbs with terror shook. Book. clothed] . in notes of Where are thy father & mother.Songs of Experience 133 Tired with kisses sweet. 7 clothed] . They When the silent sleep o'er heaven's deep. Book. snow] MS. orig. p.

Raven his nest has made thickest shade. And are gone to praise God & his Priest Who make up a heaven of our misery. 114 reversed). Book. misery] . Book I would] could MS. Engraved on a single in . erased. and ' MS. 20 its] 1st rdg. 107 reversed). thickest] blackest MS. this song the fine variant version. our misery MS. And his bears the fruit of Deceit. . The Human Abstract Pity would be no more If we did not make somebody Poor And Mercy mutual fear brings peace. . spreads his baits with care. fears] with his holy fears EY. Book. del. sweet to eat it Ruddy and And In the its the MS. He sits down with holy fears.1 34 ' So7igs of Kxperience And because am happy & I dance & 12 Who.' & King. Book Earth. end) from the draft The first title of the poem was 'The The human Image' substituted: the present (p. And waters the ground with tears Then Humility Underneath takes its 9 . del. . Soon spreads the dismal shade Of Mystery over 13 head And the Catterpiller and Fly Feed on the Mystery. reprinted in Gilchrist (ii. Who wrap themselves up in 9 sing. no more could be were as happy as we.' MS. If all And 1 5 . 9 with the Swinb. Book (p. . plate. knits a snare.' This title is not in the is Compare with 17 . Book 15/ rdg. They think they have done me no injury. Till the selfish loves increase Then Cruelty And . 2 If there was nobody poor MS. root his foot. ' beginning I heard an Angel singing. . Book.

' MS.Sojigs of Experience The Gods 1 35 of the earth and sea 21 Nature to find this Tree Sought But their search was all in vain There grows one in the Human Brain. who dwells in Chaos.^ last line del. an endless labyrinth of woe. iii. Human Form a fiery Forge. where the growth of it is defined . Human Face a Furnace seal'd. ' : ' ' signifies — Moral Law. and underneath his heel shot up he nam'd it Moral Virtue. 121) . rooted in the 1795).' SONGS OF EXPERIENCE] Divine Image Cruelty has a Human Heart. Compare the passage . . and again enrooting Shot into many a Tree. {engr. 28^ He [Albion] sat by Tyburn's brook. They bent down. A : The Tree spread over him its cold shadows (Albion groan'd). hidden from the human sight. Human Heart its hungry Gorge. a cross whereon to nail the [To The A dead redeemer and friend of men. and vegetable (not spiritual) life . Out of fifteen examples of the Songs of Experience .' A very similar ' description of the growth of the Tree is found in Ahanta thus condensed by Swinburne {Essay. : 23. p. rock of separation. watered with the tears of a jealous God. 24 ' But Till their search was all in vain they sought in the human brain. And The The The The i . shot up from sparks and fallen germs of material seed being after all a growth of mere the topmost stem of it made into error. Jealousy a Human Face Terror the Human Form Divine. 5 I place this poem as appendix to the Songs of Experience in the absence of evidence that it was included in any authentic copy of the Songs issued during Blake's lifetime. : . See Jerusalem. they felt the earth. Book The Tree of Mystery ' 14-19 11. Human Dress is forged Iron. chap. thro' . And Secrecy the Human Dress. and the Law deadly Tree Of God.' is/ rdg. f.

The only other existing specimen of the engraved song is a proof impression (also uncoloured) in the possession of Mr. H. Wilkinson. Blake in October. Shepherd Songs. This poem seems to have been unknown to tisement issued. proves that it must have been printed at least five Museum. It is fairly plain too that — first editor. after the death of Mrs.vperience by R.1 Songs of Experience 36 known to British which me. 1831. and there the watermark of the paper. British who probably took it from the posthumously printed copy which the Museum had acquired two years before. the uncoloured copy in the Reading Room of the contains this plate. Since then it has been included among the Songs without comment by W. It is quite clear that Blake engraved total ' a view to its forming one of the Songs of Experience.' . which he has reproduced in facsimile at the end of his beautiful edition of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. Rossetti and all who follow Shepherd in placing it immediately after Blake's later editors. 1793. as well as to Gilchrist. William Muir. when this adver- Blake rejected the plate without destroying it — perhaps because it was one of those which were engraved on both sides of the copper leaving it possible for it to be inadvertently introduced into one or two copies which may have been printed when the plates passed into other hands. M. who rightly represents 54 as the number of plates belonging to a complete set of both series of the It is first introduced into the Songs of E. Blake's (1866). dated 1832. A Little Girl Lost. is years after Blake's death. one only. and the of plates specified as belonging to this work in his prospectus ' the Public (see Bibliographical Preface to the Songs) would seem poem with this number To show to that this was was his intention in October.

POEMS from THE ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT (circa 1793-1811) commonly known as 'THE MANUSCRIPT BOOK' .

Among the sketches there are ' : one or two Rossetti profiles of Blake himself transcribed certain of the contents. paginated consecutively is without watermark The owner. 'The called Book. 15. Palmer knew Blake personally.' and sometimes. drawing paper present but the stitching in the centre of the quires after ff. alternately. and 54. 42. signed 'D. is the name used in this edition as a book of notes and sketches. . descriptive title for Blake's MS. In of all probability Blake intended it to refer to the series and afterwards on engraved p. written.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT The Rossetti MS.C. heading them 'Verse and Prose by William Blake (Natus 1757: All that is of any value in the foregoing obiit 1827). shows four gatherings of 16 and 8 gathering of 10 leaves and Bound in at the end is a folded sheet leaves The . and MS. designs. is found written. it was from the artist's wife that he had the present which he sold me for loj-. of the volume an attendant in the Antique Gallery at the British Museum. that the book is made up of one 30. on the 30th April. 18. upon which are written part of 'The Everlasting Gospel' and of his Canterpart of the first draft of Blake's description ' bury Pilgrims.' Rossetti 's earlier signature.. 5. tells how he became possessed I purchased this original MS. is a foolscap quarto volume (7|x6| 1-116 by its inches) of 58 leaves.' A pencil note on the verso of the flyleaf.' The latter title. Rossetti MS. a pencil sketch. of different and smaller paper forming two leaves. in on the verso of the second leaf.R. '47.G. of Palmer. 'Ideas of Good and Evil. less commonly correctly. beginning The poems which Paradise. published as T/ie Gates of not then been had title this under some editors include partially covered by bold script characters.

most of those for the Visions of the DaiigJiters of Albiofi (engraved 1793). Blake continued to write from the reversed end as far as p. all the designs for The Gates of Paradise (engraved 1793). 1794). this purpose. He had served first used it ' at least twenty years and for sketches only. Avoiding at first the pages on which sketches of any importance appeared. certain of the Songs of Experience. Book proper. for poetry. besides other lyrical poems which he himself never published. 98. Book covers a period of of Blake's when book it life. the Songs of Innocence and The Book of Thel (both engraved 1789). C. but the greater page. for prose.' referred to as Rossetti's R^) con- emendatory readings. converted still later. and some for the Songs of Experience. consists of leaves. Vertical pencil lines are drawn through those poems which Blake engraved as part of the Songs of Experience. but fairly clear hand.' The volume is bound in half-calf and The MS. in full number a small. These pieces. G. as our facsimile shows. and. pages has here been copied out. paper bears the watermark 1H44. a few are are small finished or rough pencil drawings occupying the centre of the page. were neatly written in two columns in year 1789. from in cases earlier most apparently rough drafts. my transcript (in tains a number of footnotes 139 D. copied. some of which he subsequently rejected in his version of the poems printed in Gilchrist's Life. than the include Some of the sketches are colour or sepia. Blake began to use the sketch-book for the transcription of some of his poems. This transcript. R. Urizen. of which 5 (evidently containing Epigrams 1-19) have been '^'>^ Part of the cut out. separation lines being drawn between the different poems. when most of the leaves were thus filled. About 1793. it into a note- The sketches two drawings of the figure of Nebuchadnezzar which Blake afterwards engraved in the undated Marriage of Heaven and Hell. bound in at the end of the MS. but probably not much later. we may infer that his use of the sketch-book began not earlier. All the poems in this section of the book Songs of Experience or lyrics of the same character must have been written before the end of — the year 1793. and Afnerica (all engraved As there are no designs for Blake's earlier works. labelled Blake MS. reversing the volume and beginning on Here he the three blank pages at the end of the book.Rossetti MS. — . In most cases the titles were afterthoughts.

Book. Blake discontinued the use of it as a notebook for several years. On p. Taking it up again about the beginning of his Felpham period. Hunt. Rossetti 140 After writing these poems. The MS. without view to publication. writing them. night embodies precisely the same theme as Jerusalem (1804). not as before from the reversed end. 181 1.' were left in an unfinished state. Aug. Book (i-xxxvi). June 1793 ' ! ^^ latest. but from the original beginning of the sketch .' which are scattered here and there throughout the book with frequent encroachments upon the sketches. ' ' . now preserved in the British Museum.' which. Fragments of this are drafted or copied on blank spaces left on the now crowded pages. are Blake's 'Advertisement' and 'Additions to the Catalogue for the year 1810. day. part of the poem being written. which form the first section of the MS. Cromek.' both of which were afterwards engraved as part of Jerusalem. he added some new poems. and the 'Address to the Deists' in p. an overflow from his marginal notes to his copy of Reynolds's Stothard. Book is the note on And if I live one it on p. which are probably. 12 are as the lines ' Each man is in his spectre's power. is an extract From Belts Weekly Messenger. they relate to his differences with Hayley. To the same period evidently belong the epigrams on art and artists.' few of the poems in the Rossetti MS.book. and were obviously written down. On p. 10. such as Fayette. will be a Wonder. The earliest dated entry in the MS.' the last written piece in the MS.. animnm solvere. as Ellis and Yeats conjecture. 'I say I shan't live five years. 21 begins the series of epigrams which may be dated from the end of Blake's stay at Felpham to the year ' 1809.' and the long poem I saw a monk of Charlemaine. obviously after the exhaustion of other space.. Book version of I saw a monk of Charlemaine was afterwards split up The Grey Monk of by Blake into two separate poems the Pickering MS. while others have elsewhere The lines beginning Three received Blake's revision. Book in footnotes. 59. where I print them with the readings from the MS.MS. Among the last entries in the MS. In the same category should be placed his great unfinished poem ' The Everlasting Gospel. and Discourses. On pp. 3 and 2 is the fine poem spectre around ' me and My Swinburne points out. ' A ' ' ' * ' — Jerusalem. upon a scrap of paper bound in at the end of the book. in a more perfect form the break of at day appear virgins in the Pickering MS. 4th.

] Klopstock England defied. Cat.. Sketch. . 6. 13. 12. . 115 to p.] —A Sketch (pencil). 1810. 4.Rossetti MS. 3 to For the same point. Mock p. without which the art is [Advt.] — Sketch (pencil). When When [MS.' List 2. 8. For the year t8io. Advertisement to Blake's Canterbury Pilgrims from Chancer. &c. Voltaire. & on. Note.] —Tuesday Jan' 20. 242-243). Rossetti Manuscript (followed by periejice number of poem in the present edition) Advt. To p. [MS. Book xl. if ii. Index. and continued straightforwardly from p. roughly Blake's own order of writing the poems enumerated. poems. * ' INDEX TO 'THE ROSSETTI p. Rossetti's Annotated Lists of Blake's Paintings. . ID. The or ii) — : MS.E. M. from p. Memoranda. ii. Book xxxviii. between Two & seven in the Evening one will be shan't Note. weak capacities . 25 (Gilchrist's Life. Book.' xxxvii. . no. 383-403). Sougs of Exfollowing contractions are used in this quoted (vol. and prose contents are given in the order in which they occur in the volume inverted pieces. To woodcut on pewter. p. pp. I I engrave on copper. [MS. Blake s Catalogue of Pictures. . [MS. p. *2. the Index should be read backwards page by page. men p. of MS. xli.. p. young woman dressing. Book [MS. June 1793. Title-page. Despair. WMR. I. On the Virginity of the Virgin Mary p. and Engravings. Book p. 98. reference may be made to Gilchrist to Ellis and Yeats (vol. 1807. a man has married a wife. 141 In the following Index to the Rossetti MS. — say years. spectre around me night Ideas of Good & Evil. live five [See Gil. — If Prose. — To engrave on pewter. con. S.] Mock on. *i. And a Wonder. 7. 5. Book xxxix. Drawings. 10. taining anecdotes of Artists (apparently intended as Blake's own title for piece which Rossetti and others call Public Additions to Address'). W. pp. and *3).] p. ii. 158. 9. Daphne. Johanna Southcott.. written from the To follow reversed end. of first last words are which few or the only prose passages. Book xxxvii. the sketches. 11. WMR Sketch (pen and ink) [see (a)].. Rousseau.] I live it . Sketch (sepia).] & day. 2. lost. are marked by an asterisk. My — [MS. Italics indicate sketches or prose. My spectre continued (stanzas 9. 3.

Book xliv. Three Virgins at the Break of day.] Who that has eyes . [Advt. [MS. 12. — (The same. No real style of colouring ever appears. William Blake.] [MS. MS.S. 18..)] — wonder who can say speak no of the dead Note. Book Prose. [MS. p. [MS. [MS.. .— Tor Songs of Experience— 'ThQ^ickRose: [See WMR p. 25.] And his legs cover'd it like a long fork. 24) [Advt.] Prose. p.] Each man is in his spectre's power.) [See Sketch. . (continued on p. Book Anger & Wrath my bosom rend. Book li. 13. Prose. Book xliii.] I by thee am Mocked.] Note. 14. I'm glad. 24.] You think Fuseli is not a Great Painter. Rossetti 142 p. To F Book liv. Book lii. — (The same. storehouse of I angry with Hayley who used me so ill. (fi. p. Madman I have been called.. Book xlii. [Pickering — ? Lucifer discovering Judas. Book xlvi. is .. p. P. Prose. Sketch. as a public duty. The Birds. 15. —The WMR (h). Prose. : To Prose. I (g)].— For Gates 0/ Paradise. 25) . confessed . p.. Prose. 26.] — (continued from p.— '^S^e WMR {Inferno. Sketch. [Advt. as guilty of Prose. [Advt. though .] Canto xxxiv. [Advt. Sketch (sepia).. 22. [MS.] p. Sketch.] a commercial : Iv.] The Sussex Men are Noted Fools. therefore of the Amateurs of [Advt.] You don't believe continued. The Golden Net. — Rubens' Luxembourg gallery Note.] You don't believe. 19. — H [MS.] Sketch. WMR (b)]. 20. 23. . 21. [MS.] And in melodious accents L [MS.'] I saw a Monk Morning of Charlemaine. 17. .] Terror in the house does roar. [MS.MS. [^Jerusalem.] 1. .] painters of England are unimployed intellectual riches.. ill etc. — Oh rare wisdom.] For Gates of Paradise. Book xlvii. [Advt. Sketch. —There should consider the following.] .) Sketch. — p. etc. is mental high treason. — Columbus discovered America not because there cannot be any difference Prose. [MS. not. [Advt. Book xlvii.] p. . ir. 16. p. p... — Art the encouragement which is my due nothing can hinder my course. [MS. ' ' I etc. Book xlviii. Book liii. p.] nation I do not believe I mock thee .] Was p.. . . I won't attempt to make ye. [MS. Book xlix. To : find the Western path. p. . — For Gates of Paradise. Book xlv.] —The wretched state of the arts demand country . . — Princes appear to me to be fools Sketch. Sketch. in the journeyman's labour.~\S&& in this p. [MS. Fool they call thee. [MS.) Sketch. — In [Advt.

(j). Cromek: For Fortune's favours you your riches [MS. I Iviii.] . H can floor. Ixxix.MS. Sir Joshua praises Michael Angelo.] S d You all your Youth observ'd the Golden Rule. Ixxxiv. Book Ix. Book p.] p. He (i)].] To H Book : Thy friendship oft has made my heart to ake. [MS. Book Ixii. Book Ixvi. Book Ixv.] Mr. [MS.] He's a Blockhead [MS. [MS. 36. [MS. [MS. 30. old proverbs [MS. Book Ixxxii.] Cosway Frazer & Baldwin of Egypt's Lake.] [MS. Book Cr who wants a proof of what he can't Perceive.] 31.] help thy husband's copying me. [MS. Ivi.] was birth this 's — the happy [MS. : When H y finds out what you cannot [MS.— [See : [MS. Ixxvi.] say.] created for destruction come. ] Sketch. S in Childhood on the nursery To Nancy F [MS. Book Ixiv. Mr. [MS. On F and S I found them blind. Florentine Ingratitude Book p. y's Friendship To forgive enemies Book Ixxviii. [MS. Ixxxiii. Stothard to Mr. the Case : The villain at Royal Academy: A the gallows tree. p. Book Ixiii. Book Ixx. [MS. 35. You say [MS. Book Ixxiv. Book Of p. Book Strange Erratum in Ixxiii. Book Ixi.] p. Book Ixxviii. 32. [MS. Ixvii. 4). Book lix.] p.] Sketch (pencil). 29. [MS. How : 143 [MS. Book Ixxvii.] true. the Editions.] [The Everlasting Gospel. 27. 33. For Visions of the Daughters of Albion. Ixiii. Can there be anything more mean. [MS.] reserve and modesty he has.] to see. Book Ixxi. Book bring. loves artists as he loves his Meat. A Pitiful To Sir Joshua sent his own portrait to. a.— [See Some men H WMR. p.] Petty Sneaking Knave I knew. [MS. I taught them how If p. A [MS.] P loved me not as he lov'd his friends. Book Ixxxi. [MS.] I am no Homer's Hero you all know. & the Ladies. all [MS. [MS. 28. To Book p.] Sketch. 26. [MS.] To forgive enemies H does pretend.] To F You call me Mad 'tis folly to do so. [MS. WMR. Book : . Book Ixxxv. what the Prophets write.] Sir Joshua praised Rubens with a smile.] On H do. lix.] p.] it is — : [MS. Book Ixxx. Stothard : Fortune favours the Brave. Rossetti p. Book Ixxv.] He is a Cock would. has observ'd the Golden Rule. Book Ivii. 37.J The Angel that presided o'er my birth. Sketch. Cromek to Mr. 34. : Ixxii. Book a compliment to [MS. Book lot. Imitation of Pope. For Gates of Paradise. On S (11. does pretend continued : 3.

Book by English Give Pensions p.] These are the Idiots' chiefest arts.] their Pictures well painted be. Book xcvii.— "^Invdcr. p. but not the same genius. cripple every step drudges For Gates of Paradise.] Sketch.] Note. [See WMR. [MS. [MS. On to the H Learned the Pickthank Pig. : p. [MS. Book he and I my judgement from a Fool. Book xcvi. Prose. 43. Book Ixxxix. Another: I was buried near this dyke.] title is prov'd.] a Statesman and a Saint. Book cvii. Book xcv. Book civ. [MS. My Ixxxviii. the other never can be acquired but must be born. Rossetti 144 An Come knock heads against this stone. [MS. Delicate — as in the Book Hands & Heads will never of Moonlight. [MS. The Washerwoman's Song I wash'd them out and wash'd them in. They say there is no straight line in nature — — — . 44. Book cix. MS. You say till cii. [MS. On — the Book & great encouragement labours. given [MS. .] Cromek's opinions put into rhyme. [MS. you look I always take [MS. Nebuchadnezzar. 40.] Raphael Sublime Majestic Graceful Wise. Book When Nobility.' Let a Man who has made a drawing gt) on & on & he will Note.] p. I. . 41.] Here lies John Trot. Bookxci. For Gates of Paradise I have said to corruption etc. p. Science is soon got . ci.] Learn the laborious stumble of a Fool.] Machination. 45. [MS.] For Marriage of Heaven and Hell Sketch (pencil). 42. Book c] I : write the rascal thanks. 37. Book xcii.] Prose. Book xciii.] cv. 46. see. [MS. Sketch. [Advt.] If I e'er Grow to Man's Estate.] — p. Swelled limbs with no outline that you can descry. with thought. Sketch. Another [MS. the Friend of all mankind. appear While Titian &c. 39. [MS. [MS.] Cromek speaks: Book ciii. but if he chooses to leave it before he has spoil'd it he will do a Better Thing. . Book xciv. p. xcix. [MS. To English Connoisseurs You must agree : that Rubens was a fool. [MS.] When I see a Rubens Rembrandt Correggio. The p. [MS. Book cviii. There is just the same science in Lebrun or Rubens or even Vanloo that there is in Raphael or Michael Angelo.] All pictures that's painted with sense and Book xcviii. — — — * produce a Picture or Painting. p. you always can at a picture English Encouragement of Art.p. Book xc] as a Genius thus am Rubens. [MS. 5. Epitaph Book : j'our Ixxxvi. 38.] A Pretty Epigram for the encouragement of those Who have paid great sums in the Venetian and Flemish ooze. Book cvi.] [MS. [MS. Sketch. [MS. [MS.] Great things are done when Men & Mountains meet. Book Ixxxvii.] : Book p. (k). [MS.

p. . Book cxiii. 11. 56.] p..] Woollett's best works . [The Everlasting Gospel.] this is that e'er I — In knew.] p. 5. . Sketch. [MS. 27-52. 7-. 54. . p..] Prose.] [The Everlasting Gospel. 46. [MS. 3.] — Nebuchadnezzar. Book [The Everlasting Gospel.— The Cottager's . Prose. . [The Everlasting Gospel. 77. is never correct. —Woollett I know . 1-26. [MS. Book cxi.. Sketch. Pro5^.— I do not pretend to Paint better than Rafael which they understand not..] Prose. Book being a Friend just in the nick. 52. — (Continued from on 145 [Advt.] 72-92.) — The manner in which my character has been blasted Prose. g. . [The Everlasting Gospel. [Advt.. This day is Publish'd Advertizements to Blake's Canterbury Pilgrims from Chaucer.5.] p. Prose. [Advt.] a line If [Advt.] p. (continued *I give you the end of a golden string. I forget. Ang. . It is only fumble and bungle which cannot draw a line. 93-96. 53-71.u cannot deny .. 11. — . reputation as a draughtsman. Prose.] Sketch. . .— Y\&xma.) . 6. — Of my Work & approbation Prose. . Book cxv. 26-83. (or Mich. . 49. is which doubts and hesitates in the midst of its course.] ] (7^ 11.] was Cupid a Boy.] Grown old in Love from Seven till Seven times Seven. Everlasting Gospel. (1). . [Advt.] were superior to Basire's because . [Advt. The Everlasting Gospel. But that is not — Every line Prose. . 5.. paid what they put in on these ungracious subjects. [The [The [The [The Everlasting Gospel. — Many 7'.] has resumed .. you play a Game of chance. p. [Jerusalem. The only Man For 11.] Prose.] WMR. . [Advt.Prose. . p. cxiv. Prose. 46) .MS. .] [MS. 84-106..— [See Why [MS. Note. 1-25. p. Prose.] Everlasting Gospel. 57. 11.55. in [Advt. — Prints art.] p. 48. cxii. condemnation. It is very true what you have said.] people are so foolish . [Advt. —This was spoke by My Spectre to Voltaire Bacon &c.'] master's touch. [Advt. p. g.— For these thirty-two Years . plate Mr.] the line of beauty.] Everlasting Gospel. [Advt. Sketch (pencil).] [The Everlasting Gospel.] I will tell you what Joseph of Arimathea. 51. Rossetti p. 47). containing anecdotes of Artists. . P. this 11. asserted that Woollett's. 11. 11. .53- [Advt. as Machlin told me at the time for P. — — [Advt.] Prose. 50. .] Note. . beginnings of [Advt. This only is ugliness. [MS. 47. B. I hope this print . Book ex..

p.] — — For Gates of Paradise What we hope we see. ..] etc. — In this de draw. [MS. That God Prose. — It is upon & attend upon Empire but Empire The Arts. not have worshipped him if I thought he had been one of those — long spindled nosed rascals. . he. it that it is not Arts that follow that attends Prose.] public address but love to my art and had some share my zeal for greater.] [MS. [Advt. . fine art. .. Friend Orator Prig. [Advt. men will act like a maid smiling over a churn. tells us. [Advt. Book cxviii. . — From Bell's Weekly Messenger.] time has crook'd. Having given great offence by writing Prose. 58. I do not mean smooth'd up & Nigled Poco Pen'd and all the beauties [picked out] blurr'd & blotted but Drawn with a firm & & & decided hand at once. 66.] — What kind of intellect . — For Songs of Experience — The Angel. . Men think they can Copy Nature Prose. dear Mother Outline of wisdom most sage. no good workman Fools do often Me inspire. — From Cratelos. 61.] my — Later Note. Book cxxii.] I always thought that Jesus Christ was a snubby or I should Note.] make a Man. . & Sketch. but day do not draw . Book cxx. Book cxx. .MS. 64. Englishmen rouse yourselves — —A — . [Advt. Noblemen follows nonsense for . — — I've given great Provision to Foes. O : [MS. [Advt.. Book cxx. . 63. [Advt. . [Advt. — is . [MS. & Michael Angelo.— TrofAQ of Blake. 65. [Advt] Prose.] Prose. manifest to .. Infirm is all me . — Resentment for Personal Injuries has Prose. Book cxxi. which is their Error. Book cxvi. Aug.] For Gates of Paradise. in this country a much — — Extract. . Prose. Book cxvii. . Sketch. but he could not. — He who could represent Christ Men and *Great p. [See WMR.] Colouring Newton does show.] Prose. p. Prose. 59. [Advt. Is that he does. [MS. Book cxviii. Sketch.] but not to (c).] Prose. artist Call that the Public Voice . 62. & not the forms of Things.] Sketch. — The English [Title for Advt. Human Characters as they exist age after age.] To Venetian Artists Perhaps this little Fable may make us merry.] Being a complete Index of in Prose. Extract. [Advt. trading competition. [Advt. [Advt.] Cooke wished to give to Hogarth . p. to look at his print. Shakespeare laugh at what others can see no crime in. Prose. .] For Gates of Paradise I found him beneath a tree. [Advt. [Adv. Whoever looks at any . my Dear asked I . [MS. If — Chaucer's Canterbury Pilgrims. 60. Sketch. Hogarth's works prove. Rosseiti 146 p. p. .] [MS. [MS.] p.] detestable Falsehood . . 67. manner the English public .] [MS. — Let us teach Buonaparte & whomsoever else may concern Prose. [MS.] Some p. 4*** 181 1 all.— I do not know whether Homer . God or man. p. like Fuseli Milton. Book cxix. Vasari Prose. p. .

[MS. 84. Prose.MS. 1810.) Sketch.—The— when they assert that Jupiter Note. — Pros?.. 85. p. 83. all will be well. last &c. 72. Sketches. 68. whitloes on their . Nofe. p.. cxxiii.] Prose. [MS.] To Chloe's breast Now young Cupid slily stole. fingers. Pros?.— The originality of this 147 production .— No Man of Sense .] Prose— (continued from 83.. .] Pros?.] will never buy a horse has got any brains will never buy is not for the sake of convincing but for the sake of defending those it it. cord in his hand. Prose. p. [Advt.] p. 71. 1810. — old heavens Art proportion to his means. Prose. . — The Characters removing the [Cat.. 82. . [MS. — Good L & 2. . Book [Cat. [MS. by the colour & a man a picture by the colour.— A jockey that is anything of a jockey . . .] 1810. p. ..— Tot Gates of Paradise Death's Door.] who I who any truth tell know do not . Note. — Just above .] Sketch— [See WMR (n). [Cat.. Book cxxiv. 67. p. — [Cat.] p. 1810. —When those who p. The Last Judgment is not Fable [Cat. [Cat. 1810. do. .. a Male & Female chain'd [Cat.] Prose. .] mental Charms.] Sketch..— And heal Visions .~Yor Gates of Paradise— At for hatching ripe. 69.] To God. 76.] Prose. [Cat. p.] Prose. 70.— [Cat. 1810. a Cruel Church. Evil . 73.] Since all the Riches of this World. . Book cxxviii.] Prose. Rossetti p. . 74. . in . [Advt. Pros?.— For the year 1810 Addition [Advt. . .] 80.] Pros?. . nail it with a nail.. . . p. [Cat. .] . [Cat. p. — The painter hopes that his Friends Amytus Melitus & Lycon p.] The Combats of Prose. together by the feet . . . .] Nail his neck to the Cross. Between the Figures .. . Art has lost its — — Prose. [Cat. Sketches. . & Intentions.] Prose. p.] people admire the Prose..] p. iBic] Prose. on the brink of [Cat. 79. Some to Blake's Catalogue of Pictures [Title for Cat. .] Sketches. [MS. — —The greatest part of what are 1810. — perdition of the Hebrew. 77. p. 1810. Pros?. [Cat. . 1810. Book cxxvii. call'd p. Sketch.— [See WMR. — Note here that Fable or allegory [Cat. In Eternity one Thing vegetable Nature also. as to believe this.. the golden Age.— [See WMR. 75. Bock cxxviii. 1810. (d). . work of a Fool. — — — Prose.] Prose..— No man of sense .~23 May 1810 found the Word Golden.~K man sets himself yourselves to be disgraced. 78. — Over the head .] p. [Cat.] Prose. 1810. 1810. 81. 86. . for will perceive . cxxvi. p. a Protection. . Book {A quarter of this leaf has been cut out. 1810. 1810. p. 1810.. 1810. (m). [MS. 1810. p. begs public protection and [Cat. 1810.) [Cat. . For Gates of Paradise (frontispiece). Knowledge of good & evil.

Angels [Cat. stanza 2. Prose. [MS.] *Fayette (Stanzas i.] Do what you will this life's a fiction. [SE. . I . [Cat. — Represented those who are Envy the Success. 11. Essay. 1810. *The Angel I dreamt a Dream what can it mean. Book xxx. 102. Sketch. . August 1807. xxxii. p. [Cat. [MS. [MS. [MS. — Of Satan or of Og than.] —Adam and Eve. . *Littie *Motto Book p.] — Lines written surrender of 96. [See Swinb. The Caverns Prose. p.] *The Question Answer'd What is it men in women do require : ! : : [MS. [MS. tell me what [MS.] *The look of love alarms.] *Riches The countless gold of a merry heart. 89. ^. [MS.] 92. . /3.p. Book xxxi. it. — Men because Last Judgment &. 4. 6). Sketch. Prose. Book cxxx. 98. . 87. pp. [MS. Book xxxiii.] 99.] [The Everlasting Gospel. . the to Songs of Innocence & of Experience. — For Europe — an assassin.. [MS. Book xxxiv. — that Bad art not with [Cat. be Painting. 7^ 11. [MS. . 1810. Rossetti 148 [MS. [Cat. Prose.] *Her whole Life is an Epigram.) [Cat. MS. — (Description of Last Judgment. 1-37. 104. . Extract. 10). Book xxxvi. 4. 1810.) rose up at the dawn of day. — Continued (from p. 2. .] *An answer to the parson Why of the sheep do you not learn peace ? [MS. 94. 105. 88.] *An Old maid early e'er I knew. 9.] 3. . Book xxxv. he rears from the pool his mighty p. — Such as Rafael Mercy have. Book xxiv. Prose. 1810. 1810. 3.] [SE. 1-38. : boy. Book cxxix. p.] — For Gates of Paradise —happier kit. 1810. p. [MS. 11. . Book xxiii. Book xxxvi.] *Because I was happy upon the heath. 93.] For Gates of Paradise Fire. p. p.] *Lacedemonian Instruction : Come hither. Book xxii. my thou seest there. dated Sunday. 90.] Shall know them . gi. [MS. *Several Questions Answered. stanzas 2. *Day The sun arises in the East. (The same.. p. [MS. 96) signed Birmingham L* Note. [The Everlastins: Gospel. . Book xxix. [SE. p. . loi. 1810. Sweeper. 130-1.] *Holy Thursday Is this a holy thing to see. ' p. . [MS. The Chimney [SE. Sketch (sepia) Prose. my sparrows. [The Everlasting Gospel. p.] : : . Sketch. p. 97. Copenhagen. Sketch. Extract. p. 103. I .] Fayette (Stanzas p. . 100. . Sketch. [Cat. Book xxxv.] : : p. Book xxxvi. p. 38-57.] *The sword sung on the barren heath.] — — — — stature.] of the Grave I've seen.] *The Fairy Come hither. 95.] — For Gates of Paradise— Water.] — For Gates of Paradise— Earth. Book cxxxi. Prose. Sketch. p.] fly.] Note and Qtiotatious from Aphra Behn & Dryden.

] [MS. 3.Rossetti p. Tyger. [MS. Earth rais'd Why [MS. SE. : Book *The sick *Soft Snow Rose I : O : Rose. burning bright (first draft of stanzas i. Book vii. Book [MS. Book *To : xvii.] *To Nobodaddy Why art thou silent & invisible. [MS. SE. — Suggests Urizen. : Abstract.] [MS. p. 4 and 6). [SE. [MS. [The Human : p. [SE. Book xxvi. Book xxxvi. [MS. the Church is *Abstinence sows sand *In a wife would I all over. Book xi.] mother groan'd. Book xxi.] *Love to faults is always blind. [MS.] *The Chimney Sweeper (stanza i). Book xii.] *The wild flower's song As I wander'd the forest (stanza i). [SE. Sketches (pencil). [MS. 113. Book xiii.] *The Kid Thou. 6). my My wind. xix.] should I be bound to thee. that black'ning church. Book ix. Book xxvii.] *Eternity He who bends to himself a joy. Sketch. [MS. Book xiii. [MS. 108.] *Nought loves another as itself [A Little Boy Lost. Book xv. 109. [MS.] my Mirtle To a lovely mirtle bound. Dear Mother.] *The little Vagabond Dear Mother. Book xiv. [MS. Book xviii. III.] The harvest shall flourish in wintry weather.] up her head. 2. Book xxv.] *There souls of men are bought & sold.] *They said this mystery never shall cease.] *London I wander thro' each charter d street.] *The modest rose puts forth a thorn. [MS.] p.] *Are not the joys of morning sweeter. *Silent Silent Night.] [MS. : : : cold. 149 [MS. SE. Book xvii. [SE. SE.] *If you trap the moment before it 's ripe. of seed.] *The wild flower's song continued (stanzas 2. did'st play.] around the heath. [Nurse's : p. little Kid. [MS. 3). — Continuation of above. Book xvi. 3. *Thou hast a lap *Earth's Answer full : *In a mirtle shade : [MS. p. also should I [MS. p. Book xix. 5.] *Love to faults is always blind continued (stanza 2).] : Remove away [MS. *An ancient Proverb Book xxxvi. [SE. *The Tyger Tyger. desire. MS. 107. [The Lilly. 110. i. Sketch.] p.] *When the voices of children are heard on the green.] p.] care for the men of thames. .] walked abroad on a snowy day. [MS. [SE. Book xxviii. 105. thou art sick.] *The Tyger Tyger. 106. my viii. 112. [SE. Tyger. SE. *Merlin's prophecy [MS. : : : Song. Sketch. burning bright (stanzas : i. Book xx.] father wept. [MS. 5.] *The human Image Pity would be no more. *0 lapwing thou fliest *I fear'd the fury of *Infant Book *Why Sorrow: X.

: : Tree. me. [MS. *A SE. I grow to man's If e'er estate. itself to told SE.] *A cradle Song Sleep Sleep beauty bright. Where thou dwellest. Boils. [MS.] went to the garden of love. \^Here follow the contents of the two leaves at the end of the MS. Angel singing. Book v. etc. SE. Prose. Book i. I see.] [MS. Locusts. sleep. give you the end of a golden string. in what grove. saw a chapel all of gold. [End of in [Descriptive Cat. I see.Rossetii 150 me MS. To find the western path. 114. p. p. [MS. *I asked a thief to steal *I heard an a peach. I laid me down upon a bank. 116. 1810.) — (The same. When the voices of children are heard on the green. p. I I The angel who presided o'er my I saw a chapel all of gold. [The Garden of Love. I. beauty bright. p. The look of love alarms. Lice. Why was Cupid a boy. Three virgins at the break of day.) — [Cat. Book ii. [MS. [118]. birth.] bound — (Description of Canterbury Pilgrims.] flower *I told my was offer'd to love I *Love seeketh not Pretty Rose Tree.] the Rossetii MS. List (in pencil). Hail. Book iv. A flower was offer'd to me. Great things are done when men and mountains meet. [120]. Never seek 1 wander'd the forest.] me down upon a bank. [119]. the mother said. p. . Book iii. to tell thy love. — Ofplagues of Egypt.] *I laid *I *I — Of twenty -two subjects for history of England. [The Clod and the Pebble. Prose.] please. Spectre around me night and day. heard an angel singing.] INDEX TO THE ROSSETTI TRANSCRIPT (R^) The My Everlasting Gospel (part). *Christian Forbearance [A Poison p.] I was angry with my friend. Giants ancient inhabitants of England. [117].] e.'] Prose. Sleep. SE. [My my love.] [The Everlasting Gospel.] [MS. 115. Book vi. p. List (in ink).

I rose up at the dawn of day. Rossetti The errors of a wise man make your 1 5 1 rule. and is as near him in other respects as he can manage) wrote to me the other day. Love seeketh not itself to please. He 's a blockhead who wants a proof of what he can't perceive. but its contents ? fancy it might wait long for his efforts. Rossetti appears to have contennplated publication of part of the contents of the MS. without distinguishing between the two separate sources. prints for the first time a number of poems from the Blake autograph in his own possession. [Hiatus offive leaves J\ Five epigrams numbered 20-4. i860. but really think its contents ought to be edited. dear mother. Rousseau. did lend the MS. together with others ' . and on the death of the latter helped to complete his unfinished work by editing the selection from Blake's poetical and prose works given in the second volume of the Life.' Rossetti. I was angry with my friend. especially " '' if a new Life gives a shove to the concern (as Spurgeon expressed himself in thanking a liberal subscriber to his ' : Tabernacle). who November i. though I have told him he can see it here if he will give me a day's notice. In making his transcript. Under the heading Poems hitherto unpublished. and wanted to Was there not some see my manuscript by that genius. Dear mother. man (one Gilchrist. talk of your doing something in the way of publishing I know William thought of doing so. Mock on. and I have no time. Canterbury Pilgrims and Vision of the Last Judgment. The caverns of the grave I've seen. burning bright. I A have not yet engaged myself any way to said Gilchrist on the subject. The countless gold of a merry heart.' Rossetti. the poet. a peach. the church I asked a thief to steal me is cold. Voltaire. rose thou art sick. 1 walk'd abroad on a snowy day. Wilham In a letter to the latter dated AlHngham. to Gilchrist in the following year. mock on. Prose descriptions of Blake's pictures. What do I care for the men of Thames. Book. or by his friend. saying he was writing a life of Blake. To Chloe's heart young Cupid slily stole. as we know. Nought loves another as itself.MS. he writes lives next door to Carlyle. Tyger. Tyger. edited by his brother.

A. 1887. and his Vision of the Last Judgment' (i. My * elsewhere. bears obvious marks of having been made in haste by a copyist unfamiliar with Blake's hand. Rossetti was able to use that part only of the Pickering MS. White. 42-60). chiefly epigrams. Book also he excerpts the prose manifesto which he calls Public Address. 221-4).333-403). was used for their three-volume edition. which had already been printed by his brother. Ellis' transcript. The Rossetti MS. and the prose Advertisement and Additions to Blake's Catalogue (vol. Mr. M. while Shepherd was prohibited from using any part of the larger MS. Mr.' About the same time the Pickering MS. W. ii. and the Aldine edition which appeared in the same year. iSg^. W. 1868. 202-32) Ellis and Yeats include for the first time a few minor poems which had been rejected or ignored by former editors. who soon after lent time to the publisher of Ellis and Yeats' large edition of Blake's Works. published in the same year.e. pp. Book was purchased January 26. who printed the whole of it foi the first time in his editions of 1866. ii. The Ever' To the Deists in lasting Gospel (vol. Shepherd. ' .1 Rossetti 52 MS. and 1874 edited by R. H. Book must be sought (vol. Book in his Critical Essay (1868). ii. became the property of Basil Montague Pickering. gives for the first time some adequate conception of Blake's great and extraordinary poem ' ' ' The Everlasting Gospel. mutually supplement each other. the publisher. from the borrowed Pickering MS. spectre around me night and day (vol.g. Yeats' in his small 'Muses' Library' Blake. M. W. pp. e.. In their description of the MS. 38). though not as stated all. Their versions of some of the longer poems and prose pieces in the MS. pp. 'Fayette' (vol. 24-7). ' ' ' ' ' ' ' PP. He takes considerable liberty with the text and gives to several of the pieces titles of his own. which has since disappeared. by it its for a A made for Mr. ii. Book. and Jerusalem (vol. of The Everlasting Gospel. pp. by his copious extracts and illuminative comment. From the MS. by Mr. ' present owner. prints more. and. copy of the manuscript. 37. Additions to Catalogue 1810).' as well as a few new poems. Rossetti. Book as well as i. Ellis. if one may judge by the text of these editors. ii. Swinburne was the next to make use of the MS. who generally follows his brother's text. pp. Pickering's last edition. He adds to the number of new poems printed.' Blake's Memoranda on his modes of engraving.

version of some of the Songs of Experience may be preferred to the text of the engraved book. These transcripts. The aid of the magnifying glass or of photography has also been resorted to. 1 '> 5 text of the poems has been prepared from the MS. are here uniformly adopted.Rossetti MS. White. White for the of transcripts present edition. it. while it serves every purpose of he matter in a much clearer and more intelligible form. and collated with the chief texts. possess a Blake student thoroughly familiar with his author's handwriting and mode of composition. enabling the reader to follow the same . for the worse or for the better. — — ' ' ' ' ' ' Instances will be noted where. of the care bestowed upon this part of the work may be gathered from the fact that in more than one instance the White original transcription of a single page has cost Mr. presents fore. with all Blake's deletions. together successive numerations of stanzas and lines (without careful observance of which many of the poems would be uninthe advantage of having been made by telligible). xiii. •. Book mirtle bound a To (MS. One may hesitate to change the generally received line Sweet morning leads me on (xliii) to Sweet mercy leads me on. Book cxv). lyric lovely In a Myrtle Shade ') gains by the recovery Rossetti's Blake's final readings. Similar care has been four or five hours' close labour. as in 'Cupid' (MS. but also imparts a deeper meaning D. any differences of reading being again Some idea referred to Mr.'existing • ing The proofs have lastly process by reference to the notes. G. Book made by Mr. White for further examination. and his marks of with transposition corrections. and any obscure passage submitted to minute My own scrutiny. Not the least important result of the plan here pursued besides the light which it throws upon Blake's self-criticism apparent in his successive changes is the new form in which a number of the most familiar poems now appear. given by the editor to unravelling Blake's method of buildup a poem. been read by Mr. which faithfully reproduce the relative positions of poems or stanzas on the and original page. and the text and notes again checked from the original manuscript.' yet the latter is not only as Blake wrote The to the poem. insertions. From these made by the transcripts copies of the poems have been present editor. these changes are the reverse of improvements. whether of Blake's final version. or where the MS. This edition therea facsimile. .

Book version. are part of the Songs of Experience. Book.' afterwards engraved as part of Jerusalem and here printed among poems from the ' Prophetic Books. with the readings of the MS. The poetical pieces forming part of the MS. ' ' . the variant readings of which are Three virgins at the suppUed in the footnotes to that work break of day. and the two — ' quatrains Each man is in his spectre's power and I give you the end of a golden string.' which I print in the poems from the Pickering MS. but not printed in this section of my edition.Rossetti 154 MS.

in the reversed circa 1793 115-98 book .POEMS FROM THE ROSSErri MS. pp. Book Written i-xxxvl. MS.

To the thistles & thorns of the waste And they told me how they were beguil'd. WMR MS. fears. except fears] All edd. 11 me down upon I laid a bank. 8 WBY deny] He took her with a sigh MS. all edd.. 93.411 edd. Not deny. traveller came by. EY however note this.. after fears. Book. Book. reads shall for can. . under the title ' Love's All edd.I ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT my I told told I love.' read seek for pain.. and EY print these two stanzas of 'The Garden of Love. as the first line WBY separately with title * The Thistles and Thorns. cold. . told her all I my my heart i love. & compel'd to be chaste. A 5 — Silently. Book ist rdg. p. Swinb. and all edd.] to tell thy Love that never told can be For the gentle wind does move * love. Then went to the heath I & the wild. del. 0!.' DGR Printed by and later add. . in Never pain [seek del. Weeping. DGR. Silently. Swinb. . iii. 115. print the first stanza deleted by Blake :— p. Secret. . ! Soon as she was gone from me. WBY 2. I heard among the rushes dank Weeping. 115. Where love lay sleeping. 5 Soon as] Soon after all edd.' drawn prints .' ignoring the separation between the two poems. in ghastly Ah she doth depart. p. read doth for does. Trembling. invisibly O! was no MS. 3 heart . invisibly. Driven out. punctuate by comma after heart and period 4 doth] did all edd. .

tore] Till he broke the pearly door MS. I saw a serpent The white rise pillars between 5 of the door. down the golden Vomited WBY. Book. Till He vomited DGR. 2 He] And he MS. = . EY steal] steel 1st rdg.Rossetti MS. And along the pavement sweet.' his poison out On And 9 . . 13 Vomiting] all except who WBY. 8 Till Down . Not in DGR. p. reads. 157 111 saw a chapel all of gold That none did dare to enter I i in. mourning. Weeping. WMR. Book (Index to MS. 114. IV I ask^d a thief to steal turned up his eyes. turn'd all edd. in . ask'd a lithe lady to me a peach: He I Holy & meek. Till upon the altar white Vomiting the bread So I MS. All his shining length he drew. laid me down among the swine.' this I lie her down : cries. The Will and the Way. (p. del. she MS. Set with pearls & rubies bright. 115. DGR and all later editors entitle this 'The Defiled Swinb. Swinb. Book \st rdg. And he forc'd & forc'd & forc'd Down the golden hinges tore. entitle ' asked] asked = ask'd all edd. worshipping. 141) and later edd. del. he the golden hinges tore hinges tore. turn'd into a sty. EY . & 13 on the wine. . And many weeping stood without. 205). Not Sanctuary. Book. turned] turned i. Book. p.

at the dame . p. Peace] Pity and Peace all edd. * 13 If all MS.I s Rossetti 8 As soon as I He wink'd And smil'd And Had And MS. as Blake's line drawn beneath . And pity no more could be. print del. 114. 6 He] all edd. ID And came] . Pity. all edd. I heard an Angel singing When .. 15 At his curse] Thus he sang & ' 16 frown] Here. and i the day was springing: Mercy. 5 4 Is] Are all edd. omit. all edd. Till the And I heard a Devil curse Over the heath & 9 the furze: 'Mercy could be no more If there was nobody poor.' At his curse the sun went down And the heavens gave a frown. 3 Pity. Book ist rdg. happy] All edd. 12 was] were all edd. del. Book .' Swinb. and maid] And 'twixt earnest & joke MS. Book ist rdg. Book 1st rdg. p. 147. still as a 8 maid Enjoy'd the Lady.' ' Thus he sang all day Over the new mown hay. del. ii Enjoy'd] He enjoy'd MS. An earlier version of The human Image (engraved under the title The Human Abstract in the Songs of Experience). . except 14 as correcting later in MS. 13 could] we] ye all except Swinb. xst And he MS. haycocks looked brown. p. Book. went an angel came 5 : at the thief." note iii. Peace Is the world's release. del. isi rdg. ' ' ' ' ' Thus] So all would Swinb. As 5 . as two lines. 8 said] spoke MS. DGR and later edd. 97. 5 sun went down. were as happy as we. as. . EY WBY. del. . without one word said a peach from the tree. name this The Two Songs. Book rdg.

And Mercy. Peace [21] ' . Pity. stanza: (p. Rossetti this stanza shows. Peace descended .' Swinb. ' . Peace. [17]. [18]. Pity. Pity. 16 ' At his curse the sun And WBY ' .' EY follow DGR. as a separate couplet. Peace " concluding. 5 of ' The Human Abstract [21]. and again indicated the completion of the poem by stanza Blake afterwards deleted. however. 1. p. the heavens gave a frown. : — went down. 97. Peace By Misery to increase Mercy. Peace. from mine. the rejected readings.' iii. the stanza : poem — ' Down originally And [at first ended.' Is DGR Misery's increase prints as his third stanza {Songs 0/ Experience) and ' I 11. Book. And Pity no more could be If all were happy as ye : : And mutual fear brings Peace. — 147) re-arranges and prints 11. Songs. their readings of the partially illegible words being rather different WMR. with U. and Poetical Sketches. and [22] as his last 'Down poured the heavy rain Over the new-reaped grain . 9-14. &c. Misery's increase Are Mercy. in their Notes to the EY. II. [22] (slightly altered) : — ' version heard a Devil curse Over the heath and the furze " Mercy could be no more If there were nobody poor.MS. And Mercy Pity harvest was The Farmers were ruined Over the & & & ended'' This a fresh terminal line. which are not very legibly written. the final form of the only completed couplet of which reads 'And Is And new : Miseries' increase Mercy. Pity. print the poem as it is found in the MS.] Peace {? Joy'd) at their increase {? With) Poverty's Increase Are And by distress increase Mercy. Lastly follow several attempts stanza. [21]. being ' at a : — Mercy Pity \_& del. Pity. 15. pourd down'] 159 the Later he added a fifth heavy rain [17] new reap'd grain.

Blake indicating the change by prefixed numerals. the cunning wiles that creep little heart asleep. Book abandoned opening stroke ibid. 13 In thy When Then thy little heart does wake the dreadful lightnings break. MS. 16 lightnings] light shall all edd. weep. del. del. while still later Blake added the final stanza and numbered the whole in their present order. 114. . at first consisted of stanzas i. 3. of this stanza. Little pretty infant wiles. ' p. . This song. o'er] in 4 Little weep] Thou wilt every secret keep MS. ist rdg. 9 As etc. as the line drawn below it shows. 10 steal] broke ibid. . . Book \st rdg. . . night] Thou shalt taste the joys of night MS. Where thy O ! little & o'er 9 thy breast heart does rest. in the . 4. del. feel] touch MS. . del. Book. 2nd rdg. ! Dreaming o'er the joys of night in thy sleep Sleep Sleep ! i . { . . . in most cases with explanatory note. . 15 does] doth all edd. Book 15^ rdg. all edd. . rdg. Book 15/ Canst thou any secret keep ibid. ! & Little sorrows sit Sweet Babe. . As thy softest limbs I feel. del.i6o MS. 8 Little wiles] Such as burning youth beguiles MS. 12. thy face can trace. in Soft desires I Secret joys & 5 secret smiles. del. del. 2nd rdg. but never engraved by Blake. . DGR and all later editors include this poem among the Songs of Experience.'\ Yet a little while the moon Silent MS. . . Smiles as of the morning steal O'er thy cheek. . Stanza 2 was then added and a second boundary line drawn. Obviously written as the contrary of the Cradle Song' Songs of Innocence . Book 2 Dreaming 1st rdg. Rossetti vi A Cradle Song Sleep Sleep ! beauty bright. 1-4 Sleep weep] The two couplets were written in reverse order.

infant] 19 . Swinb. EY omit in their Table of Contents to ' the MS. thou] that M Only printed by EY. who reads Female female MS. Vll Silent. . No title in original. Without I SAMPSON around the heath. Book. Without any corrections. . name Night and Day.MS. Nor with sorrows meet ? But an honest joy Does itself destroy For a harlot coy. 206. O'er the youthful harvests nigh. i. ' . omit this stanza. 113. For possess'd of Day. Book (i. dost thou not fly among the corn fields? cannot spread nets where a harvest yields. beguiles] all edd. lo MS. del. p. Infant wiles & infant smiles Heaven & Earth of peace beguiles. 7 joys] love 205). Infant . WMR. Why 5 should joys be sweet Used with deceit. 17-20 From ' thine eye for thy eye in however. 124. 17. 113. ' ' . Rossetti i6i From thy cheek & from thy 17 eye. by Swinb. spread beneath. i Quench the holy light Of thy torches bright . 1.' Svdnb. EY. p. . is correction. DGR and later edd. Thousand spirits stray That sweet joys betray. . p. and obviously transcribed from an earlier draft. Book. 133.. Vlll O lapwing! Nor thou fliest seest the net that Why They MS. p. . EY. 11 does] doth DGR. Silent Night. Book 15/ rdg. It has been printed. WBY. .

he changed a Priest' (afterwards. ' Cp. as the different were afterwards engraved by Blake ink shows. naked. altered to my father ') to many a Priest. 113. my swaddling bands. piping loud. tho' fair to see. ' ' changes Shade ' in the other stanzas where required. Book \st rdg. p. 205). 5 Striving against & Bound To MS. 113. .1 62 Rossetti MS. 93. p. (MS. Like a fiend hid in a cloud. Printed by Blossom. del. cloud] See note to ' Infant Sorrow ' {Songs of Exp. MS. with roman numerals. 137-139. two my with added p. IX fear'd the fury of I Would And my And my sun For & & true. with the i. sulk upon title later. with this poem ' In a Mirtle xiii). who numbers the stanzas Not in DGR or WMR. WBY (Notes). Book 4 Like . Book. . 240. Book. it But a blossom Was shin'd it wind wind my blossoms all blight & . as one of the The Songs of by Swinb. . shin'd.' making corresponding . Book. &c. EY (Notes to the Poetical First printed Experience. Book fury] roughness DGR ist rdg. verj' inaccurate and later edd. index to the MS. Struggling in my father's hands. Helpless.. del.) iii. my father wept 1 . as in xiii. beginning with 1. title ' Barren wind] word EY (in their 4 And] But MS. false.) 1 .' Not in Swinb. X Infant Sorrow My mother groan'd. 94 To understand Blake's successive changes in the last part of this poem it should be noted that. pp. grew Fruitless. I weary. I MS. Into the dangerous world I leapt. fair or true 5 not found on any tree blossoms grew all i fair never blew. Songs. stanzas first thought best Mother's breast. 21. Sketches. 4.

21. rdg. delight beginning of first an afterthought. ii Turn. beheld . And . blossoms out to me. I rdg. 17 . . These changes are all dependent upon the substitution of ' 21 But a Priest] My father many a Priest for ' a Priest in 1. me saw before shine 17 Clusters of the wand'ring vine And. look] fruits] fruit bright] book EY Swinb. del. del. EY. upon the ground I stray. I And I And I 13 smil'd night after night. I And Till sooth'd day after day. beyond.' give the earlier (and preferable) form of the remaining stanzas . Swinb. were (Notes). a mirtle tree Stretch'd its . I 25 . vine] But upon the earthly ground No MS. .. del. Pronounced curses on his head Who the fruits or blossoms shed. retains this. EY . wile] I wile MS. The two book couplets of this stanza M 2 (? look) WBY 28 vines] vine EY. I ' MS. ist rdg. this point onwards EY put asterisks for 'was to. Seeking only for delight. . is 17. . In his hands a holy book. Book . .] ' then p. Book 15 smil'd] my smile] This stanza began to MS.' this stanza del. and print in a final note the revised form of stanzas 6-9. 29-32 originally written in . grew MS. 21 beheld the Priest by night embrac'd my mirtle bright: beheld the Priest by day. smil'd MS. But a Priest with holy look. Book ist 13 sooth'd] Book 2nd . del.. omit.. Book 2rd 24 240. ' And I From \st rdg.MS.. that rage 9 Turning many a trick & wile began to soothe & smile. . . would nothing gain. Like a serpent in the day Underneath my vines he lay Like a serpent in the night He 9-12 When . Rossetti When I saw And to sulk 163 was vain. znd rdg. Seeking many an artful Twining many a trick and wile Swinb. . grew MS. Book . EY. rdg. 18 WBY. 14 stray] lay Swinb. Swinb. embrac'd ing . Book mirtle bright. He I Where beneath my vines he lay. 29 : was to be found. del.

. i. 4 my] mine all edd. p. *29 : So I smote them. fled. the cheating waves of charter'd streams shrink at the little blasts of fear That the hireling blows into my i .' . Underneath the vines they lay. And grey hairs are on head. & their gore *33 Stain'd the roots my mirtle bore . 205). EY. Pronounc'd curses on my head And bound me in a mirtle shade. In their hands a holy book. the final position of the lines being afterwards indicated in Blake's usual manner by Arabic numerals added in the left-hand margin. They embrac'd I *2i : . ear? MS. waves] waters DGR. WBY. deletions and additions. 17-36 And I saw . 113. xi Why Or Or should I care for the men of thames. Printed by DGR and later edd. my *2i look] book *28 vines] vine EY. Stain'd the roots But the time of youth grey hairs are on is And 33 . But many a Priest with holy look. the reverse order. . head] stanzas (see note to 1. I MS. all edd. 17). 2 Or] And r thames] the Thames EY (Index to MS. ' Ohio.Rossetti 164 So & his gore my mirtle bore smote him. with title Thames and Not in Swinb. EY. But the time of youth is fled. Like to holy men by day Underneath the vines they lay Like to serpents in the night They embrac'd my mirtle bright. Book. . Book. bright] WBY (Notes) omits. my head. WMR. the changes being And I saw before me shine Clusters of the wand'ring vine And many a lovely flower & tree Stretch'd their blossoms out to me. . I append here the The verses were version of the last five final not recopied. I beheld the Priests by night the blossoms bright beheld the Priests by day *25 . *i7 . *25-*32 I beheld .

. Book EY print these intention. as arranged the lines as first DGR. . 7 For] 1st rdg. chap. WMR and turn'd 2 fine] fair MS. . v. is a fine country. Xll Thou And hast a lap full of seed. Ill. Rossetti 165 Tho' born on the cheating banks of Thames. or Printed by WBY.MS. . 7-10 This end of I. But MS. Cp. EY. With thy hand "Walked forth from the clouds of morning. . Book 1st rdg. For .). and later edd. 1st rdg. 7. . four lines as two. p. stanza 12 : DGR ' — 'Then thou. may have been Blake's but he erased and Book 1st rdg. weed] DGR. Book ist rdg. . 1 this Why dost thou not cast thy seed. he wrote can here printed. . from me MS. with thy lap full of seed. full of generous fire. Book ' at the EY. with title Seed Sowing. : fc>* 6 bathed] bathed all edd. The me] I spurn'd his waters away 8 go] long MS. WMR. human soul to cast the The seed of eternal science. lap full] lapful DGR. del. On On the virgins of springing joy. Without tearing up Some stinking weed. 5. del. del. 6 Shall I turn] Oft I've I . . The Ohio shall wash his stains from me I was born a slave. but I go to be free. Book. 7 del. Tho' his waters bathed my infant limbs. ' 9 tearing] pulling MS. it del. lo MS.' Not in Swinb. where it precedes 'Earth's Answer' {^Songs oj Exp. . And live in it Shall I And cast turn merrily? on the sand it 5 into fruitful land? it For on no other ground Can sow I my seed. Ahania.' WMR. .

Underneath my mirtle bound. . Oft my To behold mirtle sigh'd in vain my heavy chain And saw us sigh. Songs. WBY italics. . p. Sorrow 5-8 DGR p. at our simplicity. Book.' Blossoms show'ring Both EY and priest beheld ' head] cp. Blake began printing the stanzas as written. Book x.. 138. 1st trig. marking the deletion. But the time of youth And grey hairs are on MS. 94 and i WBY (Notes% . III. iii. Rossetti • • • Xlll \First Version] In a Mirtle Shade Why should I be bound to O my lovely mirtle tree? free love. by omitting these and after the rest 11. stanza 2 with the couplet. all around. x). 13-16 So. . where.' 11 : cp. 137. 9 : . with this poem the fuller form of Infant . ' 245. the left-hand column. &c. del. as else11 Oft saw] Oft the MS. Book x\ bound] This stanza was added . Book weak EY. . Poetical Sketches. WBY. prefixed numerals to position of the second and third stanzas. To any O thee. this version Swinb.) Cp. afterwards deleted : ' To a lovely mirtle bound. misrepresents the true order. quotes stanzas ' O and is . pp. ! 5 . i cannot be bound tree that grows on ground. Love. by print this couplet without 5 sick] MS. EY (Notes to the 3. my WMR omit head. laugh'd So smote him. my Oft I father Stain'd the roots & his gore my mirtle bore. 13 fled. . (MS. how sick and weary I Underneath my mirtle lie Like to dung upon the ground. were written. Book . 33-6 (MS.1 66 MS. Infant Sorrow. in 5 and 9 indicating the relative WBY.

Book. *4. 5 Why 6 O my should I be bound to thee *i lovely mirtle tree Love free love cannot be bound To any tree that grows on ground. The original arrangement of the verses must have misled Mr. \6j \Final Versto?i] To My Mirtle To i a lovely mirtle bound. All edd. *4- In a Myrtle Shade.) iii. but leave them meaningless by the omission DGR and all edd. beginning his second stanza with the couplet which he had rejected in the previous draft and adding but in transposed — order — two accepted couplets of the same stanza. ' Blake here compresses the sixteen lines of the preceding version has been As this poem has never been correctly obscured by editorial changes. Book. the first stanza of the earlier version. cannot be bound To any tree that grows on ground DGR's ! EY (Notes to the Poetical Sketches. it may be well to reproduce it in the exact form in the MS. as it stood.' 6 tree] All edd. Rossetti into supposing that two more lines were required. follow text. in which it is found printed. free love. *4 and *7. and by ignoring deletions. the earlier version. end first stanza here. Blossoms show'ring all around. where it immediately precedes Nought loves another The simple and faultless form into which as itself ('A Little Boy Lost'). *3. DGR and printing the poem as two four-line stanzas. p. 95. *8. find all Blake's editors following . io6. lie] ' . give this Alledd. print the lines in the order in which they &c. ! 5 O my lovely mirtle tree? MS. To a lovely mirtle bound Blossoms showring all around 1 2 Like to dung upon Underneath 3 O how 4 Underneath sick the my mirtle & weary my mirtle *S ground bound I *9 lie. WBY poem the title used in 4 3 sick] weak all edd. and were written in the MS.add\\. in restoring the deleted lines *3. He then struck out 11. prefixing marginal numbers in his usual manner to indicate the Blake's intention is perfectly plain yet we position of the lines retained.*z. O how sick & weary I Underneath my mirtle lie Why should I be bound to thee. otherwise he would have been the first to perceive how omission of the greatly the poem gains in freshness and sweetness by the rhetorical tag : — Love. Book. It will thus be seen that Blake began by transcribing.Rossetti MS. of Blake's marginal numbers. (Notes). Songs. indicating deleted Hnes by italics : — TO MY MIRTLE.

Book xxxvi.. lines only). Book isi rdg. females' loud] feminine MS. (first Printed by two DGR and later edd. . print as two lines. WBY title added females' loud applause Not later in different ink.WBY. Book. 4 searching] passing EY. xxxix\ 2 Father] Man MS. {sic). Swinb. 264 EY. EY. subtil modesty. child of night . 109. gives Swinb. Father of Jealousy? Why dost thou hide thyself in clouds From every searching Eye ? Why Why & darkness i 5 obscurity thy words & laws. of Jealousy. Rossetti XIV To Nobodaddy art thou silent & invisible. with title 'Young — Cp. seeking : ' ! The vigorous Who open to virgin bliss. 4 Ashamed] Ashamed DGR.' and by . 9 Or 5 EY and WBY print both stanzas as one. .del. ' * ' 'Nobodaddy' (obviously 'Nobody's Daddy. p. in text as To Old Nobodaddy. The same name occurs also in Fayette and in the lines on Klopstock (MS. DGR.' antithetical to 'Father of AH') was Blake's jocular nickname for Urizen. the Father of Jealousy. 140. Book. The p. 7 dare] can EY. 'To Nobodady iii.1 68 MS. open. All edd.' p. Secresy] applause] a later addition in pencil. p. Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793) Innocence honest. in WMR ? under the title Father Printed by 209.. ^o<^\strdg. 109.' and in notes as i. & sleep ? ' . Swinb. Swinb. Love. gains] Jealousy iwith note querying secrecy' as the true reading) Swinb. That none dare eat the fruit but from In all The wily serpent's jaws? Or is it because Secresy gains MS. ' ' .. ' : : XV Are not the joys of morning sweeter Than the joys of night? And i are the vig'rous joys of youth of the light? Ashamed MS. del. joys of morning light taught thee modesty. 91.

Modest. chains in fetters every mind. & Lawful. . unconfined EY. unconfin'd] Always .Rossetti Let age & MS. del. unconfin'd MS. 107. Book 1st rdg. 107. cautious To anything And refin'd 5 . 6 vineyards] vineyard all edd. WBY Freedom and Captivity ') print the first (the latter with the title stanza and an altered version of the fragment by which it is immediately ' followed in the MS. and not indicated by Blake himself. . forges fetters for the MS. XVll Love to faults is Always is always blind i . poem. . See also 3 Lawless (' WBY There souls of men are bought & sold ') as a single (Notes). — ' Deceit to secresy inclin'd. And breaks all chains from every mind. note to The Lilly {Songs of Experience^.' . : . & the soldier peace. . underlined. WBY. . Pluck fruits before the light. their connexion being obvious. ' p. Not in DGR. is 15/ rdg. ' Cp. Book. ' Always Book ' . prudish Never And is & confin'd. Book. print the two stanzas as one poem. MS. though or Swinb. written in pencil at top right-hand corners of pp. mind] MS. mind. wing'd & unconfin'd. 106. winged. Lawless. 5-8 Deceit . 2 promotes] loves MS. which was probably a hasty attempt at erasure Lawless. 246. Book \st rdg. to joy inclin'd. I EY WMR. Deceit to secresy confin'd. p. XVI They said this mystery never shall cease: The priest promotes war. . to interest blind. but interest blind. 169 sickness silent rob 5 The vineyards in the night But those who burn with vig'rous youth .

new Joy met with scorn. 107. . DGR in EY. is led. del. 7 5 I Earth] I was found in the dark ibid. milk fed infancy for gold youth to slaughter houses I Not p. 107 the introductory stanza and catchwords (' I slept in the dark.del. maidens MS.. and Swinb. I went. 9 rosy as morn. cradled infancy i sold. I wander'd 3 flower] thistle MS. &c. for a bit of bread. 109. Book the] wandered in the all edd. The second and third stanzas on p. Book And] In EY. del. I murmur'd And ' I felt my In the morning As To fears delight.^v4\v^. EY p. Rossetti 70 XVlll & There souls of men are bought And And And MS. ' I slept in the Earth 5 In the silent night.' seek for But I . sold 2 MS. WBY: \st rdg. Book. i among. 109 at first formed the entire poem later Blake added on p. WBY.. There] The EY. 127. MS. XIX The Wild Flower's Song As wander'd the I The green I leaves forest. WMR. WBY. WBY print as second stanza to preceding poem.').1 MS. EY. and finally the title.. WBY. . WMR. 107. . 1st rdg. pp. Book. . . beauty. heard a wild flower Singing a song. milk fed . : . fears] thoughts R^ (though correctly in DGR). and to xvii. . gold] 3 youth] youths Swinb. Book 4 beauty] See note \st rdg.

Book.. should be thought a crime Swinb. XXI Merlin's Prophecy The harvest shall flourish in wintry weather When two meet together The King & the Priest must be tied Before two virgins can meet together. R'. {riote). pp. Croun'd with warlike fires & raging desires. last line is in pencil. The king and priest EY. ! &c. i. 106. Book). Cloth'd in robes of blood & gold Swords & spears & r . (note). WMR. a dreadful crime. Swinb. and & snow with me The it : in all her prime. Book 1st rdg. i. del. 135. 205. index to the MS. sun] day MS. all edd. Book. that. Book. p. i. MS.. Book. wintry] windy the Priest] virginities EY a tether in 207. 171 XX Snow Soft I walked abroad on a snowy day I ask'd the soft She play'd And MS. I i : p. Only printed by EY. (Index to MS. WBY ('Couplets 1 : to play added later. Book 15/ rdg. I walked] walked MS. 205. EY {Index). that sweet love . MS. MS. wrath increast All around his bosom roll'd. . WBY. 15/ rdg. EY she melted the winter call'd p. 3 The King & XXU Day The sun arises in the East. ! 4 : And MS. Book and ask'd] wooed Swinb.' i ). line in their I Printed here for first time. 107. Book . 136 Title and Fragments. del. Ah . crime] Oil. 105. 2 snowy] sunny Swinb. del. EY quote 4 title 5 and first bosom] ancles .Rossetti MS. DGR.

Book. . 99. reproduced in Gilchr.' So a fairy sung.. Rossetti 172 xxiii The Fairy Come ' My my hither. From the leaves I sprung He leap'd from the spray To flee But He in away my . iii. ss . arrows. : . . 13 the] his Swinb. If an amorous delay Clouds a sunshiny day. — 9 fairy a king.. a sketch in the MS. 10. 11 sung] sang Swinb. del. Let him laugh. 143. 7.MS. 11 Swinb. i. poem originally ending with ' 20 Of] And MS. the 7 step] tread stanzasasone. I've pulled out the sting the marriage ring. Book 1. no. 15 hat caught] Cp. 96. 20 For . He 's my him let butterfly 17 cry.. 105. ring] 1. For Of MS. 142. Title in pencil.' EY print both titles. Only in Swinb. And 20 and a line now thoroughly erased the marriage ring ist rdg. (afterwards erased) was 'The Marriage Ring. prints both 12 sprung] sprang Swinb. hat caught. If a tear or a smile Will a man beguile. del. p. without Swinb. EY. afterwards engraved by Blake for The Gates of Paradise. If 5 the step of a foot Smites the heart to its *Tis the marriage ring Makes each root. Book. pp.. little i sparrows. and EY. Book isi rdg. . gives this instead of the later title indicating the author's deletion of the first. 19 is an addition. ' See preceding note. soon shall be taught. Blake's first title : MS. EY. 19.

as the second stanza of the poem immediately following in the MS. Book \st . 137. p. XXV Abstinence sows sand all over The ruddy limbs & flaming hair. XXVll If you trap the moment before it's ripe. a flaming] ? flowering ? beauty there. p. always found Gratified desire. MS. WMR.' vii). WBY or Swinb. 105. del. EY Fragments. Book. Book. Cp. del. Book.' Swinb.. p. p. Eternity ') under the title Opportunity. (' Couplets all edd. But could not make the sickle yield. Book. But Desire Gratified Plants fruits of MS. Book 15^ rdg. (ii) and WBY ' (3) Couplets and flowery Swinb. XXVI In a wife I would desire What in whores is The lineaments of MS. 105. In pencil. The sickle in the fruitful field The sword he sung a song of death. Rossetti 173 XXIV The sword sung on the barren heath.MS.' ' ' I trap] catch rdg. 105. 105. 4 You can] You'll MS. Printed by DGR and all later edd. & life DGR. once you let the ripe moment go can never wipe off the tears of woe. MS. Several Questions Answered ' — ' (xxxv). Not and Fragments. Book (xxxv. : MS. 3 sung] sang WMR. EY. p. The tears of repentance you'll certainly wipe But if You . in DGR I.

. p. Book. and all edd. according to his usual practice. boy.1 MS. XXX Riches The The The Nor countless gold of a merry heart. 105. transcribed it into the MS. little Kid. MS. all edd. there] Title added later. fool tangled in a religious snare.' second stanza of cxxv. del. p. Come A my MS. EY. All edd. Book. follow DGR in printing this as with title The Two Kinds of Riches. I tell .. uses He never &c. . Blake here. . and 1st rdg.' to signify that the poem had already been noted elsewhere. 2 of a loving eye] In the MS. what see you there ? Only in EY. p. of a loving of a loving eye. did'st play &c. 103 (reversed). ivritten in error. Rossetti 74 xxviii The Kid Thou. Book 15/ rdg. del. Book.. the secret hoard up in his treasury. 2 tangled] caught EY. So in MS. and the remainder of this piece is therefore ' lost to us. XXIX Lacedemonian Instruction hither. rubies & pearls of a loving eye. Book man MS. Book. 103. tell me what thou seest there. indolent never can bring to the mart. 4 secret] cunning . WBY ' ' 3 indolent] idle MS.

Because in MS. 7 ends] end WBY. Platted quite neat to catch applause. with a hang-noose at the end. to 5 .' Not xiii). WMR. Book. xxxiii Her Whole Life is an Epigram smart. EY p. WMR Not in DGR or EY. or WBY. WBY ' (Notes) p. Till Experience teaches them to catch And to cage the Fairies And And And And then the & Elves. (xii). p. . MS. in ' ' : smart] smack all edd. Book. DGR (x). His possibly I Her] Not plainly written . EY. DGR and Swinb. Rossetti 175 XXXI An Answer the Parson to of the sheep do I don't want Why you not learn peace? you to shear my fleece. a hang-noose] strong noose all edd. prefixes p.MS. 124. the Hypocrite to howl all his good Friends shew their private ends. And think not for themselves.. 238. Swinb.' MS. loi. Songs of Innocence and of Experience with the title A Motto. 3 to catch] how to catch Swinb. 100. smooth & neatly pen'd. ' Not Swinb. xxxii Motto Songs of Innocence and the to of Experience The Good are attracted by Men's r perceptions.. p. and Placed WBY among Couplets and Fragments' by (14). 103. the Eagle is known from the Owl. WMR (' Couplets and Fragments. Book. Knave begins to snarl.

MS. all edd. : p. Book. a Doth] Does Book. 105 and 3 kisses] just kisses Eternity's] an eternal MS. But he who kisses the joy as Lives in Eternity's sunrise. [Eternity] He who bends to himself a joy Doth the winged life destroy . The original order of pieces was indicated by Blake's usual marginal 4. DGR ' xxvii. in EY's Index ' (i. 100. p. del. 99.' Blake here transcribes hastily in pencil. p. Book. p. XXXV Questions Answered Several i. Book. Book. MS. I The undaunted courage Before & I'm cover'd o'er i my I was in love 5 Mind of a Virgin . The second 206. o'er. Book. Title 206) as Questions answered (again). Book. . . ' . 105 of the MS. p. it flies * MS. 2) 3) I) 5» the revised sequence being None figures. 105 with 1-4 He and later edd. 105 15/ rdg. . the first drafts of which are written elsewhere in the MS. Printed only by EY. . Under the general title Several Questions Answered. of Blake's editors print these fragments together. crost. had been a Whore. with the title Opportunity.' as the first stanza of by the first draft of which immediately precedes it. winged] winged 105 ist rdg. i. EY. flower of love was lost. WMR. short pieces. del.MS. stanza was Blake afterwards renumbering them in their present order. e'er] Read ere.' sunrise] First written on p. originally the I first. Rossetti 176 xxxiv Old maid early e'er I knew Ought but the love that on me grew An And now And wish O I ! that cannot cannot find For Early MS.' incorrectly given Printed title Eternity. on p. 3 I'm cover'd] I am covered EY. WBY.

' Blake at ' Which are beauties sweetest first began this couplet with the deleted line What title ' 10 Beauty's] beauties MS. Book WBY. p. where it Among 6 it 's] 9. del. the] . Book ist version. note to WBY. Book Soft . Book 1st ver17 man] dash in MS. (4). Book 1st version. . soft deceit Shall win the lover's hire. 11 5- An ancient Proverb Remove away Remove away Remove away that black 'ning church. del. dress] MS. p. 107. WBY. filled all edd.). 11-14 Desire] Transcribed from MS. 10 follows the pre- DGR and later ceding quatrain but with Blake's usual line of separation. 9 These are Beauty's sweetest dress. 3- Soft deceit & Idleness. place MS. i. 182. it 's fill'd with fire Because But the look of 5 . 15 — that [man] of blood You'll quite remove the ancient curse. ' (title omitted) WBY p. . 103. . Book. Cp.13 15-18 Transcribed from MS. dress ? . WMR. [The Question Answer'd] What is it men in women do require ? The lineaments of Gratified Desire. 4. SAMPSON N 1st version. EY p. 11. . ' MS. 103. . p. 1st rdg. 5-8 The hire] Transcribed from Couplets and Fragments (iii). DGR. I 18 You'll] 'Twill ' ' MS. where it bears the or 'The Question Answer'd. p.MS. ' 'tis . 103. print as the two last Unes of 'The look of love alarms. Transcribed from MS. blackening sion.' Not in Swinb. 206. that marriage hearse. that ' del. Book. Only in (Notes). 1st rdg.. EY. and all edd. . in] of MS. p. Rossetti 177 2. ' Couplets and Fragments (2). The look of love alarms. of the earlier supply . What is it women do in men require? The lineaments of Gratified Desire. version. edd. 240. 103. DGR WBY WMR. man from the last rdg. where the title is an addition. Book. Book. 103 of the p. ist rdg. HW d'\ I5^z^<?rs2b«. London ' 15 black'ning] {Songs of Exp.

Blake has left no fair copy of this piece. This last he erased. leaving aloft to only the They first France just touched this Globe ').' : ' And ' said Every I bit as love hanging well as war & & — drawing & quartering slaughtering.' new born babe. Without title. A iv. Rossetti 178 XXXVl Note Prefatory MS. and finished his work on p. and by lower-case roman numerals. and stanzas into different orders.' This version (A) he next altered by erasing 11. To the latter of these (' The King awoke on his couch of gold') he now added. Some of the stanzas are erased. this rough draft would prove I have therefore endeavoured to represent the various stages in the development of the poem by printing it separately in its I call these three versions initial. and stands in the MS. some separated from the rest by boundary lines. Book. thou'rt bought & sold ') in the second column underneath B iii. Blake began his first attempt at the head of the second column of p. Fayette. 2. mediate. and C. Probably written about 1793..' and 'Fayette. 15 prefixing the marginal refer to the stanzas in each ' . These three . Reproduced as it a chaos to the reader. ' ' adding the three verses 'Will the mother exchange her pletion. A. however unless with we transpose the relative leaves the pronoun he without positions of the second and third stanzas antecedent. to denote that the original second stanza was to be placed last. Turning to the vacant space in the first column below Several Questions Answer'd Blake added three Fayette stanzas (B iv-vi) followed by a fourth (' Fayette. A iii. 9two stanzas of A as originally written. His next change consisted in placing smaller figures 1-12 before the lines which he meant to retain in the order specified. thou'rt bought & sold ' —the last 'Who will exchange his own fireside.' WMR This re-arrangement. 99 by drawing a line of separation between the Fayette stanzas in both columns and the matter immediately above. B. pp. below the deleted passage. Fayette. being an amended version of the deleted stanza at the foot of the second column of the preceding page. numerals 4. 99. 99 to the right of the space filled by Several Questions Answer'd. and some numbered with a bewildering series of marginal figures marking successive attempts at the arrangement of lines into stanzas. erasing and re-writing three lines in the These three stanzas form the beginning of B. The effect of this is to interpolate uniting the between first A A and i couplet of A iv ii a new second stanza [A *3]. 13. formed by and the second couplet of A iii: — Then he swore a great & solemn oath To kill the people I am loth. 98 he began a new stanza ('Fayette beside his banner stood') which he cancelled before com- process. Resuming in the first column of p. 3 to A ii. some re-written. and final forms. 98. 14. a companion stanza in the same metre ('The Queen of Nobodaddy 19). and Blake accordingly erased the whole passage from Then old — ' ' ' ' ' ' shall have a Priest and a passing bell (A 11.MS.

B vii.' and. Passages of The Everlasting Gospel and one epigram are found upside down upon the same page. Rossetti 179 were then numbered 3. Blake seems to have lost his grip of the poem. . & crumb. del. Under the B title ' Lafayette. added later. was to erase the two Fayette stanzas on p. the [Famine] shall eat both crust 3 Physicians] Pestilence MS.' the prefixed numbers 2. N 2 5 : EY. i to show that their position was to be inverted. ["] The King awoke on his couch of gold. On p.' a boundary line being drawn around the two retained stanzas. v). both & drum. 3. 99 (B ' leaving only that beginning Fayette beheld the King & Queen. B Blake then added a slightly amended form of the lines beginning exchange his own fireside. I. 2427 give a not very accurate account of the evolution of the poem.' WMR A *iii B iv B v B prints the stanzas in the following EY (ii.MS. 2. indicating a new but not very happy revision of the ' viii) Who will ' arrangement of the three last stanzas.' which he re-transcribed below. "i re-arrangements of lines and stanzas indicated by Blake's marginal numbers. This gives us the poem in its fullest and best stanzas ' . ' ' [i] 'Let the Brothels of Paris be opened With many an alluring dance.' 8 Famine] MS. at the head of the second column. i To awake the Physicians thro' the city. and later the figure 3 was struck out to mark the cancellation of Who will exchange dungeon floor. Book and began writing from the other end. Book fife is/ rdg.) C v B vii B viii. These changes are manifestly for the worse. . In version C I print the poem as he left it. form B.' Said the beautiful Queen of France. Cancelling the two stanzas above (B vii and Blake's next alteration iv. Book is/ rdg. no word substituted. 98 we reach the point at which Blake reversed the MS. and to have abandoned any further attempt at completion. . As soon as he heard these tidings told 'Arise And & come. omitting one stanza (A iv) altogether and ignoring or misinterpreting the successive order : B i ii iii (is/ rdg. the stanza O who would smile on the wintry seas. del. .

And II. bell] EY omit. they rebel. Book snd rdg. WMR. both fife & 5 : drum. 13 praying & singing. around] There is just such . . halter. . And del. Book all 9 1st rdg. Rossetti [Hi] Then old ****** & And Nobodaddy belched ' said. many suckers grow around. .' if shall They 15 swinging] surgery 16-19 Then EY. del. & war bit as well as Every aloft & drawing quartering slaughtering. But our good Queen quite grows to the ground. & & love hanging I 9 . as he heard these tidings told As soon 'Arise And & his come. To awake the Physicians thro' the city Said the beautiful Queen of France. B [i] ' Let the Brothels of Paris be opened With many an alluring dance. ' . And the Pestilence darted from her robe. & .' Damn [iv] Then he swore a ' To But great the people kill I & am solemn oath loth 16 : .' [iii] The Queen of France just touch'd this Globe. cough'd. i ' [»] The King awoke on couch of gold. ..' . 12 a tree at Java found MS. around] But the bloodthirsty people across the water Will not submit to the gibbet MS.i8o MS. they must go to hell: have a Priest & a passing bell. . Unless they will bring in The blood of ten thousand by fighting or swinging. the Famine shall eat both crust and crumb. 12 But a great .

for tear. thou'rt bought For well I see thy tears Of Of & : — . Fayette. . of iron EY. Rosseiti i8i [iv] Fayette beside King Lewis stood He saw him sign And soon he saw About hand his 13 . But mute Fayette wept tear And fa' guarded them around.' Who will exchange his own fireside For the steps of another's door? "Who will exchange his wheaten loaf For the links of a dungeon floor ? ' and the two deleted lines Who : — exchange his own heart's blood For the drops of a Harlot's eye 1 25-32 Fayette . the famine ragfe the fruitful land. thou'rt bought And sold is thy happy morrow & sold 25 . . . floor] These stanzas were at first written in reversed order. ' will ' . Thou gavest the tears of Pity away In exchange for the tears of sorrow. [v] Fayette beheld the Queen to smile And wink her lovely eye And soon he saw the pestilence 17 . [vii] Fayette. 24 Here follow in the MS.MS. Fayette. From street to street to fly.' and King Lewis This again is followed by the stanza marked for erasure : ' ' ' ' ' ' : ' — ' for 'his banner. WMR 22 tears & iron] curses and iron 17 beheld] liked EY. His captains false around.' — and the deleted beginning of a stanza Fayette beside his banner stood. tears sold Pity are exchanged for those selfish slavish fears. Thou'rt bought & sold EY reading I will see for well I see. [vi] Fayette beheld the King In tears & iron bound & Queen 31 . the deleted stanza ' Fayette.

for tear. tears . MS. [viii] Will the mother exchange her new born babe For the dog at the wintry door? Yet thou dost exchange thy pitying tears For the links of a dungeon floor 29 ! [First three stanzas as B. Book . del.1 82 Rossetti MS. concluding as below. 21 around] These two stanzas were originally written in 14 stone] steps ist rdg. But mute Fayette wept tear And guarded them around. [vi] O who would smile on the wintry seas & Pity the stormy roar? Or who will exchange his new born child For the dog at the wintry door? 13-20 Who reversed order. rf^/. 18 curses] .] [iv] Who will exchange his own fireside 13 For the stone of another's door? Who will exchange his wheaten loaf For the links of a dungeon floor? M Fayette beheld the King & In curses iron bound & Queen 17 . . MS. Book i-s^ ro'^g'.

POEMS FROM THE ROSSETTI MS. Book. xxxvii-cxxxi { pp. II MS. Written circa 1800-1810 . 2-98.

Book. at the head of page 2. The next piece of any importance is the for poetry. 6. in the MS. 278. 3 and 2. Eternity. Blake's use of the terms spectre ' ' and ' emanation. in pencil. stanzas 2 and 7. numbered another and ') pitiable O'er my sins thou sit and moan. Swinburne {Essay. numbered i and written The all stanzas. In either column. consecutive to 'Let us agree to give up love'). marked for insertion between 6 and 8. in 1797. stanzas II and 12 (all four written and numbered in ink) followed by stanza 13 Intermediately between (written in pencil and centred at foot of page). pp. To the right. In the first column of the former page are stanza two deleted stanzas beginning Her weeping she shall ne'er give o'er. these and the two top stanzas. with one or more arable numbers at the head of each. however. 1800. Book— the first piece written from of this and Blake may have intended a final draft. in either column. 279) describes 'My Spectre' as 'perfect Jemsakm both for style and matter. I commit').II ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT xxxvii Prefatory Note MS. are to the left a stanza numbered 2 Daphne. of further three on. pale. which is almost illegible. ' to come in ' ' love did between stanzas 3 and insertion 5.' the former to signify . the ' I. a stanza without number (' Poor. In the second column of the same page are the cancelled first version of stanza 2. 1800 book as a notebook : November. The whole of these are written in ink. 8.' Throughout Poor pale pitiable form are not cancelled. the same argument and symbolism of which are practically the as those of Milton and Jerusalem. written to that work.' and numbered 1. to The position poem the original beginning of the volume after it had been half filled by earlier soon poems written from the reversed end proves that it was composed when he resumed his use of the old sketchafter Blake removed to — Felpham. their natural place would seem to be after stanza 3. showing clearly Blake's successive arrangements. pp.' and Thou hast parted from my side. and written later in pencil around a sketch of in the centre of the page. rather an offshoot of The Four Zoas. is the stanza beginning the final stanza 14 (i. 5. the latter are stanzas 9 and 10.' with stanzas 3. which contains internal evidence pages poem (xli). 2.' and 'meant for insertion in some ' fresh instalment of prophetic rhapsody by way of complement or sequel It is. ' cancelled stanza marked ' When my and stanza 4 (marked for first begin afterwards cancelled and then again Last follow in the position originally indicated). and near the foot of the page. Butts in Blake's having been written about the same time as the lines to xxxvii may therefore be dated October or letter of October 2.e. and his final order of the eight retained stanzas. and the unnumbered stanza ('What transgressions form ' ' ' ' arrange them as part of the poem in If so.

6. pp.' the unplaced stanza *2. instead of in its revised form. the above is the true text of this poem with the numberings of the The same .' The latter of these two contradictory statements. and his Regeneration by resurrection from the dead. Messrs.' They conclude with the note: 'The text of the poem here is reprinted from the Aldine edition.' Of this poem. and has been accepted without question by the majority of editors who follow the text of the Aldine edition. who prints the fourteen approved and numbered stanzas in the text. Not is altered from the original. W. 278. 8. D. Mr. rently rejected ') in the notes (p. ' verses as finally arranged after three re-considerations by Blake. through selfannihilation achieved by the infinite tolerance and forgiveness of sin. Iron tears and groans of lead Thou bind'st around my aching head.e. the present editors not having seen the MS. not of Memory.' which must mystify readers who find. Yeats. Swinburne (pp. W. and the three unplaced stanzas (' appa' accuracy. and the latter his imagination and emotion. ' His His fall fall into the generation of decay and death. Rossetti.' 4. the rejected stanza 'Thy weeping thou shall ne'er give o'er. 279) prints with commentary the two rejected stanzas 'Thou hast parted from my side. The poem as printed in the Aldine a word is erroneously arranged. and stanzas 5. Mr.' and stanzas 8-14. 14. From sin I never shall be free thou forgive and come to me.' In vol. then stanza version is adopted by Mr.' the poem is rather more correctly given by Mr. M.' descriptive of the meaning which he reads into it. though the editors have rendered their third stanza meaningless by printing the second in its earlier and cancelled. and their text contains one or two of their customary deviations from verbal Under the title Spectre and Emanation. partly from numberings of verses put experimentally and then erased by Blake. a fourth and fifth stanza. i. and their reunion in a state of regained humanity and moral liberty. 37-41. the author's invocation to the Muses — in Blake's mythology the Daughters.Rossetti MS. Cp. 249). with the title 'Broken Love. The theme is identical with that of the later Prophetic Books. . a.' and 'When my love did first begin. which he thinks Blake must have so numbered 'by some evident slip of mind or pen. 3. is the nearer to the Edition and elsewhere truth . transposing the position of 11 and 12. the unplaced stanza *i. Rossetti gives a very corrupt text. deep winter dark and cold Till ' A Within my heart thou dost unfold . sing into Division and his resurrection into Unity. three pages before. Ellis and Yeats print fourteen stanzas with S3'mbolic 'interpretation. formed by amalgamating couplets taken from the unplaced or rejected stanzas :— ' Poor pale pitiable form That I follow in a storm. it may be explained. ii. G. supplies the clue to the meaning of this beautiful but obscure poem. 1 8s the reasoning power in man. the separation two contrary and conflicting selves. B. 7. printing stanzas i. but of Imagination in the opening lines of The Four Zoas of reason and emotion into — : — Daughters of Beulah.

Within my heart thou didst unfold A Fathomless There we & boundless deep wander. There we wander. 11. f. Milton. & when separated From Imagination. The Emanation represents imthe Spectre.' Here followed ' And Till two cancelled stanzas : — [ist rdg. f. : shall ne'er give o'er. .' and comes to come in 1. 7 36. self-righteousness. It thence frames Laws & Moralities To destroy Imagination. overlooked by Blake. behind] EY adopt the first rejected form of this stanza : ' ' ' ' ' ' . . the Divine Body. self-hood. there we . in contradistinction to the Spectre. Emanation My Weeps far within my incessantly for Sin. . she forgives 'Thou hast parted from my side Once thou wast a virgin bride Never shalt thou a true love [lover'] : : My find : Spectre follows thee Behind. 10-13: 11. 1. Spectre follows thee behind. EY. . 11. WBY. logy the Emanation in 1.1 86 MS. and passim. — ' A deep winter. 50 Power 11. . Milton. f. 1. and closing itself as in steel in a Ratio Of the Things of Memory. 16 f. 13. forgives to thou forgive. 42. i. making the necessary changes. is 15. 'she 5-8 A . f. Jerusalem. . Her'] sin I the weeping thou \_she'] against thee \_her'\ more & more Thy . 54. f. who is male. of 'shall' to 'shalt' in 1. 14. 74. 2 A Fathomless & boundless deep. pride and agination and self-annihilation ' 14. 3 Emanation] In Blake's mythoalways personified as a female (cp. the Reasoning is also Jerusalem. f. Rossetti Spectre around me night & day Like a Wild beast guards my way My i . 8. 28-31 : — 'What do I here before the Judgement without my Emanation? With the daughters of memory. there we weep On the hungry craving wind My 5 . by Martyrdoms and Wars. 34. weep. . f. & not with the daughters of inspiration I am that Evil One I in my Selfhood am that Satan : He 4 my is Spectre.' WMR DGR and print the former as their eighth stanza. never will from sin be free & comes to me. f. 4. reason. — Man. cp. 1.' . 12. 10. dark & cold. 18 . gave forth their Emanations Like Females of sweet beauty').' 'The Spectre See 1. I around] before I Spectre] Cp. . Milton. 23 56.

Blake's previous deleted readings are 1. Daughter of Babylon. WMR . f. Milton. 3 & sin : day.MS. And Dost] Didst 17. Love a Secret trembling.* ' On a dark cold winter night Within my Heart. another by and then : When my ' Thou Love did didst call that first f. now thou art terrible In jealousy. wilt thou return again? When 4 Dost thou not & Pride in Scorn 13 with tempests all my morn. .' loves thought that you would love Seeking for pleasures in my pleasures. And with jealousies & fears Fill my pleasant nights with tears? Fill 5 Seven of my sweet loves thy knife Has bereaved of their 17 life. WMR. 20 shuddering fears] shadowy fears WBY. Dost fears] 15/ rdg. 30. Milton. Jerusalem. because thou hast cruelly Cut off my loves in fury till I have no love left for thee. del. 11. 32. ' again] . 32*. Then thou wast lovely mild and gentle. my I O 17 my] thy EY. tears EY. tears] DGR. . . Their marble tombs I built with tears. Loves away. .' 13-15 Dost MS. 11. 1 'winter night dark' for 'winter dark. Wheresoever thou dost go. . fill DGR. Cp. night — — : wherever the Emanation goes. Cp. build fears EY. Rossetti 187 3 He scents thy footsteps in the snow. 19 built . WMR.' This is followed deleted stanza quoted only by Swinb. . 9 Thro' the wintry hail & rain. . :— f. shadowy 18 Has] WBY.' 9-12 "• 4. And with cold & shuddering fears. Hath DGR. * He 5 . 2. . My He the Originally fourth stanza. Spectre still wandering thro' them follows my Emanation. 18 and joy in my delights. 16 — fears Fill] ? 13 DGR. 3 7 : . begin. WMR. and unlovely in my sight. hunts her footsteps thro' the snow & the wintry hail & rain. Book .' my all Driving 8 Cp. . the Spectre 'for Attends her as her Guard. . .

When When & thou return & them to life wilt thou return & view renew live 29 ? ? wilt thou pity as I forgive ? 9 'Never.' DGR. And 21 seven more loves attend each night my couch with torches bright. Around 7 And seven more Loves in Crown with wine & Pitying Thy my my bed mournful head. 32 as I] and MS. 33-40 EY . never quell and thou pursue & Morn & Hell : the flight renew. 10 'Thro' the Heaven Thou I will fly Night 23 each] at 26 wine] vine & Earth shalt never. Rossetti Seven more loves weep night & day Round the tombs where my loves lay. DGR. And when dead I'll be thy Grave. Never. WBY. 37 : del. WMR.1 88 MS. 25 all forgiving transgressions great & small. Still for . I return: 33 Victory I burn. WMR. Book 15/ rdg. omit inverted commas (wtg. alone I'll have thee Living. EY. 8 When My wilt loves. also in MS. 24 Around] About R^ 30 to hfe] in life 28 Thy] My WBY.) all edd.

Swinb. 42 root] dig MS. EY. Indefinite or paltry Rhymes.MS. never worthy be Till I turn And shall I To 41 root step into Eternity. 43. Thou knowest that the Spectre is in Every Man insane. rdg. Night vii. del. 12 to end thy cruel mocks. 339-345 Thou art united with thy Spectre. & . Book 11. & by Self-annihilation back returning To Life Eternal To be assur'd I am thy real self . . : ' . to] And I to MS. hungering. cast off Rational cast off the rotten rags of cast off Bacon Locke and Memory by Inspiration. Rossetti 189 II from Female Love up the Infernal Grove.. 11.. rdg. Book 15/ two stanzas. 1. The Four Zoas. Thou didst subdue me in old times by thy Immortal Strength. del. : ! also — The Four Zoas. 42. till that I am thus a ravening devouring lust continually devouring but my Eyes are always upon thee Oh lovely not so Delusion. WBY. . we never can repass the Gates. To cast aside from Poetry all that is not Inspiration. Infernal Grove] See Jerusalem. And another form create And. . del. & thirsting. or paltry Harmonies. . ' : . brutish. To bathe in the waters of Life. . f. 37 f. & I cannot crave for any thing but thee ' The Spectres of the Dead. 46 What is meant by annihilation' is rendered clear by the following passage from Milton. When I was a ravening. transposes these 45 And. That body For. consummating by pains & labours That coy mortal body. I 298-306 : — will destroy I created. Book 1st rdg. to wash off the Not Human. . Let] Swinb. 8-11. ' 11. Newton from Albion's covering. for I am as the Spectre of the Living Deformed Craving . . 43 I] : Thou 45-49 And . 48 Cp. del. 45 Fate. H.' 47. then shall we unite again in bliss these terrors planted round the Gates of Eternal life Are driven away & annihilated. That it no longer shall dare to mock with the aspersion of Madness Cast on the Inspired by the tame high finisher of paltry Blots. Night vii. To be my subservient to 41 I] thou MS. . ' — To cleanse the Face of my Spirit by Self-examination. Annihilate thee on the rocks. f. 43. . Book isi rdg. i-io MS. take off his filthy garments and clothe him with Imagination. cruel lust of murder. is:- and passim. I come in Self annihilation & the grandeur of Inspiration To To To To Demonstration by Faith in the Saviour.

As our dear Redeemer said I forgive you. thy] my ibid.MS. thine DGR. Book *4 thy] 15^ rdg. and EY omit. slightly altered as IL 3.. out DGR. WBY. 2 of their fourth stanza. wry . WBY *i. 15 Every Emanative joy forbidden as And my] thy MS. quotes in Notes. DGR. *3 thou sit] 15^ rdg. 14 & Throughout all Eternity 53 you forgive me. WBY. 1. ' f. WMR. WMR. del. 11. Jerusalem. & thou annihilate evaporate & be no more.' But if thou dost refuse. my] thy ibid. my MS. . *2 ' Cp. 14. 23. & this the Bread. 9. Rossetti go I Let us agree to give up Love. WMR. 92. [Appendix O'er my Unplaced Stanzas] : thou sins Hast thou no O'er my And lull sit sins of thou thy own sins sit & moan *i : thy own? & weep. del.' my WMR. 11. . which is f. WMR. use the first See note above. Book — a Crime the Emanations buried alive in the earth with *i sit] : . WMR. and *i and *2 as their seventh and ninth Swinb.' Redeemer. ist rdg. 98. I pomp of religion. followed by couplet of *3 as 11.' See also Jerusalem. Another body will be prepared For me. 8-12. WMR and others. : 'This the Wine. 4 of their fifth stanza . thou] I ibid. WMR. Book MS. Throughout] Through- In Forgiveness of Sins our dear Redeemer said] 55 dear I. Self Annihilation. del. stanzas. Book 1st rdg. *2 Hast thou] Have thine thou I DGR. thou] thou dost sit DGR. WBY. del. MS. sins fast asleep. the last couplet of *3. thou dost sit DGR. said & 53 Cp. Jerusalem. root up the infernal grove And & Then shall we return The worlds of happy 49 . i. f. see Eternity. EY.

iii. pale. In altering has Married to marries. MS. a graceful little sketch of man in bed. *3 Poor.'' EY elbows. pitiable form That I follow in a storm & Iron tears *9 .' which is not the case. They thy Harlots. thou their slave And my bed becomes their Grave. EY (i. Jerusalem. he finds out whether elbows are only glued together.. ' . prove that Blake meant them to form a couplet. ' 11. f. and on the edge of it in a very elementary stage of FY's reproduction of this drawing (vol. *8 my] thy WBY. groans of lead aching head. 43. :— O thou poor Human Form Why wilt thou wander away *I2 Followed *6 Trans- WBY gressions] transgression in said she. but the absence of initials in the second and fourth. without pagination) dressing. smiles. finds out whether Her elbows and knees are only Glued together. Bind around my *5-*8 This stanza was written after the following one.' XXXVIU When a Man Her knees & has Married a Wife. 44 ! stanza : — ' *g Cp. Book by the the And let [us go] to With many wiles Woman partly [? ! illegible unerased but day] your [? wiles] win back] your [? woe thou poor child of why compel me to bind thee?' the that does not love Will never O from Tirzah. as well as the indentation.MS. 67. woman sitting ' : * When man a He — marries a wife. conveys the idea that it is found on the same page as Daphne. Rossetti What Are Transgressions 191 commit I *5 for thy Transgressions fit. 208) print as a quatrain MS.' which the colloquial ' ' ' miss the point of the allusion to knees and elbow-grease might have suggested. . Below 4. Book.' The lines are certainly so divided in the MS. a young p.' and calling ' ' the piece ' droll and risque'.

' . 5 made] would make trees] Blake was away. 14 And yell] EY omit. Uprose William Blake in his pride For old Nobodaddy aloft ****** & & Belch'd cough'd i . written in pencil and a considerable portion of it is no longer legible. occurs in the first EY. called aloud to English Blake.' point rather to its having been written about 1793. and the repetition ' Fayette. . Book. At Lambeth beneath the poplar From his seat then started he And 5 trees. cough'd] EY omit.] The stars threw down their [cups and fled. Mar. Book 1st rdg. . but the reference to Lambeth. Although written from the unreversed end this piece probably belongs to the same date as those in the earlier section of the MS. . 16 churn] burn MS. . . pp. . This piece is verj' faintly which had reached a second edition in 1769. 32. Then swore And a great oath that made heaven quake. . del. . 3 aloft] EY omit. His body was free At Lambeth beneath the poplar tree. 12-14 cups scarlet] quite EY. 8 Blake 7. . 11 sight] EY omit. Book 1st rdg. bowels began to churn. of 1. turned him round] EY omit. and EY a few words which the present owner of the MS. The same line 4 ****** I . 29) . 13 ninefold yell. from Swinb. 9 turned him round three times three. intripled] ninefold MS. . p. The Moon at that sight [blushed scarlet red. del. Blake of course have been familiar with Collyer's translation of the Messias. 13. all his MS. xxxix When Klopstock England defied. 26. .' EY. Blake was giving his body ease. A). Swinb. . blushed red] Supplied from Swinb. 5..Rossetti 192 MS. ' Fayette (xxxvi. And all the devils that were in Answered with a Klopstock And felt hell.] the intripled turn. yell] Supplied 12 cups] spears EY. * version of . 31. 4 in may supply in square brackets from Swinb. . . 15 Klopstock] Astonished EY. . . Book. refers the origin of this Rabelaisian jeu d'esprit to the passages from Klopstock rendered into English by Hayley for Blake's benefit during the latter's stay at Felpham in 1803 (Hayley's Diary. lo 9 From he] From Lambeth then shouted he EY. Book is unable to decipher.

Then again old Nobodaddy swore 21 He ne'er [had seen] such a thing before.' marginal addition. p.. Only legible when he had the MS. 4 No one] . one the no No one can take the pride. but Panurge could hardly have improved on the manner of retribution : : ' : devised for flaccid fluency and devout sentiment always running at the mouth. the title 2 you'll] you EY. 6. he beg'd me to turn again And . Since Eve first chose her hellfire spark. MS. And none EY. 193 bowels turned round three times three. locked in his soul with a ninefold key That from his body it ne'er could be Till to the last [judgment] it was his 17 . Supplied from EY 17 .. 32 A xl On the Virginity of the Virgin Mary & Johanna Southcott Whate'er And if is done to her she cannot know.. go naked] Supplied from Swinb. . Swinburne writes in choice Attic or in archaic French could the rest be endured by modem eyes . . 30] Of these lines. Since] the old Anything [was created. or evil none's to MS.. 25 fashion was created] 26 Since] Supplied from Swinb. it] EY omit. poor Klopstock never pain .. Book. EY . . Book before him. Anything] EY omit 29.. hell-found EY.Rossetii And And MS. i. . added later..] And so feeling. Only printed by swear it] tell you MS. 31. . SAMPSON O EY del. EY. . omit 20 to] EY omit judgment] 22 ne'er] never Swinb. del. 25 . Since Noah was shut in the ark. blame: Whether tis good shame. . Then 29 And Blake would do this when he **** ** **** ***** What might he not do if he sat down to write? If And And. EY 24 chose] EY omit hellfire] : had seen] supplied from. which apparently were Supplied from Swinb. 210. you'll ask her she will swear it so. . Book 1st rdg. Swinb. Book ist rdg. round] They turned around 19 ne'er] never EY. Since 'twas the [fashion] to [go naked.

This page therefore cannot be dated later than April. The Atoms of Democritus Newton's Particles of light Are sands upon the Red sea shore. this beautiful little might well have been spared Mr. Mock on. written without title on p. 'tis . ! against the wind. 5 sand] stone poem WBY. To the Deists in Jenisalenu and The Grey Monk in the Pickering MS. vain all in i . Book. escaped at the hands of Blake's editors.' Printed by title. W. ' ' ' beneath this stanza.MS. it will . Book. But still in Israel's paths they shine. 51. Where Israel's tents do shine so bright. which A line of separation drawn is continued at the head of the second column. 52 of this tear shall melt the And every wound it poem : — sword of steel has made shall heal. Yeats' textual alterations. In the first column are found stanzas 1-9 and the first two lines of stanza 10. before 11. 9 And MS. 7. Mock on. Mock on You throw the sand Rousseau Voltaire. And the wind blows And every sand becomes a it back again.' The Hermit's prayer Alone can free the ' 14 comes the beautiful lyric Morning a different treatment of the same idea Below stanza be seen. Gem Reflected in the beams divine 5 . is ' ' (see — The war of swords & spears Melted by dewy tears. 12 of the MS. B. by oversight. 41-56 were added. Rossetti 194 xli Mock on.' The xliii). Without DGR and later editors with of the very few pieces which had hitherto. shows that Blake's intention was to end with the lines : ' — & the widow's tear world from fear. Scoffers.' being obviously suggested by ' first 11. xlii Note Prefatory The first draft of this piece. Blown back they blind the mocking eye. consists of fourteen stanzas which Blake later split up into two separate ' poems. which. As one 3 sand] dust WBY. some title ' p. 1803.

and prefixing the numbers 5-7 to When Satan first the black bow bent.' was probably when about to engrave Jerusalem that Blake returned to poem. Ellis and Yeats.' and For a tear is an intellectual thing. begins with the original fifth stanza the line ' ' ' ' . Then below the couplet on Terror and 13.] ' Against this image of his Lord Titus ! in the Constantine : ! ! ! ! ! & Roman sword — linked to stanza 14 the columns and in by the catchword 'A tear is &c. print the Blake's later text of ' To the Deists rejected readings and omitted stanzas. ' unimportant verbal changes. and ' we has find Blake been hitherto Sweet Mercy me leads still — 195 invariably misprinted on. Rossetti The reading * ' morning * mercy. Book. and marking stanzas 12.' This poem I see. and stanza two stanzas are common to both versions.MS. ' and ' The Grey Monk ' with editors' emendations will be found among poems irom Jerusalem and The Pickering MS. the Mother said.' gains additional force in dwelling on the same thought in the couplet which immediately follows ' Terror in the house does roar : But Pity stands before the It this door. and 14 to come in after stanza 4.' Of the stanzas thus rejected Blake made a separate poem which he transcribed into the Pickering MS. I die. the Mother I see.. except for a few Jerusalem.' This. 220-26). Pity. before my sight I talk'd to the Grey Monk where he stood In beams of infernal light. Book.' which in the line this connexion. Charle' maine. : 3 to] with EY where] as EY. gives us the poem entitled To the Deists' engraved at the foot off 52 oiJerusalem. See Poems from the Prophetic Books. or from the text of Messrs. lation of stanza 4 14 between 10 and 11. His first change was to reduce its length to seven stanzas by drawing a separation line between stanzas 4 and 5.' ' I saw a Monk of Charlemaine Arise. the Lastly he indicated clearly the order of the seven stanzas to be used in by marking the first four stanzas 1-4. said' being changed to 'I die. he wrote the revised version of stanza 12 : ' Satan first the black bow bent And the Moral Law from the Gospel rent He forg'd the Law into a Sword And spill'd the blood of Mercy's Lord.' and between right-hand margin he made two attempts to rewrite stanza 2 which were not adopted in either of the final versions. are derived from the in their preface to Chapter III of Jerusalem (ii.. with the interpo- between 5 and 6.' The remaining stanzas (6-1 1) are arranged in the order of the MS. with the title The Grey Monk.' 'Titus Constantine. o a i . These In the footnotes to the present poem I give such variant readings only as MS.' At the same time he added * — When — margin the stanza Charlemaine O Voltaire Rousseau Gibbon vain Your Grecian mocks [^mocks if iron del. who.

ist rdg. Charlemaine & his barons bold Stood by. & bind him in his Cell ' ! The blood red ran from the Grey Monk's His hands & feet were wounded wide. Rossetti 196 Gibbon arose with a lash of And 5 : The Arose with * steel. middle column. Voltaire turned his wracking wheel.MS.' (i) Sideways.' ' Voltaire. War in iron & gold. gold] Variants of this stanza are Sideways.' the ' My Mother 13 17 said. Rise.' down] sat him down EY. And in thy Cell thou shall ever dwell. del. 20 sat : in vain. 5-8 Gibbon (fl) side. MS. and mocked in iron & gold. Star. What more has the merciless tyrant said The Monk sat down on her stony bed.. Thou lazy Monk.' (a) 3 arouse the polar bear for ' Muster partially : of Voltaire whirl'd on high. racking EY.' (b) 4 'Must around the Polar 7 The roll'd] War] Seditious Monk said Charlemaine The Glory of War thou condemn'st . as * And Voltaire ' for ' hidden by the binding. 15/ rdg.' . 9. I see. now These words are 6 wracking] 5 arose] armed EY. Voltaire with a wracking wheel schools. In vain condemning Glorious War. 10 Thou . . . ' & his barons bold. His body bent. . EY in (a) EY 'The glory of reading in last line war thou cursedst 18 will] shall EY. 'I see. in right-hand margin. 2 read barons. Book ' warriors ' for ' .' — in vain. 9 ' War. . . Children will die for lack of bread.' they said afar. in Clouds of learning roU'd. Charlemaine & his Clouds ofWar [ Must[er around] the Polar ' In printing the above. at top of page ' The Wheel Gibbon aloud his lash does ply. Charlemagne and his warriors bold EY. . top of page : ' ? — : 'Gibbon plied his lash of steel.' Readings rejected by Blake. del.] Star. his arms & knees Like to the roots of ancient trees.

shall Slaughter heap the bloody plain 45 The Tyrant who : Resistance & War is the Tyrant's gain. 197 His Eye was dry. Alone can The hand ' free the world from fear. . . 37 They never can work war's overthrow The Hermit's prayer & the widow's tear . 21 could] would EY. He] Between these is an illegible line erased. . Note. del. 34 marched] Deleted in MS. I brother starved between two walls my 29 . . 31 I mock'd chain] I mock at the rack and the grinding pain EY. hollow groan first spoke his woe He trembled & shuddered upon the bed At length with a feeble cry he said A : ' 21 : When God commanded this — . children's cry soul appalls I mock'd at the wrack and griding chain bent body mocks at their torturing pain. 26 studious] shadowy EY. See Pref. . . EY. 45-48 44 And usurped the tyrant's throne & bed MS. . first the black bow bent. . Book 15/ rdg.Rossetti MS. 41 sought] found EY. but no word 36 revenge] avenge EY. . 22. ' Untill the Tyrant himself relent. 22 first spoke] bespoke EY. . substituted. . Untill gain] This stanza was rewritten later. became a tyrant in his stead. My ' Thy With father drew his sword in the North he is [marched] forth 33 . Thy : . . of vengeance sought the bed To which The And 41 the purple tyrant fled iron hand crushed the tyrant's head. * But vain the sword & vain the bow. He told me that all I wrote should prove The bane ' My of all that on Earth love. hand to write 25 In the studious hours of deep midnight. his thousands strong .Thy brother has armed himself in steel To revenge the wrongs thy children feel. no tear could flow. 23 woe 24 At said] EY oitiit.

is And with soft grateful tears Ascends the sky. he had at first written ' 1.Rossetti 198 'But the Tear of Love And The And ' —& MS. Title 12.' The word 'Morning' was repeated in 4 of the song. repentant moan see the break of day. ' . 8 Exhales on high. Daybreak. — intellectual thing. The marks of entirely lacking in the ' ' Rossetti's transcript of all that is of any value in the an erasure in D. G. of a martyr's EY.' MS. . xliii Morning To Western path. 53 And And a sigh is the sword of an Angel King. find the i Gates of Wrath thro' the Right I urge my way Sweet Mercy leads . and the Pickering heal] Omitted in both the Jerusalem 55 of the Martyr's] for another's MS. Book 1st rdg. submission to death beneath his feet tear shall melt the sword of steel. 49-52 But . The Sun freed from fears. Book. For the tear an is 49 forgiveness sweet. . . del. read ' I and all later ' to the poem . MS. MS.' soft ' correction of DGR :— Sweet morning leads me on With The Printed by later. With soft repentant me on moan 4 : see the break of day. Book show that some other word— probably the right one— before in the title may have misled him into 'morning. every wound it has made shall heal. the bitter groan of the Martyr's woe Is an arrow from the Almightie's bow. ' editors with the title 4-6 Sweet added 12 morning to ' ' Mercy conveys a meaning received text. Morning supposing that the same word and 'Mercy' being somewhat alike in Blake's handwriting. Melted by dewy tears. versions. p. . I The war of swords & spears. .' day] All edd. .

Where thou dwellest. There I live and mourn for thee my Morning drinks And He. O 1 evening winds silent tear. my Friend ! Come on wings of joy we'll fly To where my bower hangs on high Come. I. Sorrow now is O my and lover at 13 ? an end. 14. He . n . Book. my sorrow bear. hung all edd. Dost thou truly long for me? And am I thus sweet to thee He. MS. 5. Prefatorj' Note Here printed to xlii. She. No italics in is sweet. . p. sqq. i8 hangs] 17 . tell me love Where thou thy charming Nest dost build. See p. Tell me. have liv'd Each day And I 9 and mourn'd for thee mourn along the wood. and make thy calm retreat Among green leaves and blossoms MS. Yonder stands a lonely tree. 3 dost] doth EY. night hath heard my sorrows loud. Fair one. . for the first time. But Pity stands before the door. mourn] moan EY. 5 . in what Grove. xL The Birds He. ! She. She\ WBY. 12. thou pride of every field i . Book. . MS. thou summer's harmony. Rossetti 199 xliv Terror in the house does roar .MS.

5 MS. The King dropped a Tear All Nature And all his into the Queen's Ear. the two stanzas separated by a sketch.. The epigrams on Art which begin on this page would appear to be an overflow from those jotted p. . 4 All has taken wing] 'tis quite another thing MS.200 MS. Book.' xlvii You You — I won't attempt to make ye won't attempt to wake ye. i. cp.' and by EY among Couplets and Fragments (xvi) without title. Satirical Pieces ' ' down ' ' ' margins of Blake's copy of Reynolds' Discourses. ever] now Gil. . there — you'll see at his Pictures S"" Colouring —All Joshua's has taken Wing : ! WMR Gil. Book. Pictures Faded. Book. I would attempt 2 ye] you to make you WMR.. 56) I . but often the contrary. . Book 1st rdg. But advertizing Look Look MS. while in your pleasant dreams Sleep on Sleep on Of Reason you may drink of Life's clear streams. . p. . Printed by among Epigrams and on Art and Artists (xiv) with title Colour. p. . del. WMR.' iv : — 'When Sir Joshua Reynolds died was degraded. Blake's Advertisement (^MS. Printed among as a single stanza with title 'Couplets and Fragments' (xv) by Reason.' and by EY (xvii) without title. WMR * I You ye] You don't believe won't] would MS. 266. 21. ' Epigrams from Reynolds' Discourses. in the 2 But . Papers] Save thro' advertisements Adverin the newspapers Gil. EY. del. cp. don't believe — asleep are ! : 1 I ! Reason and Newton. they are quite two things For so the Swallow & the Sparrow sings.' 3 there] here EY. in the News Papers. 21. Rossetti xlvi No real Style of Colouring ever appears. Book \st rdg. . ' : tisements in newspapers are no proof of popular approbation.

never mind the Reason why ' ! WMR omits to 11. in the margin.'] I demand If therefore of the amateurs of art the encouragement which is my due. and hinder my I have enough my exceeding in the approbation of fellow labourers. who teach Humility to Man. Try. that Rebel against my Laws. 11. This is my glory. And in Will sit melodious accents me down. O Sons of Men I am your Rational Power. . 15-30 being added This fragment. . and nothing can course. 11. EY place 7-12 quotation marks in MS. was probably composed soon after Sept. Who teaches Belief to the Nations & an unknown Eternal life? But the Spectre. rose over Albion. & I ' cry ' I I ! ! These lines occur in Blake's Advertisement. ' : to way 20 1 & * don't believe without experiment Doubt. : — hoar frost & a Mildew. I go on. II. * . and beneath the notice of the Public del. Vain Foolish Man. why'). Cf. 14. . Book. & my two Wings Voltaire Rousseau Where is that Friend of Sinners. theirs is the loss. and marked is missing. 7-12 ('Doubt why') with enclosed single quotation marks to 11. wilt thou believe without Experiment And build a World of Phantasy upon my Great Abyss. in craving lust & devouring appetite ? ? ' xlviii MS. the prose passage : [' contempt of posterity. 15-24 No . When he said Only Believe Believe & try ' : 9 ' ! ! & Try. Doubt. Am I not Bacon & Newton & Locke. A World of Shapes. 1809. great reward. of which for insertion after 1. Book. like a ' ! Come hither into the Desart & turn these stones to bread. they continue to refuse. p. Who teach Doubt & Experiment. Rossetti Reason says Aye! ' Miracle that's the ' Newton says Doubt. around 11. 9 and 12. 1 Reached all the way from Chichester to York. following Imagination is my World. 17. 31-51 were first written.' xlix And his legs carried it like a long fork. This world of dross is beneath my notice. not mine. . and theirs is the p. 1-14. From York all across Scotland to the Sea This was a Man of Men. 54. as seems to me.MS. . That is the very thing that Jesus meant. Jerusalem. Saying I am God. the beginning 11. MS.' make all Nature out. 12 ('Only . f. 21. 22.

Malkin. 5 Like as a Pedlar bears his weary Pack. And Cur my lawyer. ignoring the play upon words. Horseback with Death. . Not only in his Mouth his own Soul lay. The Ears of Billy's Lawyer & Dragoon. Stewhard. I carried] covered Soul] . blushing daw. 19 Yorkshire] And Yorkshire 20 their] his EY. of is of course Stothard. Only printed by EY in their ' Memoir ' 78-79). i. del. ' ' for Blake. So Stewhard's Soul he buckled to his back. Felpham Billy. 25 Both went to Law with Death to keep our Ears on. del. 17 weakly] affront] Deadly the affront 18 sport] shout EY. and Dady. But once. . del.' the parson. weekly EY. EY. at the instance of the Dragoon (see GilYorkshire was the birthplace of Cromek. EY. 8 So Stewhard s 4 This] That EY. Bowyer and (i. Blake's Exhibition' appeared in Leigh Hunt's of the poem which Blake alludes (no. Yorkshire Jack Hemp & Quibble. alas! committing a Mistake. my soul . possibly because of his association with Blair's Grave. Call'd Death a Madman. 21 And Felpham Billy rode out every morn. ' EY ' ' Quibble . but see footnote. mistakenly suppose that Boydel and ' of the following piece may be the true names of the lawyers Cur ' Hemp's speaker. in the afternoon. when Examiner ' ' . Book is/ rdg. 9 He bore the wretched Soul of William Blake That he might turn it into Eggs of Gold But neither back nor mouth those eggs could hold. 14 Stewhard's] all my MS. 16 trembling Book 15/ rdg. trembling for the affront 17 Like trembling Hare sits on his weakly paper On which he used to dance & sport & caper. But my soul also would he bear away. Chichester was the scene to in his Advertisement. the article on 'Mr. go) and may have been part See note to Ixxviii. EY.' and Scotland refers to the latter's visit to that country Death' is a nickname search of material for his Reliques of Bums (1808). Clap'd Death into the corner of their jaw. here called christ. ' ' for Flaxman . 13 His under jaw drop'd as those Eggs he laid. EY. . daw] saw EY.' for Dr.' for Hayley .202 Rossetti MS. . Jack the Fathers Memoirs. and Jack Hemp.. chap. xix) in Screwmuch. The Examiner. over the fields of corn Who with iron hand cuff'd. MS. And Stewhard's Eggs are addled and decay'd. Book 15/ rdg.' 'Yorkshire Dady. Jack Hemp's parson. . MS. whose very name is Hunt. of Blake's trial for high treason. del. He would bear EY. Book 1st rdg. 10 of] and MS.

. And I. Then Screwmuch at Blake's soul took a long leap.' the Friend of has not left explaining that a later page of the notebook completes the epitaph. He made them pay his Price. Or could from Death Assassinette wake — ! — We 29 — thought Alas. knock your head against this stone. .' like: * 31 how] now EY. EY. Artists.' 41 ' — But — I have writ so sorrowful my thought is for my tears are aquafortis. ne'er] never . For 'twas a kind of Bargain Screwmuch made That Blake's designs should be by us display 'd. however. ! 33 37 ! And Death sits laughing on their Monuments On which he 's written Received the Contents. : ' .' And now the Muses upon me smile and laugh . ' See Ixxxviii. as aqua- that] I This Epitaph so sorrowful my thought is MS. changing the name to John Trot. 47 upon] in EY. alackaday! He knew both Law and Gospel better than they. . be buried near a dyke 45 also write And I'll 49 That my friends may weep as much as they Here lies Stewhard the Friend of all &c. Who — all Mankind one enemy behind. His epitaph 'Come.' which is always a reference to a passage already written. — aquafortis] EY. . But EY omit. For sorrow that our friend Bob Screwmuch 's gone. 36 designs] have writ with tears. Book 1st rdg. O that I ne'er had seen that William Blake. 203 For how to starve Death we had laid a plot Against his Price but Death was in the Pot.' Here again. that such a thought could be That Blake would Etch for him and draw for me. who finish the couplet fortis. del. 51 Stewhard] Stothard EY. I'll my own dear epitaph. Twas death in a disguise. 'Twas not a Mouse. they misinterpret the force of Blake's ' &c. 43-4 But 27 design .Rossetti MS. alas live to weep out my Eyes. Because he makes designs so very cheap.

But all my limbs with warmth glow: I I MS. . 24. 204 1 Was Or Or Or Or angry with Hayley who us'd me so ill. or Stothard. 8 by EY with title Friends and Foes. 23. Book. the date of the publication of Hayley's Life of Romney. Only printed by EY WMR and WBY print as beginning of (i.' for whom of the Bowyer] publisher Hume's History (1806). p. 7. and Frag. 5 Macklin] Malchin EY. ? 5 ' ? 8i). Mirth at the Errors of a Foe. poor Schiavonetti. 3 Or Stothard] Or angry with Boydell. 178. del. p. Printed by ('Coup. Written in margin of preceding piece. I be angry with Felpham's old Mill ? angry with Flaxman. ' MS. WBY and Coup. except last couplet. death shows. MS. or Bowyer or Bu MS. p. . and .' Frag. Malkin {Fathers Memoirs of His Child. their brain H pan — the painter Sussex Man. Book. WMR 3 ' warmth glow] warmth do glow EY.' xiii) as above. Cp. . whom they to death bother'd I i can angry with Macklin. Because they did not say O what a beau ye are At a Friend's Errors anger shew. by EY i. or Boydel. Written about 1809. to which William Haines and Blake both contributed engravings. 1806) dell. or Cromek.Rossetti AIS. which the allusion to Schiavonetti's As li. . written after June 1810. Book. II. i. WMR (' find them the Errors of the foe. Only ptd. 23. 2 is] in EY. confusing Macklin for whom Blake engraved Stothard's 'Fall of Rosamund (1783) with . or Bowyer. Hi The Sussex Men And weak I wonder Is not a is if are Noted Fools. 212. Gilchrist.' xvi) prefixed by 1. . Book ist rdg. . (1788) : : sumptuous illustrated edition of li Anger & Wrath my bosom rends: i thought them the Errors of friends. ' Boydel] Read 'BoyBlake engraved Hogarth's Scene from the Beggar's Opera Dr.

liv To H You think Fuseli This is I'm glad.' xiv). Both are.' Flaxman]. 3 what] that MS. and Frag. Cp.' EY. p. Fuseli over my shoulder. and Frag. 75. call Coupl. Sept. also Blake's Advertisement (MS. 90. 181. 5 Reynolds . Book. 213. and no. Only ptd.' while EY think this and the preceding epigram are addressed to Haines. Book. (wrongly) expands title <To Hayley. 1809. Ivi Can there be anything more mean. 213. 17.. They will : foolish to think they can find themselves mistaken they could not : wound even Mr. p. 25.. 26. Epigrams. though I by Thou call'st me Madman.e. 25. the latter's references to Fuseli and Blake. Cf.MS. but MS.' Cp. Book.' I have been call'd Thee or Me? I wonder which they Envy ' : — MS. ' ' . Barry Fuseli is] Fuseli I so. Probably addressed to Flaxman. prefatory note to Epigrams from Blake's copy of Sir Joshua Reynolds' Discourses U798). Gil. without doubt. ' ' Many people are so 1809.' ('Coupl. More Malice in disguise. 4 That man] Which he ibid.' they Madman. call thee. 26. del. ' To DGR the and Same' WMR [i. title WBY omits. Book. Book. xvii) with p. Examiner. June 4. so] This Reynolds' lectures plainly shew ibid. one of the best compliments he ever had. Only printed by EY 213. (' thee I am Mocked: thee Blockhead. Than Praise a Man for doing what That Man Reynolds When does most despise? i 4 lectures exactly so he praises Michael Angelo. 's Iv To F I mock thee not. i. is not a Great Painter. i. MS. p. Book ist rdg. 53) wound Mr. Gil. p. EY i. MS. Ixxix. EY ' viii. no. by EY i. Rossetti 205 liii ' Fool. To H[unt].

. p. Book. 213. on] upon EY. this] there EY. Iviii To Nancy F How can I help thy Husband's copying Me? Should that make difference 'twixt me and thee? MS. 213. WBY. WMR (' Coupl. p.2o6 Rossetti MS. even to Italy.' 19). WBY (' Coupl. (' p. his p.' 20).' lix H Of 's birth this His Mother on MS. 4 & extreme] and is ' Epigrams from Reynolds' Discourses (v). as he went my employer. EY i. and at the same time he was blasting ' P' 53) my • character to Macklin How much of his know. 27. but the public will know. Book. 213. extreme WBY. 2 Mother . Book. Advertisement (MS. 4). EY i. Was extreme Old and most extremely poor He has grown old & rich & what he will He is extreme old & extreme poor still. : : MS. his father EY. mother or WMR. as Macklin told me at the time. Cp. and I S ] Stothard WBY. Cp. 38.' xxi. Flaxman cannot deny that one of the very first monuments he did I gratuitously designed for him. Book. Swinb. ' Frag. will allow to be mine I do not Homer and Dante he far enough off to publish them. Only in EY i. WBY Coupl. 27. 27. Ivii S Childhood. was the happy lot: Father him begot. on the nursery in floor. I on H 's] his Father] Hayley's Swinb.

Ixi He's a Blockhead who wants a proof of what he Perceive And he 's can't . 28. WBY . . the Pharisees in a rougher way. del.' x). Book. the hidden trap. MS. MS. Rossetti 207 Ix Sir Joshua praises Michael Angelo. ('Coupl. He praises Michael Angelo for Qualities which Michael Angelo abhorr'd & He blames Rafael for the only Qualities which Rafael Valued. Should Michael Angelo praise Sir Joshua i . a fool who tries make such to a Blockhead believe. (' Epig. i. 5 Christ ist rdg. (' Epig. As much as they were Degraded by the Reputation of Reynolds' Paintings. Book. 'Tis Christian mildness when Knaves praise a foe But 'twould be Madness. 28. Book MS. 'tis Meat : the art to cheat.MS.' 6). & the poisoned feast. . del. Book. His Praise of Rafael is like His Softness & Candour. DGR p. [ii] Discourses to the Royal Academy as the Simulations of the Hypocrite who Smiles particularly where he means to Betray. . others I consider Reynolds' Reynolds' Discourses. p. later. I alwaj's consider'd True Art & True Artists to be particularly Insulted & Degraded by the Reputation of these Discourses. Whether Reynolds knew what he was doing. must MS. 3 all . is nothing to p. 214 print first line Meat] meal EY. but . Cp. EY viii). would] that line added way] This we all outrage thus to praise his foe when Knaves] thus to it mildness] meekness rdg. only. 29. WMR. all the world would say. foe] And counts . Ixii Cr He MS. vis'd 5 WMR DGR omit. ] Art 208. loves artists as he loves his loves the p. Book ist DGR. ('Coupl. — Christ M S. . EY Cromek i.' xiii). Gil. . all cdd. (' CoupL' WMR. & that Such Artists as Reynolds are at all times Hired by the Satans for the Depres: sion of Art.' II). the Hysteric Smile of Revenge. note Blake's ' in : : me the Mischief is just the Same whether a Man does it Ignorantly or Knowingly. . I Cr Gil.' 2 'Tis .

By calling his the ornamental style . Book. 5 6 As hair] Like a filthy infectious head A crooked stick & a louzy head of hair. 208. 214. Book. EY I 2nd i. EY. . Book. 2 Cr Gil.' xxn) headed 'Cromek. Book. of hair MS. 29.' Cromek Gil. Cp. 29. Cr p. Heis]He'sEY. WMR. . ] i. MS. del. if he could .2o8 MS. 30. Ix^ He is a Cock would And would be a Cock MS. . ye] you Gil. Ixiv Sir Joshua praised Rubens with a smile. I knew how do ye do? Petty Sneaking Knave O! Mr. Rossetti Ixiii A MS. del. Till he's MS. When he called him the Ornamental Artist. ibid. Only in EY I i. rdg. 29. become the Golden Fool. 214. p. . Ixvii. in Only praised] praises EY. . Book 15/ rdg. — WMR ('Coupl. p. . But sure such ornaments we well may spare As crooked limbs and louzy heads of hair. 2x4. And yet his praise of Flaxman was the smartest. Ixvi He has observ'd the Golden Rule. p. t Only in EY 2 he 's] he has i.

But Fortune says she gave you no such thing.' and He has ' for ' Take you ' in 1. Rossetti 209 Ixvii To S- You your Youth observ'd the Golden Rule. 5. Ixix Mr Cromek to Mr Stothard Fortune favours the Brave. ' ' his for ' your. Blithe and Gay. 31. . p. . be unfaithful EY. : Like to the Lion sporting with his Prey. 3 be ungrateful] prove ungrateful Swinb. 214. Book. Why should you be ungrateful to your friends. Book. Ixviii Mr Stothard to Mr Cromek For Fortune's favours you your riches bring. 4 sneaking lane] Sneaking Lane Swinb. & Odds-&-Ends? MS. Swinb.' ' I Youth] life EY. p. I EY i.' of Ixxvi. 31. Mine is the flesh the bones may be your share. Only p. Take you the hide & horns which you may wear. old proverbs say But not with Money. p. 30. . that is not the way. Merry.' 6) without title. d I ?). In its original form this epigram was written in the third person. Swinb. turn back you travel all in vain Turn through the iron gate down sneaking lane. p. 53. WHY ('Coupl. all i Till you're at last become the golden fool I sport with Fortune. MS. — MS. 5 Take you] You have EY.MS. 215. EY i. 214) 'addressed to (Who was d I 5 A similar misreading of Blake's capital S for I occurs in their text This and the preceding epigram refer of course to Stothard. 53. SAMPSON P . Sneaking. in EY (i. & backbiting. Turn back. favours] favour Swinb.. Book. ' he ' for ' you.

. Book. del. now in the Brit. 5 Betrayer of his Friends. p. . EY. in the hand of the simpering fool And He put And on a dirty paper scroll. Go. 31. MS.' xiv). 25 : He who loves his Ixxi The Angel that presided o'er my birth Said 'Little creature. i. 1. to be polite. 7^. Book. Book. love without the help of anything on Earth.' ' ' . . 32. WBY ('Coupl. Rossetti Ixx I am no Homer's Hero you My Generosity That The all know i . 215. the paper.'is). Everlasting Gospel. Did 'Sketches by Michael Angelo' write. Generous to Enemies promotes their Ends. 5 This and the other epigrams on Sir Joshua Reynolds were probably written about the same time as the marginal notes in his copy of Sir Joshua's Discourses. 6 And Friends] Cp. Gil. Title an addition. and in accordance with their rule.' MS. 2 form'd o'er] at Gil. I profess is my to Friends. 32. . p. p. MS. Only in EY i. Only in EY i. i.' enemies betrays his friends. not Generosity to a Foe. 215.2IO MS. for their Friendship I may make amends. sent his portrait painted by himself. Mus. Book of] for . Mirth] thou . 1st rdg. 3 love] WMR. WMR (< Coupl. art form'd for mirth live WBY. In 1776 Reynolds was elected a member of the Florentine Academy. I that] who Gil. 311. form'd of Joy and Mirth. EY 215. Ixxii Florentine Ingratitude Sir Joshua sent The his own Portrait to i birth Place of Michael Angelo. And becomes the Enemy & MS.

Only in EY i. Another reading was ' EY omitYor. Ang. 19-22. When he is doom'd to To assuage his misery 1 die. an incorrect version of the 14. are the lines ' : — after 18 ' 1. . Rembrandt's door. . Rembrandt] 'Rejected' EY. Who whatever likeness he may have to Michael Angelo Never can have any to Sir Jehoshuan. reading rejected sprang of for ' sprang from. It will set his Dutch friends all in a roar To write Mich.' 19-22 Ghiotto's EY incorrectly call this a 13. 33. Nor Nor 7. ' for 19-22.' writ on The Florentines call it an English fetch. In virtue's praise does cry. . door] . This epigram refers to the concluding words of the last Discourse delivered by Reynolds at the Royal P a .' Ixxiii A Pitiful Case The Villain at the Gallows tree. ' ' rejected .a. For Michael Angelo never did sketch Every line of his has Meaning.' couplet after 1. 17 calculation] : — These lines written later at foot of page. p. Ghiotto's Circle or Apelles' Line Were not the Work of Sketchers drunk with Wine ' . Rossetti The Florentines said Michael Angelo's ' 'Tis a Name 21 I Dutch-English bore. 216. If . 8 of the City Clock's running fashion of Sir Isaac Newton's calculation. 14. EY omit ih. And needs neither Suckling nor Weaning. . The Michael] who . first reading of buy] Following this These verses were written by a very envious man. . .t. 11. 9 — 'Tis the trading English. 21 . EY insert here. . . and print this ' facilities ' and ' great Abilities. 14 Tis mean .' on Rembrandt's door But you must not bring in your hand a Lie If you mean that the Florentines should buy. . MS.Venetian cant 13 To speak Michael Angelo. that] . and act Rembrandt. . Nor of the City Clock's Idle Facilities Which sprang from Sir Isaac Newton's omit futilities 11.MS. lo For couplet. Book.

So Reynolds when he came To to die. del.' i . for the sake of being Polite.' 5 ' Read Rembrandt for it is fit To make mere common honesty ' . 15/ rdg. writ] & * That Sir you Joshua Reynolds to speak Of Michael Angelo. 7 mere common] either sense or MS. Book 8 In] Of EY. 1790 pronounce in this Academy. stocks and stones. might be the name of Michael Angelo. and from this place. that he has writ. Book. what the Prophets That the Heathen Gods are all write. del. Instead of ' Michael Angelo. Shall we. Cp. WMR and EY with title 'Idolatry. 5 his bitter woe. 6-8 for . Book 15/ rdg. Ixxv If it is true. note to will know now wished Ix.' MS. 216. Book 15/ rdg. Only p. In all MS. 33. Book.' 3 his misery] his bitter misery EY. . . Dec. ' : Ixxiv To the Royal Academy A Strange Erratum in all the Editions Sir Joshua Reynolds' Lectures Should be corrected by the Young Gentlemen r Of And the Royal Academy's Directors. in EY i. assuage Thus aloud did howl & cry 'Michael Angelo Michael Angelo : ! ' ! I should desire that the last words which I should Academy. 7 did howl &] was heard to MS. Feed them with the juice of our marrow-bones? MS.212 Rossetii MS. del. 33. p.

9. All the Atonements of Jehovah spurn'd. 'Tis excellent to turn a thorn to a pin. 217 with 2 a ' ibid. del. Book ist rdg. Knave ' and S On to a glass of gin. . \st rdg. WMR EY I. . 53. The words p. p. and I title On F . i. Swinb. neither themselves nor me. Holy Things. u Sublime Intent given to their kings. 34. Book. del. . knows I . WMR and EY print as quatrain — lo : •They stole them from The Temple of the Lord.MS. . Shall we suffer the Roman and Grecian rods To compell us to worship them as Gods ? 5 them from the Temple of the Lord 9 worshipp'd them that they might make Inspired Art They stole And abhorr'd . ist rdg. ' Epig.' See note to Ixvii. Rossetti 213 And if Bezaleel and AhoHab drew What the finger of God pointed to their View. themselves] himself »6/rf. ' are an addition. (' (1809). And worshiped them that they might make Inspired art abhorred. Book 1st rdg. del. to make MS. The Wood and Stone were call'd the And their And Criminals to Sacrifices turn'd. del.' lo that make] .' viii) with title MS. Ixxvi To F and S found them blind I And now I : they know taught them how to see . . certain Friends. A Fool to a bolt.' prints first couplet only. me] Blake introduces this couplet into his Descriptive Catalogue 2 they knowl he I them] him MS.

Book. triumph in EY i. he always begins with being your friend. is probably Thomas Phillips Those who say the portrait painter. When a base but have never been so good an occasion of poetic imagery. Coupl. Cp. Book. Ixxvii P loved me not as he lov'd his friends them For loved He me. i).' xi). and he lov'd But to MS."' 4 in] at EY. : published in Beaufort's Buildings. and that they are always paid for what they put in on those ungracious subjects.' 1. but from malice. . which I shall soon publish. to serve his for no Gain at all. rejoice p. as you well know. 4 Hired . liv). Descriptive Catalogue.Rossetti 2 14 MS. not from : interest. because I know that you act. by DGR ('Coupl. 68. wife And when he could not act upon Who my my Hired a Villain to bereave MS.' . "of none at all. p. cp. Ends : fall. and the manner in which I have rooted out the nest of villains will be seen in a poem concerning my three years' Herculean labours at Felpham. Life.' XXI. WMR I (' H ] First couplet only ptd. 34. deprive me of my means of ' in ' this is another reference to the critiques in the Examiner (cp. 34. notes to xlix. of what interest is it to me to do so and so?" It is of malice and envj' that you have but the contrary. man means to be your enemy. By the phrase bereave my Life ' Blake here probably means. i. my in P . 52) 'The manner in which my character has been blasted these thirty years both as an Artist and a Man may be seen particularly in a Sunday paper called the Examiner. ' : A '• I answer. Book. at foot of p. that men are led by interest are knaves. 217. Cp. 26 knavish character will often say. Life] The same line occurs one of the Poetical Sketches. Secret calumny and open professions of friendship are common enough all the world over. WMR. 217. EY Hayley DGR. forgive enemies never in his life forgave a friend. Fair Elenor. We all know that editors of newspapers trouble their heads very little about art and science. p. own destruction. . Ixxviii H To does pretend. done this I am aware of you. livelihood . Advertisement (MS. Only & for gain. even 3 and] EY to your omit.

Book. Ixxx On H y's Friendship When H y finds out what you cannot do. . Only 2 & make] to make EY. . Man] Friend Caiaphas is one. DGR (' Epig. Ixxxi created for destruction. 3 Be they as] For they are EY. He'll still be called "The World's Honest Man. 4 Be . To Flaxman. . you are an Ass. do what he can.' 7).' MS.MS. omitted). ' in EY i. 36. the very thing he'll set you to If you break not your Neck. & make the World their home. Book.'" MS. 4 but what] just what MS. del.' EY i. That is MS. Book 2nd rdg. you are but what you was. If If ' — you think as you speak. Some men. 3.' xvi) both with title (' 218. . 'tis not his fault But pecks of poison are not pecks of salt. WMR Epig. you do not. 218 (title . . del. Rosseiti 2 1 5 Ixxix To F You call me Mad 'tis folly to do so To seek to turn a Madman to a Foe. p. Be they as Vile and Base as e'er they can. 35. 218. p. They'll still be called 'The World's Honest Man. 3 Neck] back EY. come Into the World. but as EY. . Book. MS. Book 1st rdg. p. 35. Only EY in i.

! MS. ' Title. DGR. EY i. (' Coupl. 2 Do] Do Gil.. i. his head wood. EY . 3. and a Compliment. Whose heart is iron. 37.' p. MS.' 17) without title. ' (' heart to ake for Friendship's sake. (' face brass. Beetle] spider Gil. Stool and Chair But ah more wondrous still the Charming Fair. grow Gil.' xii) < i. i.e. 3 Owl] WMR. . the Owl.' p. p.2i6 Rossetti MS. and his The Fox. 4 get] DGR. 307 (last couplet only). 218. Only in Imitation of Pope. 218. WBY EY ('Coupl. the Cock and Hen. Epig. the Beetle.. Ixxxiii Imitation of Pope : a compliment to the Ladies Wondrous the Gods. EY. 2) with general title On Hayley. More Wondrous.' etc. mo\e Descriptive Catalogue. 4 Blake uses this couplet in his Descriptive Catalogue (1809). 218. and the Bat By sweet reserve and modesty get Fat. Book. WMR title.. Wondrous still. More wondrous still the Table. WMR has — made my CoupL' : Gil. i.' xviii) with title On Stothard. 36. more wondrous are the Men. 181. Ixxxii On S You say reserve and modesty he has. 37. WMR. Book. with title 'To the Same' (i. Hayley). Book. Ixxxiv H To Thy friendship oft Do be my Enemy MS. out DGR withGil. XXI.

EY (' Memoir' chap. MS. 50. t'other spits. p. That my Friends may weep MS. xlix. 49. One grins. 219. 37. addition. without title. : 5 MS. & Stothard are also in doubt Lest their Virtue should be put to the rout. Book. Cp. For sorrow that poor John Thompson 's gone. p. Hayley. & Baldwin of Egypt's Lake Fear to associate with Blake. 45. This and the two following epitaphs were obviously written before the Stothard lines (cp. Book. 7. 217 Ixxxv Cosway. EY (ist . and in corners hides. p.' xviii). . 8 One backsides] A marginal 8 shewn] shaved EY. line only) i. 6 Virtue] friendship EY. II. i . Ixxxvi An Epitaph Come knock your heads against this stone. 37. Frazer. xlix.Rossetti MS. . 8i. Ixxxvii Another I was buried near this dyke. Coupl. 37. as much WMR (' as they like. 7 fother] other EY. Only in EY i. vii) i. . 11. Book. And all the Virtuous have shewn their backsides. This Life is a Warfare against Evils They heal the sick he casts out devils. i. with last couplet. 219. 46). 219. Flaxman.

title. is by Hayley. Book. who knows to forgive nervous fear. Book on Flaxman and Hayley the verses written some eight years earlier these interesting lines. Epitaph '. . DGR xvii. the Friend of all mankind left one enemy behind. to be mine — ! is this : Milton lov'd me in childhood. He lies : has not MS. G. but Shakespeare in riper years gave me his hand terrors appeared in the Paracelsus and Behmen appeared to me Heavens above The American War began All its dark horrors passed before my face Across the Atlantic to France Then the French Revolution commenc'd . i. . 1. (« prov'd : by Flaxman lov'd. the blessed of Heaven are Italy. 37. I could not subsist on the Earth. WMR 181. Cp. xv. Friends were quite hard to find. WBY (' Coupl' xiv. which have not been previously printed. .. Cp. 51. EY.' . his friend. When ! Flaxman was taken in to Heaven. Coupl. Ixxxviii Another Here John Trot. WMR. the rest omit Gil. i. man's O Father of Heaven and Earth lines that ever I : saw Flax- face. 3) with title 'On 219. Fuseli was given me to for a Season. in thick clouds And my Angels . Book. .' 2 nor] or as a Genius thus p. ' I To MY Dearest Friend John Flaxman these bless thee. nor Gil. : Russell. EY Hayley. Angels stand round my spirit my friends upon Earth. ' entitles .' xxi. A. EY. have told me that seeing such visions. B. 12 Sept. . DGR. with this and other epigrams in the MS. i. Ixxxix My title Not prais'd MS. i8r (last couplet only). xlix. 38. I owe to the courtesy of Mr. But by my conjunction with Flaxman.2 1 Rosseiti 8 MS. and shew'd me his face Ezra came with Isaiah the Prophet. old authors say But now they stand in everybody's way. 1800. p. And now Flaxman such my lot Now my lot in hath given upon Earth the Heavens me Hayley. 18).

painted. finish'd with labour. A word illegible in MS. p. How can its execution be any other than the work of a blockhead? Bloated gods Mercury. p. ? p. "EY omit. Book. Cp. around clumsy and ricketty princes and — princesses. my good And MS. understood Christ was a Carpenter not a Brewer's Servant. i I. paint] Rubens had been a Statesman or a Saint .] xci To English Connoisseurs You must And And give Than you I agree that Rubens was a Fool.' xix) with- title. xi). 4 an] painted] EY omit. 38. . 220. ' What man of sense will lay out his * labour of imbecility. Book. ' — 2 . . He mixed them both and so he learn'd to Paint.' 2 stander] passer EY. del. Book. I. journeymen's] journeymen EY. am] Rubens was EY. Advettisement (MS. I. i. .' . p. Advertisement (MS.Adveriisew^h/ (MS. 2 I . It bears this evidence in its face. p. 38. and the lumber of an awkward French palace are thrown together. Only in EY i. Of an hundred journeymen's how-d'ye do Neighbour — ? MS. out i yet you p. and imbecility's journeyman . Book. and the rattle-traps of mythology. 19) Rubens' Luxembourg Gallery is confessed on all hands to be the work : ' of a blockhead. Book. Coupl. a Statesman and a Saint. money upon the life's . Only . circa 1810) : . Venus. Book. in And EY so learn to paint. I'll 219. 219 xc Rubens. Juno. 63) :' He who could represent Christ uniformly like a drayman must have queer conceptions consequently his execution must have been as queer. 3 But] For EY. That stink in the nose of a stander-by. with no outline that you can descry. 38. Cp. Deceptions MS. a EY. 5. . 6 I Sir] An addition.Rossetti MS. EY (' 5 Sir.' 5. Book 1st rdg. 4 things] thing EY. . make him master of your School. Rubens. : xcii Swelled limbs. WMR (' Epig.' MS. Cp. higledy-piggledy. . . . But all the pulp-wash'd. and these must be queer fellows who give great sums for such nonsense and think it fine art. more money for his slobberings will give for Rafael's finest things. am . 18. DGR.

and 3. 11. stanzas as two up arrange The character and expression in this picture Catalogue (1809). in Courts of Kings.'s practice is unbroken lines. Only in of 11. XCIV These are the Idiots' chiefest arts: To blend and not define the parts. 221. 4. del. 6. General Knowledges : ' : are those Knowledges that Idiots possess. Their art is to lose form his art is to find form and His arts are opposite to theirs in all things. and broken colours. have given high Prices for Bad Pictures. Book. 8. Flemish. 5.' xcv and xcvi. . 8 being a marginal addition. B. unbroken masses. or any thing Venetian or The Venetian and Flemish practice is broken lines. pp. But Rafael thinks a Head. as a single poem with the title Raphael and Rubens (' Epig. 2 of title. Book finishings] . EY i. 7. 27 EY ' : could never have been produced with [Blake's 'Canterbury Pilgrims'] Rubens' light and shadow. i. 38. Descriptive made Cp. The Swallow sings. broken masses.2 Rossetti 20 MS. 26. 7. MS. a foot. or with Rembrandt's. The correct position of the lines is indicated by prefixed i. Blake's copy of Reynolds' Works. What where the original title {del. 220. p. Book. . 2.' Also Notes in to keep it. for those p. who arable numerals. omitting ' ' in paid 1. That Fools have their high finishings. and unbroken colours. WMR who ' ' xii).' I the] EY 15/ rdg. Mr. To Generalize is to be an Idiot. EY read ' be 3 The Swallow sings] Let it known '/or told.) read 'a Pretty Epigram prints this. Rubens thinks Tables. i MS. omit. xciu A the for encouragehave paid great sums in the Venetian and Flemish Pretty Epigram ment of those Who ooze Nature and Art in this together suit: is Most Grand is always most Minute. 38. .' MS. p.* 4 That told ' . xcviii To Particularize is the Alone Distinction of Merit. Chairs and Stools are Grand. a hand.

had not p. & Dry Unfinish'd Works of Art. Sublime. But to loose them the Fool makes his foolish Game. [114] : End in View that Gainsborough had . 265. 'The following Discourse is written with the Same Works. study these old Hard. i. Correggio. Stupid. I also spoke my Mind. and to Execute from Rubens Can any Man be Such a fool as to believe that Rafael & Michael p. Cp. EY i. ' 6 The . the Judgment to Perform the Inferior parts of Art. note on flyleaf of his copy of Reynolds' Discourse no. 39. who does not admire Rafael's Execution. p. xlvii looking over the Prints from Rafael & Michael Angelo in the Library of the " You should not Royal Academy. . p. how can they then be Finish'd ? The Man who does not know The BeginI ning never can know the End of Art. . you what you should Study. Moser came to me cfe said. however.' calls ! ' I ' ' . . : ' His power of execution I must — EY obscure the whole grant." 8 Game] aim EY.' The following extracts. Book. The Laborious Stumble To make out the parts ' I allow that there is such a thing as Cp. xxix. Blake's notes to Reynolds' Discourses. is the wise man's aim. He p. & That Such Idiots as Rubens.' He who Admires Rafael. His Executive Power must I despise? Rubens. Low. Must admire Rafael's Execution. Ignorant His power of Execution I must grant ? — — WMR MS. as Reynolds artfully ' Why them ? But that we are to Learn to Think from Great Masters.MS. Majestic. . Stiff. 4 Power] powers EY. Angelo were Incapable of the meer Language of Art. Cannot Admire Rafael. of a Fool. v.' 2. as there may be a fool or a knave in an embroidered : ' I was once also. 126. vol. 55) high-finished ignorance. p. grant] point of this epigram by punctuating the last line . . show clearly that the last line should be read as an — indignant question involving an answer in the negative : are we to be told that Masters who Could Think." Rubens' Galleries. 220. MS. How He then went and took down Le Brun's and did secretly rage. Gil. Namely To Represent Vulgar Artists as the Models of Executive Merit. xcvi. 4 His . Vulgar. Graceful. . (as continuation of xciii). Rossetti And 22 1 this the Princes' 5 golden rule. i. Book xcv Wise Rafael. Advertisement (MS. Blake's ms. Stay a little. & I will shew coat ' : . Fool] Cp. taken from Blake's marginal notes to Reynolds' Discourses. things that you call Finish'd are not Even Begun. Book. . " These I said to Moser. 167. . & to Learn to Perform from Underhngs Learn to Design from Rafael. p. & Titian knew how to Execute what they could not Think or Invent.

while the cripple must be taught to walk like healthy people. EY i. EY insert this after 1.' xi). Book ist rdg. i. xciii. 221. del. p. Book. p. Slobbering] globbering EY. 39. and take the wall. asi). rare wisdom I drudges] smudges EY. MS. there 's no doubt MS. Neighbours. p. Book. send] Go and send EY. what Great Labour ! Pain in Modest Doubt ! MS. both great & small. EY. a Go. 4 . Gil. learn me. only) i. WBY Coupl.' says ' : Sir Joshua in astonishment cries out: ' See. EY ('Coupl. 222. Give to ! govern all. 19): 'Who that has eyes cannot see that Rubens & Corregio must have been very weak & vulgar fellows ? And This is like what Sir Francis Bacon are we to imitate their execution ? that a healthy child should be taught & compelled to walk like says : — a cripple. from an as conclusion of presumably his own form idiot's action my xcv. me a Woman's fate. : — ! interpolating ' rule I 221 invert order of the two lines. 265. e'en I] EY (Index.' ix). (' Grow to Man's Estate. Book. Book. I DGR. WMR. . WBY. the last word. i line. between lines EY and 2 the And ' WMR 39. I p. send your Children to the Slobbering School MS.222 MS. Advertisement (MS. XCVlll The And 1 cripple every step drudges & labours. ('Coupl. XCVll If I e'er O May Have MS. 4 See Doubt] His pains are more than ' ! . . i. (first 4 11. DGR WMR. 39. Rossetti XCVl Learn the laborious stumble of a Fool ! Go. Cp. O. others. as part of the poem.' 12). Pain in] springs from Gil. I e'er] e'er I Book. of Good to walk Come.

Rubens ' (' or tune. or a Cutlass. 7 cry] EY XCIX On the great encouragement given & English Nobihty by Cor- to Gentry reggio. spends Fortune On a smear. 7. del.MS. Reynolds. Book print this couplet after ist rdg.' The ' before ' 'English. p. in title EY . Book 15^ rdg..' ix) Du Crow. MS. whole his Englishman. 4 On] For rdg.' and read Catelans for 'Catalani. Gainsborough. WMR. and insert ' Rembrandt after ' ' EY 222. . i. EY . title prints under this title c. An first] addition. Book .. omit. 3 taught] wise MS. 40. i . . to destroy Picture And I call upon Colonel Wardle To give these Rascals a dose of Caudle. . He 6 . del." omit 'and Gentry. del. xcix. jst 5.. 8 Experiments] marginal addition. del. a dagger. . del. Rubens. DGR. insert ' (' ' Epig. ' . or a knife MS. EY. . MS. 1st rdg. if ' high labour'd Newton and Bacon cry He 223 6 labour'd] finished EY. Experiments from last to first. DGR an addition.' all is he crep. c.]. EY. to destroy] that is not And Caudle] EY EY. Du Crow. Catalani. 5 WMR WMR omit Epig.' 3). . ci. 5 Wardle] ibid. learned ibid. a bead. and Dilbury Doodle As the Ignorant Savage will sell his own Wife For a Sword. a Bauble [buckle 2nd rdg. 1809 passim. 6 Warble .. del. or Knife So the savage taught. every step 5 ! ' Being badly Nurst. 2nd rdg. Rossetti He & walks And how stumbles as is 5. A step] . 8 . Newton experiment EY. DGR. Wardle see Examiner. EY. or a squall. Book.' 2 For Knife] For a button. . For Col.

them] All men have drawn outlines whenever they saw them DGR. In the art of painting. WMR. pray how can they make it? When Men will draw outlines begin you to jaw them Madmen see outlines and therefore they draw them. Book. I i. Can Anglus ever ' discern perfection but in the journeyman's labour ? Cp. . 3 is the Pencil] in the art the DGR. and] or . p. As when they are drunk they always paint best. This ' : opinion is as destructive of the true artist as it is false by all experience. 5 They never can Rafael it. MS. nor Blake it If they can't see an outline. p. CI All pictures that Are painted by painted with sense and with thought Madmen. p. 41. DGR. For the Greater the Fool is the Pencil more blest. p. Book. also Advertisement (MS. 5 nor] or EY. 47) Englishmen have been so used to journeymen's undecided Even Hogarth cannot be ' : bungling that they cannot bear the firmness of a master's touch. . . he and till With Thanks and Compliments MS. "WMR (see note to xcix). 223. 181. Cp. Gil. 40. EY i. DGR. WMR MS. 40. Book.2 Rossetti 24 MS. . p. Fuseli it. (see note to xcix). WMR. . Book. ' i. EY 222. these impostors Advertisement (MS. extending H I are quite ' to drawn ' Hayley. Give Pensions to the Learned Pig. 222. . cu On H I write the Pickthank the Rascal thanks. as sure as a Groat 's i . i. WMR. WMR. DGR.' 3 Anglus] Bunglers EY. Book. 25^! sedulously propagate an opinion that great inventors cannot execute. Or the Hare playing on a Tabor Anglus can never see Perfection But in the Journeyman's Labour.' EY dry. 7 When 4 As] And DGR. either copied or improved.

' Cp. Book. Book. Cool] Because I know he judgment is] judgalways judges cool. menny wouver in the next piece. del. That Blake probably read ' 4 ' ' French with ease may be inferred from his quotation of a passage from Voltaire's Essai stiy les iiiceurs et F esprit des nations. 4 Amiable state] Because wc 3 or] and Gil. EY.MS. SAMPSON EY. Only in EY i. Book 15/ rdg. del. 41. all. del. CIV When you look at If a Man of Sense a picture. Not prejudiced by feelings great Amiable state he cannot feel at ! MS. p. . but keep up a jaw About freedom. you always can see has Painted he. ments are EY. I . MS. Jenny sink awa'] Blake's purposely grotesque spelling of Je ne sais quoi. i. p. we can Say all was owing to the Skilful Man i 5 . [cxxvii] of his copy of Reynolds' Discourses.. . Book . 208. Then never flinch. For the smell of water is but small So e'en let Ignorance do it all. : MS. 223. As when it smells of the lamp. Book 15^ rdg. 223. 5 we] all MS. 41.. EY i. or small. know MS. and Jenny sink awa'. 2 Because judgment] judgments Gil. Gil. Rossetti 225 cm Cromek speaks I always take my judgment from a Fool Because his Judgment is so very Cool . copied with indignant comment on p. 1st rdg.

The p. i : ! 5 Rather than the Perfections of a Fool. 41. is *5 a great splutter with smoke and damp. and 5. . DGR separate epigrams . separated from the two preceding print the second and third couplets as the 1-4.2 26 MS. last couplet is WMR 223. Fool] To learn to admire the works . 1. 3 God] heaven EY. ranters ! in a 5 lamp. Book. And make 'Twill For there Of 2 Menny written. 'Twill hold forth a huge splutter with smoke and damp . Of displaying up a light when we want not to see. Rossetti cv CroEnglish Encouragement of Art mek's opinions put into rhyme : If you mean to Please And like Like displaying oil will Everybody. Book. p. as it seems to me. 4 Obscurely cxvi You And say their Pictures well Painted be. WBY last couplet only. To . The errors of a wise man make your Rule. when you don't wish to see. MS. 42. Book ist rdg. you both Bunglishness & For a great conquest are Bunglers. For it 's all sheer loss. 223 (with Encouragers' for 'Encouragement' and 'opinion' for 'opinions' in title) print the earlier and clearer version ' which reads : ' — If you mean to please everybody you work both ignorance and skill. of a Fool MS. by a sketch. 4 del. Like putting oil and water in a lamp. 4. 6 as distinct pieces . *8 Of] For EY. MS. and EY i. Menny wouver and water skill mad i . *i will Set to For a great multitude are ignorant. 11. yet they are blockheads you all agree Thank God I never was sent to school To be Flog'd into following the Style of a Fool. See note to civ.' wouver] read manoeuvre. EY i. . no use as it seems to me lighting a lamp. *s in] into EY. skill to them seems raving and rant.

a Worm. Book ist rdg. a Hog. del. . a WMR .. EY.. ' whose whole delight enter his mind. about Correggio being poor and but badly paid for his Pictures. p. sudden death. Correggio] Seeing a Rembrandt or Correggio DGR. 42. del. and those who were his imitators and journeymen he causes to the Florentine and Roman Artist fear to execute. WMR. 7. 43. 2 I Joe] Of crippled Harry I think and slobbering Joe DGR. ' ' cvni When I see a Rubens. is altogether false . Book. Cp. so that the is : and though the original conception was all fire and animation. Book ist rdg. del. DGR. and by infusing the remembrances : Rubens is of his Pictures and st^-le of execution. When When I see I . p. 1. Rembrandt. O pray! Rather than be such a blind Human Fool I'd be an Ass. . civ. The manual labour in these Pictures of Correggio is immense. he loads it with hellish brownness. . except one. WMR (' Epig. : To be drawn from the works of two manifest Then God defend us from the Arts I say fools ? 5 ! Murder. thought . and blocks up all its gates of light. a Chair. Rembrandt or Correggio MS. MS. Only in EY 224. Book. I think of crippled Harry. 3 question thus] say to myself MS. EY. Cp. was a great sin. Descriptive Catalogue. the allusion to water in an epigram on the preceding page of the MS. WMR. 6 Send] For DGR. and adopt the Venetian and Flemish. omit. hinders man who all power of individual possessed by this demon loses all admiration of any other Artist but Rubens. pp. and that one he closes with iron bars. Book. . a Stool Send Battle. WMR . . O] we MS. 56-59 a most outrageous demon. Correggio. 227 cvii The Washerwoman's Song wash'd them out I And they told me & it wash'd them in. Correggio is a soft and effeminate and consequently a most cruel demon. EY iii. and employed numerous Journeymen in manufacturing (as Rubens and Titian did) the Pictures that go under his name. till the victim is obliged to give up the Florentine and Roman practice. MS.Rossetti MS. i.' 4 and x). 7 blind] EY . in Italy. and Q 3 . ! 86. is to cause endless labour to whoever suffers him to The story that is told in all Lives of the Painters. Book is^ r-dg. EY let's DGR. think of the Crippled Harry and Slobbering Joe And then I question thus Are artists' rules i 1 . he was a petty Prince. ' 8 an Ass] EY omit. Possibly a reference to Blake's manner of using water-colour. or slobbering Joe EY.

WBY DGR. Book 2 make me almost] 15/ rdg. Rossetti immense prices that those who keep manufacalways charge to their employers. vii.' O Artist! CIX Great things are done when This is not done by jostling MS. the street. like his own works but then it would have softness and evenness. 225. by a twelvemonth's labour. Esq''^' which probably belonged to the deleted passage. cx you play a Game of Chance. But. del. 224. before you begin. ist rdg. MS. and for if one of hinder all correct drawing from appearing to be correct Rafael's or Michael Angelo's figures was to be traced. and thick-headed. in . there would soon be an end of proportion and strength. dear Christian Friends. Book. and 8). and lumbering. compelled to softness by poverty. . where a month would with judgment have finished it better and higher and the poor wretch who executed it would be the Correggio that the life-writers have written of a drudge and a was paid for originally at the tories of art . Book. and pappy. sweet MS. p. 43. but it shall be at your own peril. Christian . If you are benevolent You will never win.' EY i. he will make any true artist so. (' Epig. . and take possession of his affections he infuses a love of soft and even tints without boundaries. del. — I say again. with the title William Cowper. Book. and it would be weak. miserable man. p. and of endless reflected lights. . with title Fuseli. who permits him to enter his mind. If i. These hnes are written over an erasure. CXI The only Man that e'er I knew did not make me almost spew Was Fuseli he was both Turk and Jew And so. Know.' v. while they themselves pay their journeymen little enough. and Correggio"s reflections and refractions to be added to it. 50. how do you do Who — : ' ? MS. Only in EY 224. 4 dear] ibid. you may disbelieve all this.28 2 MS. i. printed as a quatrain. Men & Mountains meet (' EY Coupl. I ever EY. Friends] Christians I WMR. though Correggio was not poor.' xv) WMR I ' that e'er I] that ever almost make me EY. WMR. p. that confuse one another. 2 This is] These are all edd. 47.

For Joseph cp.' xix) with title Blake's Friends. This p. Notes to Reynolds' Discourses. . perhaps 'Twill. Book. . This Opinion originates in the Greeks calling the Muse[s] Madness. 19 : for the ' 2 was was — Bacon EY. 225. 50. 5 That Genius May be Taught. i.' is Man not whether a & Polite & & Science.' is referred to in note to cxi. And 'tis most wicked in a Christian Nation For any man to pretend to Inspiration. queer] 5 Not . probably the continuation of the erased stanza. Book \st rdg. Soul his in & 5 lie. is x Not when He he's well. was therefore written before the preceding Coupl. 6 I will] 3 Priestly done] when Joseph & is a Fairy] at a Fairy's EY. If he is. he is a & & Genius ! obedient to Good Man. to say the least of it. •The Enquiry in England But whether he is Passive Noblemen's Opinions in Art Not. & that all Pretence to Inspiration is a Lie & For if it is a Deceit the whole Bible is a Deceit. 'Reynolds' Opinion was ir. Until. has Talents a Virtuous Ass. & Bacon] Priestly done EY. . Book. ! Come Listen patient.^ iv. Rossetti 229 CXll For this being a Friend just in the nick. p. : Daughters of Memory. . Fairy see footnote to Poems from Jerusalem. & a Fairy fun. are you here ? will tell I Said to i : Priestly before Joseph of Arimathea. 52. 9 atrocious] most wicked MS. truth in his extravagant claim. MS. not queer . and piece. legibly written. I'll EY. del. You him spend see Do you believe some Till it wants are prov'd. is atrocious in a Friend 'tis Prophecy: a confounded Bookseller. Gil. EY. Prove there For sick. Only in WMR ' (' 12 man] one WMR. he must be Starved. Only in EY i. If cxiii you what Joseph of Arimathea my Fairy was not it very queer ? & Bacon What. & it . the Public Fame. p. 5 I will MS. but waiting till he's sick calls you to his help be you not mov'd . . 12] Cp. his by being you love 9 To tell you anything that he can't prove.MS. & when Joseph has done make a fool laugh.

' *ii). cxv Why was Cupid a Boy.MS. WMR. WBY. ' (1. Rossetti 230 cxiv Grown I oft Love from Seven old in have wish'd MS. For a boy can't interpret the thing Till he is become a man. print the infinitely ' ' WBY . *i i). ' ' (1. by Swinb. p. all with title Cupid and omission of last stanza (except R') which is printed separately (notes. MS. That the whole business of Is to pick out the 13 his life heads of the darts. (p. and 6 the] a WBY.'v). p. And then he's so pierc'd with cares. for or after in 1806. EY (iii. For aught that I can For he shoots with see. so pierced through WBY. 225. preferable first draft of this stanza ' Then : — . 56. 9-12 And man] All edd. Ri. . 5 And And And the Girl shoots with her Eye. Book. ' . 144). make Cupid to a Boy *9 Was surely a Woman's plan. And . DGR. i And why a boy was he? He should have been a Girl. make Cupid a boy 9 the Cupid girl's mocking plan. 248). ' for ' Then cares] he is become a man ' . till Seven times Seven. Book. laugh when we do cry. EY ('Coupl. all except R' 'has for is' (1. 69). is) ' ' ' *9) and to mock for so much (1. for Hell. EY i. p. And wounded with arrowy smarts. WMR. . For a boy ne'er learns so much he Till all and is reading 'never' for 'ne'er' WBY 13 he 's . Ease from Heaven. his bow. And Was to they both are merry & glad. Apparently written 54.

' which indicates that more Prig. WBY. : ' a leer in his Eye. EY. of this piece was written elsewhere Blake has added the words to come MS. Book. 7 So push] 8 he'll] he'd So if tp a painter the question you push DGR. Book. Swinb. 60. WMR. a] all that a EY. Book 1st ydg. he'll reply: 'A Paint-brush. great wig. replied pig. yonder With — brandt ! &c. there WBY omils. Brush. Rosseiti 231 'Twas the Greeks' love of war Turn'd Love into a Boy.' And.MS. 6 And EY.' 13 erhaps this is all a Painter can want: of Remhouse is the house that look But. . . 17 Greeks'] Greek 18 Turn'd] That turned Swinb. 20 And] fled] flew EY. . And Woman into a Statue And away fled every Joy. 12 he'll] and DGR.' (' Coupl. calls this 'the last (rejected) stanza. . CXVl Dear Friend Orator Prig my asked I 'What's the first i : He part of Oratory?' said : 'A great /wig-' Then.' but 17-20 'Twas is no trace of deletion in the MS.' xxi). . 13 all EY. WMR.' And what is the third ? Then he snored like a 'And what the second?' is ' : ' A ' puffing his cheeks out. . Love] Cupid EY. ' 9 A He'll smile like a cherub. DGR. . EY. . out] EY. del. .' ' And what is the third ? he'll bow like a rush. So if a Great Painter with Questions you push 'What's the first part of painting?' he'll say: 'A Paint. EY ' ' ' in Bany : a Poem. i? of Stone — Joy] Swinb. 5 A ' great wig.'' my DGR. I my] of And thrust out his cheeks and 2 part of] thing in MS. . dancing a jig he said d bowing profoundly.' ' And what is ' the second ? with most modest blush. WMR. p. and say paint-brush.' of Orator i) with title in Following the &c. II he'll] He will EY. WBY. . WMR WMR ('Epig.

this little Fable. A . This is quite Perfection one Generalizing Tone There 's no outline. Ruth a drawing' : 64. . As he swam he saw the reflection of the bone.' occurs at foot of p. 11 for one.' 2). EY (' Coupl. . 14 taste] have tasted omit. &c. 61. before] . She frowned h'ke a Fury. EY print first couplet ('Coupl. rest as a separate 8 This rdg. snap All is He ^A had them both before. EY. perhaps the continuation of the preceding epigram (cxvi). and said Patronage. Snap. WMR ('Epig. 9.' 13 taste colouring love pp. one] EY too . omit. No. the rest. pp. too] and lost the 12 them both] both these EY. p. xv. — ' ! ! — 9 : ' it 's all Chiaroscuro. 6r. 63. Book. Book \st 10 Outline Colouring] marginal addi. 60. on p. EY. i the devil this little P'able may make us merry dog went over the water without a wherry bone which he had stolen he had in his mouth He cared not whether the wind was north or south. she said 'Patronage. 5 .' And what is the Third she put off Old Age 5 And smil'd like a Syren and said Patronage. 60. DGR. ! ! great deal better than Those who MS. is a black outline. to Please and Engage. Book. tion . all of us know. He . what a brilliant tone MS. shadow and the substance do ye] d'ye EY. ' I Now how do ye do ? ' was before: it more and more. there 's no such thing Outline Perhaps : A A .' And what is the Second. .' xxiii) followed Tone] Here 's by the two EY omit. Poco-Pen Colouring He has lost shadow and substance too. This is CXVlll To Venetian Artists That God And is Colouring Newton does shew. 13 A.' ! ' : ' WMR MS. ." xxii). i What's the First Part of Painting. ' . (' Epig. del.'v).Rossetti 2 32 MS. Cp. . Blake's Descriptive Catalogue. cxvii O dear Mother Outline of wisdom most sage. 61 : the first ' couplet with the catchwords Perhaps with the title. . EY poem.

4. Rossetti 233 If losing and obliterating the outline constitutes a Picture. . 5-8. Book. p. Rhyming MS. by means of that infernal machine called Chiaro Oscuro. The greater is the evidence of weak Great inventors. •* The expression" but this is a false notion of expression. 2 Fool] fools EY. 1809.MS. MS. people call That the more great and golden rule of art as well as of life is this distinct. where the lines were composed in the following order. Such art of losing the outlines is the it loses all character and leaves what some art of Venice and Flanders * .' CXIX Men and Fools do often me inspire But the Greater Fool. p. in the hands of Venetian and Flemish Demons. Exarjiiner. 54 'These pictures. may be removed by an exhibition and exposure of their . 65. interlineating 11. whose enmity to the Painter himself. go. 76). p. . I EY in Only 63 (reversed). 12. 8 and 9 (or 4. sharp. p. plagiarism. i] Cp. cxx offence by writing in Prose. 4 But . . . the Greater Liar. and wirey the boundary line. and the less keen and sharp. from the first draft on and the addition of 11. Book. Great MS. in all ages. will never be so foolish as to do one. 17. Also Descriptive Catalogue. ." rc/g. The verses were then transcribed on p. 3. 63. 65. 62). del. ii. write in Verse as soft as Bartolloze. me] we EY. But September Nobody (p. 5 in the original Lines 13 and 14 are also an interdraft). and to all Artists who study in the Florentine and Roman Schools. 11. knew this. Rhyming] 15. labouring to destroy Imaginative power. lineation in the first draft. added in a slightly changed form. no. Only in EY (' Memoir' i. Having given great I'll Some blush at what others can see no crime But nobody sees any harm in Rhyming. afterwards renumbered 1-12. Hunt's reference to Blake's Descriptive Catalogue. among numerous others painted for experiment. — : vile tricks. 384. Mr. were the result of temptations and perturbations. 62. the more perfect the work of art. i and a between 11. — . B. with the couplet 11. 19-22. The rough draft of most of this piece occurs on p. at all sees •" Prose] harm EY in omit in. and bungling. .' imitation. Book . which Blake. 15-18. in i .

looking up to my Umbrella. Hayley on his Toilette seeing the sope. 17 Cry. 12 Some ' . nose] I've given great Provision to my Foes ril lead false Friends by the Nose. which perhaps he : 5. . Book 1st idg. center] Cry Tom Cooke 1st rdg.2 Rossetti 34 MS. . and Dryden has finished let Dryden's Fall and Milton's Paradise be read. my A 11 Some say] marginal addition. July i. and monotonous sing-song sing-song from beginning to end. Stothard. del.' Thus Poor Schiavonetti died of the Cromek 17 ' — A thing that tied around the Examiner's neck This is my sweet apology to my friends.' But now MS. p. . proves from circumference to Center MS. * An example of the contrary 6] Cp. 13 Cry Blakefied drawing spoils painter and Engraver While I. Now poem is everybody of understanding must cry out shame on such niggling and poco-pen as Dryden has degraded Milton with. in which it is a rough. . . 9 Thus] An addition Then EY. unfinished piece. .' in the E. 10 Cries] Says MS. smelling a sweet savour. 62\ . Such are Bartolozzi. looking quite from skumference to center. and mass.^ marginal addition . in rhyme. Book 15/ rdg.vaminer. del. Woollett that 'Cooke wished and Strange. (p. Book great] "EY omit. . outline. 63). 1st rdg. 20) us in the characters of Milton and Dryden as they are given in a poem signed with the name of Nat Lee. cries Dryden. and I will assert never wrote.' raving] How many Thousands of Conoisseurs ran raving MS. But at the same time I will allow that stupidity will prefer Dryden. Schiavonetti. Book Mr. del. 20 A reference to Cromek's 'Account of 20 around] about EY. Resolv'd to be a very contrary fellow. and perhaps he wrote said that IMilton's it.' Cries Some say I've given great Provision to my foes. ' ' . p. Thus. 57) to give Hogarth what he could take from Rafael. 1810. Homer is very much improv'd by Pope. 62).' 7] Cp. because it is rhyme.. II. HY omit. Every Fool shook 5 : Tom Cooke cut Hogarth down with his clean graving: Thousands of connoisseurs with joy ran raving. 9 ' And now that Flaxman and lead I my false friends by the nose. Advertisement (MS. 19. : . 8 Thousands and colour but he could not. Advertisement (MS. ' ' Milton only plann'd his bells throughout the land. (p. Book. (p. Book. arts is written in a paroxysm of insanity. Cry. 12 that] . 's That put them may I in mind of ! 21 their latter ends. that is. del. No one can finish so high as the original Inventor.

ciii. Book. i. you shan't] ne'er now MS. . 2. 226. it 's sure to keep your judgment cool .' vi) 2 Like as] Like to EY. which he says that Rafael and Michael Angelo abhorr'd studying On Colourists. cxxiv To God If you have form'd a Go into MS. And never once perceives his ugly form. 3 Admires] Admireth Gil. del. WMR. it p. Circle to see go into. as Vasari tells us. peeping in a Mirror. Book. 70. first 5 Perhaps a continuation of cxx. do. p. del. 6 In spite] For 15^ rdg. Knowing and feeling that we all have need of Butter. Cp.Rossetti MS. Only in EY 2 & i. Book.' EY i. To grow sour at what a friend may utter. EY. They ought not. ^ If False Friends. Mb. ? Written in continuation of a passage in Blake's Adverp. Book no MS. fie ! O fie !] MS. 266 with title nature. ' iiseimiit.'vii. i. 11. 5 Printed here for the time. yourself. fie fie! Our Friendship you shan't sever In spite we will be greater friends than ever. (' Epig.' with title Colour and Form. del. . 65. Book shall \st rdg. in ' ' WMR * cxxiii Some For It It people admire the work of a Fool.ix. when it comes to another's turn. how] what EY.andio). Gil. Book ! \st rdg. I MS. MS. Admires all his colours brown & warm. how you would 226. Book. MS. WBY('Coupl. 66. . DOR. does not reproach you with want of wit is not like a lawyer serving a writ. 235 CXXl men will act like a maid smiling over a churn. cxxii Call that the Public Voice which is their Error Like as a Monkey. p. Book. 73.

breast] heart R^ (' Coupl.' stanza of xxx . And France shall fall down & adore. i. DGR in printing All add. & not Vice Versa as Englishmen suppose.' Also Blake's notes to Empire that attends upon & follows The Foundation of Empire is Art Works [cxxv]). Empire follows Art. 14 are left unfinished. but The Arts. (MS. EY I (' Coupl. Reynolds' & Science. p. 78. slily stole. stanza which Lines p. Advertisement Only 'Let us teach Buonaparte and whomsoever else it not Arts that follow & attend upon Empire. follow in pencil. 4 upon] on the EY. Rossetti 236 cxxv the Riches of this World May be gifts from the Devil & Earthly Kings. 66): that it is ' . ' . in at DGR. (vol.' 5). Remove them. 79. Cp. 5 feet. & the Empire is No More. apparently the beginning of a second in EY i.' iv).' 4 my God] WBY omits my. And War MS. Myra's pocket-hole. Book. was shall sink beneath thy 13. MS.' 7 their] her EY. p. 227.MS. p. WBY WMR. DGR. With works of Art their Armies meet i . or Degrade them. 73 (reversed) with and EY with title Riches. may concern p. as for WMR The Two Kinds WBY ' of Riches.' has shall So spoke an Angel at my birth Then said Descend thou upon earth Renew the Arts on Britain's shore. Book. I should suspect that I worship'd the Devil Since all my God If I thank'd first title ' worldly things. Book. Book. CXXVl To Chloe's breast young Cupid But he crept MS. CXXVll •Now Art France lost its mental Charms subdue the World in Arms.

In a commercial nation the greatest enemies of are These in all are abroad professions. with WMR (p. Swinb.' this as part of The Everlasting * Gospel. Who shall I dare to shew them to? What mighty Soul in Beauty's form Shall dauntless View the Infernal storm? And these i I 5 MS.Rossetti MS. 237 thy Nation Arts refuse. * Spirit And who .' EY. p. WBY Judgment p. title ' EY For a Picture of the Last 144) seems unaware that this poem forms part of the MS.' headed 'For the Year 1810 iii. WMR. on same page as part of Blake's descriptive account of Addition his picture of 'The Last Judgment. 13 MS. Book. del. p. del. &c. But now the Caves of Hell I view. 170. Book. MS. shore] . del.' ' 14 Cp. Book rdg. Book. Nail his neck to the Cross: ye all have power over his tail. 15/ rdg. : WMR 74. Advertisement (MS. 25). 57 wrongly regard for which no place can be assigned. p. to Blake's Catalogue of Pictures. shew'd to England's Queen. Book. 87. MS.' p. . EY ii. Book 4 Who] Whom 15/ rdg. 79. 13. . : 140. p. Book isi 6 daunt'ess] dare to . 55. I Caverns] Visions MS. WBY. impostors Genius. . Book save thy works from Britain's shore 14 Spirit — smile] lovest Britannia's shore Round which Commerce the Fiends of roar. 1st rdg. del. 3 But] And MS. And they scorn the immortal Muse.' Swinb. CXXIX The Caverns of the Grave I've seen. France shall the arts of Peace restore And save thee from the ungrateful shore. all except Dedication.' But if 9 if who lov'st Brittannia's Isle Round which the Fiends of Commerce smile Spirit 12 And . EY. CXXVlll Nail his neck to the Cross: nail it with a nail.

For everything besides It is away ? i ! I have I can crave. Gil. I R^ EY. 128 (with title Prayer') arranges stanzas in the of 5. 2. 309. 2. 5. 7 with title The place stanzas in correct order. del. 9 Re-engrav'd Time after Time. crave] It's only can crave EY. ' Thrones. can crave is] It's R». 89. WBY (i. . 310. but rage in vain. p. Still admir'd by Noble minds. < . : away ! Mammon for 5 . 15 unchang'd] shall rdg. then 7 EY follows Gilchrist with title Mammon order i. The . 3. . prints I. still ibid. ist )dg. del. Egremont's Countess can controll flames of Hell that round me roll If she refuse.ROSsettI 238 MS. : Riches that written immediately under and partly around an entry R' has stanzas i. dated Aug. sure. I still go on Till the Heavens & Earth are gone.. then 4 and 7 . 4. 2. WMR . cxxx — up at the dawn of day Get thee away get thee away I rose ' ! Pray'st thou for Riches This is Said I took I the Throne of It only ! grey. " ' . Book can] dare 8 flames] doors ist rdg. .. 13 Ever My Designs unchang'd remain. 7 II MS. It's For everything] Everything R'. 7 WBY. Gil. 8 It only riches I . 6. . is( rdg. p. 3. i. 1807. isi Noble] worthy ibid. In my Golden House on high. del. ibid. rage. del. On the Great Atlantic Mountains. Two Gil. Book. Time may 17 There they shine Eternally.' 5 Said said 1] I WMR riches that It WMR . a fourth stanza formed of the first couplets of 6 and 4. the to be this. For above Time's troubled Fountains. the latter 228) and MS. 3.' is very odd Throne of God. a fifth stanza formed of the second couplet of 4 and the first couplet Swinb. in their Youthful prime. WBY. WBY. Follow'd by Envy on the winds. the first couplet of 6. Everything else EY.

Then if Devil. except Swinb. 9 Joy] joys R' and Mr Devil. 15. he holds my money bag in his hand. 9 I . 98. .. more if to him I would pray he'd pay worst you can do do the so you may And And Be 13 17 worldly things for .' Monej^. above stanza C 4 of Fayette' (MS.. if I don't worship him EY. . God makes him pay. Book. pray it must be for other People. . 27 So] But RS Gil. . omit 'And. Mr assur'd. edd. I shall eat coarser food. xxxvi). .' 15 doth] does Swinb. WBY. Gil. Friends] R* and all Wife I love] Wife that I love R^ 13-20 I am . if I do not worship him for a God. MS. ii ' : . up of contradiction. just as 10 all edd. 25 if say RV... . I I little won't pray to you. Book. & Mental Health. say] God knows it 's little prayers I need him] if I worship not him R'. And God's presence night & day. For my am in And he I The .' and all edd. & go worse shod. . EY. He You must do. written from the reversed end of the book. ' . So. . which Printed appears upside down. and marked for insertion here. cxxxi Do what you And is made will this life's a fiction. i6 Cp. margin. & Mental wealth I've a Wife I love. except Swinb. 'The Laocoon' (Prophetic except Swinb. I must not Pray. WBY. WBY.. omit 'And. here for first time. which is The Great Satan or Reason the Root of Good Books. i6 money bag] money-bags EY. 21) & Evil In the Accusation of Sin. EY. So. Rossdti 239 have Mental Joy. WMR. WBY. 21 of Prayers need say . And Mental Friends. God And Mental 25 please. 19 And so j-ou] And j-ou 22 God EY. Church is known by its Steeple. as a If I says. never turns his face away accuser of sins by my side doth stand. WBY. to you] Written later in 14 And he] R^ and all edd. Gil.. Riches for God knows. & that loves me I've all But Riches Bodily. p. EY. as I don't value such things as these.MS. WMR WMR.

i

POEMS
FROM

THE ROSSETTI

MS.

Ill

'THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL'
^

Written

SAMPSON'

cxxxii
circa

R

1810

ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT
III

cxxxii

THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL
Prefatory
This poem — or

Note

rather rough studies for a poem which
Blake never carried to completion consists of a series of
fragments scattered throughout the MS. Book. As these
occur for the most part on vacant spaces of pages already

'

partially filled with the draft of his catalogue for the year
1810,' it is plain that 'The Everlasting Gospel' was written
not earlier (though probably not much later) than this

date.

Three of these fragments (/?, y^, and y^) are different treatments of the same theme, Christ's gentleness or humility
one (S) is a mere note or suggestion
while all but the
first few lines of another (77) have been lost to us through
;

;

Blake's neglect to transcribe the remainder of the passage
MS. Book. The several fragments in their present
form contain repetitions of lines and overlapping of thought
and expression which the author would doubtless have
removed on final revision. At one stage in the evolution
of the poem Blake marked the order in which he intended
the parts then written to be placed, and this clue, with
careful observance of the position of later marginal insertions, enables us to arrange the different sections of the
poem in their proper sequence. To carry further the
attempt to give unity to this unfinished piece would involve
editorial omissions and transpositions contrary to the plan
of the present work.
Fragment (3, the 57 11. beginning Was Jesus gentle,'
seems to have been the first draft of the initial section of
the poem.
Handling the same theme again in a different
manner, Blake re-wrote the entire passage in the new form
into the

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y^ (the 38 11., or with marginal additions 46 11., beginning
'Was Jesus humble' and ending 'And take Revenge at
the last Day'), and this again was further altered and
expanded into the revised version y^, to which the title
'
The Everlasting Gospel was prefixed for the first time.
This last section contains 106 11. which Blake, in a marginal
note, reckons as 78, showing that the calculation was made
before the interpolated 11. 21-24, 31-50 and 85-88 were
added in the margin. At this point he indicated the
connexion of y^ with ^, which he then meant to be the
next section, by adding the catchwords was Jesus chaste
or did he &c.,' followed by the couplet {Q) with which the
'

'

poem was

apparently meant to conclude

:

am sure this Jesus will not do
Either for Englishman or Jew.'

'I

The fragment ^ Was

'

'

Jesus chaste contains 96 11., the
being a marginal addition, written after Blake had
noted 94 lines as the length of this passage. Below 1. 94,
without apparent break, he added

two

last

'

'

:

*

Seeing this

made my

I

What

and passion
over the nation.

false Christ in fury

voice heard

all

are those, &c.'

followed at the side, a little lower down, by the two-line
It was Blake's practice to add
epilogue quoted above.
&c.' where a poem or passage had already be jn written
elsewhere, and it seems clear that these three lines were
merely catchwords marking the position of the imperfect
section r],
Messrs. Ellis and Yeats point out that the 7th
stanza of 'To the Jews {Jenisalevi, 1804) begins with the
words What are those golden builders doing ?
As that
poem, however, is written in quatrains with a different
rime-arrangement it could not well have followed here,
'

'

'

'

though Blake

may have

repeated this particular

Of the remaining

line.

portions the four-line fragment 5 Did
Jesus teach doubt is written transversely on the page
opposite the beginning of y^, which it was apparently
meant to precede. Blake does not here add &c.,' and it
is probable that these lines are
merely suggestions of a new
train of thought which he did not develop further.
The
48 II. (e) beginning Was Jesus born of a virgin pure' p^e
found on a scrap of different paper now bound in at the
end of the MS. Book. It can hardly have been written
earlier than May 18 10, since it occupies the fourth page
'

'

'

'

R

2

' Woman taken selection in Adultery. The interpolation e still leaves the epilogue at the end of the as at first intended.' A much more comprehensive by Mr. and there is consequently no attempt at is who 175).MS. 8. ' ' . pp.. Ellis and and y^. W. 3. which were afterwards copied The into. Swinburne [Essay. and the loss of 77 (perhaps also of 5) may be attributed to the same cause. 1868.' The omission of y^ and a few odd couplets rejected for various reasons. enriched by running commentary. reduce the entire number of lines in this version to 313. ' ' ' The ' Everlasting Gospel were first written. the preceding page of which contains part of the draft of Blake's Additions to his Catalogue of Pictures for the Year 1810 and it must have been written later than jS as it has the amended form of 1. the reader must judge. given prints ' ' ' strict sequence. the MS. The fourteen lines beginning The Vision of Christ that thou dost see (a) are introductory to the whole poem. Rossetti 244 of a folded sheet. comparatively small number of corrections made in /? show that it must have been copied from an earlier draft. of title The (11. This passage has no place assigned to it. 148altogether 253 11. M. D. Swinburne's extracts have part. M. found in y^ But there are no grounds for Messrs. obviously been chosen with a view to elucidating his author's meaning. 4 omitted) and 43 of 96 ^. but its natural position would appear to be immediately before ^. reverently treated. such as This life's dim windows of the soul for This life's five windows of the soul'. under the poem A ' ' ' ' . W. but Blake's text is. to ' ' which they are probably meant to serve as prologue. . Here and there slight emendations are made. Rossetti states that this wholly amazing and partly splendid poem is now published in full for the first time. where I print it in the present arrangement.' adding I have done my best to arrange the verses into some sort of order and method with what success. for the most Mr. Rossetti there printing the prologue 11. like e. or merely loosely inserted in.' Probably all the fragments of . small part only of The Everlasting Gospel was included among the Poems hitherto Unpublished in Gilchrist (1863) Mr. Yeats' conjecture that these lines are intended to supersede much of the rest of the poems \read poem '] but rejected by the author before he made up his mind how to fix them in. G. upon separate pieces of paper. an afterthought. In the Aldine Edition (1874) Mr. Book. The poem as reconstructed by Mr.

25-40 4. Rossetti has 11.' final version as parallel columns.11. — — WMR ' . Messrs. Such misreadings as Doth read for Both read ' ' ' ' for 'three days long' (y\ 1. then 6. the latter followed by /? ('Another version. 42-60) have made the only attempt up to the present to reproduce the frag- They first give y^ and y^ in and previous version. apparently earlier ') . 11. in the inaccuracies in their text are. 5.yMl. y^. 13).ai-34. due rather to simple blundering than to any attempt to amend their author. y\ 3. of 7. 3. 11. pp. 5). 4). not with those of the author i a into always corresponding (except 11. 11. 8\ y^ 93-96. (. ^. 3. Yeats gives ten lines less than arranges the fragments with more regard for Blake's own His order of the passages is as follows subdivisions. imme- . 13-57. clearly discernible reason. generally adopted the emendations introduced into the text by his predecessor. written down elsewhere. 25-106 is scarcely e and of The e. 1-20. which. false Christ in fury . W. 6.e. of " The Everlasting Gosin favour of 77 " terminates for us with a loose end. B. such as we find in Swinburne and Rossetti. but Mr. are merely catchwords marking the position of a complete passage. Rossetti Rossetti is divided 245 the following six sections. All-i3>57. 'all day long' •ten years old' for 'twelve years old (y^ 1.' Here they fail to pel see that the 2^ 11. ' * — ' ' a separate scrap 21-25. 6. happy. though its proper place is followed by e. which they think was cancelled and so the MS. 5. 41-50. Mr. but now unfortunately lost to us. for no MS. a. 11. ' 11. 52) passages show the correctly printed by Blake's earlier editors carelessness with which they transcribed their original. Later they print as ments as Blake left them. I. they regard as a cancelled passage. 51-106. and the omission of rj. 1. — 1-80. . 11. Ellis and Yeats (vol. : a (except P. 17-48). then 8 and ^ (treating the former as a continuation of the latter). Seeing this I made my 2. 11. marked The numerous y^. ii.. 6. 81-90 . 1-20. and passion — — climax destroys voice heard all over the nation ' to which the epilogue forms the natural the force of this concluding couplet by making it diately follow the speech of Caiaphas (e. ^. 4. y^ 11. 11.91. ( transposition 3. ^. 4).92. (a. here as else- where.MS.

4 to] EY omit.' WBY. 5 Friend] fare DGR. p. . WBY. Mine has a snub nose like to mine. 93. Book xlix and Ixxxviii) and the reference to the 'great hook nose. So Cai[a]phas I . the bodies of three figures with outJei-usalem. Book. And Caiaphas was in his own Mind A benefactor to Mankind. Thine has a great hook nose like thine. Mine speaks in Parables to the Blind. ' thought Jesus. 4 Thine . On the strength of the phrase Friend of all Mankind' MS. should not have worshipped him if I thought he had been one of those long spindle-nosed rascals. . Socrates taught what Meletus Loath'd as a Nation's bitterest Curse. See also prose note or p. Thine is the Friend of All Mankind 4 . But thou read'st black where I read white. Book. 13 Both] Doth EY. 9-12 Cp. EY in suppose this prologue to be addressed to Stothard. where on stretched arms and accusing forefingers are engraved the words Anytus Meletus & Lycon thought Socrates a very Pernicious Man. .' ' (cp. Both read the Bible day & night. f. 8 12 MS. 3 great] long EY. 64 : 'I always thought that Jesus Christ was a MS.THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL a \Prologue\ The Vision Is my of Christ that thou dost see Vision's Greatest Enemy. snubby. 14 read'st] readest EY. Thine loves the same world that mine hates Thy heaven doors are my Hell Gates. mine] This couplet omitted by all except EY.' 3. 33.

6 trumpet-sound] trumpet's sound EY. . the same lines as 106. Swinb. 8). 11.' still weaker readings in 7^ and 7. quotes with commentary 11. . Book has no punctuation. And 12 . 8 No . First printed in full by EY. angry. 17-32. WBY. In 7' (1. come away. And left his Parents in dismay. 11. Come.' said Satan. 22. earthly parents. business] . as another sentence of equally slovenly construction. is favour gains with God & Men. 50. 47-57. Obedience force me to obey.' WMR inserts 11. But you can turn the stones to bread. 100. God's high king & God's high Priest Your Shall Plant their Glories in 20 breast. 23. And. 35-40. 247 /8 Was He Jesus gentle.' It should not be overlooked that in its present form the poem is merely a rough draft. a duty then. A fair copy of an earlier draft. Book.' John from the Wilderness loud cried Satan Gloried in his Pride. earthly parents. 16 you'll] you EY. pp. 44 and WBY places 51. I confess I am doing My Father's business. mistakenly calling these 'a later division of the poem. Cp.' EY make 10). 168-170. the last line of this couplet to I am doing my an heroic attempt to accept the lines as they occur here. ii. Loud * No My Ye as Sinai's trumpet-sound Earthly Parents I confess 4 : : 8 Heavenly Father's business. 7* 7. 13-57 between conclusion to 7^.(abandoned No. and e (1. My which necessitates however in i) : — their * I : — confess heavenly Father's business. 10 1. pp. as appears from MS. col. by punctuating ' ' No.Rossetti MS. following 1. 7'. the very slight alterations made after writing. The MS. or did Give any marks of Gentility? When twelve years old he ran away. I'll soon see if you'll obey ' ' 16 ! John for disobedience bled.. When after three days' sorrow found. 18 stones] stone WBY. understand not what I say. 34) Blake changes Father's business. 51. (1. pp. 2.

Where'er His Chariot took its way. WMR 28 make] give ire. smiters with disease.' lightnings broke around. p. Rossetti 248 If You Caiaphas will obey. WBY.. : . worship me. i68 " with the sacrifice of bloody prey. 33 .writing .. I sieze make way. Throughout the land he took his course. in 32 forth. smiter with disease?' of this He bound Old And.. 'An ugly specimen of Herod Sacrifice] Swinb. . WBY. He curs'd the Scribe & 36 Pharisee. There Gates of death let in the Day. 23 If . And. WBY. 50 does] did WBY. WBY. Thunders the spiritual Prey. . Broke down from every Chain & Bar And Satan in his Spiritual War Drag'd at His Chariot wheels loud howl'd 40 . . bursting World raged Satan in vain . 48 out the Temple of his Mind. WMR. And in his Body tight does bind Satan & all his Hellish Crew. EY. lightnings] lightning Swinb. ' ready. bursting forth his furious 40 There] Those Swinb. 41 &] a EY. And trac'd diseases to their source. ire] . Trampling down Hipocrisy. : The God of this World The Chariot Wheels. And .MS. Herod You with bloody Prey Feed with the Sacrifice & be If down. WBY. come your King Is God a The God & God 28 to sieze. the thunder's EY. The WMR." meaning of course 25 Thunders] Thunder Swinb. . His Chain. 22. And in his hand the Scourge shone He scourg'd the Merchant Canaanite From 44 still bright . And thus with wrath he did subdue The Serpent Bulk 52 of Nature's Dross. his furious ire Became a Chariot of fire. EY. 26 thunders'] thunder's Swinb. in thunders' sound voice Jesus' Obedient And ' I 24 & : Thus Ye fall . and : louder roll'd louder His voice was heard from Zion's Hill. WBY.

7. I am meek & lowly of heart. 12 ' As The 16 the only way to escape Miser's net and the Glutton's trap. . 3. 56 Womb] Followed in MS.Rosseiti he had Till nail'd it MS. or did — doom. 18 trap] MS. Book by the can55 took] put Swinb. i. 6. I Came He He to consult him secretly. Book) end here in marked here for insertion ' . ii. couplet (as found in 7-. When they had wander'd three days long These were the words upon His Tongue: 4 No Earthly Parents I confess am doing my Father's business. 8. is Blake's 98. . . 49. And left His Parents in dismay. 7. Only printed separately by EY. MS. 249 to the Cross. 2. was too Proud to take a bribe . 4. : — He who This He is loves his enemies hates his friends.' When the rich learned Pharisee 8 ' . Book. 50. not like a Scribe. which this section of the poem originally ended celled line with : 'but on the Cross he sealed Was Jesus Humble. first draft of this passage.' that MS. 'Follow me. 16 heart] Quotation marks (wanting in 13-16). indicate the transposition of this and the succeeding . with most consummate art.' its He Give any proofs of Humility? When but a Child he ran away. 8 No business] See note 5 three days long] all day long EY. . col. surely not what Jesus intends : must mean the mere love of civility. II. spoke with authority. He took on Sin in the Virgin's Womb And put it off on the Cross & Tomb To be Worship'd by the Church of Rome.' He says. pp. And so He must mean concerning humilitj'. II. EY. p. 10-15. 2. 12 He Scribe] Marginal numbers.' . Book has the marginal addition 11. to ^. Upon his heart with Iron pen He wrote Ye must be born again. 5. prefixed to 11.

Me] Why himself. And thy Revenge abroad display In terrors at the last 32 Judgment day. 35-8.' dost thou humble thyself 31. Thou art a Man. we And 36 as . del. for insertion here: ' Dogs] MS. honest pride. Haughty toward Man. 1st rgd.' del. Rossetti 250 But he And acts with triumphant. 54. Book. pp. thou humblest Me Thou also dwelst in Eternity. Obey himself to Caiaphas. this 20 he had been Antichrist. 53. lasting Gospel. If. God's Mercy & Long Suffering Are but the sinner to Judgment to bring. Book has the marginal addition marlted — 24 Not humble as a lamb or an ass. . God is no more. 32 Cp. Thou on the Cross for them shalt pray. This is the Race that Jesus ran. Then descended the cruel rod. Book ist rgd. creeping Jesus. . with title of poem added for first time. God wants not Man to humble This Omitted in EY. Humble toward God. is the Reason Jesus died. 52. that we may be as he is. 43-54. And take Revenge at the last Day. Descriptive Catalogue (1809) 'All had originally one language and one religion this was the religion of Jesus. quotes 11.' Swinb. Book the trick of the ancient is If 29 MS. If thou humblest thyself. Cp.MS. . The revised draft of 7'. pp. r The Everlasting Gospel Was Jesus Humble? or did he Give any Proofs of HumiHty? MS. Thine own Humanity learn to adore.). 11-16. the ever: . Natural Religion (A. 59-106. 24 28 ' . Day] Whom f. 159-167. He'd have done anything to please us: Gone sneaking into the synagogues And not used the Eiders & Priests Hke Dogs.' 23 the] EY omit. . 10 me? to ' : There- 35-38 thou shalt torment at the last EY day. elf. with . fore God becomes . But when he humbled himself to God. otnit. are. 1-4. 38 MS.

51-106.. 1-20. Final Version. 21-24. 41-50. 58. not what Jesus intends his This surely is But the Sneaking Pride of Heroic Schools. 7 words] This was the word EY. they . . 1." except 11. . 21-24 a marginal addition. Pride] What they called humility.' What can be done with such desperate Who was standing by when Jesus died I Fools Heathen Schools? follow after the What I call'd He who loves 20 Humility. . WBY.' He wrote Ye He was too proud to take a bribe He spoke with authority. i) and (. 49-51. interspersed with parts of print . 25-40. . call'd 24 Enemies betrays his Friends. . All except 24 26 is] . as the division following the prologue. 21 such] those .MS. all . Book is/ li^d. lines are EY. day business] See and . WBY. except the same lines. .' When the rich learned Pharisee Came to consult him secretly. . What EY. And give with Charity a stone? When but a Child he ran away. running commentary. not like a He says with most consummate Art Follow me. 10 No . . As that is the only way to escape The Miser's net & the Glutton's trap. WMR. . and 11. pp. . ' : 12 his heart with Iron Upon pen must be born again. 8. Scribe. as his fourth division. (ii. jS. 8 These . 16 ' heart. 11. all 28 the cause that Jesus died. . . three days] 9. was EY. WBY. col. EY as his fifth 21-24 '" their given separately on p. What WMR EY. Rossetti 251 Boast of high Things with Humble tone. del. Pride. 18 heart] See Jiote to 7^. When they had wander'd three days These were the words upon his 4 long tongue 8 : No Earthly Parents I confess I am doing my Father's business. These I 7.' the omitted passage being prints all. And this is WMR prints by prefixed 5. called pride WMR. note to . 11. 25 betrays] hates MS. . triumphant Pride. 13. 3 Humble] a humble EY. division of the poem. EY Pride] omit. 16. And left his Parents in dismay. 29 For] But EY. And the Scribes' & Pharisees' Virtuous Rules For he acts with honest. ' WBY WBY. WBY. I am meek & lowly of ' .

WMR. EY. . And] Or EY. That disdains To vanity of the imagination. . it's all a boast & And & pride. 47 the] Swinb. WBY. Isaac EY. is only known WBY. He had only to say that God was the Devil. WMR WBY and Bacon and Newton EY. *44. From He twelve years old to manly prime? 52 meant] These lines are an addition. Isaac] Gospel of St. known] 44 can Gospel . . 45 as for] as to Swinb. 46 Or of] Or to Priestley . . interchanges the omits. *42. of Christ His Father. Newton] Like Doctor Priestley. 37-44 Mild Attributes] Thus in MS. Isaac confutes God can only be known by His Attributes He had soon been bloody Caesar's Elf And at last he would have been Caesar himself. and *43. . the last couplet being written . WBY. . 43 For] But EY And WBY. . Blake's prefixed letters and figures 31-50 . . . WMR. ignoring Blake's marginal rearrangement. EY. vanity] fallacy EY. and Newton . . Asking Pardon of his Enemies 32 : he had. 41-50 as continuation of 5. And at last he would have been Caesar himself.' teach doubt & 48 experiment Certainly was not what Christ meant. 40 he] Like Like . here. And Or as for the Indwelling of the Holy Ghost. And the Devil was God. to follow this world's fashion. Rossetti 252 He did not die with Christian Ease. like a Christian civil 36 Mild Christian regrets to the Devil confess For affronting him thrice in the Wilderness He had soon been bloody Caesar's Elf. *40 WMR prints 11. 41 position of couplets *4i.MS. 48 . Caiaphas would forgive Sneaking submission can always live. WBY. disdains] did wrong Swinb. WMR. Isaac confutes God can only be known by His Attributes — : ' 44 . o»f^ 52 twelve] ten EY. omit. 40 Like d"" Priestly & Bacon & Newton (Poor spiritual knowledge is not worth a button !) If . marked for insertion still later in the margin. .. Book. What was he doing all that time. — indicating the order followed in the text {a) For affronting him thrice in the Wilderness : Like (i) (2) (3) (6) (c) d"" Priestly & Bacon *38 & Newton Poor spiritual knowledge is not worth a button For thus the Gospel St. . Bacon. WBY. WBY WMR . print the lines as in this footnote. His] the Swinb. For thus the Gospel St.

creeping Jesus] a creeping Jesus MS. 1827 of yes. And thy Revenge abroad display In terrors at the Last Judgment day. 83 shalt] . WBY. dated April 12. Antichrist aping Jesus Swinb.' 76 80 terrors] terror Swinb. And not us'd the Elders & But Humble as a lamb or Priests like dogs . WBY.. humanity Thy : For that Awake. God's Mercy & Long Suffering Is but the sinner to judgment to bring. Thy] Thine Swinb. . 58 seraph band] Not legibly ? seraph hand EY written. from supposing up and down to be the same thing. 59 Antichrist. WMR. is my : 76 Spirit of Life. : — judgment] justice Swinb. He'd have done anything to please us Gone sneaking into Synagogues. nay. all edd. And when he Humbled himself Then descended the Cruel Rod. the Rulers before the People Cursing Even to the temple's highest Steeple. creeping Jesus. del.. This is the Race that Jesus ran 64 : Humble to God. 55-58 Or band] Swinb. a passage from Blake's letter to God keep j-ou and me from the divinitj' Cumberland. 68 God to 72 thou humblest me. omits. art a Man God is no more own learn to adore. creeping Jesus. and no too. ' humblest If thou Thou Thou thyself. ass Obey'd Himself to Caiaphas. seraph's hand seraph hand WBY. . Thou on the Cross for them shalt pray 80 — . Cf. EY. WMR . or the less About his father's business? Or was his wisdom held in scorn Before his wrath began to burn In Miracles throughout the Land. arise to Spiritual Strife. WMR. Book 1st rgd.MS. also dwellst in Eternity.. ' — 82 Is] shall Are EY. . as all experimentalists must suppose. the yea. WMR. WBY. Haughty to man. . God wants not Man to humble himself: That is the trick of the ancient Elf.. That quite unnerved the seraph band? 56 He had been Antichrist. Rossetti Was he then 253 Idle. If 60 .

' . 89 96 Can 85 &] in EY. 106. 102 Five WMR. 109. 'Two Horrid Reasoning Cloven Fiction. take with it a bodily Swinb. Distorts] dim window . . MS. which was afterwards erased in ink and retranscribed in a slightly altered form on p. In doubt which is Self Contradiction ? 96 is only doubt. . it] Self Contradiction] Cp. .' Can that which was of woman born. 43. 13-15: 11. . 96 Reasoning (? heard) archangels Swinb. In the absence of the Morn. did WBY.' Distorts Swinb. 88 When the soul fell into sleep. 95. 8 ' : If we are wrathful loi. . Rooting over with thorns & stems The This & buried Soul Five life's Distorts the 84] Followed in the ' all Gems. Jerusalem. Self Contradiction] 1. which A 97. . In Doubt. Once I did so when I pray'd in the Garden I wish'd to take with me a Bodily Pardon. carry on the quotation marks to the . perhaps rightly. . 98. They'd immediately Go Out. conclusion: 'Can that reason itself into redemption?' 89 woman] women EY. out] Cp. dark Hermaphrodite.' 99 Rooting] Roofing alledd. & thunders hurl'd 84 : never will Pray for the World. five Windows windows .' 85-88 Jesus Pardon] These lines are an addition. The Gates of Paradise.' of Innocence. 1. WBY. Reasoning upon its own dark Fiction. no: — should Doubt. 'Auguries stood. Albion will destroy Jerusalem with rooty Groves. Pick.. Rossetti 54 And take Revenge at the Last Day. . . ' is Self contradiction. can hardly have been intended as part of 'The Everlasting Gospel. . f. Cp. Humility And does the Sun & Moon blot out. 'The Keys of the Gates.' This couplet. supplies the pardon?' or possibly sentence left unfinished. etc. . . Perhaps Can that which was of women born. . its Windows 100 of the Soul Heavens from Pole to Pole. Book by the lines This Corporeal And is life 's made up : — a fiction of contradiction.' Jesus replied.' end of . . And Archangels round it weep. 92 And Archangels] And 91 When] While Swinb. . ' I . If the & Moon Sun We MS. EY. 98 Humility.' 11. WBY. 92 Shooting out against the Light Fibres of a deadly night.2 MS.

ing power' has been already noted. form the penultimate section of the poem. seem in his to regard it as a continuation of 2 any] ^*. 106] This line has Blake's marginal numeration followed by the couplet : — 'I'm sure this Jesus will not do Either for Englishman or Jew — ' and the catchword 'was Jesus Chaste or did he. This ivas spoken by my spectre to Voltaire^ Bacon. lines. the Eye in a night. Thro' one himself pass out what time he please.' are led to Believe a Lie ' . p. 3. 48. 106. prefixes these two couplets to 7^^. MS. to perish in a night. Pick. 10. . the lines in the preface. on — f. not through.MS. Swinb. or did he Did Jesus teach doubt Give any lessons of Philosophy. . 106 the beams] 105 That] Which EY. . ' ' WMR rearrangement. wise for not Believing? The beginning of a new passage. 11.' and. . Cp. 103-106 And 78 bread eaten in secret pleasant. which. EY. . EY misquote 'This was spoken by my spectre to Bacon. ontits. of Mr. WMR WBY omits. 7-16. Blake's use of the word spectre' in the sense of reasonthe same page. 125-128 : — When we see \with delJ\ not Thro' the Eye. Auguries of Innocence. Or Men call MS. &c. 41-50. copy of Europe ' 255 : Cp. Rossetti And leads you When you see That was born When Distort to Believe a Lie with. ? Charge Visionaries with decieving. When the Soul Slept in Beams of Light. 104 the soul slept in the beams of light. The heading is written in pencil at the top of unfinished. in margin of page opposite the beginning of ^. but he will not. And see small portions of the eternal world that ever groweth. Jerusalem. We * ' & light] Cp. . 103 leads] EY. &c. 11. WBY. John Linnell's Five windows light the cavern'd Man thro' one he breathes the air Thro' one hears music of the spheres thro' one the eternal vine Flourishes that he may receive the grapes thro' one can look . Book. WBY. f. his poem.' a connecting line See Introduction to indicating that ({) was then intended to follow 1. to perish in a Night.' 11. 164.' WBY omit the. Newton and Locke.' lead WBY. apparently left These lines are written laterally in pencil. For stolen joys are sweet. ofj in EY. p. while pointing out that this fragment has no place assigned to it. Which was Born in a Night.

"bray a fool in a morter with wheat. 24: 'The Devil answer'd. neither pain nor grief Exempted. and also print in WBY EY full. with more EY. yet shall not his folly be beaten 4 The] Uisalledd. Just such a one as Magdalen. See prefatory this Swinb.' . WBY. . you ought to love him has given his sanction to the the greatest man. 25-38. and so mock the sabbath's God ? murder those who were murder'd because of him ? turn : away the law from the woman taken in adultery ? steal the labor of others to support him ? bear false witness when he omitted making a defence before Pilate ? covet when he pray'd for his disciples. Or were Jew virgins more still curs'd. could Swinb. and when he bid them shake off the dust of their feet against such as refused to lodge them ? I tell you no virtue can exist without breaking these ten commandments : Jesus was all virtue. hear how he law of ten commandments did he not mock at the sabbath. WBY. bound in at the end of the MS. nurs'd] Interlineated in . Book. 8 7. Rossetti 256 Was Jesus Bom of a Virgin Pure & looks demure? With narrow Soul If He intended to take on Sin The Mother should an Harlot been 4 . With seven devils in her Pen. 47. — 16 . EY. Book. 23. Ask Caiaphas for he can tell. out of him " : if in the greatest Jesus Christ degree . is . Cp. such a body as might not feel Body From 12 Or The passions that with sinners deal? Yes.MS. He mock'd ' the Sabbath. marks in MS. And more sucking devils nurs'd ? Or what was it which he took on. WMR makes 1-16. 48. and he mock'd unlock'd The Sabbath's God.' etc. 13 might] 9 which] that a!/ except WMR. now . . and acted from impulse not from rules. it WMR. . and He ' Written on the fourth page of a folded scrap of paper. this the latter placing 11. have been 8 more] MS. 17-48 He Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790). pp.. Or . ff. That he might bring Salvation? A 8 subject to be Tempted.. prints second section of the poem. the immediately' before the epilogue. prey] No qitot. poem. 170-174. been] (have) been Swinb. but they say he never fell. containing Blake's note to Chaucer. Book.

marginal addition. Selected for his company. . And its golden cords and Pins. lice] A later 29 which] when 35 Earth's God] WMR. 43 labour] labours EY. Book ist all edd. 36 . turn'd Fishermen to Divines 20 . WBY. . A wand'ring vagrant without Home And thus he others' labour stole. . scorn'd Earth's And mock'd the one and the other's Rod : God. Since which." He scorn'd Earth's parents. . 34 No God MS. O'erturn'd the tent of secret sins.' his . 24 Pour'd] Not 26 Halls 21-24. written transversely 33. His Seventy Disciples sent Against Religion and Government They by Sword of the Justice — fell. 25. WBY.^ marginal addition. In the Bloody Shrine of War Pour'd around from star to star. . plainly written. . what have I says he ? do with thee? to 32 No Earthly Parents I confess I am doing My Father's Business. ']. del. 8. He left his feather's trade to roam. from the Adulteress turn'd God's righteous Law. EY. Business] See note rdg. 'Tis WMR. And him their Cruel Murderer tell. In] Not plainly written . WBY.' 2a 21-24 O'erturn'd star]. a Pig has got a look That for a Jew may be mistook. That he might The live above controll. to II. EY. to ^. " What Parents. Publicans and Harlots he And S33 40 . turn'd the devils into swine That he might tempt the Jews to dine 28 . WBY. Rossetti The And 257 Evil spirits from their Shrines. hating Vice. 48 its] all its .MS. ." Obey your '•Woman. . that 44 away lost its Prey. Where He the devil combs — 24 his lice. Halls of justice. 36 other's] other EY. perhaps 'Pass'd.

EY and ' WMR WBY print in 2 full. Putting 21-26 Good . 51. Nor may the sinner cast one stone. of] in the latter putting this passage before EY. sitting] sat omits. 93-96 among parts of /S and 7'^ as his fourth division of the poem. 39-50. f. 18 Pulling] Pulling 20 heard by] heard 7 17. DGR omits. 50. : 4 . adulterous R'.Rossetti 258 MS. 27-32. 83-96.92. 261. Book. The Earth trembling and Naked lay In secret bed of Mortal Clay On Sinai felt the hand Divine Pulling back the bloody shrine And she heard the breath of God. prints II. WBY. 91. 20 : ' ! Sinai's trumpets cease to roar ! Cease. Moses commands she be ston'd to death. pp. . Lines 7-16. Thou art good. makes 11. . 8 trembling] 17 felt] Swinb. . ancient heavens. in silent awe. EY. 81-90.. 53-64. 1-80 his third division. and Heaven above Trembled at discovery of Love. 169. 18 was DGR [or ? Putting] it by DGR. fell WMR. and Thou alone ! 24 . with the Prologue. Jesus was sitting in Moses' Chair. were first printed by DGR under the title The Woman taken in Adultery. 48. 19.' Swinb. to write The Heavens are not clean in thy sight. DGR. What was the sound of Jesus' breath ? He Law His hand on Moses' laid The 8 . WBY. As she heard by Eden's flood Good and Evil are no more 16 . finger of God. WBY. pp. All away began to roll. and places 11. Writ with Curses from Pole 12 to Pole. 20. MS. 1-80. stone] EY. 49.. 168. They brought the trembling woman there. . 152-154. Was Jesus Chaste? or did He Give any lessons of Chastity? The Morning blushed fiery red Mary was found in Adulterous bed Earth groan'd beneath.

55 You] Ye DGR. Though thou wast so pure and bright That Heaven was Impure in thy Though thy Oath turn'd Heaven 36 sight. I 259 To be Good only. 39 didst] dost 41 does] doth DGR. 46 forgiveness] full forgiveness DGR. 50 Fallen] Ye fallen DGR. 28 be] good only has Svvinb. That have forgot your ancient love. Fear Not.. 36 Impure] not clean EY. 56 Shall be] Ye shall be DGR You shall be 27. bow before her feet driven shall 52 . the breath Divine is love. EY. That forgiveness thou may'st win. S 2 . 53 You] Ye DGR. Lord. Still And 40 the breath Divine does move. Mary. WBY. 31 hast] 33 My] My Swinb. is . Swinb. Wherefore hast thou writ these Laws A And My created Hell's dark jaws? I will take from thee Presence 28 3a : A cold Leper thou shalt be. Thou Angel of the Presence Divine.ROSsett MS. WMR. Meat] meet EY. Has no Man condemned thee?' No Man. Fallen fiends of Heavenly birth. . .' Then what is he 48 ' ' Who shall accuse thee ? Come ye forth. WBY. shall lick the dust for Meat . though you cannot Love. 44 torment] trouble DGR. 28 A God] As God EY. but Hate. WMR. WBY.. The Seven Let me see Devils that torment thee. to Pharisee] be WMR. Pale. is to marginal addition. WBY. Though thy covenant built Hell's jail. 37 thy] thine Swinb. Shall be beggars at Love's Gate. 44 Hide not from my sight thy sin. WBY. EY. 43 Mary] Woman DGR. To be 56 A 27 Good only. 47 Has] Hath DGR. That didst create this Body of Mine. And You You And away my trembling Dove. 54 You] Ye DGR. is to be God or else a Pharisee. 38 jail] goal Swinb. . Though thou didst all to chaos roll With the serpent for its soul.

Glittering with festering Venoms bright Crying Crucify this cause of distress. Diseases] disease EY. to earn my bread What was Was . Rossetti thy love ? Let me see it or dark deceit?' Love too long from me has fled *Twas dark deceit. 76 ' So his prey. in. 84 Glittering] Glistering EY. And render that a Lawless thing On which the soul expands its wing. . by] with 88 the dumb] and the dumb Swinb. And in my burning bosom dwell? And canst Thou die that I may live? And canst Thou Pity and forgive ? Then RoU'd the shadowy Man away From the limbs of Jesus. see't call] extract ends. or 'twas custom. . 85-90 Crying 86 don't] EY. Diseases . call DGR. An WBY. the WBY. . &] EY. Swinb. . DGR's WMR. & . When O first Lord. But these would And 65-68 WMR . WBY. to make them sin . In dark pretence to chastity Blaspheming Love. we bind deaf. . . thence did covet also rise. or Some trifle not worth caring for That they may call a shame and 60 . WBY. blaspheming Thee. secrets] secret EY. WMR. the Blind 88 59 has] hath 64 dwelleth in] 68 its] her addition. does not WBY. The Naked Human form divine. . 'Twas covet. An ever devouring appetite. 85 Crying] Saying Friends] An addition. the dumb. .. Love it ' . EY.26o MS. . this was these devils let I my 68 sin. WBY omit. Thou hast forgiven me My Canst Thou forgive my Blasphemy ? Canst Thou return to this dark Hell. 70 these] those DGR. But this. Thence rose And 72 secret adulteries. ' Who don't keep the secrets of holiness! The Mental Powers by But he heals the 57 see 63 That it] . sin Love's Temple that God dwelleth And hide in secret hidden shrine 64 in.. DGR. WMR.. WBY. wing] all edd. 87 The] All Swinb. 84 . WMR.

EY. 52. 95. is lost. 1. WBY. Rossetti 261 Whom God He has afflicted for secret ends. 96. In three Nights he devour'd his prey. & Passion over the Nation. Then was perfected his galling 9a pride. . Originally meant to follow WMR this epilogue follows I I 7^. 50 . For Dust and Clay is the Serpent's meat. 1. . 89. WBY. d [^Epilogue] am sure this Jesus will not do. Eat] made] meant A marginal all edd. They are See treat them as the termination of the poem. I made my Voice heard What are those. &c. p. the] this addition. Pref. I MS.. 96 For WBY. 96 93. 261. 1. In three days he devour'd the rejected corse Cp. . 13 of death. comforts and Heals and calls them Friends. .. WBY. p. Book. a passage. 93 Nights] days Swinb. 94 89 has] hath EY. 7] Seeing this False Christ. 91-96 But eat] Swinb. 54. Book. catchwords marking the position of immediately follow f.' 94 he] EY. when Jesus was crucified. 96 Which] That EY. Jerusalem. WMR. MS. Which never was made for Man to Eat. omit. Either for Englishman or Jew. it See Prefatory Note. .MS. Note. the rest of only quoted by EY. f. p. ' : WBY EY. follows (.. These which who in fury all lines. in WBY am] I'm Swinb. And still he devours the Body of Clay . In . .' But. f.

I ll .

.THE PICKERING circa 1801-1803 MS.

' The poems. from as chaotic a mass as could well be imagined amid which it has sometimes been necessary either to omit. reExperience. have been reclaimed. Rossetti selected the poems hitherto unpub' printed in the second volume of Gilchrist's Life In his introduction to this precious section' he explains that its contents have been derived partly from the MS. three years after the publication of Gilchrist's work. G. so as to render available what was very seldom found in a final state.PREFACE TO THE PICKERING The Pickering MS. former connexion with the Songs of Lnnocence. means of the same kind have occasionally been resorted to. and the purchase eventually of a number of inedited Poems of Blake. is the MS. ' ' . volume was welcomed . transpose.' adds Rossetti. where they seemed to lessen obscurity or avoid redundance. In 1866."] to which frequent reference has been made in the Life. led the Publisher to re-issue his father's volume The together with the newly-acquired pieces in 1866.' says Shepherd.' ' . or combine. it passed into a second edition (now also exhausted) years later (1868). Note Book ["the Rossetti MS. as satisfying a public want. . And even in the pieces drawn from the second source specified above. as we learn from Shepherd's introduction to his edition of 1874. and partly from another small autograph collection of different matter lished. was bought by Basil Montagu Pickering. son of the William Pickering who in 1830 had published the first letterpress edition of Blake's Songs of Innocence and of These considerations.' little and two . his father's ferring to the inaccuracy of Rossetti's text. the MS. 76-116). as regards the first-mentioned source.' somewhat more ' fairly copied. name used throughout this edition for the smaller of the two Blake holographs from which D..' ' (pp.

This portion of the work in proof. William Mitchell. Inserted on the inside of the cover is the armorial book-plate of Mr. Traces of this simple binding may be observed in the three punctured holes. White's kindness the rectifiPickering MS. it is to be presumed. M. The Pickering MS. must have passed after the death of Pickering and before inscription. Rossetti. Ellis and Yeats and later editors were thus obliged to follow the versions of these poems given by D. Pickering. On the purchase of the Locker Lampson collection in June. of New York. of 11 leaves of writing or then. through which a cord had evidently once been laced.Pickering MS.. and. The leaves were trimmed down somewhat in binding. Meade & Co. without water-mark. Bedford for B. the only two editors who had made use of the original autograph. paginated consecutively by Blake 1-22. though occasional attempts to trace its subsequent ownership were made by the two or three students who realized that this MS. The Pickering MS. The MS. the top and bottom lines of pages 17 and 18 being slightly grazed by the binder's knife. . their efforts were unsuccessful. by Messrs. as well as the following details respecting this undescribed MS. was thought to be permanently lost. bore no must have been removed when. the volume was bound by F. 265 For over thirty years nothing further was heard of the Pickering MS. Mr. when in his brother's hands. who saw the MS. W. 1905. Rossetti and Shepherd. several Blake originals and other works were bought en bloc by Mr. A. describes it. the great importance of which would was indeed to have been overlooked by its last owner. which. enabled him to print this section also with the literal fidelity observed in the rest of the poems. in one of his letters to me. White. to the best of his recollection. into whose possession the MS. is a foolscap quarto volume (6x8 drawing paper. seem who was surprised to find among them the long-missing I owe to Mr. It was lost sight of presumably about the date of Pickering's death in 1 878. The original covers. about i^ inches apart. Dodd. when the opportune reappearance of the original MS. Messrs. G. M. constituted the sole authority for the text of some of Blake's loveliest and most extraordinary poems. W. and the present editor had accordingly decided to reproduce Shepherd's as the best available text. as being inches). had lain perdu for years in the Rowfant Library. cation of my text. stitched into a darkish olive-tinted cover. as the binder's stamp shows.

' however acceptable to readers eager for any light thrown upon Blake's darkness. and Catches his Shrieks in Cups of gold. being acquired by Mr. convey the impression of having been written at one time. or Jer7isaleni. There is no note of the last-named owner to indicate how it was obtained. The pages are without illustrations and contain no prose matter of any kind.' or outwardly simple as Mary all alike are characterized by a strain of profound mysticism which is not quite the same as that of the Prophetic Books. this special collection was transcribed. Mere allegorical interpretations such as W. The light may be there. As in the Rossetti MS. Book. is obviously a fair copy of pieces already There is not a single alteration written in approved form.. which with Blake are generally afterthoughts.' obscure as The Mental Traveller and The Crystal Cabinet. None of the poems are dated. Differing in this respect from the larger MS. Verses such as the two couplets (11. the poems of the Pickering MS. and re-arrangements of stanzas. which Blake here as elsewhere employs for the sake of emphasis. but the illumination as Swinburne observes of a similar Blake himself is none of the author's kindling.' are only to be understood by reference to parallel allusions in The Four Zoas^ Milton. on the first seventeen pages. M. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' — — ' ' . ascription or other indication of the circumstances under which. the Pickering MS. Locker Lampson. where most of the poems are found in rough draft. And return'd to its own ' delight — or the figure in The Mental Traveller of the Woman Old who nails the babe down on a rock.' attempt Fable or disdained the use of mere allegory of this sort.' uncouth and grotesque like Long John Brown. There is no title-page. corrections. 67-70) in the 'Auguries of Innocence ' ' ' * ' ' ' ' ' — ' ' — Every Tear from Every Eye Becomes a Babe in Eternity This is caught by Females bright . Rossetti 's of ' The Mental Traveller. though each helps to explain the other. with numerous deletions. are not warranted by the poet's theory or practice. or the person for whom. It is noteworthy that all the poems have titles. the literary contents of which extend over a period of nearly twenty years. there is no punctuation. Whether of pure lyrical loveliness like The Golden Net and The Land of Dreams.266 Pickering MS. Unlike the Rossetti MS. and the few corrections which occur are mostly in the use of capitals.

have a certain unity of their own. is a representation of what actually exists.. 349) would appear to date this poem at least as early as 1789. may confidently be referred to Blake's Felpham period. supply clues to the author's meaning which are absent in these poems. are found on two leaves of the latter part of the Rossetti MS. by fourteen years. in whole or part. consistently used by Blake in a definite sense. meaning thereby wholly or partly unintelligible to all save the highly initiate they differ in their more fully developed mysticism from the earlier prophetic writings. Imagination is surrounded by the daughters of inspiration. p. 1803. In identifying the style of 'The Mental Traveller' with that of Tiriel. Rossetti and Swinburne concur in regarding as the first of the series of the Prophetic Books. in the latter instance using Shepherd's text instead of Rossetti's. To the latter fact indeed part of their difficulty is due. 135) and two lines of 'Mary' (p. Swinburne quotes with comment two stanzas of The Land of Dreams' (pp. they are scattered among pieces written at different times. 177). Rossetti prints the same pieces as his allegory. M. either in regarding the several poems in the Pickering MS. when Blake in a letter to Mr. This MS. and in a different sense. as in several editions of the poet's works. or by antedating the whole MS. in several of the poems phrases repeated in Milton and Jerusalem^ both of which were engraved. which W. as having been written at widely different times. moreover. 'The Golden Net and The Grey Monk. W. 'Mary' was certainly written before August i6. a fact liable to be overlooked. and from those of later date in their avoidance of the mythological names which crowd the pages of Milton and Jenisalem. written probably in the same year. The original drafts of two of the poems. Among the deepest of Blake's writings if I may use the adjective in the sense in which English gypsies apply it to language.. when.Pickering MS. Fable. who. really and unchangeably. Butts introduces two of its lines in a slightly altered form. or imagination. are called Jerusalem. 134.' which appear in a more perfected form in this MS. Yeats (Notes. There are.' ' Judgment. and in a different manner.' is — ' ' — ' ' ' . Vision.' The poems of the Pickering MS. W. for these names. 267 * he says in his account of the Vision of the Last a totally distinct and inferior kind of poetry. or allegory. B. M. in 1804. in the aggregate. In so doing it will be seen that he differs from me. is formed by the daughters of Memory.

pp. Ideas authority. of the Incarnation.' arbitrarily arranged among poems taken from the Rossetti MS. the Island in the Moon. 31-36) print 'The Mental edition. of Good and Evil.' with interpretation as 'a sun. brother.268 Pickering MS. 220-225).' they give the MS.myth and a story In the same volume (pp. including Long John Brown Mary Bell. but with some new readings of their own for which there is no W. Traveller.. Book version of the Monk of Charlemaine. 72-83.' they print in vol.' but ignore the Pickering variant called The Grey ' ' Monk. adopting some of his emendations. with the exception ' of ' Long John Brown. and other late and early sources. text generally follows that of the Aldine edition. but rejecting others in favour of readings evidently taken from Shepherd's Ellis and Yeats (ii.' and The remaining poems. under the general heading. . Their Little ' ii.' prints all the poems. Yeats. B.

And And And is a there is a there is Which you For Frown of Hate. edd. ' And no smile ever DGR.17. . Frown of Disdain. The omits the round Crystal Cabinet. and retains the And in 1. 9 But only one Smile alone. ' 11. a Frown of Frowns there it 5 strive to forget in vain. adopts DGR's reading of 12 Cp. ' 1. sticks in the Heart's deep core And it sticks in the deep Back-bone — And no Smile that ever was smil'd. except Shep.' . DGR and all all Misery. 11-16 And . There's an end to Pickering Frown MS. is a Smile of Deceit. & That betwixt the Cradle Grave 13 only once Smil'd can be And. . entitle 'Smile and . p.' with less violence. Misery] WMR and EY. It . i there there a Smile of Smiles is In which these two Smiles meet. evade the anacoluthon by reading followed by : was smiled But only one smile alone ' (And betwixt the cradle and grave It onlj' once smiled can be). WBY.THE PICKERING MANUSCRIPT The Smile There And And is a Smile of Love. That when it once is smiled There's an end to all misery. 15. ' 1. i. brackets.' 4 these] the DGR. when it once is Smil'd.

Dazzling bright before my eyes. " Alas for wo alas for wo alas for wo " : ' ! They Here the cry.' rimeless. and tears for ever flow coincides generally with the form in which he afterwards transcribed the smaller autograph collection. They bore a net of golden twine To hang upon the branches fine. Blake omitted the line with which the poem originally began 'Beneath the white thorn's lovely May. prefixed to couplet. In this early draft Blake's marginal numbers. the source of the present text. 14. 10 is meaningless. There Blake's hand column of ' ' ' to The Golden Net The Golden Net first without draft. Blake recommencing at the head of the next column Beneath the white thorn's lovely May. sighs. without which the reference to the branches Rossetti restores this line. 9-12).)'] ' This unfinished passage is also struck out. that the to 9. and runs as follows Beneath the white thorn's lovely May. 3 and 4 — ' They cry. young man. beginning the poem with the triplet : ' ' : ' : This is Cabinet. They would let them down at will Or make translucent chose {1st rdg.' This again was erased. The other clothed in iron wire [sweet desire The other clothed in tears & (15/ rdg.' — Beneath a white thorn's lovely May Three virgins at the break of day "Whither. 2.' — ' A further change consisted in the deletion of opposite to which are written ' 11. ' Blake's terminal line marking the end of the poem. — See note to ' The Crystal .. 3-1 1). : — ' Three Virgins at the break of day. del. Book.270 MS.y]. The initial couplet was next deleted. 5-13 (MS. Book. woe Alas for alas for ! woe ! — 11. i first ' it into attempt at emendation was to indicate by 11. 11.' in 1. and The first revision is found below the opening passage twice re-written. whither away?"' one of Blake's * threefold ' poems. first line is & left ! ! tears for ever flow. Blake evidently omitting to recopy the second line of the couplet which he had already twice written Three virgins at the break of day. and. : Wings they had that soft enclose [& when they Round their body when they chose. Pickering Note Prefatory The original version of MS. ' found in the Rossetti is written in the left- is title. del. 11. In transcribing this poem into the Pickering MS. except for the omission of p. 11-14 (MS. Book. The one was clothed in flames of fire.' was now meant to follow 1.

. The other cloth'd in iron wire. DGR. i del. R' begins with an amended version of Blake's second draft of the 1. the Carnation.' cp. The Pink. None dare to wake her soon she bursts her crimson curtained bed And comes forth in the majesty of beauty. Book. WMR. order sweet flow] R' omits. . The Jonquil. WMR. & first cloth'd] are sick with Love. WMR. the Jessamine. the Rose still sleeps. del. the Wall-flower. which the Sun rising dries first the Wild-Thyme to tears. lead the sweet Dance they wake soft . Book. And Meadow-sweet downy & Light springing on the air. my Dazling bright before 5 Eyes. lovely May. 'Whither. 14. Milton. ' First e'er the Joy even ' ' to f. lovely . followed by ' WMR and EY. young man. ! .' 11. ! . a] opening of the poem (MS. EY. Three virgins at the break of day " Whither. Yet 3.) — Beneath the white thorn stood in May Three virgins at the break of day ' . 1st rdg. . desire in . waving among the reeds. Book rdg. young man. every Flower. . wo second R'. alas for wo ! 6 other] iron wire] sweet 7 other cloth'd] third was clothed tears MS. — 50-62 : — " ' For ' the white morning breaks joy opens in the flowery bosoms. was clothed R^. Pickering MS. the mild Lilly. whither away : WHY ' changes a white thorn's thorn's lovely May. RS DGR. del. & tears for ever flow.' woe] Alas for wo K\ DGR. opes her heavens every Tree And Flower & Herb soon fill the air with an innumerable Dance. Men 3 Alas 5 one] DGR. The one was cloth'd in flames of fire. 31. EY. all 4 Alas alas for . ' p. begins with the triplet— Beneath a white thorn's lovely May. ? the white-thorn's. The other cloth'd in tears & sighs. EY. Pickering 271 The Golden Net Three Virgins at the break of day. . col. 2. Opens her many lovely eyes listening. Book ist tears and sighs] sighs & .MS. The Honeysuckle sleeping on the Oak. . the flaunting beauty Revels along upon the wind the White-thorn. whither Alas for woe woe alas for ! i away? ' ! They cry. . p. MS. MS.

. Now intreating Tears & Sighs. ' 11. ' let me places after go. 17 my Tears] me 20 on] 18 That] which R>. 23 Burning by MS. Book 1st rdg. 10 silken net They fine] R in MS. 30-32 When : the ' the Albion rent thy beautiful net of gold and silver twine. Pitying I wept to see the woe That Love & Beauty undergo. Book. Now intreating Iron Wire. . . did] might DGR. 20. 21 Over] O'er MS. except Shep. O when will the morning rise ? 9 Cp. In Blake's later mystical writings the simple idea restrictions placed upon love. also the references to f. To be consum'd in burning Fires And in ungratified desires. Visions of the Daughters of moral of Albion. clothed R\ DGR. del. except Shep. and WBY. . WMR. . expressed by the silken net and golden cage of the earlier poems. R'. Fire] flaming fire MS. a Smile That did Heaven itself beguile.Pickering 272 They bore MS. 24 Iron Wire] iron wire MS. O when. When they saw my Tears. 25 Tears & sighs] Tears-and26 O rise] When. 13 consum'd] following Blake's revised order of EY. weep Ri. 16 Melted] It melted R' and all edd. . As on downy Pinions soft. 2. desire WBY. is developed into the veil or net of Vala. Jerusalem. And in tears cloth'd night & day Melted all my 13 Soul away. WMR. . EY. Over the Morning of my Day. 17 21 Now intreating Burning Fire. Book. thou hadst caught me in the bands : lines in — Thou hadst woven it with Of love thou refusedst to 9. Bore the Golden Net aloft.' 1. art. del. 14 ungratified desires] unsatisfied burning Fires] flames of fire WBY. Book. a Net of Golden twine To hang upon the Branches 9 fine. Underneath the Net I stray. 1st rdg. Sighs R' and all edd. the lines in Sketches) : ' — ' How He And sweet I roam'd from ' field to field caught me in his silken net shut me in his golden cage ' 25 {Poetical ' . except Shep. will Morning rise? MS. Book sweet desire ibid. . WBY. Book Iron-wire R* and all edd. C^. Flaming-fire R' and all edd. R'. . .

are visions and not allegories.' : The poem. Pickering Note Prefatory 273 'The Mental to Traveller ' A passage in Blake's description of his picture of the Last Judgement (MS. and at last returning.' to the point from which he started. 34-36 of the ing—if not to his exposition. In other words it is a restatement of ' Blake's favourite doctrine of constant generation and regeneration. read with their context. first meaning turn to Mr.' ' These states exist . must be understood as a picture of man's spirit. 1810) supplements the clue supplied by the author's title to the meaning of this most obscure poem. 'After which Adam begins again ' ' ' ' ' in endless circle ' — Blake adds — : now. The same ' — idea is repeated in Jerusalem. f. and Messrs. Referring to the three States or enumerated Churches. more' ' ' over. Book. He passes through them like a traveller. The myth itself admits of no glib paraphrase. from those States or Worlds in which the Spirit travels.MS. f. 72-74 Learn therefore. passing through successive mental states. or to separate from their context. Man passes on. 11. O Sisters. The complete picture must be pieced together from the fragments discovered and identified. ' ' second volume of their large edition of Blake's Works. Rossetti's ingenious 98) and repeated in the Aldine edition. M. 49. used invariably in the same sense and the same connexion. who may well suppose that the places he has passed through exist no more as a man may suppose that the states he has passed through exist no more. Swinburne's commentary on this poem will be found on pp. Everything is eternal. 178-181 of his Critical Essay. In my footnotes to The Mental Traveller' I give references to passages in the Prophetic Books.' symbolized by the twenty-seven Heavens in Jerusalem. in endless circle. for Blake's parables. In bringing together these parallelisms from the Prophetic Books I allow to be his own interpreter. That walks about among the stones of fire. 75— Adam to Luther. to distinguish the Eternal Human. throwing light upon allusions otherwise uninWhile these. as he himself insists.' Such figures. they serve as useful catchwords to more detailed expositions of the same myth elsewhere. printed in Gilchrist (ii. Those who prefer a shorter cut to a mean- Blake — may W. as 'catching shrieks in cups of gold' are in the nature of ideograms. render plain the sense telligible. then. it should be premised that the chapters quoted from will not supply the reader with ' a consecutive narrative of the exact myth presented in this poem. Ellis and Yeats' interpretation as at the same time a sun-myth and a story of the Incarnation on pp. in bliss & woe Alternate. and must always be understood symbolically and not metaphorically. c. but states remain for ever. Difficult to define precisely. SAMPSON . of the particular lines or stanzas to which they are appended.

Just as And if the Babe He's given Who nails to a born a is I. 68. him down Catches his Shrieks Pickering MS. Boy Woman With children of & : pleasure. 11.' or affective self. Picker i7tg 74 The Mental Traveller Land I travel'd thro' a A Land of Men. See also Jerusalem. my thoughts. & these the sweet delights of amorous play. the place of torture of the victims of natural religion. . ' ' rock' is the druidical altar of Albion {Jerusalem. Breeding Women walking in pride & bringing forth under green trees 3 heard ' Cups of in 2 Cp. Jerusalem. : They dance around the dying. ' p. heard & saw such dreadful things cold Earth -wanderers never knew. & they drink the howl & groan.' 5 Cp. 35-39 ' The cruel joys of Luvah's Daughters lacerating with knives And whips their Victims. same manuscript ' tear return'd to ' is in Eternity its own : ' delight . Jerusalem. 37 saw] saw and heard EY. which is feminine. we reap in joy the fruit Which we in bitter tears did sow. in contrair The distinction to the 'emanation. f. 67-70 Every Tear from Every Eye : ' Becomes a Babe This is And where of course gives rise to it. 1. 38. 1. — poem (* For a Tear is an Intellectual Thing. These are the sports of love. 11. 67. — to the burning rock. Inhabitants. 17. 24. 53. . . too Men & Women of i .' or reasoning power in man. 'Auguries of Innocence. 71 my feet & hands are nail'd : ' . f. upon a rock. caught by Females bright. gold. . & the deadly sport of Luvah's Sons. 31-34 My Streets are my Ideas of Imagination My 9 Old. 3. Night vii. Milton.' 12 Cp. without pain. ' f. Affections. they hand them to one another.' . — . They catch the shrieks in cups of gold. is always represented as masculine.2 MS.' 11.' 8 Which] That EY. walking within my blood vessels. — and Four Zoos. And As For there the Babe is born in joy That was begotten in dire woe 5 . for their food is — — blood of the Captive. human emotion which The Grey Monk ') of this be understood as the to Cp. and passim). the line in another collection . f. f. 36.' 5-8 Cp. : Houses are Thoughts The my . 11. 9 In Blake's prophetic writings the spectre.

'Tharmas I vii. 265-71 : lovely Vision. : — 'every nerve She counted. & And she grows young as he grows old.' also Jerusalem. 81. repli'd : watered Enion Among 11. Four Zoas. Just as a Husbandman his mould . thou my garden of Delight. 67. 80. & I the spirit in the garden. and f. bind his forehead with thorns of iron. i. 11. 'The Spectre said. f. Mutual there we dwelt. Cp. : " : morning & I liv'd in a she lived ' — . where the daughters of Albion. 66. Jerusalem. He plants himself in all her Nerves. this delightful Tree from the tempests of void Solid. undivided Essence walk'd about Imbodied.. every vein & lacteal.' T 2 : . 15 — Vala. And she becomes his dwelling-place And Garden See 25 fruitful seventy-fold. 23. Pickering 275 She binds iron thorns around his head. She cuts his heart out at his side.' See also Night ibid. & Is given us for a Shelter Till once again the morn of ages shall renew upon To reunite in those Where thou & I in — ' — mild fields of us. f. • 17 . Till And And binds her down ai . To make feel it & both cold 13 heat. 11. : around] about EY. happy Eternity. she becomes a Virgin bright Then he rends up his Manacles. Four Zoos. 6i. in one anothers joy revolving. 20. Night are not divided. 13 iron] strong DGR. 1. 7. threading them among Her woof of terror. 1. he becomes a bleeding youth. She pierces both his hands & feet. torturing their victim. ' 17 Cp. 717-719 "O! f. I. Thou vii. f.MS. Terrified. 14. for his delight. & drinking tears of woe. 28 By dwelling in a garden of delight Blake symbolizes man in a state of unity whose spectre and emanation ' ' ' Cp. 27. Her fingers number every Nerve. once in the the apple trees and Jerusalem. 22. 1. Just as a Miser counts his gold She lives upon his shrieks cries. Night 114-6 11.' See also Jerusalem. ' Is his garden of delight away thy stolen Emanation garden of pleasure.

49 young or old. Or wrap her in his swadling band. If . Shep. MS. Oft blind 32 had] has EY. The rubies & pearls of a loving eye. the emanation of Albion (Jerusalem. Wand'ring round an Earthly Cot. A Beggar at another's door. except Shep. . 45 hand his Dares stretch to touch her Baby form. & martyr's groan the lover's sigh. countless gold of the akeing heart. 33 pearls of a love-sick eye. Rossetti The countless gold of a merry heart. except Shep. But She comes to the Man she loves. some other take him in 55 . . sore distrest. they are his drink He feeds the Beggar and the Poor And the wayfaring Traveller is his door. Not the ctlnning hdard up in his treasury. or rich or poor They soon drive out the aged Host. f. 86). The idle man never can bring to the mart. & age-bent. Until he can a Maiden win.276 Pickering MS. all edd. 43 on] upon all edd. XXX : — ' 39 And] To 34. the description of Jerusalem (spiritual liberty). And these are the The The The rubies & & 29 gems Human of the Soul. on the hearth Female Babe does spring little And she is all of solid fire And gems & gold. .' 40 For door] Forever opens his 44 does] doth all edd. 37 : For ever open His grief is They make Till A their eternal joy & the roofs from the fire 41 . that none . door EY. 31 gems] gains Shep. 45. An Aged Shadow. 46 Cp. Full-filled all with gems Which he by gold industry had got. soon he fades. except . walls to ring. They are his meat. He wanders weeping Untill far away. . 35 Cp.

.' See also Jerusalem. On And sides all if As to that false appearance which appears to the reasoner As of a Globe rolling thro' Voidness. all 65 desart vast without a bound. 11. . Jerusalem. f. the Clouds bow To meet the flat Earth & the Sea in such an order'd Space : The Starry heavens reach no further but here bend and set And & the two Poles turn on their valves of gold. 61 . Such are the Spaces called Earth & such its dimension. The Guests are scatter'd thro' the land. 28. he move his dwelling-place his heavens also move Where'er he goes & all his neighbourhood bewail his loss. every Space that a Man views around his dwelling-place Standing on his own roof. The Garden and its lovely Charms. f. The bread & wine of her sweet smile. moon and sun ' . f. The honey of her Infant lips. it is a delusion of Ulro. . such space is his Universe: And on its verge the Sun rises & sets. in several passages. 1. or in his garden on a mount Of twenty-five cubits in height. Jerusalem. And a dark desart all around. 11. And The the Earth becomes a Ball flat Moon. 'By it By it [the the f. they alter The ratio of the Spectator's Organs but leave Objects untouch'd . 50. A .' 64 Blake. Does him to Infancy beguile 62 Cp. Stars. 55 : 69 . The wild game of her roving Eye. shrink away. except The Shep. 57 The Poor Man takes her in his arms The Cottage fades before his sight.' 65 Cp. 77 :-^ wheel of religion] the Sun was roll'd into an orb. And nothing left to eat or drink. 51.MS. For every Space larger than a red Globule of Man's blood Is visionary. Objects of Perception seem to vary. refers to the flat earth becoming a ball as a delusion of the modern scientific spirit. Moon faded into a globe Travelling thro' the night. all edd. Do 72 Does] 66. Pickering And 277 to allay his freezing Age. The Microscope knows not of this nor the Telescope. — Perceptive Organs vary. . 34. Milton. Cp. 4-20 ' If ' ' ' : — 'The Sky is an immortal Tent built by the Sons of Los. For the Eye altering alters all The Senses roll themselves in fear. Moon] Stars. Sun. EY.

85 various arts of By Till the Till she a weeping Woman Old. While he pursues her night By Love & Hate. hers Scorn Jealousy. Where roam the Lion. Then many a Lover wanders here The Sun & Stars are nearer roli'd And The To . ' Silent they f. 77 flees] of Los and Enitharmon. Night i. 61-64 All things acted on Earth are seen in the bright Sculptures of Los's Halls. WBY. : . many a City there is Built. 81 he becomes a wayward Babe. look. Like the wild Stag she Her many fear plants 73 flees away. 82. In embryon & . Jerusalem^ 75. Hyle is become an infant Love. except Shep. 26. terrified at each others beauty. look. various arts of love beguil'd . 218. — & his breast. Wolf.' 85 Cp. f.' f. & day. . 62. 217. behold. 77 a thicket wild . and in his circling Ner\'es From Enion WBY. Jerusalem. 25. Pickering 278 eats & drinks he grows & younger every day. trees bring forth sweet extasy who all in the desart roam 89 .MS. 81 Cp. & every Age renews its powers from these Works. 11. ' ' .' 11. passions they kiss'd not nor embrac'd for shame •Alternate Love Hate & fear. see Upon my bosom.' ' The Crystal Cabinet. Younger And on the desart wild they both For as he Wander & in terror dismay. 16. With every pathetic story possible to happen from Hate or : — ' Wayward Love. And many a pleasant Shepherd's home. 83 wayward Love] Cp. 11. wide desart planted o'er With Labyrinths of wayward Love. they shrink themselves in fear. 37-39 =— him lie Look. in Four Zoos. and Boar. Till 76 Cp. 11.' 80 arts] art flies 80. ' Also ' 1. the description of the wanderings who in the Brain of Man live. 50 The See also : — desarts tremble at his wrath. 63: wander'd hand in — hand like two Infants wand'ring m the desarts. here is the lovely wayward form That gave me sweet delight by his torments beneath my Veil. . Jerusalem. 11. 86.' 82 desart] desert 's all edd.

Terror strikes thro' the region wide: They cry 'The Babe! the Babe is Born!' And away on every flee 93 side. reads Lions. bears. Boars] Bears. done as I have told. mourn. Land are its is the Land of Dreams? & what are Mother there. awake. ! ? ' She walk'd with her Thomas 1 O for joy. does] doth all edd. EY. 94 wide] wild EY. . of Dreams Awake. She nails And all is him down upon the Rock. as in part of the father's opening speech. 6 O streams] I follow Shepherd in making these . EY. instead of. pp. like a dove I when shall I again return wept ! Pickering MS. 5. my Why but cp. in 9 sweet delight. all howling flee. except Shep.. 99 Lions. Wolves. Among the lambs. And And none can touch that frowning form. lines part of the boy's reply. clothed in white. every Tree does shed its fruit. the] a little Boy Thou wast thy Mother's only joy 84. For who dare touch the frowning form. its 5 Streams Father I saw my Among the Lillies by waters fair. . the EY. 7.. dost thou weep Awake in thy gentle sleep? thy Father does thee keep.' as might be conjectured from several analogies in the story of Vala and Tharmas {^Four Zoas. Except it be a Woman Old 10 1 . of course. His arm is wither'd to its root 97 . therefore be a misreading of ' Tharmas. Pickering 279 But when they find the frowning Babe. Lions. what What 1. 103 him] it DGR. ! *0. DGR and other edd. above. . The Land its] who lions all edd. 98 100 does] doth all edd. i ! . . 122128). IMountains. had no two 10 Thomas] This name is plainly written and cannot quotation marks.MS. ' ? p. Boars.. The original MS. O wake DGR Oh wake WMR. Night ix. 4 Awake] except Shep.

DGR ' this poem appears to be. shalt see. . and this view of it is corroborated when we find Blake applying to himself two lines almost identically taken from it. 13 night. 8. makes this stanza part of the preceding speech. She opens her lips 'tis the Month of May.2 8o Pickering Dear Child. Morning Star. & warm calm the waters wide. 177. could not get to the other side. tho' 'Father.' See note to 11. 9 all the joys of the Night. According to and Swinburne. O father! what do we here In this Land of unbelief and fear ? The Land Above the of Dreams better is light of the 17 far. In the Morning the Villagers rose with delight. But no Friend from henceforward thou. Night 13 Dreams . an allegory of the poetic or spiritual mind moving unrecognized and reviled among its fellows . 9-12 Shep.' 5 . : 'An Angel is here from the heavenly Climes. to the rest of the Fair beauty Nor once blushes to own That sweet Love and Beauty are worthy our care. p. Pickering MS. omit does. And repeated with pleasure the joys of the And Mary arose among Friends to be free. the first time she ever was there.' Mary Sweet Mary. on one side. except Shep. Essay^ p. Or again does return the Golden times Her eyes outshine every brilliant ray. 22. — & Mary moves in soft To augment with sweet smiles conscious delight. 21. I also Have wander'd But I pleasant streams in the Land of by all MS. Came into the Ball-room among the Fair The young Men & Maidens around her throng. 6 again does return] All edd. And these are the words upon every tongue i . Mary.

EY. & from Envy be free. . And came home in Evening bespatter'd with mire. 31 forsakes] forsake Shep. . Cp. And A Her & HUies 'O why was Why Why was I roses are blighted I shed. . except Shep.' I will . shut to the door damp cold came o'er her. But if you raise For planting such humble will I & Heaven adorn me with bountiful hand. dated Aug. 17-20 Shepherd omits . some call'd her a whore. . her blushes all fled. spite in the my 25 is Beauty. & she trembled & cried She forgot it was Night.Pickering MS. Butts. still ' WMR. sitting on the Bed-side. the morning all cdd. not dress fine. 35 Morning] in 36 in Evening] in the evening all cdd. She went out in Morning attir'd plain & neat 33 Proud Mary 's gone mad. sweet Mary. ' . Race] of Blake's letters to Mr. the lines occurring in one 16. She remembers no Face like the Human Divine. whore] some reviled her more DGR. except Shep. Fiends inhabiting Mary's mild Brain foul 41 . me down in an envious Land ? did And ' 17 . . weak I will & the tame. when she passed by. and my Eyes shall not shine And if any Girl's Lover forsakes her for me I'll refuse him my hand. She trembled & wept. ? in ' 33. . this stanza in his edition of 1866. call'd Christian Love. . WBY. Her soft Memory imprinted with Faces of Scorn 37 . All Faces have Envy. With Faces Like of Scorn and with Eyes of Disdain. Envy your Merit 's to blame as a not to raise Envy. 281 Some said she was proud. born with a different Face? 21 not born like this Envious Race ? then set *To be weak And Lamb and smooth as a Dove. 29 keep from the Ball. She forgot it was Night. 1803 O why was I born with a different face ? Why was I not born like the rest of my race .' said the Child in the Street She went out in Morning in plain neat attire. 22 why . but thine .. — 17 some O 21. some. she forgot it was Morn.

a Face of wild terror & fear be quiet laid till Crystal Cabinet The Maiden caught me Where on She put me into her Cabinet. And me up Lock'd with a golden Key. shining Over her beautiful Female features. A passage its bier. O who can Time her name is withstand her Rahab. all love and all perfection. 11. in is i . the Wild. or moral law this poem p. Pickering MS. her Heart Inorb'd and bonified with locks of shadowing modesty.' — surround the Passions with porches of iron & silver & beauty around the dark regions of sorrow. Others. . in was dancing merrily I 45 : — it plain that the subject of 'Imputing Sin & Righteousness to Individuals. to destroy Imagination. Milton. Giving to airy nothing a name and a habitation Delightful. Three-fold Each within other. unform'd & wretched & melancholy of Death weeping Spectre stands on the threshold little . in Eternity 1-26 of Los : in : wills . f.282 Pickering And And And thine is thine is thine is That shall never The MS. soft flourishing in beauty. Terrified the Spectre screams Of kindness & compassion & & is rushes in fear into their Net born a weeping terror. 70. Beams mild. a Face of sweet Love in despair. that when the lips Recieve a kiss from Gods or Men. Creating form Creating the beautiful House for the piteous sufferer. Her Brain enlabyrinths the whole heaven of her bosom & loins To in put act what her Heart power ? Her name is Vala 3 Cp. with bounds to the Infinite putting ofi" the Indefinite Into most holy forms of Thought (such is the power of inspiration). a Face of mild sorrow & care.' . ' f. a threefold kiss returns From the press'd loveliness so her whole immortal form. They labour incessant. Some Sons 27. lo. Cabinets richly fabricate of gold & ivory For Doubts The Eternal . Rahab Sat deep within him hid his Feminine Power unreveal'd Brooding Abstract Philosophy. : : : . On her white marble & even Neck. : In fires of beauty melting them as gold & silver in the furnace. three-fold Three-fold embrace returns consuming lives of Gods & Men. with many tears and afflections. feminine. Jerusalem. 17-31. 11. makes Rahab. the DivineHumanity A Three-fold Wonder. & fears. most beautiful.

And 9 another pleasant Surrey Bower. found a Threefold Kiss return'd. 42. like a Weeping Babe became And A weeping Babe upon the 21 — wild.Pickering MS.. which Blake afterwards separated into two poems eight stanzas into the Pickering MS. 12 of the Rossetti forms part of xlii. 25 And Weeping Woman pale reclin'd. 283 This Cabinet is form'd of Gold Pearl and Crystal shining bright. 85. But burst the Crystal Cabinet.' see Jerusalem. Threefold each in the other clos'd. O what a pleasant trembling what a smile Fill'd me ! fear — ! a threefold smile that like a flame I burn'd 17 . 13 Translucent. ' Woman Old. f.' and original draft of MS. lovely. Another London with its Tower. 29 sqq. ' Translucence and ' Opake26 Cp. Another Maiden like herself. where it engraving seven as the untitled lines at the end of his — ' Address to the . 'The Mental Traveller. And in the outward air again I with woes the passing Wind. 1. 11.' ' 86 :— ' Till And he becomes a wayward Babe. 5 And And And Another England there I saw. she a weeping Prefatory Note to The 25. shining clear. Book version consisted of fourteen transcribing stanzas. Another Thames and other Hills.' The Grey Monk ' 'The Grey Monk' is found on p. fill'd 14 For Blake's definitions and comparison of ness. bent to kiss the lovely Maid. 1 And I strove to sieze the With ardour fierce & inmost Form hands of flame. under the title 'The Grey Monk. The MS. within it opens into a World a little lovely Moony Night..

six changes on the authority of the MS.' Mr. his own text which is entirely unarbitrary. Book. 'The arrangement of the verses in the Aldine edition is quite It is. 12. ' Mr. DGR shall die WBY. with readings sometimes adopted from the Aldine. ' and sometimes made on his of which are own his transposition ' responsibility — among the most meaningless and misreadings of 11. hands His His Body bent. and generally as to text. first version of this in his early transcript of poem is based solely on the draft which he gives stanzas 5-10. taking these from the Pickering MS. Yeats falls into the same error. die I ! the Mother said. here as elsewhere. i Children die for lack of Bread. and still omitting the second stanza 'The blood red ran from the grey monk's side. though its actual completion in engraved form was probably This dates The Grey Monk' as later than the date on the title-page. one from the engraved version in Jerusalem. he says.. In the footnotes to the present poem I give only the final readings of the MS. Book. printed in Gilchrist he adds the two final stanzas. when. Ellis and Yeats. Messrs. Book. W. had been written before ' The Grey Monk ' version also. The April 25. 247). as we gather from one of Blake's letters to Mr. 1804. seem ignorant of the fact that Shepherd's edition preserved for us the text of the ' ' for Pickering MS. I die] I . 5-8 The trees] R^. Pickering MS. changes from the MS. Book version. Book xlii. Mr. . WBY. Book version — ' ' ' He makes. Book. The latter includes two stanzas which occur in greater part of Jerusaletn. 3 has] hath R^ sat him down DGR. (ii. . In his second version. M. 1803. Book version. and WBY omit. The Grey Monk * ' ' I die. 12. I see MS. 306). The blood red ran from the grey Monk's & feet were wounded wide. and omit 'The Grey Monk' as a separate poem. B. Rossetti follows Shepherd in number and arrangement the of verses. on the other hand.284 Deists ' MS. . WMR. sought (1. . as under the title The Grey Monk he prints stanzas 5-14 of the MS. For deleted words and passages see MS. W. DGR. see. and adopts four of his brother's emendations. — and not from the MS. with a few verbal changes of his own. 11. WHY. belonging to the earlier part of the Felpham period. I die. I ' 2 die] will die 4 sat down] WMR.' authorized. My What more has the merciless Tyrant said ? The Monk sat down on the Stony Bed. in his note to this poem (p. side. Book. G. DGR. adopting two out of the three important ' I die 'for and found ' I see (1. i). 5 p. Book. his arms & knees Like to the roots of ancient trees. 33). Butts. D. the] her MS. Rossetti's in the MS. MS. f. 52). Pickering (Jerusalem. DGR.

23 has] hath marched] is marched MS. wrongs] . dated July 6. 1803. said] 10 first spoke] bespoke RS DGR. * 9 tear] tears II. : ' When God commanded this hand to write 13 In the studious hours of deep midnight. But vain the Sword and vain the Bow. Book. bent body mocks their torturing pain. . Mr. DGR. . The Hermit's Prayer and the Widow's Tear Alone can free the World from fear. WMR. WMR. WMR. DGR. With his thousands strong he marched forth 21 . 22 With his thousands strong] By his strong courage R' Book xlii. DGR. WMR. WMR. WBY. . 14 studious] 35 shadowy DGR. DGR. Book. WBY inverts the order of these two Hnes. WBY. 19 griding] grinding Cry] crying DGR. also the lines in an earlier letter to the same friend ' : — Must Flaxman look upon me as wild ? And all my friends be with doubts beguil'd Must my Wife live in my Sister's bane ? Or my sister survive on my Love's pain ? ? ' 18 His] Thy R^. WBY. They never can work War's overthrow. WBY. 285 His eye was dry no tear could flow hollow groan first spoke his woe. WBY. To avenge the wrongs thy Children feel. Cp. My 'Thy Father drew his Sword in the North. DGR. WBY. 20 mocks their] mocks at their Shep. the grinding WMR. A . . WBY. 13-16 DGR. WBY. He trembled & shudder'd upon the Bed At length with a feeble cry he said 9 : . * My brother starv'd between two Walls. WMR. His Children's Cry my soul appalls I mock'd at the wrack and griding chain. MS. Book. WMR. Blake speaks of Hayley's aversion and contempt for his prophetic writings. 12 with] 15 the In a letter to writing] that all MS. Butts. WBY omits.Pickering MS. 12 He . 21 See note to version in MS. that R^ wrongs 24 avenge] revenge MS. 17 . Book. He told me the writing I wrote should prove The Bane of all that on Earth I love. Thy Brother has arm'd himself in Steel.

WBY. — been suggested to Blake's mind while engraving the plates for Hayley's . Book. WBY. shall heal. The first five stanzas (11. Book. The few exceptions to this rule have the appearance of being marginal interpolations. as if forming quatrains with the rime-arrangement aabb or sometimes aaaa. "Book first the] black bow bent. WMR. The tyrant who the first [MS. — made WBY.y be noticed in the first place that the couplets are almost always arranged together in pairs. p. folTurning to the latter. therefore. and inserts between them the two Until the tyrant himself relent. nor is there a terminal line or other mark of separation between the opening stanza and the proverb-couplets which follow.2 86 ' Pickering MS. . 5-24) deal with cruelty or kindness to animals. WBY Stead] R^ omits. without marginal 13. Auguries of ' Pickering MS. . additions. For a Tear 29 And And The hand * of Vengeance found the To which The And 29-36 For ' : 33 . marks of transposition. seen that the poem consists of an opening quatrain. Written in a single column. : ' — tear of love and forgiveness sweet. inverts the order of stanzas 8 stanzas Bed the Purple Tyrant fled iron hand crush'd the Tyrant's head. the bitter groan of the Martyr's woe Is an Arrow from the Almightie's Bow. or numerical rearrangement of lines. Slaughter shall heap the bloody plain Resistance and war is the tyrant's gain. submission to death beneath his feet tear shall melt the sword of steel. .' 31 the Martyr's] a martyr's 33 found] sought MS. is an Intellectual Thing. a Sigh is the Sword of an Angel King.' — and Following the MS. became a Tyrant in his Stead. The couplets are not divided into sections. it vcxa. its penalty or reward a theme which may have It will be lowed by sixty-four couplets. Prefatory Note to ' Innocence DGR. Book version 9. The conjecture. But the And The And every wound 29 a Tear] the tear it has MS. that Blake intended the title to refer to the initial quatrain only is not supported by the evidence of the MS.

instead of as a number of disconnected proverb-couplets. and Stanzas 20-22 (11. interweaving one with another a canto of terza rima. 75.' 'envy. I my . MS. 19 ' ing war and peace) ' ' (11. The foregoing have treated two like the v^n-ote rimes in down from loose tinuity analysis reveals the curious fact that Blake the couplets in the order of composition or transcribed them rearrangement for future consideration. This theme is continued later in the couplets following 44. aspect of animal life. 103-110. 55 the return to the quatrain unit is clearly marked by the rimearrangement of the next three stanzas. 55-88 and 5962) appear to have been mistakenly copied down in inverted order. 76. followed in smaller type by revised version for those who may prefer to read the poem as a whole. 19. 52.. 45-50. 1 19-132. 1 19-132) with which Rossetti links it in his rearrangement. (c) 11. 10 and 11. The subjects of the remaining stanzas are strongly reminiscent of those of the Songs of Experience. 85-96.' having four identical rimes. and often compress within the narrow limit of a couplet the strength and tenderness of some of the most familiar of the we have 'Infant Sorrow. At 1. 108-110). perhaps in the nature of a personal reflection is on one of the chief modes by which 'slander. 111-118. 55-58. It has the appearance of being an afterthought. (/) 11- 11.' and in stanzas (11. 25-28. 12 (II. London. divided as follows (a) 11. 1 19-132) expressing. alternate pleasure and grief in human life. 29-44. Con- may be It given the poem by following each theme separately would then form seven sections.' and 'jealousy' work for evil. 63-74) 75-84) marks of weakness. marks of woe in beggar. 85-96) pass on from reverence of infant faith to pauper. denunciation of doubt. 78. 63-74.Pickering In the sixth stanza Ballads. 54) Stanzas of these — ' A Truth that Beats all 's told with bad intent the Lies you can invent — ' not very closely bound to the preceding lines. 5-24. 27 recall be regarded as a continuation of stanzas 18. 79-84. as in the last stanza of 'The Grey Monk. a theme entirely different from the darker one of predestined misery or delight (11. The couplet which follows (11. 1. 97-102. a theme returned to (after a short digression contrastIn stanzas 15-17 songs.' and may in stanzas 24. deferring conclusion. 53. to jottings. soldier. pity for those whose lot is cast in the land of eternal winter. 53. all.' conclude this truly ' great poem. Stanzas 13 and 14 (11. This paragraph discusses a new topic. 9. {g) would seem themes alternately. and 23^ Three more stanzas (11. obscene or noxious animals symbolizing human faults or vices. {e) 11. 18. 287 25-28) Blake wanders off into a different (11. It appears probable that he either different : — to its 1-4. own print the text as in the original MS. Stanzas 26. {b) 11. with exquisite compassion. 51. 54- id) 11. 25 (II. 59-62. 37-44 and 45-52) are continuations respectively two themes. 77.

288
With

Pickering
this

(a)

11.

(6)

11.

may be compared

MS,

Rossetti's rearrangement

:

1-4.

5-10, 17, 18, 11-12, 19, 20, 13-16.
29-32, 41, 42, 33-38, 21-24, 39> 40» 43» 44, 67, 68, 71, 72,

(c)

11.

(rf)

11.

25-28, 45-50, 97, 98.

{e')

11.

99, 100, 77, 78, 101, 102, 75, 76, 51, 5a, 81-84, 79, 80, 113-118.

(J)

11.

85-90, 63-66, 93-96, 103, 104, 91, 92, 105, 106, 53, 54, 107-H0.

{g)

11.

1

19-124, 59-62, 55-58.

ih) 125-132.

The latter arrangement (which has been adopted by all later editors
except Shepherd), readable as it appears on first glance, seems to me to do
great violence to the author's meaning. Passages are torn from their context
and given an entirely different sense, by being placed in an artificial position.

An

example of

this

may

be seen

in Rossetti's

penultimate section, where,
is made to argue that
to misery and endless

by the juxtaposition of two separate passages, Blake
a correct apprehension of the fact that some are born
night will enable us to go through

with safety.

life

Auguries of Innocence
To see a World in a Grain

of Sand,
a Heaven in a Wild Flower,
Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand,

i
.

And

And

Eternity in an hour.

A

Robin Redbreast in a Cage
Puts all Heaven in a Rage.
dove-house fill'd with Doves & Pigeons
Shudders Hell thro' all its regions.
dog starv'd at his Master's Gate

5

A

A

9

Predicts the ruin of the State.

A

Horse misused upon the Road
Calls to Heaven for Human blood.
Each outcry of the hunted Hare

A
A
A

fibre

from the Brain does

13

tear.

Skylark wounded in the wing
Cherubim does cease to sing.
The Game Cock dipt and arm'd for fight
;

Does the Rising Sun

17

affright.

Pickering MS. p. 13.
I

on

a] the Shep.,
all edd. except

WMR.

Shep.
sing all edd. except Shep.
Doth all edd. except Shep.

EY.
15 in]
14 does] doth DGR,
16 A . . sing] Doth make a cherub cease to
18 Does]
17 The] A all edd. except Shep.

WMR,

.

MS.

Pickering
Every Wolf's

&

289

Lion's howl

Human

Raises from Hell a

Soul.

wild Deer, wand 'ring here & there,
Keeps the Human Soul from Care.

The

21

The Lamb

And

misus'd breeds Public Strife,
yet forgives the Butcher's knife.
Bat that flits at close of Eve

The
Has left the Brain that won't Believe.
The Owl that calls upon the Night
Speaks the Unbeliever's

He who

25

fright.

shall hurt the little

Wren

29

by Men.
wrath has mov'd

Shall never be belov'd

He who

the

Ox

Shall never be

to

Woman

by

The wanton Boy

lov'd.

that kills the

Fly

33

Shall feel the Spider's enmity.
He who torments the Chafer's Sprite
Weaves a Bower in endless Night.

The

Catterpiller on the Leaf
Repeats to thee thy Mother's
Kill not the

Moth nor

37
grief.

Butterfly,

For the Last Judgment draweth nigh.
He who shall train the Horse to war

41

Shall never pass the Polar Bar.

Beggar's Dog & Widow's Cat,
Feed them & thou wilt grow fat.
The Gnat that sings his Summer's Song

The

45

Poison gets from Slander's tongue.
The poison of the Snake & Newt
Is the sweat of Envy's Foot.

The poison

of the

Honey Bee

49

Is the Artist's Jealousy.

Prince's Robes & Beggar's Rags
Are Toadstools on the Miser's Bags.

The

22 Keeps]
in the

all edd. except

Keep

Songs of Experience.
'

Paradise,

Keys

44 wilt] shalt
SAMPSON

.

of the Gates,'
'

24 Cp, footnote to 'The Fly'
Shep.
.
37, 38 The
griefj Cp. The Gates of

11.

i,

2

:

.

The Catterpiller on the Leaf
Reminds thee of thy Mother's

all edd. except

Shep.

U

Grief.'

290
A

MS.

Pickermg
Truth that

Beats
It is

's

told with

bad intent

53

the Lies you can invent.
right it should be so
all

;

Man was made for Joy & Woe
And when this we rightly know,

;

57

Thro' the World we safely go.

& Woe

Joy

A

Clothing

are

woven

fine,

for the soul divine.

Under every grief & pine
Runs a joy with silken twine.
The Babe is more than Swadling Bands
Throughout all these Human Lands

61

;

& Born were hands,
Farmer
understands.
Every
Every Tear from Every Eye
Becomes a Babe in Eternity
Tools were made,

65

;

This

is

And

returned to

caught by Females bright,

own

its

69

delight.

The Bleat, the Bark, Bellow, & Roar,
Are Waves that Beat on Heaven's Shore.
The Babe that weeps the Rod beneath

73

Writes Revenge in realms of Death.
The Beggar's Rags, fluttering in Air,

Does

to

Rags the Heavens

tear.

&

The

Soldier, arm'd with Sword
Palsied strikes the Summer's Sun.

Gun,

77

The poor Man's Farthing is worth more
Than all the Gold on Afric's Shore.
One Mite wrung from the Lab'rer's hands
Shall buy & sell the Miser's Lands

81

;

protected from on high,
that whole Nation sell & buy.
who mocks the Infant's Faith
if

Or,

Does

He

Shall be mock'd in
58 Thro'

.

.

.

Age &

85

Death.

go] Safely through the world

we

go

all edd. except

Shep.

'

63, 64 All edd. except Shep. omit semicolon after Bands and punctuate with
.
and
semicolon after ' lands.'
69, 70 This
delight] DGR,
omit ;
73, 74
69 bright] aright
prints in Notes.
a;:^
The Babe
omit;
prints in Notes.
Death] DGR,
'

.

EY

WBY

76 Does]

Do

.

.

.

all edd. except

WMR,

.

WHY.

WMR,

Shep.

EY

WBY

48 Does] Shall

all edd. except

Shep.

Pickering
He who
The

MS.

shall teach the Child to

291

Doubt

Grave

shall ne'er get out.
respects the Infant's faith

rotting

He who

89

Triumphs over Hell & Death.
The Child's Toys and the Old Man's Reasons
Are the Fruits of the Two Seasons.

The

Questioner, who sits so sly,
Shall never know how to Reply.

He who replies to words of Doubt
Doth put the Light of Knowledge
The Strongest Poison ever known
Came from

93

out.

97

Caesar's Laurel Crown.

Nought can Deform the Human Race
Like to the Armour's iron brace.
and Gems adorn the Plow
Arts shall Envy Bow.

When Gold
To peaceful

A

101

Riddle, or the Cricket's Cry,
Doubt a fit Reply.

Is to

The Emmet's Inch & Eagle's Mile
Make Lame Philosophy to smile.
He who Doubts from what he sees

105

Will ne'er Believe, do what you Please.
If the Sun & Moon should Doubt,
They'd immediately Go Out,
To be in a Passion you Good may do.
But no Good if a Passion is in you.

109

The Whore & Gambler, by

the State
Licensed, build that Nation's Fate.
The Harlot's cry from Street to Street
Shall weave
92 Cp. Milton,

'To

f.

43,

Old England's winding-Sheet.
11.

12-17

:

cast ofT the idiot Questioner

But never capable of answering
Silent, plotting

Who

113

when

publishes doubt

who is always questioning
who sits, with a sly grin,

:

to question, like a thief in a cave.

&

calls

it

knowledge, whose Science

is

Whose pretence to knowledge is Envy, whose whole Science
To destroy the wisdom of ages to gratify ravenous Envy.'
100 Armour's] armourer's
103 Riddle] puddle

DGR,

all edd. except

WMR,

WMR, EY omit; WBY prints in

EY.
2

is

102 Arts] hearts

111-112 To

Notes.

U

Shop.

Despair,

.

.

.

you]

EY.

DGR,

MS,

Pickering

292

The Winner's shout, the Loser's Curse,
Dance before dead England's Hearse.
Every Night and every Morn
Some to Misery are Born.
Every Morn and every Night
Some are Born to Sweet Deh'ght.
Some are Born to Sweet Delight,
Some are Born to Endless Night.

We

117

121

are led to Believe a Lie

125

When we
Which

When

see not Thro' the Eye,
was Born in a Night to perish in a Night,
the Soul Slept in Beams of Light.

God appears, & God is light,
To those poor souls who dwell in Night
But does a Human Form Display
To those who Dwell in Realms of Day.
118 Dance] Shall dance all edd. except Shep.

Cp.

'

'

Everlasting Gospel

'And

7",

11.

103-106

:

125-128

129
;

We

.

.

.

Light]

leads

you to believe a lie
you see with, not through, the eye
That was born in a night, to perish in a night.
When the soul slept in the beams of light.'

When

126

When

.

\st rdg. del.

.

.

Eye]

and

;

When we

all edd. e.xcept

see with, not through, the eye, Pickering

Auguries of Innocence
{Revised A rrangemen t)
To

Hold

And

A

World in a Grain of Sand,
Heaven in a Wild Flower,

see a

And

a

Infinity in the

all

Heaven

j"our hand,

dove-house fill'd
Shudders Hell thro'

dog starv'd

in a

Cage

in a

A

A

palm of

Eternity in an hour.

Robin Redbreast

Puts

Rage.
with Doves
all

its

&

regions.

at his Master's

Gate

Predicts the ruin of the State.

A

Horse misused upon the Road

Calls to

Heaven

for

MS.

131 does] doth all edd. except Shep.

Shep.

Human

blood.

Pigeons

MS,

Pickering

of the hunted Hare
from the Brain does tear.

Each outcry

A
A
A

fibre

Skylark wounded

in the

Cherubim does cease

wing,

to sing.

The Game-Cock dipt and arm'd
Does the Rising Sun affright.
Every Wolfs & Lion's howl

for fight

Raises from Hell a Human Soul.
The wild Deer, wand'ring here & there,
Keeps the Human Soul from Care.
The Lamb misus'd breeds Public Strife,
And yet forgives the Butcher's knife.

He who

shall hurt the little

Wren

by Men.
wrath has mov'd

Shall never be belov'd

He who

Ox

the

to

Woman

Shall never be by

The wanton Boy

lov'd.

that kills the Fly

Shall feel the Spider's enmity.
He who torments the Chafer's Sprite
Weaves a Bower in endless Night.

The

Catterpiller

Repeats

to thee

on the Leaf
thy Mother's

Moth nor

Kill not the

grief.

Butterfly,

For the Last Judgment draweth nigh.
He who shall train the Horse to war
Shall never pass the Polar Bar.

The Beggar's Dog

&

Feed them

& Widow's

thou wilt grow

Cat,
fat.

The Bat that flits at close of Eve
Has left the Brain that won't Believe.
The Owl that calls upon the Night
Speaks the Unbeliever's

fright.

The Gnat

Summer's Song

that sings his

Poison gets from Slander's tongue.

The poison
Is the

& Newt

of the Snake

sweat of Envy's Foot.

The poison

of the

Honey-Bee

Is the Artist's Jealousy.

A

Truth that's told with bad intent
all the Lies you can invent.

Beats

& Woe are woven fine,
Clothing for the soul divine

Joy

A

;

Under every grief & pine
Runs a joy with silken twine.
It is right it

should be so

;

Man was made for Joy & Woe
And, when this we rightly know,
;

Thro" the

World we

safely go.

293

MS.

Pickering

294

is more than Swadling Bands;
Throughout all these Human Lands
Tools were made, & Born were hands,
Every Farmer understands.
Every Tear from Every Eye
Becomes a Babe in Eternity
This is caught by Females bright,

The Babe

;

And

return'd to

its

own

delight.

The Bleat, the Bark, Bellow, & Roar,
Are Waves that Beat on Heaven's Shore.
The Babe that weeps the Rod beneath
Writes Revenge in realms of Death.
He who mocks the Infant's Faith
Shall be mock'd in Age & Death.
He who shall teach the Child to Doubt

The

Grave shall ne'er get out.
respects the Infant's faith
Triumphs over Hell & Death.
rotting

He who

Child's Toys and the Old Man's Reasons
Are the Fruits of the Two Seasons.
The Questioner, who sits so sly,

The

Shall never

know how

to

Reply.

replies to words of Doubt
put the Light of Knowledge out.

He who
Doth

A

Riddle, or the Cricket's Cry,
Doubt a fit Reply.
The Emmet's Inch & Eagle's Mile

Is to

Make Lame Philosophy to smile.
He who Doubts from what he sees
Will ne'er Believe, do what you Please.
If the Sun & Moon should Doubt,
They'd immediately Go Out.

The Prince's Robes & Beggar's Rags
Are Toadstools on the Miser's Bags.
The Beggar's Rags, fluttering in Air,
Does to Rags the Heavens tear.
The poor Man's Farthing is worth more
Than all the Gold on Afric's Shore.
One Mite wrung from the Lab'rer's hands
Shall buy & sell the Miser's Lands;
Or,

if

Does

The

protected from on high,
whole Nation sell & buy.

that

Soldier, arm'd with

Sword

&

Gun,

Palsied strikes the Summer's Sun.
The Strongest Poison ever known

Came from Caesar's Laurel Crown.
Nought can Deform the human Race
Like to the Armour's iron brace.

MS.

Pickering
When

295

Gold and Gems adorn the Plow

To peaceful Arts shall Envy Bow.
To be in a Passion you Good may
But no Good

if

a Passion

is

do,

in

you.
The Whore & Gambler, by the State
Licensed, build that Nation's Fate.

The
Shall

Harlot's cry from Street to Street
weave Old England's winding Sheet.

The Winner's

shout, the Loser's Curse,

Dance before dead England's Hearse.
Every Night and every Morn

Some

to

Misery are Born.

Every Morn and every Night
Some are Born to Sweet Delight.
Some are Born to Sweet Delight,
Some are Born to Endless Night.

We

are led to Believe a Lie

When we

see not Thro' the Eye,
in a Night to perish in a Night,
the Soul Slept in Beams of Light,

Which was Born

When

God appears, & God is light,
To those poor souls who dwell in Night,
But does a Human Form Display
To those who Dwell in Realms of Day.

Long John Brown
Little

Bell

Mary

&

Little

had a Fairy

in

Mary

a Nut,

Long John Brown had the Devil in
Long John Brown lov'd little Mary

And

Bell
i

Gut

his

;

Bell,

the Fairy drew the Devil into the Nutshell.

Pickering MS. p. 19.
In Jerusalem, f. 36, 11. 35-37, fairies are described as one of Four ravening
States Permanently Fixed by the Divine Power.'
deathlike Forms. .
Cp. from the Motto to the Songs of Innocence and of Experience,^ in the MS.
'

.

.

*

Book

(xxxi)

:

'The Good are

And

attracted

by Men's perceptions.

think not for themselves

;

Experience teaches them to catch
And to cage the Fairies & Elves
lines perhaps explained by the quatrain which almost immediately precedes
Till

'

:

them

in the
'

MS. Book

The

(xxvii)
trap the moment before it 's ripe,
tears of repentance you'll certainly wipe

But

if

If

:

you

You

once you let the ripe moment go
can never wipe off the tears ot woe.'

;

And woe & And Title\ 13 . Joy. EY being an addition. Attended by Fairies. 5 in] on all edd. & the Devil he was wroth. he had the Devil. And I wonder if William Bond will die. Young 15 Joy] love . Some Some said he said Then the Fairy skip'd out of the old Nutshell. He ' He was soon in the Gut of the loving Young Swain. . For John eat & drank to drive away Love's pain But all he could do he grew thinner and thinner. I. And he laugh'd at the Devil till poor John Brown Died. And he return'd home in Misery. del. del. alack for Pretty Mary Bell For the Devil crept in when the Fairy skip'd out. and Pride. Her Fairy 5 . For assuredly he is very ill. had a Wolf in his stomach day & night. 20. I He went to Church in a May morning. 5 & her] Pickering MS. ! 17 .' The Devil he raged. one. skip'd out. p. two. EY. & they guess'd right The fairy skip'd about in his Glory. At first ' John Brown & Mary Bell. And the Devil enter d into the Young Man's broth. Though he eat & drank as much as ten Men for 9 . and three But the Angels of Providence drove them away. o)tnts &. Pickering MS. William Bond wonder whether the Girls are mad.296 Pickering MS. 15/ rdg. his dinner. Love is a Sin. except Shep. there goes Miss Bell with her fusty old Nut. & her Fairy skip'd in laugh 'd at the Devil saying. And I wonder whether they mean to kill. is/ rdg. 3 Long] 2.' the adjectives 3 Little] Pretty Pickering MS.

and there lay down. in Songs vf . . 28 Then . But she is ruddy & bright as day. Another I Love far better than thee. Then what have I to do with thee? 25 For thou art Melancholy Pale. And the sunbeams dazzle from her eyne. in the midst a Black Black Cloud. On the Right hand of his loved Bed. I do another Love. 33 floor.Pickering MS. And Mary Green shall her Servant be.' oniiis 1. O. And Another I will have for my Wife. Mary. 37 thee] Cp. . Go & take that other to be thy Wife. 'O William.' ' 29 And & Mary chill'd. Experience ^ To Tirzah.' 'Yes. in the midst the Sick Man on his Bed. 9 13 17 21 Dost another Love better than poor Mary. But he came home in a black black cloud. on thy Head is the cold Moon's Shine. 297 He He went not out to the Field nor Fold. IMary trembled And Mary fell When Mary woke & found her laid On the Right hand of her William dear. 21 O William] Shep. And saw her William Bond so near. And on his Right hand was Mary Green. And And And And an Angel of Providence at his Feet. And took to his Bed. And their tears fell thro' the black black Cloud To drive away the sick man's pain. 4. down on the right hand That William Bond & his Sister Jane Scarce could recover Mary more. And on his Left hand was his Sister Jane. went not out to the Village nor Town. if thou dost another Love. an Angel of Providence at his Head.

rather as that of the narrator of the story. seek Love there 49 ! 45-52 All edd. And I the Angels of Providence thought Love lived But O.298 MS. I the in poem treat the it if the speech were William who begins DGR. In the darkness of night & the Winter's Snow. he I in the lives in the thought to find Love But sweet Love is left the Bed. place in inverted commas as Bond's. Seek Love in the Pity of others' Woe. first person. In the gentle relief of another's care. the Comforter of Night. In the naked & outcast. WBY. 52 In] With . hot sunshine. Pickering The Fairies that fled from William Bond Danced around her Shining Head They danced over the Pillow white. WMR. 41 . EY. Moony light 45 ! in the heat of Day.

POEMS FROM LETTERS 1800-1803 .

text of the poems in the letters to Mr. kindly lent me by Capt. Butts is taken from the originals. 1800. Butts.PREFACE TO POEMS FROM LErrERS Five of the letters written six poems in this section are by Blake or his wife.e. I place here also a little fairy poem which seems to belong to the same period. 144) from an autograph of Blake's on the back of a small pencil-sketch. Essay. pieces are contained in letters to Mr. i. Butts written from Felpham. 1 800-1 803. being unable to trace the present whereabouts of the original and for the same reason take my text of 'A fairy leapt upon my knee' from Swinburne's My . 143. Flaxman. dated September 14. It was first printed by Swinburne {Essay. the grandson of Blake's friend. the last . immediately Four of the before the Blakes' removal to Felpham. I follow Gilchrist for the lines to Mrs. The first Shepherd : five poems are printed by all editors except by Swinburne and Ellis and Yeats only. The taken from earliest of these are the stanzas enclosed in a letter from Mrs. pp. Blake to Mrs. Anna Flaxman.

149. the village then winds. or all that you may. at my cot it does end. that all Away to sweet Felpham. constantly refers to himself as the italics Eartham ' or the ' Hermit of the Turret ' 15 William Hermit of ' in liis letters to his friends. And my brother is there.' though obviously Blake's own composition. Mrs. i. print in roman. the blossom of hope for a sweet decoy To Do To i . 14 Sept. Flaxman's the wide land. and my friend and thine Descend and ascend with the bread and the wine. Lambeth. . see note to 1.' is in a letter H^ercules] B[uildings]. .v] The 7 turret] the turret of Hayley's house dated ' sister. signed ' biographer by Miss Den- W. all ' : are probably Gilchrist's. Anna Flaxman This song to the flower of Flaxman's joy. Mrs. you can. 11 w. The Ladder On the turret Through You The its spiral . entice him to Felpham and far away. 150. from a man.' and signed Catherine Blake.POEMS FROM LETTERS To my dear Friend. The bread and the wine of delight of sweet thought 13 Feed the And village of Felpham by day and by night. 1800. other edd. Dispensing unceasing to Gilchrist. 15. at his own door the bless'd hermit does stand. copy supplied to the The poem. stand in the village and look up to heaven precious stones glitter on flight seventy-seven 9 . does softly descend. Hayley. Blake's patron. Blake. for Heaven is there of Angels descends through the air 5 .

Morning Heaven's Mountains adorning : In particles bright.' addressed to 'Mr.* WMR. Great Marlborough Street. . EY. Oct'.' (See Gilchrist.Poems from 302 Letters m • U To my Friend Butts I write Vision of Light. i8o. Butts. WBY ' 13-17 Cp. I cannot resist the temptation to send them to you. in Israel's paths they shine. Book ' xli) : — 'Mock on. Amazed 20 . My i first On The Sun was Emitting His Glorious beams From Heaven's 5 high Streams. Written in two columns on the first and second pages of a letter dated Felpham.) These verses are prefaced by the lines Recieve from me a return of verses such as Felpham produces by me. My Eyes did Expand Into regions of Away from air. Remote from Desire The Light lo Care. tho' not such as she produces by her Eldest Son however. .' * : ' . Rousseau (MS. Blown back they But still blind the mocking eye. ignoring Amazed] All edd. Over Sea. ii. and entitle To Mr. of the . 2''. . read gazed . I Astonish'd. ' ' . 'The Atoms of Democritus And Newton's Particles of Light Are sands upon the Red sea shore Where 20 gazed do shine so Israel's tents bright. . iSi. Mock on. 1800. Butts. all Into regions of fire.' amazed. Blake's precise use of the spelling ed when he intends the final syllable to be pronounced. . & Amaz'd & in fear each particle gazed. And every sand becomes a Gem Reflected in the beams divine . 15 The jewels of Light Distinct shone clear. the stanzas in the verses beginning ' Voltaire. 19. the yellow sands sitting. over Land. such as they are.

Continue Expanding. Meteor. & Star. 55 . Like a weak mortal birth. 45 Like a Sea without shore. My Eyes. Mountain. . like Infants shadow & 40 too.' I stood in the Streams Of Heaven's bright beams. Soft consum'd in delight. & sea. Each herb & each tree. For they beckon'd to me. more & more. In soft Female charms And in her fair arms My 30 . Swift I ran. Each fountain & rill. Saying ' : as Every Stone on the Land. Each grain of Sand. wife's Sister. Till the Jewels of Light.form'd. The Heavens commanding. Are Men Seen Afar. knew. Friend. Soft he smil'd. Heavenly Men beaming Appear'd as One Man. And Saw Felpham sweet Beneath my bright Shadow And my And My We I 35 feet. Who Complacent began My bright. Cloud. Remote by the Sea. In his bosom Sun-bright I 50 remain'd. limbs to infold In his beams of bright gold Like dross purg'd away All my mire & my clay.Poems from Letters 303 For each was a Man Human. Each rock & each hill. earth. hill. descend In our Shadows on Earth.

Recieve this tribute from a Harp sincere Go on in Virtuous Seed sowing on Mold Of Human Vegetation. the Mountains around 65 The roarings resound Of the lion & wolf. iv. 5 ! W. B.' conclude the letter from which the preceding poem is taken.Poems 304 And fj^oni Letters heard his voice Mild. signed excuse. horn'd with gold These are guards of thou And 1 the voice faded mild remain'd as a Child All I ever had me Before I Ram My By the fountains of Such the Vision 70 : . from Sleep the Sides of the Deep. known bright Shone & your wife saw you ' ! to : 75 life. Parent of Youthful Minds. the passage in Blake's introduction to Jcnisaleni. These ' ' chap.' which the author hopes Mrs. & deep gulph. Butts Wife of the Friend of those I most revere. & happy Wife i . the real & eternal World of Vegetable Universe is but a faint shadow. The loud Sea. To the Christians ' ' : — ' Imagination. HI To Mrs. & in which we shall live in our Eternal or Imaginative Bodies when these Vegetable Mortal Bodies are no more. O thou Ram Who awakest On On 60 I horn'd with gold. Saying: 'This is My Fold. & Behold Your Harvest Springing to Eternal Life. me Appear'd on the Sea. 4 Human Vegetation] Cp. Butts will lines..' which this . Fold.

43. And a mild With trees And little Sun & & sings . the position being also indicated by Blake's catchword ' 16 See note to ' Mad Song {Poetical Sketches). were omitted when transcribing : ' after line 6. and EY entitle 'Verses. that mounts fields full who devils fight for themselves Rememb'ring the Verses When my that Hayley sung heart knock'd against the root of With Angels planted 5 — my tongue — Hawthorn bowers. Tho' dead. written in two columns in a postscript to a letter dated 'Felpham. S/VMPSON X . fears— 20 With a thousand Angels upon the Wind.' WBY. the evil one. ' In a sweet With 7.Poems from Letters 305 IV With happiness stretch'd across the hills In a cloud that dewy sweetness distills With a blue sky spread over with wings. ' 8 These These 2 f. Fill'd full of hopes. Nov"^ 22. Pouring disconsolate from behind To drive them off. fill'd full of tears.' Printed by all editors except Shepherd. 1802. . Los the Terrible. e. of Fairy elves. What to others a trifle appears Fills me full of smiles or tears 25 . they my wrath terrible ^ . 19.' Blake says 'were Composed above a twelvemonth ago while Walking from Felpham to Lavant to meet my Sister.' WMR * 3. Jerusalem. With 15 — Notwithstanding They beg. 4 Cp. & my way before A frowning Thistle implores my stay. they drop their intreat. 1. (i. 17. himself in the passing hours. And my Brother John. they appear upon my path. In a black cloud making his mone. moony night a blue sky spread over with wings and a mild moon. And my Brother Robert just behind. 'Rememb'ring'). i . 11. These verses. in And God With And Golden demons lo that none can stay Father my hovering upon the wind.' two lines lines are written sideways & — with the note ought to come in at x in the margin. 44 : — & silence that they had created. Silver Angels across my way.

f. 43. Shall bring thy Wife upon a bier And Butts shall give what Fuseli gave. 15). ' ' the passage from Milton quoted in the footnote). If Thou woe art to endless betray'd 30 . f. and 'Los 35 ' Los is . passint). f. A 40 27 See note to 1. 44-46 : — f. With * ' my outward.. as to the supreme importance of cultivating and recognizing what he terms 'Minute Particulars. 1. and f. 23. .' the thistle said. the Vehicular . 1. f. And a double vision is always with me.' meaning thereby those personal characteristics which constitute the identity of the individual. Heavens over Hells Brooding in holy hypocritic lust. 16. 3. f. 1. Oliver Madoxin his capacity of prophet and seer. is depicted as a blacksmith working Los is Time (see note to 1. S&e Jerusalem. to God alone. symbolizes space . 39). one of the Four Zoas {ibid. 47. — '. f. is the third of the Four Sons of Jerusalem that never were Generated (^Jerusalem. and * ' ' ' Visions of the Daughters of Albion. 90. f. elsewhere referred to He is described as fill'd with care {Milton. and inspiration {Jerusalem. 11. 34 lovely Enitharmon {Jerusalem. . L 42 69. And here is Enitharmon's bower And Los the terrible thus hath sworn. thy . 31. 1. . : — 'Every Minute Particular ' . old age. 87. building Heavens Twenty-seven-fold. thou goest back. In Blake's reference to his own terrible wrath (1. ' ' ' f. 53. 34). & fear. U. as Mr. f. 50).' Form of strong Urthona' {Jerusalem. f.Poems from 3o6 For double the vision my Letters Eyes do see. Brown conjectured. Enitharmon is nam'd Space. 11. 18) he appears to identify himself with Los The name Los. 33 Theotormon. II. own Minute Particulars ones are holy. 68 :— 1. 39. 4) and one of the daughters of Albion {ibid. f. 16-23 • & and all . 1. 35 Poverty. are of Faith. 12) and associated with storms and weeping {^Jerusalem. by mortals nam'd Time. 4). . 42). Envy. 8. the emanation of Los {ibid. as the sons of Los. With my inward Eye. 1. drinking the cries of pain From howling victims of Law . 40 This allusion is only to be understood by a knowledge of one of the chief articles of Blake's faith in ethics and art. f. 71. 10. For here does Theotormon lower. first mentioned in Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793). see Milton. is probably a transposition of Sol (cp. 1. 23. I. . a Thistle across my way.' . 'tis an old Man grey. 30. Belong They ibid. not of Demonstration ' . 8. ibid. 17. thine little is Holy'. the spirit of prophecy at his furnace. dark black Rock & a gloomy Cave. 1. 1). 42. 55-57. Because thou backward dost return.

Book Pickering MS. 11. descending before Swell'd & bloated General Forms repugnant to the Divine Humanity. Then Los appear'd in all his power: 55 In the Sun he appear'd.' wrath The old man weltering upon my path. 60-64 He who would : ' . To which all Lineaments tend. MS. . hypocrite. every one in their own identity ibid. The Rock and the Cave. It is to Instead of Albion's lovely mountains. are invariably used as sj'mbols of the state opposed to Jerusalem (or the life of spiritual liberty and imagination). And all my friends be with doubts beguil'd? ' Must my Wife live in my Sister's bane. a Tree deadly and poisonous. And his So I dismal terrors spoke.' 47 Cp. & flatterer For Art & Science cannot exist but in minutely organized Particulars.' 1. in which 'Minute Particulars' of personal identity are crushed under the weight of reason and natural religion.' . who is the Only General and Universal Form. — do good to another must do it in Minute Particulars. Must the duties of life each other cross ? Must every joy be dung & dross ? Must my dear Butts feel cold neglect Because I give Hayley his due respect? Must Flaxman look upon me as wild. the Minute Particulars.. I see : Pits of bitumen ever burning. the terrible shade. And broke him up from his delving root. & the curtains of Jerusalem.Poems fro7n I struck the Thistle with Letters my 307 foot. The Infinite alone resides in Definite & Determinate Identity. liii and Iv. 49 Cp. constantly recurring figures in Blake's later Prophetic Books. while we Derogate from him in the trifles & small articles of that goodness. note X 3 to ' The Grey Monk. 16. 56-62 : — easy acknowledge a man to be great & good. 43. I see a Cave. This is rendered clear by the passage in Jerusalem. 11. 55. a Rock. & seek with love & sympathy. unimaginative Instead of the Mutual Forgivenesses. And not in generalizing Demonstrations of the Rational Power. Those alone are his friends who admire his minutest powers. General Good is the plea of the scoundrel. ' f. Or my sister survive on my Love's pain The curses of Los. ' f. & make me struck in my 45 ? 50 afraid. All broad & general principles belong to benevolence Who protects minute particulars.

They vanish not from me & mine we guard them first & last The generations of men run on in the tide of Time. . This Earth breeds not our happiness. . . Thy terrors shall not make me afraid.' Are I. 75 & sorrow. 75 men] man : all edd. But leave their destin'd lineaments permanent for ever & ever. . nor one Event of Space unpermanent But all remain every fabric of Six Thousand Years Remains permanent. & the Sun was hot bows of my Mind & the Arrows of Thought. My Wife has no indulgence given Except what comes to her from heaven. Felt affliction. Became leprous & white as snow And every Soul of men on the Earth . Nor yet the Space that I do see My Mind is not with thy light array'd. & dearth. Six Thousand Years my station in the Eternal bosom. Time w^alk . Six Thousand Years & Space obey my will. : : ' I am that Fell from Shadowy Prophet who. tho' on the Earth. 11. & sickness. : : 60 Ease] rest Swinb. Behind my back. The Sun stood trembling in heaven The Moon. and behold. that glow'd remote below. just close turned round in terror. me 6-25 : — stood. 20. all things vanish & are seen no more. Los flam'd in With the 55-58 Cp. . ' And Los behind f. * We eat we little. Los had entered into my soul His terrors now posses'd me whole I arose in fury & strength. My hands are labour'd day & night. drink 60 less. When I had my 70 Defiance given. arrows Swinb. inward Los in his might. finish'd.Poems from 3o8 Letters My face in fierce flames in my double sight 'Twas outward a Sun. . in Six return I : both Thousand Years. Another Sun feeds our life's streams. a terrible flaming Sun. up and down for not one Moment Of Time is lost. And Ease comes never in my sight. We 65 warmed with thy beams Thou measurest not the Time to me.' are not . Milton. my path. 78 the Arrows] with . I Los stood in that fierce glowing fire And I became One Man with him arising in my strength. . where Satan Fell and was cut off. 'Twas too late now to recede. ago.

First On Couches soft with mild of Beulah a most pleasant Sleep music tended by Flowers of Beulah. Sweet Female forms winged or floating in the air spontaneous. To build the Universe stupendous. gore. Al-Ulro. lovely. . This place is called Beulah It is a pleasant lovely Shadow Where no dispute can come.' See also The Four Zoas. 0. Eternally Created by the Lamb of God around On all & sides. I a fourfold vision see. ! : to man. of man are Beulah. Alia. To whom be Glory & Dominion. in fury of Poetic Inspiration. S5 delight. lest they fall into Eternal Death.' — See also the opening lines of the second book of Milton There is a place where Contrarieties are equally True. a Soft Moony Universe. and OrUlro. : ' : : : As the beloved infant in his mother's bosom. Enraptur'd with affection sweet and mild benevolence.-^. 98. Because of those who Sleep. And it is thus Created. Creating Spaces. — 81 brothers] brother all edd. Milton. 85 Fourfold the basic idea of Blake's symbolic system. As the breath of the Almighty such are the words of man In the great Wars of Eternity. Into this place the Sons & Daughters of Ololon descended With solemn mourning into Beulah's moony shades & hills. /ass«V«. which abounds in fourfold correspondences always conveys the idea of perfection and harmony. threefold in soft Beulah's night. Beulah is evermore Created around Eternity appearing To the Inhabitants of Eden around them on all sides. Cp. Mental forms Creating. The Daughters of Beulah follow Sleepers in all their Dreams. feminine. Pure. round incircled With arms of love & pity & sweet compassion. within without the Universal Man. Night i. and the later Pro- — 86 Beulah] In Blake's mythology the four states phetic Books. Lo ! the Eternal Great Humanity. 8-1 1 : And the Four States of Humanity in its Repose — ' Were shewed them. 11. But to The Sons of Eden. f. But Beulah to its Inhabitants appears. Weeping for Milton mute wonder held the Daughters of Beulah. 80 . Amen Walks among all his awful Family. seen in every face.Poems from My My My Letters 309 bowstring fierce with Ardour breathes arrows glow in their golden sheaves . given in Mercy to those who sleep. a fourfold vision is given to 'Tis fourfold in And march before father me . Evermore. brothers & The heavens drop Now And with human my supreme . f. the moony habitations of Beulah Are from Great Eternity a mild & pleasant Rest. 197-203 'There is from Great Eternity a mild & pleasant rest : — Nam'd Beulah. within each district. 34. mild & Gentle. 11. Jerusalem.

I ought to blame myself. where ' ' in a state and 'inward eye' of imagination is of reason. . Book xxxvii. 1803. person degrade. ' the outward eye emphasized in a couplet of The Everlasting Gospel. EY. 103. or. 21. each my passive. when ? my I ? speak. & injuriously treated .' title I. All the pen my my is Talents 1 am either When Elate I & dishonour. xix). 7^. 9 . ' Printed by DGR. but. and dead is When Meek 5 . or too highly priz'd I'm Envy'd. e. 1 1 : : — he to believe a and 'emanation' see introductory note 88 Cp. you see with.' contrasted with the ' — to ' : MS. My pictures despise temper chastise terror. lose every Friend. 11. 11. Jerusalem. & Single visioHj ' twofold ' By 87 twofold] is 'emanation. i race . pre- burn what I have I have been very much degraded peevishly written about my friend. not 'divided 27-30. why was was Why When I born with a different face I not born like the rest of I Then I'm silent & Then verse I My one look.3 Poems from o 1 And May God us keep Newton's sleep twofold Always. Marlborough S* London' dated i6. the pencil bury. faced by ' Give me your advice in my perilous adventure : i. And starts & my . too low. 104 11. ! meant man's reason and imagination own of harmony. I'm despis'd. not through. WMR. From . to reason separated from imagination]. the eye 53. In a letter addressed to 'M"". 3 When] If EY.' 11. Butts Gr. 22.' in which Blake describes the circumstances ' Felpham. 10. Pickering envied EY. chap. MS. a comparison repeated and into 'spectre ' And ' leads When for 'spectre' you f. August which led to his trial for high treason (see Gilchrist's Life. . I offend . and WMR. the latter with the Verses. ' incomprehensible the Vegetated Mortal Eye's perverted & single vision To [i.' Cp. if it all arise from my own fault. my shame my Fame. in Blake's Letters language.' 2 See note to 10 I'm Envy'd] I ' am Mary.

' 6 paltry] pretty EY. rings. Alcmene and he grasping her hand. Disgracer of the female form. he And ' fell upon my 5 worm thigh. Amphitryon watch the struggle 9 O] EY omit. necklaces. . gilded. naked. joy and please. thus in tears did soft reply Knowest thou How much not. abhorred. falls back in terror with sharp recoil ' : of drawn-up limbs . 144. Thou paltry. on the back of which is a pencilled sketch of Hercules throttling the serpents. of patches. in silence. O fairies' : lord Therefore in pity lives to 9 ! by us contemned. 143. note\ copied from a loose scrap of paper. and such-like things. Pins.' Swinburne's text (pp. .Poems from Letters 3 1 r VI A upon my knee and dancing merrily Singing I i fairy leapt 'Thou thing said. poisonous Weeping. whose twisted limbs make a sort of spiral cradle around and above the child's triumphant figure an attendant. Whatever hides the female form That cannot bear the mortal storm Our ' ! we give the female live ? still make And what would turn into disease We will turn to what 13 .

.

1807 . 1808 1806.DEDICATION OF BLAKE S ILLUSrRATIONS OF BLAWS Published Written 'GRAVE' May circa ist.

1807. and the list of subscribers Blake's twelve alone considerably exceeded five hundred. appeared with the recommendations of West. H. to dedicate the work to her honour w*^ have been yours exclus^ but that you might not be deprived of any advantage likely to contribute to your reputation. however. I was willing to pay Mr. was to have formed an additional engraved The design plate with a vignette of Blake's invention. under any circumstances. widely advertised by its publisher. on the understanding that the engraving of the plates was also to be entrusted to the artist. 205-207).' honour ! . had the remotest suspicion that you*^ for a moment entertain the idea of writing me to supply money to create an ' : Sir. Cromek. 1852. Schiavonetti ten guineas for etching a plate from the drawing in question. begins your letter demanding four guineas for the sketcJied vignette ded" to the Queen. and reprinted by Gilchrist with* great surprise. and submitted by the artist to Cromek. R. whose strong feeling with regard to this transaction is evidenced in several of the epigrams in the Rossetti MS. larity. The allowed you. was actually prepared. Fuseli. and I will briefly state my reasons for so doing. the first place. which is printed in ordinary type on the recto of the leaf following the title-page. which was first printed in the Geiitletnaiis — Magazine. Flaxman.PREFACE Blake's Illustrations of Blair s Grave is the only work which. not (i. This letter. violating this unwritten agreement. and others. I rec''*. employed instead a talented pupil of Bartolozzi's. . I have returned the drawing with this In note. I never to it. or brought his name prominently before The edition. but was returned by the latter upon grounds sufficiently clearly stated in his letter dated May. Louis Schiavonetti an action resented by Blake. achieved any degree of poputhe public. The dedication of this work to Queen Charlotte. not me. I do not think it merits the price you affix In the next place. during his lifetime. February. Cromek. for designs or 'inventions' were purchased by Cromek the sum of twenty guineas. The Queen in w'* I cannot possibly participate.

W. is thus described by Mr. mother with her adolescent and infant family a man and children to the right. A . and Engravings. ii. The subject is the deliverance of the Human Soul from Death. M.' ' ' : .The Grave 3 1 5 The original design. no. . 309) special care and completeness in pale semi-neutral tints a very beautiful work.Rossetti in his Annotated Lists of Blake's Paintings. 70 (Gilchrist. another holding the unequally-poised balance and a sealed roll a third descends with a key to unlock the fetters of the grave. one sheathing the sword. Between the upper angels a space is left for the inscription. and the Ascension of the Above. clasp their upraised hands in thankfulness for the great deliverance. their rises to the left chains riven.' Executed with most List I. Drawings. . are two angels. preserved in the British Museum. . Just.

The Soul awakes and. And. That Mortal Eyes cannot behold But. 20 .' 15 regions] region Wilk. Shep. From Before the vast regions of the Grave. And cold and pale the Limbs repos'd. sees The Door i . O Shepherdess of England's Fold.To the Queen of Death is made of Gold. Behold this Gate of Pearl and Gold 10 ! To The dedicate to England's Queen Visions that my Soul has seen. The Dedication 14 solemn] silken Wilk. wond'ring. Sov'reign's Feet. and poor around it wait . 1808. bring What I have borne on solemn Wing. Her Throne my Wings Bowing before ' my I wave 15 .. In her mild The Grave And rich Hand is the golden Keys : Heaven's golden Gate. ' ! Blair's Grave. is signed 'William Blake. when the Mortal Eyes are clos'd. these Blossoms sweet The Grave produc'd In mild repose from Earthly strife The Blossoms of Eternal Life . Shep.. 5 . by Her kind permission.

EPIGRAMS FROM ANNOTATED COPY OF REYNOLDS' WORKS BLAKE'S circa 1808 .

are precisely of the same order as those scattered through ' ' ' ' ' ' : : the pages of the later part of the Rossetti MS.' These epigrams. those written in the copy of Reynolds being probably rather the earlier of the two.' attributes the annotaGilchrist. intrinsic evidence. This is the page my Proofs of this Opinion are Opinion of Will. and So say I. in which he quotes with approval a passage from the Discourses.' written in Blake's autograph on Reynolds' the margins of the first volume of his copy of Reynolds' among ' Works (2nd edition. 315) there can be no doubt that at the time Blake was writing extracts from the Discourses to Butts.' Blake's later and more prejudiced view of the President of the Academy is forcibly expressed in his note on the titleThis Man was Hired to Depress Art. 1798). 1802. as he says.PREFACE TO THE EPIGRAMS The nine epigrams which follow are found interspersed a number of prose annotations to Sir Joshua Discourses. These marginal notes were made at first in pencil. on tions and epigrams in the 'Discourses' to the year 1820. and afterwards copied over and supplemented in ink. This is obviously a conclusion from the words Aged Sixty-three in the lines beginning. The annotations in Blake's Reynolds all refer to the first eight Discourses contained in the first volume of the Works.' saying. ' Whatever Blake may have meant by it this cryptic certainly cannot refer to his own age at the time .' a letter to Mr. When Nations grow ' ' ' ' ' * ' Old. So says Sir Joshua. and reconsidering. while those on the following Discourses are jotted down As the latter are mixed with verses in the MS. November 2. he was looking over his pencilled notes and adding to His only reference. to Reynolds is in them. Blake given in the following Notes. According to Ellis and Yeats (ii. Book. all his thoughts on art. Butts dated Felpham. however. moreover. referring to his quarrel with Cromek and Stothard the whole of the epigrams may be dated circa 1808.' adding.

which is now preserved in the British Museum. very similar reference to being born old occurs in one of his epigrams in the MS. upon the nursery floor. Book written about the same period : ' — S[tothard] in childhood. . Was extreme old and most extremely poor He has grown old and rich and what he will He is extreme old and extreme poor still.Epigrams 3 1 9 A of writing.' : : My text is taken from Blake's annotated copy of Reynolds.

I saw & I knew immediately Gil. unless they are born with Determinate Organs. I am happy I cannot say tliat Rafael Ever was from my Earliest Childhood hidden from Me. i. Hire Idiots to Paint with cold light & hot shade. the difference between Rafael & Rubens. Give high Price for the worst. i. Gil. i. Paint. & Stays p. 320. of Rafail 257. 4 Labours of Ignorance] 11 Some look to see the sweet Outlines. ' 318 {reading to the popes who succeeded to the age ')• 2 hot] not EY. Degrade Reynolds. Bracelets Reynolds. The prose passage Men who have been Educated with Works of Venetian Artists under their Eyes Cannot see Rafael. vol. 259. leave the best in disgrace. I you'd] you would Gil. vol. comment on Sir Joshua Reynolds' account impressions of Raphael. labour of idleness Gil. ii. xv. EY i. ' . Powder'd Hair. And beauteous Forms that Love does wear Some look to find out Patches. iii). And with Labours of Ignorance fill every place.EPIGRAMS Advice of the Popes who succeeded the of Rafael Age first the Arts if you'd Mankind Degrade. & Blake's of his disappointment at his preceding these lines runs : first — ' . written at foot of title-page. WMR EY ii.' (' Epig.

cix. Aged Gold. i. to France. Suggested by the following footnote memoir of Reynolds prefixed to the Discourses: — 'How in Malone's justly may we apply the immediately following lines of the same great Poet to those demagogues among us. For all Reynolds. Ear] Gil." . 323. too fortunately free. & after— Slaves. They led their wild desires to woods and caves. first i. 3 The . Only in Gil. . Began to dream they wanted liberty And when no rule. ' This couplet is printed only by EY ii. And all his Pictures Faded. [iv]. Sixty-three. i. V When Nations grow Old. p. prints as two lines. . are Born Poor. below the account of Reynolds' death. 'twixt fools & Knaves. the Arts grow And Commerce settles on every Tree And the Poor & the Old can live upon Cold. IV When S' Joshua Reynolds died All Nature was degraded The King drop'd a tear into the Queen's Ear. MS. Book xlvi. p. but by every other mode incessantly endeavoured to debase and assimilate this free and happy country to the all model of ^& ferocious and enslaved Republick of France ! — "These Adam-wits. free. by laws less circumscribed and bound. Cf. 323. beneath Reynolds' dedicatory letter to the Members of the Royal Academy and following Blake's prose comment The Rich Men of England form themselves into a society to Sell & Not ' : — to . Europe.Epigrams 321 111 When France got Were Savage vol. i. no precedent was found Of MEN. who since the era above mentioned. And thought that all but savages were slaves. . . Reynolds. ciii. vol. 259 and EY ii. have not only on occasions gratuitously pleaded the cause of the enemies of their country with the zeal of fee'd advocates. vol. Reynolds. p.

: . 98. 333. and more especially on Tintoret ? Venetian attention is to a ConBlake prefaces his couplet by the note Reynolds. and WMR print as two lines. who can see. . ' By i. p. in italics. and Gil. seemed to be engrossed by the study of colours. See Introduction. . EY ii. know Exhibitions. i. Put on. 324. Purposely & Intentionally. p. VI On the Venetian Painter He makes the Lame But then he Strives to walk. this it ' : — ' tempt & Neglect of Form Itself. to blind all Suggested by the following passage in the fourth appears that the principal attention of the Venetian painters. had seen but One Picture of Mich. his Shadows would destroy it & deform its appearance. or propriety But if general censure was given to that school from the of expression.' Printed only by EY ii. 99. knew & despised all that Titian could do. WMR (' Epig.' Gil. — I ' If the Venetian's Following Blake's prose note Outline was Right. . 3 And WMR print as two lines. we all agree.Epigrams 322 Buy Artist who does not The Pictures. O Venus now thou art Quite a Venetian Roman. XIX throw his Contempt on such Trading own either his '). i. Interest or his Duty. i. . 264. vol. 4 Aged Sixty-three] Gil.' Titian ! Gil. to the neglect of the ideal beauty of form. in the opinion of Michael Angelo. (' Epig. vu A pair of Stays to mend the Shape Of crooked Humpy Woman. As if Mich. WMR print as a separate line. EY ii. does not WMR 258. I When Gold] . . Discourse : — vol. sight of a picture of Titian. Ang. 259. and . Reynolds. Ang.' iv). & to the Destruction of ail Form or OutUne. how much more heavily and more justly would the censure fall on Paolo Veronese. Cold] Gil.

' — followed by the present couplet. i. Why on Art Such ? Idiots are not Artists Printed only by EY ii. when I speak of the Venetian painters.Epigrams 323 Vlll Venetian Than all ! is no more on a Crooked Whore. but he died quite a Knave. coldly.' Printed only by EY ii. p. p. loo. yet there is a sort of senatorial dignity about him. Suggested by the passage in the sixth DisThose who have undertaken to write on our art and have represented it as a kind of inspiration.' Blake's note on this is Titian. I wish to be understood to mean Paolo Veronese and Tintoret. thy Colouring Boulster'd Plasters Reynolds. whether there are any means by which Reynolds.' This couplet follows Blake's prose note Bacon's philosophy has Destroy'd true Art & Science. is a Knave. so far from : — ' Senatorial Dignity appear to me to give always the Characters of Vulgar should Titian and the Venetians be Named in a Discourse Stupidity. and have a much more captivating and liberal air. IX O Reader. to the exclusion of Titian for though his style is not so pure as that of many other of the Italian school. seems to become him exceedingly. vol. The Man who says that the Genius is not Born but Taught. behold the Philosopher's grave was born quite a Fool. ! He vol. seem to insure a much more favourable disposition from their readers. i. this : ' Y 2 . as well as the other Venetians. which. than he who attempts to examine. Discourse: — . 337. as a gift bestowed upon peculiar favourites at their birth. 147. Suggested by the following passage in the fourth 'For my own part. course : — * — art may be acquired. 333. however awkward in his imitators.

i .

POEMS FROM THE 'TROPHETIC 1789-180- 'BOOKS' .

and epithet must . no less than Digestion : . latter may possibly have been suggested to Blake's ear by the passages from Klopstock's Messiah which Hay ley read and translated to him during his stay at Felpham. absent in the later books nearly every phrase. in imitation of Milton.' and ' ' ' two of the number the sub-title A Prophecy.' The Prophetic Books fall under a category of their own. the following account of the measure in which the in . In Blake's Address to the Public which serves as Introduction to the first chapter of Jerusalem^ he furnishes. Broadly epic in character. ' ' poem ' is We — written dwell on Earth can : who every thing or Sleep. a storehouse of his mythology. they are in content a verbal and pictorial rendering of Blake's visions. or almost wholly. varying from the semirhythmic Ossianic verses of Tirielto the short irregular metre The of Ahania or the pseudo-hexameters of Jerusalem. it is impossible to subject them to any ' prefixes to ordinary standard of criticism without ignoring the primary intention of the author. is nowhere used by the poet himself. though he refers to them as inspired or dictated. is conducted by do nothing of ourselves Spirits. The greater number of the Prophetic Books are written a variety of forms of free verse. and a fervent exposition of his mystical gospel. Either more or less than literature according to the point of view of the reader. first employed by Gilchrist to describe Blake's Visionary Writings. is almost entirely in prose the others are composed in different measures. be interpreted symbolically. One book. name.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO POEMS FROM THE 'PROPHETIC BOOKS' In the present section I group together the lyrical poems from the works commonly known as the * Prophetic Books.' This name. In the earlier of these writings symbolism is wholly. T/ze Marriage of Heaven and Hell.

A few of these engraved Prophetic Books are known to by two or three examples only. and in Blake's next hooks. on religious grounds. Blake. Milton and Jemsalem. while one at least would appear to have been lost or destroyed. Human Race Nations are Destroy'd or Flourish in proportion as Their Poetry. . of the Lakelands Library of Mr. Two of these. A MS. an 'Angel' of the Irvingite church. grand. and probably for this reason in two works.Prophetic Books 327 'When a this verse was first dictated to me. but by far the greater number were destroyed. Tiriel and The Four Zoas. 262). : ! ! and Science ' ! The greater number of the Prophetic Books were produced by the method of relief engraving which Blake first employed in the Songs of Innocence. complementary to and scarcely less important than the text itself. Every word and every letter is studied and put into its fit place the terrific numbers are reserved for the terrific parts. H. both of cadences & number of syllables. such monotony was not only awkward. W. into whose hands they passed after the death of . offered No for sale by his widow to a Mr. But I soon found that. forming part Mrs. like that used by Milton & Shakspeare & all writers of English Blank Verse derived from the modern bondage of Rhyming. the mild & gentle for the mild & gentle parts. to be a necessary and indispensible part of Verse. which was at Sotheby's in March. by Frederick Tatham. TJie Book of Los and Ahattia. 1891. The labour of this must have been very great. relief. survive in MS. the artist appears to have resorted to the simpler is less process of ordinary etching. The effect. however. attributed to Blake. and Music are Destroy'd or Flourish The Primeval State of Man was Wisdom. ii. Other of the Visionary Writings were never engraved. in the mouth of a true Orator. Painting. but as much a bondage as rhyme itself. ceasing to be mere illustration as in the Songs of Innocence. Crawford. This is the work called Outhoonl included in a list of books by Blake. and the prosaic for inferior parts: all are Poetry Fetter'd Fetters the necessary to each other. was sold This MS.. us ' copy is known to exist. Art.\\& In the works engraved in reverted to his original method. pictorial design plays an increasingly prominent part. I therefore have produced a variety in every line. and developing into a species of secondary symbolism. both published in 1795. I consider 'd Monotonous Cadence. Ferguson (Gil.

however. indeed. commentaries of the different books. the difificulties of the Prophetic Books. The Keys of the Gates. to their theory of his symbolic system. Strictly speaking. and resold for a small sum. who print Jerjisalem with a brief introduction. and 34 original drawings by this celebrated artist. both entitled Ther'e is 7io Natural Religion^ and two of the socalled Sibylline Leaves. . notably through the want of legible and properly indexed reprints. is too incomplete to be of any and an index which. neatly mounted on cartridge paper. The latter editors. was proved to be not by Blake it was put up again at Sotheby's. containing poems. in their much space devote and paraphrased The three-volume edition of Blake.' I am informed by Mr. I append also. value of their work. Quaritch. was catalogued Angels and Devils.' The former consist of a series of propositions couched in purely abstract terms. the latter being small leaflets treating of art and classic poetry. any attempt at interpretation must necessarily be of a somewhat tentative character. descriptions of two small early works. of any adequate apparatus for the study of his text. 4"*. inscriptions to the 7 sections.) purchased by Mr. is somewhat lessened by the omission of references to the passages upon which their conclusions are based. In the following list of the Prophetic Books the term is interpreted in its broader sense to include some of the earlier writings in which the mythological element is not very prominent. and of a concordance displaying in chronological sequence the names. In the absence. words. under the heading Dogmatic Writings. cf. Ellis and Yeats. Quaritch that the MS. In the exegetical field the only important are those of Swinburne and Messrs.Prophetic Books 328 — Blake (W. names and most readable introduction to the Prophetic Books. autograph manuscript. in many ways helpful and suggestive. Few of Blake's editors have endeavoured to grapple with ' . Russell and Maclagan. and by the introduction of private opinions not drawn from Blake's writings. and phrases symbolically used.' a sequel to The Gates of Paradise^ should also be accounted one of the Prophetic ' ' Books. as my introduction and footnotes to that poem show. An initial step towards supplying the former want has been taken by Messrs. Swinburne's Critical Essay (1868) still remains the greatest real utility.

The MS. the division into metrical lines being marked in red ink by Mr. the year in which the book was printed. its former owner. according to Mathew's 'Advertisement. tears started at the Sound. consists of four crown 8vo paper.." cried the muse. dost thou ' : | | [ I accost me ? " | ' The Second Piece ends {p. There is also a red ink note of Mr." I cried. a Virgin ever young. Rossetti's. circa 1777-1783.' 'The Couch of Death. between the year 1777 (when. written in ink. Grief perch'd upon my brow.EARLIER WORKS no symbolism.' friends Join'd Hand in The First Piece ends (p. These leaves are now mounted upon rather larger paper. Both are written straightforwardly as prose. "'when all around Summer hath spred her Plumes. ' : ' : | | — | | female are. from whom came Ignorance. find but Self love | Stands Between. then She bore Pale desire. [i]) father of Curiosity. I.' " The Second Piece begins (p. why. who brought forth wonder. and Strengthen her weak arm. more — I ' : ! | : : ! ! | strong. on the outer cover of which is written 7 (seven) The handwriting of William Blake. together ming|ling yet they all war with Shame.. And after Leaden Sloth. W. and tunes her Notes ? When Buxom Joy doth fan his wings. The First Piece begins {imperfectly) (p. the first of which begins imperfectly in the middle of a poem. Grief. the verso of the last leaf being There is no dated watermark.' The MS. She knew them not ] . evidently belongs to the same period as 'Contemplation. 1. ' [6]. [5]) Go see the City Hand Go see the Natu ral tie of flesh & blood Go see. Rossetti. 7^ x 5 inches. and thought Embrac'd Her. but Single | Pregnate bring forth mighty powers — or. 22) : " O'er yonder lake [ the winds their . . "What does this mean. but or little (Characterized by some extent of the Prophetic anticipatory to Books proper) Seven-Page MS. These are the Gods fear which came from [interpolated for Gods like these nor male nor leaves of blank. This extremely early autograph MS. I the ties of marriage love thou Scarce Shalt . & Golden Pleasures Beam around my head. which is incomplete. and ink and pencil corrections and additions.' the last pieces in that volume were written) and 1783. if they list. with a few deletions. is plainly Pages MS.' and a few other of the last I have therefore dated it as falling pieces in Blake's Poetical Sketches. indicating where two of Blake's afterthoughts should be inserted. It contains two pieces. [6]) Woe. M.

' On p. Referring to the handwriting of is 'neatly executed. B. I'll guard thee living. it seems probable that Blake at first intended to write The daughters of Mnetha' (one of the personages first introduced in Tiriel). marked for insertion on p. untimely lost. divided into metrical lines by the editor. 22) And is there not one law for both source of the ' last line ' : the lion and the ox ? An ' additional proof that Tiriel was written before Thel is found in the The daughters of Mne Seraphim led round opening line of the latter book their sunny flocks.. Blake. ' King of the West. W. upon eight leaves of foolscap quarto paper 8| x t\ inches.' Here. farewrell. thy Conrade once. he conceives. [7] are two passages belonging to the first piece." a new and : This character With the words less precise kind . Written upon both sides of the leaf. Mr." it Said no more. corrections. the verso off 8 blank. thee I from approaching ill. Quaritch. or love in a golden bowl ?' which Blake afterwards engraved as ' : ' part of the Motto to The Book of Thel. pp.Prophetic Books 330 Sad Complainings bear for Conrade lost. would have ' | ' ' ' seen just before or just after TheV It is evidently just before. Rossetti ascribes this piece to a rather early date in [Blake's] career say 1785. "Mne" are scratched out M. Each section of the poem. | I | — ' eight years of age. [4]. (See footnote to that poem where the erased passage is quoted in full. 1903. as Mr. when he was twenty| When . There is no date on the watermark of the paper. headed by arabic numerals 1-8. Rossetti in the Monthly Review (August. and afterwards altered this to The daughters of the Seraphim without erasing the meaningless Mne from ' : ' ' ' ' the plate. ' ' is one law given for the lion the patient Ox ? is obviously the ' & Why of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790). One Law for the Lion & Ox is Oppression. Yeats' statement that 'the letters in the Bodleian copy' is incorrect. The whole of the first fragment has been printed by Mr.' as well as of another line in the Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793. lov'd even unto Death now Dead. by Mr. 133-129).' I owe the above description to the courtesy of Signora Rossetti Angeli.. and now in the possession of Mr. Neatly written. and is Tiriel. W. 6. Mr. M. the handfirst draft evidently not the rough writing appears to me to belong to no late period in his life. though with several deletions. of handwriting prevails up to near the close of the poem. Tiriel M. B. Yeats conjectures.) Another line on the same page. (in section 8) " I am Tiriel.' On grounds of the character of the handwriting Mr. S. who has been kind enough to lend me the original MS. formerly the property of Mrs. M. my time is gone. but vanished ever from my Sight. Rossetti in his Aldine edition (1874). hand. circa 1788-1789. 1.' This MS. for an erased Can wisdom be put in passage on the verso of f 7 contains the line a silver rod. In the original blue-grey paper cover bearing the inscription in Blake's in Blake's earlier autograph. Autograph MS. Rossetti says the MS. was first printed by Mr. who entitles the poem 'The Passions. Its correct place. W. 2. Gilchrist. vol. f. or even before that. W. and additions. xii. Tiriel. begins at the top of a new page.

The probably followed by style of the later lines seems to the present writer to be much later than the style of the rest of the poem. recto. and much more wholly depen." or "America. 31 . It is more directly mystical. 1-7) : Such was Myratana. . the wise Ct" & pray repugnant forth. But now his eyes were darkened. makes it clear that "Tiriel" It was belongs to an earlier period than any other of the prophetic books. Yeats says ' : resembles rather that of "The Mental Traveller" than the more vehement and broken style of the later prophetic poems." — Tiriel — man's folly del. '"Accursed race of Come In Tiriel! behold your [aged del.' Begins (f. & Heva's feet in awful death. I 331 think." It is symbolical rather than allegorical. & a drear sandy plain Returns my thirsty hissings in a curse on thee. Rossetti's remarks on The style of the poem.] father. 7 verso.] (f.] With Myratana. that Blake. paradise is fall'n. Har. And now my both flowers & fruits. 7 ends) humble the immortal spirit. see the death of to subtil as a serpent in a paradise. EY Har iii. dent upon mystical knowledge for its interest. clearly indicating. [aged del. Moreover. and thus the Voice : Of aged Tiriel arose. more of a direct appeal from the soul of Blake to the soul of the reader.' In the opinion of the present editor. The point is worthy of notice since it appears to have misled one Referring to Mr.] arms I here have borne your dying mother. once the Queen of all the western plains . The rest of the poem has a certain interest and meaning as a story. B. which at least of Blake's commentators. Come. And Aged ' Gates of his beautiful palace. look on her that bore you. insects & warbling birds. the two handwritings Mr. you accursed sons. took up the poem and finished it.' WBY. i) : — 'I. but this latter page is as purely mystical as "Europe. ' . 8 recto." . f. the erased line referred portion to repeated in Thel proves that this page could not have been written later than 1789. sons of the Curse. that his sons might hear in their gates. and the slight difference perceptible between that of the last page and a half and the earlier of is merely such as may be attributed to the sharpening of a quill pen which had grown somewhat coarse. Tiriel stood before the [But dark were his once piercing eyes del.Prophetic Books of handwriting begins . 1. W. ' [Hypocrisy the ideot's wisdom to Compell'd Till I am 11. outstretch'd at Typ. I 1. after an interval some years. perhaps in much more summary fashion than he had at first intended. Reprints : WMR. O ! * He ceast. & forth my weak Come Ends come forth. Consuming all. the quality of the handwriting is the same throughout. Mistaken father of a lawless race my voice is past. (f. & his wife fading in death They stood before their once delightful palace. " The Ghost of Abel." or "Jerusalem.

And thus her gentle lamentation falls like morning dew. 1876. title-page 8 plates. ii. : This the book as originally conceived. Evil is Hell. Without Contraries is no progression. & shakes his fires in the burden'd air Hungry clouds swag on the deep. The daughters of Mne {sic. 24. about 6x4 inches. sumed. sitting at the tomb . 79-89) and may have been an addition to ' ' . embracing the flame of fire. she in paleness sought the secret air. i. about 6 x 4^ inches. relief engraving. 11. Heaven of Marriage I | and Without Hell. From these contraries spring what Evil Good & Evil. Good is the passive that obeys Reason religious call Good is Heaven. relief engraving. Rintrah roars. Fled back unhinder'd till B. 8. the Eternal Hell revives. 2. L. The Argument ' begins 1. (f. i. Extracts: 76. 2-10) 'When he had so spoken.' is the active springing from Energy. Reprints: Gil. M. I beheld the Angel. EY Muir (coloured). his writings are the linen clothes folded up. which the world shall have whether they will : 1 I | [ | . : (Gil. 3) : As a new heaven is begun. who stretched out his arms. Now is the dominion of Edom. are the necessary to Human existence. see | | | & XXXIV & XXXV | Chap. ' Collation : i plate. & he was conbecome a Devil. The last three plates. but written and probably engraved in 1790. who is now Isaiah Attraction | | | | : ] | | : | I ! | is my particular friend we often read the Bible to. 11.gether in its infernal or diabolical sense. text 25 plates Collation title-page i plate. every wind ? Why an Ear.' ' Text begins (f. 1. and it is : now thir | ty-three is years since its advent. Down by the river of Adona her soft voice is heard. read 'the ') Seraphim led Begins (f. 71-5). which the world shall have if they behave well. Text ends (f. the return of Adam into Paradise . & with a shriek she came into the vales of Har. H. Thel's Motto ' i plate. 2) : ' — ' Song also occurs separately. The Argument i plate. | j date. Reason and Energy. 3) round their sunny flocks. All but the youngest To fade away like morning beauty from her mortal day. WMR.' would seem to have been wanting described by Gilchrist {Life. I have also The Bible of Hell. The 4. Note This Angel. inhaling terror. 3. trembling & affright? a tender curb upon the youthful burning boy? a little curtain of flesh on the bed of our desire? Why Why Why ' The Virgin Facsimile Reproductions DGR Typ. containin the copy ing *A Song of Liberty. and Repulsion. And lo I Swedenborg the Angel. iii.' ' : : Why a Tongue impress'd with honey from 16-22) (f.' started from her seat. a whirlpool fierce to draw creations in ? Ends ' : a Nostril wide. 27 plates. & The Author Thel of | | | I Printer Will"^ Blake 1789.Prophetic Books 332 Book The 3. Love and Hate. WBY. W. 'Thel 6 ' plates . and arose as Elijah.

Mrs. that . but I did not think it at Prophetic memorable performance it in no esteem. adding: 'Mr. find it) a copy of this piece about the prisoners in the Bastille. without illustrations. Muir (coloured). is. 2) the Earth . minus. p. 208- 78-86. Typ.' In a later letter to Mr. ' : this post passage . when I was lending some help to Mrs. like the Poetical Sketches and Descriptive Catalogue. though I cannot. The French Revolution Book the First. in Mr. 25. Book I. but it comes much nearer than any . copy of the poem. Contrary to his usual prac- gives no description or extracts from this book. in The French Revolution. the best which must have been among the residuum your brother it.' now be traced. 1. . it of course is an ordinary piece of typography. Linnell is or was my who Its interest is a striking or also looked into it. little The .' In a letter to the present editor dated June 21. W.' Swinburne also would appear to have seen either this transcript or the original. 15) he says that this ' poem or apology for a poem. after . in 1791. with hoarse note. 1863 {Rossetti Papers. 1905. . being Blake's work. begins (f.' * A Song of Liberty was heard over ' ' i. or even nothing six other books. held all Swinburne also read that copy Brother. Mr. say 1862. was published anonymously. This was at the time. by J. ought nevertheless to be looked up. Johnson. 27). since in his Essay (p.'s French Revolution. I thought I had (and still believe I have. in quarto format. tice. in deadly black. 5. or build the roof! Nor pale religion's letchery call that For every thing that lives is Holy virginity that wishes but acts not all I ' 14-21) 11. My remember Brother. M. 27. this work of Blake's. Rossetti. L. & (if I in itself. Reprints'. Rossetti writes: *I myself have actuallj' seen & read B. whom tyrant he calls free. Palmer's handwriting. Gil. : | | ! | I | ' 1 | Facsimile Reproductions EY ! | : W. Gilchrist in relation to the Life. a long hunt. ends (f.Prophetic Books or no. I am grieved to say. That French Revolution & is Book to dealing with historical facts as such. dated July 19. WBY. I send by dated November 18 of the same year. as far as I know. i. Severely realistic not. Gilchrist refers to her MS. According from : Poem a Seven Books. Linnell is the only possessor I know of an original copy. Extracts. Swinb. even if no better in workmanship than this first book. : The Eternal Female groan'd it : ' Let the Priests of the Raven of dawn no longer. Rossetti. to Gilchrist. unillustrated. Mrs. if as they can hardly be without some personal interest or empirical value. iii. . curse the sons of joy Nor his accepted brethren. is ^^^iZ One Law \half-page picture of Nebuchadnezzar. which. Camden Hotten (coloured). was printed in ordinary typography. the only original work of its author worth splutter. Gilchrist writes Mr. One Shilling. H. necessarily great in a certain way. M. right) about the same time. lay the bound. the possessor of an original copy The statement is incorrect. consisting mainly of mere wind and extant.'] for the & Ox Lion Oppression. whom the above title is transcribed. 224. called The French Revolution (the first of seven projected books). not in the tone of the Prophetic Books. & concurred with Neither original nor transcript can Mr. Gilchrist In a letter to W. destroyed.

Facsimile Reproductions : H. last plates. Begins ' and title-page : design. ' i plate each. the wild snake. the Daughters of Albion their mountains Upon ' i plate each. 6-13) " The sea fowl takes And And : art thou a nymph & trees. W. — birds. burning stores. M. And thus she spoke to the bright Marygold of Leutha's vale. his drink in cups of iron When Crown'd with a helmet A quiver with its by year 1793. EY iii (reduced). the pestilence to adorn him with gems & gold Arise. * ' I the wintry blast for a cov'ring to her limbs . 14 plates 1. 6| x 4f inches. 7. sometimes placed full-page towards America. & beasts. of America. for every thing that Thus every morning wails Oothoon Upon I holy. relief engraving. about 9J x6f inches. 1. " dewy bed ? I see thee dare not pluck thee from thy I 1 & dark hair the nameless female stood. For the ** soft soul Art thou a flower ? Now ' a nymph Ends (f. and sing your infant joy little and drink your Arise. 'The Daughters of Albion hear her woes.' .' B. 18 plates. 2) : — Enslav'd. 3. in their valleys. a bow like that of night. Prophecy | in the frontispiece : Prophecy Begins a I William Blake ' lives is Theotormon but . . conversing with shadows dire. sighs . Oothoon wander' d in woe. Visions ' 8 plates.Prophetic Books 334 II THE PROPHETIC BOOKS Visions 6. fourteen suns had faintly joumey'd o'er his dark abode : His food she brought in iron baskets. 1876. 179-187. Reprint : WBY & echo back her sighs." sits the margin'd ocean. L. weep a trembling lamentation . and title-page ' 3. . Along the vales of Leutha seeking flowers to comfort her . Daughters of the of | ] more than the Heart knows sees | Albion The Eye | Printed by Will'^ Blake | : 1793Collation I plate ' The Argument (f. Extracts : Gil. Typ. 10. 'Preludium 2 plates. i. 229-234. 11. you * now a flower. & men bliss . Swinb. America Collation A (f. 105-108. about 1 1 . relief engraving. behold their eternal joy. glancing wings. Muir (coloured). 2) : — | Lambeth Printed j . ' and sometimes as frontispiece. 179-183. The shadowy daughter of Urthona stood before red Ore.

' Facsimile Reproductions 8. They slow advance to shut the five gates of their law-built heaven. smitten with their own plagues. plates varies somewhat in different copies. Muir. Stiff Filled with blasting fancies. 1876. Gil. (f. 129. 109-112. Colophon Lambeth Urizen of | | iii (reduced). EY W. With fierce disease and lust. with a cry Call'd all : his that The the ruddy tide. EY iii (reduced). about 6x4 inches. head he rear'd. unable to stem the fires of Ore. The furious On sun glow'd fiery red. ' Collation : title-page and Preludium i plate each. : Book i. i Begins (f. M. found ? Like the dark cloud disburden'd in the day of dismal thunder. ' — 3-11): 'The I [First] Blake 1794. ' Preludium 2 plates. 335 shudderings shook the heav'nly thrones. full-page illustrations of the :— The nameless shadowy female rose from out the breast of Her snaky hair brandishing on the winds of Enitharmon.' : Typ. a Europe \ | W. Swinb. 1. And & the fierce flames burnt round the heavens. 235-237. 3. 18. The word First ' ' . M. The arrangement 17 plates. But the five gates were consum'd. shook all nature to the utmost pole. raging with red wheels dropping with blood 11. 27 plates. Collation frontispiece and title-page : 'A Prophecy' two 11 plates. about 9^ x 6f inches." Ends (f. in snaky thunders clad. France. Fainting upon the elements. wilt thou bring forth other sons. without text 2 plates ' plate each. : Typ. Muir (coloured). i. 8c cries in groans Facsimile Reproductions 9. terrors flew The Lions lash their wrathful tails. & their bolts and hinges melted. B. chapters i-ix 15 plates. that my place may not be For I am faint with travel. The Tygers couch upon the prey. 242-245. And thus her voice arose Ore. Prophecy | Lambeth Printed By | Will'» Blake 1794. & suck And Enitharmon * Then Los arose And. and the ancient Guardians. round the abodes of men. Gil. relief engraving. Reprints {Extracts). Swinb. around golden chariots. 130. : '"O mother Enitharmon. anguish and dismay. and with mildews of despair. B. To cause my name to vanish. his sons to the strife of blood. Reprints (Extracts) by W™ . relief engraving. 2) ' . 17. Printed | : The End of the book first [ of Urizen. Spain & Italy In terror view'd the bands of Albion. 1797. ten full-page illustrations without text variously arranged in different copies ' 10 plates .Prophetic Books Ends * :— 16-23) 11.

5-9) — '8. 'Asia' 2 plates. [ I | | Colophon: Collation etched EY iii (reduced). EY iii (reduced). type. Los 3 ' text. : B. Eternals spurn'd back his religion.' — 'The Grave shrieks with Her hollow womb.Prophetic Books 2. Eternals. 2) sung : — ' I will sing you a song of Los. void.^6 in the title-page. 6. In heart-formed Africa. : The remaining And called And ' 9. the Eternal Prophet. ' 2. three fulltitle-page page illustrations variously arranged in different copies . and Facsimile Reproductions 11. gave him a place in the north. the salt ocean rolled englob'd. it at the tables of Eternity. Reprint {Extracts) 10. Swinb. & shout. thus the 35-40) : Song began. blood. The | I | Colophon: 1795. in wanting — Of the primeval Priest's assum'd power. & On mountain. & milk. (f. (f. Begins 2. Urizen faded. | 'Africa' 2 plates. B. Who the chariot of Leutha guides Since the day of thunders in old time. & clasps Her bosom swells with wild & And delight. call'd all together the pendulous earth left they They So Fuzon children of Urizen. 11. M. col. & fear not ' To Ends I unfold your dark visions of torment. about 9 x6|^ inches.' : ] frontispiece and title-page i ' plate each. Begins (f. 6) : ' When And Obscure.' Facsimile Reproductions Typ. Song of Los Lambeth Printed by W. 255-257. 1876. Eno. 131. glandous wine dance In rivers rush. 2) : i. Dictate swift winged words. : Gil. & shakes the solid stem. Muir (coloured). W. 5 plates. (f. i. ' 1. .' 27. 132-134. solitary ! hear your call gladly. relief Collation r plate. i. (f. And thus her speech broke forth. 1876. and shook the steadfast Earth. The 1795- Gil. : engraving. dale. Aged Mother. 8 plates. : Typ. col. Reprints {Extracts) plain. And Ends 11. Sitting beneath the eternal Oak. M. & Egypt it : left it. is Begins 1. : i. to four harps. Ariston shudder'd. 2.' plates . Blake The Song of Los is Ended Urizen Wept. Book of Los Lambeth Printed by W. 2. Trembled.Blake The End of the Book of Los. which was probably purposely erased from Blake's stereomost copies. 3. He 1. desire. shadowy.

the paper same size and date where marked. Renew Where On the Where bones of beasts are strown bleak and snowy mountains. According of Urizen. chariot. to Swinburne The Book of Ahania may have been originally intended as the second book 6 plates. and Collation: frontispiece 'Ahania' 4 plates. 5. as stated by Mr. Description John Linnell. 252. bones from the birth are buried Before they see the light Facsimile Reproduction Typ. i. silent burnings. On clouds of And his right the thunder-stone Son of Urizen's Ends (f.Prophetic Books Ends (f. Begins (f.. formed four rivers. .. size 16^ by i2f in. EY : I ' iii. mountains. in ? Man | | I | | by William Blake 1797. Flowing down into night till . Moulding As smoke rages his hand burns red is moulded. 135. together with 4 small fragments. about i title-page 5|x3| plate each. i. into a vast globe his wrath. 21-26) : '9. ' 6. But now alone over rocks. a & his Heart Form Was completed. Shot down his wide bosom and shoulders . : Self-destroying. 337 11. Ellis). W. blank. a Human Illusion In darkness and deep clouds involv'd. with watermark 'J. 13-21) Cast out from thy lovely bosom Cruel jealousy. 2. 2. The I EY : iii. col. Whatman 1794. The Four Zoas The Torments of Love & Jealousy The Death and Judgement of Albion the Ancient 13. 'The MS. col. 136 . selfish fear. i. 47 sheets old engraving by Blake cut in two : . how can delight in these chains of darkness. : — These 70 loose sheets are made up as follows drawing paper.. Book of Ahania | Lambeth J Printed \ by Blake 1795.' 21 sheets. Reprint : WBY.' Facsimile Repmduction 12. in its cloud. Till his Brain in a rock. Jun. col. In a fleshy slough. On ' 1. 2) : Fuzon on a chariot iron-wing'd. the following admirably clear and exact account of this autograph MS. etched text. 14. 3. SAMPSON Z . 253. Swinb. Obscuring the immense Orb of fire. I owe to the kindness of Mr. spiked flames rose : his hot visage Flam'd furious sparkles his hair & beard.' 11. Extracts : Gil. working proofs of Blake's " illustrations to Young's "Night Thoughts (published 1797). consists of 70 separate leaves or sheets of paper (not 70 pp. inches.

however. form. as in the title-page. In its first — — ." " to conjecture the sequence. wherein he registered and expressed his ideas without any restriction. only the first 14 pages were numbered by himself. was never properly looked over b3- the author or finally sorted into Nights. and himself printed and published. e. and Yeats say that Blake in the ninth Night quotes '" " Ephes. on the grounds of fairness. Ellis " " Ephesians iii c.'" (See vol. " many erasures'' and corrections are made. I consider this work more as a private study that Blake executed for himself. Ellis' own error in transcription. Ellis considers it was in progress for some years. 3'''* chap. critics would have been enabled to judge for themselves as whether the arrangement or order of the sheets as printed has been of the to correctly made or not. nor even as a whole for any public inspection . Ellis and Yeats must be in a degree conjectural. occur. Ellis and Yeats' description of it." "the arrange- ment of the loose sheets occupied us during several long days." (i. Had they marked in their printed copy where the beginning and the end of each sheet of paper MS." " is specified on the title-page. without 1 At accents. the head of the second sheet. 10 v. and a large part a first draft of the poem. . followed in bold script capitals by the heading *'VALA. left for the text of Young's poem and here Blake has written. "the MS. 1797. 1794. parts written fairly. was course have been begun before 1794.e. there are good and substantial reasons why he never did or could have done ' . 295-300. ii." This was afterwards altered in pencil to the final form given above. 61 sheets have the text of the poem written upon both sides of the paper with regard to the 47 sheets with the engravings to Night Tlioughts printed upon one side of each sheet. the only available space on the printed side was the blank rectangular space in the middle of each sheet. and that he never once intended this MS. hold that this poem should be placed in the same category with those poems or "Prophecies" that Blake wrote. 12. p. and not put in order." This. 10. erased in favour of "The Four Zoas." and this date not altered by subsequent revision. was written except that afforded by the date of the paper." " it it is only possible was unpaged and unsorted. of the Ancient Man I it | read: "VALA A DREAM of | | The Death and Judgement Nine Nights by William Blake or | ] | | 797.Prophetic Books 38 and written upon on one side only (back) 2 sheets = 70 sheets. consequently the position of many of the sheets as determined by Messrs. afterwards some alterations and additions were made upon the text or upon the margins. ro"' verse).) which are marked by Blake. 'The title is written on one side of the first sheet of paper." which is not here. is in an unfinished condition. the page upon which the poem begins. The 68 sheets. and add by what slip Blake gave the Epistle 14 chapters is incomprehensible. but it cannot of 'The date of the MS. Now besides the beginning and the ending of each Night pp. is the motto from Ephesians vi. xiv. 'The poem is written in ink throughout. this MS. Mr. There is no other evidence as to when the MS. written in Greek characters. for Blake himself has written plainly in ink (in his usual form) * In vol. finished for publication. ii. as written in ink. 298. with 7 exceptions (where one side only is written on) i. with its pencil illustrations for publication. must be Mr. " Vala" I do not. The text of The Four Zoas appears to be in an unsettled condition. According to Messrs.

ff. which is also identical in arrangement with the copy described in the catalogue of the Blake Exhibition held at the Grolier Club of New York in 1905. relief engraving. ff. W. ford copy from the Hamilton Palace Library. With all their woods. just as he had left it. and at last made this. now in the Lenox Library. The heavens quake. wail'd in dismal fear. 38. Hearing the march of long resounding strong heroic Verse.' — Night the Ninth ends ' Urthona is arisen in his strength no longer now Divided from Enitharmon.' The Author & Ways of God to | Men. EY entitle the poem 'Vala. 32*. in a somewhat incorrect text. to form the golden armour of science intellectual War. lacks the Preface and has five additional plates of text numbered plates. however. Only printed by EY (^iii. Short extracts are printed by WBY 196. date on the title-page probably represents the j'ear in which the engraving of the First Book was begun or finished. as Mr. New York. Collation: 26 title-page and 'Preface' i plate each. Z 2 . The war of swords departed now. 41 and 45 being full-page The Beckillustrations) . 13. which shook the heavens with wrath. 'Book the First' and 21 being full-page. 29-45 (ff' 29. 33. Room copy. the three books constituting a group in which one may trace the highest development of Blake's mysticism. end). M. : . was afterwards rejected in favour of T/ic Four Zoas. Detached lines and lengthy passages of The Four Zoas were engraved by Blake as part of Jerusalem. ^ Night the First begins : — •The Song of the Aged Mother.Prophetic Books 339 Therefore he kept this study in an unfinished state by h'm during his with his other papers that were never made public. Rossetti. 3-28 (ff. rather than that which The saw the completion of the entire work. Following Mr. Book the Second' 17 plates. & the mountains. 197. the was earth & moved shudder'd. ' 15 The order of the plates in this copy differs somewhat 17.' which title. no longer the Spectre Los. with facsimiles of a few pages of the original. illustrations). 45 plates.' The Four Zoas exhibits in a less condensed and consequently more intelligible form the same set of ideas that characterize Milton and Jcntsaleiii. from that of the example in the Print Room of the British Museum. all For The Dark Religions are departed. life a private gift of it. Where is the Spectre of Prophecy? where the delusive Phantom? Departed & Urthona rises from the ruinous walls. 8. Linneirs note shows. about 61 x 4^ inches. to my father. Marshalled in order for the day of Intellectual Battle. & sweet Science in 12 Books 14. ! In his ancient strength. In quoting from Milton in my footnotes the folio references are to the Print 3> 5? 8*. Mil|ton a Poem Printer W. Blake 1804 To Justify the | 1 | ) reigns. the streams & valleys.

3 (f. . 3 23 plates (ff.'' ' ' Chap. vegetated In likeness of himself. Beneath your land of shadows. must be understood to represent the year in which the first chapter was begun er finished. 100) ductions to chapters 1-4. & mild lustre. 4) : — Of the Sleep of Ulro and of the passage through Eternal Death and of the awaking to Eternal Life ! ! ! I . Facsimile Reproductions L. Became its prey. 15. in the heavens beneath Beulah. in all their strength. W. 26). 1. ' 'Chap. Reprints {Extracts) Gil. of its sacrifices and Its offerings. about 9x6i inches. his Emanation. The Waggons ready terrific Lions & Tygers sport & play All Animals upon the Earth are prepar'd. : 3) — Daughters of Beulah. . where by your ministry His burning ! By The Eternal Great Humanity Divine planted his Paradise. Blake S*"^ Molton St. 36-39 . Jerusalem Albion 1804 | | | | Printed I | ' : frontispiece. in the heavens of Albion. 3. Record the journey of immortal Milton thro' j'our Realms ' Of Of terror. an offering and an atonement For Death Eternal. Swinb. 44. For intropiece (f. To the Public ' i plate each (ff. 53-75). 2 23 plates (ff. the former and longer work being probably the last to be completed. . ' The engraving oi Jerusalem was apparently begun about the same time as that of Milton. 1804. H. (coloured). 28-50). the image of the Invisible God. 51). As in the case of Milton the date on the title-page. f. 4. ' ' ' . 259-274. frontispiece to Chap. 195-198. 45. 52) Chap. . 27) Deists (f. 1-3) . WBY 207-209. To go forth to the Great Harvest & Vintage of the Nations. 78-99). your mild power descending down the Ner\'es of my right arm. 76). 2 (f.' . i) : — Rintrah & Palamabron view the Human Harvest beneath Their Wine-presses & Barns stand open the Ovens are prepard. . I ' ' ' . see Poems from Jenisalein. a curse. The End of The Song of Jerusalem. 184-195.' Book ' the Second ends (f. title-page. in soft sexual delusions moony varied beaut}'.Prophetic Books 340 Book the First begins 1. full-page end100 plates. 77) 'Chap. To the (f. 11. (f. 4-25% frontispiece to Chap. 22 plates (ff. frontispiece to Chap. 4 (f. 'To the Jews' Chap. I Colophon Collation : The Emanation of The Giant by W. I begins ' (f. : i. 1. Muses who inspire the Poet's Song. ' To the Christians' (f. relief engraving. EY iii. From out the Portals of my Brain. 4' 22 plates {ff. to delight the wanderer and repose thirst & freezing hunger Come into my hand. even till Jesus. in it caus'd the Spectres of the Dead to take sweet form And Tell also of the False Tongue. and not that of the completion of the whole work. & before the Gates Of Jerusalem. Muir : Typ.

Typ. Metal. mutual in love divine Fibres of love from man to man thro* Albion's pleasant land. Jehovah | ? | | Ends ' On [i. 276-292. from the Living Creatures of the Earth. 11. Reprint: Russell and Maclagan. Collation Begins ' : 2 plates. 1. Days & Hours reposing. Imagination is Eternity. And And heard the I Name of their Emanations : they are named Jerusalem. 26-31) : — each side a Chorus of Angels entering Sing the following of the Heathen Swore Vengeance for Sin Then Thou : The Elohim I stood'st O Elohim Jehovah. as has been commonly supposed. All Clothed In thy Covenant of the Forgiveness of Sins.' doest thou here. 183-194. after To Lord Byron What title in the as above) : — Wilderness. Extracts: Gil. 11. Blake's Original Stereotype was 1788.' Facsimile Reproductions Pearson. to an earlier issue of The Ghost of Abel. from the Thirty-two Nations of the Earth among the Living is Creatures. 1904. 98. 198-207. . 54-56 . Forth. | of Jehovah W. : WBY Swinb. Nature has no Supernatural & dissolves. ' Human Forms identified even Tree. Earth & Stone. The Ghost 16.Prophetic Books 'This theme me calls Awakes me & ev'ry morn see the Saviour over me. Colophon: 1822. 4 Such ' ! : And And ends (f. Human Forms identified living. relief engraving. . wake expand am in you. about 4I x6i% inches. 2. i. and not. Death. going forth. then Awaking into his Bosom in the Life of Immortality. and you in me. but Imagination has. night after night. 4. i. of Abel A Revelation In the Visions Seen by William Blake. | The reference to Blake's first stereotype probably refers to his earliest use of this process in the Songs of Innocence. all returning wearied Into the Planetary lives of Years. Months. but Imagination has. Nature has no Time. Brotherhood ? O Holy I Is this . dictating the words of this mild song. at sun-rise : then Spreading his beams of Love. 1-5) :— the Cry from all the Earth. & All . from the great City of Golgonooza in the Shadowy Generation. in the midst of the darkness of the Oath. 99. (f. EY iii (reduced). f."' ! ! ! I ' ' Chap. Can a Poet doubt the Visions of Elijah ? Nature has no Outline. 11. in sleep. * 341 I & "Awake awake O sleeper of the land of shadows.

Typ. Even Mr. the imprint is 'The Author The Argument Begins (f. Reprint: L. a among number of works by Blake offered for sale by his widow to Mr. Facsimile Reproductions : Date 7inhioivn. 2s.*^ I have never seen a copy of this. each in his station fixt in the Firmament. Muir (coloured). and Love. ] | | ' . [«]. 17. H. about 2 x iJ inches. 230. 'The Argument' i plate each. relief engraving. Reprint : Outhoon. that we may be as he is' i plate propositions I. 3") but from Education. 175.' ra-|tio of all when | Facsimile Reproductions: W. . od. All that 7 known is EY W.Prophetic Books 342 The Elohim saw their Oath Eternal Fire they rolled apart trembling^ over The Mercy Seat. 295-297. Swinb. nor been able to find adds anyone who has. I think. already known . WBY 229. . Muir (coloured).' Typ. hnt probably circa 1790. II 2 plates 12 plates. Naturally he ' : Man & Printer W.' Therefore God becomes as we are. with small pictorial designs. 262) A work 12 plates. by Peace. ii. of this book the entry is iii. title-page. Blake. 176. ' : WMR An ' : " Outhoon ingenious friend suggested that Visions of the Daughters part. in reversed writing. Ferguson (Gil. as indisputable evidence that such a book does or did exist. On the frontispiece. But the number of plates in in '' might be another title for the which one Oothoon plays a prominent the two not corresponding decisively negatives such a supposition. 12) : ' II I Reason or the not the same that it | shall be we have we know more. 6 plates .' Ill DOGMATIC WRITINGS 18. Collation: frontispiece. Brotherhood. Extracts: EY | iii. Relief engraving. There is j No Natural Religion f j WitJwutdate. Price (C2. 6 inches more or less.' has no notion of moral fitness | | only a natu]ral organ subject to is | Sense.' Ends is I (f. called Outhoon. Linnell has never heard of it. of Albion. But the above must be taken. propositions I-VI.

' ' ' ' : | ' : | | ' ' ' : | Ends Gothic 37) \\. Extract: L. ' : Ends various) ' (f. Facsimile Reproduction : EY iii. [The Laocoon.' On Virgil begins {\. On Homer's Poetry begins (1. As the true method of knowledge is Begins (f. 8 20.' periences. Reprint: Gil.Prophetic Books There 19. 3) experiment. but circa as (On Poetry. . 4^x3! inches. while the whole of the surrounding space is filled with disconnected aphorisms on art and the conditions under which it is fostered. Art cannot be Read Matthew c. 39 at right) Form.' : Typ. relief engraving. were destroyers of all Art. On Homer's 30. Drawn & Engraved by William Blake. the true faculty of knowing must be the faculty which exThis faculty I treat of.1 As 7'''. 'Grecian is Mathematic Form: (11. 159. 2) Every Poem must necessarily be a perfect Unity. Principle i" ' — in the Principle 7"^. 5f X4I inches. the Classics. | | the Reasoning Memory Living Form Facsimile Reproduction EY iii.] Imprint'. EY : 1 8 1 6. A drawing of the Laocoon occupies the centre of the plate. The Argument. . 38. (11. v. 38-40 at left^ Mathematic Form is Eternal in . 160. Collation frontispiece title-page. 10. line engraving. that Desolate Europe with Wars. H.' Ends (11. is : Living . At foot of leaf Nations. as Babylon & Egypt.2 inches. 7 plates 2 X 1.) date. 9. 26) Sacred Truth has pronounced that Greece & Rome. : Wilderness ' '). about relief engraving. 232-233. & not Goths nor Monks. 21. Imagination Denied. ('The Voice of one crying ' i ' plate each. so far from being parents of Arts & Sci-| ences as they pretend. No is | Natural j 343 Religion | Without \b\ date. Small print." : 'Where any view of Money exists. hit probably circa 1790.' iii. At head on but of leaf: War only.' ' with surrounding designs. is : | Eternal Existence. but circa 1 816-1820. Small Broadside. x. but why Homer's is peculiarly so I cannot tell.' 'Art Degraded. 22-24) The Classics. Withotit date. it is. War carried Governed the . The Argument 10 plates. 10) So all Typ. all all similars men are alike (the' infinitely have one source The true Man. Reprint : Principle & Religions. Without Virgil. ii.

). iii. As the plow follows words. one of the preceding proverbs. 4 f. or with infernal brands Flinging flames of discontent & plagues of dark despair. . 4. or does he cry with a Of thunder does he look upon the sun & laugh. lines occur in a passage in 7"«V/f/ of which all but 11. "O weak. of Hell. From THE MARRIAGE OF HEAVEN AND HELL Praises reap not. 27. poisons inhaling from the morning rose. two last lines.' the rest being in prose. note to song from An Golden Net' (Pickering MS. end together in a curse.' ' . His little hands unto the depths of the sea to bring forth scaly tribe [word above illegible] The deadly cunning of the it to the morning?"' 4 Cp. f. or stretch voice . sparks of Hell. 'He said. O Har! & Tiriel's wisdom. breathing out blood Some close shut up ! . g. In silent deceit. or love in a golden bowl? Is the sun a king warmed without wool. Prayers plow not Sorrows not weep not. and & spread to ' The 9. Joys laugh : : Among the ' Proverbs Marriage of Heaven and Hell. & poison in their tongue With daggers Or eyed with . Thy God of Love. These 3. thy heaven of joy Why is one law given to the lion &c the [Ox del. so God rewards prayers. 1. whose teeth the gates of eternal death little ? Can wisdom be put in a silver rod. title. Island in the Moon."] patient Ox? Dost thou not see that men cannot be formed all alike Some nostril'd wide. Cp. Or Love in a golden bowl ? Thel. father of a lawless race! Thy laws. mistaken. 1. hid beneath their lips.POEMS FROM THE PROPHETIC BOOKS From THE BOOK OF THEL Motto Thel's Does the Eagle know what is in the Or wilt thou go ask the Mole ? Can Wisdom be put in a silver rod. Or those whose mouths are graves. DGR I. and were deleted by Blake. 2 i. and WMR omit pit .

The song which Enitharmon reviving him to Life. 28). 1. Night ii. 2.' 3 to unbind] again to unbind EY. and the Prophetic Books. is depicted as a bird of paradise ' in a vale of flowers : see Europe. Four Zoas. above an illustration of a nude kneeling female figure. From THE FOUR ZOAS At the And first Sound the Golden Sun arises from the Deep. ' sang O'er Los. 1. list I See note to Poems from Letters. 11. 9-14. who — — subject of the lost engraved no. I And 5 . round the fiery king. I hid in Leutha's vale! And plucked Leutha's Flower. f. nine bright spheres of harmony rise silver locks. my virgin fears. The Eccho wakes the moon to unbind her The golden Sun bears on my song.Prophetic Books 345 From VISIONS OF THE DAUGHTERS OF ALBION The Argument loved Theotormon. a daughter of Los. work Oitihooii. . 33. 4 Leutha. one of the daughters of Beulah (cp. 9. 17.' iv. And i shakes his awful hair. f. Milton. WBY. 12. passim. The speaker here is Oothoon. I was not ashamed I And trembled I in i . See of Prophetic Books. kissing springs upwards from the petals of a flower. I rose up from the vale But the terrible thunders tore My virgin mantle in twain. whose story references to which occur in several of the Prophetic Books probably formed the Visions. a sprite f.

The birds & beasts rejoice & play.' Mmtiage of 28 dens] dews EY. vanishes with a his lost in infinite And. I 26 And I strike the terrible string. the bubbling springs of life in regions of dark death. The Lovers' night bears on my song And the nine Spheres rejoice beneath my powerful controll. ever dying. WBY. WBY. . this EY word . wake sweet joy in dens of sorrow. 6 is] in WBY. fading cry ever living in is voice living cry.Prophetic Books 34^ The joy of woman Who Love dies for the Death of her most best beloved is 6 of her In torments of fierce jealousy & pangs of adoration. its 21 little glancing wings & sing your infant joy.' II . And & Furious lifts & sport rend the nether up rugged head hovering wings. WBY. Song Liberty. and may be unweary. even to EY. drink your bliss For every thing that lives is holy for the source of life Descends to be a weeping babe. is of her most not distinctly- 13 upon] sounding upon of the holy] The same words end the chorus 23 For EY. ' written in the MS. of her most best] even of her most WBY unceasing] unwearied EY. . they i6 deep The deep The The terrible . Now my left hand stretch to Earth beneath. For the Earthworm renews the moisture of the sandy plain. 26 stretch to] f. Heaven and of Hell. you Arise & ! . Arise. WBY. The solemn silent moon Reverberates the long harmony upon my limbs. 27.. stretch abroad. is inmost joy. ' 30 regions] region WBY. n every one seeks for his mate to prove his inmost joy. . In forests of And wake & I plant a smile affliction. They sing unceasing to the notes of my immortal hand. .

I ! For thou hast touched Now And am I my five & nothing. II compos'd the song] made songs EY. on whose tops silver. are rocks of Desolation. end.' 11 Ah ! how shall mansion Ah! how submit to this dark Urizen the King r ? Once on the heights this? is I stretch'd my throne sublime. And 31 answer'd thee. EY. Nine virgins cloth'd in light compos'd the song to their The immortal And at my voices. banquets of new wine my head was crown'd with joy. my palace in gardens of delight. My fountains. And on the bones I my tears. . She led him into Shadows & thence fled. Night ' v. like a bright rainbow. palace walked in gardens of delight. WBY omits. . fall & they faint. till thou awakest me. The mountains of Urizen. once of wisdom dwelt. outstretch'd the immense. or I faint beneath these beams of thine. fine : — Thus sang this Lovely one. . delight] Once how I from my 10 follow'd] came EY. now breed the 5 scaly tortoise. in Rapturous delusive trance. Los heard reviving: he Siez'd her in his arms. weeping. where the sons of And the Virgins sang. Upon & smiling. Four Zoas.Prophetic Books am weary 347 lay thine hand upon me. & fading. delusive hopes Kindling. the harpers follow'd with harps. sink I on the bed of solemn sleep 31-35 35 And on] • senses I EY. 33 five] awakest me] The poem continues 31 thine] thy on EY. The Woes of Urizen shut up in the deep dens of Urthona. 9 drop Once how I walked from sons of wisdom stood around. once the haunt of Swans. O. . & water them in vain. 12 banquets] banquet EY.' 9 Once 3 of Urizen] EY omit. The gardens of wisdom are become a field of horrid graves. EY. The houses of my harpers are become a haunt of crows.

30 Saying . . golden crown. And darken all my Palace walls with envyings & hate ? O did ! I ! ! Fool to think that ! I could hide from his all piercing 25 eyes The gold & Fool silver could ! I & costly stones. & sweet dreams round me . O O O I keep the horses of the day in silver pastures? 21 refused the lord of day the horses of his prince. I sprang 31 & crown'd me] crowned EY. on Till my silver hover' d But now bed I slept. did I close my treasuries with roofs of solid stone. light that filled bright the deep.' & my my me from heard the mild 'O Light spring up from the Deep. 17 soags are turned into cries of Lamentation under & my palace deep sighs my Mountains. He I holy workmanship. my land & my darken'd is men wise are departed. up from the deep EY. envyings] envying EY. & holy voice & I sprang crown'd me 29 up with a Son who wanders on the ocean. 15 round me hover'd] hovered round EY. 24 darken] darkened EY. Go forth & guide shine. Deep] Saying. his forget the spheres Was a reflection of his face 1 well remember. Were kept back from my Lord & from his chariot of mercies. and lo. 25 eyes] eye EY. gave to me a silver scepter.' 13 pavilions] palaces EY. Saying. .Prophetic Books 348 Then in And walked ivory pavilions I slumber'd in the noon. Because the Steeds once of Urizen. than the swifter light. 13 in the silent night among sweet smelling my flowers. . for who call'd & And ' said. My Heard on roofs . Light spring up and shine.

bow'd down with him. Light 50 That . by winds] by the winds EY. too pure for 41 locks shadow'd thine eyes from the divine effulgence. & Luvah When Thought is hath burst his clos'd in Caves. didst Then thou keep with Strong Urthona the gates of heaven But now thou gates of on the steps step'd art living . Then love shall shew its root in deepest Hell. night] That shakes my cavern with strong shudders. dark Urthona. 47 Steeds] steeds of light EY. gave to thee the Steeds. 37 And like a lilly is thy wife Vala. . perhaps this is the night Of Prophecy. that they might run chariot of pride. 52 When . even to the hell. I siez'd thee. 41 on the steps] on steps EY. drunken with the immortal draught. And thy fair divine. beauteous Luvah thou art faded like a flower. 34 councils] council EY. . And. In my left hand falling. We fell. This may be the thy wife] . Hell] EY. Thy pure feet other feet. love shows roots in deepest hell . I call'd I siez'd thee. way from Enitharmon. & find that pulsation That shakes deep 49 my caverns with strong Shudders . from fell my throne sublime. 38 is EY omit is. night EY. . Because thou gavest Urizen the wine of the Almighty 45 in thy golden For steeds of Light. 46 steeds of Light] EY omit of th}-] the EY. will I these Explore arise. crown'd with the gold of heaven. . 35 spears] spears of light EY. wither'd by winds. The stars threw down their spears & fled naked away.Prophetic Books went not wrath I forth hid myself on black clouds of I : 349 my 33 : the stars around my feet in the night of councils dark. When thou didst bear the golden cup at the immortal tables Thy children smote their fiery wings. I I pour'd the stolen wine. When thought is closed in caverns. dens. 42 the] this EY.

Born. by supplied kindly passage. Say he is overgorg"d. . If pale.' conquer. .' cannot be injui-e to future editors. If you would make the poor live with temper. man looks pale With labour & abstinence say he looks healthy & happy. say he is ruddy. & our Earth will be overrun Without these arts. frown when they smile. not only as a specimen of Blake's shrewd satire. and when a So shall we .' but was unable to see how this could ' ' ' ' ' I have come to the conclusion that this is the right reading. . we reluctantly leave the deciphering of the word that It would have biographical interest. and causes the couplet to read as follows 'One conquer] I illegible in : "Till thou dost Thou (?) — injure the distrest never have peace within thy breast. let them die . when his children sicken. & drowns his wit tho' you know that bread & water are all In strong drink if Preach temperance.' or improve. even too many. Say he smiles you hear him sigh. The lines are connecting the couplet with a passage in The Four Zoas. Thou Four Zoas.' inspire. John Linnell.' The argument of this conexplanatory of that of the couplet.Prophetic Books 50 111 Till thou dost [conquer] the distrest. With pomp give every crust of bread you give. temptuous be cultivated towards the poor and oppressed— in fact the antithesis of Blake's own sentiment passage seems to me : — 'Can And This passage." shalt After fruitless efforts. & pomp. In the opinion of Mr. Both are as to the attitude to to the addressed man. the doubtful word might be From a photointended for compose. as conquer. with gracious cunning then give with Magnify small gifts: reduce the man to want a gift. not be in sorrow too?* I in Night vii.' I read the word Mr. Smile when they frown. which occurs ' see another's woe. looks like nothing but an impossible term. but worthy of quotation. or nearly twenty years after the date Since then of his boyish effort 'King Edward the Third. Written in pencil on the right-hand margin of the verso of the third sheet of Night vi. runs: — Compell the poor to live upon a Crust of bread by soft mild arts gove[r]n over all: let Moral duty tune your tongue But be your hearts harder than the nether millstone. in as an interesting illustration of the note of Elizabethan imitation surviving his prophetic writings as late as 1797. word. there are enough And. worldly-wise advice. shall never have peace within thy breast. With regard to this word EY comment: the original. graph make good sense.. me to of this Linnell. Jun.

in mountain Gil. the Court & the University. is From MILTON And did those feet in ancient time Walk upon England's mountains And was the holy Lamb of God On 1 ? green England's pleasant pastures seen ? And did the Countenance Divine Shine forth upon our clouded hills And was Jerusalem builded here Among these dark Satanic Mills? 5 ? ' 2. is Prophetic Books. and sighs and death-sweat of the victims of Urizen's laws. All these. this passage printed with such extraordinary inaccuracy as to suggest that the whole poem has been practically rewritten by Mr. 70. in Jesus our Lord. For we have Hirelings in the Camp. These lines occur as part of the Preface following the prose The Stolen and Perverted Writings of Homer & Ovid. In Blake's mythological world the mills of Satan are ' not situated eastward of Golgonooza (or Law).. Shakspeare & Milton Memory were both curb'd by the general malady & infection from the silly Greek & Rouze up. Night viii. & those Grand Works of the more ancient & consciously ' Milton. which we WMR. mountains] delight is in we are but if of Eternity. our will. in different aspects. of Plato & Cicero. & the Daughters of shall become the Daughters of Inspiration. or the expensive advertizing boasts that they make of such works believe Christ : & his Apostles that there is Men whose whole Greek or Roman Models a Class of We do not want either Destroj'ing. ' : professedly Inspired Men will hold their proper rank. if they could. are set up by artifice against the Sublime of the Bible.' For the context see Ellis and Yeats (iii.' which is formed of the 8 Mills] ' tears them hills Gil. all will be set right. symbolize See Four Zoas.' Beside rooted the tree of Mystery. passim. Reduce all to : 35 pity his children till . and the Blake's conception of natural religion. which all Men ought to contemn. Perturbed black and deadly.Prophetic Books He can Flatter his wife afiford. . those just & Worlds shall live for ever. WBY. who would. however. but when the New Age is at leisure to Pronounce. on the strand of a lake of waters but of spaces.' 2 upon] over Swinb. ! Sculptors! Architects! Suffer not the fash[i]onable Fools to depress your powers by the prices they pretend to give for contemptible works. where. true to our own Imaginations. O Young Men of the New Age set Latin slaves of the Sword. depress Mental & prolong Corporeal War. as spaniels are taught with we 1 can art. ! your foreheads against the ignorant Hirelings. Ellis. for ever Painters on you I call. 71). passage & f.

The Spirit of Jesus is continual forgiveness with trembling & amazement.. approve.. . The Enthusiasm . I will not cease Xor 13 Sword sleep my shall From JER USALEM [To the Public] Reader And of books Jemsalem. Till we have built Jerusalem In England's green & pleasant Land. . . . of the following Poem.. . I pretend not to holiness of men yet I pretend to love. to see. the and . . I also hope the Reader will be with me. . the Divine Body. of those with whom to be connected is to be . & the more to have an interest in Therefore what you do not the Friend of Sinners. & . to whom the Ancients look'd and saw his day afar off.. . ' ' : I again display my Giant forms to the Public former Giants & Fairies having reciev'd the highest reward possible.Prophetic Books 352 Bring Bring Bring Bring my Bow of burning gold my Arrows of desire my Spear O clouds. address... wholly One in Jesus our Lord. which is ' ' ' ' words Sheep on the banks of the Ocean. but I know of no copy in which this has been done.. WMR. the Author hopes . My .' Printed only by Swinb. I cannot doubt that this more consolidated & extended Work will be as kindly recieved. The gaps here and in the preceding prose passage are the result of flaws in Blake's stereotype. and WBY. sinful ! ! to . .three years slumber f. This headed To the Public (flanked on either side by the and Goats '). begins After m}. . who is the God and Lord . Reader. the missing words having been chipped out It may have been Blake's intention to insert either by accident or design. Swin- . 3. followed by Blake's account Of the Measure in which the .. i. me for this energetic exertion of vay talent. converse with daily as man with man. Poem is written. will never enter there. .. . I. in my hand... of Sin he who waits to be righteous before he enters into the Saviour's I am perhaps the most kingdom.' ' After this come the lines above. 2 them by hand. of heaven God from whom of that forming part of Blake's introduction to Chap. unfold my Chariot of fire me me me me ! 9 ! ! ! ! from Mental Fight.

is headed ' To the Jews. burne. .Prophetic Books Who 353 mysterious Sinai's awful cave the wondrous art of writing gave. Therefore I print nor vain my types shall : & Heaven. forming part of Blake's introduction to Chap. me is named : Liberty. henceforth shall live in harmony. white on a black ground. — : Reader ' And The lover of books ! of that — opinion. 54. And A This is Jerusalem in every Man. be. Were builded over with pillars of gold And there Jerusalem's pillars stood. Among Jerusalem. p. Again Thunder of Thought. on a plate containing a full-page illustration of the figure of Jerusalem watching Hand ' in flames. preface.' some such — — [best boon] of heaven [lover] of books ! of that God from whom [they first were given]. Essay. 2. every particular Form gives forth or Emanates Its own peculiar Light. 26. Even from the depths of Hell his voice I hear in To Man Within the unfathom'd caverns of my Ear.' Reader ' ! my the passage might be better preserved by continuity of reading as : 9 Hell. 11 Such visions As my I Jerusalem f. f. in very happily 5 And ! 9 types] type WBY. lover of heaven God from whom all things are given. though not.' begins A a : — This . 284. i To Primrose Hill and Saint John's Wood. he speaks in thunder and in fire. thus supplies the lacunae. & the form is the Divine Vision. the Sons of Albion. Jerusalem is called Liberty among the Children of Albion.' the Light Tent And & 2 race] course Russell and Maclagan. 1-5 : — In great Eternitj'. Male & Female Clothings. f. have appear'd to order'd race have run Engraved in capital letters. Earth. Tabernacle of Mutual Forgiveness. Jerusalem. C'p. • • • 111 [To the Jews] The fields from Islington to Marybone. & flames of fierce desire. Jerusalem. which SAMPSON 27. 11. is his Garment.

. divided under his fourfold sj'stem into four quarters. You have a tradition that Man anciently contain'd in his mighty limbs all things in Heaven & Earth. This poem summarizes the principal myth told in more detailed form in Chap. & follow Jesus." Albion was the Parent of the Druids.& : they were separated from him by cruel Sacrifices and when compulsory cruel Sacrifices had brought Humanity into a Feminine Tabernacle. & the Everlasting The Wicked will turn Huzza Selah Gospel. 11. his Bride. Paraplirases of this poem may be referred to in Ellis and Yeats It will as little ' ' . the Saviour. 43 . The Religion of Jesus.' Sacrifice & War. Take up the Cross. & is. Among the little meadows green. O ye Inhabitants of Earth. became apparent on Earth. 42. contained in his Limbs are all — the true Christians Animals is True. that Jerusalem was. the Emanation of the Giant Albion that the Learned have explored ? Patriarchal Religion ? If it is true. the Righteous to Righteous- ! & End in Albion's Ancient Druid Rocky Shore.' be unnecessary to explain to any student of Blake that 'Jews' here mean the Hebrew race as 'Jerusalem' means the city so named. is explained by a passage in the same chapter. in the loins of Abraham & David. & in his Chaotic State of Sleep & Adam & the whole World was Created by the Elohim. Pancrass & Kentish-town repose Among her golden pillars high. It is True and cannot be controverted. Can I it be ? Is it a Truth Was Britain the Primitive Seat of the my title-page is also True. The former signifies merely the dwellers in Jerusalem or state of spiritual liberty. ' ' " But now the Starry Heavens are fled from the mighty limbs of Albion. The Return of Israel is a Return to Mental as the Prophets had foretold. what I — both see and hear In regions of Humanity. Ye are united. Shem. Heber. in London's opening streets." 'Your Ancestors derived their origin from Abraham. this you received from the Druids. of God among them seen. and Noah. as the Druid Temples (which are the Patriarchal Pillars & Oak Groves) over the whole Earth witness to this day. the Eternal. 'Jerusalem. Amen ness. ' ! ! " All things Begin it to Wickedness. the Lamb of God.' After this come the lines above.Prophetic Books 354 Her Little-ones ran on the fields. 5 The Lamb And fair Jerusalem. Among her golden arches which 9 Shine upon the starry sky. in One Religion. f. who were Druids. Man O Jews. the Emanation of the Giant Albion. followed by the paragraph ' Satan : ' If If Humility is tradition that your Christianity you. O Israel. the most Ancient. The geographical symbolism under which Blake typifies mental states by London districts. 38. 2. : ' I write in South Molton Street.

most ancient promontory. Always comforting the remembrance the floors. thanksgiving Lambeth. 25 Cp. Jerusalem. 12. devotion : O Prepare the furniture. are those golden builders doing ? f. builders in hope tho' Jerusalem wanders far away. Standing above that mighty Ruin. into lovely forms there the secret furniture of Jerusalem's chamber wrought Lambeth the Bride. never forgotten. with cruel Og. : thy pitying looms wrought . The fields of Cows by William's farm. Where Satan the first victory won : 196-198) and in the Introduction to the reprint of Jerusalem edited by Russell and Maclagan. 15 William's] This name is obscurely Willan's Shep. tears of honesty the nails ! : : : : the screws & iron braces are well wrought blandishments. and the bricks. . in Satan's Synagogue. The curtains. '• — where was the burying-place that Of soft Ethinthus ? near Tyburn's fatal Tree ? is Mild Zion's hills. firm fixing. (ii. Shine 13 in Jerusalem's pleasant sight. For comfort woven the hearths. the Lamb's Wife. loveth thee Thou art one with her & knowest not of self in thy supreme joy. Go on. Labour of merciful hands the beams & rafters are forgiveness The mortar & cement of the work. She walks upon our meadows green of God walks by her side 1 . I Marybone] Marylebone WBY.. well wrought affections Enamel'd with love & kindness. near mournful Ever weeping Paddington ? is that Calvary and Golgotha Becoming a building of pity and compassion ? Lo The stones are pity. & With Moral Self-righteous Law. 17 our] her Shep. The Lamb 7 . well contrived words. The cielings. tears & in sighs. Forgiving trespasses and sins Lest Babylon.Books Pj^ophetic 355 The Jew's-harp-house & the Green Man. And every English Child is seen. Without the gate of Los among the dark Satanic wheels. The Ponds where Boys to bathe delight. 25-44 II. Should Crucify What 21 are those golden Builders doing 25 Near mournful ever-weeping Paddington. What WMR. Welhng's Gil. & the tiles engraven gold. ' . humility And And : . a 3 . written in the original stereotype WBY. Children of Jesus & his Bride.' Is : : ! : : : See also the conclusion of prose note A to vi.

O Spectre over Europe and Asia. — 53 Cp. 24-31 Polypus of Death. 49.Prophetic Books 356 Where Albion And beneath the slept fatal Tree. Jerusalem. 29 the Druid's golden Knife Rioted in human gore In Offerings of Human Life? They groan'd aloud on London Stone. . The Rhine was red with human blood The Danube roU'd a purple tide 45 . Jerusalem Down War & In fell 41 thro' howling. Thro' Maiden. On the Euphrates Satan And over Asia stretch'd He stood. ! translucent all within. from Lambeth's Vale. in Natural Selfish Chastity And to & holy banish Pity dear Mutual Forgiveness & to become One Great Satan to the most powerful Selfhood to murder the Divine : Inslav'd In : : Humanity whose sight folly r all are as the dust. They groan'd aloud on Tyburn's Brook 33 : Albion gave his deadly groan. And in a dark Land gave her birth. He wither'd up Jerusalem's Gates. Till it But O became a Mortal Worm. his pride. & acros the Sea. & who chargeth his Angels with . He wither'd up the Human Form By laws of sacrifice for sin. : * 53 O Withering the By Laws Human Form by Laws of Sacrifice for Sin. death 8: woe. Create a Heaven in which all shall be pure of Chastity Striving to In their Own Selfhoods. & Abhorrence I am wither'd up. wither 'd up sweet Zion's Hill every Nation of the Earth From 49 . f. 11. Poplar & Old Bow. all the Atlantic Mountains shook. And Albion's Spectre from his Loins Tore forth in all the pomp of War. 37 in flames of fire stretch'd his Druid Pillars far. Satan his name He .

Form was the still 357 Human Face & Feet. . he is the Great Selfhood the Mighty Ones of the Earth. thy Love my Spirit to Subdue my Spectre Create . 61 Entering thro' the Gates of Birth. By his own law shall surely die. And O Lamb thou of God whom ! I 65 Slew in my dark self-righteous pride. 46. And Jerusalem thy Bride? is Come to Depart arms my & : never more but dwell for ever here . to thy Fear. 11. 18 So spoke the Spectre to Albion : — ' Satan. when a man's worst enemies Alas in a Religion Shall be those of his own house and family Of Generation. 76 Cp. 17. Art thou return'd to Albion's Land.' — 81 Cp. Destroying all the World beside ? A man's worst enemies are those Of his own house & family And he who makes his law a curse. The Human Hands. Worship'd as God by . ! My Selfhood Is this Thy 69 . Jesus And Vision ! in still was seen. warlike Fiend Spectre of Albion In clouds of blood & ruin roU'd. ' ! . The Bride and Wife of the Lamb. Jerusalem.Prophetic Books The Divine Still Weeping. 1 here reclaim thee as my own. 33. mortal clay. Jerusalem. 84 law] hand Russell and Maclagan. thou art Not an Avenger : ' ! — . 11. cruel Patriarchal pride 77 . f. f. 81 . 25-28 79 alone] above Shep. Planting thy Family alone. The time will come. thine ! & thine & Breath. Human Form was the & weak thine the 57 Divine . — Satan arm'd in 73 ! gold ! thy soft Family-Love. O God. to destroy by Sin and Atonement happy Jerusalem. And passing thro' the Gates of Death.

walk'd in every Nation. Book \st rdg. . del.' . 24. 41. 3 When his] Untill MS. del. Book the MS. Book. The original draft of these lines is found on p. 4. 4 his] his own MS. 12 of the MS. Mutual shall build Jerusalem. 43 : hand hand. Monk of Charle- his] the MS. Cast him down into the Lake ! Los. 10-12 Awake. At some time Blake numbered these four lines in the MS. afterwards deleted. Seated on the scroll is a sprite holding a pen in his hand. intending the stanzas . 2.Prophetic Books 35^ Exchanges every Land my In Shall walk 85 & mine. i. Each Man is in his Spectre's power. 40.' MS. Book \st rdg. Jerusalem. Both heart 85 Cp. awake Him Of : ' — reclaim thy Reasoning Spectre. written immediately below one of the stanzas of 'The maine' ('When Satan first the black bow bent').' IV Each Man is in his Spectre's power Untill the arrival of that hour When his Humanity awake. that ever burneth with fire. ever & ever. And cast his Spectre into the Lake. Book. * f. 'And there to Eternity aspire The selfhood in a flame of fire. mutual in love In the Exchanges of And London & harmony. Book \st rdg.. to read : — 'When his Humanity awake. f. ' f. I Each Man] This world MS. & in heart 11. opposite these In the margin of the printed for the preceding : — first lines is an unfinished stanza. here apparently intended as a continuation of the time. in every Land. Milton. Till then the Lamb of God 4 Cp. Albion. 3. Jerusalem. del. 11. Subdue to the Divine Mercy. in — London every Nation walk'd. Amen. And cast his own Spectre into the Lake — Untill the arrival of that hour. 42. written in reversed characters on a scroll to the left of a large bowed figure.

he . be the Friend of Man. Hypocrisy I . Distinguish between the Man. " God. shall shortly be destroyed He is in . 3. in the same. and many believed what they saw.Prophetic Books [To the Deists] Monk saw a I of Charlemaine my Arise before sight In beams of infernal Jerusalem. teaches that Man is Righteous in his Vegetated Spectre— an Opinion of fatal & accursed consequence to Man. ' To the Deists are the bracketed sentences Rahab is an Eternal State. Righteousness. following the conclusion of Blake's preface to Chap. O Deists is Satan Named by the Divine Name. Hume. ! . Will any one say "Where are those who worship Satan under the Name of God?" Where are they? Listen Every Religion that Preaches Vengeance for Sin is the Religion of the Enemy & Avenger.' and The Spiritual States of the Soul are all Eternal.' The address either side of the title ' ' ' runs ' : — He never can be a Friend to the Natural Morality. Gibbon. when a Religious Man falls into Sin. ' You. New a Experimental Theory. & the Laws of that Babylon which he foresees with the Spiritual and not the Natural Sword. but how cannot concieve. & pretend not 'Voltaire. which State must be put off before he can the State named Rahab perpetuate Tyrant Pride. are so : O Deists you are ! profess yourselves the Enemies of Christianity and you the Enemies of the Human Race & of Universal also Man is born a Spectre or Satan. as the Ancients saw plainly by Revelation. can be a Hypocrite are Men of like passions with others. the Selfish Virtues of the Natural Heart. & ends Religion of the Pharisees who murder'd Jesus. & will erect the Synagogue of Satan. Man must & will have Some Religion if he has not the Religion of Jesus he will have the Religion of Satan. to We be holier than others . & requires Selfhood continually & must continually be changed into his direct But your Greek Philosophy (which is a remnant of Druidism) Contrary. and Prophecied of Jesus. This was the Deism is the same. therefore. & his present State. and of Natural Morality or Selfthe is Worship God of the of this World. charge the Spiritually Religious with a Monk. Human Race who is the Preacher of he is a flatterer who means to betray. i : Grey Monk talk'd with the I 359 as we stood light. or a Methodist either. Nature. Rousseau. & is altogether an Evil. 52. and not of the Forgiver of Sin and their God Deism Your Religion. On f. or Natural Religion to ." and destroying all who do not calling the Prince of this World to the intire abrogation of ' : worship Satan under the Name of God. ! — by the means of what you call Natural Religion and Natural Philosophy.

War. All the Destruction therefore in Christian Europe has arisen from Deism. This Blake afterwards separated into two distinct poems. who alone are its causes & its actors. ' ' ' ' four stanzas are practically the same as those of the version in the MS. of the MS. . call'd his Confessions. as he WBY. he found them Evil. Forgiveness of Sin. MS. scribing others. 9 sound] said you] thou MS. is version in the Pickering MS. whose profession is Virtue & Morality & the making Men Self. for Whitefield pretended not to be holier than others but conVoltaire Rousseau You cannot fessed his Sins before all the World. probably added by Blake when about to Stanzas 4 and 6 occur also as stanzas 2 and 8 of the this poem. stanza 7 is also the final version of the original draft and a marginal addition.Righteous. that vou by you may accuse others. Rise. 12 of the MS. But you also charge the poor Monks & Religious with being the causes of while 3'ou acquit & flatter the Alexanders & Caesars. engraving seven stanzas here as part oi Jerusalem. Book. this display of pretended Virtue chiefly design to expose. but never can be The Glory of Christianity is To Conquer by Forgiveness. Forgivers of Sin. Book WBY. which is Natural Religion.' The first (see MS. Those who Martyr others or who cause War are Deists. Book version of the stanzas. 'When Satan first the black bow bent. Arose with War in iron & gold. himself one. in your Cell. and The Grey Monk in the Pickering MS. Book version. Gibbon arose with a And The 5 Voltaire with a wracking wheel Schools. The Book written by Rousseau.Prophetic Books 360 lash of steel. . & Friendship cannot exist without Forgiveness of sins continually. & Fredericks. Foote in calling Whitefield Hypocrite was . . Book. and particularly of your ! ! stantly own. conescape my charge that you are Pharisees & Hypocrites.' The original version forms part of a larger poem found in first draft on p. Men Good by Nature.' is a revised . 4 In beams] In the 11 your] thy MS. in clouds of learning roU'd. you shall ever dwell ' ' Thou 9 ! ' . & bind him ^ : ' in his Cell ! to ought not to be call'd a Hypocrite this title is more properly to be given a Player who falls into Sin. can never be the cause of a But the Religion nor of a single War Martyrdom. under the title The Grey Monk. . original stanza 12 stanza 6 engrave . is an apology & cloke for his sin. 3 as beams we] where he MS. & especially the Religious whose errors Rousseau found no friend. the Lewis's thought ' War. Book. Book xlii. they sound afar. and traninto the Pickering MS. for you are talking of the Virtues of the Human Heart. Book. of Jesus. & not a confession. lazy Monk In vain condemning glorious War And. In my footnotes I give here the final readings For deleted readings see MS. Book xlii.).

' These lines occur as continuation of a passage which in its reference to the and the northern drum are reminiscent of the stanza Thy father drew his sword in the north. Jerusalem. WBY. For a Tear 13 red ran] ran red 11. f. 77. MS. And spill'd the blood of mercy's Lord. the only difference in the first MS. And let the shadowy drum speed on the arrows black. And And WBY. is an Intellectual thing a Sigh is the Sword of an Angel King the bitter groan of a Martyr's woe Is an Arrow from the Almightie's Bow. When Satan first the black bow bent And the Moral Law from the Gospel rent. Book and in the ' battle Pickering the MS. Again the black Four Zoas.' which is found both in the MS.Prophetic Books 361 red ran from the Grey Monk's His hands & feet were wounded wide. It will lead you in at Heaven's gate I Built in Jerusalem's wall. Only wind it into a ball. : Again the elemental strings to your right breasts draw. Night bow draw . His body bent. Book. WMR. his arms & knees Like to the roots of ancient trees. vii (EY. ' 17 Cp. version. Book. 642-644) : — 25 . Book. the Martyr's WBY omits the. Titus O ! 17 Charlemaine Rousseau Gibbon Vain Constantine ! Voltaire 21 ! ! 13 ! ! Your Grecian Mocks & Roman Sword Against this image of his Lord . VI [To the Christians] give you the end of a golden string. 46 (reversed) of version being the first deleted . The blood side. draft on p. 18 And the Moral] 24 this] 27 a Martyr's] 25 a Tear] the tear MS. He forg'd the Law into a Sword. engraved from the the MS.

Wheel Of fire surrounding all the heavens it went From west to east against the current of : Creation. & & manifest to the thought ? Can you think at all & not pronounce heartily. which has the two mottos in the left margin Religions and Saul. & thundering course round heaven & earth. This stanza forms the opening The Chap. in some Mental pursuit for the Building up of Jerusalem. are they not all Mental Gifts ? shipped in Spirit & in Truth. and are not the Gifts of the Spirit Every-thing to Man ? O ye Religious. 3. which alone are the labours of the Gospel. Imagination. Saul. mocks Jesus. Every moment lost is a moment that cannot be redeemed every pleasure that intermingles with the duty of our station is a folly unredeemable. Why persecutest thou me ? runs :— are told to abstain from fleshly desires that we may lose no time from the Work of the Lord. the giver of every Mental Gift. wheat.' Devils are False preface. . the real & eternal World. Let every Christian as much as in him lies engage himself openly & publicly. ' I stood among my valleys of the And saw a flame of fire. and devour'd all things in its loud Fury. discountenance every one among you who shall I call pretend to despise Art & Science upon you in the Name of Jesus What is the Life of Man but Art & Science ? is it Meat & Drink ? is not the Body more than Raiment ? What is Mortality but the things relating to the Body. Idleness. even as south a . but that which is a Sin in the sight of cruel Man. and of no other Gospel. Is in the things of the Spirit? Bodily Lust. & in which we shall live in our Eternal or Imaginative Bodies when these Vegetable Mortal Bodies are no more. & is planted like the seed of a wild flower among our reading for give ' lines of Blake's preface to ' ' ' ' ' We . calling it pride & selfishness & sin. All the tortures of repentance are tortures of self-reproach on account of our leaving the Divine Harvest to the Enemy. which Lives Eternally? What is the Joy of Heaven but Improvement other than Mental Studies & ! ! What are the Pains of Hell but Ignorance. before all the World. than the liberty both of body & mind to exercise the Divine Arts of Imagination. the struggles of intanglement with incoherent roots. i. What were which all their spiritual gifts ? What is the Divine Spirit ? is the Holy Ghost any other than an Intellectual Fountain ? What is the Harvest of the Gospel & its Labours? What is that Talent which it is a curse to hide? What are the Treasures of Heaven which we are to lay up for ourselves. not this plain : ! which always appear to the ignorance-loving Hypocrite as Sins. are they any Performances ? What are all the Gifts of the Is God a Spirit who must be worGospel. The Apostles knew of no other Gospel. of this Vegetable Universe is but a faint shadow.Prophetic Books 362 ' have given ' ' ' in 1. devastation of the things of the Spirit ? Answer this to yourselves. & expel from among you those who pretend to despise the labours of Art & Science. addressed To the Christians. That to Labour in Knowledge is to build up Jerusalem and to Despise Knowledge is to Despise Jerusalem & her Builders? And remember He who despises & mocks a Mental Gift in another. is not so in the sight of our kind God. which Dies ? What is Immortality but the things relating to the Spirit. I know of no other Christianity.

' vi and vii as a single poem with the title Jerusalem. This terrible devouring sword turning every way?" He answered: "Jesus died because he strove : I its Name Against the current of this Wheel Is Caiaphas." forth out of thy For Hell : is : ' Vll [To the Christians] England ! awake ! awake awake ! ! r Jerusalem thy Sister calls Why wilt thou sleep the sleep of death. & the Prisoners set free. . 77. To the Christians. of sorrow. Pity the evil for thou art not sent . & said. But Jesus is the bright Preacher of Life. To smite with terror Those that are & with punishments sick. little And I asked a Watcher & a Holy-One he answer'd. It is Natural Religion. Of sin. at foot of Christians. the dark Preacher of Death. Go therefore. Into a root a fathom long. Book. from its dire Travelling thro' the night And restless fury Man himself shrunk up By it the . Shepherd prints note to the preceding poem. but let no curse : Go mouth to blight their peace open'd to Heaven thine eyes beheld The dungeons burst. Creating Nature from this fiery Law By self-denial & forgiveness of Sin. But to the Publicans & Harlots go Teach them True Happiness. Opposing Nature. forming the conclusion of the address 'To the and immediately following the long passage quoted in the footNot in the MS. cast out devils in Christ's name.' * 4 close] chase Swinb. . wept. & of punishment. "It is the Wheel Its Name of Religion. And close her from thy ancient walls? ! f. Heal thou the sick of spiritual disease. Moon faded into a globe for. like to the Pharisees Crucifying & encompasing sea <& land For proselytes to tyranny & wrath.Prophetic Books By it Sun was roU'd the into an orb 36 o ." " Is this the law of Jesus.

: Thy And now Our .' which seem intended as title to the lines above. .' and place between Russell and * 11. the time returns again & London's towers : souls exult. Maclagan misread especially the Female.64 Prophetic Books Thy hills & valleys felt her feet Gently upon their bosoms move Gates beheld sweet Zion's ways Then was a time of joy and love. are the words Especially to the in ' Female. couplets. also written in reversed writing. Vlll [Especially to the Female] In Heaven the only Art of Living Is Forgetting But You & Forgiving on Earth Forgive you shall not find where to Live. f. 8r. Recieve the Lamb of God to dwell In England's green & pleasant bowers.. 2 and 3. where this stanza is engraved in reversed characters Below the two the left margin of a three-quarter-page illustration. . if Jentsahyn.

VERSES from FOR THE SEXES THE GATES OF PARADISE Written between 1805 and 18 10. later date and revised at some .

and sixteen numbered plates of emblematic designs. with Blake's imprint as publisher. book of Engravings. : 3. The i. 1793. ' The History Price. The plates. King Lear. where it is described as The Gates of Paradise. The Gogmagog the Giant into the sea. of The Gates of Paradise.. title-page.) 6.and Sketch-book supplies a clue to the contents of this missing work \ Blake may also have intended to * This entry reads Landing of Brutus. Giants ancient inhabitants of England. The Landing of Julius Caesar. sold at the Hamilton Palace sale. The Ancient Britons according to Caesar. which vary in size from 2| x if to 4I x 2| inches. 5. 7. Blake No. in 1882. 2. or edition. It appears to me probable that the rough draft of subjects for a history of England written on the outer page of Blake's Manuscript. not by the artist's usual cameo etching At the foot of process. 3J. beth The book in this form consisted of a frontispiece. {del). & Corineus throws {^del. has the in their earliest state. jfohjison St. before the date and imprint and publishers' imprint on plates were added.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE GATES OF PARADISE Blake's GaUs of Paradise. 9. but by ordinary line engraving. Boadicea inspiring the Britons against the Romans. The book is advertised in Blake's prospectus of October 10. a small engravings on title ' book of Engravings. Paul's Church Yard. Alfred in the countryman's . Museum Print Room copy is an example of this first The Beckford issue. the original pencil sketches for which are found in the Rossetti : \ \ \ — \ \ \ \ | I I MS. are executed. a companion volume of England. a small to refer to of which no copy is known to exist. The Britons' distress depopulation.' Price. unnumbered subjects are a marginal addition). 4. Women in a Siege {these three frontispiece 8. Women fleeing from War. 13 Hercules Buildings Lamand J. was a small foolscap octavo picture-book with the title For Children The Gates of Paradise [ru/e] \_aflying figure'] 1793I Published by W. copy. y' The would seem preceding entry. The British 1793. dated [Lambeth] May 17. The Druids. each is a short inscription or legend. as first issued.

printed several years later though Blake has left unaltered the original imprints.' ' now represented as blind in order that the descriptive text. 20 (77. the figure of Fire being ' The Fire. house. I agree with 12. M.) The Gates of Paradise also appeared with the new Rossetti's t/nda ted tit\e-pa. i.' as Doubt self-jealous. beheaded {subjects 77. The Cruelties used by Kings & Priests. Famine occasioned by the Popish interdict (a marginal addition). as the contrary to 'For Children. 10. Cloud. and Drawings.). 22 {20 del. Engravings. poet's biographer could not have fallen had he made any serious attempt to trace the gradual evolution of Blake's symbolic system.' Gil. 16 (75 del. up the Londoners to resist W. The Plague. the A King John & Mag. Ch.' merely as versified explanations of the artist's This. 17. is an error into which the original motives.' while the ' ' ' ' dark hermaphrodite — ' (or a humanity divided against itself) somewhat violently — favourite figure in Jerusalem is offered as the interpretation of the picture illustrating original plates have been worked over and elaborated in this second issue. reading into what were at first simple allegorical pictures for children the later developed elaborate symbolism in which Blake clothed his full-fledged mystical Thus we find Water. it may 14. belong to the same period as Miltofi dise I . ^^ ^^^ ^oot of the frontispiece and sixteen plates of emblems. Edward Edward 15.ge : For The the Sexes \ Gates | \ of Para| This is in reality a second ^prologue of ten lines\. ' the Black Prince brings his Captives to his father. 13. 102) regards the Keys. W. however. The lines on the new title-page beginning Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice/ and some part of the The three supplementary plates legends. spect of Liberty. ' ' ' ' ' and Jerusalem.' The Gates of Paradise a book which is known to us only from its title-page For Children. stirring the Con" crown'd.). VIII.' (See — W. Charta. at Calais. and considerably changed edition. watry folly. Edwin & Morcar Conq^ II.). containing the Keys of the Gates and To the Accuser appear also for the first time. deleted).' represented in the earlier gospel.). the Gates of Hell. dated 1793. 18 del. ij del. — ' 'Annotated Lists of Blake's Paintings. 250. of Jane Shore. The Reformation by H.Gates of Paradise 367 engrave and issue. interpreted for the sexes.). 18 are a marginal addition. The Penance 18. are additions. issue by the figure of a survivor of the Deluge. 19 {16. A pro- . as my footnotes to the Keys amply demonstrate. subsequently The fire of London. These lines. 'themselves a little obscure. A 21 (7p del. Gilchrist (i.

Gates of Paradise

368

authority for the text of TJie Gates of Paradise
second form is the copy in the possession of
Mr, John Linnell, junior, formerly belonging to his father,
The twenty-one plates are
Blake's friend and patron.
printed upon separate sheets of paper measuring about
There is no dated watermark. One of the
51. X 4f inches.
two copies from the Rowfant Library is an example of
the first issue, with imprints, but without the legends to the
and the Keys of
plates, and with the second title-page
the Gates inserted from the later impression, probably by
Mr. Frederick Tatham, to whom it formerly belonged.
The plate To the Accuser who is the God of this World

My

in

this

'

'

'

'

is

lacking.

At

a

some

still

later date

Blake retouched the plates and made

further alterations in the text.

These

last revisions

the prologue on the title-page, and in the change
'
in the
of I to
Keys of the Gates.' In the present
edition I follow Blake's final version, taking my text from
a copy in the possession of Mr. W. A. White, of Brooklyn,
New York. This copy, which must have been one of the
There are
last printed, bears the dated watermark 1825.
two other examples of this book in its final form one a copy
in the possession of Mr. James T. Linnell, and the other
a duplicate from the Rowfant Library since acquired by

occur

in

'

'

'

We

'

Mr.

W. A.

White.

Gilchrist, misled perhaps by Blake's retention in the
later issues of the original dated imprints, appears to regard
'

the two forms of The Gates of Paradise For Children
and For the Sexes as contemporaneous issues of the
same work with different title-pages. He also ignores the
'

'

'

fact (first, so far as I
aware, suggested by Mr. W. A.
White in a letter to the present writer) that the Keys
must have been written long after the first
of the Gates

am

'

'

appearance of the little book in 1793.
A comparison of the metaphorical figures found in the
Keys of the Gates with those used by Blake in his
earlier and later prophetic books has convinced me that
could only
the verses in the two issues for the sexes
have been written about the same time as Jerusalem
'

'

'

'

or Milton.
Blake, it is true, not infrequently in certain
earlier writings anticipates the complex mystical formulae
found in those written several years later, or repeats,

long intervals, thoughts or expressions adumBut in the Keys of the
brated in his simpler poems.
Gates
we find no such confusion of earlier and later

after

'

'

Gates of Paradise

369

The whole is a harmonious composition,
repeating in an extremely condensed form, often in identical
words, the full evangel of Jcriisalein.
further clue to the date of the Keys of TJic Gates of
Paradise ' for the sexes may be found in the repetition
In
in 'The Everlasting Gospel' (y^, 1. 96) of the line

symbolism.

A

'

'

'

*

The Everlasting Gosdoubt which is self-contradiction.'
pel,' which was written about 1810, itself contains a con'

number

siderable

of striking parallelisms with

passages

Jerusalem which I have given in the footnotes to that
poem. Jenisalcin bears on its title-page the date 1804,
but this represents the year its engraving was begun rather
than finished, and its completion may well have been the
work of several years. The first issue of TJic Gates of
Paradise in its altered form for the sexes may thus
be assigned with some certainty to the last half of the
decade ending 1810 ^.
Mr. W, M. Rossetti, followed by all later editors^ dates
the 'Keys of the Gates' 1793, with the remark that it
should, strictly speaking, be placed chronologically between
the Songs of Linoccnce and the Songs of Experience.
Messrs. Ellis and Yeats stumble at the threshold of the
The Gates
truth in curiously stating it in its converse form
"
"
value
of Paradise soon after Lafayette are of incalculable
"
Their " keys
will
as interpreting the Prophetic Books.
open the meaning of all the myth, though they will not,
in

'

'

'

:

of course, explain its story.'
All editors follow Gilchrist's text (based apparently upon
B^), but omit the numbers referring to the engraved plates.
facsimile by Mary Hughes and William Muir reproduces

A

*

on the strength of a passage in Blake's Adver(ii. 260),
Public Address,' which refers to the Examiner's attack upon him,
place the first appearance oi Jerusalem at some time later than August, 1808.
'The manner
This passage, which is found on p. 52 of the MS. Book, runs
Ellis

and Yeats

tisement or

'

:

which my character has been blasted these thirty years, both as an Artist
and as a Man, may be seen particularly in a Sunday paper called the
Examiner, published in Beaufort's Buildings the manner in which I have
in

;

poem concerning my three
Felpham, which I shall soon publish.' This,
however, can hardly refer to Jerusalem, though Blake's allusion to his three
years" Herculean labours at Felpham are reminiscent of the opening words
But
of the Address to the Public with which that poem commences.
Jerusalem, though part of it may be the result of his three years' labours at
Felpham, is certainly not a poem conceriiiug ihem and only a very esoteric
school indeed could interpret it as an allegory of his quarrel with Hayley
and Hunt.
rooted out the nest of villains will be seen in a

years"

Herculean labours

at

'

'

'

'

;

SAMPSON

B D

Gates of Paradise

370

the frontispiece, plates 1-6, 8-16, and the plate 'To the
Accuser,' apparently from B^ or B^, with the title-page of
Plate 7, as the legend shows, also
A, For Children.'
belongs to A. Prefixed in ordinary letterpress is the prologue from the title-page of B \ and in a somewhat corrupt
version The Keys of the Gates,' which would seem to have
been wanting in the copy facsimilized.
Appended is a list of the plates of The Gates of Paradise
with their several legends, in the first issue For Children
For the Sexes
(A), and in the first and second issue
'

'

'

'

'

*

(B^andB^).

Frontispiece.
[A caterpillar on a leaf. On a second
human chrysalis like a babe in swaddling-clothes.]
B^ and B^. What is Man
The Sun's
A. What is Man
on
he
it
when
unfolds
the
Depends
Organ that
Light
[i]

leaf a

!

!

|

|

beholds

it.

\Title-page?^

[ii]

A. For

Children

B^ For

etc.

the

B^. For the Sexes etc. (with changes in text of
prologue, for which see footnotes).
1. [A woman under a weeping-willow, holding a babe in
her left arm, and pulling a mandrake out of the ground by
its hair.]
A, B\ and B-. I found him beneath a Tree.
2.
[Old man, resting his hands on his knees, sits upon
a rock beneath a leafless tree in a deluge of rain. The
encroaching flood rises to his feet.] A. Water. B^ and
B^. Water
Thou Waterest him with Tears.
from a crevice
3. [Crouching figure of a man emerging
in a rock.]
A. Earth. B^ and B^. Earth He struggles
into Life.

Sexes

etc.

|

|

4. [Man seated upon a white cloud clasps his forehead
with both hands and gazes steadfastly before him. Behind
him the sky studded with stars.] A. Air. B^ and B^.

On Cloudy Doubts and Reasoning Cares.
[Fiend, blind in B^ and B^, but not in A, standing in
flames, armed with spear and shield.] A. Fire. B^andB^.
That end in endless Strife.
Fire.
6. [Cherub issuing from an Q%g.\
A, B^, and B^. At
the
breaks
shell.
he
for
ripe
hatching
length
7. [Boy in garden, hat in hand, chases flying fairy.
second fairy lies face downwards crushed at his feet.]
A. Alas!
B^ and B^. Alas! [the original inscription
written in centre of page with the addition of the words on
the Female
either side and below] What are these ?
Air

[

5.

|

A

.

Martyr
8.

Is
|

She

also the Divine

Image

.

.

?

[Seated old man, with sword in right hand, leans

Gates of Paradise

37

1

sorrowfully on his elbow, averting his head from the figure
son!
of a joyfully departing youth.]
A, B\ and B'-.

My

my

son

!

of world prepares to mount
9. [Man standing on edge
Two lovers
ladder reared against the crescent moon.
I want
watch him.] A, B^, and B-. I want
One arm upthrust, and head
10. [Man drowning in sea.
A, B^, and B-.
just disappearing beneath the waves.]
!

!

Help! Help!

under a tree, an old man with spectacles
wings of a boy who struggles to escape. Before
him the setting sun. Sec facsimile?^ A. Aged Ignorance.
11. [Seated

clips the

B^ and

B-.

Aged Ignorance

|

Perceptive Organs closed,

their Objects close.
12. [Old man and four sons

and daughters in dungeon
A, B\ and B'-^. Does thy God, O Priest, take such
vengeance as this ?
bed on which
13. [Man, woman, and two children, beside
lies a corpse, watch the ascending spirit of an old man
who points upward.] A, B\ and B^. Fear and Hope are
cell.]

|

Vision.
14.

[Man with

walking-stick striding along country lane.]

A, B^ and B-. The Traveller hasteth in the Evening.
15. [Old man, leaning on crutch, passes through gateway of tomb.] A, B\ and B-. Death's Door.
16.
[Woman in white grave cerements, seated on the
|

A huge worm crawls around her
in burial crypt.
A, B\andB-. I have said to the worm Thou art
my mother and my sister.
Sec text.
[17, 18]. Keys of the Gates.
is the God of this world.
who
Accuser
To
the
[19].

ground
feet.]

See

;

text.

Bb

|

Gates of Paradise

372

FOR THE

THE GATES OF

SEXES.

PARADISE
\Prologue\
Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice,
Such are the Gates of Paradise,
Against the Accuser's chief desire,
Who walk'd among the Stones of Fire.
Not in the first issue of The Gates of Paradise, 'for Children' (1793).
Engraved, in sHghtly different form, on the title-page of the undated first
issue of the Gates for the Sexes' (B'), and, as above, on the later issue of
'

EY (iii. 62), and WBY,
(B"). Printed by Gilchrist (i. 102),
the three latter with the title Introduction,' and by W. Muir with title
Prologue.'
the

WMR,

same

'

'

I
'

Cp. Jerusalem,

f.

49,

11.

25-29

:

Withering the Human Form by Laws of Sacrifice for Sin,
By Laws of Chastity & Abhorrence I am wither'd up.

&

Striving to Create a Heaven in which all shall be pure
holy
In their Own Selfhoods, in Natural Selfish Chastity
to banish Pity
:

And
also
'

f.

dear Mutual Forgiveness
92,

When

15-20

11.

:

'

;

their Crimes, their Punishments, their Accusations of Sin,

all

Al} their Jealousies, Revenges, Murders, hidings of Cruelty in Deceit,
Appear only in the Outward Spheres of Visionary Space and Time,
In the

Shadows

of Possibility by Mutual Forgiveness for evermore.
& in the Prophecy, that we may Forsee 8c Avoid

And

in the

The

terrors of Creation

Vision

&

Redemption

&

Judgment.'

also Jerusalem, f. 7, 1. 66, and f. 43, 1. 61.
Here also may be added
Blake's daring and beautiful perversion of the Agnus Dei, which forms the

See

concluding lines of the second chapter oi Jerusalem: —
'

Come,

O

thou

To Sin &
To Sin in
To record

Lamb

of God, and take

to hide the Sin in

away

sweet deceit

is

the remembrance of Sin.
lovely

!

the open face of day is cruel & pitiless
But
the Sin for a reproach, to let the Sun go down
In a remembrance of the Sin is a Woe & a Horror,

A

1

brooder of an Evil Day, and a Sun rising in blood
then, O Lamb of God, and take away the remembrance of Sin.'
!

Come

3 See note to
11.
'

18-27.

'

Epilogue.'

4 Cp. Jerusalem,

4,
f.

49,

5 Cp. Jerusalem 'To the Public,'
11.

72-74

:

Learn therefore, O Sisters, to distinguish the Eternal Human
That walks about among the stones of fire in bliss & woe
Alternate.'

f.

3,

Gates of Paradise

373

Jehovah's Finger Wrote The Law
Then Wept then rose in Zeal and Awe,

5

;

;

And

the Dead Corpse, from Sinai's heat,
Buried beneath his Mercy Seat.

O

Christians

You

rear

.

Christians

B and all cdd.
'

5 Finger] fingers
.

!

me Why

tell

!

on your Altars high

it

6 Then]

He

9

?

all edd.

7,

8

And

Seat]

.

'

And
Hid

WMR,

B\

Gil.,

W.

Muir.

in the midst of Sinai's heat

beneath His Mercy Seat.'
EY, WHY.
'And in the midst of Sinai's heat
Hid it beneath the Mercy Seat.'
it

The Keys
The

Catterpiller on the Leaf
Reminds thee of thy Mother's

i

Grief.

of the Gates
I.

My

Man

Eternal

set in

The Female from

Repose,

his darkness rose

Engraved upon two plates of 23 and 29
printed to follow plate
Sexes.'
I,

;

lines respectively,

which arc

16 in both issues of Gates of Paradise 'for the

2 Cp. 'Auguries of Innocence' {Pickering MS.),

37, 38

11.

:

'The

Caterpillar on the leaf
Repeats to thee thy mother's

The 'Eternal Man,' or Fourfold Man'
when fallen into mortality) is Blake's term
'

3
'

Four

states of
'

And

Humanity

in its

grief.'

(called by the name of 'Albion'
for Universal Humanity. For the

'

Repose see

Milioti,

the Eternal Man, even Albion upon the

4 This refers to the

'

division

'

'

of

Man

into his

'

f.

34,

'

:

'

He

When

divides into

8, also

&

46

'

(imagination)

the Individual appropriates Universality
Female.'

Male

I.

:

Male and Female Con-

Spectre (reasoning power) and Emanation
chief theme oi Jerusalem.
Cp. f. go, 11. 52, 53
'

trarieties,'

1.

Rock of Ages.'

— the

Gates of Paradise

374

found me beneath a Tree,
Mandrake, and in her Veil hid me.
Serpent Reasonings us entice
Of Good and Evil, Virtue & Vice,

And She

5

A
2.

Doubt

3.

Struggling thro' Earth's Melancholy,

4.

Naked

5.

Blind in Fire, with shield and spear,

Two

Self Jealous,

f.
'

Veil

'

and the

Natural Religion.'
'

And

Also

'

ii,

He

22

1.

:

13

Self contradiction,

is

is like

a mandrake in the earth.'
'

'
7 Serpent is one of Blake's names
lines immediately following referring to his hete noir

see note to

for Nature, this
'

Fear,

Horrid Reasoning Cloven Fiction,

6 Cp. Jerusalem,
'

9

folly.

Shame and

in Air, in

In Doubt, which

For the

Watry

1.

19.

Cp. Jefusalem,

f.

1.

29,

76

:

the vast form of Nature like a serpent play'd before them.'

The

'

Everlasting Gospel

{Rossefti

MS.

cxxxii),

j3, 1.

53

:

'The Serpent Bulk of Nature's Dross.'
8

all edd. omit.

&]

Is

whether he

For definition of

'

description of the
f.

29,

11.

Cp. Jerusalem,

whether a Man

'I care not

39, 40

is

a

f.

is

Wise Man

91,

11.

Good

54,

55

:

or Evil

:

all

that

I

care

or a Fool.'

'

Good and Evil see Jerusalem, f. 10, 11. 7-16. 9 Cp. the
Shadow from Albion's wearied intellect,' Jerusalem,
'

:—

'A sweet entrancing

self-delusion, a wat'ry vision of Albion,

Soft exulting in existence

;

the

all

Man

absorbing.'

interesting to note (a fact hitherto, I believe, overlooked) that the whole
of the page of Jerusalem in which these lines are found occurs also, with
It is

Man or Ancient Man
The Four Zoas was written or
The Four Zoas (Night iii).
begun about 1797, the date on the title-page, though its completion may
perhaps be some years later. Forty-seven out of the seventy leaves of which

a few trifling differences such as the substitution of

'

'

'

'

for 'Albion,' in

the manuscript

is

composed are proofs of Blake's

illustrations to

Young's

Night Thoughts, published in the same year.
II, 12 Cp. Jerusalem, f. 7, 11. 38, 39
Vala comes from the Furnace in a cloud, but wretched Luvah
Is howling in the Furnaces, in flames among Albion's Spectres.'
:

'

13 Fiction] fictions all edd.

13-15 Cp. Jerusalem,
'

...

A

64,

in self contradicting agonj-

dark Hermaphrodite they stood.'

Cp. also 'The Everlasting Gospel,' 7',
'

f.

11.

95, 96:

Reasoning on its own dark Fiction,
In doubt, which is Self Contradiction.'

11.

27-31

:

Gates of Paradise
A dark Hermaphrodite We stood, —

375

Rational Truth, Root of Evil and Good.
Round me flew the Flaming Sword;

17

Round

her snowy Whirlwinds roar'd,
Freezing her Veil, the Mundane Shell.

where the Dead dwell

rent the Veil

I

6.

When weary Man enters his Cave.
He meets his Saviour in the Grave.
Some find a Female Garment there.
And some a Male, woven with care

21

;

Lest the Sexual Garments sweet
Should grow a devouring Winding sheet.
One Dies Alas the Living and Dead
!

7.

One
We]

15

:

and One

!

B ^ and all edd.

I

wept &

'I

!

!

slain

is

said

is

fled

17 Cp. Jerusalem,

"Is

:

25

this the

f.

!

77,

11.

56-62:

law of Jesus,

This terrible devouring sword turning everj- waj- ?
It is Natural Religion.'
He answer'd ...
18 Cp. Jerusalem,
'.

.

f.

19 Freezing] Freeing

Of
also
'

f.

Mundane

the
59,

1.

7,

73

:

indignant self-righteousness like whirlwinds of the north.'

.

11.

2-9

:

W.

Muir.

Shell,

Cp. Jerusalem, f. 63, 1. 44
'among the Caverns

which

froze on all sides

;

f.

64,

i

I.

:

'
;

For the Veil of Vala, which Albion cast into the Atlantic Deep
catch the Souls of the Dead, began to Vegetate & Petrify
Thus, in process of time, it became the beautiful Mundane Shell,

To

.

23, 24 Cp. Jerusalem,

f.

II.

54,

3,

4

:

&

.

'

Tent

.

of the Spectres of the Dead & the Place
& of awaking again into Eternity.'

The Habitation
Of Redemption

A

Tabernacle

of

This

Mutual

is

Jerusalem

Forgiveness,

in

Male

every Man,
and Female

'

Clothings
also
'

f.

61,

Man

1.

51

in the

:

;

Resurrection changes his Sexual Garments at Will.'

25 Cp. Jerusalem, f. 90, 1. 37
Lest the Sexual Generation swallow up Regeneration
and Mt'ltou, f 43, 11. 25-28
:

'

'

:

;

'These are the Sexual Garments, the Abomination of Desolation,
Hiding the Human Lineaments, as with an Ark & Curtains
Which Jesus rent & now shall wholly purge away with Fire
Till Generation is swallow'd up in Regeneration.*
;

27 Dead] the dead

W.

Muir.

In the later Prophetic Books Blake uses

32 See description of plate 8 ness. f. 59. Was A the Lord. W. f. Muir. drovvn'd ! 9. f. the Universal & Man. and passim. 45 Worm Weaving in the Ground my Mother. For references every Man. and The Four Zoas. 8. Man with Man. . 1. 54. But when once I did descry 12. . 96. . f. 11.' ibid. 53-55 11. 45 Cp.' Jerusalem. 18. ' f. . i. 31. Jerusalem. of the Daughters of Los weaving the Web of Life with tears and lamentations. 1. 37 And in depths of my Dungeons Closed the Father and the Sons. 8. And weeping ' f. from the Womb : . Jerusalem. that cannot Die. Sister. of Death I open found.' See also Jerusalem. Holy and cold. Daughter. Wife. Jerusalem. 30 . 50 Cp. . : In Aged Ignorance profound. Milton. to the Tomb: Weaving to Dreams the Sexual strife. 11. Climbing thro' Night's highest noon In Time's Ocean falling. :— ' & when the Male & Female Appropriate Individuality. 26-55. Blake's illustration to Blair's Grave. f.' 49. speeches Power in Muir. ! -^ : 10. Hermaphroditic worshippers of a God of cruelty & law. 30) see Jerusalem. and 7. f. Cp. Spectres] spectre (' Reasoning Pride & Self-righteous- the divided to 1. 42 Cp. also Jerusalem. The Door And the Thou'rt 16. . 29 By My Son my Son thou treatest me But as I have instructed thee. 6. 41 The Immortal Man 14. 13. : . Albion 43 shades] shadows W. they become an Eternal Death. 15. & Albion saw his Form. too long for quotation. On the shadows of the Moon. 4-6 : — knew that it Humanity. they conversed as 1. 11.' ' 39 my] icy all edd. 3 17. 49 of Life. Between Father and Son. 1. 'Death's Door. 20. description. 21 31. in Ages of Eternity. double Spectres. passim.Gates of Pai^adise ^^6 In Vain-glory hatcht and nurst. Self Accurst. and light and love. f. Thro' evening shades I haste away To close the Labours of my Day. I clip'd the Wings Of all Sublunary Things. life.' ' . over the Web death' as the equivalent of bodily or 'vegetative' 90. — War and deadly contention.

' See also Jerusalem. ' For Sin. 1. f. 11. poem & in the 49 : — where are his all Human Sacrifice Druid Temples of the Accuser of MS. Where are those who worship Satan under the Name of God ? Where are they ? Listen Every Religion that Preaches Vengeance for Sin is the Religion of the Enemy & Avenger and not of the Forgiver of Sin and their God is Satan. f. 10-14 : God by — the Mighty — Ones of the Earth'. canst thou ever change Kate Nor into i Man . calling themselves Sons of God. Jerusalem.' : Every Harlot was once a Virgin : ' 5-8 Cp. 18-25) Man must & will have Some Religion if he has not the Religion of Jesus. which in the Rossetti Rossetti calls and Swinburne 'Prayer' (MS. in In the untitled War. Where Satan. 48.' — ' Sin. Blake's Address to the Deists at the beginning of the third chapter oi Jerusalem (f. cxxx). print as a single stanza. Dream under Engraved on a single plate printed as the the Hill. calling the Prince of this World. Compell'd others to serve him in moral gratitude & submission. Devil. thou art still The Son The lost Morn of in Traveller's weary Night's decline. 18 ' : — ' : . 1. making to himself Laws from his own identity. Nan. the 'accuser of for Satan or * 5 ' Mr. setting himself above all that is called God . 52. he will have the Religion of Satan. & will erect the Synagogue of Satan. 11. 52 every Criminal an Infant Love. Tho' thou art Worshipped by the Names Divine Of Jesus and Jehovah. And the Spectres of the Dead. Jcnisaleni. Truly. thou art but a Dunce. 61. God and destroying all who do not worship Satan under the Name of God. Sexes. 33. f. And dost not know the Garment from the Every Harlot was a Virgin once.' Title\ Cp. 98. Will any one say. Synagogues worship Satan under the Unutterable Name. Worship'd as and Milton.' Mammon ' sins' stands 3 Cp. last leaf of the issue 'for the All edd. I : : : 'Satan.' all In his . 11.Gates of Paradise 2>77 \Fjpilogiie\ To who the Accuser The God is World of This My Satan. Named by the Divine Name. Book. 9. Being call'd God. ' f.

according as the Organs of Perception vary. Not B ') A. All edd. 11.o Gates of Paradise yS \^From the Legends to the Plates^ The Sun's Light. omit. 11 Thou He On waterest in A. 34. Earth. 38 such was the variation of Time : & Space. 37.^ If f. slightly changed. to Frontispiece of The Gates ' — for the Sexes' (B' and Cp. Air and Fire. In in endless Strife. in Legend all edd. . occur as legends to plates respectively illustrating Water. 56 : — Objects of Perception seem to vary Perceptive Organs close their Objects seem to close also Perceptive Organs vary If the : : : note also the repetition of the latter to the legend of plate 11 in B^ and line. 98. to be read and 5. 2. forming a quatrain. 4. when he unfolds it. That end Not him with Tears struggles into Life. which seem intended consecutively. : cloudy Doubts and Reasoning Cares. Jerusalem^ f.' * Which vary See ' also ibid. 55. 3. B and B° ^ these four lines. 11. ' : in the addition B^. Depends on the Organ that beholds it. omit.

Sun-flower weary of time All pictures that 's painted with sense and with thought All the night in woe little — A A ! ! . An Old maid early e'er I knew And did those feet in ancient time And his legs carried it like a long fork And in melodious accents I Anger & Wrath my bosom rends I wander'd the forest the Ignorant Savage will sell his own Wife At the first Sound the Golden Sun arises from the little Boy hither. old proverbs say 120 320 239 344 358 107 363 102 209 229 209 . the Church Cruelty has a cold Degrade first the Arts if you'd Mankind Degrade what you will this life 's a fiction Does the Eagle know what is in the pit Each Man is in his Spectre's power Earth rais'd up her head England awake awake awake Father father where are you going ? For Fortune's favours you your riches bring For this is being a Friend just in the nick . dear Mother. & Baldwin of Egypt's Lake Cr loves artists as he loves his Meat . Kings.INDEX OF FIRST LINES PAGE A crowned king A fairy leapt upon my knee A A flower was offer'd to 62 3" me black thing among the snow A pair of Stays to mend the Shape Petty Sneaking Knave I knew Strange Erratum in all the Editions Abstinence sows sand all over Ah how shall Urizen the King submit to this dark mansion Ah. my boy. ! ! ! 345 279 235 lOI 205 132 174 172 17 217 217 207 135 is Do ! 117 204 168 60 170 223 Call that the Public Voice which is their Error ? Can I see another's woe Can there be anything more mean Children of the future Age Come hither. 125 133 ! ! . Human Heart Dear Mother. my Deep ! sparrows Come. tell me what thou seest there Come 173 347 126 224 35 1 201 201 As As my 322 208 212 176 Are not the joys of morning sweeter As I walk'd forth one may morning Awake. Frazer. and listen to my song Come knock your heads against this stone Cosway. Fortune favours the Brave. awake.

Index of First Lines 8o PAGE Fresh from the dewy hill. I told travel'd thro' a Land of Men 156 274 walked abroad on a snowy day wander thro' each charter'd street was angry with my friend was buried near this dyke wash'd them out cS: wash'd them in went to the Garden of Love will tell you what Joseph of Arimathea wonder whether the Girls are mad write the Rascal thanks. smooth & neatly pen'd Here lies John Trot. all agree . . 175 21S 59 206 157 231 . the Friend of all mankind Honour & Genius is all I ask ! How How How I help thy Husband's copying sweet I roam'd from field to field sweet is the Shepherd's sweet lot always take my judgment from a Fool can Me ? ' Mother said Dreamt a Dream what can it mean I die ! the ! my 60 284 122 162 ? wind found them blind I taught them how to see give you the end of a golden string : have no name heard an Angel singing laid me dowTi upon a bank love the jocund dance love to rise in a . Hear the voice of the Bard Hear then the pride & knowledge of a Sailor Her Whole Life is an Epigram smart. Rubens. . that thro' heaven wide Great Men and Fools do often me inspire Great things are done when Men & Mountains meet Grown old in Love from Seven till Seven times Seven Hail Matrimony. though I by rose up at the dawn of day . 217 227 127 229 296 224 . . fear'd the fury of 322 176 106 59 210 my Dear Friend Orator Prig my matches as far as Guildhall die. am a Statesman and a Saint saw a chapel all of gold saw a Monk of Charlemaine saw a Monk of Charlemaine my 213 361 89 158 156 13 summer morn lovM Theotormon mock thee not. made of Love Having given great offence by writing in Prose He has observ'd the Golden Rule He's a Blockhead who wants a proof of what he can't Perceiv He is a Cock would . 55 233 208 207 20S II asked cry 21 233 228 230 89 225 ! am no Homer's Hero you all know ask^d a thief to steal me a peach I 15 224 130 345 205 238 219 157 195 359 my told love love. ! He makes the Lame to walk. till he and I 171 131 121 . we He who bends to himself a joy . the merry year Give Pensions to the Learned Pig Golden Apollo. —thee am Mocked .

and stained O dear Mother Outline of wisdom most sage O for a voice like thunder. I say. My My My My silks and fine array My Spectre around me night & day My title as a Genius thus is prov'd 90 12 186 218 : ! ! ! ! . I Mock on. my father wept on. ' : Memory. Voltaire. Mary Bell thee ? had a Fairy in a Nut Phebus came strutting in Lo the Bat with Leathern wing Love and harmony combine Love seeketh not Itself to please Love to faults is always blind Fool. Merry Sparrow Mock 12 call . my father wept mother groan'd.Index of First Lines 38 1 PAGE If e'er I Grow to Man's Estate . to whose fury the nations are O thou who passest thro' our vallies in O thou with dewy locks. you Joe O lapwing thou fliest around the heath O Reader. before you begin If you trap the moment before it 's ripe In a wife 1 would desire If If it is true. laden with fruit. thou art sick ! 40 222 58 179 109 88 295 59 59 ! ' 235 235 226 228 116 364 In futurity In Heaven the only Art of Living Is this a holy thing to see Justice hath heaved a sword to plunge Learn the laborious stumble of a Fool Leave.' I have been call'd Little . hither come Merry. behold the Philosopher's grave O Rose. Know. 121 in Albion's breast ! Little Fly Lamb who made . what the Prophets write men will act like a maid smiling over a churn If you have form'd a Circle to go into If you mean to Please Everybody.' they Madman. who lookest down O why was born with a different face O Winter bar thine adamantine doors I ? ! Of H 's birth this was the happy Once a dream did weave a shade thee 119 169 205 14 96 194 372 129 162 Nail his neck to the Cross nail it with a nail Nature and Art in this together suit No real Style of Colouring ever appears Nought loves another as itself Now Art has lost its mental Charms O Autumn. and a tongue O holy virgin clad in purest white O. O thou. Rousseau Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice mother bore me in the southern wild mother groan'd. O leave [me] to my sorrows Let the Brothels of Paris be opened Little Little 222 212 lot 237 220 200 128 236 6 232 40 8 61 161 323 123 26 5 5 310 7 206 100 . you will If you play a Game of Chance.

Majestic. Sublime.. with no outline that you can descrj' Terror house does roar in the That God is Colouring Newton does shew The Angel that presided o'er my birth The bell struck one. the strongest of the children of men. Silence The The . 171 . and shook the silent tower The Catterpiller on the Leaf The Caverns of the Grave I've seen The countless gold of a merry heart . come Some people admire the work of a Fool Sound the Flute Such visions have appear'd to me ! Soft deceit 160 177 320 215 235 ! & .. and 42 211 246 . Graceful. the first time she ever was there Swelled limbs. Silent Night Since all the Riches of this World Sir Joshua praised Rubens with a smile Sir Joshua praises Michael Angelo Sir Joshua sent his own Portrait to Sleep Sleep I sing . created for destruction. of books .Iarybone The Good are attracted by ]Men's perceptions The harvest shall flourish in wintry weather The little boy lost in the lonely fen The look of love alarms The Maiden caught me in the Wild The modest Rose puts forth a thorn The only Man that e'er 1 knew The sun arises in the East The sun descending in the west The Sun does arise The Sun's Light. prepare the iron helm of war Rafael.. when he unfolds it The Sussex Men are Noted Fools The sword sung on the barren heath The veiled Evening walked solitary down the western 8 237 174 222 316 353 . on the nursery floor Samson. how he 44 161 236 208 207 210 beauty bright Idleness Some look to see the sweet Outlines Some men.Index of First Lines 382 P loved Phebe drest PAGE me not as he lov'd his friends like beautie's Piping down 214 Queen 55 the valleys wild Pity would be no Prayers plow not 86 134 344 41 221 352 177 206 more Praises reap not Prepare. was foiled Silent. of heaven : Remove away that black'ning church S in Childhood. Vision of Christ that thou dost see 99 87 378 204 173 hills. The cripple every step drudges &: labours The Door of Death is made of Gold The fields from Islington to l^. form a shade Sweet Mary. ! 91 353 92 2 So 219 199 232 210 Sweet dreams. Villain at the Gallows tree . Wise Reader . 175 171 103 177 282 126 228 ..

'twixt fools & Knaves When H y finds out what you cannot do When I see a Rubens. W'hen S'' Joshua Reynolds died W^hen the green woods laugh with the voice of joy When the voices of children are heard on the green When the voices of children are heard on the green W hen you look at a picture. in what Grove Whether on Ida's shady brow 321 91 . you always can see Where thou dwellest. Correggio When a is done Man 191 16 321 215 227 192 97 321 When Klopstock England defied When my mother died was very young When Nations grow Old. that where only 94 108 225 199 17 with unerring step dares tempt the wilds. Peace. & 269 170 220 sold These are the Idiots' chiefest arts said this mystery never shall cease This city &. . ! 323 ! Welcome. . Who is this. little 169 57 61 many mayors 301 7 165 174 378 216 271 Kid. their innocent faces clean Tyger Tyger burning bright Venetian all thy Colouring is no more Want Matches ? Was I angry with Hayley who us'd me so ill ! 95 no . . . There's Doctor Clash There is a Smile of Love There souls of men are bought . to this place men in women do require is Born of Mortal Birth is it Whate'er Whate'er to her she cannot know has Married a Wife. did'st play Thou waterest him with Tears Thy friendship oft has made my Three Virgins at the heart to ake break of day thou dost [conquer] the distrest Till 350 To a lovely mirtle bound To be or not to be To Chloe's breast young Cupid slily stole To find the Western path does pretend To forgive enemies H To Mercy. Pity. What 60 204 47 177 123 193 stranger. S3 23 47 . the Arts grow Cold When old corruption first begun When silver Snow decks Susan's cloaths When silver snow decks Sylvia's clothes I . Rembrandt. . 236 198 214 98 302 288 377 'Twas on a Holy Tnursday. this country has brought forth This frog he would a wooing ride This song to the flower of Flaxman's joy Thou fair-hair"d angel of the evening Thou hast a lap full of seed They Thou.Index of First Lines PAGE The wild winds weep 14 61 . thou art but a Dunce 167 56 . . My Satan. Europe. he finds out whether WTien early morn walks forth in sober grey When France got free. 43 . . and Love To my Friend Butts I write To see a World in a Grain of Sand Truly.

. 230 304 305 216 209 215 2CO 219 216 226 205 124 d Oxford : Printed at the Clarendon Press by Horace Hart. . more wondrous are the Men You all your Youth observ'd the Golden Rule You call me Mad 'tis folly to do so — You don't believe— I won't attempt to make ye You must agree that Rubens was a Fool You say reserve and modesty he has You say their Pictures well Painted be You think Fuseli is not a Great Painter. Wife of the Friend of those I most revere . I "^ O? y I .Index of First LhZ7tes 84 Why art thou silent & invisible Why of the sheep do you not learn peace Why should be bound to thee Why should I care for the men of thames Why was Cupid a Boy PAGE 168 . . With happiness stretch'd across the hills Wondrous the Gods. Fm glad Youth of delight. M.A. I ? 166 164 . come hither .

.

I .

na 2 8 1969 / PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRAF .