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reversed), showing early draft of some of the Songs of Experience
written circa 1793.
.See p. 149, Index to Rossetti M.S.

and other poems.

THE POETICAL WORKS
OF

WILLIAM BLAKE
A NEW AND VERBATIM TEXT FROM
THE MANUSCRIPT ENGRAVED AND
LETTERPRESS ORIGINALS
WITH

VARIORUM READINGS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL
NOTES AND PREFACES
BY

JOHN SAMPSON
LIBRARIAN IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL

OXFORD
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
1905

V

HENRY FROWDE,

M.A.

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

LONDON, EDINBURGH

NEW YORK AND TORONTO

4/40

P05
J UN 2

1366

1086280

/ Memoriam FREDERICK TORK POWELL ./.

.

including all lyrical and metrical pieces scattered throughout his prose works and collection visionary writings. literally reproduced from the original manuscript.GENERAL PREFACE TEXT I.' Even if we assume. it may perhaps be pertinent no writer would have more strongly resented to recall that interference with his held that ' own mode of expression than he and that is holy ' every minute particular who ' no one can high as the original inventor. This edition furnishes readers with a new text. The literary remains of William Blake fall into three broad and generally recognized divisions. however. that what he styles a disservice is done to the poet by reprinting his works finish so ' ' without correction. reasons. of Blake's poems. natural question whether most editors of Blake are competent to effect improvement in the works of a man of singular and individual genius. on the surface. poetry. and printed sources. during Blake's lifetime few of his poems were either N . The primary object has been to recover and present Blake's own version of his poetry without the Apart from the customary attempts at emendation. First should be specified the difficulties encountered in It should be remembered that referring to the originals. That such a all in may poems many editions may seem lie to require explanation. and The present work is a complete the prophetic books. there desire to refer to his itself to their be some so curious as to form which commended restoration of text should be necessary at modern writer whose works have passed the case of a through The still in the author. engraved. prose. with one of these critics.

Thus we find Gilchrist. in which self never engraved or published. the collation of several copies if incorrect conclusions are to be avoided. ments of lines and stanzas. these are found have always been private possessions. accounts for a number of errors which have crept into the published texts.' though the latter is clearly engraved in the original impressions of The Keys of the Gates. Many of the poems are hastily or not over legibly written. ' ' misreading icy dungeons for my dungeons. and even when the courtesy of owners has permitted them to difficulties exist in be made use the case of the work of transcription is full of pitfalls for the copyist. to the be attributed inability of editors readings must also author in to decipher their own transcripts.' ' ' A and more important source of error is to be changes which some of Blake's editors have It is comprehensible that Dante introduced. originating in this way errors which tend to become fixed. but only a few copies were issued to friends. and unfamiliarity with Blake's hand of. deliberately further found in the Gabriel Rossetti.General Preface vi printed or published in the usual manner. exact careful study before his A few misfinal intention can be accurately determined. and the little volume remained so rare. mode of indicating his successive rearrangeand additions. is and necessary Still greater poems which Blake himThe MSS. that until its recent acquisition by the British Museum it might be regarded as generally inaccessible. are still very deficient in Our great first national libraries Most editions of Blake. His first work. the Poetical Sketches. was indeed produced in ordinary typography. in his desire to present an almost unknown poet to the public in as favourable a light as . and since the various impressions of the same in V^ book often \ '""'^ differ from one another in contents arrangement. and Blake's various changes. Again several pieces are left by their rough draft. followed by all later editors. examples of the engraved works are widely scattered the libraries of private collectors in this country and in America.

which can hardly be regarded especially if as improvements. ' welded piece has been created out of three shorter poems together by a line which is apparently the composition of Blake's text has. stanzas are transposed or omitted. involving additions of syllables and important changes of meaning. and vice versa. Liberties such as no one would venture on with Burns or Shelley. and readings destructive of sense. are found in conjunction with professions Reference to of scrupulous regard for textual fidelity. the variorum readings given in the footnotes to the which this passion present edition will show the extent to It will be seen that for emendation has been carried. every lover of Blake must feel that the intended emendations not only are made on no consistent principle. changed. this case. in the ingenious and modest editor. new readings.General Preface vii have considered himself justified in making grammatical and other changes in the endeavour Yet. but are often destructive of the happy grace and artless No equally valid defence can simplicity of the original. owner has overwritten his own poetry. suffered scarcely a single poem or even epigram has been Words and phrases are to remain as Blake wrote it. and prosody are introduced Unauthorized titles are added without obvious reason. possible. be made should for the perversions of more recent editors.' poet and critic extolling Blake for the 'glory of metre' ' sonorous beauty of lyrical work in the two opening into lyrics of the Songs of Experience. which. syntax. Two or more lyrics In one instance a new are printed as one. while he introduces and ' the five short stanzas quoted no less than seven emendations of his own. . even in to remove what he regarded as blemishes. are everywhere taken with Blake by those who still profess their admiration for his 'exquisite metrical gift and rightness It is not a little bewildering to find one great of form. of sort become a poor palimpsest where each new short. as in the case of Broken Love/ impart to the poem a meaning undreamt of by its author.

as in the third stanza of 'The Tyger.' in contemporary I the arbitrary.' but also the ' ' ' by fact that in some instances his own spelling is a valuable aid to the just reading of lines or stanzas. or in the engraved form of songs found also in rough draft. Both in his system. In all existing editions the melody of many of the has been marred songs by ignoring the fact that Blake's use of participle or preterite. are. if reproduced. while all earlier or cancelled readings are supplied in footnotes. in the latter. and occasionally. "d practice the final have thought it of books using the be syllable better to preto vent any misconception on this point by retaining the 'd in the former case. while those in the engraved books are inserted in such a haphazard manner that. poems. without points of any kind.' and lilly. where it occurs. by supplying an accent which is not in the original. In the matter of punctuation the poet has left his editors almost entirely to their own resources. is apparent from the careful manner in which he has added them as corrections in the revised versions of several of his MS. In my retention of Blake's orthography I have been influenced not only by the desire to preserve as far as possible the colour of the original in such pleasant archaisms as desart. as a rule. in his . and. and . That Blake himself attached some importance to the use of capitals for the sake of emphasis or artistic effect. he followed latter the was never ' or ' ed.' is an indication of the in which a particular passage was intended to Blake omitted apostrophes and inverted commas way be read. The spelling and capitalization of the original are adhered to throughout.' tyger. but based on manuscript and engraved only when he intended separately pronounced. they would only serve to confuse the reader. engraved as well as in his manuscript writings. I have accordingly supplied my own punctuation though Blake's pointing. Blake's autograph MSS. has been taken into consideration.Ge7teral Preface viii In the present edition Blake's final version is uniformly adopted as the text.

capitals. or punctuation. All Blake's earlier or cancelled readings are given in footnotes in the order of composition. In the first place. Differences are noted in all cases except where they consist only of trivial variations of spelling.General Preface ix .' — characters whose respective parts are not immediately obvious to those who with the visionary writings. or manuscript 1. phrase all editors must of course be understood to refer to those only who print some version of a particular poem. the names of the editors or The commentators by whom the poem has been printed.' where the untabulated drama are the narrator. excludes Wilkinson and Shepherd..' in course in his own person spectre around persons of the his ' . this who it necessarily print no part of MS. 4. of all 3.' and ' emanation. or has been subjected to repeated alterations. for example. the source of every poem is stated. The detail is not a purely trivial one. since Blake's omission of quotation marks contributes to the difficulty of obscure poems by leaving it questionable to whom particular Instances of possible conspeeches should be assigned. The notes to the poems will have no dealings NOTES are of several kinds. where necessary. the page or folio of the printed./ it should be understood that when these are found in the text they have been added at the discretion of the editor. I ' ' In the case of the Rossetti MS. reference to with precise book from which each is taken. or in the poem beginning ' My me night and day. II. fusion arising from cause this may be noted The ' in which it is sometimes not apparent where quoted speeches end and Blake resumes the disEverlasting Gospel. In every case where a poem has been left in rough draft. 2. add also. his spectre. These are followed by the variant readings editors who have not merely reprinted some existing text. I have . engraved.

emanation. W. but enable him to follow for himself the reasons that have led the editor to arrange lines or stanzas in the order in which they appear in the text. coupled occasionally with brief explanations of what I conceive to have been his meaning. were the actual MS. than are such locutions as ' ' ' ' ' Jerusalem. could only be ascertained after considerable study. will not . it is impossible to study the prophetical writings without becoming aware of the extreme precision of his In the books of Euclid such terms mystical terminology.' I have therefore endeavoured to make the poet his own interpreter by appending to these poems elucidatory passages from the Prophetic Books. Many poems would prove unintelligible were it not thrown upon them by the Prophetic Books. and the absolute uniformity with which definite symbolical figures are used to express definite conceptions.Ge7teral Preface endeavoured to explain the author's mode of composition by longer prefatory or appended notes. turn from the visionary writings after a hasty and half-shuddering glance. Interesting examples of the pains taken by Blake in perfecting his verses will be found in the notes to The Tyger.' will be ignorant of the consistency with which his self-invented system of mythology is expounded.' or 'parallel' are not more absolutely descriptive of certain mathematical figures or relations.' and The Everlasting Gospel.' spectre. While Blake has been at little pains to supply the world with a chart of his mental 5. Readers of Blake's simpler poetry only who. with Mr.' 'equal. indicating the successive changes by which he arrived at his final version. M. where the key to obscure mystical allusions is generally to be found.' ' ' ' supply the student with data which.' These not only Fayette. before him. The value of these references in the interpretation of difficult poems like My spectre around me in the Rossetti MS.' 'pentagon.' natural religion of sym' hermaphrodite.' or bolic meanings in the writings of Blake. ' ' or 'The Mental Traveller' in the Pickering MS. Rossetti. for the light ' voyagings. as 'radius.

probably contemplated by him that they would In only a single instance. Henry Gay Hewlett's be ingenious article in the Contemporary Review. that of the ever see the light.' the allusion to the ' rock ' and ' cave in 1.' as he assures There is some reason to suppose that ' ' ' ' . has a line been transferred from one printed nor was it ' ' and as I have elsewhere explained. Blake never seems to have regarded the privately printed Poetical Sketches as one of his actual publications. work to another. 7.General Preface xi pass unnoticed. I have similarly illustrated Blake's epigrams on art and artists by quotations from prose writings where his opinions or prejudices are expressed with his customary energy and conviction. Blake's of these repetitions have been adduced as evidence poverty of thought and language in Mr. ' While interpretation is here restricted to passages in the seem to require explanation. ARRANGEMENT most of the existing have fallen under the would groupings of Blake's poems are to blend and poet's lash for those whose chiefest arts not define the parts. 40 may only be understood through the associations of the same figures in The Four Zoas and Jerusalem.' If to make out the parts. III. Mad Song' {Poetical Sketches) and Infant Sorrow' {Songs of Experience). And even in such comparatively simple With happiness lines as the verses to Butts beginning ' stretch'd across the hills. it may exfrom which identical the that to out writings point proper pressions are borrowed were not published by their author. the editor lyrical poems which may claim that the parallelisms from the Prophetic Books have been selected after many readings of the visionary chief literature writings. and with some knowledge of the written around them. I As ences to lines or passages repeated in different pieces. 6. at give also occasional indications of the date or place referwell as cross as were which particular poems written.

* is Geiteral Preface the wise man's aim. It is also in cases a valuable aid to the dating of many particular pieces. vened a period of about seven years. including the original drafts of many of the Songs of Between the first and second section interExperience. Before more highly developed mysticism. The latter is indeed of the nature of a notebook. In one case at least the heading Later Poems is made to include a ' * song written in Blake's early youth.. whether letterpress. or in manu- The script.' or Later Poems. The three broad sections into which its contents fall are however clearly marked and occasion no confusion. extend over a period of more than twenty years and are of the most diverse character.' are arbitrarily used to comprehend pieces collected from a number of undefined sources belonging to widely different periods. which were . or engraved as part of we reach the epigrams.' culty when such editorial it becomes a task of no titles as ' Ideas of little diffi- Good and Evil. a plan which has the advantage of illustrating how poems found in juxtaposition have often been suggested by or grown out of one another. The earlier pieces in the second section include a few poems written in a strain of among them first Jerusalem. present arrangement conserves the integrity of the various books. during which Blake wrote and engraved the shorter Prophetic Books. those of the larger Rossetti MS.' In each of these groups the poetical contents are printed in the order in which they occur in the original.Xll us. engraved. about 1793. consists chiefly of lyrical poems. While the contents of the Pickering MS. written The first of these. are obviously all of a kind and written about the same time. rather than a purely historical one. This arrangement is of course a bibliographical. drafts of certain lyrics afterwards transcribed into the Pickering MS.' ' 'Miscellaneous Poems. the earliest poetic entries in which antedate the publication of the Songs of Experience and the latest postdate most of the Prophetic Books. 'everyone in its own identity.

General Preface xiii an overflow from Blake's marginalia to Reynolds' Discoursesl the Pickering MS. fragments of Lastly. containing anecdotes of Artists. be directed to the entry in the Rossetti MS. 56) that • This day is Publish'd Advertizements to Blake's Canter- bury Pilgrims from Chaucer. and some had been written. the letters to Butts. established the fact that there were three several editions of The Gates of Paradise. complete index of the contents of the Rossetti MS. portion at least of Jerusalem and Milton have the we third as the section. (p.' This may of course have been merely an experimental draft of a notice for insertion in the newspapers in case he thought fit to publish as a pamphlet with this down in his paragraphs jotted hand. also supplied brief bibliographical descriptions of the manuscript and engraved Prophetic Books. and the Pickering MS.' In the bibliographical prefaces to the various sections I have tried to give fairly full and accurate accounts of hitherto been printed books or manuscripts which have somewhat slightly or incorrectly described. and have made some corrections in the dates of their composition or Comparison of a number of copies has publication. the two later only including the In my verses which distinguish the issue For the Sexes. and possibly the list of its contents recovered from the MS. or A * smaller autograph collection. it is not improbable that notebook.' * notes to this book I have drawn attention to a hitherto ignored publication of Blake... All accessible have copies of the Songs of Innocence and of Experience been collated. his History of Ettgland for Children. a companion volume to The Gates of Paradise . is given. ' ' The — the latest of Blake's surviving Everlasting Gospel poems with the possible exception of The Keys of the ' ' Gates. it On title the the other may have been printed . and Blake's successive arrangements tabulated and classified.' I have is described for the first time. Book may be the means of bringing this lost work The attention of the curious bibliophile may also to light.

Shury. BLAKE'S ILLUMINATED PRINTING It is to Blake's singular mode of publication that must attribute the scanty recognition accorded we to his lifetime.General Preface xiv for him possibly same manner as the Descriptive Catalogue. I believe this story. N. as is so often the by being bound up with contemporary tracts. to be without foundation.' The circumstances under which he first conceived the idea ' of producing his books by his invention of relief engraving possess therefore much more than the merely technical interest attaching to a new and curious art process. and of his extreme indigence which prohibited him from bringing out the book in letterpress at his own cost. are The Book of Moonlight. Works referred to by Blake himself. which may be traced to a loose statement of Gilchrist's. by the same printer.' a detail of but little relevance when it is remembered that the engraving. and the engraved Book of Outhoon. and Barry : a Poem. Among other lost works of Blake may be mentioned the first book of the French Revohition. and that a copy in the may still be discovered. D. case. said to have been published by Johnson in 1 791. In the first place it may be observed that the supposition . According to the commonly received account it was in consequence of his failure to secure a publisher for the Songs of Innocence in the ordinary way. preserved perhaps. but of which no trace is known. added by the picture of the poet's wife going out with their last half-crown to buy the necessary materials. printing. as his public restricted to the few friends or patrons who necessarily was had poetic genius during his own obtained copies of his works from the Author and Printer. and colouring of the first issue ' occupied an entire year. that Blake to resort to the laborious expedient of was driven engraving and Verisimilitude is printing the Songs by his own hand. IV.

a bookseller copies through While there is no positive evidence that such was the case it is not improbable that he himself may have destroyed the greater part of this small edition. while that of Blake interwove text. because no for him the new publisher or printer could have produced kind of illustrated work which he had in his mind. Blake. printed in letterpress at the expense of Mathew and Flaxman. stiffly or clumsily placed in juxtaposition to the surrounding of the text. The method then in vogue admitted of artistic embellishments steel or wood engravings. design. it must be remembered. handed to the author to publish or sell privately as he saw no attempt to dispose of the fit. was an artist as well as a poet.xv General Preface that Blake desired to put his Songs into circulation through the medium of a publisher is altogether at variance with that characteristic independence which led him throughout his life to do most things for himself in his own way. the Poetical assistance. type and colouring into one harmonious whole with the happiest only in the shape of and most exquisite effect. were. to conclude that Blake brought more reasonable out his books himself by his own process. Sketches. and disdainful of external In the case of Blake's earlier work. the sheets of which. he seems to have made or even to sell them personally. regardless of toil which he loved. and the same attitude of mind which caused him on being shown ' a number of the Mechanic's Magazine to exclaim these doubtless led him to regard as things we artists HATE in which his conceptions were him book of a unworthy ' ! inadequately presented by a merely mechanical and somewhat unlovely process. Relating the story of the invention Blake's biographers have represented of this process. as Smith tells us. rather in the it . His deliberate exclusion of the Poetical Sketches from the catalogue of his works offered a list which includes books produced by for sale in 1793 — ordinary engraving as well as seems to It is me by * ' illuminated printing — to support this view.

abilities. Blake that may have had already unlikely Innoce^ice appear in Songs of seems not in view the it perhaps completion of a series of songs for children and Dr. me my my abilities. at the head of the recto of the ninth " " " leaf Illuminating the Manuscript Ay. ing to the account derived from Smith." " " Then. are eat up with envy —they envy your envy abilities. known as An Island m the Moon." The the last unfortunate loss of one or more leaves preceding page may have deprived us of a description of the literary contents of the Cynic But (or book which the speaker Quid the Blake) designed since three of the most to bring out in this manner. " who- ever will not have them. Watts' Divine Moral Songs for suggested by . This passage begins. dear & all they hate . .General Preface xvi a happy accident than as a deliberate attempt Accord- light of to deal with a clearly realized artistic difificulty." said — ' : she. Sicknakers." said he. They all would Print off two thousand. In the preface to that popular book Watts . and there is no particular reason to doubt that." " Then. five years before the publication of the — he had contemplated and not without a view to the superior Songs of Linocetice it may be noted.." said she. entirely.. " . poor devils. characteristic of the rough draft in this MS. imperfectly. all in three Volumes folio. will be ignorant fools & will not deserve to live. & I was my speaking of the Women who people but their nasty hearts. that would be excellent." . profits of such a work — some new kind of illuminated printing is found in the early MS. in a dream or daydream. & at have every other leaf a high finished print." I was at Mrs. are of higher abilities than their nasty filthy ' Selves.. Blake may have solved a problem which had long occupied his to in Striking confirmation of the fact that at least thoughts. this engraving was revealed him mode of a vision by the spirit of his favourite brother Robert. I would the writing Engraved instead of Printed. Children. and sell them a hundred pounds a piece. .

and than grand.Ge7ieral Preface xvii ' modestly refers to his songs as a slight specimen. while it produces works at less than one-fourth of the expense. it probably means that plate of the Songs was engraved in the year preceding the publication of the completed book.' says Blake.' and it is likely enough that Blake may have rightly himself to be this destined genius. provided that it exceeds in elegance all former methods. has invented a method of Printing both Letter-press and ' ' in a style. In Blake's prospectus 'To the Public' of October.' parative require Blake's observation as to the com- mode cheapness of this some explanation. 1793. It has been pointed out by Mr. such as I could wish some happy and condescending genius would undertake for the use of children.' while noted that the moral it with which may the also be ' Chimney songs somewhat tags ' Holy Thursday. as suggest that this illuminated SAMPSON it of printing seems to cannot be intended to printing was cheaper than . Hewlett. recall the manner of Blake's didactic Sweeper. The Author. as I find. the Author is sure of his reward. and perform much better. anticipated me in this conjecture. he styles this process illuminated printing. but since this statement cannot possibly refer to an earlier ' issue of the same sibylline leaflet.' prototype. more ornamental. informs us that W. the last of Blake's Prophetic Books. that the subjects of several of Blake's songs felt ' are identical with those of Watts. If a method of Engraving Printing which combines the Painter and the Poet is a phenomenon worthy of public attention. any before discovered. Though nowhere definitely stated by the poet himself. uniform.' a phrase the first ' evidently suggested by the passage quoted above from the Island in the Moon. we have no grounds for questioning Smith's statement was the that the Songs of Innocefice in engraved this A manner. who. Blake's Original Stereotype was 1788'. first of his works colophon to the Ghost of Abel^ 1822.' and other abruptly conclude.

To some of those who have . as he was. or in a spirit of condescension towards ' our good Blake. rather than petty contemporary gossip. Little is known of the life of William Blake. ' The slightness of the events of his material career is. that to produce books in Blake's manner the author must be.' the somewhat illiterate. Blake's real life was a mental and spiritual one. his precise debt to Swedenborg. The quali- be understood. Probably what he meant was that the engraving and printing of lettering and design simultaneously less expensive than intaglio engraving and letterpress. though 'slightly touched. Such a task should not be undertaken with slight equipment. are made the foundation of an endeavour to trace this mental and spiritual development.' was capable now and then of happy flights of fancy which are to be sought for as oases in the Sahara of his writings. LIFE V. engraver. fication should. to what Blake called his vegetative existence we are ignorance is * almost wholly in the dark. and not through. And the only true biography must be that in which own writings. of little consequence. but amiable enthusiast. the manner in which the doctrines of the French Revolution affected one who. of course. To understand him. the eye. though our comfortably veiled from us in several existing It may be confessed at once that with regard biographies. was printed separately by two different processes. some degree of intellectual sympathy with an uncommon mind and temper is desirable. his own artist. although the very opposite of reactionary. who. and later. of our knowledge however.' ' some deeper study than has yet been attempted of the sources from which he received and absorbed his ideas — notably the influence of the Wesleyan revival.General Preface xviii ordinary typography. and printer. was antagonistic to the scientific spirit in all its works and ways. and a larger visionary endowment his than that which he esteemed the merely deceptive faculty We need too of seeing with.

much autobiographical material greater part survives in his pictures. by him for the expression of his philosophical and religious views. still remain a sufficing monument to his genius. This true line of investigation first apprehended by Wilkinson.' To represent this mental. an impassioned pursuit of virtue. ' moral. and I. marginalia. Book. His views on the province of art. published and unpublished writings.General Preface xix essayed to follow with more or less success Blake's almost untrodden path. Autobiographical. were Blake's remaining works destroyed by a new Tatham. and finely expressed with entire insight and sympathy by the author of The City of Dreadful Night. poet. as also in his engraved works or in various facsimiles. would The chief sources of our knowledge of Blake's life are particularized below. and mystic. delineating Blake in his threefold character of artist. ' ' Blake's pictorial art may be studied at in the British first Museum hand from or in private collections. MS. has been carried further by Swinburne in that Essay which. studying the influences which touched him and the degree in which they were modified by a naturally heretical mind and tracing step by step through the surviving Prophetic Books the evolution of the extraordinary system of mythology created . every sand becomes a Gem Reflected in the beams Divine. letters. Despite the destruction of the of the MSS. borrowing the phrase which Shelley applied to his own. the converse is rather the case. in the fullest sense. grasping at such pieces of self-revelation as the writings afford. and artistic harmony is the difficult work awaiting him who would present Blake aright. Blown back they blind the mocking eye 'And But still That Blake's nor is it less in Israel's life was paths they shine.' to himself a clear that it harmony was also is undoubted. and criticisms examples preserved ba .

time the secret child Descended War of winter ' ceas'd. In the of literature Blake's early study. It is in the message. the Barry: « P^^w must unfortunately be numbered lost works. except in the purely imitative Poetical Sketches. Book. and Laocoon.' Blake's Prophetic Books tell us what is known of his ' mystical religion and philosophy. . among in the aphorisms in the in his sibylline leaflet.' Minor influences may be detected in the epigrams in the manner of Wolcot in the lyrics from the Prophetic Books which often recall the hymns of Charles Wesley. the grotesque Hudibrastic lilt of The Everlasting Gospel.' or may century in the contemptuous reference to tinkling rhymes and tells us. continued but a more lasting and potent influence was that of Milton. ' ' We ' elegances terse in the youthful Poetical Sketches. His attitude to eighteenthin lines To the verse be noted his Muses. are expounded at length in his Descriptive Catalogne of his exhibition of 1809.XX Geiieral Preface of schools of painters. meet here also with the imitations of Macpherson. thro' the orient gates of the eternal day.' of 1810. and in TiricI dj\d Thel\ the preface to Jeriisalem showing that in this attempt at a new cadence Blake was deliberately following the example set by the author of Paradise Lost. and in . like shadows. which. Even Blake's phrases and subject-matter. as Malkin field was of the Elizabethans. to which may be attributed the metrical experiments of the Prophetic Books. occasionally be traced to the same source. fled to their abodes. & all the troops. in the jottings ' copy of Reynolds' Discourses. in his Advertisement or Public Address. reminiscent of the Ode on the may ' Morning * of Christ's Nativity The deep What : — came . the shorter rhythms being evidently suggested by the choruses in Samson. and epigrams in his MS. are almost entirely his own. as in the opening lines of Ezirope.

while among other entries in his private journal are notes of several transactions made on Blake's These documents are now Mr. Johnes. portrait and landscape painter. in an introductory letter to relations with his Thomas friends . This attack in several of the is epigrams 4. twelve years his junior. John Linnell. assistance his * we owe the Inventions to the been executed great To work of Blake's old his age. and thenceforward remained Blake's steadfast friend and supporter.' impugning * the artist's sanity offensive in indignantly referred to by Blake written in the Rossetti MS. was written when Blake was forty-nine years of age. of Hafod. that their chief as S. The facts there given were evidently derived from the poet himself. Book illustrate Blake's and patrons while certain of them (as perhaps cxiv) throw light upon his private life. John Linnell. in the possession of . referring to the poet. junior. dated January 4. and Doctor Malkin.General Preface rather than in the xxi manner of its delivery. 2. instance of his friend. little whom written to a friend to he could speak without fear of misconception. of Bristol. Paul's Epistle to the Romans can they be regarded as the practice of literature for its own sake. behalf. Linnell left certain memoranda for Butts. George Cumberland. 1809. was introduced to Blake by Mr. This 1806. for whose book Blake designed the frontispiece. obviously worth As lies. is enhanced by the fact that they belong to the period when he conceived and in part produced his J ertisalem. Book of Job/ designs which had but were only engraved at the Mr. September 17. in 1818 (not 1813 as stated by Gilchrist). 3. great works Milton and Most of the epigrams in the MS. Hunt's Examiner for Sunday. terms. The value of Blake's letters to Butts. Blake's Exhibition. A short but valuable account of Blake's early life and literary and artistic predilections is given by Malkin in his Father's Memoirs of His Child. of which almost nothing is known. contains a critique of Mr.

My knowledge of Tatham's Memoir. though they do not appear to have gleaned from this source any new facts Those given. who met him later in life. or appropriated. Aders on December 10. His diary and letters contain accounts of Blake in his last years. 6. who was the son About 1825. Tatham 's misstatement of the date of Blake's birth (which misled and Swinburne) does not suggest habits of accuracy . to a London dealer. Frederick Tatham. the whole of Blake's literary remains. architect. The copy of Jeriisalem with which it is bound up was re-sold at Sotheby's in June. has been used and quoted by Swinburne. thought worth printing in full. Henry Crabb Robinson. however. life. unfortunately for the world. then in his fiftieth year. 1825. Richard Garnett. became one of made the small group of neophytes. which he afterwards destroyed. 1862This MS. sculptor and miniature painter. 1887. as we are told. the younger Tatham met Blake and. which no one seems to have j^'jo passim). Ellis and Yeats. on religious grounds/ This person wrote a memoir of Blake which he appears to ' have parted with for purely secular reasons. for a short time before her death. and others. Lost sight of for some time.General Preface xxii 5. presumably importance. had been an of real inmate of the miniature painter's household. refers to him as a man on whose word no reliance could be placed. it reappeared in the Blamire sale in 1863. who. of Charles Heathcote Tatham. 1831. is limited to the extracts quoted therefrom by Swinburne and others. first met Blake at the home of Mr. possess the interest of having been derived from Catherine Blake. and fruitlessly sought by Gilchrist. Tatham acquired. On the death of the poet's wife in October. bound in with an illuminated copy of Jerusalem (see Rossetti Papers. interesting and valuable both as to his mystical opinions (not very clearly or sympathetically apprehended . which I have not been able to see. when a youth of twenty or twenty-one. Blake's acquaintance through Linnell. and is now the property of an owner who prefers that no description of its contents be given.

10. Allan In published his Lives of tJie Cunningham 1830 9. when Linnell. life and works appeared in the Literary Gazette. is the contrary view. Sculptors. Blake's genius. and Architects.Ge7ieral Preface by xxiii the diarist) and as to his views on the poetry of WordsThese passages are reprinted together in Ellis and worth. coming from the pen of one who was the reverse of a hero-worshipper. This contemporary one who knew picture drawn with intelligent sympathy by him well is of the utmost value and Smith's tribute to . prehends Memoirs the time of Roubiliac.' been done to this admirable little life. and lofty character. i. and the Annual Register for the same year. and Blake. Hogarth. sanity. lived next door to Carlyle and was as near him in other ' . most candid biography written in the English lan- as the title-page states." Gilchrist. rather irreverently written little life is Smith's Nollekins. In 1828 John Thomas Smith. the poet were still living. Tatham. Flaxman. the Gentle- Yeats' mans Magazine. 1827. sufficient refutation of among which is This gaily and mainly derived from a biography of Blake. of Blake. Most Eminent British Painters. Samuel Palmer. Keeper of the Prints and Drawings in the British Museum. i860. published his Nollekins and his Times. comof several contemporary Artists from The second volume. Memoir ( Works. in Rossetti's words. to that of Scant justice has hitherto Fuseli. as the guage. Alexander Gilchrist began his Life " Pictor Lgnoitts. and Reynolds. Smith's first acquaintance with Blake dates from his early days at the Mathews' to the close of the poet's life. which has been not inaptly described 8. Short notices of his Blake 7. died August 12. which gives for the ' time the greater part of the material upon which Cunningham and Gilchrist based their biographies. and while it shows no particular research or regard for accuracy has preserved a few anecdotes of Blake which probably would have otherwise disappeared. and a few other friends and contemporaries of About Richmond. 142-150).

also London. This account. achieved its main purpose in popularizing the poet. on the authority of two ladies. Dublin. second This edition. Life. and settled in the took previous union. the former supplying a supplementary ' and editing the Selections from ' chapter to the biography.' There influence of his model. . II. though his manner of writing sometimes leaves it doubtful whether he is embroidering supplementing our knowledge or merely more simply narrated by earlier bio- facts graphers. handsomely produced. his grandfather. M. Rossetti. first given in Mr. however. or to discuss in greater detail aspects of Blake's life which they consider unsatisOf much importance. The letters to Blake's Butts.General Preface xxiv respects as he could manage. is at variance with another. substantiable on good evidence. and is his style betrays the also a tendency to dwell ' unduly upon unimportant incidents such as the Visionary Heads. of Rathmines. and the first eight chapters printed. which was published two years later. is especially intended. 1 86 1 The book.' which gives the portrait a lack of proportion. when Gilchrist died on the 30th of November. prose and verse. and W. 1 800-1 803. Practically the whole of the first volume had been written. prefixed to their large edition of the Works. is the discovery that Blake was of Irish ancestry. to supply new facts. and in preparing the way for SwinGilchrist incorporates burne's great critical appreciation. was completed by his widow. Storey's William Blake. most of the material drawn from the preceding sources. G. Ellis and Yeats' Memoir. appear here A for the first time. his son by a name of Blake. was published in 1880. 1893. as the editors state. with some new letters. if factorily dealt with by Gilchrist. a certain John O'Neill. daughters . and the latter contributing a serviceable list of his pictures and engravings. and embellished with facsimiles of Blake's own glorious designs. where. where he became the father of the poet. having assumed the name of Blake borne by his second wife. published in the same year. Alfred T. aided by D. James O'Neill.

and Genius. Biographies of Blake derived from the above sources. it may be pointed out that Blake's father was certainly a Protestant. who in one instance describes himself as ' Blake. identify I refer elsewhere Examiner. 1905. should ' ' An elaborate attempt to expound Blake's symbolic system in detail is contained in Ellis and Yeats' edition of the Works. Storey's la. and that the English poet. Willimn Blake. entitled Imperfect Genius {^Contemporary Review. 1^93. Hewlett's curious essay in depreciation. difficult task of reconciling these rival claims.' nowhere claims interpret the Irish descent. Character. but of interest as embodying personal appreciations of Blake's work.' in to these editors' interpretation of Blake's mystical writings. In pure aesthetic criticism D. of Southampton. Maclagan and Russell's Introduction to their reprint of Jerusalem. and. claiming to be of William second cousins of the poet. Rossetti's prefatory notes to the in Selections Gilchrist. more concisely stated. in the of the author article ' hired a villain to bereave my life. and Swinburne's masterpiece hold the first place. Blake's descent is traced to the Somersetshire family with which the Commonwealth Without attempting the Admiral was connected. vol. Henry G. 1895. the hired the and livelihood. will be found in Alfred T. James Thompson's printed ' ' Essay.xxv Geiieral Preface John Blake. B. in also be noticed. and in the introductions of W. VI. Messrs. Rossetti^ Laurence Housman and W. following I is a list EDITIONS of the editions quoted in the footwhere use has been made of the refer to those only original printed and manuscript sources. Yeats to their editions of the poems. G. and where the . his Life. Ellis reference to mysterious and Yeats Hayley's having the sense of his having Blake of his means of Flaxman with to deprive conspired villain with Hunt. 28). M. in Richard Garnett's monograph in the Portfolio. The notes.

Rees. Volume ii contains poems from Poetical Sketches and Songs of Innocence and of Experience.' a youth. Pickering and 3. are here quoted for the first time. . i. Malkin's version of 'The Tyger' contains an interesting variant reading of 1. 1829-1833. and Orme. authority. R"^. In the Dictionary of National Biography and elsewhere.) W. Ctmn. Garth Wilkinson. furnished me by Mr. Wilk. by Allan Cunningham.. Poems quoted by 1863. F. J.General Preface xxvi given might for this reason be understood readings possess some to authority. in Photolithography with In two volumes. Vol. ' Gil. . Illustrated from Blake's Linton and a few of Blake's original plates. Malk. 8°. 12. A Father's Memoirs of his Child. To Cunningham's corrupt version of The Tyger may on MS. John 2.A. 16°. .S. London. Esq. . 6 vols.' with Selections from his poems and other writings by the late 5. Newbery. a portion of Rossetti's original transcript of MS. and Architects. Gilchrist in the first own works volume of the Life. Edited with a short but Songs. White. ' See Bibliographical This transcript was still Rossetti when 1847. Sculptors. 1839. London. 8°. Contains five songs from Poetical Sketches and Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Benj. Blake's Poems from the was probably made about Preface to later editors. Alexander Gilchrist. Book. M. 8°.A. . in facsimile by W.' but as a matter of fact Wilkinson's The first letterpress edition of the emendations are somewhat fewer than those of Dante Gabriel 4. London. the translator of Swedenborg. The Lives of the most eminent British Painters. Murray.. excellent preface by J. 1. Life of William Blake. By Longman. Shewing the two Contrary States of the Human Soul. London. Macmillan. the text of this edition is described as 'much altered. W.' which has be traced the second or later version ' ' ' deceived so of Blake's editors. many Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Hurst. 1806. These readings. Heath Malkin. J. (Dedication of the Poem of the Grave. Rossetti MS. Pictor Ignotus. printed presumably from copies supplied by Blake to the author.

The Poems of William Blake. London. William Muir's coloured facsimiles of the Songs of Innocence and the Songs of In the footnotes to The Gates of Paradise Experience.] George Bell and Sons. 165. 1874. Gabriel Rossetti. Muirs Mr. ' Poems printed in the Selections from Blake's works. however. Memoir by William Michael Rossetti. This edition collects in a single volume Richard text of the Heme Shepherd's earlier Experience.) 7. From the latter source Swinburne prints several poems omitted by Rossetti. Basil Montague Pickering. and some copyright poems not in any other edition. including the greater portion of The ' Everlasting Gospel.' A i^See Dante Essay. Shep. is. Charles Alp-ernon alterations. 8°. all of which were Songs of Innocence and [q/"] (reprinted in 1868) published by B. ID.' 8. J. Edited with a Prefatory and Miscellaneous. London. WMR. if the work were ' before him to be done. Pickering. By illustrations from Critical With WMR's Blake's designs in facsimile. Hotten. coloured and plain. The Volume same. I refer also to facsim. with other poems. With reference other attempts at emendation introduced by him into Blake's text we may note Rossetti's later statement that he would not now. G. p. by far the most accurate . 8°. W. M. Shepherd was not able to print in his edition any of the poems from the Rossetti MS.xxvH General Preface 6. DGR. Muir's text of the prologue and of the . 1866 and that of the Poetical Sketches. in the second volume of Gilchrist's Life. and not ' to these and infrequently adopts the readings of Wilkinson. but retains others. C. make so many William Blake: Swinburne. London. Szvinh. His text of the poems included of any hitherto published. of the changes made in his earlier transcript. Rossetti rejects some Rossetti. Comprising So7tgs of Innocence and of Experience^ together with Poetical Sketches. given by D. Contains poems quoted by Swinburne from Blake's published works and from the Rossetti MS. [Aldine Edition. ii. 9. Book. The Poetical Works of William Blake. 1874. 1868. 1883. The readings quoted my footnotes are taken from a copy of the fourth edition. 1868. Lyrical in This popular edition has been frequently reprinted. 8". Mr.

1904. 1893. 4°. correct text than the preceding. Edited by Lawrence and 8°. In three Bernard Quaritch. For some of their text apparently Messrs. Large 8°.' and a Memoir and Interpretation by and Critical. Housman's hands. Selections from the writings of William Blake with an introductory essay by Lawrence Housman.] [The Bullen. London. g. Ellis' transcripts of the MS. Trench. Russell The and Maclagan. 13. Apparently intended as the first of a series of typographical reprints of Blake's Prophetic Books. B. some respects a more ii. Poetic. Muses' Library. Ellis somewhat confusing arrangement In this edition the of the Poems may perhaps be due to the editors' scheme of interpretation. Russell and E. . G. lay claim to special knowledge produced by the evocations of symbolic magic (i. left by himself. London. of William Blake. Jerusalem. his facsimile of Admirable as facsimiles of Blake's coloured illustrations. ' EY. B. D. was in Mr. I An Kegan quote this edition only for the variant reading in the song taken from MS. W. D. Ellis and Yeats have trusted to the Aldine edition. and some of their remarks WBY. LH. Book and The Four Zoas. Purports to be a verbatim and literatim reprint. Bullen. 8°. (e. B.General Preface xxviii ' of the Gates Keys ' prefixed in ordinary typography to The Gates of Paradise. These editors. The Poems Yeats. R. Russell \on cover A. G. while part has been derived from Mr. Maclagan and A. Triibner. Edited with Lithographs of the Illustrated Prophetic Books.' ' . Paul. these reproductions cannot be followed with any certainty for the text of the poems. and passim) 12. Symbolic. in expounding Blake's system. In 1893. Edwin John and William Butler Yeats. and Co. Maclagan]. Reprinted by Routledge (1905). R. London. 1893. The Works of William Blake. William Blake. but contains such misreadings as course for race. volumes. Prophetic Books of Edited by E. 288 ' ' 299) would seem to suggest their belief that the possession of these occult powers enables them to produce a text through which Blake's mind is reflected more accurately than in the MSS.' and By his own hand ' shall surely die' for ' By his own law ' ' shall surely die. 11. Island in the Moon. since this 14.

I owe the correct text of the songs. not omit to explain that it was Mr. The Ghost of Abel. New York. of obscurely written lines in The Four Zoas. Linnell has also furnished me with Linnell family. the Pickering MS. White has for the past three years collaborated with tion of his share in the work. after a study of the symbolic references in the couplets explanatory of the plates. White's conjecture that The Gates of Paradise belonged to a later date than had been previously supposed.. Book. Lastly. Book given in this edition.. White the correct text of the smaller Pickering MS. W. and details of copies of The Gates of Paradise.. I am indebted to Mr. White. t>ut somewhere nearer 1810. A. John Linnell. the owner of the Rossetti MS. I owe also to Mr. junior. can best be made clear by an explana- Entering into my desire to final text of Blake's poems. and other Blake originals in the possession of the Mr. must have been ' produced. photographs . which led me. endeavour by furnishing me with exact transcripts of the poems in the MS.. My debt to Mr. not in 1793. and answering a very great number of questions of detail. with gratitude that I acknowledge the invaluable aid rendered me in various ways by collectors and students of the works of Blake. which after me in this a disappearance of over thirty years was opportunely I should rediscovered while this edition was in the press. and an accurate produce Mr. to form the conclusion that the two issues For the Sexes.xxix Gene7^al Preface VII much In a work involving reference to material not any public library an editor is dependent upon the goodwill and co-operation lying ready to hand in necessarily It is of the owners of precious books and manuscripts. as well as the description of this MS. White for the two facsimiles of the MS.' in which the poems first appear. and passages quoted in the footnotes from The Four Zoas. To Mr. of Brooklyn. and other Blake originals.

I am indebted to Mrs. which has since come to light. containing The Passions and another piece. and also MS.General Preface XXX and has replied with great minuteness to several questions of mine relating to different works of Blake. to Mr. W. thanks for her kindness Helen Rossetti Angeli I tender my in sending me from Italy the early and curious Blake MS. Fairfax Murray the loan of the autograph MS. since presented by him to the Fitzwilliam Museum. known as An Island in the Moon. as well as extracts from original letters of Flaxman throwing light upon the cause of Blake's estranged attitude towards his A former friend. and Mr. courteously sent hitherto unprinted poem (see p. Beach for research work in the British Museum in the early stages of this book. the artist's I am obliged to Mr. Mr. My thanks are also due to Miss Isabelle Linnell and Mr. have to thank Captain Butts for the loan of Blake's letters to his grandfather. . Fortescue of the British first place. John Lawler has been good enough to supply me with information as to Blake originals sold by auction. details of the several impressions. B. John Pearson in several communications has given me the benefit of his expert knowledge of original issues and works of Blake. Cowley of the Bodleian Library for a grateful courteous response to questions submitted by me. A. earlier I Quaritch for lending me the MS. I owe to the kindness of Mr. in the to Mr. To Signora of Tiriel. I am Mr. I have to acknowledge the courtesy of the various owners of copies of the Songs of hmocence and the Songs of ' ' Bibliographical Preface (pp. M. 218) Mr. Mr. William Linnell. G. Russell illustrates the me by and happier relationship between the two artists. and my Rossetti kindly furnished collection of the lost book. Experience^ enumerated in 72-77). C. Bernard lifelong friend and patron. Madan to . the of the Pickering me with his re- French Revolution.Frederick Macmillan has taken which great pains to clear up the question of the process by reprints of the plates of the Songs were reproduced in Gilchrist's Life. for collations Mr. Mr. Thomas Butts.

The of death Professor York Powell me of untimely deprived of advice and him so advantages encouragement. Yates. E. . Peter Cowell of the Liverpool Public Library for obtaining for me the loan of certain rare books. E. I Liverpool. especially by Miss M. I wish to thank the authorities of the Press. cursory comparison of existing A showed me the impossibility of giving a reliable version of Blake. given by carried out the generously at the outset of my task. imperfect memory. the preparation of a small edition of Blake's Lyrical Poems for the Clarendon Press. 20. I have pleasure in acknowledging the help of Mr. for the care and patience with which they have texts ' ' minute particulars of this book. assistant in the University Library. in a somewhat light-hearted mood. in the reading and correction of the proofs. The help rendered by the members of my class in bibliography. of the Press. T. Lyster and Miss D. am favourite poets. In concluding this long list of obligations I desire to add that it was at the suggestion of the late Professor York to read certain of my Powell that I undertook. Harkness Graham. without preliminary collation of the original engraved and manuThis view was accepted by the Delegates script sources. and especially Mr. . JOHN SAMPSON. Eames I owe information regarding the unique example of Blake's Milton in the Astor-Lenox Library.Ge7teral Preface xxxi Museum for personal replies to like inquiries and to Mr. Librarian to the Biological Library. and the present critical edition undertaken besides the smaller work at first proposed. S. Nov. 1905. To Mr. Professor John Macdonald Mackay has been good enough proofs and prefaces. fain to dedicate to his which. and robs me now of much of the pleasure with which I bring to completion this edition though of one of his it be. has contributed greatly to the ac- curacy of this edition. Milford. even in the form of selections. and the aid in Wilberforce various ways given me by Miss May Allen. H.

the merry year Song When early morn walks forth in sober grey 15 16 To ^7 : the Muses Gwin. Appendix I King Edward the Third Prologue... intended for a Dramatic Piece of King Edward the Fourth Prologue to King John Song to Englishmen The Couch of Death A War Contemplation Samson . hither come I ... ... I2 . .. .. Mad Song 8 ii . .. I roam'd from .... . . .CONTENTS PAGE .. . '5 . Poems from the Poetical Sketches 2 Bibliographical Preface To To To To To To 5 Spring Summer Autumn ... . ...... Imitation of Spencer Blind-man's Buff .. . . Norway .. . Morning Fair Elenor How sweet ... .... .. . King An of ..... • . 17 ... . .. . 7 8 .... .21 23 26 40 40 41 42 43 44 .. la 13 . . ....... . . field to field Song: Song: My silks and fine array Song: Love and harmony combine Song Song : : love the jocund dance Memory.. 6 Winter 7 the Evening Star . .14 14 Song: Fresh from the dewy hill. . .

xxxiu Contents page II Appendix Song by a Shepherd Song by an old Shepherd . first 47 47 begun 53 . The Song of Phebe and Jellicoe Hail Matrimony.. . made of Love To be or not to be This city and this country Leave.. Moon Island in the Bibliographical Preface When old corruption ' 50 . O leave [me] to my sorrows Appendix 55 56 . 57 5« 59 Songs of Innocence and of Experience Bibliographical Preface Songs of Innocence . 65 . . .. Songs from ' An ..

XXXIV Contents PAGE . Songs of Experience Introduction ....

282 • . . .. With happiness stretch'd across the hills why was I born with a different face ? Dedication upon ' of my knee . .... . 286 295 .296 .. ....... . fairy leapt 301 . ... .. Poems from Letters Preface To my dear Friend. . Blair's Grave' Preface To . .. ...... ..... . : Argument . Auguries of Innocence Long John Brown and Little Mary Bell William Bond • .. . .302 . . : 326 344 344 The 345 . . the Queen . .. .XXXV Contents PAGE .283 . . 300 .. .. O h.. 264 . ..310 . Mrs.. 311 . • . • • S^^ 320 Poems from the 'Prophetic Books' Bibliographical Preface From The Book of Thel Thel's Motto From The Marriage of Heaven and Hell From Visions of the Daughters of Albion . . 3^4 316 Epigrams from Blake's Annotated Copy of Reynolds' Works Preface Epigrams . of Illustrations Blake's 305 . 270 .. . Anna Flaxman To my Friend Butts I write To Mrs. 269 • ... The Pickering Manuscript Preface The Smile The Golden Net The Mental Traveller The Land of Dreams Mary The Crystal Cabinet The Grey Monk . ..273 . . Butts -304 .279 280 .. . . .

. did those feet in ancient time : Such . p. . Frontispiece To face p.. .. ... Each Man is in his To the Deists To the Christians To the Christians Spectre's power . ... Especially to the Female The Keys ... . 358 359 361 363 364 The Gates of Verses from 'For the Sexes. 366 yjl 373 377 378 379 ILLUSTRATIONS Facsimile of Rossetti MS. 52 . of this World . have appear'd to the Jews . . .Contents xxxvi PAGE From The Four Zoas At the first Sound the Golden Sun Ah how shall Urizen the King : ! Till thou dost [conquer] the distrest From Milton And From Jerusalem To the Public : To visions . . 109 Facsimile of Rossetti MS.. 242 . . .. .. . . . . . 345 347 350 351 me ^^^ 353 . . .. .... Paradise ' . . p. Bibliographical Preface Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice of the Gates . .. . .. To the Accuser who is The God From the Legends to the Plates Index of First Lines - ZS?....

POEMS from the POETICAL SKETCHES (Privately Printed. SAMPSON B 1783) .

LONDON: Printed The first quire of two leaves in the Year MDCCLXXXIII. withoctavo demy out publisher's or printer's name.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE POETICAL SKETCHES The Poetical Sketches.. except the first book of the French Revolution^ which made its appearance in is . ByW. signed are no half-titles There the section 'Miscellaneous Poems' or to 'King Edward the Third.' 14 15 16 ' : . is a slender volume of 38 leaves. King of Norway Song — ' : ' . Blake's earliest work. An Imitation of Spencer Blind-man's Bufif . ' fine array II . . . Song: 'Love and harmony combine' I love the jocund dance Song 12 ' ' . which are as follows to : Miscellaneous Poems To To To To To To PAGE I Spring Summer Autumn 1 .' The book is without index or table of literary contents. privately issued... Prologue to King John A War Song to Englishmen The Couch of Death Contemplation Samson The little book. 3 . Winter the Evening Star Morning 4 5 6 . The title-page reads POETICAL SKETCHES. is the only one of Blake's poetical writings. fours. . Fair Elenor Song: Song . B.. which SI 58 60 63 64 exceedingly rare. How ' ' : My 7 sweet silks I and roam'd . : .' 10 . then nine quires in contains the title and advertisement : I | | [ ' ' B — K (K^ blank) and paginated 1-70. hither come Mad Song Fresh from the dewy hill Song When early morn walks forth Song To the Muses Gwin. 13 * Memory. . 29 Prologue intended for a dramatic piece of King Edward the Fourth 56 . : . 17 18 19 24 36 King Edward the Third.

' The printer. come rolling o'er ' ! In the present edition punctuation is amended and the inlines of the printer abandoned in favour of Blake's own invariable and more artistic alinement. ' Conscious of the irregularities and defects to be found in almost every page. as might have rendered them less unfit to meet the public eye. talents having excellence in been wholly directed to the attainment of his profession. : — 'Advertisement The following Sketches were the production of untutored youth. he has been deprived of the leisure requisite to such a revisal of these sheets. however. and by no means warrants such violent changes as D. to be now reproved or confirmed by a less partial public' While the book contains a few obvious as ' ' her ' cares ' for for ' ' his ' ' ears ' misprints. These their opinions remain. come rolling o'er ' ! are printed : 'Arouse thyself! the nations black. has evidently corrected Blake's spelling. The Preface.' where the lines. The lyrics in Poetical Sketches include the whole of the poems on pp. 1-28. in ' ' general inaccuracy is far less than has been represented. black Like clouds.' dented B % / . King of 'Arouse thyself! the nations.Poetical Sketches 3 ordinary type. Like clouds. which merited some respite from oblivion.' and in the fourth stanza of the Song on p. or perhaps Mathew. respect the text of the original edition is exactly reproduced. As we learn from Cunningham. runs . which was the composition of Mathew. while generally respecting Blake's use of 'd or ed where the latter is to be pronounced as a separate syllable. The other pieces gives the title 'Miscellaneous Poems.. and occasionally resumed by the author till his twentieth year since which time. it was printed at the expense of Flaxman and Mathew. Norway. who handed the unbound sheets to the author to dispose of for his own advantage. and of it Blake seems to have issued a few copies only. his ' . In every other. his friends have still believed that they possessed a poetical originality. omitted capitals. to which Blake. 13 . Rossetti's rustling birds of dawn for rustling beds of dawn in the Mad Song. such An Imitation of Spencer. commenced in his twelfth. G. See ' Gwin. and supplied his own yet its ' ' ' ' y ' punctuation. frequently a faulty one. The size of the edition is not stated but it was probably a small one.

G. G. the whole contents of the book.' with a few passages from King Edward the Third. Shepherd the whole book with his customary accuracy.' Blind-man's Buff. and vi of King Edward the Third. prints separately in 1868 as a supplementary volume to the Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Basil Montague Pickering. and together with that work in the edition of 1874. H. but are supplied in an appendix in order that the reader may be enabled to judge of Blake's first volume in its entirety. Ellis * ' ' ' ' ' reproduction of the Poetical Sketches by W. and (as Pickering's copyright) could not be included in W.' Gwin of Samson. though all Blake's editors arrange them among poems written in a different manner and at a much later date.' To Summer. Yeats omits Fair Elinor.' to ' King John verse. they were apparently unknown to D. M. but were found in Blake's handwriting on the fly-leaves of a copy which was lent to Mr. where they are placed at the end of the poems from the Pickering MS. They clearly belong to the same period as the Poetical Sketches.' To the Evening Star. Rossetti's Aldine edition. prints six of the eight songs (excluding the two last). Selections from the Poetical Sketches were first given by Malkin and Cunningham.ong the poems in the Poetical Sketches.Poetical Sketches 4 somewhat outside the scope of this edition. H. ' ' ' ' ' and Samson which he prints as blank and Yeats follow the Aldine edition. in the selection given in Gilchrist's Life. In a second Appendix I have placed two short poems. To the Muses. Rossetti and later editors have availed themselves of this excellent text. The Poems from the Poetical Sketches together with the pieces in the first Appendix give therefore. W. W. B.' These songs are not printed am. omitting W. Song by a Shepherd and Song by an Old Shepherd. First printed by R. M. in their proper order.' the two prologues^ The Couch of Death.' and the latter the Address to the Muses.' R. about 1868. with the exception of the Prologue fall ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' * ' ' . Rossetti. Rossetti.' ConThere is an excellent facsimile templation.' Norway..' and Samson.' and selections from scenes i.' D. Shepherd in Pickering's editions of 1868 and 1874. iii. the former printing How sweet I roam'd from field to field.' To Spring. Shepherd makes a few trifling corrections he omits Blake's general heading 'Miscellaneous Poems' and inserts a half-title to King Edward the Third which is not in the original. (fifty copies printed . 1890). Griggs in May. v. the publisher. Rossetti places the pieces in an order of his own and omits the prose. M.

feet visit thy holy Come o'er the eastern hills. and let our winds let us taste Kiss thy perfumed garments Thy mom and evening breath scatter thy pearls Upon our love-sick land that mourns for thee. 5 : And let our clime. 2. while we beheld With joy thy ruddy limbs and flourishing hair. pp. allay the heat their large nostrils thou. Whose modest tresses were bound up for thee Poetical Sketches. Book. Summer. Thy golden crown upon her languish'd head. Poetical Sketches.' 5 . and the list'ning Vallies hear. MS. and oft Beneath our oaks hast slept. That flames from ! O Oft pitched'st here thy golden tent. who lookest down Thro' the clear windows of the morning. Which in full choir hails thy approach. 5 tell pavilion each] do DGR. hair] Cp. curb thy fierce steeds. 6 ruddy . all our longing eyes are turned Up to thy bright pavillions issue forth. xxv. 7 pavillions] DGR.POEMS FROM POETICAL SKETCHES To Spring O thou with dewy locks. tell each DGR : 14 soft] softest to each tell EY. turn Thine angel eyes upon our western isle. O deck her forth with thy fair fingers. p. 2. ! r. 'Abstinence sows sand The ruddy limbs & all over flaming hair. . 9 . . O i Spring! The hills tell each other. pour Thy soft kisses on her bosom and put 13 . To Summer O thou Thy who passest thro' our vallies in i strength. .

12 Silk] Thy DGR. all ! 5 Sing now The narrow bud opens The sun. And i sit rest. girded himself. And 10 Summer breaks forth into singing. Blossoms hang round the brows of morning. 15 youth] youths DGR. Nor laurel wreaths against the sultry heat. II thy] all DGR. on Some bank beside a river clear. 3. but Beneath my shady roof. but left his golden load. feather'd clouds strew flowers round her head.6 Poetical Sketches Beneath our thickest shades we oft have heard Thy voice. Poetical Sketches. throw thy Silk draperies off. nor waters clear as heaven. p. Nor echoes sweet. and rush into the stream . Hills fled from our sight. the daughters of the year shall dance the lusty song of fruits and flowers. or sits singing in the trees.' Thus sang the jolly Autumn as he sat Then rose. and in our mossy valHes. Till clust'ring The spirits of the air live on the smells Of fruit and joy. and stained grape. roves round The gardens. . Our bards are fam'd who strike the silver wire Our youth are bolder than the southern swains Our maidens fairer in the sprightly dance : 15 : : We lack not songs. there thou may'st And tune thy jolly voice to my fresh pipe. laden with With the blood of the fruit. lo : Our vallies love the Summer in his pride. 15 . and love runs ' her beauties to in her thrilling veins . and Flourish down the bright cheek of modest eve. with pinions light. pass not. and o'er the bleak ' . To Autumn O Autumn. nor instruments of joy. when noon upon his fervid car Rode o'er the deep of heaven beside our springs Sit down.

dew. pillars not. and while thou drawest the i . DGR. . EY.Poetical Sketches To Winter * O bar thine adamantine doors The north is thine. whilst the sun rests angel of the evening. — He takes his seat upon the cliffs. p. The curtains of the sky. 4. ! 13 — Poetical Sketches. strides o'er the withers all in silence. mount Hecla] and drives the monster Yelling beneath To Mount Hecla to his caves. that deal'st Cries in vain. scatter thy 5 . while thou drawest round The sky's blue curtains. ! now with thine iron car. . and the monster With storms Is driv'n yelling to his caves beneath mount Hecla. p. 5. 1-4 no quotation marks in original. scatter silver dew. ! Poetical Sketches. Winter Nor bend thy He hears me Rides heavy . the mariner Poor little wretch.' but o'er the yawning deep I dare not lift mine eyes. Swinb. till heaven smiles. . . there hast thou built thy dark Deep-founded habitation. 3 bright] brilliant DGR. EY. and freezes up 9 : hand frail life. 5. whose skin clings groaning rocks his strong bones. the direful monster. . on the mountains. the Evening Star Thou fair-hair'd Now. and smile upon our evening bed Smile on our loves. Shake not thy roofs. sheathed In ribbed steel For he hath Lo To i : ! Unclothes the earth. 16 and the monster 15.] whilst thou drawest round dew. light Thy bright torch of love thy radiant crown Put on. 6 while . and in his He 5 his storms are unchain'd. rear'd his sceptre o'er the world. .

dawn The honied dew . WBY. p. To Morning O holy virgin ! clad in purest white. : fleeces of our flocks are cover'd EY then the omit. pp. Unlock heav'n's golden gates. silver. first . full soon. . 6. lake. and shrieks on meeting what she believes to be the ghost of Conrad. EY. 7-10. fair Elenor graves give up their dead Walk'd by the castle gate. and issue forth that sleeps in heaven let light Rise from the chambers of the east. Compare the incident in the first chapter. And wash the dusk with lo . Dost thou withdraw then the wolf rages wide. 7 shuts] closes DGR. EY. . Let thy west wind sleep on The speak silence with thy glimmering eyes. DGR.8 Poetical Sketches Blue curtains of the sky. and bring Awake the . 14 protect . Soon. where Isabella descends into the vaults of the Castle. that O cometh on waking day. and with Thy buskin'd feet appear upon our hills. Fair Elenor The The and shook the silent tower. and looked in. Swinb. Poetical Sketches. evidently suggested published in 1765. 12 And the] influence] protect with influence EY. radiant morning. salute the sun Rouz'd like a huntsman to the chace. And The Thy 6 silver] And the lion glares thro' the dun forest with sacred dew: protect them with thine influence. bell struck one. Poetical Sketches.' The Castle of Otranto. scatter thy silver dew On every flower that shuts its sweet eyes In timely sleep. r : A The theme of this very juvenile poem was by Walpole's 'Gothic story.. hollow groan ran thro' the dreary vaults.

froze to stone with fear. till at her 6 cheeks] cheek house all edd. She On Of And 5 but the sighing vaults. like a ghost. Ellen flew over pathless plain . and sunk upon the steps. approaches. leap'd Fair Ellen pass'd the bridge. wrap'd about then rush'd she receiv'd into her arms Past. . A 21 25 . Stifling in mud. Fancy And returns. Sickly smells death issue as from a sepulchre. thro' narrow passages Walking. all is silent and she revives Chill death withdraws his hand. Amaz'd. and strikes in darkness. The deed is done The wretch approaches. heard a gloomy voice cry ' Is it done ' ? the deer wounded.Poetical Sketches 9 shriek'd aloud. crying Take this. rushing sound. no fancy but reality Distracts her. 33 . and now she thinks of bones and corruptible death and now fancies she hears shroud in his Wrap'd and sees pale sickly ghosts gliding. and howling after Take : — me . the cold stone her pale cheeks. 13 grinning skulls. : the wretch pass'd swift thro' the outer gate wall the o'er the into moat. . fled from fear. she finds herself upon her feet. Howling. Ellen stood Like a dumb statue. destruction flies. 9 . for blood ! and thrust into her arms this. At length. and send it by whom thou wilt send ' : my It is He 's ' life — send to Elenor it dead. and the feet A 17 — Of one that fled. 29 arriv'd.' he cry'd wet napkin. as the arrows that fly night. They And As The By She . And. Deep sighs. feeling the cold walls with her hands. and follow'd on the wings of fear. . howling Pale death.

] This line is repeated by Blake . saw . sleep to death beware the cursed duke seeks thy love Hired a my it 57 dead . my dear lord ah. in the night. it unfold itself. O give not ' He life by the accursed duke hired villain turn'd him thy hand. cut down breath of heaven dwelt among his leaves. fall'n like weak woman. Who. all ghastly pale.' 61 I am] 47 eyes] eye Swinb. 68 Hired life. 49 summer's] summer Swinb. summer's noon the stately tree. The O 45 and wickedness. . woman's fear Ah. ghastly death lord May lusty like ! 41 ! ! Seek'st thou that flow'r to deck thy horrid temples? ' My was lord like a star in highest heav'n Drawn down to earth My like was lord When spells western winds creep softly o'er the flowers. the opening eyes of day by . clotted . . bereave spake: tower. sleeping on the stones of yonder Was A 'reft of O Elenor. I am thy husband's head. in her arms she brought and now. Disclosing to her sight the murder'd head Of her dear lord. yj falls. But he Clouded ' darken'd is like the . the bloody napkin by her side. ' ! Thus having spoke. and thus it *0 Elenor. That bed of joy. now villain to .lo Poetical Sketches Her maids await her on her bed she . Elenor. I 6r ! my ! 65 . ! ' : My Of O was ! ! a flower upon the brows Ah. wretched Elenor ' ' ' ! . . she raised up her head. tenfold 53 And saw Which More terrified. Her eyes were fix'd the bloody cloth unfolds. groan'd. behold all edd. where erst her lord hath press'd she cry'd Ah. life. woe with fill'd 49 . coward. cursed duke Ah. am who. With gory blood. life as frail as flower withdraw thy cruel hand.

Then. Ixxviii). golden wing. Book. 1785) iii : ' Come & be 9 .* Song How sweet And tasted 'Till I Who roam'd from field to the summer's pride. Poetical Sketches. 12 golden cage] Cp. from Chaucer.Poetical Sketches 1 She sat with dead cold limbs. lo. Blake's use of epigrams on Hayley (MS.' who . sports and plays with Then stretches out And mocks my my 13 me . xxxiv. stiffen'd to stone She took the gory head up in her arms She kiss'd the pale lips she had no tears to shed She hugg'd it to her breast. p. the prince of love beheld in the I field i all sunny beams did glide ! He shew'd me lilies for my hair. And shut me in his golden cage. loss of liberty. . quotes this poem. xxxvi). it was written by Blake before the age of fourteen. He loves to sit and hear me sing. Where all his golden pleasures grow. laughing. And blushing roses for my brow He led me through his gardens fair 5 . cured of all your pains In Matrimony's Golden cage. Island in the Moon (c. According to Malkin (pp. were wet. and groan'd her last. in his Descriptive Catalogue : in ' one of bereave ' his as a transitive verb Hath me ' bireft my beauty and my pith. . With sweet May dews my wings And Phoebus fir'd my vocal rage He caught me in his silken net. 1 69 . . is perhaps imitative of the line quoted by him.

12. i smiles and languish'd love are driv'n away By And air. an axe and spade. made Let winds and tempests beat Then down I'll lie 1. Song Love and harmony combine. True love doth pass away ! Poetical Sketches. a winding sheet my grave have . Joys upon our branches sit. p. p. His face fair is as heav'n When springing buds O why to him was't Whose heart His breast unfold . . Poetical Sketches. giv'n wintry cold lo ? love's all worship'd all love's pilgrims come. And around our souls intwine While thy branches mix with mine. Where Bring Bring is me me When I 6 : is tomb.5 : as cold as clay. mournful lean Despair Brings me yew to deck my grave Such end true lovers have. . And our roots together join. 2 intwine] entwine all except Shep. Chirping loud and singing sweet Like gentle streams beneath our feet Innocence and virtue meet.Poetical Sketches 12 Song My My and silks fine array. . 11.

r The softly-breathing song. Poetical Sketches. There he sleeps the night away There he sports along the day. And where I love I love lisps the laughing vale. Where And all 13 the old villagers meet. I love the pleasant cot. And thy lovely leaves among. I hear her tongue. I love the innocent bow'r. is love. I love the oaken seat. There she sits and feeds her young.Thou Poetical Sketches 13 the golden fruit dost bear. 17 . play. . laugh our sports to see. does never 5 fail. . . 9 am clad in flowers fair Thy sweet boughs perfume the And the turtle buildeth there. p. the jolly swain laughs his fill. 13. the echoing hill. DGR. I . There There his charming nest doth lay. 4 And where] Where DGR. Beneath the oaken tree. air. Where innocent eyes do glance. lay. Where mirth And the maiden's tongue. Where white and brown is our Or fruit in the mid-day hour.] make the charm'd nest he doth lay.' 17 charming necessary correction. Song I love the jocund dance. 9 lot. And among our branches doth 16 her] An obvious misprint for 'his. Sweet I hear her mournful song 13 . All Blake's editors . 5 vale] gale Malk.

15 Poetical Sketches. . while upon the wind Your music floats. Son g hither come. p. I better love thee And love them I ever shall . p. enfold WMR. And : 5 Where sighing lovers dream. Kitty. I'll pore upon the stream i Memory. WBY. 14. EY. there The day lie I'll along and dream : And when night To places fit for I'll comes. Sleep. 5 ! And The the rustling beds of dawn earth do scorn. hear the linnet's song And And 10 . 7 beds] birds . : But lo the morning peeps Over the eastern steeps. Walking along the darken'd valley With silent Melancholy. WBY. i And the night is a-cold Come hither.Poetical Sketches 14 I love our neighbours 17 all. But thou art all to me. DGR. And fish for fancies as they pass Within the watery glass. . I'll drink of the clear stream. 15. 4 unfold] infold Shep. And my griefs unfold . Poetical Sketches. Mad Song The wild winds weep. tune your merry notes And. go woe. But.

like angels' feet bless those limbs. 6 angels'] angel's Gil. while o'er the dewy lawn. From whence For comforts have increas'd my brain . 12 an] that Gil. Like as an angel glitt'ring in the To 9 sky In times of innocence and holy joy The 5 : . 9 Like as] As when . maiden risen like the morn I meet My my Oh Oh bless those holy feet. feet are wing'd. With howling woe After night I do croud. .' The in picture was probably suggested in Blake's mind by passages 22 From whence] Whence DGR. Poetical Sketches. Ossian. . the merry year car his Smiles on my head and mounts flaming Round my young brows the laurel wreathes a shade. joyful shepherd stops his grateful song hear the music of an angel's tongue. light doth seize With frantic pain. 17 Like . piping loud. ! lo With sorrow fraught My notes are driven : They strike the ear of night.Poetical Sketches 15 Lo to the vault Of paved heaven. They make mad the roaring winds.' Mac- ' pherson's Song i Fresh from the dewy hill. Make weep the eyes of day. . beaming with heav'nly light. And rising glories beam around my head. Like a fiend hid in a cloud. Like a fiend in a cloud. And 15 with tempests play. with night will go I turn my back to the east And 30 . 16. haked. Gil. cloud] Cp. 5 like] with Gil. . p. ' Infant Sorrow' in the Songs of Experience: 'Helpless.

Doth drop a I turn Curse my eyes my black Oft when the Whisp'ring . where my black ey'd maid tear beneath the silent shade. Song When Then early morn walks forth in sober grey. I O walk the village should she And throw all 10 . Whene'er I enter.1 Poetical Sketches 6 So when she speaks. And gently sighs away the silent hour. the voice of Heaven I hear So when we walk. village bell alarms. and pensive as I go and bless my pleasing woe. That made my love so high and me so low. to my black ey'd maid I haste away. . and does my song 13 17 inspire. more than mortal fire But that sweet Burns in my soul. . and each calm retreat. 5 my that sweet village. Each village seems the haunt of holy feet. breeze. 15 prove false. The And To I go. away the vale darkens at pensive woe. 17. maid village where my black-ey'd Closes her eyes in sleep beneath night's shade. ao . nothing impure comes near. round if at her side A youth doth walk in stolen joy and pride. his limbs I'd tear pity on the burning air e'er I'd curse bright fortune for then I'd die in peace And Poetical Sketches. p. I curse my stars in bitter grief and woe. my mixed and be lot. stars summer sleeps among the murmurs to the scanty faint trees. forgot. Each field seems Eden. i When evening sits beneath her dusky bow'r.

Kings. 19-23. SAMPSON C drive . i8. 13 you] ye Cunn. Beneath the bosom of the sea Wand'ring in 9 a coral grove. 15 do] now Cunn. Or the green corners of the earth. Whether in Heav'n ye wander fair. Poetical Sketches.Poetical Sketches To the 1 7 Muses Whether on Ida's shady brow. the son of Nore. and When listen to my song : Gwin. Whether on chrystal rocks ye rove. the notes are few 13 ! ! ! Poetical Sketches. Or the blue regions of the air Where 5 the melodious winds have birth. many Fair Nine. Gwin. King of Norway Come. . that now From antient melody have ceas'd . Over the nations of the North His cruel sceptre bore . pp. Or in the chambers of the East. i The chambers of the sun. 12 Poetry] poesie Cunn. The Nobles of the land did feed Upon the hungry Poor They tear the poor man's lamb. forsaking Poetry! How have you left the antient love That bards of old enjoy 'd in you The languid strings do scarcely move The sound is forc'd. and The needy from their door. p.

his palace shakes. 25 29 Let Gwin be humbled.' They cry. and pull the tyrant down 9 . come rolling Gwin His o'er * ! rear'd his shield. furious as wolves In the bleak wintry day. black Like clouds. : . Arouse thyself! the nations. Beneath them roll'd. Follow in wild array. weeping loud. Their cry ascends the clouds The trampling horse and clanging arms Like rushing mighty floods 21 . Each. ' down Pull the tyrant to the dust. humbled] No quotation marks in original.1 8 Poetical Sketches The ' land is desolate our wives .' From ' O tow'r to tow'r the lives watchmen cry. 'and let ten thousand Pay for the tyrant's head. 21 hills] . Howling like ghosts. whelps. roaring abroad. troubl'd banners wave. the son of Nore. Seeking their nightly food. 33 Gwin. . 17 . and in the clouds He The . ! Their wives and children. Let Gwin be humbled ! ' ! Gordred the giant rous'd himself From 13 sleeping in his cave shook the hills. voice of solemn sound With 9-12 The hill EY. Down Bleron's hills they dreadful rush. And children cry for bread Arise. . chiefs come rushing round 37 . like an awful thunder cloud. The num'rous sons of blood Like lions' like tempests black.

C 2 . And spear. The husbandman does leave his plow To wade thro' fields of gore The merchant binds his brows in steel. . mellow pipe. thou hast fiU'd thy measure up Thou'rt swept from out the land. skies. horses and with chariots — 57 spearmen bold March to the sound of mournful song.Poetical Sketches 19 Like reared stones around a grave They stand around the King Then suddenly each seiz'd his 41 . 45 . Like the tall ghost of Barraton 53 Who sports in Gwin leads his host. pestilence does fly. a piece from which Blake would also seem to have borrowed the name 'Leutha' in the Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793). And leaves the trading shore The shepherd leaves his . And 49 sounds the trumpet shrill The workman throws his hammer down To heave the bloody bill. ' 53 Barraton] Probably a reminiscence of 'Berrathon' in : Macpherson's Ossian. Gwin all his — hand the nations halt war he cries Prepare Gordred appears his frowning brow ' lifts his ! ! — Troubles our northern The armies Held — ' for 6r . clashing steel does ring. stand. as black as night When With And stormy sky.' in th' . like balances 65 — Almighty's hand Gwin. Like clouds around him roll'd.

The dust ascends the skies ! Earth smokes with blood. 69 . 80 doth] do WMR. ! And on the verge of this wild sea Famine and death doth cry The women and cries of Over the field The King With doth of babes fly. '&' like sheep they die. ! The god of war is drunk with blood The earth doth faint and fail The stench of blood makes sick the 93 . groan upon the plain The battle faints. . seen raging afar. . and bloody men Fight upon hills of slain. sea of blood nor can the eye See to the trembling shore A . 81 . And Now death is Labour and Steed Sunk 85 . of might is men all his 77 . and shield on in this sea 89 .20 Poetical Sketches And now the raging armies rush'd Like warring mighty seas The Heav'ns are shook with roaring war. ! ! EY. and riven men toil for life on steed. And ghosts accusing groan 78. . Like blazing comets scattering death Thro' the red fev'rous Beneath arm his nierht. rolls sick. Ghosts glut the throat of hell O what have Kings to heav'ns answer for Before that awful throne When thousand deaths for vengeance cry. and groans and shakes 73 To drink her children's gore. of strife shield. 97 .

Poetical Sketches Like blazing comets That shake the 21 the sky in loi stars of light. ! Norway : The rest did fill the vale of death. 5 All while the jocund hours in thy train Scatter their fancies at thy poet's feet . that thro' i And wash my earthy mind in thy clear streams. 2 truth's] truth his alledd. For them the eagles The river Dorman The An mourn'd strive. Representing the Spenserian stanza by the formula ababbcbcC. This piece has not the air of being one of Blake's earUest efforts. and truth's beams. his sons. 24-26. Golden Apollo. ababbcbcB. . ababbcbcb. to Spenser. And the first blow decides Down from the brow unto the breast Gordred his head divides 105 Gwin fell the Sons of All that remain'd alive 109 . 8 yields] yield'st correct Spencer all edd. and ababbcbcbB—aW different all wrong. Blake's successive attempts are: ababbcbcc. And when thou yields to night thy wide domain. Title] All edd. . Imitation of Spencer heaven wide Scatter'st the rays of light. blood 113 . That wisdom may descend in fairy dreams. Like these did Gwin and Gordred meet. pp. in spite of its metrical faults. roll'd their Into the northern sea Who fled. and overwhelm'd pleasant south country. Let rays of truth enlight his sleeping brain. aiabbcbB. Poetical Sketches. ababbabb. In lucent words my darkling verses dight. Which drop like fruit unto the earth Thro' the fierce burning night .

i. . one 13 leesing nurse] Read. like a falling star. And cause in sweet society to dwell Vile savage minds that lurk in lonely cell. Entering with holy feet to where on high Jove weighs the counsel of futurity. that with winged brow aloft into the yielding sky. 15 20 Dost mount And thro' Heav'n's halls thy airy flight dost throw. thunder's sound. assist my lab'ring sense That round the circle of the world wou'd As the wing'd eagle scorns the Of Alpine hills round his high And searches thro' the corners 35 fly. is And And thou. Folly's leesing nurse (For ignorance love of Folly needs none other's curse) Midas the praise hath gain'd of lengthen'd cares. O Mercury. leasing nurse. Mercurius. from autumn sky. Blake's editors. with all holds her charge in a lease or leash. bosom'd in an amber cloud. and seeks Sol's palace high. dost go Down. Can charm to harmony with potent spell. 40 Then. And o'er the surface of the silent deep dost fly 25 : thou arrivest at the sandy shore Where nought but envious hissing adders dwell. correct who this ndsprinifor ears.Poetical Sketches 22 For brutish Pan in vain With tinkling sounds Sound without sense . Thy golden rod. of the sky. Such is sweet Eloquence.e. Sports in the clouds to hear the And see the winged lightnings as they fly. around Plumes his wide wings. thrown on the dusty floor. that does dispel If Envy and Hate that thirst for 30 human gore. For which himself might deem him ne'er the worse To sit in council with his modern peers. 15 C2X&%\ All edd. lo might thee assay to dash thy nervous verse. 19 brow] bow all edd. yet in his rude affray. tow'ry fence aery. laden with eternal fate. Then. And judge of tinkling rhimes and elegances terse.

She blush'd so At Of poor fool who Blind-man's Buff they each incumbrance clear the hall And call — . The laughing jest. and my i care. with side-long glance hob-nail Dick.' 3 blushing bank] chimney nook DGR. 5 higher. the terrors of Almighty Jove. 'Till. Lov'st thou to walk the peaceful solemn grove. for Jenny her ! red. ' 20 Song by an Old .Poetical Sketches And O thou. the waves of battle move? Where. 45 Pallas. the love-sick tale. silver snow decks Sylvia's clothes. walls so fair * Heap the sea-coal. kiss'd the ground. In solemn gloom of branches interwove? Or bear'st thy Egis o'er the burning field. I. Roger from Dolly twitch'd the She. The blushing bank is all With hearth so red. silken 'kerchief folds. Poetical Sketches. Minerva. And jewel hangs at th' shepherd's nose. how fair the show The merry can of nut-brown ale. jewel hangs at shepherd's nose. Shepherd' (Appendix * II) : — When And 15 griev'd the chance. maiden terrible. With lad and lass. come. But now stool. 26-28. . the game begins. like the sea. The well-wash'd stools. pp. ' . The lasses prick the lads with pins ! 10 . blear-ey'd Will the black lot holds. falling. heap The oaken log lay on the fire it . Arm'd with 23 warrior maid invincible. tir'd of chat. 2 nose] Compare the opening lines of When . . 50 Or have thy soft piteous eyes beheld The weary wanderer thro' the desert rove? Or does th' afflicted man thy heav'nly bosom move? Blind-man's BufF When silver Snow decks Susan's cloaths. a circling row.

— I ' hast thou? " . still he sees ' O — Grace cries softly thou. ! ! . Kitty. Kitty. arms. Must. Trips She catches him — DGR reads . And runs at Sam. who slips with ease ' ! — ! — — ' ! His clumsy hold and. now what chance hast thou. EY. go thro' thy part Now Kitty. For thro' the slender cloth he sees. I vow She catches him then Roger ties His own head up but not his eyes. unskill'd in art. . — ! — ' : * " Now. now! what chance Roger so near thee trips. what chance trips. ! 30 35 — ' ! Where cheating But Roger ' ' He sees there's mischief there. . with And Peggy Pout gives The Blind-man's Sam ' Silence Sam hush ! ' ! a push. between O woe betide slips : — ' — ' but titt'ring Kate Thee. pert. I vow hast thou. Roger so near thee. now Roger so near thee She catches him — WMR. ' ! 29-31 Now . extended wide. to be the sense intended by the faulty : Kitty. him] This seems punctuation of the original ' Now. clumsy Will Is pen'd up in the corner strait ! 25 ! And now Will's eyes beheld the play He thought his face was t'other way.' is. now! what chance hast thou! I vow Roger so near thee trips She catches him ! Shep. '' ! ' : Kitty. now what chance hast thou. Now. Kitty. Sukey is tumbled on the ground See what it is to play unfair . repeats the rhymes. Roger so near thee Trips. . And Roger turns him round three times. pursues the chace. dodging round. I vow ! ' : 'Now. I vow She catches him '"Now.Poetical Sketches 24 Now laughing stops. . 40 Roger. surer bound. and WBY .

Then cries out Hem Hodge heard. the blood is stay'd. But Kitty hasted with a key. one man lay in another's way Then laws were made to keep fair play. And Hodge again holds up his head. 57 hasted] hastens DGR. Such are the fortunes And those who play By wholesome laws should stop the same such as all those . And down his back they strait convey The cold relief. and ran With hood-wink'd chance sure of his man ' ' ! But down he came. all Poor piteous Dick supports his head. long a-gone.Poetical Sketches Then pauses ere he starts — but 25 Dick Was mischief bent upon a trick Down on his hands and knees he 45 . around. how 50 frail Our best of hopes. . 70 . till wantonness liberty began t' increase. first Lawless they liv'd. on the blinded man impose in his stead When men were . — —Alas. 65 as] So DGR. as. And And 65 . fain would cure the hurt he made And 55 . a nation grown. Who Stand 60 of the game. lay- Directly in the Blind-man's way. how soon they fail With crimson drops he stains the ground ! Confusion startles .

9 . Won by our fathers in many a glorious field. King Edward and Nobles O before it. invisible chains. Let Liberty. Bishop. 29-70) containing the blank verse and prose pieces following the Miscellaneous Poems. Dagworth's Man. and spear. The letters. a Sir Walter Manny. And yelling death runs up and down the ranks. Sir John Chandos. O sheathe their hearts with triple steel. when the field is in a flame. and fire the battle. maintain thy servant's right Without thine aid. and to make them shine with gold 25 . Our names are written equal 'tis ours to gild In fame's wide trophied hall Shall . to fire the breasts Of youth unborn. common Peter Blunt.APPENDIX I TO THE POETICAL SKETCHES [The latter portion of Poetical Sketches (pp. and shield of seven times beaten brass. King Edward. But as dust. SCENE. the charter'd right of Englishmen. be strong thou fightest for a crown 17 21 . my son. the flow'r of England. i ! And forged helm. Are idle trophies of the vanquisher. And thou. Queen Philippa. to The Army. We And like the fetter'd.' Reprinted from the original edition. whose fury the nations are King. Lord Percy.] ' KING EDWARD THE THIRD. When When 5 confusion rages. The Black Prince. the cries of blood tear horror from heav'n. The Coast of France. that they May emulate their fathers' virtues. spring to battle o'er the floods of death these fair youths. A crown of glory but from thy very dust — beam a radiance. Soldier. Duke of Clarence. but without variorum readings in footnotes. 13 ? mounting flame. Their minds are While. Enerve my soldiers let Liberty Blaze in each countenance. William. Sir Thomas Dagworth. the twisted mail. The enemy fight in chains. how then but heavy can they be free . thou. That death can never ravish from thy brow. ! Vent'ring their lives in my most righteous cause. PERSONS. Lord Audley.

My Lords. Lionel.Appendix I That never tarnishes 27 whether Third Edward. Or the Prince of Wales. call'd you together. that scarce were seen sphere. and those that once were bright. and sees his golden London And her silver Thames. Into three parties we divide by day. Lords. Yet. that. Ditke of Clarence . Bishop . her merchants buzzing round Like summer bees. Grow larger as we The most obscure To and some. for 'twas your advice we landed here in Brittany. and Heav'n marshal English Court. I hope England shall dwell in peace . you would recommend us agriculture? And Sweet Prince. shall gain the brightest fame. but join again at night Each knows his rank. may so advance advance 37 : at twinkle in their That the astonish'd world. Is in his hand to whom all men are equal. no less glorious than those of war. Bishop. great. At By A 45 country not yet sown with destruction. [^Exeunt. Thanks. all. 41 Stand only for to gaze upon their splendor. Say. throng'd with shining spires 9 With And corded ships. perhaps home. or Mortimer. 49 I i Sovereign. with uptum'd eyes. The world of men are like the num'rous stars That beam and twinkle in the depth of night. Lords . \He here knights the Prince. Whom . and all the golden cities In his land overflowing with honey. while my father Toils in his wars. the fiery whirlwind of swift war Has not yet swept its desolating wing. ifc. have by the advice of her am doubly bound to obey. and sees commerce fly round his white wings. or Montacute. and turns his eyes on this 5 His native shore. Glory may not be dimm'd with clouds of care. and other young Nobles. let Brave Lords. Lords. Queen Philippa I And my My My task . 13 ? 17 . the arts of peace are great. should not our thoughts be first to commerce My Lord Bishop. And where And separate march. Or ev'n the least by birth. my Parent Clarence. : 29 33 . noble Harcourt. SCENE. Each clad in glory according to his sphere But we. my burden heavier than is unfledg'd years . with your kind assistance. that wander from our native seats And beam forth lustre on a darkling world.l Now us take a just revenge for those who fell beneath the bloody axe Paris. Regardless of the moon.

that. my If Industry is in diocese. for now : You to go 49 : represent the sacred person of Your If not father. and we. And grant his favours with a sparing hand. which is the favour of your company. spirit. I'll endeavour to take Lord Percy's advice I have been used so much To dignity that I'm sick on't. Lord. as I man's heart 25 will bring forth fruit. Sir. each and Is cultivated This is my But. 65 69 . that lacketh bread. who else must sweat and toil. For Commerce. My 29 tho' the child of Agriculture. Lordi Thou hast a gallant which fear 57 Will be imposed on by the closer sort. we grow weary 53 Of his officious glory. devouring all Our burden'd vessels. My me leave to shine sometimes. Fie. Dear 45 a prince should always keep his state. Now.Poetical Sketches 28 Perhaps more glorious in the philosophic mind. My Lords. The merchants do complain. When I sit at my home. Infest our English seas. \Aside. the French have fitted out many ! Small ships of war. And England is the land favour'd by Commerce . These are my thoughts yet it were best But keep a proper dignity. as tradesmen.clouded. that speaks what my narrow observation has Lords. my dear Lord. thoughts take in the gen'ral good of the whole. Well. Or they are never rightly valued. Then you will give Clar. true wisdom drops From your tongue. My thoughts are on my gardens and my How employ the hand to 21 fields. 6r to business. Religion will flourish . Clar. I Mayor of London 41 : have another boon To I ask. Looking to the gain of this O my Clar. And gain but scanty fare. private duty and council with my my sit in pleasure. a private man. 'tis with the sun. fear Lord Percy will not give me leave. I ask your leave To If dine to-morrow with the I obtain your leave. 'tis sometimes with princes as o'er. Queen Phil. 37 my talkative youth. prince. I hope their Lordships will excuse your giddiness. 33 like honey as from a worship'd oak. Fosters his parent. Clar. and beg our aid. Lord Clarence you proceed not But speak of your own pleasures. my Not merely our native land. spoiling our naval flocks. but what I have concluded from your lessons. good Lord. Forgive. Fie. by the Queen's advice. Be England's trade our care . like to ravening wolves. Then. Percy. I . Pick'd up.

their will . brave Sir Thomas Smiles on our army. 77 : — To England. my Lord. SCENE. They can. the bright Into the battle. fear that made him fight so. Lord Percy cannot mean that we should suffer This disgrace if so. when at the birth of nature deep the Ocean ceas'd and fawning play'd around Her snowy feet. Can they not help themselves ? Bish. brave Lord Percy you have the thanks Of England's Queen. Sir Thomas you but joke Give I ! . Aud. 85 . — Aud. Edward 's afraid of Philip. will bring these Gallic rovers under. my Lord morn don't know. In you . me your hand. Exultingly Dagw. 89 Worthy Lord Bishop. of England. and own'd his awful Queen. By the same reason That makes you fight. if the heart is sick. Yet will I. and may but how to gain 29 . When almost singly he drove six thousand French from the ford.I Appeitdix The merchants are rich enough Percy. When that they find they must. Thanks. . and work him onward To this most glorious voyage . Aud. that Heaven gave Bish. Requires our countenance and help. You say. Yes. Lord Audley. \Exeunt. is wise 93 Quickly to the Lord Mayor. Good morrow. we are not sovereigns Of the sea our right. they will: Percy. Ha. At Sir Cressey. These rovers : defend themselves against this is a noble scheme. Let them but suffer awhile. my Lord. Thomas Dagworth and meeting. and now I'll tell you what think you do not know. and the gallant sun Springs from the hills like a young hero . I I 5 : Why. shaking his golden locks this is a promising day. the brave Lord Percy. and you shall see They 73 will bestir themselves. Lord Percy. Ha. the head if but one member suffer. on which cast I'll set But my whole we estate. and will. and as worthy His generous aid to put it into practice. Must be aggriev'd The heart doth fail. if they will. ere long. I might say 'tis 9 13 fear . roar. the merchants She was seated His mighty in the 81 . did he fear then? Dagw. Did you ere see him fear? At Blanchetaque. what was rash in me Percy. if you please. I dare not own the plan. Audley. 'Tis not Mine. Can. 97 Queen Phil.

33 : Dagw. . and I am very much afraid. He is a young lion. Chand. look you here. And. That Edward runs away from Philip. Sir Thomas The Prince may I Chand. Of having my back laid open we turn Our backs to the fire. do you call that fear? I don't know. One rotten And if the sheep spoils the whole flock 49 . 17 to his face. when the coward runs. : 29 . Chandos. Sir Thomas. Aud. the The King caught here 53 in Perhaps the air of the country I feel it coming upon me. know you understand me a distemper ! ? . all afraid. you are a wise man. at Cressy my . Sir Thomas. have not heard. . to the fields of Cressy. you call fear? Your 37 . Sir Thomas. : 45 for Philip. And. brave man totters. you I know what fear 41 is. perhaps he takes it by fits. Sir Thomas. I hope so. Enter Sir John Chandos. Is of He do not think. I Dagw. 21 where to-morrow. His back. And so will the whole army. Why. Dagw. and strike a bargain for The enemy he has danc'd in the field Of battle. None of us but me. For. nor none. Sir Thomas? I believe that as much as I believe The King's afraid but what are you afraid of? 25 ! . like the youth at morrice play. Why. 'tis very catching. Perhaps you think the Prince too is afraid? Dagw. Lord Audley. Are you afraid too. I'm sure he's not afraid. Good morrow. what distemper Distemper. No God forbid I'm sure he is not. Attd. noble Chandos. O I have seen him fight And give command. Aud. so I is 61 the cause. France of running away. I say. and lightning has flashed From his eyes across the field I have seen him Shake hands with death. There. fears to turn his face. bell-weather is tainted. and you to turn your back. fear a different kind then from the King's. nor Warwick. And this. I wish not catch the distemper too. Dagw. To-morrow we shall know. till we shall burn our skirts. you say you have caught it too. then I will say He is afraid : : it he makes us cannot bear the Now here we are I enemy at face. No one can say he fears. back. Generals I give you joy Here we stop. strive against 57 it .Poetical Sketches 30 look upon Edward's But -when he turns Mayhap you may Dagw. Welcome And wait Dagw.

Down goes But we are our right to when . . . And would again. was I 85 have been wing'd inspir'd these brave troops. I . but his disorder Sir Dagw. With And By certain victory be shall and . When I have seen the field glow. nor shook the field. Dagw. Chand. I 93 have a small petition to your Majesty. my courage shrunk and wither'd. France. 69 deaf. Plainly. And in each countenance the soul of war Curb'd by the manliest reason. I think retreating Too often takes away a soldier's courage. Sir Thomas Dagworth ask that Edward What can King. my still 'tis glory. refuse? 97 hope your Majesty cannot refuse so great A trifle I've gilt your cause with my best blood. and my voice scarce heard. Sir would not have sooner parted with Than such a soldier as you have been. Edward. Dagw. and wish myself Worthy the high command that Heaven and you Have given me. with respect and deference I look 8r Upon such noble souls. Ne'er shouted to the Heav'ns. I will know the most remote particulars Of this your strange petition that if I can I still may keep you here. Makes him Enter King Edward and Black Good morrow. were I not forbid By him whom I am bound to obey: my hands Are tied up. you must have your joke. Such an army of heroes 73 . thou art Most happy. Can 89 Your Grace had Dagw. I've told him before. I I beg know I may not return to England. and such a Nay. Prince. 105 I . That 10 r Thomas. My sinews slacken'd. I my boast. 65 Here comes the King himself: tell him your thoughts Thomas. while you can fight as you did at Sir King. Therefore King. having such command the man 77 * : Were who were base not fir'd to deeds Above heroic. Prince. nothing conquerors every where Can stand our soldiers each man is worthy Of a triumph. Them better make Generals. To be plain. all Thomas Dagworth.Appendix I You yet are whole we Retreats. what you could have ask'd. my son. Generals King. Sire. after a few more know how to retreat all shall — 31 Better than fight. friend : 109 . The Ford. English courage fails. having such examples. but. And shall.

Wolf is hunted down by causeless fear. Fears the small fire that plays about the fen.' Last night. and I am as light As the young bridegroom going to be married. 'Twill be a gallant thing to fight or die . and bite the padding foot. And brings good counsel from the breast of laughter. Dagw. Now. your Majesty's afraid of Philip. now I understand your mirth. my soldiers. astonish'd at the clam'rous Cock . reap rich harvest Then go And 129 if to England. new plume our helms. Now my heart dances. And You I : hope And and see us you'll stay. A raw-bon'd fellow t'other day told him to put off his hungry looks — He answer'd me. Negro in the crevice of the rock at this The The Doth seize the soaring Eagle They tame submit . tim'rous Stag starts from the thicket wild. he was ' pig enough To light another pattle. the fields of Cressy we are settled Philip springs the tim'rous covey again. hearts on set all in tell fight this battle.Poetical Sketches 32 Here on Dagw. us. undone by such the effect : 121 flight. 'Till The The Lion flees. The The The The The The 125 shining Snake glides o'er the bending grass. ' I saw a I told him he look'd little hunger like a a fiery face . plum'd. fearful Crane springs from the splashy fen. 153 me . Sir Thomas. and fear usurps 113 his heart. are more like a Lion than a Crane Therefore I beg I may return to England.' Welchman with I pass'd by 157 . that doth gaze upon the sun. Else he would never dare to attack us. and thinks we flee from him. get my feet are wing'd. Crane o'ertaken fighteth with the Hawk. Dog doth seize the Wolf. On noble souls. Now 145 them ready. And we will sing like the young housewives busied must flight. Which often plays with Wisdom for its pastime. I Dagw. the Forester the Lion. In the dairy For to I 149 : King. fight. Eagle. 117 moment of their idle fear. Then I can never be afraid of Philip. If all my soldiers are as pleas'd as you. has flight Now hear its opposite. Startled. King. for another battle. the fields of Cressy them how fire to 133 be with we 137 . Furbish our armours bright. The If. Now the quarry's set! and Death doth sport is Philip 141 In the bright sunshine of this fatal day. Stag turns head and bays the crying Hounds. Snake doth turn. but not an please your grace. candle half Burn'd out he answer'd. beneath .

and more A hero to the servants of his house Than to the gaping world he carries windows 181 : \ExH Dagworth. And shook his mortal dart against my head. O Liberty. ! I 205 Lead them on to battle I see thee blow thy golden trumpet. proceeds from self-dependence. glory fires his breast to enlarge his castle While the poor slave drudges all day. and build himself a hut. and rich as midsummer. how glorious art thou see thee hov'ring o'er my army. and at each pause he wip'd His dropping eyes. . I chid them both. be thou near our person Sir King. in hope still 'Til! . all May He Prince. : He will move onward to plan conveniences. face of the earth.Appendix I The moon walk'd abroad. into ardour. If Philip came arm'd in the ribs of death. and hedge A spot of ground this he'll defend 'tis his By right of nature thus set in action. 197 . the weak inspire. 185 . and wish'd health to his father. Give but a slave his liberty. my Chandos. These are the minds that glory in the battle. To 20I rest at night. I see thee King. Courage. to think he's a free agent. That man's a hero in his closet. Chand. when 33 had pitch' d Their tents. while . Thy O SAMPSON D 209 . but gave them noble hopes. Teach man 193 my Lord. and all were still I heard a blooming youth singing a song He had compos'd. and meet to council. Liberty within him. . with Thy wide-stretch'd plumes . The ditty was. ' 165 Another wept. And leap and dance to hear the trumpet sound. for thou art suited to the Throughout the camp Blow up the sluggish work. And wing their brows with hope and expectation Then to our tent return. Thomas Dagworth. In that enlarged breast of his. Thou'dst laugh his fury into nerveless shame I 169 . and Confirm the strong with strength. And hath the is a genuine Englishman.' I all i6i . he'll shake Off sloth. Sir John I think Englishmen the bravest people on Forgive My The . : 173 ! 177 will not part Go now. 189 spirit of my prejudice. if he Return'd victorious. Thy heart richer than the vales of France is with such a man as thee. Chand. think thyself a gardener. sons shout the strong shout of victory ! noble Chandos. he should wed a maiden Fairer than snow. that see what's done within. enflame the timorous.

\Exeunt Prince. and guide Th' ambitious tendrils in the paths of wisdom My Thy : . us down. And breathe my hopes Where thousand deaths 217 King Edward. Methinks the shout begins. like a springtide. Methinks And see them I gird the 225 And dance to the neighing of our steeds. my Chandos. It is my In truth I am too full 229 . in her Frail bark. swOrd upon each thigh. Come. 221 into the burning air. be our pleasure. and fit Each shining helm. Sir John. Chand. and want of use Use makes the armed field and noisy war Pass over as a summer cloud. thou seest my weakness strong nature Will bend or break us my blood. Methinks I see them perch on English crests. Commission'd to this fatal f^eld of Cressy. Chandos. son a vine. the battle burns. till may have tir'd at length. room. Roams round vast Nature's forest. 233 : . and view our former joys sit 257 . Chandos. Does rise so high to overflow all bounds Of moderation while Reason. . the strongest sated and tired the changing sameness. And. 253 of thought. are posting up and down. 1 . Seizes the fruits of time. . where no bounds Then. 213 Water him with thy advice and Heav'n Rain fresh'ning dew upon his branches. old variety. attacks experience. 237 : 241 : am a coward in my reason. Are tir'd set. Chandos. And may our duty. And roar the wild flame of fierce war upon The thronged enemy. sin to love the noise of war. I will unburden. Now we are alone. impatient takes the wing. That my full-blown sails overset me not In the wild tempest condemn my 'ventrous youth. You are a man. and 'tis our duty. my Edward. as we may all each prefer other Tis the best policy. unregarded. my prince. and findeth discontent.Poetical Sketches 34. 245 : Or but expected as a Age is contemplative Brings forth fruit to thing of course. take the helm. dear son learn to think lowly of ! — Thyself. the swiftest Find prey With We . and string each stubborn bow. That plays with danger as the inndcent child Unthinking plays upon the viper's den . can see no shore or bound for vast Ambition. arm my gallant soldiers. which I commit unto care prune all extravagant shoots. 249 each rolling year the mind's treasure-house: While vacant youth doth crave and seek about Within itself. but your heat If I can judge of actions Is the effect of youth. and a brave man.

293 \Exeunt.Appendix I With and distaste Prince. But do you not think. What is the tree you mentioned ? I don't think Dagw. Chandos. Sir John. . . tn Sir Thomas Dagworth' s Tent. And master'd? Considerate age. dislike. . It is it. I know That youth has need of age to point fit prey. Leaving a track of light for men to wonder 373 at. Shall warble round the snowy head. Which my youth Chand. that if it please Th' Almighty to stretch out my span of life. I shall with pleasure view a glorious action . William. 377 when 38t my Lord. neither warbling voice Nor trilling pipe is heard. Dagw. not acts . Then it grows most in France the vines here Will. We And oft the stander-by Of th' other's labour. if Then. These are the tricks of the world but the pure soul Shall mount on native wings. and leave them all forlorn Yet not forlorn if Conscience is his friend. William a root that grows in every breast . I know the wolf : we fall. the growth of ev'ry clime. not dangerous 35 265 for food. nor pleasure sits With trembling age. I ever saw Dagw. beat round Nature's wilds. it grows most in lands most cultivated. 26t we must tug for experience. but the oaks are not. and taste and touch and sight and sound and smell. sitting As guardians round your chair then shall the . Will. D 2 ? . Aye. SCENE. Aye. Sir? Dagw. Ambition. Will. I'm glad my father does not hear me talk You can find friendly excuses for me. Ambition is . good Nor is the hide a comely vestment so have our battle for our pains. disdaining Little sport. Are finer than any we have in England. Sweeter than music in a summer's eve. Williayn his Man. Shall flee away. We Is to fight. Dagw. Is it a little creeping root that grows in ditches Thou dost not understand me. Will. 269 shall steal the fruit This is philosophy. Dagworth and Bring hither my armour. Does it grow in England. and keep Sweet symphony to feather'd angels. and cut a path into the heaven of glory. 289 pulse Beat slow. views motives. the voice of Conscience 385 then. That sing and dance round Reason's fine-wrought throne. Let us not fear to And rouze the strongest prey then if fall with glory.

will tell Will. William. without knowing Thou Dagw. while reason runs aground. Then. this is no time for No. art there's a story you'll give me come into my head. if ambition is a sin. Now. . and fitted to the finger of an emperor. Will. I always thought that a man might be guilty of doing wrong without knowing it was wrong. dost know? aye. such is that worthy Chandos. Peter. an endless moralist. have a great ambition to . song about the French and English. Dagw. . because you love to hear . that I will tell j'our leave. for all our blood and bones are in France and a great deal more that we shall all hear by and by and I came to tell your honour. thou dost thrust the question home but I must you that. William.Poetical Sketches 36 Ambition Has But is the desire or passion that one man to get before another. which is for not true. but not for your much difference between him or shining glass and me as between glittering sand and fruitful mold and a wrought diamond. in any pursuit after glory I don't thinlc you have any of it. that we may be remembered in Old England. I forgot to tell that . I should be glad to know if it was not ambition that brought over our King to France to fight for his right? Dagw. know every thing. . as we have run our argument. Now Will. aright. Thou art a natural philosopher. I compliment. Dagw. Sir. all have it in their power to know the motives of their own actions. guilt being an act of the mind. But when our first ideas are wrong. Sir. Peter. and the Prince has made the minstrel a 'squire. Dagw. yet I you that it was ambition. story-telling : story. and knowest truth by instinct . Only remember. . Will. there's as . only e'nt so good natur'd. . what follows must all be 'tis best to know a little. And whoever Will. war-songs. and I can't tell whether he don't mention us all one by one and he is to write another about all us that are to die. Now. Tho' the knowledge of that will not profit thee much. guilty in in fighting for him. and 'tis a sin to act without some reason. Then. Yonder 's a musician going to play before the King it's a new Peter. have I I . Dagw. none are guilty but those whose minds are prompted by that same ambition. and to know that little wrong of course . Will. And who is this minstrel. Yes. Enter Peter Blunt. Peter. and given him I don't know what. William. save it till another time but here comes one who is as entertaining as a good Dagw. and we are all coming with him. your information. tell . set in rich gold. that the prince is always with the wise man that knows us all as well as your honour. Dagw. honour if acts without reason may do a great deal of harm it. O — thank you. he has got the same name as Sir John Chandos.

Cover'd with silence and forgelfulness. Sit singing in the azure clouds. Peter. brave Sir Walter. Where peace and joy and love and calm content. at the tournament Windsor. tho' borne on angels' wings. It To be exalted to those heavenly 25 fields. and strew Flowers of heaven's growth over the banquet-table. Thousands of souls must leave this prison-house. walketh about. at . Why you Will. terrors are round The curtains of their Ready at the door. seems to me as pale As the pale fainting man on his death-bed. Tho' sunshine light it. know. cover'd with stones and deathy dust. Sir Thomas Dagworth. Yet death is terrible. Will. destruction How many 9 is sleep 13 In earth. I Dagw. and you was very angry with me for not flattering you. in cities' Turning themselves upon their beds.xit Peter. \E. Dagw. How many walk in darkness. SCENE. get you gone . Dagw. How terrible then 17 the field of death. and in still night. Where And shake is the gates of hell. \Exeunt. answering his hard demands. the very sky. 29 . Go. does not think any thing of yourself. Sir Thomas Dagworth^ s Dagworih — Filter Sir Walter Sir Walter. you or Sir Walter. beds. You mean that I was angry with you for not flattering the Earl of Warwick. Thousands must fall to-day. makes me sad and sick at very heart. whose spirits walk Upon the clouds of heaven to die no more. Death wons 5 smoke. when we were in England. have been weeping i Over the men Dagw. but every body else does. Why. you ask'd me if he did not look well when he fell and I said No. he doth rend the vault of heaven. flattery is delicious. Sir. When men sleep in their beds. I know this I may breathing flesh must fall. Thomas to hint I Manny. Dagw. and the Earl of Warwick was tumbled over. Where songs of triumph. palms of victory. know your honour I 37. lie and rot. ai Whose face is shewn by light of sickly taper. flatter don't know that. Talking with death.Appendix I Peter. Resting in quietness. How many in walled cities lie and groan. O Dagworth. never I your honour. he look'd very foolish . even from the lips of a babbler. that are to die to-day. Sir Tent. France is sick.

. — ! ! .Poetical Sketches 38 33 Bind ardent Hope upon your feet like shoes. I'll fight and weep. Burning up nations in Song: i O 5 your wrath and fury! Your ancestors came from the fires of Troy. and I 45 . That murmur down their pebbly channels. as fire Threatening as the red brow of storms. \Exeunt. field of war. broken with wind and tide (Like lions rouz'd : 9 . in the Camp. and black and dreary war. brave Sir Walter let me drop Then let the clarion of war begin. I've often seen the burning often heard the dismal clang of arms But never. the sun Rolling dark clouds o'er France. decked in tears. and shields covered with gore. Heated with war. 'tis in my country's cause. till this fatal day of Cressy. Put on the robe of preparation. While the black gore drops from his horrid jaws Yet I not fear the monster in his pride But O the souls that are to die to-day a tear. And Has my I seem 37 good stedfastness. muffling In sickly darkness like a dim eclipse. Whose voices are the thunder of the field. Her mariners shall use the flute and viol. her fields shall Her ships shall sing across the foaming sea. to And seem be in one great charnel-house. With helmets hewn. shall rise in victory. In navies black. seem to hear the dismal yells of death. rattling guns. nor ever sheath 'Till Or I 6r drum beat. Dagw. fall Sir Walter. 49 53 : smile. of death. to scent the rotten carcases. 4^ soul fainted with these views of death. The table is prepar'd in shining heaven. . service Spend their sweet lives to do their country Then shall England's verdure shoot. Sir Walter. fill'd with the blood of Greeks. Well. Shall be no more. Whose eyes do glare against the stormy fires). cloath'd in war. I'll weep and shout for glorious liberty. And blood shall flow like streams across the meadows. 65 England blow the trump of victory. Several of the Warriors meet at the King's Tent with a Minstrel. and the 57 And Let war stain the blue heavens with bloody banners it up I'll draw my sword. who sings the following sons of Trojan Brutus. by light'ning from their dens. let the trumpet sound. Grim war shall laugh and shout. Stop. The flowers of immortality are blown Let those that And those that fight fight in . lay stretch'd upon the field SCENE.

Shall laugh. Price 3s. Book. and vales whose in rich fruitful laps 45 array bend down with fulness. Our fathers move in firm array to battle The savage monsters rush like roaring fire 25 . would seem to show that Blake engraved these subjects as a companion volume to The Gates of Paradise. The sepulchre of ancient Troy. ' This work. : — And my Our sons * heart labours with futurity : shall rule the empire of the sea. 1793. which is described in the same leaflet in identical terms. Blake's. forest. In the prospectus of 'Works now published and on sale at Mr. Cities shall sing. the red lightning. and thou shalt be our grave. Naked and roaring like lions. : Then Brutus spoke. 41 ' Their mighty wings shall stretch from east to west. and awful pow'rs.' the first entry in Blake's list of subjects for a history of England (MS. the enormous sons Of Ocean run from rocks and caves wild men. Giant voices Are heard from the hills. .' is included ' 19. . 116). Hercules Buildings. 35 Giant voices England. Defy'd the storm that howled o'er their heads 33 ! Our fathers. Lambeth. the parched heavens Lights on some woody shore When . lean on their spears. . like oaks entangled Thick as a ready for the axe. and thrones. no copy of which is known to exist.' they said Our children's mother. p." he said . Like as a forest roars with crackling flames. Rain fire into 29 the molten raging sea. . our fathers sit 37 Attentive on the melancholy shore Hear ye the voice of Brutus 'The flowing waves Of time come rolling o'er my breast.' 13 . and view The mighty dead giant bodies streaming blood. O how oft have they Spoil'd of their verdure. 13. The History of England. . for plenty shall bring forth. a small book of Engravings. but they shall roam nor shall the young Like eagles for the prey Crave or be heard. Their nest is in the sea. . 21 . and arms. The smoaking trees are strewn upon the shore.' October 10.Appendix I 39 They landed in firm array upon the rocks Of Albion they kiss'd the rocky shore Be thou our mother and our nurse. Giants ancient inhabitants of giant bodies] Cp. sweating. ' Our fathers swarm from the ships. inspir'd . from whence Shall rise cities. And 17 wielding knotty clubs. borne by furious storms. No. hurling rocks. Dread visages frowning in silent death. * . .

when the frowns of his countenance Drive the nations together. souls are torn to everlasting fire. . surrounded with shining spears. Each one buckling on his armour Morning Shall be prevented by their swords gleaming. : 53 Their daughters shall sing. how forsaken Weep from thy silver . and the red scourge follows her desolate sons. And fiends of Hell rejoice upon the slain. when Tyranny hath stain'd fair . To drown the throat Are shaken. O who can stand O who hath caused this O who can answer at the throne of God ? ? 13 ? The Kings and Nobles of Hear it not. ! ! . ' Liberty shall stand upon the cliffs of Albion. families.Poetical Sketches 40 Our sons shall rise from thrones in joy. she covereth Fair Albion's shore.' Prologue. the flood of Death. Brother in brother's blood must bathe. the trumpet. who can stand? 5 When the whirlwind of fury comes from the Throne of God. and the Who can stand of soul When ? and a tongue war When ! l the senses driven to madness. Then Patriot rose full oft did Patriot rise. Heaven. for Albion's sins are crimson dy'd. Casting her blue eyes over the green ocean . calls to battle. Round his majestic feet deep thunders roll each heart does tremble. tow'ring. ' 49 . who can stand Sin claps his broad wings over the When And sails rejoicing in When ? 9 battle. And Evening hear their song of victory Their towers shall be built upon the rocks. stand upon the roaring waves. and her all 57 . Stretching her mighty spear o'er distant lands While. Or. O land most hapless O beauteous island. Albion's breast with her own children's gore. rivers of death. The stars of heaven tremble the roaring voice of war. is the souls of the oppressed Fight in the troubled air that rages. with her eagle wngs. intended for a Dramatic Piece of King Edward the Fourth O for a voice like thunder. thy Land have done it ! Ministers have done it ! the Prologue to King John Justice hath heaved a sword to plunge in Albion's breast . and each knee grows slack.

the noise of shout. the weeping The husbandman doth leave his Blood cries afar! The land doth sow itself! The bending harvest! The aged senators their glittering youth of courts must gleam in arms ancient swords assume The trembling sinews of old age must work the work of death against their progeny. prepare the iron helm of war. "Whose Why Had And fatal scroll is that sinks my heart. thou shalt be humbled thy cruel brow. O Proud. prepare ! Our cause is Heaven's cause Be worthy of our cause Soldiers. weep from thy gentle rivers Thy widowed virgins weep beneath thy shades Thy aged fathers gird ! ! ! themselves for war The sucking ! infant lives to die in battle . The arrows of Almighty God are drawn ! Angels of Death stand in the low'ring heavens Thousands of souls must seek the realms of light. and myriads shall to her temples crowd Her sons shall joy as in the morning Her . 15 Prepare. her mariners shall sing upon the sea. arm. over the well-fought ? I field. ! ! ! daughters sing as to the rising year A War Song to ! Englishmen Prepare. rise. prepare. Bring forth the lots. Her citizens shall peaceful arms. prepare. Soldiers. with ghosts. for Tyranny hath stretch'd his purple mother feeds him for the slaughter! ! ! 'the chariots and the horses. : : Prepare. cast in the spacious orb . ? why Methinks faultereth 'tis my mine ! tongue three lives. 5 Prepare your hearts for Death's cold hand prepare souls for flight. your bodies for the earth . O troops. and stretch her lingering Fate is slow. and raise her golden head exultingly throng about her gates. 25 . I'd die in such a cause. prepare. prepare Prepare to meet our fathers in the sky ! . prepare. And casts them out upon the darken'd earth i ! Prepare. Th' Angel of Fate turns them with mighty hands. is smitten. And walk together on the clouds of heaven ! ! 20 Prepare. and 'blood' he cries and dreadful thunder of the battle heard afar I' Beware. . Prepare your arms for glorious victory Prepare your eyes to meet a holy God ! Your ! ! 10 Prepare. that are to fall to-day ! Prepare.I Appendix 41 The angel of the island weeps fountains. prepare. thine iron heart. though O yet may Albion smile again.

I walk in regions of Death. But lo. my son. when ' is asleep. rustling and the owl and bat flew round the darkening in brakes and thickets In former times. I seem to walk through a deep hard and death is terrible The damps of death from the light of day. sinful my helper may come Through the void space I viralk. when the cold clay breathed with life. by the brooks is thy of water. trees such an evening. tree is . ' O my son. there is Horrors stare me in the face upon me no returning Death follows after me.' The youth is a God. and our ancestors. on all is silent when Nature takes her repose. : youth. pray ye for me Stretch forth your hands that cloak. ' face in the dust. between the O for a hand to pluck Beneath me burns eternal fire world and is ! ! eternity As the voice of an ! ! me forth ' ! omen heard in the silent valley. breath infected? So is mine. far . prepare. how should I raise mine eyes ? My voice hath used deceit. Clerk. alone and comfortless wind the is Parting valley. who made the world how should a from heard a voice like sepulchre. and Silence reposed in the valley the birds of day were heard in their nests. Like the bubbling waters of the brook in the dead of night. without a lantern to direct Thus he laments through the still my me. the aged woman raised her cry. As the deer wounded. that dwellest in my breast. of the woods drops trickle down. walked on the stedfast globe. with His loyal queen shall rise. and lift my eyes to Heaven? Thinking of this my spirit is turned within me into confusion. 'O Voice. O my child. . and make his harp The Norman William. were gathered to Sorrow linked them together leaning on one the sick bed of a . I know but little of the path thou goest. who now sleep in their graves. The Couch The veiled of Death Evening walked solitary down the western hills. replied. . without a staff to support till the curtains of darkness were evening. if I lift up my head. when the thin beams of the moon give a faint light such was this young . how should he not be offended ? If lay my the grave opens its mouth for me . I stretch it out ? My ways are sinful. and welcome us And ! 30 Prepare. the aged woman raised her voice. where no fall thick ! ! . the remains of a family of the tribes of Earth. ! I look behind. and said." steps. so the arrows of sin stick in my flesh . when the few inhabitants cling trembling together as the voice of the Angel of Death. can I not cry. the poison hath entered . Like the sound of a broken pipe. a mother and a sister. man's voice to his friends. His voice was low as the whisperings .Poetical Sketches 42 Alfred shall smile. My hand is feeble. my child. and the learned rejoice . sin covers me as a O my dear friends. Lion Heart. like lilies dropping tears in each other's bosom. there stretch out thy hand to Him. another's necks alternately. I loathsome. and the visions of Heaven unfold their visitation. how should I call on Him who is Truth ? My breath drawn. . and black-brow'd Edward. when the evening they stood by the bed like reeds bending over a lake.

he fancies he Wisdom's name. where only 'Tis Contemplation. Now great. breathes out his soul with joy into eternity. daughter of the grey Morning » ? Nature's foot hath trod Majestical she steppeth. while on his majestic brow the voice of Angels is heard. sighs succeeded his mother's sighs. The traveller that hath taken shelter under an oak. how little thou seest thou where Mirth sits ! ! . Staff . while the airy jingling trappings. The moon hung not out her lamp. Such smiles were seen upon the face of the youth. I answered. they covered their faces and wept. . and the drops of rain glisten. he rushes up and lays hold on the immortal coursers of day. is grown into a giant Lo. that roams on it is a flower that grows in every vale. thou then art lord of all. hovering Angels are around night.' in mortality. and wear it in thine Clamour brawls along the lord of thyself. Sorrow slept with me in my cradle he followed me up music I fills am wrapped . Even in childhood. eyes the distant country with joy. where. was in my I walked through dreary places with him. the yellow harvest breathes. the its arms along the velvet meadow. the sky glitters with the Like a triumph. till the into my sun shine. and I oft found myself sitting by Sorrow on a tomb-stone. and stringed sounds ride upon the wings of The sorrowful pair lift up their heads. and a ray of light beamed around his head. till he became to me as my brother. my flesh is a prison. that with unerring step dares tempt the wilds. season follows season. All was still. and destruction hovers in the city's here build thy nest here fix thy in these silent woods. ! lofty rocks. 'Heavenly goddess ! the world with joyful sounds. and the thankful eyes of the villagers are turned up in smiles. Humility. whispers in mine ear. them. voices of comfort are heard over the Couch of Death. take it. . blow the green grass delights blossom around . The youth lay silent. true joys descend heart ! . my bones the bars of death.' Like rolling waves upon a desert shore. : . and Discontent runs like a brook. and with her pure quill on every flower writeth lowly bending. and the nimble air kisses the leaves . and streets. and the youth . he was my schoolfellow thus he in my play. . . 'cause his garments are swoln with wind. its silver inhabitants sport and play the sky. Contemplation Who is this. how O man. slave of each moment. and grow immoderate to brave it out? Those who want Happiness must stoop to find it garb true Joy puts on Vain foolish man. Misery builds over our cottage roofs. arm was under his head . he was like a cloud tossed by the winds. and the stars faintly glimmered in the summer sky the breath of night slept among the leaves of the forest the bosom of the lofty hill drank in the silent dew. numberless beauties the brook stretches springs in joy. smoak but on these plains. a visionary hand wiped away his tears.Appendix I 43 marrow. and in church-yards .' and down house steps and in the when I grew up : . then. . 'O man. lord of eternity on the painted cheek? doth it not seem ashamed O what an humble of such a place. youthful sun joys like a hunter rouzed to the chace.

black thoughts Their helmed youth and aged warriors in dust together ly. Shut up. from his secret and wrest unconquerable. breeding dark plots. ' Samson. tear put honest-seeming brow. ere once again the changing moon her do thy guileful work traitress force circuit hath performed. ! \ .' For now. do the deed : one blow of master's wife no. : Go on. Dark thoughts rolled to and fro in his mind. and upon her sumptuous couch reclined in gorgeous pride. . and Desolation spreads his wings over the land of Palestine from side to side the land groans. and pierce the ears o' th' gods Thou wouldst my Look not upon me with those deathful eyes me not Thus. presence with blessed feet.Poetical Sketches 44 Samson foiled Samson. his feet embracing. she bath'd his feet. Who saj's Destruction was thy father. to seem more lovely in thy loose attire put on thy country's pride. all . the strongest of the children of men. Come hither. . a lioness that thou wast born of mortal kind ? ' tried in vain . what can I fear? the utmost may be warded off as well when told as now. the holy kiss of love. his Though was troubled his soul was distressed. deceit and Lord for gold. Alas. . O whiterobed Angel. I am I withdraw your hand I'll run I will go mad. I sing how he was death. thy young hands tore human limbs. and tear my crisped hair your enemy O Samson. darkened. I'm thine . and let thy master thy . do . like thunder clouds troubling Palestine. . turning our earthly night to heavenly of the Almighty Father thou visitest our darkling world from .' and thus she day by day oppressed his soul he seemed a mountain. thou art not love death cloathed in flesh thou lovest. art thou not Samson's servant ? 'Tis Dalila that calls . hold me not thou lovest about. bringing good news of Sin and Death destroyed. Death. and death approaches fast. and thou hast been incircled in his arms! To thee Thou art my God Alas. O of the to wife Truth. wedded ! to . noon-tide while in dark pavilion. ' ! ! ! ! ! suckled thee. ' the sky I should secret of . eyes of love decked in mild sorrow and sell thy she still intreats. my Lord. fair in vain she wept in many a treacherous tear. guide my timorous hand to write as on a lofty rock with iron day.' visage tell her my birth. that all who pass may of damned spirits. . thou shalt overcome. in false tears. with sorrow. By night I am deceived. a false woman's gates brought arts. . Night. and conquer him by Call thine alluring arts and him. death. purple and silver neglect thy hair. by by that shinest with propitious beams. her prowess lost. pens the words of truth. . ! ! : . council sat Philista's lords . stay. that strong rest. ! then should I lay at quiet and have O Dagon furious. arm would ease my pain Pity forsook thee at thy birth . what am I calling thee ? My days are covered I pour my tears for sacrifice morning and evening. over the silent earth spreads her Now read. and the transparent on fair linen that with the lily vies. my She saw him moved. O foolish Dalila O weak woman it is thou'rt war. and seeks to hide her bruised head under the mists of night. Thou lov'st me not still she grasps his vigorous knees with her fair arms. where strength failed. and all ye gods of am but a weak woman. Though I should tell this heart. and thus resumes her wiles. his brow among the clouds she seemed a silver stream. in and. and gorged human flesh. For Dalila's fair arts have long been ambush lay.

none can hurt thee thy bones are ." Then. nor eat of any unclean thing. when his evening tale is told. and eat not any unclean thing. thou shalt said he mild he hailed her. like the summer grass. rose from and thought on east. ! . time for contemplation. doubt no more of Samson's love for that fair breast was made the ivory palace of my inmost heart. Pensive.Appendix I 45 I am with me what thou wilt my friends are enemies ray life is death a traitor to my nation. . thy sinews are iron. how Philistines be upon thee. and blessed their innocent mirth . she wondered with exceeding jo}'. . after that. . Childless he ' : . till venerable age came on hath other plenty crowned his board beloved. ! . Ten thousand spears are brass. Didst thou not tell me with green withs to bind thy nervous arms. Manoa left his fields to sit in the house. and in Israel he lived. when I cried upon thee to bewail that Samson loved me not. and silent prayed to Israel's God His form was manhood in the prime. and take his evening's : rest from labour — the sweetest time that God has allotted mortal man. for holy unto Israel's God I am. an army of mighty men are as flocks in the vallies what canst thou fear? O worse than wolves and I live upon sorrow I drink my tears like water But O at tygers. when lo. son. and. the fields of light entered the house. conceive. he saw . his flocks increased. alone she sat within the house. and he shall be called Israel's Deliverer. when busy day was the forsaken fading. that it might not be broken. Alas. She saw the maidens play. a Nazarite even from my " Grant mother's womb. and calm evening. but thought his God knew best." Manoa cried but Heaven refused. using deceit to the wife of his bosom. " Hail. and from his spacious brow shot terrors through the evening shade. she blessed each new-joined pair but from her the long-wished deliverer : : . nor knew he so seemed he to depart was an angel. Is burdened Israel his grief? The son of his old age shall set it free. for he shall be a Nazarite to God. where it shall lie at rest for sorrow is the lot for care was I brought forth. therefore. Thrice hast thou mocked me and grieved my soul. But " "for lo. " The Then did suspicion wake thee. revered of man. Now. departs. and labour is my lot of all of woman born nor matchless might. nor could conceal aught that might Hear. when in thy sleep I bound thee with them to try thy truth. . ! . as a neighbour. kind Heaven. Samson!" Thou fearest nought. what shouldst thou didst thou rend the feeble ties fear ? Thy power is more than mortal. In solitude. drink no wine. O Dalila ! appease her then. I did even that to try thy truth " " The Philistines be then didst thou leave me but. and inward griev'd. when I had found thy falsehood. : : : . though not obscure. nor wisdom. The venerable sweet'ner of his life receives the promise first from Heaven. with new ropes to bind thee fast ? I knew thou didst but mock me. Twice was it told. weave thee to the beam by thy strong hair. . I cried. nor every gift enjoyed. can from the Twice was my birth foretold from heaven.' He sat. ! and lov'd the beauteous suppliant. thus he spoke. and heart of man hide sorrow. me a son. twice a sacred vow enjoined me that I should drink no wine. highly favoured! Israel's and and bear a strength shall be upon his shoulders. to shame my over-fond inquiry. shall spring. his blessing leaving. He . what canst thou give when such a trifle is denied me ? Thou toldest me to last thou mockest me. But God joys in store. mourned. and drew the curtains of heaven : pensive she sat. and despised my joy is given into the hands of him who hates me. an angel from Israel's grief. leaning on her bosom.

My name is wonderful enquire not after it. is God." The Angel answered. that thou mayest sit and eat. Oppression stretches his rod over our land." he. Let us detain thee while I make ready a kid. our vintage is gathered by bands of enemies. and save. The sword was bright.Poetical Sketches 46 and heard with joy. when thy " sayings come to pass. and tell us of thy name and warfare that. and reaped in blood. who Israel still doth keep. we may honour thee. . O when shall our Deliverer come? The Philistine riots on our flocks. doubting : then prayed till hope grew Manoa slaughter reach from hill to bears a sword. again the angel came. the plow-share rusted. and was ready to give place to Lord. who came and talked with him. The time rolled on. Stretch forth thy hand. hill. and praised God. our The echoes of country is plowed with swords. The aged woman walked into the field." Thus prayed Manoa. seeing it is a secret but. The wolf teareth them. offer an offering unto the Lord. and Israel groaned oppressed. and lo. thy flock is scattered on the hills. : . if thou ' wilt. comest from far." . she ran and called her " O man of " thou said husband. while sat. feeble. the ox goad : " O Instead of peaceful pipe the shepherd turned into a spear. Clad as a traveller fresh risen on his journey.

found in Blake's autograph on the fly-leaves of a copy of the original edition of Poetical See Sketches. 9 So clad. Shepherd. We can abide life's pelting storm. 11. and here reprinted from Shepherd's text (ed. Whilst Virtue is our walking-staff. And jewel hangs at shepherd's nose. p. to this place. we'll abide life's pelting storm. Paleness We flies . stranger. The jewel health adorns her neck. p. also his Introduction to that edition. 1874. Innocence doth like a rose Bloom on every maiden's cheek Honour twines around her brows. 8 That] Which EY. 154. That makes our limbs quake. Blind-man's Buff {Poetical Sketches). Shepherd. 2 When p. Innocence is a Winter's gown. boisterous wind. . Song by an Old Shepherd When silver snow decks Sylvia's clothes. I. if our hearts be warm. 5 And Truth a lantern to our path. 154). .APPENDIX II [The two songs referred to in editor's introduction. 1-2. That makes our limbs quake. p. Blow. Where joy doth sit on every bough. stern Winter frown. vi. . from every face reap not what we do not sow. if our hearts be warm. nose]. I stranger] little stranger EY. That makes our limbs quake.] Song by a Shepherd Welcome. if our hearts be warm. 154. . Cp. . We can abide life's i pelting storm.

.

SONGS from ^^ ISLAND (an untitled SAMPSOM IJ^ THE MO 03^ Autograph MS. E circa 1784) ..

. and Sipsop the Pythagorean.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO AN ISLAND IN THE The Blake MS. must have been page 21 or 25. lacking is two perhaps four) leaves through the loss of one (or two) sheets from the centre of the single quire of which it is (or composed. Suction the Epicurean. and the vanities are the same.' or rather is left unfinished by the It ends abruptly author on line nineteen of the recto of the leaf following the lacuna in the text. in this Island you so much alike. were employ 'd when Mrs. Etruscan Column. which is scribbled over with rough sketches and pen-trials. in comes sophers sat together thinking of nothing. among them Blake's signature — — The written backwards as if engraved on copper-plate. but which. now the seventeenth page. volume of sixteen folio MOON leaves. which small island seems to have some affinity : — ' 'to England. and begins at the head of the first page (recto of first leaf) In the Moon is a certain Island. and since it is also. & what & is more extraordinary the people are language so much the same. The remaining pages are blank. that think was would you among your friends. Quid the I call them by the Cynic. with the exception of the verso of the last leaf. when the book was complete. as . the Antiquarian. names of those sects tho' the sects are not ever mention'd however the things still there. near by a mighty continent. known a thin foolscap as An Island in the Moon. as being quite out of date. the three Philo. their dwells three Philosophers. & after an abundance of Enquiries to no purpose sat himself down & so they described something that nobody listen'd to. The autograph is in Blake's early hand. Gimblet came in. remain. soiled appearance of this last verso proves it to have been the original outer leaf of the MS.

Messrs.Island in the Moo7t 5 1 the watermarks show. with copious though rather inaccurately printed extracts. was perhaps intended by the author as a satire on the little coterie of distinguished personages which met at Mrs. Chatterton controversy. from this MS.' The work has never been printed as a whole nor. placing one of the songs among the Later Poems. Johnson published work. vol. with tolerable cerJohnson's death. the other half of the sheet on which the work begins. Lawrence Housman. and would seem.. has reprinted three chapters as specimens of his prose. Book. probably in the latter year. were this done. in their edition of Blake's works. while. T. Yeats' surmise that An Island in the Moon preceded and even led to the publication of the Poetical Sketches in 1783. strangely. to have been still a . as J. The brochure itself. 186-201 and Mr. contains the first drafts of Holy Thursday and the Nurse's Song. . ' ' ' We topic of conversation. and December 20. when. circa 1789. are more likely to have been written before than after may therefore. i. Smith tells us. as we know from the epigrams in the MS. who . when Blake wrote. date it between the publication of the Poetical Sketches in 1783. though Quid the Cynic may possibly stand for Blake himself. and that Blake's gratitude for Mr. which may be described as a somewhat incoherent and pointless precursor of the Headlong Hall type of novel.' and had these beautiful lyrics been written in 17H3 it is difficult to believe that Blake would not have included them in his first The doggerel lines on Dr. ElHs and Yeats' conjecture that the MS. Mathews' share in defraying the cost of printing the little volume caused the author to leave the present work unfinished. dates the MS. 1784. at one time possessed a first leaf containing a title-page. This is to attach a to trifle unnecessary importance evidently dashed off by Blake for his own amusement without thought of publication nor. tainty. moreover. which reached its height in 1782. Blake's relations with the Mathews and their circle had become somewhat In chapters 5 and 7 there are references to the strained. pp. . Mathews' salon in Rathbone Place but. there are no grounds for Messrs. was it the poet's wont to allow social patronage or material assistance to interfere with his Celtic privilege of free satire. if so. The MS. Ellis and Yeats have given a synopsis of the chapters. I am unable to agree with Mr. would it £% ' . the originals of the portraits are not now to be identified.

Ellis and Yeats. and ' * Books. such as This frog he would a wooing ride and the London I do not repeat here ' ' ' ' I cry my matches as far as Guildhall.' or The Little Boy Lost. Charles Fairfax Murray. which all lovers of Blake may pass over. trivialities or doggerel sung by children or drunken boon-companions.Bibliographical Preface 52 Its chief interest to literary reputation. as the writer intended them. even at this early date. . ' the early versions of Holy Nurse's Song. a number of choruses and nonsense verses are placed in Some of these..' are plainly not Blake's at all while others are.' the Thursday. Besides the six songs which follow. who has since presented it to the Fitzwilliam ' street-cry. the first drafts general readers must lie in its giving us of three of the Songs of Innocence. My text of these poems is taken from my transcript of the original MS. . I have thought it necessary to print the whole of them in an Appendix. Cambridge. kindly lent to me by Mr.' variant readings to which are given in the footnotes to the Songs of Innocence. of Blake's rooted antipathy to science add to Blake's in its foreshadowing. Since these pieces have been referred to and partly quoted by Messrs. Museum. some years beforehand. the mouths of several of the characters. the illuminated printing which he afterwards employed in the Songs of Innocence and in the Prophetic and experiment. in its evidence.

For flesh & he could ne'er agree She would not let him suck. & keep them down with his fist. 5 then] there EY. And ran about with bloody hands To seek his mother's life. : — : Only printed by EY i. and all in the space of a Quarter of an hour he does not mind their crj'ing — tho' they cry ever so. t^ . ' ." Then the Cynic sang ' . 13 in] on EY. make such a piece of work fori" "Hang that!" said " let us have a Suction. and thrust his fist in.FROM THE ISLAND IN THE MOON When old corruption first begun. what a wicked beast — ! From then a callow babe did spring. he had a child. Adorn'd in yellow vest. in Moon. . — p. song. 193. that have it done for nothing. : 4 And this he always kept in mind And form'd a crooked knife. vi "Ah !" said Sipsop. t>» And old To think For now corruption smil'd his race should never end. & tell them that he'll scrape their bones if they don't lay still & be quiet What the devil should the people in the hospital. — Isl. chap. He committed on flesh a whoredom O. 3 He call'd The babe him Surgery with his & fed own milk y . "I only wish Jack Tearguts had had the cutting of Plutarch he understands anatomy better than any of the Ancients he'll plunge his knife up to the hilt in a single drive. he'll Swear at them.

ao which] that EY. .Moon Island in the 54 And as he ran to seek his mother He met with a dead woman. father grinn'd skipt about. 33 . And brought forth 21 & & ' For now ' ! spott'd fever. He fell in love & married her — A deed which is not common She soon grew pregnant. stopt up all its vents. said I'm made for ever 1 Scurvy The & 17 I have procured these imps 25 I'll try experiments. to swell neck. discover'd guts. which he had made. Shall do the world He thro' the holes first & 29 soon more good.' With that he tied poor scurvy down. & 8 And when the child began He shouted out aloud — * I've found the dropsy out.' He took up fever by the And cut out all its spots And.

Susan. Maidens dancing. ix '"Hang Italian songs! let 's have English. know i. while steelyard walk'd about the room. 18. toe.' 5 loves a sporting] lovers sporting EY.' Pills to this song were perhaps suggested by 11. 198) print ' ' . EY (i. WBY. Miss. p. loves a sporting. "English Genius for ever— here I go—. " Mr.' EY p. she repeated these verses. chap. Scopprell. p. LH WBY. do you Moon. Bob. in WBY p." said The subject and metre of Quid. people. 8. Jellicoe in faint peagreen. 7. Isl. who can be In happiness compar'd with ye? The Pilgrim with his crook & hat Happy 9 Sees your happiness compleat. chap. 95 with — title ' The Pilgrim. & Joe. and 25-7. made of Love i ! To thy wide gates how great a drove On purpose to be yok'd do come Widows & maids & Youths also. in Moon. 106." He that intends to take a wife.Moon Island in the 55 11 [The Song of Phebe and Phebe drest like beautie's Jellicoe] i Queen. 7 Bob] Bab LH. Sitting all beneath a grot. viii the song of 'Phebe and Jellicoe'?'' "No. Lightly tripping on a row. . purge Melancholy." said Scopprell. p. 144. That Or on beauty's on beauty's bum. — Then ' Then said Miss Gittipin. Where the lambkins little trot. Johnny. 13. in Hail Matrimony. 10 with] to EY. iii. 196. lightly trip sit — Isl. 5 All the country folks a courting.

hanged you have the face to make " The phrase in the last line. Or Locke. Or any Comfort find. as EY point out. Tis you that come in time of need. & he. sang time. ! makes them skip it . (? friend) or EY. in Printed here for the first ' & Then Quid called upon Obtuse Angle for a Song. ye Come & be cured of all your pains ! swains 25 ! — 7 In Matrimony's Golden cage 17 Some tender lover] Some Hail] EY omit. i Like Sir Isaac Newton. explains game of matrimony ? the ' golden cage in the third stanza of How sweet I roam'd from field to ' ! ' ' ' field'. looking on the corner of the cieling. Formed to suckle all Mankind. and EY. is 19 amiss Widow gay smile. or 's her heart To . — MooH. " said " Go and be " how can Scopprell. 6 Sutton] Thomas Sutton. 10. she if Some deaf. Or Sherlock upon death I'd rather be Sutton — ! Isl. Then come. They chirp & hop away. or Doctor South. p. 1783. ye maidens come. 25 maidens] maids. iv To be or not to be Of great capacity. : — ' . Or Nature's hand has crooked her For Or if Yet. just cured of the pip. makes them Like Birds. Without you we shoud never Breed. cure whatever In damsel or in It wall-eyed well inclined.5 Moon Island in the 6 Hail fingerfooted lovely Creatures! 7 The females of our human Natures. for a Bride. chap. if a Damsel 's blind or lame. ix wiping his face. universal Poultice this. is tender lover she shall find That panteth The is 13 frame. 27] Here the song abruptly breaks off. s^e Poetical Sketches. founder of the Charterhouse (1532-1611).

for convenience. preceding song] as ix — * O then it did not The Lawgiver was very beg'd to have it sung over again fail ! attentive & again . He drew out of the Stocks His money in a box. With brown face as ale — Good English Isl. Or Sir Isaac Newton ? This city & this country has forth brought many mayors To i in state. And to the Carpenter He was so fervent. With walls of brick & stone. score. [to the till the . He furnish'd it 7 within With whatever he could win. 13 And sent his servant To Green the Bricklayer. And all his own. . He sinks & gutters made. Or Sherlock upon Death. 19 . The chimneys were three The windows many more And. in & any nut with drinking of strong hospitality. — — Was not this a good man Whose life was but a span.Moon Island in the S7 For he did build a house For aged men & youth. chap. Moon. sit & give forth laws out of their old oak chairs. Whose name was Sutton As 25 Locke. And all the way he pav'd To hinder pestilence. or Doctor South.

4 lose] love . . xi — Here a laugh began. 4 and 8 Good] Old EY.' title i. WBY. O then it did not fail beef ! company were & tired. WBY. with A Song of ' Isl. WBY. me EY.Moon Islaiid in the 58 With scarlet a gowns & yeoman sweat broad gold lace. WBY. each eat as much as : The hungry poor enter'd the hall to eat good & aleGood English hospitality. insisted which he readily complied with : on the Lawgiver singing a song — himself. Here Till And O leave [me] to my sorrows & fade away.' following the inaccurate version given of the refrain in the first and second stanza by EY. pp. Any if 5 walk Hear my voice upon the Breeze. I ' WBY. they were stout & haleGood English Thus the at sitting O hospitality. 'Old English hospitality is long since deceased. WBY (p. WBY. 102) prints as a single stanza. Then chance along this forest in pathless ways. sorrows] sorrow EY. i . ' WBY EY i. EY. ' Sorrow. 198-9. 200. & beef O drinking beer. 10 law] VI Leave. ' Cp. . 135) entitles this song Old English Hospitality. has] have laws EY. I lose this form of clay. in Moon. Thro' the gloom he'll see my shadow. table then it wide did not fail ! Mayor & Alder- the men Were fit 9 to give law to the city ten . With stockings roll'd above their knees as jet With eating & shoes as black .' an essay reprinted in the Miscellanies of 1778. make would 5 . with which work Blake appears to me to have been familiar. sit I'll I'm nothing but a spirit. (p. and Miss Gittipin sung — EY p.' I me] omitted in orig. chap.' in Chatterton's Antiquity of Christmas Games.

i ! — A Isl. Not in the Bat with Leathern wing. chap. ! Winking Winking Winking & & & EY. 190. & his round chin. p. Lo ! Sung by viii. •X* sl^ . ask the Gods no more! No more! No mox&\\ the three Philosophers bear chorus. iii. 'If you don't own me a Philosopher ^ •^ '^ *<^ ^ ^Ir ^X* ^L« •1' Is/. chap. No more No more f ! ! Isl.U. chap. Sung by Quid the Cynic. i8g. so EY ! i. Honour And I let go at only so it & Sung by Quid the Cynic.APPENDIX TO AN ISLAND IN THE MOON a Phebus came strutting in. poor frail man god wot I know none frailer. I know no greater sinner than John Taylor. this evening we'll "4^ all f get drunk. O ho ' ! said Dr. I say. iii. main sail. ix — '"I •4' ^l' . fore sail. 5 so & so] so so EY. blinking. 6 Johnson To Scipio Africanus. & Genius is all I ask. chap.v. in Moon. is it you would please to have? Little With his fat belly What Ho! Ho! I won't IsL in Moon. ht Moon. Johnson. ^X* •>!' *4' say. i blinking. p. Like Dr. Steelyard. in Moon. ' Quid. . blinking. the Lawgiver. EY i. & his mizen. Hear then the pride & knowledge of a Sailor His sprit sail.

Johnson Said Scipio Africanus. \st Vo. p. dash. *T» *X* 'i^ 'I* And lo ! ** *!* vv ^ vT '^ y\ the Cellar goes •rgi 'T* *(^?^^^*l>^?J^»I>'f»^ down with a step {Grand Chorus). an Anthem! an Anthem stanza. 196) print this .6o Moon Island in the Suction. !" said Suction — .' EY (i. 'A ha ' to Dr.

chap. jn Not in EY. let O. chord tn .Moon Island in the 6i This frog he would a wooing ride. : 1st. He has given me a black eye.'' said he. And broke the stumps. Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes of England (Percy Society). and favour us with a fine song. He does not know how to handle a bat Any more than a dog or a cat He has knock 'd down the wicket. in Moon. Isl. And runs without shoes to save his pumps. That Bill a foolish fellow 's 9 . chap. Throw ! good mind to go you all. — & ' Here nobody could sing any longer. 13 till Tilly i And Sinior Falalasole. * — I you Joe. he sung . us the ball i say." Then she sung w' Cp. you sing like a harpsiMoon. ix your bounty descend to our fair ears. — There's Doctor Clash. they sweep in the cash Into their purse hole Fa me la sol La me fa Sol O ! Isl. xi Lally pluck'd up a spirit. with same refrain. I cary. chap. Kitty alone Kitty Alone! Kitty alone! Cock I cary Kitty alone. 1842. I never saw such a bowler To bowl the ball in a tansey. Kitty alone Kitty alone This frog he would a wooing ride. variant of this song. Kitty alone & I ! ! ! ! ! — " " Miss Gittipin.' Not in EY. I've a And And leave to clean it with my 5 hankercher Without saying a word. in Moon. Kitty alone & I Ting cock. xi — ' The Lawgiver all ! the while sat delighted to see .

' Not in EY. ii A Fa me La me la sol Gentlemen fa sol Gentlemen ! ! i6 ! Rap! Rap! Rap! Fiddle! Fiddle! Fiddle! Clap! Clap! Clap! Fa me La me la sol fa sol ! " Mr.62 Island in the Moon Great A." Then Sipsop sung . them Jn such a serious humour. 6 little A." said he. & he was forced to sing himself. And Long fingers & thumbs. in Moon. 1 A crowned king. you must be " O. You'r out of the key ! ! Fa me La me la sol fa sol ! Musicians should have pair of very good ears. On a white horse sitting. Bouncing B Play away. "funny enough. — 'Then said the Lawgiver.' Not in EY. — . " Scropprell. who refer to it as a song in praise of William the Conqueror. Ho Ho Ho! I am no singer I must beg of one of these tender hearted ladies to sing for me. his trumpets sounding. let's Isl. 'twas Victory I William the prince of Orange. victory. And not like clumsy bears. With And And Banners flying Thro' the clouds of smoke he makes his way. Play away. chap. ix have handel's waterpiece. of his thousands fills his heart with & victory. the shout of his thousands fills his heart with rejoicing And the ! & shout rejoicing Victory . acquainted with a great many songs?" ! ! . dear sir." They all declined.

SONGS OF INNOCENCE and OF EXPERIENCE .

J. .

' which is probably attributed by a cataloguer's error to the Songs of Innocence. which were then etched in a bath of aqua fortis until the work stood in relief as on a stereotype.935) there is an entry of three coloured sketches for the Songs of Innocence 'from the collection of a friend of Blake's.. in tints meant to harmonize with the colour scheme afterwards applied in water-colours by the artist. in his prospectus of 1793. The only original i. he styles 'illuminated printing. which are described as being in Blake's usual rich style of colouring and as differing considerably from the published engravings. and it is evident that no such sketches were known to Mr. in a medium impervious to acid. Gilchrist's statement {Life.. — designs known to the present writer are the following (i) In Quaritch's General Catalogue (1887. This would seem to be pure assumption.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE AND OF SONGS OF INNOCENCE EXPERIENCE The Song's of Inriocence (1789) was the first of Blake's works produced by the novel method which. W. in the ordinary manner. ' . M. upon small copper plates about 5" by 3''. . the Introduction ('Piping down the valleys wild'). Rossetti.' are the Piper frontispiece. . 68) that 'by the end of 1788 . the illustrated had been executed conveys the imdesigns in colour pression that before engraving Blake had completed an entire series of coloured illustrations to the Songs of Innocence. 201-64). impressions were printed.' The text and surrounding design were written in reverse. or he would undoubtedly have included them in his exhaustive 'Annotated Catalogue of Blake's Pictures and Drawings' (Gilchrist. P. : ' ' ' SAMrSO!* F .' These designs. From these plates. which to economize copper were in many cases engraved upon both sides. ii. In the dexterous interweaving of text and design Blake anticipates the modern school of book illustration. and a third drawing called 'An Ideal Hell.

To the Public. title-page. In 1793 Blake completed the engraving of the Sottgs of His prospectus.' and giving a list of ten year. issued by the author without change during a period of nearly forty years. Original autograph versions of three of the Songs of Innocence are found in the unpublished Blake manuscript known as An Island in the Moon. transcribed.' are evidently the first rough draft. complete copies of the little book in its original form — These include five The The Little Girl Found. The Songs of Innocence was at first issued as a separate work. such as 'The Tyger. from an earlier notebook or from loose scraps of paper. must of course be regarded as the only authoritative text even where. ' ' ' Little Girl Lost.' and The School Boy which were afterwards containing thirty-one plates.66 Bibliographical Pi^eface (2) There are besides in the Rossetti MS. and introduction. With the exception of the frontispiece. dated Oct. Several of the latter have the appearance of being fair copies. These loose leaves were then stitched by Mrs. All these variant readings are here given in the footnotes to the . 10 of the same Experience. the earlier manuscript readings seem preferable. The engraved version of the Songs. Book the original designs for two of the Songs of Expei'ience^ The Angel and The Sick Rose the latter different in many respects from the version subsequently engraved. Manuscript versions of eighteen of the twenty-six Songs of Experience form some of the first entries in the Rossetti MS. the thirty-one plates occupying seventeen leaves.' ' ' — generally transferred by Blake to the So?tgs of Experience. while others. at one time. Probably many of the originals were merely pencil draw' to quote Blake's own phrase ings with nothing to seek ' ' ' ' — We ' — — engraving on pewter which would recipe naturally be destroyed in the process of rubbing off on to in his for the copper. Songs. though the two last were still sometimes placed by him among the Songs of Innocence. Book. in most cases by the rough process known as * stabbing.' The Voice of the Ancient Bard. addressed ' . as in a few cases.' a cord being laced through holes punctured an inch or two apart. have no reason to believe that Blake first executed for all the songs coloured sketches which have since disappeared. Blake into paper covers. the plates in this earliest issue were printed upon both sides of octavo paper.

which would make the entire number of plates in the two. Blake's. Blake here. in the ordinary sense of the term. and described as containing Hercules Buildings.Songs of hmocence works ' 67 now published and on Sale at Mr. and is known to us by only two examples. each being priced at ^s. yielding sixteen impressions (six being engraved on both sides of the copper). This is the form in which most copies of the Songs occur. the issue of the Songs extending from the completion of the Songs of Innocence in 1789 to the close of Blake's life. it would seem to have been deliberately rejected by the poet himself. the plates printed on one side of the leaf only and numbered by hand consecutively one to fifty-four. Gilchrist in the second volume of his Life of Blake. as the watermark shows. Frederick Macmillan. which thenceforward were issued by him as one work. including the general title-page which had not then been engraved. In 1863 ten of the original plates. In 1794 Blake added a general title-page to both series. in other cases. as I learn from Mr. of this or of any other of Blake's engraved works. series fifty-four. which. which he has reproduced at the end of his facsimile of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. were printed from electrotypes which have every appearance of having been made from the actual plates engraved by Blake. Though this poem is inserted without question in all editions of Blake since Shepherd's. The plate Blake in this ' it is not found in any authentic copy of the So7igs issued in the lifetime of the artist or his wife.' advertises the Songs of Innocence and the Songs of Experie7ice as two separate books. The outline designs there. according to his practice twenty-five designs. Sets of impressions were struck off as required. F a i. 125) a few copies were . As this is the full number in a perfect copy of the Songs of Innocoice atid of Experience. and were used by Mr. and the other is a proof impression in the possession of Mr. 13 Lambeth. does not include either frontispiece or titlepage. were still in existence. prospectus must have reckoned 'A Divine Image (' Cruelty has a Human Heart ') among the number. One of these is in the uncoloured co'py of the Songs in the Reading Room of the British Museum. William Muir. It should be noted that there was never any true edition. The present whereabouts of these plates I have been unable to trace. no. was containing printed not earlier than 1832. According to Gilchrist {Life.

uncoloured poor copy of the So?igs acquired by the British Museum in January. while it affords a fairly good general idea of Blake's designs. already referred to. 1831. Besides the sixteen plates reprinted by Gilchrist. Tatham. These last issues are printed upon larger paper and upon one side of the leaf only. The only uncoloured copy of the Songs of Innocence and of Experience known to the present writer is the very unworthy example. perhaps F. The second is the very beautiful reproduction made by Mr.' This agrees with the modest price {^s. in which part of the plates at least were printed after the death of Blake and his wife. is coarsely executed and exceedingly inaccurate as to the text. as Mr. produced after 18 18. — Works of William Blake. and. 124) tells us the artist received for the first issue of the collected Songs probably refers to coloured impressions. reprodiiced in facsimile from the original editions (100 copies printed for private circulation)^ This has evidently been prepared from the very 1876. into whose possession they passed after Catherine Blake's death in October. measures 13'' x lof". were added with a fine brush. the plates are sur- rounded by delicate borders of trees. or two guineas which Gilchrist (i. or blue and white. In a copy exhibited at the Grolier Club at New York in 1905. The earlier examples of the Songs of htnocence are distinguished by the simplicity and delicacy of their colouring. which. 1864. are as absolutely the originals as those appearing in the copies printed by ' Blake ' — except of course in having been printed from electros instead of direct from the plates. Rossetti points out. These frames. the edition being limited to fifty copies. in the Reading Room of the British Museum. The out- . G. The Monckton Milnes copy. which are not more than a quarter of an inch in width. and even drapery. of Experience. This is a made-up copy. and in lacking the superadded water-colour tinting there are three modern The first of these is given in The facsimiles of the Songs. D. each) at which Blake advertises the Songs of Injiocence and the Songs of Ex^ '^^^ thirty shillings perience in his Prospectus of 1793. and each plate has the additional embellishment of a wide wash border instead of the simple red line with which Blake ordinarily surrounded the designs. William Muir in 1884 and 1885.68 Bibliographical Preface ' issued plain in black and white. contrasting in this respect with some of the later more elaborately illuminated copies of the Songs of Innocence ajid by Mr. vines.

and delicacy of Blake's lettering.Songs of Iiinoceiice 69 drawings are here facsimilized by lithography. cameo plates have. as the editor points out. 'The Tyger. though order that of the Songs of Experience from the famous Beckford Library copy.' The Little Girl Found. on the contrary. tinted impressions. The plates are without engraved foliation or pagination. beauty. There is also a useful facsimile of the outlines of the line — — by Mr. printed upon one side of the leaf only. Quaritch at the Hamilton Palace sale. These exquisite facsimiles leave little to be Blake's desired in their general fidelity to the originals.' being written in the former style of lettering. however. There is no engraved Table of Contents. A.' 'London. Edwards.' with the introductory stanza to 'A Little Girl Lost. are arranged in a different the plates. W. Songs. Edwin J. a sharpness and definiteness of outline impossible to achieve by printing from stone. The early issues of the Songs of Innocence are without manuscript pagination or border lines. and now the property of Mr. which. purchased by Mr. Ellis (Quaritch. plates are here reproduced by a photographic process. In Blake's Songs of Innocence (including. are foliated at the top rightis ' ' ' ! . with the exception of The Voice of the Ancient Bard.' which is in italic. and a collation of various copies of the Songs shows that the order in which the plates are arranged varies in almost every instance. much more accurate than the reproduction of 1876. The Little Girl Lost. In the Songs of Experience. Blake substituted for roman the more easily formed italic characters which he first adopted in the Book of Thel four (1789) and used in all his subsequent works. edited The though a trustworthy guide for Blake's text. Muir fails in the difficult technical feat of reproducing the grace. White of Brooklyn. originally belonging to a Mr.' and 'A songs. only Sunflower.' *Ah Poison Tree. as in the first ' issue. 1903). however. July 4. and partly no doubt for this reason Mr.' and The School Boy ') the body of the text is in minuscule roman. and catchwords are only used where one of the longer songs is continued on to a second plate. fails to represent the clearness of the originals where the copies have been made from Neither of these facsimiles. Later issues of the two series. to Flaxman copied from the volume which Blake gave it may be noted. and the colouring added by hand from the finest examples accessible The tinting of the Songs of Innocence is to the artist. 1882.

This index. are as likely to have arisen from the fact of a number of impressions having been printed at one time. title-page. B. Blake's earliest arrangement is found in the extremelyrare first issue of the Songs printed upon both sides of the In Table I I give the collations of five copies of leaf. the deficiency of the original being supplied by two leaves of the earlier issue. Muir has given in facsimile at the end of his reproduction of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. in the same brown or red ink with which Blake added the border lines surrounding the plates. as if printed on the verso. bound by C.D.Bibliographical Preface 70 corner. must have disappeared These coincidences of arrangement. B. plates printed upon the same leaf being bracketed together and those on hand the recto being placed first. and it was probably with the intention of rectifying this defect that Blake compiled. April 24. Some copies bearing Blake's own foliation seem to be arranged regardless of system. of the same juxtaposition is the example in the Print Room of the British Museum. which is written on two opposite leaves of quarto paper. the table showing the order in which the songs should be paged and arranged. . among the books sold is recorded an incomplete copy of the Songs of Innocence This volume was in which these four plates are wanting. yet in four of these the same designs are invariably found further instance either as recto or verso of the same leaf. as from any deliberate intention on the part of the author. the Songs of Innocence and in Table II of one copy of the Songs of Innocence a7id of Experience. This is evidently a made-up copy. and C.. however. 1H93. so that the two missing leaves. A ' ' ' ' ' ' which we may reasonably conjecture have gone to supply the lacunae in the Print Room copy. It will be seen from these tables that although the order of plates is not identical in any of these six copies. The first three plates of the Songs of Innocejice. at an early date. may be dated approximately . as in A. which Mr. M. the frontispiece. either for his own guidance or that of his wife. The Ecchoing Green (two plates) and the Nurse's Song and Holy Thursday are printed upon either side of the same leaf. in which. are printed upon one side of the leaf only the frontispiece was generally bound. Ditchfield. In a sale at Sotheby's of the library of J. Lewis in 1782. to face the title-page. and Introduction.

[2nd leaf of index begins] page 24. pretty Rose Tree. The Little Vagabond. 3. 8. Spring. Laughing Song. On . &c. The 19. 11. 16. Cradle Song. is followed in the present edition. 34. Ditto. The Clod & Pebble. The Blossom. 48. The Shepherd. London. Holy Thursday. The Angel. 17. &c. Nurse's Song. 2. 20. The Sick Rose. 39. Title Page of Songs of Experience. Ditto. Infant Joy. 13. 40. 36. Chimney Sweeper. On 27. A 24. 14. The Tyger.Q. Ditto. however. Frontispiece of Child on the Shepherd's head. Frontispiece. 44. Introduction. Night. Dream. of Love. 53. Earth's Answer. 41. 16. 46. Little 8. 29.f Later — of Innocence. 26. The Little 26. show an entirely different order. Experie7ice. 21. 21. The Voice of the 43.. General Title. Introduction Piping down the Valleys. 47. Poison Tree. The Divine Image. Hear the voice of the Bard. Another's Sorrow. 23. 10. Ditto. in which the Songs of Innocence Experience ought to be paged & placed. 6. 6. 4. as the only one in which Blake is known to have laid down explicit instructions regarding the order of the songs. A Little Girl little Black thing. Introduction The Fly. 15.' This arrangement. it *The Order & of Page I. 9. Boy 25.'>. Holy Thursday. 25. 30. 35. 9. The Lamb. dream. The Human Abstract. 51. 31. The Little Boy Found. A 52. 27. Lost. 7. Ecchoing Green.Songs of Innocence 7 1 by the watermark (1818) of the Monckton Milnes copy. Frontispiece of Piper.P. 5. 7. Ditto. The Garden Little Boy Lost. 54. II. &c. 18. The Lamb. 49. A A 50. This later arrangement of the Songs is as follows: I. A The Little Boy Found. To Tirzah. The Ecchoing Green. The Little Boy Lost. The Shepherd. 19. End of Softgs of Lmocence : then Begins ' So?tgs of [page] 28. 13. Night. 4. Title-page to ^t'w^. Ditto. Infant Sorrow. Lost. 18. 5. 22. 14. with which coincides in arrangement. 23. General Title. — '>. Ancient Bard. 17. 12. The Chimney Sweeper. 45. 42. The Blossom. 37. 15.R) placing the plates in identical sequence. Ditto. Nurse's Song. 3. five copies (N. 22. The Little Black Boy. Infant Joy. The Divine Image. The Chimney Sweeper. ' — Black Boy. Title page to Songs of Imiocence. Cradle Song. Little Girl Lost. Holy Thursday. and others approximating closely to the same standard. 2. 10. 38. Laughing Song. 12. 32. Spring. 0. Song. My The School Boy. Nurse's 20. issues.

The School Boy is retained among the Songs of Experience and The Voice of the Ancient Bard is retransferred to the end of A A A A ' ' ' . The Nurse's Song. printed upon one side of the leaf only. 50. 40. 51. Holy Thursday. 49. The property of Robert Hoe. 31 plates. ' ' ' ' the Songs of Innocence. 48. 43. Size 7^ x ^\ inches. may be obtained by noting the positions of The School Boy and The Voice of the Ancient Bard. predominating tone of yellow brown. Boy. Introduction. 30. Flaxman's copy. 44. 38. The Human Abstract. levant morocco. Without No dated watermark.'] fairly satisfactory test of the date of a copy of the later issue of the Songs of Innocence and of Experience.72 Bibliographical Preface Another's Sorrow. The same. 37. 41. School Girl Lost. Without pagination.53. printed upon 17 leaves. in two of the very last copies produced. The Angel. The Without sa7ne. The copies described in this and in the two preceding tables are A. B. 39. Esq. Coloured very beautifully with extreme finish. George Barclay Moffat. Pebble. The Little Vagabond. New York. [End of Songs of Innocence?^ 29. 47. The Garden of Love. Bound Size 61^^ x 5 inches. printed upon 17 leaves. in citron morocco by Bedford. . Sold at Sotheby's. Originally in worn-out red leather binding. The Chimney Sweeper. 31 plates. 45. New York. . Frontispiece. Poison Tree. Printed in yellow. Simple colouring. The The To Tirzah. Now in the possession of Mrs. 28. Little Little Boy Lost. The Fly. London. The Tyger. C. Little Girl Found. Now . 54. 34-6. as in Blake's in later first impression printed upon recto and verso issues both are placed among the Songs of Experience while. Printed in golden brown. pagination. No dated watermark. Infant Sorrow. Songs of Innocence. Voice of the Ancient Bard. Title-page to So?igs of Experience. : 31 plates. 42. printed upon 17 leaves. Earth's Answer. 32. [End of Songs of Experience. The Clod and 31. with autograph of his sister. My pretty Rose Tree. The Little Girl Lost. Coloured with pagination. In the original blue-grey paper binding. 46..' In earlier copies these two songs are included in the So7igs of Imioccnce. No dated watermark. The Sick Rose. 52. now re-bound in red Size 7| x 5x\ inches. 33. In Table III I give the collation of the sixteen examples known to me.

^^ plates on 32 leaves. Foliated consecutively by Blake. though not bound up with. from the covers of which it was rescued Now in the Rowfant by Mr. Esq. it. The same. printed on one side of the leaf only. 6yf X 4y| inches. Size 7i x 5 inches. 54 plates. No dated watermark. Bound in cloth. G. in the possession of Mr. Nov. Songs of lujiocence and of Experience. Purchased in 1900 from Quaritch. in D. ^ . Pearson. Without border lines. Watermarks dated 1802 and 1804. In olive green calf binding. representing a woman and copy. SydenThis was the copy used by Mr. Size 7 inches in height. 20. printed upon 17 leaves. Foliated consecutively by Blake. Paginated consecutively throughout. ham. Pasted upon a fly-leaf at the end of the book is a pen and ink sketch by Blake. as may have nude boy. Bound in green morocco by Bedford.' one being placed among the Songs of Experience. America. H. The probably error -^ in mistake. by Linnell. Cecil House. An incomplete copy forming part of a miscellaneous collection sold at Sotheby's. Blake's The volume was cut down by a later friend. this copy. 1897. Printed in sepia.. Locker-Lampson. Esq. Feb.Songs of Innocence t^ the property of J. each on separate leaf. Bound in original mottled calf. Songs of Innocence. ' Coloured. F. 1900. Formerly in the possession of Mr. Library. Perry of Providence. nated in pencil. Printed in golden brown. 28 plates. Sold Now the property of at Sotheby's. There are duplicate impressions of The Laughing Song. about 1830. and an autograph letter of Blake's to the same friend were inserted in. owner to meet the dimensions of an old weekly washing book. 22. Butts. Copy presented by Blake to his physician. Robert Hoe.. Coloured. William Muir his coloured facsimile of the Songs of Innocence. No dated watermark. Size Coloured. who Copy describes John Linnell's originated through the fact that a pen and ink portrait of Blake. The same. Coloured in green tone throughout. E. New York. Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Pagi31 plates.

which was bought from Blake by Mr. are placed before the ence. of Gerald Massey the poet. 54 plates. however. August 27. The same. in Brooklyn. Size 5 x 7^^ inches. Songs of Innocence. . is now in the possession of William Linnell. Esq. The inclusion of ' The School Boy among ' the Songs of Innocence points to the original having been rather an earlier than a later issue. R. Watermark without date. beautifully coloured. 1868. York. printed upon one side of General title-page without foliation and the remaining leaves numbered by Blake 1-53. W. and later. I. each printed on a separate leaf. the possession of Mrs. Coloured. with wide wash borders. afterwards Lord Houghton. Presumably a copy followed by Shepherd Copy Phillips the painter. March 30. in Pickering's three editions of 1866. in the same sepia as the border lines. The same. Bound in the original white vellum binding. Copy L. Shepherd includes among the Songs of Experience the rare poem *A Divine Image. is ' Following the general title-page the Songs of Experiby an error of the binder. separately foliated. Now the property of Mr.' which he may. Foliated by Blake 1-54. 54 on one side of the leaf plates. Size John M. Dated watermark 1818. possibly part of the original binding. Monckton Milnes. the general The watermark title-page being without foliation.74 Bibliographical Preface bearing the autographs. 54 plates. K. of the Songs of Innocence is Whatman 1808.' Very In old calf binding circa 1830. Printed in greenish grey. 181 9. Delicately coloured. and sold at the Crewe sale. printed Each book only. The same. Plates are printed in brown. and 1874. in pencil. 13 X io| inches. The same. but no bibliographical details are available. Linnell. Size 12x8^ the leaf inches. 1903. Bernard Quaritch. This copy. Formerly the property of Mr. Wade. Modern binding. of H. have taken from the posthumously printed copy in the British Museum Reading Room. New John R. in ink. A sheet of brown paper is inserted between the two series.

from Blake by Mr. White. A pencil note in this copy reads Edwards May 1828 [? R. P. 1843. from a Mr. Half-bound in morocco. New York. Linnell. 1883. which was then considered to be a somewhat enhanced price for a coloured copy of the Songs. drawing paper. or Mrs. Esq. Aders in July. J. probably during his connexion with the London Magazine 1830-3. G. 54 plates.() inches.. Linnell. Esq.. j or shortly afterwards. Acquired by Mr. They are now mounted in a book of white consecutively ' ' O. These sheets are mounted on white paper \\\y. in this covered with unglazed calico or holland of a warm red colour. with added border lines of same Richly and splendidly coloured. Esq. 3 x 10 inches. The same. and bound in boards colour. Printed in red. illustrated by Blake]. Printed in reddish orange. Coloured with extreme finish and beauty. Edwards the publisher of Young's Night Afterwards Thotig/its. Linnell from Mr. The plates copy are printed upon pieces of drawing paper varying in height from 6 to 7^ inches. 54 plates. These sheets were originally bound in boards covered with light green calico. sold at the Hamilton Palace sale. 1797. This was the copy which T. Esq. W. through Mr. Size 8| x ^-^^ inches. 54 plates. Foliated by Blake 1-54 consecutively. The same. Muir in his reproduction of the So7igs of Experience. White. Aders. Watermark 18 15. Foliated consecutively by Blake 1-54. on separate 75 leaves. This copy was used by Mr. of James Weales. 13. of Brooklyn. Linnell. for the sum of five guineas. the Beckford copy. printed on one side of the leaf only. and now the property of W. The same. Printed in dull orange-red. printed upon one side of the leaf only. 1836. and now in the possession of James T. . Richly and elaborately coloured. This is the copy bought. and in width from 4^ to 5 inches.Songs of Innocence N. who considered it the best he had seen. A. Bound in green morocco by C. Wainewright (' Janus Weathercock ') bought from Blake. The size of the drawing paper upon which the plates are printed is io| x 8| inches. with added border lines of same colour. Foliated by Blake. Lewis.. in the library the possession of John Subsequently now in whose father purchased it Dec.

In modern binding. Bound in morocco circa 1830. as Mr. Printed in orange. The majority of the plates.76 Q. are foliated by Blake between the outer and inner borders with which he surrounded the designs. W. Murray. Size 8i X 5| inches. 54 plates. with added borders of Brilliantly Size 6-^^^ x ^\ inches. viz. Supplied from a third copy are twelve plates of the the ' leaf. printed on recto only. 51. ' ' ' Songs of Experience. Paginated consecutively by Blake in red. binding. Watermark dated 182. bought this copy in April. Bibliographical Preface plates. Fairfax R. 50. mark dated 1825. 32. 1863. printed upon one side of the leaf Foliated consecutively in ink 1-54. Formerly the property of the artist Edward Calvert. who had received it from Mrs. Robinson. with MS. Perry Blake's friend. Wateronly. printed upon both sides ot The same. Supplied from the early issue of the Songs of Innocence. Linnell to Blake at the same date. and the copy.' Crabb Robinson. Esq. Modern mount floral tracery. 43. 38 in number. N. belong to a copy which. March 1 1. 1826. 28. 38. and are foliated in pencil. Burton. This set of impressions is apparently made up from three different copies. C. as the watermark shows. all printed in a reddish brown. ' are the second plate of The Ecchoing Green printed as recto to The Lamb (verso) and The ' Chimney Sweeper' recto with The Blossom' verso. Field. . which lack the border lines. 33. are printed in a variety : The colouring of some of the plates is rather muddy. Richly coloured and gilt. H. of Providence. and coloured gilt. is a very poor one. S. for the sum of five guineas.. note I received from Blake himself and coloured by his own hand. Printed in golden brown. 47. paid through the elder Mr. as Rossetti points out. which I present with great pleasure to The same. 49. Y. 40. of tints. These plates. Now in the possession of Mr.(last figure wanting). This copy Crabb Robinson's copy. Now in the possession of C. 42. printed upon 52 leaves. 54 ' : Edwin W. was issued not earlier than 1825. Size 7I x 4^ inches. to whom it was bequeathed by Sir F. Linnell informs me. 54 plates. These. 41. The same. Field as a gift in memory of her husband.

Foliated The colour. The same. as a return for a sum of twenty guineas which he had handed to her through Mr. Y. 45-54 are printed in reddish In a Uncoloured. Bound Size 7| x ^\ in modern English maroon morocco.' to whom the author copies It is issued by Blake much exceeded ' . It was sent by Mrs. This is the copy followed by Gilchrist and most later editors in the arrangement of the So?igs. Haviland Burke. side of the leaf only. Foliated in pencil. printed on recto only.' to Dr. but. Blake. 41. printed in own arrangement. Ff. delicately executed according or as harmonious as some of the earlier examples. 44. Bishop of Limerick. 1864. 43 bearing the upon larger watermark 1832. larger paper io| x 7^. Under this heading I give the order of the Songs as they occur in the first letterpress edition This is not traceable edited by Wilkinson in 1839. dated watermark. Esq. as the foliation shows. printed from the original plates after Blake's death. tained the Sofigs of Innocence also. 43. T. Songs of Experience only. Watermark dated ' V. Now in the possession of Robert Hoe. Jebb. Copy in the Reading Room of the British Museum. 1-40 and 42 printed with leaden grey ink upon thick paper. on one inches. modern binding. In 1863 this copy was in the possession of the Rev. Size. and may be the editor's 1831. having at one time formed part of a copy which conby Blake. smaller paper 9-| X ']\ inches.Songs of Innocence Purchased by the British Museum (Print 77 Room) in 1836. each leaf separately mounted on a guard. marked Blake's own. to any engraved original. The described Public. Charles Forster. sepia upon large thin paper. X. some sheets of which bear the watermark somewhat darker ink and thinner paper. 54 plates. purchased January 7. f. The sa7ne. printed No Foliated 30-54. 25 plates. Ff. Richly coloured and gilt. as not is to Gilchrist. Ff. Obviously printed on recto only. 1825.. Songs of Innocence and of Experience. 54 plates. New York. not probable that the whole impression of the Songs in number the twenty-two above.

that the Songs of Innocence and of Experience were printed for the first time in ordinary types. was published by Pickering in 1866. The Gilchrists of Wilkin{Life. v.. while the particular copy from which this arrangement is borrowed has not been traced by me. together with other of Blake's poems.' 'corrections' are the work of Mr. passed into a second edition two years later. Wilkinson omits The Little Vagabond.Bibliographical Preface 78 appeals in his Prospectus and elsewhere. This little volume. volume of Gilchrist's Life of Blake. i. and in others introduced new readings of his own which cannot always be commended. which seemed a pious duty. 1812-99). and such changes as ta'en for took in the lines ' ' ' ' ' — ' fields and happy groves have took delight' Farewell green Where flocks away something of the charm of the original.' In reality his reprint compares not unfavourably in this respect with those of later editors. and Cunningham's Lives of British Painters (1830). Nat. and was reprinted. The order of the songs in this edition differs from that of Wilkinson or Rossetti. Biog. and only a very small edition can have been printed. who has in several instances retained Wilkinson's alterations. published by Pickering and edited by James John Garth Wilkinson (Swedenborgian. had thus only the remotest opportunity of becoming acquainted with his poems save by the two or three examples quoted by Malkin and Cunningham ^ It was not until 1839.' Songs. in 1874. 124. it is most improbable that so faithful take ' ' A ' ' In Malkin's Fathers Memoirs of His Child (1806). is now itself somewhat of a bibliographical rarity. with the Poetical Sketches. His text of 'The Tyger' is based upon the corrupt version of Cunningham. and from the same source prefixes two stanzas. and Diet. who make greater pretensions to literal fidelity. but. to far more accurate edition of the The Garden of Love. twelve years after Blake's death. Book. G. the correction of some few glaring grammatical blemishes These alone excepted. He introduces into the Songs of Experiejtce the Cradle Song taken from the MS. D. Rossetti. 184) speak son's text as 'much altered. in themselves a complete poem. . the biographer states the poems are now given in strict fidelity to the original.' and prints the poems in an ' order which apparently is not derivable from any engraved In 1863 the Songs were reprinted in the second authority.

R. among others. Referring to the changes introduced by Mr.' and later question have been already reproduced at a date intermediate between that of my brother's editing and of the present volume. I have not form of the same poems. Rossetti's emendatory readings. Rossetti. therefore with considerable reluctance that I abandon them. M. and do Blake the disservice of again presenting him without At any rate. which. Yeats in his smaller Muses' Library' edition of Blake. The Song of Experience with the title 'A Divine Image' ('Cruelty has a Human Heart') appears in Shepherd's edition for the first time. as it assuredly is. D. The Aldine edition of Blake's Poems. or here and there of expression. in the large Collected Works of William Blake edited by Messrs. was published in 1874. and they rectify various annoying and inexcusable laxities in point It is of metre or syntax. is A ' . if better. Rossetti These into the poems printed in Gilchrist's Life. W.' renders it sufficiently clear that Blake's text has been restored only in the case of the Poetical Sketches. : : — — ' ' This explanation hardly also less absolutely exact. with a few fresh changes. B. and has been frequently The editor's remarks on the last pages of his reprinted. different and more accurate text is given by Mr. D. G. he says emendations were indeed great improvements. Since 1874 the Aldine edition appears to have been generally accepted as the standard text of Blake's Poems. and that the Songs of Innocence and of Experience are still printed with Mr. taken perhaps from the copy in the British Museum. Prefatory Memoirmayhavegiven rise to some misconception. as the compositions in their aid.Songs of Innocence 79 Heme Shepherd would have rearranged the poems in a way of his own. edited by Mr. and were then printed in their original shape (which term includes their occasional original shapefelt justified in recurring to another lessness). It is followed in most of the subsequent editions and selections. Ellis and Yeats. G. an editor as Mr. W.

8o Bibliographical Preface .

Frontispiece Title-page to Songs of Inno- 2. II. The Ecchoing Green (2 plates) II. I On Another's Sorrow Spring Spring . 17- The The Little Little Boy Lost Boy Found 3- 4- 5- Little Girl Little Girl Lost Lost Found Boy Lost The Chimney Sweeper The Tyger 7 •1 London The Garden of Love 8. Night (2 plates) A Dream SAMPSON Laughing Song The The The 14. General Title-page I. The Sick Rose Nurse's Song 9The Angel The Little Vagabond 10.1 The School Boy Nurse's Song "•! H-l Holy Thursday -! i6. A IS- Holy Thursday My Pretty Rose Tree. Title-page Introduction Earth's Answer 3- perience cence 4- Introduction A The Shepherd Infant Joy The Blossom The Lamb Laughing Song 7Little Black Boy Little Black Boy 8. Little Girl Lost To Tirzah The Clod and the Pebble ! .8i Songs of Innocence TABLE II FIRST ISSUE OF SONGS OF INNOCENCE AND OF EXPERIENCE (Printed upon both sides of leaf) F LEAF LEAF I.3. The Human Abstract The Fly 6.1 The Voice of the Ancient Bard The Divine Image The Chimney Sweeper Cradle Song (a plates) lO. The Lilly. Ah Sunflower. Frontispiece to Songs of Ex- 2. Little Girl A Little A Poison Tree Infant Sorrow 12.

^ < Bibliographical Preface .82 .

/. CO CO • ITi 00 0\ « « O " 00 CO CO CO o « -"i- •^ e« ". COOO t^ '^ '* CO c c c •ivO Ov'^'^CJ >-iOO r-Wi ^COCOCO'S "1u^-*-<l-'> cococo>ococo^(^coioioco'*co"*'S .0-Ov|rg-'i r^locoo^^^-ncoco rf \n if ^ bf rt- V^ *lOC0'«-> « ii Tj-vo o T^„ CO ih01>-'-i'5OO'"i-i .^(Q~cocO'<*-'^'i-'*'«-'* O w « co^^£P *T^<J••<l-u^lO'0>Olo'5 VO r«oo Ov CO CO VO t~ Ov 01 ns td CQ 1 c o 'C o c '-' •5< o " C» Ov •-< CO CO CO CO Tf ^o be n o co'^^'covo <!cO'*coio-<»-^in> ^ CO CO ^^ CO «co^voS?r^l?.5 i-i -"l- o ON >> 00C0ClC0«O\i-i00l>O .J 10 VO CO CO NlOC0MMO\C«rl- bo Tj--<«-io-<riO'^ir)cO'*> CO >* OvOO co»0 :u^co-^coirt'^coio>o O r- r'^ CO CO Oh u-)vo c .Songs of Innocence O w N COCOI>00 c r CO CO 4) TS ••-* <-* X C "*"*lO^O O M fOa** coco'<i-coco^i.>M I •^ •<1-'^COCOC0q-„'~'^IOM <J-C0C0'^'<*- 83 00 c^ « N o »-< CO CO CO CO o M * ^^w mcoo\M o\Pi rf T«- ^ r» t~ Tt.5co"> <*•^OT^lD>*•S t~oo irno W C« comr^'^'^ON-'i-ONO'O •*« CO CO O M tlO C» >1- « CJ •- CO CO CO « lOvO o\ o\ ** * CO '^ '^ oovO O N ON o ** 10 vO^ f'^'^COiOvCO'^i.o 00 covo w <i-T)-iO'<i-iO'*-mcO"iJ-> CO CO en o coovOwmcot^'^ c« c c< cOjq ov o " n CO ^ 10 cococococOu.

In the MS. This plate was probably engraved after Oct. Rossetti prefixes to the Songs in the Aldine edition. writes incorrectly read Songs 'showing' for 'shewing. and Shep. under the title 'A Motto. Book (p. These lines. when Blake issued his prospectus 'To the Public' Omitted in the editions of DGR.SONGS Of INNOCENCE and Of EXPERIENCE Shemng the of the The general 'Two Contrary States Human Soul title-page to both series of the Songs. 1793. WBY of Innocence and Experience. loi) are two stanzas entitled Motto to the Songs of Innocence & of Experience. . EY.' which.' W. were never engraved or published by Blake. issued together as one work. however. M. nor are they known to occur as ' an inscription in any copy of the Songs.' In notes DGR and WBY . lo. WMR.

end^ from an electrotype Reprinted in Gilchrist . with verso blank.^/^. as well as in the later issue. facing the engraved frontispiece is printed on the verso of the preceding leaf (recto blank). of the original plate. (Z. ii. Blake. or in conjunction with the Songs of Experience. of the earlier. when published either as In the a separate work. The engraved title to the Sottgs of Innocence.SONGS of Inn c enc e 1789 The Author & Printer. this plate is printed on the recto of the piper. W. which leaf.

1811. Macht' aus Wasser Tinte dann. pipe that song again So I piped: he wept to hear. 9 ' : sit thee down and write In a book. translated. Julius. ]ahrg. Shep.. II sang] Thus sung Cunn. Schrieb die Lieder hin zur Stund.. Hort' es lachelnd zu mir sagen : " Pfeifer. H. This poem was first printed in ordinary type in Cunningham's Lives of British Painters. . And I 13 pluck'd a hollow reed.SONGS OF INNOCENCE Introduction Piping down the valleys wild. And he laughing said to me: i Pipe a song about a Lamb So I piped with merry chear. While he wept with joy to hear. ' ' * • 5 ! Piper. Und ich schnitt ein hohles Rohr.' . ' Drop thy pipe. Sah ein Kind von Luft getragen. by Dr. Schnitzte eine Feder dran. ii. . 150 (1830). Dass dein Lied im Sinn verbleib'. and subsequent issues of the Songs of Innocence printed on the verso blank. that all may read. 'Piper.' So he vanish'd from my sight. II. In the recto of first leaf. in the Vaterldndisches Museum. with the omission of the second and third stanzas. Bd." So erklang's vor meinem Ohr. thy happy pipe Sing thy songs of happy chear So I sang the same again. On a cloud I saw a child. N. Dass sie sing' der Kinder Mund. Hefti : ' — Pfeifend ging ich durch das Thai. Piping songs of pleasant glee. WBY.. Wilk. setz dich hin und schreib. Pfeifend Lieder ohne Zahl .

Songs of Ifmocence
And
And
And

I

made a

I stain'd

I

Every

rural pen,
the water clear,

j?

my happy

wrote
child

87

may

songs
joy to hear.

The Ecchoing Green
The Sun does arise,
And make happy the
The merry bells ring

To welcome

i

skies

the Spring

;

;

The sky lark and thrush,
The birds of the bush,
Sing louder around

To

the bells' chearful sound,
sports shall be seen

While our

On

the Ecchoing Green.

Old John, with white hair,
Does laugh away care,

ii

Sitting under the oak,

Among

the old folk.

They laugh

at our play,

And
'

soon they all say
Such, such were the joys
:

all, girls & boys,
In our youth time were seen
On the Ecchoing Green.'

When we

Till the little ones, weary,

21

No more
The

And

can be merry;
sun does descend,
our sports have an end.

This song was engraved on two plates.

The

first

of these (to fourth line

of second stanza) is among the remnant reprinted by Gilchrist {^Life, ii. end).
In the first issue of the Songs of Innocence the two plates are always
printed as recto and verso of the same leaf
i8 When we all, girls
8 bells'] No apostrophe in orig.
punctuation in on'g. ; When we, all girls and boys Wilk., Shep.

&

boys]

No

88

Songs of Innocence
Round

Many

the laps of their mothers
sisters

and brothers,

Like birds

in their nest,

Are ready

for rest,

And sport no more seen
On the darkening Green.

The Lamb
Little

Lamb who made

thee?

i

Dost thou know who made thee?

Gave thee

By

life,

the stream

&
&

bid thee feed,
o'er the

Gave thee clothing of

mead

Softest clothing, wooly, bright

Gave thee such a tender
all

Making
Little

;

delight,
;

voice,

the vales rejoice?

Lamb who made

thee?

Dost thou know who made thee?

n

Lamb, I'll tell thee,
Lamb, I'll tell thee:
He is called by thy name,
For he calls himself a Lamb.
Little

Little

He is meek, & he is mild
He became a little child.
I

;

a child, & thou a lamb.
are called by his name.

We

Little
Little

This
to

'

The

bless thee

!

bless thee

!

the original plates reprinted by Gilchrist {Life, ii. end).
In
Songs of Innocence this plate is found as recto or verso
*
Blossom,' or as recto to Nurse's Song or Spring.'

is

t'le first

Lamb, God
Lamb, God

among

issue of the

3 bid] bade

'

DGR,

WMR,

EY.

'

Songs of

Innocejtce

89

The Shepherd
How

sweet

From

the

is

the Shepherd's sweet lot
to the evening he strays

i

!

morn

;

He shall follow
And his tongue

his sheep all the day,
shall be filled with praise.

For he hears the lamb's innocent

5

call,

And he hears the ewe's tender reply
He is watchful while they are in peace,
;

For they know when
In the

first

issue of the

'

their

Songs of Innocence
'

Infant Joy,' or as recto to
follows the Introduction.'

The

Little

is

Shepherd

nigh.

this plate is printed as

In almost

Black Boy.'

all later

verso to
issues

it

'

5, 6 lamb's
ewe's] No apostrophe in
8 whenj that Wilk., DGR.
.

Infant

.

.

orig.

lambs'

;

.

.

.

ewes*

all edd.

Joy
*

I

have no name

am
What
I

'

I

i

:

but two days old.'
shall I call thee?

happy am,

Joy is my name.'
Sweet joy befall thee

!

Pretty joy!

7

Sweet joy, but two days
Sweet joy I call thee

old.

:

Thou
I

dost smile,
sing the while,

Sweet joy
In the

first

issue of the

recto or verso to

'

befall thee

Songs of Innocence

The Shepherd,'

!

this plate is printed either as

or as verso to

'

On

Another's Sorrow.'

Songs of Imiocence

go

The

Black Boy

Little

mother bore

My
And

I

am

me

southern wild,
my soul is white

in the

O

black, but

White as an angel is the English
But I am black, as if bereav'd of

My

me

mother taught

i

;

child,
light.

underneath a

5

tree,

And, sitting down before the heat of day,
She took me on her lap and kissed me,
And, pointing to the east, began to say
:

'

Look on

And
And

— there

God

does

9

live,

gives his light, and gives his heat away
flowers and trees and beasts and men recieve
;

Comfort
'

the rising sun,

in

And we

morning, joy in the noon day.

are put on earth a little space,
learn to bear the beams of love

13

That we may

;

And

these black bodies and this sun-burnt face
but a cloud, and like a shady grove.

Is

'For when our souls have learn'd the heat to bear,

17

cloud will vanish, we shall hear his voice,
"
come out from the grove, my love & care.
Saying

The

:

And

my golden tent like lambs rejoice.'"
my mother say, and kissed me;

round

Thus did

21

And thus I say to little English boy.
When I from black, and he from white cloud free,
And round the tent of God like lambs we joy,
he can bear
To lean in joy upon our father's knee
And then I'll stand and stroke his silver hair.
And be like him, and he will then love me.

shade him from the heat,

I'll

till

25

;

Engraved on two plates of four and three stanzas respectively. In the
Songs of Innocence the former is printed as verso to
the Laughing Song or The Shepherd,' the latter as recto to The Voice of

earliest issue of the

'

'

'

'

the Ancient Bard.'
ii beasts] beast Shep.
like a cloud Svvinb. p. 115.

9 does] doth Muir's/rtcsi'w.
.

.

.

cloud]

Are

.

.

.

cloud all edd.

learn'd] learnt Shep.
omits out.
23-28

;

Are

18 cloud]

When

I

from

.

.

.

i6

Is

17

clouds Willc, Shep.
19 Wilk.
will then love me] Quoted Shep.

Songs of Innocence

9

1

Laughing Song
When the green woods laugh with the voice of
And the dimpling stream runs laughing by
When the air does laugh with our merry wit,
And the green hill laughs with the noise of it

i

joy,

;

;

When the meadows laugh with lively green,
And the grasshopper laughs in the merry scene,
When Mary and Susan and Emily
With their sweet round mouths sing Ha, Ha, He

5

'

'

When

the painted birds laugh in the shade,
table with cherries and nuts is spread,

!

9

Where our

Come live, & be merry, and join with me,
To sing the sweet chorus of Ha, Ha, He

*

'

!

In the first issue of the Songs of Innocence this plate is generally printed
The Little Black Boy.' In the Brit. Mus. Rdg.

as recto to the first plate of

'

This song was first printed in ordinary
type in Malkin's Fathers Memoirs of His Child 1806).
10 Where] When Wilk., Shep.
6 the merry] this merry MalL
11 merry] happy Wilk., Shep.

Rm. copy

this plate is lacking.

1

Spring
Sound the Flute

Now

it 's

i

!

mute.

Birds delight

Day and Night

;

Nightingale
In the dale,

Lark

in

Merrily,
Merrily, Merrily, to

Sky,

welcome

in the

Year.

Upon two plates in the engraved original. In the first issue of the Songs
of Innocence the former is usually found as verso to 'On Another's Sorrow,'
and the latter as recto to The School Boy.'
'

2 it's]

'tis

DGR, WMR, EY,

Umr'sfacsim.

Songs of Innocence

92

lo

Little Boy,

Full of joy

;

Little Girl,

Sweet and small

;

Cock does crow,
So do you
;

Merry

voice,

Infant noise,
Merrily, Merrily, to welcome in the Year.
Little

Here

Lamb,

am

I

Come and

lick

My

white neck

Let

me

Your
Let

Your

;

pull

soft

me

Wool

;

kiss

soft face

:

we welcome

Merrily, Merrily,

A

>9

;

in the

Year.

Cradle Song
Sweet dreams, form a shade
O'er my lovely infant's head
Sweet dreams of pleasant streams
By happy, silent, moony beams.

i

;

Sweet

sleep, with soft

Weave thy brows an
Sweet
Hover

sleep,
o'er

down

5

infant crown.

Angel mild,
happy child.

my

Engraved on two plates of six and two stanzas respectively, which in the
of the Songs of Innocence are always printed as recto and verso
The first of the two plates is among the number reprinted
of the same leaf.
by Gilchrist {Life, ii. end). Compare with this the Cradle Song on p. 114
insert among
reversed, of the MS. Book, which DGR and most editors
first issue

'

the Songs of Experience.
published by Blake.

'

The poem, however, was never engraved or

Songs of Innocence

93

Sweet smiles, in the night
Hover over my delight
Sweet smiles, Mother's smiles,

9

;

All the livelong night beguiles.

Sweet moans, dovelike sighs,
Chase not slumber from thy eyes.
Sweet moans, sweeter smiles,
All the dovelike moans beguiles.
Sleep, sleep,

happy

13

child,

17

All creation slept and smil'd

;

Sleep, sleep, happy sleep.
o'er thee thy mother weep.

While

Sweet babe, in thy face
Holy image I can trace.
Sweet babe, once like thee,
Thy maker lay and wept for me.

ai

for me, for thee, for all,
he was an infant small.

Wept

When

25

Thou

his image ever see.
Heavenly face that smiles on

Smiles on thee, on me, on all
became an infant small.

thee,

29

;

Who

Infant smiles are his

&

Heaven

own

smiles

;

earth to peace beguiles.

WMR,
WMR,
WMR,

EY.
.
.
beguile Wilk., DGR,
beguiles] smile
II, 12 smiles . .
EY.
15 moans] moan DGR,
14 thy] thine Wilk., DGR,
EY.
15, 16 smiles
beguiles] smile . . . beguile Wilk., DGR,
EY.
20 thy] doth DGR,
EY.
beguiles]
31, 32 Infant
.

.

WMR,

.

.

.

WMR,

'

Wilk.,

DGR.

Infant smiles, like

His own smile

Heaven and earth

to peace beguile.'

.

.

.

Songs of Lmocence

94

Nurse's Song
When the voices of children are heard
And laughing is heard on the hill,

My

heart

And
*

is

at rest within

everything else

Then come home,

And

is

my

my

i

breast,

still.

children, the sun

the dews of night arise

is

gone down,

5

;

Come, come, leave off play, and
morning appears in the

us

let

Till the
'

on the green,

away

skies.'

no, let us play, for

No,

it is yet day,
cannot go to sleep
Besides, in the sky the little birds fly,
And the hills are all cover 'd with sheep.'

And we

9

;

'Well, well, go & play till the light fades away,
And then go home to bed.'

The

ones leaped

little

And

Nurses Song

orig.

the

first

In

recto to

&

shouted

laugh'd

the hills ecchoed.

all

plate.

&

13

in Gilchrist {Life,

Reprinted

ii.

end')

from the original

Songs of Innocence this plate occurs as
(generally) or as verso to 'The Lamb,' or as recto

issue of the
'

'

Holy Thursday
'The Chimney Sweeper.' The original version of this song is found in
'After this [' H0I3'
the MS. known as The Island in the Moon (chap, xi):
Thursday' sung by Mr. Obtuse Angle] they all sat silent for a quarter of an
" it
puts me in mind of my [^raW-]mother's
hour, and Mrs. Nannicantipol said
to

song
I

the

:

When

the tongues of children are heard on the green," eic.^
2 And . hill] And laughing upon
Isl. in Moon.
znd rdg. (afterwards re-corrected to its earlier and present form).

voices] tongues
hill ibid,

5 Then
1st rdg.

.

.

.

.

.

down] Then come home
8 DGR, WMR, EY, and

10
eight-line stanzas.
dark Isl. in Moon ist rdg.

And

.

.

.

children, the sun is down ibid.
divide this poem into two

WBY

And we cannot

sleep]

11 Besides

.

.

.

fly]

The

sleep

till

it 's

flocks are at play

&

12 And
go away ibid, ist rdg.
sheep] And the meadows
are cover'd with sheep ibid.
14 go] come Wilk.
15 leaped
leaped and
laugh'd] leap'd, and shouted, and laughed Wilk., Shep.
16 ecchoed] I have found in
shouted and laughed WMR. EY, WBY.
a library copy of Blake's poems the joyous emendation of some youthful

we

can't

.

.

.

.

;

reader

:
'

And

all

the hills echoed, ed, ed

'
!

.

.

Or 9 harmonious like among. their innocent faces clean. Beneath them sit thunderings the seats of heaven the aged men. Isl. in Moon ist rdg. WMR. this stanza stood * : — Then like a mighty wind they raise Or like harmonious thunderings the When to heav'n the voice of song.. in Moon. wise guardians of the poor. etc. Then cherish pity. in . Grey headed beadles walk'd before. into the dome high of Paul's like they Thames' waters flow. pronounced illegible. lest you drive an angel from your door. the Moon) the Isl. Thousands of little boys & girls raising their innocent hands. sit] Seated Moon. seats of heav'n among. all in 6 Seated Moon. red] grey they were Wilk. are here given in the footnotes. raising the voice of praise. I 'Twas on a] Upon a Isl. .' . In the first issue of the Songs of Innocence this plate is generally printed as verso to Nurses Song. 2nd rdg. they sit with radiance all their own. where The erased passages.Songs of Innocence 95 Holy Thursday 'Twas on a Holy Thursday. ibid. these flowers of London town 5 Seated in companies. in Moon. which E and Y have it is sung by Mr. The hum of multitudes was there. . O what a multitude they seem'd. hands] . xi). deleted Thousands of little girls & boys. in red & blue & green.' The original MS. in Moon. And Isl. 11 aged] rev'rend Isl. with wands as white i Till as snow. version of this song is found in The Island in the Moon (chap. order 7 sit was] were . waiting the chief chanter's in companies 8 Thousands commands Isl. the whole multitude of innocents their voices raise Like angels on the throne of heav'n. 2 The] Came DGR.' or (once") as recto to The Divine Image. The children walking two & two. EY. Obtuse Angle. in DGR. in Moon 9-12 In Blake's first draft (in the Island in . wise] 9 Now] Then Isl. . but multitudes of ! lambs. Now like a mighty wind they raise to heaven the voice of song. This poem was first ' ' printed in ordinary type in Malkin's Father's Memoirs of His Child (1806).

this plate is Little Girl Lost. diese Blumen von Londons Macht . paarweis'. gekleidet in roth und in blau und in grun GraukOpfige Zuchtmeister mit schneeweissen Ruthen voran. 7 ! A happy Blossom Hears you sobbing. Merry Sparrow Under A i ! leaves so green. Near In the verso to first ' issue of the The Lamb. ! Tausend kleine Knaben und Madchen erheben ihre Handchen so wie 'Jetzt Wie ein Wirbelwind steigt rein. sobbing. swift as arrow. ganz in der eignen Unschuld Pracht Es ersummt wie eine Menge. and began * Let cherubim and seraphim now : — raise their voices high. and the stanza rewritten with the slight changes This song is thus translated by Dr.' found as recto or and as verso to the .' This also was cancelled.' second plate of EY and my Bosom. Zwischen den Kleinen die Alten. Abgetheilt sitzend in Rotten.' The Blossom Merry. In St. Seek your cradle narrow Near my Bosom. O ! wie zahllos erscheinen sie da. . Julius {Vaterldndisches noted above. Pretty Robin Under leaves so green. man sahe die Kinder ziehn. i. Sauber gewaschen. zum Himmel Gesanges Chor ein harmonisch Gewitter zu den Sitzen der Engel empor.' print as one stanza.Songs of Innocence 96 Blake then deleted the entire stanza. Pauls hohen Dom wie der Themse Fluthen strOmen sie dann. happy Blossom Sees you. oder du treibst einen Engel — fort. Pretty. Songs of Innocence as recto to ' The ' WBY Spring. der Armuth weiser Hort Drum erbarme dich vor deiner Thur. Pretty Robin. 1811): — Es war am grunen Donnerstag. Museum. Pretty. doch der Lammer Menge nur allein. ' ' II.

5 Dacre] (Ch. in a river. ! in soot I sleep. 5 was shav'd so I said for when your head 's bare curl'd like a lamb's back. Were And by came an Angel who had a bright key. Then naked & white. & never want joy. You know i : that the soot cannot spoil your white hair. 17 . with our bags & our brushes to work. he had such a sight! 9 — That thousands of sweepers. cried when his head. Dacre. Tom ! never mind who it.' as recto to the first plate of Spring. all their bags left behind. Lamb). Montgomery . & sleeping. 3 'weep!] No apostrophe in orig. fear found printed as this plate is The Divine Image. They rise upon clouds and sport in the wind And the Angel told Tom. Tom was happy & So so do their duty they need not if all In the first issue of the 21 . And he open'd the coffins & set them all free 13 . and shine in the Sun. Then down And wash a green plain leaping. aAMPSOS H Toddy jVt J. if he'd be a good boy. that very night. Joe. And And Tom awoke and we rose in the dark.' or as verso to Nurse's Song. Dick. all of them lock'd up in coffins of black. & ! 'weep ! 'weep Hush. laughing.Innocejice Songs of 97 The Chimney Sweeper When my mother died I was very young. And my father sold me while yet my tongue Could scarcely cry So your chimneys There's That * Tom little ' ' 'weep I 'weep ! sweep. got Tho' the morning was cold. they run. He'd have God for his father.' This poem was first printed in ordinary type in James Montgomery's Chimney-sweeper' s Friend and Climbing-boy's Album recto or verso to ' ' ' (1824) from a copy supplied to the editor by Charles Lamb.' And so he was As Tom was a quiet. Ned & Jack. Songs of Innocence warm : harm.

Mercy. Where Mercy. to these virtues of delight their thankfulness. Peace. 'The Divine Image. Peace. verso to ' * ' Memoirs of His Child (1806). the human Then every man. Peace. and Love Is Man. Return Pity.' The original plate is among the number reprinted in Gilchrist's This poem was first printed in ordinary type in Malkin's Life (ii.' with the omission of stanza 2. his child and care.' or recto to A Dream. That prays dress- of every clime. Pity. our father dear. 9 Pity a human face. and Love God. Love. and Love All pray in their distress And i . turk. 13 in his distress.Songs of Innocence 98 The Divine Image To Mercy. has for many years been used as one of the hymns of the Positivist congregation in a northern Father's city. 5 Is For Mercy has a human heart. & Pity There God is dwelling too. Love. Prays to the human form divine. And Love. Peace. For Mercy. or jew. end). And Mercy. the human form divine. Pity. And Peace. 17 In heathen. occurs either as recto or The Chimney Sweeper. And all must love the human form. In the first issue of Songs of Innocence this plate dwell. .' or as verso to Holy Thursday. Pity.

which. in the first issue. silent moves The feet of angels bright . and WBY. WMR. Book. 23 head] heads W. their nest. entitled * Day and beginning •The Sun arises in the East. like a flower. WMR. To keep them from harm. On each bud and blossom. Sits Farewell. on p.Songs of Innocence 99 Night The sun descending in The evening star does The birds are silent in And I must seek The moon. Where lambs have nibbled. 9 groves] grove DGR. are always found as recto and verso of the same leaf. With silent delight and smiles on the night. In heaven's high bower. And sit down by their bed. of the Songs of The poem. Engraved upon two plates. 13 blessing] blessings W. Innocence. Muir. took] ta'en all except Sh^^. And joy without ceasing. 9 Where flocks have took delight. And each sleeping bosom. shine i . Ha . Where birds are cover'd warm They visit caves of every beast. 24 by] on Wilk. 17 . 10 3 nest] nests W. Ii moves] move DGR. all If they see any weeping That should have been sleeping. EY. 105 of the MS. Muir.' antithesis of this Song may have been designed by Blake as the of Innocence. They pour sleep on their head. EY. mine. ' or part of a poem. for the west. They look in every thoughtless nest. Muir. green fields and happy groves. Unseen they pour blessing.

That an Emmet Where on In the first issue of the * The lost its way grass methought I lay. But if they rush dreadful. Songs of Innocence this plate is printed as recto to verso to Laughing Song or to The Divine Little Girl Lost. Recieve each mild spirit.3 Shall flow with tears of gold. WMR. bleating lamb. pitying stand and weep They 25 . And walking round the fold.' guard W. I o'er the fold. Seeking to drive their thirst away. bright mane for ever Shall shine like the gold My As 33 eyes] eye DGR. 'And now beside thee. wash'd in life's river. Graze after thee and weep. Muir. 39 Is] Are A Dream Once a dream did weave a shade O'er my Angel-guarded bed. And pitying the tender cries. 46 mane] name Wilk. by his meekness. by his health. EY.I oo Songs of Imtocence When wolves and tygers howl for prey. The angels. I can lie down and sleep Or think on him who bore thy name. most heedful.' i ' ' ' . Muir. And. 36 fold] folds W. And there the lion's ruddy eyes 3. Saying 'wrath.' or as Image. For. sickness Is driven From away our immortal day. New worlds to inherit. And keep them from the sheep. 41 .

not be in sorrow too? And Can see another's grief. Dark. wailing wight watchman of the night ? set to light the ground. In the plate first plate of is issue of the ' fill'd ? 9 infant groan.' and as recto or verso to reprinted in Gilchrist's Life (ii. Little wanderer. All heart-broke I heard her say: or 5 * O. ' is found as recto to the Infant Joy. sorrow's share? I And not feel Can a mother sit and hear never can it be never can it be! Never. But saw a glow-worm I Who ' replied Calls the 'I am : What 13 near. While the beetle goes his round Follow now the beetle's hum ly. nor be with sorrow An i ! 1 Songs of Innocence this plate Spring. hie thee home. end).' On Another's Sorrow Can I see another's woe.' The original . : . 'wilder'd. my children do they cry ? Do they hear their father sigh? Now they look abroad to see Now return and weep for me. an infant fear? No.' 9 ! : Pitying. I And not seek for kind relief? Can see a falling tear. and forlorn. travel-worn. Over many a tangled spray. benighted. no first 5 my Can a father see his child Weep.Songs of Innocence i Troubled. I drop'd a tear.

.I02 Songs of l7mocence And who can he smiles on all 13 Hear the wren with sorrows small. Hear the woes that infants bear. And not sit beside the nest. . Father in ! Moon. thy maker is not by Think not thou canst weep a tear. always found as recto poem is found in the — 'Then sung Quid . 30 by] nigh Wilk. Wiping all our tears away? never can it be O. ! Speak. And not both night sit & . Think not thou canst sigh a sigh.' The this plate is original draft of this (chap. father. . sorrow too. 21 day. our grief is fled & gone doth sit by us and moan. in Moon. 17 Pouring pity in their breast And not sit the cradle near. Weeping tear on infant's tear . Boy Moon i ! little Songs of Innocence Found. never can it be ! He He doth give his joy to all becomes an infant small He He doth becomes a man of woe feel the 25 . DGR. Boy Lost * where are you going ? Father father O. xi). The ^^i . speak to your Or else I shall be lost. O boy.' 3 Speak] O speak . And O ! he gives to us his joy grief he may destroy That our Till He Little 33 . And thy maker is not near. no ! ! Never. father Isl. Hear the small bird's grief & care. 34 grief] griefs Wilk. do not walk so fast. introduced by the words father !] father.' to issue of the In the first 'The Little Island in the I Isl.

Songs of Innocence WMR. The in . 5 sorrow pale. boy weeping little issue of the verso to the preceding. And away 5 Isl. 6 The Moon. Began to cry Appear'd . sought. ever nigh. . in white. thro' the lonely dale. & the child did weep. . like his father. 5 . He kissed the child. this plate always occurs as . but God. Who Her In the first in i fen. led. no father was there The child was wet with dew The mire was deep. The The there] . EY. the vapour flew. & by the hand And to his mother brought. night child] it And was dark the child Isl.So?igs of Innocence 103 The night was dark. Boy Found Little The little boy lost in the lonely Led by the wand'ring light. & in no father was there Moon. 8 Her] The DGR.

.

facing the frontispiece of the Shepherd on The engraved title to the in conjunction with the the verso of the preceding leaf.SONGS of EXPERIENCE 1794 The Author & Printer. In some copies the date has evidently been inserted by hand. W. end) from an electrotype of the original This title-page would appear to have been twice engraved by Blake. Reprinted in Gilchrist's Life (ii. plate. The plate is printed on the recto of the leaf. In Gilchrist's reprint the date 1794 is omitted and the cross stroke to the letter/ has a downward instead of an upward curve. Blake Songs of Experience. . when pubHshed either Songs of Innocence or separately.

weeping in the evening dew. Calling the lapsed Soul. The The starry floor. * Turn away no more Why wilt thou turn away? i6 .. version. prints as a single stanza. prints as a single stanza. WMR.' One engraved plate. EY. wat'ry shore. Is giv'n thee till the break of day. by which it is immediately ' ' with preceded in followed in some copies all of the Songs.SONGS OF EXPERIENCE Introduction Hear the voice of the Bard Who Present. Closely connected this poem are The Voice of the Ancient Bard. Not found in any MS. 5 ancient] silent Swinb. the morn Night And ii . O Earth. 19 shore] floor Swinb. And fallen fallen light renew ! 'O Earth. I . 4 Holy] ancient Swinb. 18 floor] shore Swinb. & i ! Future. Rises from the slumberous mass. 11-20] Swinb.' by which it is copies. Past. 6 And That might control! The starry pole. sees Whose ears have heard The Holy Word That walk'd among the . i-io] Swinb. and ' Earth's Answer. ancient trees. return! Arise from out the dewy grass is worn. 20 Is] Are Swinb.

On the bleak and snowy mountains Where bones from the birth are buried Before they see the light?' 3 Her . 118 other edd. Renew in these chains of darkness Where bones of beasts are strown. also the final * stanza oi Ahania {engraved 1795) : — But now alone. 6 den my Starry Jealousy does keep : Cold and hoar. MS. DGR WMR. . Book 1 1 Selfish] 14/ rdg. Book) first word deleted. Essay. selfish fear! ' The Earth's Answer (MS. . jealous. the lines immediately preceding this poem in the MS' Book. fled] Blake's successive changes of this line are Her : — eyes fled orbs dead light fled (pencil). Father of Jealousy?' Cp. Book and engraved Songs (Stony 6 Prison'd dread !) shore] Stony.Shep. EY. 'Prison'd on wat'ry shore. . del. Bk. p. . del. Cast out from thy lovely bosom Cruel jealousy. selfish fear. Book 13 selfish] illegible 1st rdg. mountains. how can delight Self-destroying . iii reversed). I 'Selfish father of men! ii Cruel. weeping MS. . ' beginning: — 'Why art thou silent & invisible. over rocks.. word erased. Book (p. Book cancelled. Cp. Cold and hoar . and replaced by some 11-15 MS. .Songs of Rxperierice 107 Answer Earth's up her head Earth rais'd From the darkness dread Her i & drear. . Prisoned on this watery shore Swinb. . The original rime- 10 father of the] del. Stony dread And ! her locks cover'd with grey despah*. in and the next stanza. Weeping o'er hear the father of the ancient men. h'ght fled. Engraved on a single plate from what is obviously the original draft in the MS. . dread. . WBY. read . . . arrangement abaab breaks down in this Cruel MS. 4 Stony dread !] Punctuation as in MS. 7 my den :] Punctuation as in my den Wilk. so also in Swinb.

youth rise fresh and pale. engraving. Nurses' rise] are MS. 24. Nurse's Song] R' omits. .' i6-ao This stanza was 14 Chain'd] Clog'd MS. 4 SongWilk. \ . 25 Eternal bound] Thou. And your winter and night in disguise. 5 the dews of night arise Your spring & your day are wasted in play. Book 15/ rdg. Does the sower sow His seed by night MS. 2a freeze] close MS. my bane Hast my love with bondage bound MS. del. Book 15/ rdg.1 08 Songs of Experience Can delight. Book xst rdg. . the sun And is gone down. which Blake cancelled. Chain'd The in night. del. del. fair copy (without title) in the 109 reversed). No apostrophe in original. Engraved without material change from a MS. 3 my] green] grave R'. children are heard on the green in the dale. vain ! Eternal bane ! Selfish That ! free 21 Love with bondage bound. night] : . Can the sower sow by night Swinb. in my i mind. del. . my children. del. 19 Does 16 joy] delight MS. Book is/ rdg. virgins of youth and morning bear? Does spring hide ' its joy buds and blossoms grow? Does the sower 16 When Sow by Or the night. plowman darkness plow? in ' Break this heavy chain That does freeze my bones around. Book (p. but restored when 18. My] And my R'. . . Book. face turns green Then come home. Book xst rdg. Nurse's Song When the voices of And whisp'rings are The days My of my . an addition written in place of the third.

lies crushed at his feet. 8 rdg. A A few trifling 3 thoughtless] guilty MS. which he has just struck down. he had used Proverbs of Hell {Marriage of Heaven and its first two lines as one of his ' * Hell) : 'The cut worm Forgives the plow. sing.Songs of Experience 109 The Fly Little Fly. since writing the poem. 9 And & Shall brush my drink. plate. followed Blake then preis an afterthought. uncompleted and felicitous tiny metre — hand Brush'd across thy summer joy All thy gilded painted pride Shatter'd. on p. chases a butterfly of human shape. del. f. And And dies in peace.' Then come the second. Book). 11. Book.. Am not A fly like I Or A 5 thee? art not thou man For I me ? like dance. ' He ' then turned to the shorter metre. from the original pencil sketches in the in which a youth. fled . numbers to the stanzas indicating their present order.. deviations from the engraved text are given in the footnotes. third. probably because. so do thou. loi of the from what deleted stanza shows that before hitting upon this Blake began to write the song in a less sprightly strain 'Woe! my alas! guilty is evidently the An MS. fixed a summer's] summer MS. without wing. 27-30. Till some blind hand Engraved on a single first draft. . . 18. and fifth by two versions of stanza four. which stanzas in their present form. labile another. Book jst same idea occurs in The pictorial representation of the Gates of Paradise (engraved 1793. title. Below is the inscription 'Alas ' 1 Cp. hat in hand. Then follows a deleted stanza. Book. i Thy summer's play My thoughtless hand Has brush'd away. in double columns. also Milton. MS. preserving the guilty hand in the of stanza i. omitted by him in the ' first draft engraved version.

The Tyger Tyger burning bright Tyger In the forests of the night. Cunn. 144. Book is & breath. ii. readings. . the want Of thought Then am happy is death . DGR. Lamb (quoting from memory. xxxix. Thro' the desarts Chas. from a copy probably supplied by Blake himself. May 15. which exhibits an important variant reading of the last line An early corrupt version also appeared in Cunningham's Lives of the British Painters (1830). 108 MS. (2nd version) WMR WMR (2nd version).. 4 Could of the third stanza. R'. 109. too numerous to be readily intelligible in footnotes. If I live Or 13-16 If . DGR.' del xst rdg. (and version). R' . 7. 6 Burnt] Burned the] that of] within DGR. frame] Framed Cunn. . are given in full in the appended note on the different versions of 'The Tyger. fire] . The MS. 1824).. in a letter to Bernard Barton.. death. DGR. if I death] is life 'Thought And strength But the want Of thought MS. WMR ... WMR (and version). p.' This poem was first printed in ordinary type in (reversed) of the Malkin's Fathers Mentotrs (1606). Cunn. 8 dare] dared DGR. . Book. fervour Cunn..iio Songs of Experience If life is thought And And 13 strength & breath. I A 17 fly. bum'd Wilk. WMR (2nd version). 2 forests] forest Malk. ! i ! What immortal hand Could frame thy or eye fearful symmetry? In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? "What the hand dare sieze the fire? 5 Engraved on a single plate from the first draft of the poem on pp. die.

EY. 16 Dare] Dared Malk. Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to beat. . of course. WMR (and version).. R'. DGR. 2. WMR (2nd version). 109. a 1-24 This TYGER. What immortal hand Dare frame thy or eye.. What dread hand? & what dread feet? And what What the hammer? what 9 the chain? 13 In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? what dread grasp Dare deadly terrors clasp? its When the stars threw down their spears. and 6. Unable to complete this stanza to his satisfaction he cancelled it altogether. (and version). See also editor's note to this poem. 13. . 108 reversed) ef the MS. And water'd heaven with their tears. . their] and shining Cunn. DGR.' The original draft of 'The Tyger. It ' will be seen that Blake at first intended the line What dread hand and what dread feet — ' merely as the beginning of a sentence running on into the next stanza. (2nd version) What dread hand framed thy dread feet? Swinb. Malk. DGR. feet?] What dread hand forged thy dread feet ? Malk.. EY. & what art. leaving the preceding line as it stood. upon a verse which has proved a crux to many of Blake's readers and of stanzas commentators. Cunn. its] 17 spears] spheres Cunn.. 14 What brain] What the hammer what the chain Formed thy strength and forged thy brain ? Cunn. R^ What the hammer. 12 What. WMR. . Wilk.. 17 Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the Lamb make thee? 21 Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night.' written upon two opposite pages (pp... 3. DGR. WMR . WBY stanza is sprinkled Cunn. ... thy brain? DGR. What dread hand formed thy dread feet ? What dread hand and what dread feet Cunn. WBY.Songs of Experience 1 1 1 shoulder. Book. thy Cunn. 4. WMR (2nd version). . thy heart. WMR (2nd version). ! ! .. On the left page is found the first rough draft In stanza 3 the manuscript version throws light i. DGR 18 water'd] watered Malk. Knit thy strength and forged . fearful symmetry? And heart] When 10 thy] thine Wilk. omitted by Cunn. did not escape his . ii . NOTE ON 'THE WMR. enables us to follow every step in the composition of the poem. . This.. what the chain. . WMR Cunn.

which burst forth with a momentary pause between them like shells from a mortar. is altogether lost in the languid punctuation of the Aldine edition — 'And. misled by the spurious version of Gilchrist. W. moreover had already been used in the first stanza." Above the fifth stanza. I think that he struck out the number "3" in front of the first line of this stanza by accident. which differs from that finally adopted. What dread hand and what dread feet?' and it is only the failure of critics to observe the significance of the revised pointing of the engraved version which caused Swinburne to speak of this ' passage as a rock of offence. in the version author to Dr.1 1 2 Sojtgs of Experience when engraving the poem for the Songs of Experience.' At a later which there is no reason to doubt was supplied by the date. A. the composition of which Mr. that Swinburne (Critical Essay. On the opposite page of the MS. and by a change of punctuation he converted the unfinished passage into its present notice shape — 'What dread hand? a line exactly parallel in form to ' What the & what dread feet? — hammer ? what the chain ? ' of the following stanza. though probably written after it. compressed force of these two short sentences. is a revised version of stanza 2. ' line — ' Could heart descend. reading — What ' dread hand framed thy dread feet ? ' The word is no printed or manuscript authority. The difficult ' ' ' ' . meaning to erase the first word "And. when thy heart began to beat. Book. or wings aspire ? ' I . Yeats to remark that when engraving the ' poem Blake forgot to alter the last line of the third stanza. Blake again remodelled this line into the slow and solemn form — 'What where the gain of much dread hand forged thy dread feet?' in definiteness and technical accuracy at the sacrifice is of the fiery energy and vague suggestion of terror conveyed by the It is probably with an imperfect remembrance of this final emendation of Blake's. p. The terrible. White. Book is the first draft of the fifth stanza. seeing that he had used the word "shoulder" before. and numbered them in order to make this order clear the same time numbered the stanzas. 'Then I think the glorious line occurred to him. the present owner of the MS. and wrote above it And did He laugh H is work to see ? and then added the two lines about the stars. which seems to be ankle. 120) refers to ' the recovery of that nobler earlier text. he struck " it out and inserted the word over it. Malkin.' or Mr. " Did He who made the lamb make thee ? " Probably after that he erased the line above. making this the fifth. thus explains to me in a letter " What the shoulder ? What the knee ? " ' I think that [BIal<e] wrote first and then.'' but is not a variant for which there ' frame ' : — very clearly written. Then Blake re-arranged the order of the lines in the and also at stanza.

1. Book. deleted words or The manuscript itself is unpunctuated lines being printed in italics. What immortal hand If eye or Could frame thy fearful symmetry? Dare 2. or material ' Upon the same page. It will be seen that this version differs in important details from that given by Messrs. Yeats' inspire for aspire. for identical with the text ' ' and first last stanzas.' and did for dare ' ' ' ' ' Muses' Library ' — edition of Blake (notes. 238. 239).' 'horn'd' for 'horrid. And in thy horrid ribs dare steep? the well of sanguine woe In In what clay Were thy 4. follows a fair copy of stanzas i. 5. What the — & in eyes of fury rolVd? hammer ? what Where In t SAMPSON what mould the chain ? where what furnace was thy I brain ? . THE TYGER. ' ' and ' hand and eye ' hand or eye in the of the engraved Songs. is The following is a faithful transcript of the original draft of 'The Tyger MS. & what ? art Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to beat What dread hand & what dread feet Could fetch it from the furnace deep. which not only fails to make clear the sequence of Blake's alterations. In what distant deeps or skies Burnt in Burnt the fire of thine eyes ? The cruel On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare sieze the fire And what shoulder. Blake's variant readings being indicated typographically by placing them in consecutive order. which.Songs of Experience 1 1 3 God bring down his heart to Or could any lesser daemonic high enough to assume power Could has been interpreted by Swinburne the making of a thing so deadly and strong ? ' : wings and force of nature take to itself Could equal to such a creation ? force so far aspire ? fly spiritual force so far descend. 91. and 6. ' in the throughout. pp. but contains such inexplicable misreadings as 'filch' for 'fetch. one below another. except for unimportant differences of ' ' capitalization. and the readings dare frame for could frame in the first.' ' ' ' errors repeated in Mr. to the right of these two stanzas. 92). pp. Ellis and Yeats (iii. Tyger. 3. Tyger. 3. burning bright In the forests of the night.

he assumes that they owe of ' ' ' The ' ' ' ' their origin to changes introduced into the text by D. Did he who made the lamb make thee ? Dare 1. Mr.' MS. is the version which figures in Mr. is not stated. Yeats complains. burning bright In the forests of the night. And the stars threw down their spears. A ' few words must be added with regard to the so-called second version Tj'ger in the Aldine edition. : 'And what shoulder and what art Could twist the sinews of thy heart? When thy heart began to beat What dread hand formed thy dread feet? * What what the chain the hammer Formed thy strength and forged thy What Dared ! the anvil its ! What dread grasp deadly terrors clasp ? ! brain ? — . Tyger. Tyger. M. Gilchrist's What book. And the hand dare sieze the fire ? work did he laugh his dare he smile U 'hat the to see ? laugh shoulder ? what the knee ? ankle ? 4. as Mr. Rossetti. as he himself states in a note prefixed to his first transcript (R^). W. G. Book.. or wings aspire? What J. and thence reprinted by later editors under such headings as a later MS.' adding that it shows certain variations on MS. where the last three stanzas run Lives of British Painters (1830. version and the like.1 1 4 So7tgs of Experie7tce What the anvil ? what arm arm the grasp clasp dread grasp Could Dare its deadly terrors clasp'i g^nsp ? clasp ? 6. When 2. This. authority. What & immortal hand Dare form thy fearful eye symmetry ? frame the opposite page'\ \On Burnt in distant deeps or skies The cruel fire of thine eyes ? Could heart descend. Rossetti explains in a footnote. is based upon that printed by Cunningham in his ii. The version given by the latter. 144). 5. and as there is obviously no warrant for these readings in the MS. water'd heaven with their tears. however.

schuf er dich? Tiger. Tiger. welche Kunst. Bd. his work to see ? Did he who made the lamb make thee?' A comparison of the versions of the other poems and passages quoted by Cunningham with their in originals the Poetical Sketches shows that unauthorized readings are introduced into almost every line. Wob so sinnreich HerzensbruQ^t ? Als dein Herz den Puis empfand. This spirited and admirably literal rendering will be noticed. ' ' DER TIGER.' may be thought sufficient excuse for adding to the length of this note by reprinting Dr. Dir der Augen Feuerquell'? Welche Flugel tragst du kuhn ? ' Welche War wagt wohl. welch Gottes Aug' und Hand Dich so furchtbar schCn verband ? ' Stammt vom Himmel. Flammenpracht In den Waldern dustrer Nacht ! Sprich. appeared. and it is plain that Cunningham treated Blake's text with the same freedom which he entitled to use in an old Scots ballad. countrymen. Did he smile. The interest attaching to everything relating to this poem. at a time when Blake's Songs were almost (Hamburg. it ' own to his 1806). Tiger. Heft translation of i. wess Gottes Aug' und Hand Dich so furchtbar schOn verband?' I % ? . Welch ein Fuss und welche Hand ? 'Was ist Hammer.Songs of Experience 1 1 5 'When the stars threw down their spheres. Julius's would have thought himself ' German II. Kettenklirr'n ? Welche Esse schmolz dein Him ? Was ist Amboss ? Welcher Held Muth in deinem Arm behalt ? 'Aus den Sternen flog der Speer. Thranend ward der Himmel Meer: Schaut' er lachelnd da auf dich ? Der das ' Lamm schuf. called by Swinburne the most famous of Blake's lyrics. aus der HoU'. unknown ' The Tyger from the Vaterldndisches Museum. zu nah'n dem Gluh'n Starke. And sprinkled heaven with shining tears. No manuscript authority of Blake's can therefore be claimed for this version. Tiger. Flammenpracht In den Waldern dustrer Nacht ! Sprich.

the first of which contains the first ten stanzas of the present poem. can Lyca sleep mother weep ? her heart does ake Then If sleep? in desart wild your How 17 mother. .1 1 6 Songs of Experience The Lost Girl Little In futurity i prophetic see That the earth from sleep (Grave the sentence deep) I Shall arise and seek For her maker meek And 5 . niarhs. Lost Is If her ' If ar little child. and the second the conclusion of the same with the first three stanzas This song. 2 I 17-32 Wilk. omit quotation . Seven summers old 13 Lovely Lyca told She had wander'd long Hearing wild birds' song. shall not weep. sequel 'The Little Girl Found. . the summer's prime 9 Where Never fades away. weep? Where can Lyca ' me my Lyca let Lyca wake 25 . last plates are Gilchrist. . mother sleep. the desart wild Become a garden mild. Do father. and and half the its of the fourth of the next song. Lovely Lyca lay.' are engraved upon three plates. see] I prophesy WBY. In the southern clime. number reprinted from The first the originals by and versions of these songs are known to exist. come to Underneath this tree. 'Sweet sleep. No among manuscript and Shep. .

While the lioness 49 Loos'd her slender dress. And naked they convey'd To caves the sleeping maid.So7tgs of Experience 'Frowning. While the desarts weep. .) The Little Found Girl All the night in woe Lyca's parents go Over vallies deep. 45 And . 37 the virgin view'd. Muir's facsim. Let thy moon While I close 117 29 arise my eyes. O'er this desart bright. See note to ' The Little Girl Lost. . WMR. lick] And her breast did lick DGR. The kingly And lion stood. 41 While the lion old Bow'd his mane of gold. Then he gambol'd round O'er the hallow'd ground. And her bosom lick. frowning night. play Round her as she lay. tygers. (SoHgs of In. And upon her neck From his eyes of flame Ruby tears there came 45 . View'd the maid asleep.' EY. 33 Come from caverns deep.' Sleeping Lyca lay While the beasts of prey. Leopards. .

Rising from unrest. weeping. weak. 33 . . arm'd with sorrow sore Till before their A . Then he stalk'd around. 17 The trembling woman prest With feet of weary woe She could no further go. Pale. Smelling to his prey 25 39 . Turning back was vain: Soon his heavy mane Bore them to the ground. And dream they see their child 9 Starv'd in desart wild. 26 his] the Wilk. Hoarse with making moan. With hollow piteous shriek. Seven nights they sleep Among shadows deep. : In his arms he bore ai Her.T 1 8 Songs of Experience Tired and woe-begone. But their fears allay When he licks their hands. And silent They look upon his eyes with deep surprise wondering behold Fill'd And A spirit by them stands. arm'd 23 sorrow] sorrows DGR. way couching lion lay. Arm in arm seven days They 5 trac'd the desart ways. in gold. thro' pathless The ways 13 fancied image strays Famish'd.

not for the maid 41 . 5 : 115 (reversed) of the MS.' he Weep my Lyca 9 37 . And saw their Among tygers 4- sleeping child wild.Songs of Experience On On his head a crown Flow'd his golden ' Follow me. . 3 another] another's R'. all their care. EY. fair copy on p. the Pebble Love seeketh not Itself to please. hair. Nor the lions' growl. But a Pebble of the brook Warbled out these metres meet Engraved on a single plate from the Without title in the MS. 5 sung] sang MS. The Clod and 52 lions'] lions orig. Book. 4 in] to R^. WMR. Trodden with the cattle's feet. ' But And i for another gives its ease. To this day they dwell In a lonely dell Nor fear the wolvish howl 49 . Book. . 38 shoulders] shoulder Wilk. vision led. lion's all edd. 7 brook] wood R'. palace deep lies asleep.' So sung a little Clod of Clay. builds a Heaven in Hell's despair. DGR. Nor for itself hath any care.' Then they Where the followed. ' In 1 down his shoulders Gone was 1 said.

. the Church is cold. who is always at Church. well. ' in pencil. 9 Its delight. WMR. MS. & give him both drink and apparel. And God. Would have no more quarrel with the Devil or the Barrel. del. Book ' ' [' pretty del. Joys in another's loss of ease. . apparel] But shake hands & kiss him & there'd be no more hell MS. But kiss him.I20 Songs of Rxperience * Love seeketh only To bind another to Self to please. Book \st The poor parsons with wind like a blown bladder swell MS. . 105 This poem is well] Such usage in heaven makes all go to hell MS. Book \st rdg. Would not have bandy children. rejoicing to see 13 His children as pleasant and happy as he.' 9-12 Cp.. . 9 And we'd be as happy as birds in the spring And modest dame Lurch. changed to drink'] & apparel MS. Nor ever once wish from the Church to stray. nor birch. . dear Mother. WMR. 10 bend R». Visions 0/ /he Daughters 0/ Albion (engraved 1793) ' sponge drinks Water? EY. at the s our souls to regale. . DGR. And builds a Hell in Heaven's despite. EY. . 10: 'Can that be Love. & drink. Self DGR. well. and R' But kiss him & give him hoth food [_del. Engraved on a single plate from the version reversed) entitled The little pretty Vagabond omitted in Wilkinson's edition of the Songs. But the Ale-house is healthy & pleasant & warm Besides Such usage But And if where I am used heaven will never do can I tell in i . We'd sing and we'd pray all the live-long day. that drinks another as a The Little 9 Self] Vagabond Dear Mother. nor fasting. 13 rejoicing to see] that joys for 16 But to see MS. a pleasant fire Then the Parson might preach. & sing. Book 2. . Church they would give us some Ale. bind] f.?rf rdg. Book 15/ rdg. (p. Book 4 Such. rdg. del.\. like a father.. ' and rds. del.

8. Is this i Babes reduc'd to misery. drawn below originally intended the WMR. 13 For] But MS. did end. Book. Babe can never hunger there. line DGR.. . & their fields are bleak ways are their It is eternal fiU'd 9 bare. Book. Nor poverty the mind appall. (ii. Book shows at this point.Songs of Experience 1 2 1 Holy Thursdaya holy thing to see In a rich and fruitful land. . MS. hand] Fed with a cold usurious hand DGR. And 'Tis DGR. 103 (reversed) of the reprinted from an electrotype of the original in single plate from the fair This plate is end). with thorns : winter there. Book. 12 poor] And so great a number poor MS. where-e'er the rain does fall. Book. WMR. 4 Fed . I was angry with I told my told it I wrath. Gilchrist's Life copy on p. For where.e'er the sun does And 5 it 13 shine. Engraved on a MS. this stanza in the poem to end MS. A i : wrath did grow. MS. Engraved on a single plate from the copy 4 It is] Poison Tree I The 7 . can] should DGR. cold and usurous Fed with hand ? trembling cry a song ? be a song of joy ? so many children poor? Is that Can And It is a land of And And And poverty ! their sun does never shine. . that Blake . my my friend my wrath my foe title.' of the been adopted by engraved version. (written later in pencil) has and EY. . EY. was angry with not. in preference to that in the in the 'Christian Forbearance. : MS. 15 Babe] Babes Wilk. A WMR. 114 reversed). Book (p. EY.

Engraved on a single plate. Book. Book. 103 The title written later. design of this plate is found on p. 65 of the MS. . I dried With my tears. stole 13 veil'd the pole: In the morning glad see I foe outstretch'd beneath the tree. it And into my garden When the night had foe tears bore an apple bright my foe beheld it shine. from the fair copy. del. Guarded by an Angel mild Witless woe was ne'er beguil'd I And that ! ? i I : ! And And And And I wept both night and day. And Till in fears. he wip'd my tears away. Book . & arm'd my 5 . it And And My 5 my I sunnM it with smiles. The Angel Dreamt a Dream what can it mean was a maiden Queen. fears ten thousand shields and spears. on p. . written in pencil. The original coloured (reversed) of the MS. Book. MS. was mine. . hid from him my heart's delight. . 9 both] by MS. I wept both day and night. So he took his wings and fled Then the morn blush'd rosy red 9 . with soft deceitful wiles. it morning with And ii .1 22 Songs of Experience And water'd I & Night And And it grew both day and he knew that 9 night. And shine] I gave it to my 15/ rdg.

On the robe of one of the figures in the design at the foot of the page is written ' It is Raised a the rest omit. above Tirzah Whate'er is Born of Mortal Birth i Must be consumed with the Earth. The original coloured design is found on p. with the change of 'were' to are. symbolized by a female figure.' are used by Blake as the final couplets to 'Infant Sorrow' (MS. Tirzah. In the howling storm. In Jerusalem and Milton. 4. 13 : . Spiritual Body. Blake personifies Natural . It differs considerably from the engraved illustration. generally associated Religion. 21 of the MS.' Shepherd prints this By the name Tirzah. 15 For] ' . Book. 107 reversed). thou art sick The That invisible flies i ! worm. del. 7 his] regret at seeing flight. To is/ rdg. Book (p. Sick Rose O Rose. Instead of the worm preying upon the heart of the rose there is a youth prostrate on the ground. Book xiii). taken from Canticles vi. . as if in the spirit of the rose. Engraved on a single plate. Book. 5 Has] Hath MS. Book. del. or Moral Law. To rise from Generation Then what have I to free: do with thee? Not in MS. he came in vain For the time of youth was fled. . 7. Book x\ and the first version of Ina Mirtle Shade' (MS.Songs of Experience 23 1 Soon my Angel came again I was arm'd. Engraved from the copy in the MS. Book. And his Does thy dark secret love life destroy. A dark-secret love her MS. Doth life destroy MS. take . 15. 8 And . 16 For head] The same hnes. in the night. ' But MS. passint. with Rahab. And grey hairs were on my head. is represented as a bright and beautiful being. Book The \st rdg. destroy] . Book an erased and illegible word. Has found out thy bed Of crimson joy 5 . .

20. Image of truth new-born. Book. Songs of Innocence^ though sometimes placed by Blake among the Songs oj Experience. And me to Mortal Life betray Death of Jesus set me free 13 : The Then what have I to : do with thee ? preying upon and pitying her victims. WBY. Thou Mother of my Mortal part With cruelty didst mould my Heart. in evening died But Mercy chang'd Death into Sleep The Sexes rose to work & weep. mother of the perishing body and daughter of the " religion. & Ears Didst bind Didst close my Tongue 9 . In all the early issues of the former it occurs as verso to ' The . WMR. Milton^ f. and that . does implicitly overrate its power upon the soul for evil or good. s . 6 Blow'd] Blown la bind] blind DGR. come i hither. also for the flesh which. p. And see the opening morn.' Swinburne. Doubt is fled. of the Ancient Bard of delight. to perpetuate the of Sin.' 5 sprung] sprang EY. 5 This poem is generally found as one of the Not in the MS. or Space : cp. Asserting the Self-righteousness against the Universal Saviour. Mocking the Confessors & Martyrs. claiming Self-righteousness With cruel Virtue." in his mythology. Essay. II tears] fears The Voice Youth WMR. in senseless clay. while pretending (and that in all good faith) to despise the body and bring it into subjection as with control of bit and bridle. 11. 41-45 : — ' Rahab created Voltaire Tirzah created Rousseau." which occupies itself with laying down laws Cf. making War upon the Lambs Redeemed : To War & perpetuate Laws Glory. and perverting the mild influences ot the lovely Enitharman. represents the mere separate and human nature. EY. DGR. artful teazing. And with false self-decieving tears my Nostrils. Eyes. . and thus falls foul of fact on all sides by assuming that spirit and flesh are twain.124 So7igs of Experieiice The Sexes sprung from Shame & Pride Blow'd in the morn . 122: '"Tirzah. things pleasant and good for the one can properly be loathsome or poisonous to the other. Swinb. Dark disputes & & clouds of reason.

ii .' i . And feel— they know not what but care And feel— they know not what save care DGR... See editor's Bibliographical Preface to the Songs. where he did not intend it to be pronounced as a separate syllable. jealousy] filled to my 8 Blake's pretty rose tree In the silence of the night .' invariable practice. Tangled roots perplex her ways. Folly is lo Little Black Boy. lo And . preferable to that of the engraved went ' first Songs : 15/ version — . : facsimiles. by night] R* omits by. EY. . Book 1st rdg. Book (on p. title in the This and the two following songs are engraved upon a single plate. e. Pretty Rose Tree My A flower was ofifer'd to me. was me I . to omit the e of the final ed in the preterite or participial termination. reprinted in Gilchrist's Life (ii. my rose was turned from me. But my Rose turn'd away with jealousy. 5 To The first in the poem original draft. How many have fallen there! They stumble all night over bones of the dead. when they should be led. And wish to lead others. MS.' But ' was turned from me MS. forming a connecting link with the Introduction to the Songs of Experience. Shep.' 6 To . Such a flower as May never bore But I said I've a Pretty Rose-tree. care] Wilk. tend her by day and by night. DGR. not only in manuscript but in engraved poems. her] it MS. And her thorns were my only delight. del. del.Songs of Experience 1 25 an endless maze. end). by night] In the silence of the night MS. The only exception 4 passed] ' to this rule is in the case of words where the omission of the e might possibly lead to confusion with another word. ' And passed the sweet flower I o'er.' while in the latest issues it is commonly placed last. Then I went to my Pretty Rose-tree. Shepherd and other editors ruin the melody of this line It was Blake's almost by reading 'passed' or ' pass'd for 'passed.. 7 turn'd] turned ' all except rdg. And feel they know not what but care. g. Book with Jealousy. 9 stumble] tumble "^nw' % facsimile {Songs of Experience). WBY when] where Muir's WMR. And her thorns were my only delight. Book 2nd rdg. Without 115 reversed). turn'd : and replaced by of this stanza seems to * Then . . pined not pin'd. Ri.

26 1 Ah Songs of Experience Sun Flower ! Ah. Where And the Youth pined away with desire. he cancelled this line also. — the soldier peace. Who countest the steps of the Sun Seeking after that sweet golden clime. Sun-flower! weary of i time. delight. writing above them the words puts forth a thorn. ' ' ' ' engraved version) by a fourth line simply explanatory of the first . with its successive alterations as seen in the MS. perceiving that his rime had disappeared. and gave the poem an entirely different turn by changing the word lustful to modest. and deleted the — last line with The coward sheep a threat'ning horn While the lilly white shall in love delight. and following song. to & peace. from the first rough draft without title on p. Engraved on the same plate as the two preceding songs. a thorn.' but here. Book. 109 (reversed) of the MS. Book.' and completing the quatrain * ' (as in the three. . Book. stain her beauty bright. The humble Sheep a threat'ning horn While the Lilly white Nor Love shall in i . substituting for it finished. In its present form this beautiful little poem might more fitly rank as a Song of Innocence than a Song of Experience but the first draft. 3 clime] prime The Engraved on the same plate as the preceding DGR. and aspire wishes to go.' show that it was line. nor a threat. the pale Virgin shrouded in snow. . And at the lion increase freedom which point he drew a On line under the poem a subsequent reading he deleted the last * The & priest loves war. Where the traveller's journey done is . meaning.' ' he felt ' that envious ' Beginning by writing The did not express his three words.' ' ' — rose puts envious ' full . shows that Blake originally conceived .' and coward to humble. Where my Sun-flower Not in the MS.' He . it ' in its contrary state.' and finishing the then went on lustful rose. . 5 Arise from their graves. Lilly The modest Rose puts forth a thorn.

were] was Wilk. Book. Und zu war die Thur der Capelle. sonst ich pflog spielend zu gehn. So kehrt' ich zum Garten der Liebe. This is Idndisches 12 binding] choking R'. saw it was filled with graves. another of the poems translated by Museum. no authority for this in the engraved version. 115 reversed) of the MS. Und Grabstein'. all edd.' . 7 So] And MS. . Und senktcn in Schmerz mein licbendes Herz. where however they are clearly divided by Blake's usual line of separation. is . writ over the door 5 . 5 this] the R^. Book. read 'filled' ( = fiird in all except Wilk. del. ' Und ich sah ihn mit Grabern gefQllet. wo Liebe sollt' sein Und Priester in Trau'r umgingen die Mau'r. I And the gates of And Thou shalt ' So I That And And And And i : this not ' Chapel were shut. Garden of Love sweet flowers bore turn'd to the so many . Ich ging einst Und Am Wo ' II. Book 15^ rdg. Und "du sollst nicht" stand auf dem Thor. Without title in the MS.). I : Engraved on a single plate from the fair transcript on the first page (p. and Shep.Songs of Experieitce 1 27 The Garden of Love went And saw what Garden of Love. the Vater- . (1806) : — Dr. Swinburne {Essay^ p. 2 And saw] And I saw MS. binding with briars my joys & desires. sah. Julius in zum Garten der Liebe. 9 filled] filled MS. was ich nimmer gesehn. II in] with R^. Book. I never had seen A built in the midst. ' i. and Rossetti was evidently misled by the immediate juxtaposition of these two songs in the MS. 9 tomb-stones where flowers should be Priests in black gowns were walking their rounds. 141) falls into the same error. Der Blumen sonst brachte hervor. Book and orig. There . I to the Chapel was Where used to play on the green. followed by and EY prefix as the first two stanzas of this poem the lines beginning WMR — DGR ' I laid me down upon a bank Where Love lay sleeping . Rasen stand eine Capelle.

And all admir'd the Priestly care.' Engraved on a single plate from the rough draft on p. Nor is it possible to Thought A greater than itself to know: i And. sets reason up for judge ' One who fiend 13 is Of our most holy Mystery. that I follow'd. Book. Bk. Nor venerates another so. weeping loud. del. Book \st rdg. — ' The mother ''O.' . Book was .' ' 5 The Priest sat by and heard the child. how 5 And] Then MS. his zealous priestly care. Book 15/ rdg. Father. del. 13-16 This stanza appears to have followed the fifth in order of composition. you] I cannot love you 6 Or] Nor MS. 11.' in the preceding line being deleted and replaced 12 the] his Wnnz facsimile. . how can I love you Or any of my brothers more ? I love you like the little bird That picks up crumbs around the door. such a fiend should bear!'" These are deleted and replaced by — 'Then led him by To shew The last line is his little coat. here. . 7 I bird] I love myself: so does the bird MS.' said he. MS. In trembling zeal he siez'd his hair 9 : He led him by his little coat. del. .' again cancelled and rewritten * And word 'Then' all — admir'd his priestly care. . io6 (reversed) of the MS. 12 The first reading of these two lines in the MS. del. And standing Lo what a ! ' on the altar high. Book \st rdg. the by ' &.28 1 A Songs of Experience Boy Lost Little ' Nought loves another as itself. \st rdg. .

against my swadling bands. Into the dangerous world I leapt Helpless. . . moated with silent white mist instead of solid and sonorous surf. with shore ?] first and last words del. Book xst rdg. The weeping parents wept in vain They strip'd him to his little shirt. naked. end). And bound him an iron chain in . And burn'd him in a holy place.Songs of Experience 129 The weeping child could not be heard. On the whole. p. Book xst rdg. the original of which is among the number reprinted by Gilchrist {Life. Like a fiend hid in a cloud. . the Rossetti K will be found . Book' (x). Book. comments {Essay. Book \st rdg. del. 113 (reversed) of the MS. my father wept. things done on Albion's shore ? but the "Albion " of Blake's verse is never this not. . altered as above. . bound the httle ivory limbs In a cruel iron chain MS. ai And place] They burn'd him in a holy fire MS. Compare the much fuller form of this song found on p. only the first two stanzas of which were engraved by Blake for the Songs of among 'Poems from SAMPSON The complete poem MS. 17 . Struggling in Striving Bound and weary. Swinb. . piping loud. ii. "Are such " " one is provoked to respond. . i . 20 They chain] They 19 They] And MS. single plate. To sulk Engraved upon a upon my I 5 thought best mother's breast. Experience. si'mbolic of more than we can safely define or conceive. i26\ 'To the surprising final query. Are such things done on Albion's shore 21 : ? 19. Infant Sorrow My mother groan'd. and changed to above. as far as we can see" weaving and spinning country of our working days it is rather some inscrutable remote land of Titanic visions. and peopled with vague pre-Adamite giants. del. my father's hands. Where many had been burn'd before The weeping parents wept in vain. Book ist rdg. . 24 Are Such things are done on Albion's shore MS. . .' .

when fears annoy. The little ones spend the day In sighing and dismay.' and 'The Voice of the Ancient Bard. his tender wing. like 'The Little Girl Lost. if buds are nip'd blossoms blown away. I take delight. transferred these poems to the latter series. end). . See Bibliographical ' Preface to the Songs. sorrow and care's dismay. This song.' the completion of the Songs of Experience Blake.. -where. thro' with the dreary shower. singing DGR.1 30 Songs of Experience The School Boy I love to rise in a summer morn i When the birds sing on every tree distant huntsman winds his horn. ! But to go to school O drives it ! Under a all in summer morn. Ah then at times I And Nor Nor many an my book can in sit Worn How I spend in learning's ii drooping sit.' 'The Little Girl Found. 2 When . Engraved upon a single plate. a joy away 6 . father ! And And Of forget his youthful spring? 21 if the tender plants are strip'd their joy in the springing day. The And O . can the bird that is born for joy i6 Sit in a cage and sing. sing] When birds are . But droop And O By & mother. the sky-lark sings with me. reprinted from an electrotype of the original copper in Gilchrist's Life (ii. in most cases. anxious hour. WBY. it is always printed as verso to the last plate of 'Spring. EY. . In the editions of Wilkinson and Shepherd ' The School Boy appears among the Songs of Innocence. WMR. in the On early issues. Book. I in] on all except Shep. cruel eye outworn. what sweet company. Not in the MS.' originally formed one of the Songs of Innocence. How can a child. bower.

But most thro' midnight streets I hear 13 How the youthful Harlot's curse Blasts the new born Infant's tear.Songs of Experience How shall the summer arise in joy. to have been Blake's first intention to close the poem with this stanza. 8 The hear] The german forged links I hear MS. 2 charter'd] dirty MS. Book this stanza was at first written Engraved on draft of this WMR . — But most the midnight harlot's curse From every dismal street I hear. in some later editions). It would appear rdg. When the blasts of winter appear 1 3 1 26 destroy. in every ban. . Weaves around the marriage hearse. del. . 109. a single plate. marks of woe. del. And blasts the new K born 3 infant's tear. The mind-forg'd manacles How I hear. Book istrdg. the hapless Soldier's sigh in blood down Palace walls. .' . This plate is among the number reprinted by Gilchrist (Z-y^. ii. 6 In WBY. the Chimney sweeper's cry Every black'ning Church appalls And Runs 9 . Book. ' . Book A mark istrdg. 14 Harlot's] No apostrophe in orig. harlot's rest. . with some important changes from the first poem found on p. 13-16 In the MS. 5 In every voice. . . 3 And mark] And see MS. In every cry of every Man. end). Book istrdg. however. Book 15^ rdg. EY. Book 15/ 9 How] But most etc. del.(reversed) of the MS. del. MS. fear] In every voice of every child MS. 10 Blackens o'er the churches walls MS. (corrected. del. In every Infant's cry of fear. Book. And blights with plagues the Marriage hearse. harlots' Wilk. ? London wander thro' each charter'd street. Near where the charter'd Thames does And mark in every face I meet Marks of weakness. Or the summer fruits appear ? Or how shall we gather what griefs Or bless the mellowing year. . I. I i flow.

' Blake's use of the Compare MS. . that in a former time. in Engraved on a single plate. Reading Know Love. sweet Love. to smites] with plagues the marriage hearse. In the Age was thought a crime! of Gold. Book. And hangs \alt.32 1 Songs of Experie7ice — This was cancelled and followed by ' But most front through wintry] streets every \alt. Met in garden bright Where the holy light Had just remov'd the curtains of the night. Strangers came not near. in rising day. the body of the poem being in italic. Youth and maiden bright To the holy light. with softest care. ' Remove away Remove away Remove away 'Twill A [alt. Book the (pp. You'll] quite Girl Lost Little Children of the future Age. 15 There] Then all except Shep. Once a youthful Fill'd 10 pair.' Sjxlt. to I hear. to that black'ning church. Parents were afar. remove the ancient curse. Naked in the sunny beams delight. 107 same epithets — and 99 reversed): in a quatrain twice repeated in 'An Ancient Proverb. that marriage hearse. How the midnight harlot's curse Blasts the new born infant's tear. the grass they play On 15 .. WBY. 5 Free from winter's cold. Not in the MS. i this indignajit page. And the maiden soon forgot her fear. 1-4 In the engraved original this introductory stanza is written indented roman characters. that place to man] of blood. There.

6 winter's snow] wintery wind clothed MS. cloth'd Wilk. say ? They are both gone up to the church Because I And smil'd And taught i woe ' ! — to pray. Waves And 20 meet agree to the weary tired wanderers weep. 5 among the winter's snow. written in pencil upon a diff"erent page (io6 reversed). Like the holy book. to [= MS. Book. Book. The first stanza and title original draft of this at first intended the 103 reversed) to form a poem complete in are an afterthought. To her father white Came the maiden bright 25 . . 3 Where say] Where are they. me Engraved on a single that Blake Book shows to sing the notes of woe. plate. 7 clothed] . in notes of Where are thy father & mother. All her tender limbs with terror shook. was happy upon the heath. second and third stanzas (on itself. Ona To thy ' ! O O pale and weak father speak 30 ! : the trembling fear. 4 to the church] to church \aU. Book. They clothed me in the clothes of death. The song in the MS. But his loving look. Book. snow] MS. father and mother.. say? MS. p. orig. the rest clothed [ = cloth' d]. They When the silent sleep o'er heaven's deep. . the dismal care. . . ! ! That shakes the blossoms of my ' hoary hair ! The Chimney Sweeper A black thing little among ' ' Crying ' ' ' 'weep 'weep ! ! the snow.Songs of Experience 133 Tired with kisses sweet. clothed] . Shep.

root his foot. 20 its] 1st rdg. Book (p.' & King. erased. this song the fine variant version. Soon spreads the dismal shade Of Mystery over 13 head And the Catterpiller and Fly Feed on the Mystery. Book Earth. Book. . Book.' This title is not in the is Compare with 17 . fears] with his holy fears EY. If all And 1 5 . spreads his baits with care. The Human Abstract Pity would be no more If we did not make somebody Poor And Mercy mutual fear brings peace. And waters the ground with tears Then Humility Underneath takes its 9 . . del. and ' MS. And his bears the fruit of Deceit. Raven his nest has made thickest shade. no more could be were as happy as we. 107 reversed). plate.1 34 ' So7igs of Kxperience And because am happy & I dance & 12 Who. del. ' beginning I heard an Angel singing. Till the selfish loves increase Then Cruelty And . . They think they have done me no injury. knits a snare. misery] . Book 15/ rdg. . Who wrap themselves up in 9 sing. 114 reversed). He sits down with holy fears. 2 If there was nobody poor MS. Book. our misery MS. sweet to eat it Ruddy and And In the its the MS. end) from the draft The first title of the poem was 'The The human Image' substituted: the present (p. Engraved on a single in . 9 with the Swinb. And are gone to praise God & his Priest Who make up a heaven of our misery. Book I would] could MS.' MS. thickest] blackest MS. . reprinted in Gilchrist (ii.

Human Face a Furnace seal'd.^ last line del. 121) . thro' . where the growth of it is defined . and the Law deadly Tree Of God. and underneath his heel shot up he nam'd it Moral Virtue. See Jerusalem. And Secrecy the Human Dress. Human Dress is forged Iron. A : The Tree spread over him its cold shadows (Albion groan'd). shot up from sparks and fallen germs of material seed being after all a growth of mere the topmost stem of it made into error. Human Heart its hungry Gorge. an endless labyrinth of woe. f. 5 I place this poem as appendix to the Songs of Experience in the absence of evidence that it was included in any authentic copy of the Songs issued during Blake's lifetime. Out of fifteen examples of the Songs of Experience . and again enrooting Shot into many a Tree. iii. 28^ He [Albion] sat by Tyburn's brook. chap. 24 ' But Till their search was all in vain they sought in the human brain. p. rock of separation. Human Form a fiery Forge. : . ' : ' ' signifies — Moral Law. : 23. Book The Tree of Mystery ' 14-19 11. they felt the earth.Sojigs of Experience The Gods 1 35 of the earth and sea 21 Nature to find this Tree Sought But their search was all in vain There grows one in the Human Brain. Jealousy a Human Face Terror the Human Form Divine. hidden from the human sight. rooted in the 1795). . a cross whereon to nail the [To The A dead redeemer and friend of men. And The The The The i . They bent down.' MS.' is/ rdg.' SONGS OF EXPERIENCE] Divine Image Cruelty has a Human Heart.' A very similar ' description of the growth of the Tree is found in Ahanta thus condensed by Swinburne {Essay. and vegetable (not spiritual) life . Compare the passage . watered with the tears of a jealous God. {engr. who dwells in Chaos.

Shepherd Songs. William Muir. as well as to Gilchrist. The only other existing specimen of the engraved song is a proof impression (also uncoloured) in the possession of Mr. Blake's (1866). and there the watermark of the paper.vperience by R. Wilkinson. 1831. the uncoloured copy in the Reading Room of the contains this plate.1 Songs of Experience 36 known to British which me. is years after Blake's death. one only. Since then it has been included among the Songs without comment by W. dated 1832. which he has reproduced in facsimile at the end of his beautiful edition of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. This poem seems to have been unknown to tisement issued. and the of plates specified as belonging to this work in his prospectus ' the Public (see Bibliographical Preface to the Songs) would seem poem with this number To show to that this was was his intention in October. It is fairly plain too that — first editor. Rossetti and all who follow Shepherd in placing it immediately after Blake's later editors. who rightly represents 54 as the number of plates belonging to a complete set of both series of the It is first introduced into the Songs of E. when this adver- Blake rejected the plate without destroying it — perhaps because it was one of those which were engraved on both sides of the copper leaving it possible for it to be inadvertently introduced into one or two copies which may have been printed when the plates passed into other hands. 1793. British who probably took it from the posthumously printed copy which the Museum had acquired two years before. M. H. Blake in October. proves that it must have been printed at least five Museum. It is quite clear that Blake engraved total ' a view to its forming one of the Songs of Experience. after the death of Mrs.' . A Little Girl Lost.

POEMS from THE ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT (circa 1793-1811) commonly known as 'THE MANUSCRIPT BOOK' .

descriptive title for Blake's MS. Palmer knew Blake personally. drawing paper present but the stitching in the centre of the quires after ff. designs. and 54. and MS. that the book is made up of one 30.' Rossetti 's earlier signature. of different and smaller paper forming two leaves. of Palmer. less commonly correctly.R. of the volume an attendant in the Antique Gallery at the British Museum. on the 30th April. is found written. upon which are written part of 'The Everlasting Gospel' and of his Canterpart of the first draft of Blake's description ' bury Pilgrims. written. published as T/ie Gates of not then been had title this under some editors include partially covered by bold script characters. Rossetti MS. '47. 5.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT The Rossetti MS. . paginated consecutively is without watermark The owner. is a foolscap quarto volume (7|x6| 1-116 by its inches) of 58 leaves.G. signed 'D. it was from the artist's wife that he had the present which he sold me for loj-.' The latter title. 15. a pencil sketch. 'Ideas of Good and Evil.' A pencil note on the verso of the flyleaf. tells how he became possessed I purchased this original MS.. 42. shows four gatherings of 16 and 8 gathering of 10 leaves and Bound in at the end is a folded sheet leaves The . 18.C. alternately. in on the verso of the second leaf. is the name used in this edition as a book of notes and sketches. Among the sketches there are ' : one or two Rossetti profiles of Blake himself transcribed certain of the contents. heading them 'Verse and Prose by William Blake (Natus 1757: All that is of any value in the foregoing obiit 1827). In of all probability Blake intended it to refer to the series and afterwards on engraved p. 'The called Book.' and sometimes. beginning The poems which Paradise.

from in cases earlier most apparently rough drafts. R. all the designs for The Gates of Paradise (engraved 1793). certain of the Songs of Experience. the Songs of Innocence and The Book of Thel (both engraved 1789). my transcript (in tains a number of footnotes 139 D. and. G. bound in at the end of the MS. paper bears the watermark 1H44.' referred to as Rossetti's R^) con- emendatory readings. All the poems in this section of the book Songs of Experience or lyrics of the same character must have been written before the end of — the year 1793. Book proper. as our facsimile shows. than the include Some of the sketches are colour or sepia. for poetry. Book covers a period of of Blake's when book it life. Blake began to use the sketch-book for the transcription of some of his poems. consists of leaves. In most cases the titles were afterthoughts. but the greater page. for prose. pages has here been copied out. These pieces. About 1793. and Afnerica (all engraved As there are no designs for Blake's earlier works.Rossetti MS. copied. and some for the Songs of Experience. Avoiding at first the pages on which sketches of any importance appeared. He had served first used it ' at least twenty years and for sketches only. 98. C. besides other lyrical poems which he himself never published. converted still later. most of those for the Visions of the DaiigJiters of Albiofi (engraved 1793). labelled Blake MS. but probably not much later. 1794). Blake continued to write from the reversed end as far as p. Vertical pencil lines are drawn through those poems which Blake engraved as part of the Songs of Experience. but fairly clear hand. Urizen. we may infer that his use of the sketch-book began not earlier. reversing the volume and beginning on Here he the three blank pages at the end of the book.' The volume is bound in half-calf and The MS. were neatly written in two columns in year 1789. — . This transcript. a few are are small finished or rough pencil drawings occupying the centre of the page. when most of the leaves were thus filled. of which 5 (evidently containing Epigrams 1-19) have been '^'>^ Part of the cut out. this purpose. some of which he subsequently rejected in his version of the poems printed in Gilchrist's Life. it into a note- The sketches two drawings of the figure of Nebuchadnezzar which Blake afterwards engraved in the undated Marriage of Heaven and Hell. in full number a small. separation lines being drawn between the different poems.

Book in footnotes. which form the first section of the MS. 181 1. are Blake's 'Advertisement' and 'Additions to the Catalogue for the year 1810. ' ' . 'I say I shan't live five years.book. will be a Wonder. and were obviously written down. On p. Hunt. as Ellis and Yeats conjecture. 59. ' A ' ' ' * ' — Jerusalem. and the 'Address to the Deists' in p.' few of the poems in the Rossetti MS. To the same period evidently belong the epigrams on art and artists. day. Book. writing them. animnm solvere. On p. 3 and 2 is the fine poem spectre around ' me and My Swinburne points out.. Book version of I saw a monk of Charlemaine was afterwards split up The Grey Monk of by Blake into two separate poems the Pickering MS. now preserved in the British Museum. but from the original beginning of the sketch . Rossetti 140 After writing these poems. not as before from the reversed end. and Discourses.' which.' the last written piece in the MS.' which are scattered here and there throughout the book with frequent encroachments upon the sketches. Taking it up again about the beginning of his Felpham period. without view to publication. 12 are as the lines ' Each man is in his spectre's power. 10. In the same category should be placed his great unfinished poem ' The Everlasting Gospel. where I print them with the readings from the MS. The earliest dated entry in the MS. Blake discontinued the use of it as a notebook for several years. Book (i-xxxvi). The MS.MS. 21 begins the series of epigrams which may be dated from the end of Blake's stay at Felpham to the year ' 1809. night embodies precisely the same theme as Jerusalem (1804). an overflow from his marginal notes to his copy of Reynolds's Stothard. such as Fayette. is an extract From Belts Weekly Messenger. 4th. upon a scrap of paper bound in at the end of the book. Fragments of this are drafted or copied on blank spaces left on the now crowded pages. they relate to his differences with Hayley. obviously after the exhaustion of other space. while others have elsewhere The lines beginning Three received Blake's revision.' and the long poem I saw a monk of Charlemaine. Among the last entries in the MS. in a more perfect form the break of at day appear virgins in the Pickering MS. Book is the note on And if I live one it on p.' were left in an unfinished state.' both of which were afterwards engraved as part of Jerusalem. June 1793 ' ! ^^ latest. On pp. Aug. Cromek. which are probably. he added some new poems. part of the poem being written..

WMR. Book xxxix. 158. Sketch. 3 to For the same point. — say years. Book. and continued straightforwardly from p. the Index should be read backwards page by page. and *3). lost. 25 (Gilchrist's Life.] & day. Book xxxvii. Index. [MS. Drawings.. Rossetti Manuscript (followed by periejice number of poem in the present edition) Advt. pp. 383-403). 242-243). Sougs of Exfollowing contractions are used in this quoted (vol.] p. Advertisement to Blake's Canterbury Pilgrims from Chancer. The or ii) — : MS. I I engrave on copper. To woodcut on pewter. S. from p. reference may be made to Gilchrist to Ellis and Yeats (vol. pp.Rossetti MS. taining anecdotes of Artists (apparently intended as Blake's own title for piece which Rossetti and others call Public Additions to Address'). *2. &c. Blake s Catalogue of Pictures. 9. Italics indicate sketches or prose. p. 12. of first last words are which few or the only prose passages. 4.] I live it . between Two & seven in the Evening one will be shan't Note. . When When [MS. Memoranda. — To engrave on pewter. 5.] Mock on. Voltaire. 141 In the following Index to the Rossetti MS. 13. ii. Sketch (sepia). 6.E. Johanna Southcott. 1807. are marked by an asterisk. *i. con. My spectre continued (stanzas 9. My — [MS. Book [MS.. no. Note. 98. [MS. Daphne. Despair. WMR Sketch (pen and ink) [see (a)]. Rossetti's Annotated Lists of Blake's Paintings. * ' INDEX TO 'THE ROSSETTI p. Title-page. if ii. without which the art is [Advt. Mock p. I. poems. and Engravings. Book p. Book xl. roughly Blake's own order of writing the poems enumerated. a man has married a wife. of MS.' List 2. 115 to p. . men p. ii. Cat.] —A Sketch (pencil). live five [See Gil. 3. written from the To follow reversed end. and prose contents are given in the order in which they occur in the volume inverted pieces. For the year t8io. On the Virginity of the Virgin Mary p. 10. 7. — If Prose. 2.] Klopstock England defied. weak capacities . the sketches. p. & on.' xxxvii. W. 1810. And a Wonder. June 1793. . xli. spectre around me night Ideas of Good & Evil. To p.] — Sketch (pencil). Book xxxviii. M.] —Tuesday Jan' 20.. ID. p. .. 11. [MS. Rousseau. young woman dressing. 8. .

—There should consider the following. [Advt. in the journeyman's labour.] You think Fuseli is not a Great Painter.] nation I do not believe I mock thee .] p. [Advt. Sketch. To : find the Western path.. 26.) [See Sketch. as a public duty. 19.] Who that has eyes . — Columbus discovered America not because there cannot be any difference Prose. The Birds. [Advt. . To F Book liv. Sketch.] You don't believe. p. Sketch. as guilty of Prose.— Tor Songs of Experience— 'ThQ^ickRose: [See WMR p. 20.] I by thee am Mocked. Madman I have been called.. P.] 1. 15. I won't attempt to make ye. Book xlix. 16. I'm glad. Prose. . Book xlviii. The Golden Net.] — (continued from p. — For Gates of Paradise. [MS. Sketch. [MS. Book xlvi. [MS. 25) .] Terror in the house does roar.~\S&& in this p. p. — Art the encouragement which is my due nothing can hinder my course. etc. ir. 18. [^Jerusalem. p.] For Gates of Paradise. Book xliv.. (fi.) Sketch. 12. storehouse of I angry with Hayley who used me so ill. Book xlv. ill etc. not. confessed . Book xlvii.. Book li. [MS.] Prose. p.] And his legs cover'd it like a long fork. Book Anger & Wrath my bosom rend.) Sketch. ' ' I etc.] painters of England are unimployed intellectual riches.] a commercial : Iv.] Canto xxxiv. p. [Advt. 22. [MS.)] — wonder who can say speak no of the dead Note.] p. [MS. [Advt. 23. though . Prose. — In [Advt. is mental high treason. Prose. Book liii. — H [MS...] . Book xlii. p. [Pickering — ? Lucifer discovering Judas. : To Prose. Book xlvii.] The Sussex Men are Noted Fools. . [MS. Sketch (sepia). [MS. [MS. I (g)]. therefore of the Amateurs of [Advt. — Princes appear to me to be fools Sketch.. 21. p. Book xliii. p. William Blake.] [MS. Book Prose. — Oh rare wisdom.— '^S^e WMR {Inferno. . . —The WMR (h).] Each man is in his spectre's power. [MS. — (The same.] —The wretched state of the arts demand country .. Prose. (continued on p. 25. [Advt. . . is . 24.MS. 24) [Advt.'] I saw a Monk Morning of Charlemaine.] You don't believe continued. — Rubens' Luxembourg gallery Note. No real style of colouring ever appears.] And in melodious accents L [MS... Sketch. [MS. Three Virgins at the Break of day. Fool they call thee.S. [MS. — p.] Note. 17. Rossetti 142 p. . WMR (b)]. 14.— For Gates 0/ Paradise. MS. — (The same. Book lii. . 13.] Was p. p.] Sketch. .

] He's a Blockhead [MS. Book bring. [MS. Florentine Ingratitude Book p. [MS.] was birth this 's — the happy [MS. S in Childhood on the nursery To Nancy F [MS. Book Ixxxv.] 31. [MS.] say.] Sketch (pencil). Ixxvi. old proverbs [MS. [MS.] created for destruction come. y's Friendship To forgive enemies Book Ixxviii. a. Sir Joshua praises Michael Angelo. 28.] Sir Joshua praised Rubens with a smile. Book Ivii.] p. Stothard : Fortune favours the Brave. Cromek: For Fortune's favours you your riches [MS. Book Ixxx. For Visions of the Daughters of Albion. lix. Ixvii. Ivi.] p.] On H do. I Iviii.] To forgive enemies H does pretend.] reserve and modesty he has. 34.] it is — : [MS. Ixxxiv. Book Ixxxii. Book Of p.] Cosway Frazer & Baldwin of Egypt's Lake. Book Ixvi. You say [MS. Book Ixi.] I am no Homer's Hero you all know. (j). 33. 26. 27.] p. loves artists as he loves his Meat. [MS. has observ'd the Golden Rule. [MS. : When H y finds out what you cannot [MS. I taught them how If p.] p.] [The Everlasting Gospel. [MS. [MS. Sketch. H can floor. For Gates of Paradise. To Book p. On F and S I found them blind.] help thy husband's copying me. 4). Stothard to Mr. Book Ixiv. 32. & the Ladies. Book Ixxv. Book Strange Erratum in Ixxiii. Book Ixxviii. Can there be anything more mean. Book Ixxiv. does pretend continued : 3.] He is a Cock would. p. Book lix.— [See Some men H WMR. Book p. [MS. A Pitiful To Sir Joshua sent his own portrait to. 37. 30. [MS.— [See : [MS. 29.] . WMR. [MS. Book Ixiii. the Editions. [MS.] To F You call me Mad 'tis folly to do so. Book Ixxi. Cromek to Mr. Book Ixxvii.] S d You all your Youth observ'd the Golden Rule. [MS. Book Ixx.] to see. Ixiii. ] Sketch. 36.MS. A [MS. Book : . Book Cr who wants a proof of what he can't Perceive.] Petty Sneaking Knave I knew. Mr. He (i)].] P loved me not as he lov'd his friends.] [MS. Book Ixxxi.] true. Ixxxiii.] Sketch. Book a compliment to [MS. [MS. Ixxix. Book Ixii.J The Angel that presided o'er my birth. [MS. what the Prophets write. Book Ixv. : Ixxii. Rossetti p. Book lot. Book Ix.] Mr. p.] To H Book : Thy friendship oft has made my heart to ake. On S (11. the Case : The villain at Royal Academy: A the gallows tree. Imitation of Pope. [MS. How : 143 [MS. 35. all [MS. [MS.

40. [MS. Book xcvii. Book xciii. Delicate — as in the Book Hands & Heads will never of Moonlight. appear While Titian &c. Nebuchadnezzar.] their Pictures well painted be. Book Ixxxvii.] These are the Idiots' chiefest arts.] Cromek speaks: Book ciii. The Washerwoman's Song I wash'd them out and wash'd them in.' Let a Man who has made a drawing gt) on & on & he will Note. but if he chooses to leave it before he has spoil'd it he will do a Better Thing. Book When Nobility. the Friend of all mankind. [MS. Book cix. [MS. — — — * produce a Picture or Painting.— "^Invdcr. (k). Book xcv.] When I see a Rubens Rembrandt Correggio. [See WMR.] Here lies John Trot. 42. . 39. Science is soon got . [MS.] For Marriage of Heaven and Hell Sketch (pencil).] title is prov'd.] If I e'er Grow to Man's Estate. 43. There is just the same science in Lebrun or Rubens or even Vanloo that there is in Raphael or Michael Angelo. . 46. p. p. the other never can be acquired but must be born. Bookxci. My Ixxxviii.] Cromek's opinions put into rhyme.] All pictures that's painted with sense and Book xcviii. On — the Book & great encouragement labours. 37. you always can at a picture English Encouragement of Art. For Gates of Paradise I have said to corruption etc. Sketch. but not the same genius. . [MS.] — p. Book xc] as a Genius thus am Rubens.] Machination.] a Statesman and a Saint. Sketch. p. MS.] Learn the laborious stumble of a Fool.] Great things are done when Men & Mountains meet. [MS. given [MS. [MS. ci. : p. I. They say there is no straight line in nature — — — . [MS.] Raphael Sublime Majestic Graceful Wise.p. Another [MS.] Prose.] cv. Book he and I my judgement from a Fool. Swelled limbs with no outline that you can descry. [MS. To English Connoisseurs You must agree : that Rubens was a fool. [MS. Rossetti 144 An Come knock heads against this stone.] : Book p. [MS.] A Pretty Epigram for the encouragement of those Who have paid great sums in the Venetian and Flemish ooze. The p. Book cviii. [MS. [MS. Book cvi. Book xcii. 45. On to the H Learned the Pickthank Pig. [MS. Book civ. you look I always take [MS.] Sketch. see. [MS. [MS.] [MS. Prose. 38. [Advt. Book Ixxxix. 41.] Note. Book xcvi. Book xciv.] p. [MS. You say till cii. Epitaph Book : j'our Ixxxvi. 44. [MS. [MS. 5. Book cvii. Book c] I : write the rascal thanks. [MS. cripple every step drudges For Gates of Paradise. p. Book by English Give Pensions p. Sketch. xcix. with thought. Another: I was buried near this dyke.

.] Prose. [MS. 26-83.] 72-92. containing anecdotes of Artists. [Jerusalem.] p.] people are so foolish .. is which doubts and hesitates in the midst of its course.] Everlasting Gospel. Sketch. Prose. [The [The [The [The Everlasting Gospel.53- [Advt.— I do not pretend to Paint better than Rafael which they understand not.. 51. 7-. [The Everlasting Gospel. Prose. The only Man For 11. . This only is ugliness. this 11. 47. 50. g. — Prints art. p.] Prose. plate Mr. 46.] p.— Y\&xma. Prose. 11. p. (continued *I give you the end of a golden string. reputation as a draughtsman.] Everlasting Gospel. p. . [Advt. p. Prose. [MS. . Book ex.] I will tell you what Joseph of Arimathea.] Note.— For these thirty-two Years . 5. P. [Advt. 11.] Prose.55. beginnings of [Advt. But that is not — Every line Prose. —Woollett I know . — Many 7'. 11. [The Everlasting Gospel. It is very true what you have said. [The Everlasting Gospel. Prose. [Advt. asserted that Woollett's. you play a Game of chance. . 54. (1). Book being a Friend just in the nick. . Everlasting Gospel. [MS. Sketch. [Advt. Sketch (pencil). . . 77.] Prose..) — The manner in which my character has been blasted Prose. I forget.] ] (7^ 11. 48. 1-25. 3.] the line of beauty. . 27-52. . cxii. — — [Advt.u cannot deny . in [Advt.. Book [The Everlasting Gospel.— [See Why [MS. [Advt. p. (or Mich.] — Nebuchadnezzar.] Grown old in Love from Seven till Seven times Seven.] has resumed . [MS. B. condemnation. 5. p.] Sketch. is never correct. .'] master's touch.] p. 93-96. 49. [Advt. — Of my Work & approbation Prose. 1-26. Book cxi. 84-106.MS. — .] Woollett's best works . .— The Cottager's . . 52. paid what they put in on these ungracious subjects. g. 56.] [The Everlasting Gospel.. Pro5^.] [The Everlasting Gospel.] a line If [Advt..5.] p.] this is that e'er I — In knew. —This was spoke by My Spectre to Voltaire Bacon &c. 53-71.] were superior to Basire's because .Prose.. . . 46) . .) . [Advt. The Everlasting Gospel. 6. Book cxv. 57. . It is only fumble and bungle which cannot draw a line. Book cxiii. — (Continued from on 145 [Advt. 11. cxiv. .] p. 11. [Advt. .. Ang. as Machlin told me at the time for P..] was Cupid a Boy.] [MS. 47). This day is Publish'd Advertizements to Blake's Canterbury Pilgrims from Chaucer.] WMR. Note. I hope this print .. Rossetti p.

] [MS. [Advt. 62. Book cxx. Men think they can Copy Nature Prose.— TrofAQ of Blake.] etc. Having given great offence by writing Prose. — The English [Title for Advt.] time has crook'd. Noblemen follows nonsense for . but he could not. . no good workman Fools do often Me inspire. . manner the English public . — It is upon & attend upon Empire but Empire The Arts. I do not mean smooth'd up & Nigled Poco Pen'd and all the beauties [picked out] blurr'd & blotted but Drawn with a firm & & & decided hand at once. it that it is not Arts that follow that attends Prose. Shakespeare laugh at what others can see no crime in. & not the forms of Things. Sketch.] my — Later Note. 58.] For Gates of Paradise. like Fuseli Milton. & Sketch. Book cxxii. [Advt.] For Gates of Paradise I found him beneath a tree. 4*** 181 1 all. [Advt. — Resentment for Personal Injuries has Prose. fine art. Whoever looks at any . Book cxxi. but day do not draw .] Being a complete Index of in Prose. . [Advt. manifest to . Friend Orator Prig. If — Chaucer's Canterbury Pilgrims. [Advt.] p. [MS. [Advt. . 64. . p. 67. .] Prose.] — What kind of intellect . — For Songs of Experience — The Angel.] Prose. Book cxviii. p. .] Some p. & Michael Angelo.] but not to (c). . Book cxix. Hogarth's works prove. p. God or man. [Advt. [MS. [See WMR. Aug. — From Bell's Weekly Messenger.— I do not know whether Homer . 66. dear Mother Outline of wisdom most sage. trading competition. [Advt. 65. [Advt. [Advt. 59. my Dear asked I . [Adv.. [Advt.] make a Man. 61. . Book cxx.] detestable Falsehood . . to look at his print. Prose. he. men will act like a maid smiling over a churn. — In this de draw. .] Prose. tells us. That God Prose. — He who could represent Christ Men and *Great p. not have worshipped him if I thought he had been one of those — long spindled nosed rascals. Book cxvi. Sketch. Book cxx.] Colouring Newton does show. — — I've given great Provision to Foes. Prose. p. . Is that he does.] To Venetian Artists Perhaps this little Fable may make us merry. [MS. — is . Prose.] I always thought that Jesus Christ was a snubby or I should Note.MS. [Advt.] public address but love to my art and had some share my zeal for greater. Englishmen rouse yourselves — —A — .] Sketch..] [MS. Vasari Prose. — From Cratelos.] — — For Gates of Paradise What we hope we see.] [MS. . [MS. Rosseiti 146 p.] Cooke wished to give to Hogarth . p. — Let us teach Buonaparte & whomsoever else may concern Prose. Book cxviii. which is their Error. Extract. p. 60. Human Characters as they exist age after age. Book cxvii. 63. [Advt] Prose. . [MS. Sketch. [MS.. artist Call that the Public Voice . Infirm is all me . . O : [MS.. . in this country a much — — Extract.

] who I who any truth tell know do not . 79.MS.] 1810. work of a Fool. [MS. 78. 1810. . p. a Male & Female chain'd [Cat.— No man of sense . Pros?.. 75. [MS. cxxvi. — The painter hopes that his Friends Amytus Melitus & Lycon p. Book {A quarter of this leaf has been cut out. .. Prose. 1810. 1810. Evil . (d). [Cat.~Yor Gates of Paradise— At for hatching ripe. p. do.~23 May 1810 found the Word Golden. .— [See WMR.] Sketch. .. .. Some to Blake's Catalogue of Pictures [Title for Cat. Book cxxiv. In Eternity one Thing vegetable Nature also. . 1810. Book [Cat. .] Pros?. nail it with a nail. p. . 74.] Prose.) Sketch.— [Cat.. Bock cxxviii. cord in his hand. 1810.] Prose. p.] To God.] people admire the Prose. For Gates of Paradise (frontispiece).. a Cruel Church. Sketches. p. . — — — Prose.] Prose. 1810. The Last Judgment is not Fable [Cat. Art has lost its — — Prose. a Protection. together by the feet .] mental Charms.] Since all the Riches of this World. 71.] Sketches. Sketch. 1810. p. cxxiii. — Good L & 2. & Intentions.] Sketch— [See WMR (n).] Prose. 1810. [MS..— For the year 1810 Addition [Advt. . as to believe this. [Cat. 77. on the brink of [Cat. — perdition of the Hebrew. — old heavens Art proportion to his means. — Just above . [Cat. —When those who p.] will never buy a horse has got any brains will never buy is not for the sake of convincing but for the sake of defending those it it. last &c. Book cxxviii.] The Combats of Prose. — —The greatest part of what are 1810. 1810.. . [Advt. 86. — Note here that Fable or allegory [Cat. p. [Cat.] Prose. p.] . [Cat.] 80. by the colour & a man a picture by the colour. . . . . .] Nail his neck to the Cross. p.~K man sets himself yourselves to be disgraced. 72. .] p.—The— when they assert that Jupiter Note. Pros?.] Prose. . Book cxxvii.— And heal Visions . — The Characters removing the [Cat.— A jockey that is anything of a jockey . .] To Chloe's breast Now young Cupid slily stole. 85. Between the Figures .— Tot Gates of Paradise Death's Door. [MS. . — [Cat. iBic] Prose. . 70. — Pros?.] Pros?. [Advt. 1810. [Cat. 1810. in .. for will perceive .] Prose. begs public protection and [Cat.] p. p.— No Man of Sense . 1810. all will be well. Prose. (m). 84.. [Cat.— [See WMR. [Cat. Sketches. Knowledge of good & evil. 81. Note. . [MS. . Prose.. Pros?. 73.] p.. 68. . 82. . 83. . .— The originality of this 147 production . p. 1810..] Prose. 76. 1810. 69.) [Cat.] p. [MS. call'd p. 1810. .. the golden Age.] Prose— (continued from 83. fingers. Rossetti p. — Over the head . 67. p. . 1810. whitloes on their . Nofe. p.

. Extract. Book xxxiv. [MS. Prose. — Such as Rafael Mercy have. . I . xxxii. 1810. 11. tell me what [MS. Sweeper. I . 97. gi. Extract. Sketch.] — For Gates of Paradise —happier kit. — that Bad art not with [Cat. . 9. [See Swinb. [MS. 1810. . 94.] [SE. p. [MS. p. Book xxxvi. my thou seest there.] *The sword sung on the barren heath. 1810. [SE. — For Europe — an assassin. p. . [MS. . 4. Angels [Cat. dated Sunday.p. [Cat. 7^ 11. . . 102. . p. *The Angel I dreamt a Dream what can it mean. 2. [MS. Book cxxx. — Continued (from p. The Chimney [SE. Book cxxxi.] *The Fairy Come hither.] *Fayette (Stanzas i. [MS.. 87. [MS.] Do what you will this life's a fiction. 1810. — (Description of Last Judgment. 104. [Cat. Prose. Rossetti 148 [MS.] *An answer to the parson Why of the sheep do you not learn peace ? [MS. p. Prose. Sketch. [MS. Book xxxv. pp. 96) signed Birmingham L* Note.] —Adam and Eve.] *An Old maid early e'er I knew. p. the to Songs of Innocence & of Experience.) rose up at the dawn of day.] 99. . 6). stanza 2. 88. . Prose. The Caverns Prose. 1810.] — — — — stature. 1810. Book cxxix. August 1807. MS. 1-37. — Men because Last Judgment &. he rears from the pool his mighty p. 4. — Represented those who are Envy the Success. 38-57. . [Cat. 103. [MS. p. 130-1. . 10). 98. 100.] For Gates of Paradise Fire. 90.. p.] *Because I was happy upon the heath. ' p. *Several Questions Answered.] of the Grave I've seen. . — Of Satan or of Og than. loi. *Littie *Motto Book p. Book xxix. be Painting. [MS. 95. p. [The Everlasting Gospel. Essay. 93. Sketch (sepia) Prose. Prose.] *The Question Answer'd What is it men in women do require : ! : : [MS. [MS.] Fayette (Stanzas p.] — For Gates of Paradise— Earth. it. Sketch. Book xxxvi.] *Her whole Life is an Epigram. 11. p. [The Everlastins: Gospel. *Day The sun arises in the East. Book xxiv. [MS. ^. Book xxx. [SE. Book xxii.] *Holy Thursday Is this a holy thing to see. 105.] 92. [MS. .] : : . Copenhagen.] — Lines written surrender of 96. 89. Book xxxv. my sparrows. [Cat.] *Riches The countless gold of a merry heart. 3. stanzas 2. Sketch. 1810. p.] : : p.] 3.) [Cat. p. Book xxxiii.] — For Gates of Paradise— Water. Book xxiii.] *The look of love alarms. (The same.] fly. /3. Book xxxi. : boy. 1-38. Sketch.] Note and Qtiotatious from Aphra Behn & Dryden. Book xxxvi. . p. Sketch.] *Lacedemonian Instruction : Come hither.] Shall know them .] [The Everlasting Gospel.

] *They said this mystery never shall cease. [MS. 110. Book xiv. Book xxvii.] walked abroad on a snowy day. *Thou hast a lap *Earth's Answer full : *In a mirtle shade : [MS. [SE. [SE. [MS. 113.] *The Kid Thou. Book xxv. *0 lapwing thou fliest *I fear'd the fury of *Infant Book *Why Sorrow: X. [MS. Book xi. also should I [MS. [The Human : p. SE. SE.] up her head. Tyger. that black'ning church.] *There souls of men are bought & sold. Tyger. [SE. [MS.] *Nought loves another as itself [A Little Boy Lost.] *London I wander thro' each charter d street. 5.] [MS.] father wept.] *The modest rose puts forth a thorn. [SE.] [MS.] care for the men of thames.] *Love to faults is always blind continued (stanza 2). [MS. little Kid. *Silent Silent Night. 2. Book xvii. Sketch.] my Mirtle To a lovely mirtle bound. : Book *The sick *Soft Snow Rose I : O : Rose. [MS. — Suggests Urizen. [The Lilly. [SE. . 105.] *Are not the joys of morning sweeter. 4 and 6). [MS. Book ix. Book [MS. Book *To : xvii.] *To Nobodaddy Why art thou silent & invisible. 109. my viii. desire. Book xxxvi. Book xx.] *The little Vagabond Dear Mother.] mother groan'd.] [MS. Book xix. [Nurse's : p. Book xviii. 3. Book xxviii. : : : Song. *The Tyger Tyger. Book xvi. Book vii. Book xxi. [SE. p. : : : cold. burning bright (stanzas : i. my My wind. xix. Book xiii. Earth rais'd Why [MS. Sketch. *Merlin's prophecy [MS. i. [MS. III. 3).] p. MS. [MS. 6). 112. SE.] p. p.] *The wild flower's song continued (stanzas 2. 106. [MS. [MS.] p. SE. Book xiii.] : Remove away [MS. SE. : Abstract.] *The wild flower's song As I wander'd the forest (stanza i).] *Love to faults is always blind.] around the heath. 108. 3. 5. Sketches (pencil). 107. Book xxvi. did'st play.] *If you trap the moment before it 's ripe. [SE. Book xv. of seed.] *The Tyger Tyger.] *Eternity He who bends to himself a joy. burning bright (first draft of stanzas i.] should I be bound to thee. thou art sick. [MS.] *The Chimney Sweeper (stanza i).] The harvest shall flourish in wintry weather. [MS. p. 149 [MS. [MS.] *When the voices of children are heard on the green. *An ancient Proverb Book xxxvi. Sketch. the Church is *Abstinence sows sand *In a wife would I all over.Rossetti p. — Continuation of above. Book xii. Dear Mother.] *The human Image Pity would be no more.

[MS. 115. I laid me down upon a bank.'] Prose. p. Book ii. [118].] please. p. List (in ink). SE. Book iv. itself to told SE. To find the western path.] INDEX TO THE ROSSETTI TRANSCRIPT (R^) The My Everlasting Gospel (part). *Christian Forbearance [A Poison p. p. The look of love alarms.] [MS. heard an angel singing. [End of in [Descriptive Cat. : : Tree.] me down upon a bank. beauty bright. Prose. to tell thy love. p. *A SE. p. I.] [The Everlasting Gospel. Locusts. [The Clod and the Pebble. Why was Cupid a boy. give you the end of a golden string. A flower was offer'd to me. Never seek 1 wander'd the forest. I grow to man's If e'er estate.] *A cradle Song Sleep Sleep beauty bright. [117]. — Ofplagues of Egypt. Angel singing. [119]. *I asked a thief to steal *I heard an a peach. .) — [Cat.] bound — (Description of Canterbury Pilgrims. When the voices of children are heard on the green. the mother said. [MS.] *I laid *I *I — Of twenty -two subjects for history of England. birth. Giants ancient inhabitants of England. 116.Rossetii 150 me MS. 1810. I see.) — (The same. Sleep. Where thou dwellest. List (in pencil). sleep.] flower *I told my was offer'd to love I *Love seeketh not Pretty Rose Tree. Book iii. Book v. p.] the Rossetii MS.] e. in what grove. [MS. Book vi.] [MS. 114. Lice. etc. me. Prose. \^Here follow the contents of the two leaves at the end of the MS. Great things are done when men and mountains meet. I see. saw a chapel all of gold.] I was angry with my friend. Boils. [The Garden of Love. Three virgins at the break of day.] went to the garden of love. [120]. Book i. I I The angel who presided o'er my I saw a chapel all of gold. [My my love. SE. Spectre around me night and day. Hail. [MS.

I rose up at the dawn of day. Book. Wilham In a letter to the latter dated AlHngham. burning bright. and wanted to Was there not some see my manuscript by that genius. talk of your doing something in the way of publishing I know William thought of doing so. Canterbury Pilgrims and Vision of the Last Judgment. Rossetti The errors of a wise man make your 1 5 1 rule. i860. What do I care for the men of Thames. the poet. Tyger. together with others ' . and is as near him in other respects as he can manage) wrote to me the other day. Tyger. he writes lives next door to Carlyle. though I have told him he can see it here if he will give me a day's notice. I A have not yet engaged myself any way to said Gilchrist on the subject. without distinguishing between the two separate sources. the church I asked a thief to steal me is cold. but really think its contents ought to be edited. rose thou art sick. [Hiatus offive leaves J\ Five epigrams numbered 20-4. Nought loves another as itself. edited by his brother. prints for the first time a number of poems from the Blake autograph in his own possession. and I have no time. dear mother. to Gilchrist in the following year. saying he was writing a life of Blake. Dear mother.' Rossetti. 1 walk'd abroad on a snowy day. Under the heading Poems hitherto unpublished. or by his friend. Prose descriptions of Blake's pictures. To Chloe's heart young Cupid slily stole. The caverns of the grave I've seen. I was angry with my friend.' Rossetti. He 's a blockhead who wants a proof of what he can't perceive. In making his transcript. a peach. did lend the MS. as we know. Voltaire. Mock on. but its contents ? fancy it might wait long for his efforts. and on the death of the latter helped to complete his unfinished work by editing the selection from Blake's poetical and prose works given in the second volume of the Life. who November i. Love seeketh not itself to please. mock on. especially " '' if a new Life gives a shove to the concern (as Spurgeon expressed himself in thanking a liberal subscriber to his ' : Tabernacle).MS. man (one Gilchrist. The countless gold of a merry heart. Rousseau. Rossetti appears to have contennplated publication of part of the contents of the MS.

ii. and 1874 edited by R. who soon after lent time to the publisher of Ellis and Yeats' large edition of Blake's Works. Book in his Critical Essay (1868). pp. became the property of Basil Montague Pickering. The Ever' To the Deists in lasting Gospel (vol. Shepherd. and the Aldine edition which appeared in the same year. gives for the first time some adequate conception of Blake's great and extraordinary poem ' ' ' The Everlasting Gospel.' About the same time the Pickering MS.. pp.' as well as a few new poems. Book. of The Everlasting Gospel. bears obvious marks of having been made in haste by a copyist unfamiliar with Blake's hand. ' . Additions to Catalogue 1810). My * elsewhere. iSg^. and Jerusalem (vol. W. by his copious extracts and illuminative comment. From the MS. ii. 202-32) Ellis and Yeats include for the first time a few minor poems which had been rejected or ignored by former editors.333-403). He takes considerable liberty with the text and gives to several of the pieces titles of his own. though not as stated all. and the prose Advertisement and Additions to Blake's Catalogue (vol. pp. W. copy of the manuscript. 42-60). pp. A. He adds to the number of new poems printed. 1868. e. ii. H. by Mr. Mr. Pickering's last edition. 'Fayette' (vol. Swinburne was the next to make use of the MS. Ellis' transcript. Their versions of some of the longer poems and prose pieces in the MS. Rossetti was able to use that part only of the Pickering MS. and his Vision of the Last Judgment' (i. 38). Ellis. ii. M. from the borrowed Pickering MS. Mr. M.g. prints more. W. while Shepherd was prohibited from using any part of the larger MS. ' present owner.e. chiefly epigrams. which had already been printed by his brother. published in the same year. White. 24-7). who printed the whole of it foi the first time in his editions of 1866. Book as well as i. The Rossetti MS.1 Rossetti 52 MS. 1887. ii. was used for their three-volume edition. 37. 221-4). Rossetti. mutually supplement each other. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' PP. spectre around me night and day (vol. the publisher. and. by it its for a A made for Mr. Yeats' in his small 'Muses' Library' Blake.' Blake's Memoranda on his modes of engraving. who generally follows his brother's text. if one may judge by the text of these editors. In their description of the MS. Book was purchased January 26. which has since disappeared. Book also he excerpts the prose manifesto which he calls Public Address. pp. Book must be sought (vol.

or where the MS. •. and his marks of with transposition corrections. and any obscure passage submitted to minute My own scrutiny. with all Blake's deletions. for the worse or for the better.Rossetti MS. any differences of reading being again Some idea referred to Mr. version of some of the Songs of Experience may be preferred to the text of the engraved book. while it serves every purpose of he matter in a much clearer and more intelligible form. Book made by Mr. Not the least important result of the plan here pursued besides the light which it throws upon Blake's self-criticism apparent in his successive changes is the new form in which a number of the most familiar poems now appear. G. it. . White. as in 'Cupid' (MS. but also imparts a deeper meaning D. are here uniformly adopted. — — ' ' ' ' ' ' Instances will be noted where. White for further examination. Book cxv). enabling the reader to follow the same . which faithfully reproduce the relative positions of poems or stanzas on the and original page. these changes are the reverse of improvements. Similar care has been four or five hours' close labour. and the text and notes again checked from the original manuscript. insertions. presents fore. possess a Blake student thoroughly familiar with his author's handwriting and mode of composition. been read by Mr.' yet the latter is not only as Blake wrote The to the poem. given by the editor to unravelling Blake's method of buildup a poem. of the care bestowed upon this part of the work may be gathered from the fact that in more than one instance the White original transcription of a single page has cost Mr. together successive numerations of stanzas and lines (without careful observance of which many of the poems would be uninthe advantage of having been made by telligible). The aid of the magnifying glass or of photography has also been resorted to.'existing • ing The proofs have lastly process by reference to the notes. and collated with the chief texts. One may hesitate to change the generally received line Sweet morning leads me on (xliii) to Sweet mercy leads me on. This edition therea facsimile. These transcripts. 1 '> 5 text of the poems has been prepared from the MS. Book mirtle bound a To (MS. whether of Blake's final version. lyric lovely In a Myrtle Shade ') gains by the recovery Rossetti's Blake's final readings. xiii. White for the of transcripts present edition. From these made by the transcripts copies of the poems have been present editor.

' afterwards engraved as part of Jerusalem and here printed among poems from the ' Prophetic Books. and the two — ' quatrains Each man is in his spectre's power and I give you the end of a golden string.' which I print in the poems from the Pickering MS. Book version. but not printed in this section of my edition. The poetical pieces forming part of the MS.Rossetti 154 MS. are part of the Songs of Experience. the variant readings of which are Three virgins at the suppUed in the footnotes to that work break of day. Book. with the readings of the MS. ' ' .

Book Written i-xxxvl. pp. in the reversed circa 1793 115-98 book .POEMS FROM THE ROSSErri MS. MS.

WMR MS. traveller came by. 0!.. Swinb. told her all I my my heart i love. A 5 — Silently. fears. Then went to the heath I & the wild. in ghastly Ah she doth depart. To the thistles & thorns of the waste And they told me how they were beguil'd.I ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT my I told told I love.' drawn prints . . and EY print these two stanzas of 'The Garden of Love. p. punctuate by comma after heart and period 4 doth] did all edd. 3 heart . iii. Swinb. under the title ' Love's All edd. . Book. except fears] All edd. 93. Secret. 115. Silently. WBY 2.' read seek for pain.' ignoring the separation between the two poems. read doth for does. all edd. Driven out.' DGR Printed by and later add. Trembling. Book. in Never pain [seek del. I heard among the rushes dank Weeping. cold. . p. as the first line WBY separately with title * The Thistles and Thorns. EY however note this. Where love lay sleeping. invisibly O! was no MS. Not deny. ! Soon as she was gone from me. 5 Soon as] Soon after all edd.] to tell thy Love that never told can be For the gentle wind does move * love. . Weeping. reads shall for can. invisibly..411 edd. 8 WBY deny] He took her with a sigh MS. print the first stanza deleted by Blake :— p. 11 me down upon I laid a bank. . after fears. & compel'd to be chaste.. DGR. . del. and all edd. Book ist rdg. 115.

. 13 Vomiting] all except who WBY. turn'd all edd. Book (Index to MS. All his shining length he drew. IV I ask^d a thief to steal turned up his eyes. del. Book. 141) and later edd. tore] Till he broke the pearly door MS. 157 111 saw a chapel all of gold That none did dare to enter I i in. WMR. Book. Not in DGR. 8 Till Down . (p. 115. . reads. = . in . entitle ' asked] asked = ask'd all edd. The Will and the Way. Not Sanctuary. Book. he the golden hinges tore hinges tore. EY . & 13 on the wine. laid me down among the swine. turned] turned i. Till upon the altar white Vomiting the bread So I MS.Rossetti MS. Set with pearls & rubies bright. 205). worshipping. down the golden Vomited WBY. p. DGR and all later editors entitle this 'The Defiled Swinb. Swinb. 2 He] And he MS. Book \st rdg. 114. And along the pavement sweet. p. Till He vomited DGR. mourning.' this I lie her down : cries. ask'd a lithe lady to me a peach: He I Holy & meek. del. And he forc'd & forc'd & forc'd Down the golden hinges tore. turn'd into a sty. she MS. I saw a serpent The white rise pillars between 5 of the door. EY steal] steel 1st rdg. Weeping.' his poison out On And 9 . And many weeping stood without.

all edd." note iii. . 3 Pity.I s Rossetti 8 As soon as I He wink'd And smil'd And Had And MS. and maid] And 'twixt earnest & joke MS.. As 5 . p. 114. Till the And I heard a Devil curse Over the heath & 9 the furze: 'Mercy could be no more If there was nobody poor.' Swinb. as two lines.' At his curse the sun went down And the heavens gave a frown. Book rdg. at the dame . 6 He] all edd. were as happy as we. 15 At his curse] Thus he sang & ' 16 frown] Here. went an angel came 5 : at the thief. 12 was] were all edd. del. 13 could] we] ye all except Swinb. xst And he MS. happy] All edd. Book 1st rdg. all edd. p. Book . . Pity.' ' Thus he sang all day Over the new mown hay. DGR and later edd. haycocks looked brown. except 14 as correcting later in MS. without one word said a peach from the tree. del. 5 4 Is] Are all edd. Book ist rdg. isi rdg. 147. p. EY WBY. I heard an Angel singing When . Book. as Blake's line drawn beneath . del. * 13 If all MS. print del. Peace] Pity and Peace all edd. 97. still as a 8 maid Enjoy'd the Lady. Book ist rdg. Peace Is the world's release. And pity no more could be. 8 said] spoke MS. 5 sun went down. del. ii Enjoy'd] He enjoy'd MS. . as. omit. ' ' ' ' ' Thus] So all would Swinb. name this The Two Songs. An earlier version of The human Image (engraved under the title The Human Abstract in the Songs of Experience). ID And came] . and i the day was springing: Mercy.

— 147) re-arranges and prints 11.' EY follow DGR. Pity. in their Notes to the EY. stanza: (p. II. Pity. Peace. [17]. the heavens gave a frown. the stanza : poem — ' Down originally And [at first ended. with U.' iii. And Mercy Pity harvest was The Farmers were ruined Over the & & & ended'' This a fresh terminal line. Pity. their readings of the partially illegible words being rather different WMR.' Is DGR Misery's increase prints as his third stanza {Songs 0/ Experience) and ' I 11. [21]. [22] (slightly altered) : — ' version heard a Devil curse Over the heath and the furze " Mercy could be no more If there were nobody poor. from mine. [18]. Lastly follow several attempts stanza.] Peace {? Joy'd) at their increase {? With) Poverty's Increase Are And by distress increase Mercy. Misery's increase Are Mercy. which are not very legibly written. being ' at a : — Mercy Pity \_& del. Songs. Peace.MS. however.' Swinb. Peace [21] ' . and [22] as his last 'Down poured the heavy rain Over the new-reaped grain . p. And Pity no more could be If all were happy as ye : : And mutual fear brings Peace. pourd down'] 159 the Later he added a fifth heavy rain [17] new reap'd grain. 16 ' At his curse the sun And WBY ' . &c. the rejected readings. 1. Pity. Peace descended . 97. Rossetti this stanza shows. Pity. Peace " concluding. and Poetical Sketches. 9-14. and again indicated the completion of the poem by stanza Blake afterwards deleted. as a separate couplet. Book. the final form of the only completed couplet of which reads 'And Is And new : Miseries' increase Mercy. : — went down. 15. ' . And Mercy. print the poem as it is found in the MS. Peace By Misery to increase Mercy. 5 of ' The Human Abstract [21].

Book \st rdg. . thy face can trace. 13 In thy When Then thy little heart does wake the dreadful lightnings break. Little pretty infant wiles. 4. feel] touch MS. . { . Book abandoned opening stroke ibid. del. DGR and all later editors include this poem among the Songs of Experience. Rossetti vi A Cradle Song Sleep Sleep ! beauty bright. 1-4 Sleep weep] The two couplets were written in reverse order. . As thy softest limbs I feel. but never engraved by Blake. del. . all edd. . del. . del. rdg. Book 2 Dreaming 1st rdg. del. while still later Blake added the final stanza and numbered the whole in their present order. at first consisted of stanzas i. Obviously written as the contrary of the Cradle Song' Songs of Innocence . night] Thou shalt taste the joys of night MS. ' p. Book 15/ Canst thou any secret keep ibid. . . . del. Stanza 2 was then added and a second boundary line drawn. . 2nd rdg. in Soft desires I Secret joys & 5 secret smiles. . of this stanza. 8 Little wiles] Such as burning youth beguiles MS. . Blake indicating the change by prefixed numerals. MS. as the line drawn below it shows. . Book. Smiles as of the morning steal O'er thy cheek. 15 does] doth all edd. . ! Dreaming o'er the joys of night in thy sleep Sleep Sleep ! i . This song. o'er] in 4 Little weep] Thou wilt every secret keep MS.'\ Yet a little while the moon Silent MS. ! & Little sorrows sit Sweet Babe. 114. 16 lightnings] light shall all edd. weep. in the .i6o MS. 10 steal] broke ibid. in most cases with explanatory note. the cunning wiles that creep little heart asleep. 3. Where thy O ! little & o'er 9 thy breast heart does rest. . 9 As etc. Book 15^ rdg. 12. ist rdg. . 2nd rdg. del.

lo MS. EY. 11 does] doth DGR. 113. 17-20 From ' thine eye for thy eye in however. Without any corrections. DGR and later edd. Nor with sorrows meet ? But an honest joy Does itself destroy For a harlot coy. . Why 5 should joys be sweet Used with deceit. Book 15/ rdg. 124. . is correction. Infant . No title in original. For possess'd of Day. spread beneath. EY omit in their Table of Contents to ' the MS. omit this stanza. Book (i. Swinb. Rossetti i6i From thy cheek & from thy 17 eye. WMR. i Quench the holy light Of thy torches bright . p. and obviously transcribed from an earlier draft. EY. 17. Silent Night. Infant wiles & infant smiles Heaven & Earth of peace beguiles. It has been printed. beguiles] all edd. Vll Silent. name Night and Day. 206. 1. dost thou not fly among the corn fields? cannot spread nets where a harvest yields. p. . Without I SAMPSON around the heath.' Svdnb. i.MS. ' .. infant] 19 . del. p. Book. p. by Swinb. O'er the youthful harvests nigh. who reads Female female MS. ' ' . . 113. . Thousand spirits stray That sweet joys betray. WBY. Book. thou] that M Only printed by EY. Vlll O lapwing! Nor thou fliest seest the net that Why They MS. 7 joys] love 205). . 133.

1 62 Rossetti MS. 240. verj' inaccurate and later edd.' Not in Swinb. Struggling in my father's hands.) 1 . Helpless. Book fury] roughness DGR ist rdg. Songs. . Sketches. piping loud. 94 To understand Blake's successive changes in the last part of this poem it should be noted that. it But a blossom Was shin'd it wind wind my blossoms all blight & . fair or true 5 not found on any tree blossoms grew all i fair never blew. Like a fiend hid in a cloud. EY (Notes to the Poetical First printed Experience. title ' Barren wind] word EY (in their 4 And] But MS. p. as the different were afterwards engraved by Blake ink shows. Book. my father wept 1 . . 113. ' Cp. ' ' changes Shade ' in the other stanzas where required. Book. WBY (Notes). as in xiii. &c. Book. 4. false. I MS. IX fear'd the fury of I Would And my And my sun For & & true. (MS. 93. 113. pp. beginning with 1. with roman numerals. sulk upon title later. MS. with the i. stanzas first thought best Mother's breast.' making corresponding . del. 137-139..) iii. two my with added p. as one of the The Songs of by Swinb. index to the MS. my swaddling bands. Book 4 Like . 21. altered to my father ') to many a Priest. with this poem ' In a Mirtle xiii). X Infant Sorrow My mother groan'd. cloud] See note to ' Infant Sorrow ' {Songs of Exp. del. . tho' fair to see. I weary. who numbers the stanzas Not in DGR or WMR. naked. Book \st rdg. 5 Striving against & Bound To MS. 205). p. he changed a Priest' (afterwards. grew Fruitless. Into the dangerous world I leapt. Printed by Blossom. shin'd.

del. ' And I From \st rdg. znd rdg. is 17. He I Where beneath my vines he lay. The two book couplets of this stanza M 2 (? look) WBY 28 vines] vine EY. Book 2rd 24 240. And . upon the ground I stray.MS. del.. Seeking many an artful Twining many a trick and wile Swinb. But a Priest with holy look. this point onwards EY put asterisks for 'was to. blossoms out to me. Seeking only for delight. 21. Book 15 smil'd] my smile] This stanza began to MS. rdg.' this stanza del. del. .. Rossetti When I saw And to sulk 163 was vain. I ' MS.. 18 WBY. Book .' give the earlier (and preferable) form of the remaining stanzas . . Book . 29 : was to be found. 17 . ii Turn. embrac'd ing . In his hands a holy book. 14 stray] lay Swinb. Book ist 13 sooth'd] Book 2nd . me saw before shine 17 Clusters of the wand'ring vine And. del. . These changes are all dependent upon the substitution of ' 21 But a Priest] My father many a Priest for ' a Priest in 1. a mirtle tree Stretch'd its . 29-32 originally written in . I And Till sooth'd day after day. smil'd MS. that rage 9 Turning many a trick & wile began to soothe & smile.] ' then p. Swinb. wile] I wile MS. Book mirtle bright. beyond.. ist rdg. Pronounced curses on his head Who the fruits or blossoms shed. . . EY . del. grew MS. were (Notes). I 25 . . delight beginning of first an afterthought. grew MS. beheld . look] fruits] fruit bright] book EY Swinb. retains this. omit. EY. rdg. 21 beheld the Priest by night embrac'd my mirtle bright: beheld the Priest by day. . Like a serpent in the day Underneath my vines he lay Like a serpent in the night He 9-12 When . and print in a final note the revised form of stanzas 6-9. I And I And I 13 smil'd night after night. vine] But upon the earthly ground No MS. EY. I rdg. . Swinb. would nothing gain.

the final position of the lines being afterwards indicated in Blake's usual manner by Arabic numerals added in the left-hand margin. p. bright] WBY (Notes) omits. fled. 17). my head. the cheating waves of charter'd streams shrink at the little blasts of fear That the hireling blows into my i . I MS. *29 : So I smote them. Underneath the vines they lay. And grey hairs are on head. EY. Book. xi Why Or Or should I care for the men of thames. with title Thames and Not in Swinb. ear? MS. EY. But the time of youth is fled. I beheld the Priests by night the blossoms bright beheld the Priests by day *25 . deletions and additions. They embrac'd I *2i : . WBY. . waves] waters DGR. Stain'd the roots But the time of youth grey hairs are on is And 33 .' . Pronounc'd curses on my head And bound me in a mirtle shade. . the reverse order. *25-*32 I beheld . 205). & their gore *33 Stain'd the roots my mirtle bore . Printed by DGR and later edd. head] stanzas (see note to 1. In their hands a holy book. the changes being And I saw before me shine Clusters of the wand'ring vine And many a lovely flower & tree Stretch'd their blossoms out to me. ' Ohio. . i. 17-36 And I saw . I append here the The verses were version of the last five final not recopied. WMR. my *2i look] book *28 vines] vine EY. Book. . 4 my] mine all edd. Like to holy men by day Underneath the vines they lay Like to serpents in the night They embrac'd my mirtle bright.Rossetti 164 So & his gore my mirtle bore smote him. 2 Or] And r thames] the Thames EY (Index to MS. all edd. 113. *i7 . But many a Priest with holy look.

Ahania. 7. but I go to be free. . . For .MS. . it del. lo MS. del. . v. 1 this Why dost thou not cast thy seed. and later edd. Book 1st rdg. del. from me MS. WMR. . del. ' 9 tearing] pulling MS. And live in it Shall I And cast turn merrily? on the sand it 5 into fruitful land? it For on no other ground Can sow I my seed. The Ohio shall wash his stains from me I was born a slave. Cp. The me] I spurn'd his waters away 8 go] long MS. : fc>* 6 bathed] bathed all edd. Book. Without tearing up Some stinking weed. he wrote can here printed. . chap. with title Seed Sowing. Xll Thou And hast a lap full of seed. is a fine country. as arranged the lines as first DGR. On On the virgins of springing joy. stanza 12 : DGR ' — 'Then thou. or Printed by WBY. 7-10 This end of I. WMR and turn'd 2 fine] fair MS. Book EY print these intention. . 6 Shall I turn] Oft I've I . 7 For] 1st rdg. . Book ' at the EY. full of generous fire. . Ill. EY. Rossetti 165 Tho' born on the cheating banks of Thames. . four lines as two. 7 del.' WMR. weed] DGR. may have been Blake's but he erased and Book 1st rdg.' Not in Swinb. with thy lap full of seed. where it precedes 'Earth's Answer' {^Songs oj Exp. Book ist rdg. lap full] lapful DGR.). p. With thy hand "Walked forth from the clouds of morning. Tho' his waters bathed my infant limbs. . 1st rdg. human soul to cast the The seed of eternal science. But MS. 5.

Songs. . Book. 138. laugh'd So smote him. But the time of youth And grey hairs are on MS. by print this couplet without 5 sick] MS. p. my Oft I father Stain'd the roots & his gore my mirtle bore. misrepresents the true order.1 66 MS. 9 : . iii. x). quotes stanzas ' O and is . . in 5 and 9 indicating the relative WBY. Book weak EY. stanza 2 with the couplet. Book x. Sorrow 5-8 DGR p. 137. by omitting these and after the rest 11. Underneath my mirtle bound. WBY. Infant Sorrow. marking the deletion. del. Oft my To behold mirtle sigh'd in vain my heavy chain And saw us sigh. . To any O thee.) Cp. this version Swinb. where. 13 fled. as else11 Oft saw] Oft the MS. . ! 5 . my WMR omit head. Book x\ bound] This stanza was added . afterwards deleted : ' To a lovely mirtle bound. III. &c. were written.. 33-6 (MS. Poetical Sketches. Blake began printing the stanzas as written. how sick and weary I Underneath my mirtle lie Like to dung upon the ground. all around. EY (Notes to the 3. pp. 13-16 So. Rossetti • • • Xlll \First Version] In a Mirtle Shade Why should I be bound to O my lovely mirtle tree? free love.' 11 : cp. (MS. 1st trig. i cannot be bound tree that grows on ground. with this poem the fuller form of Infant . Book . Love. the left-hand column. . 94 and i WBY (Notes% . prefixed numerals to position of the second and third stanzas. at our simplicity.' Blossoms show'ring Both EY and priest beheld ' head] cp. WBY italics. ' 245.

the earlier version.Rossetti MS. and were written in the MS. *4. \6j \Final Versto?i] To My Mirtle To i a lovely mirtle bound. lie] ' . Book. He then struck out 11. but leave them meaningless by the omission DGR and all edd. Book. ' Blake here compresses the sixteen lines of the preceding version has been As this poem has never been correctly obscured by editorial changes. print the lines in the order in which they &c. find all Blake's editors following . (Notes). 5 Why 6 O my should I be bound to thee *i lovely mirtle tree Love free love cannot be bound To any tree that grows on ground. *4- In a Myrtle Shade.*z. Songs. cannot be bound To any tree that grows on ground DGR's ! EY (Notes to the Poetical Sketches. where it immediately precedes Nought loves another The simple and faultless form into which as itself ('A Little Boy Lost'). the first stanza of the earlier version. give this Alledd. WBY poem the title used in 4 3 sick] weak all edd. Rossetti into supposing that two more lines were required. indicating deleted Hnes by italics : — TO MY MIRTLE. otherwise he would have been the first to perceive how omission of the greatly the poem gains in freshness and sweetness by the rhetorical tag : — Love. To a lovely mirtle bound Blossoms showring all around 1 2 Like to dung upon Underneath 3 O how 4 Underneath sick the my mirtle & weary my mirtle *S ground bound I *9 lie. as it stood. The original arrangement of the verses must have misled Mr.) iii. *8. All edd. follow text. it may be well to reproduce it in the exact form in the MS. *4 and *7. free love. 95. ! 5 O my lovely mirtle tree? MS. and by ignoring deletions. Blossoms show'ring all around. end first stanza here.add\\. in which it is found printed.' 6 tree] All edd. DGR and printing the poem as two four-line stanzas. io6. in restoring the deleted lines *3. of Blake's marginal numbers. *3. beginning his second stanza with the couplet which he had rejected in the previous draft and adding but in transposed — order — two accepted couplets of the same stanza. O how sick & weary I Underneath my mirtle lie Why should I be bound to thee. It will thus be seen that Blake began by transcribing. p. Book. prefixing marginal numbers in his usual manner to indicate the Blake's intention is perfectly plain yet we position of the lines retained.

subtil modesty. p. {sic). open. in text as To Old Nobodaddy. of Jealousy. 264 EY. 7 dare] can EY. Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793) Innocence honest. ' * ' 'Nobodaddy' (obviously 'Nobody's Daddy.. females' loud] feminine MS. Book. Book isi rdg. That none dare eat the fruit but from In all The wily serpent's jaws? Or is it because Secresy gains MS. Secresy] applause] a later addition in pencil. DGR. ' ' . Rossetti XIV To Nobodaddy art thou silent & invisible. print as two lines. seeking : ' ! The vigorous Who open to virgin bliss. Swinb. The same name occurs also in Fayette and in the lines on Klopstock (MS. Father of Jealousy? Why dost thou hide thyself in clouds From every searching Eye ? Why Why & darkness i 5 obscurity thy words & laws. p. WBY title added females' loud applause Not later in different ink. del.del. 109. with title 'Young — Cp. Swinb. . the Father of Jealousy. lines only). joys of morning light taught thee modesty. & sleep ? ' . child of night .' and by .' and in notes as i.' antithetical to 'Father of AH') was Blake's jocular nickname for Urizen. .WBY.1 68 MS. Book xxxvi. ^o<^\strdg.. 'To Nobodady iii. gives Swinb. 4 searching] passing EY. The p. in WMR ? under the title Father Printed by 209. All edd. 140. (first Printed by two DGR and later edd. ' : : XV Are not the joys of morning sweeter Than the joys of night? And i are the vig'rous joys of youth of the light? Ashamed MS.' p. 4 Ashamed] Ashamed DGR. Love. xxxix\ 2 Father] Man MS.. Book. Swinb. gains] Jealousy iwith note querying secrecy' as the true reading) Swinb. 9 Or 5 EY and WBY print both stanzas as one. EY. 109. 91.

chains in fetters every mind. 107. mind. and not indicated by Blake himself. Book \st rdg. . prudish Never And is & confin'd. p. unconfin'd] Always . . 6 vineyards] vineyard all edd. wing'd & unconfin'd. WBY Freedom and Captivity ') print the first (the latter with the title stanza and an altered version of the fragment by which it is immediately ' followed in the MS. winged. which was probably a hasty attempt at erasure Lawless. And breaks all chains from every mind. Not in DGR. is 15/ rdg. MS. to interest blind. written in pencil at top right-hand corners of pp. See also 3 Lawless (' WBY There souls of men are bought & sold ') as a single (Notes). mind] MS. 107. : . . Book. to joy inclin'd. Lawless. unconfined EY. Book. . 169 sickness silent rob 5 The vineyards in the night But those who burn with vig'rous youth . forges fetters for the MS. 2 promotes] loves MS. .Rossetti Let age & MS. poem. Pluck fruits before the light. ' Cp. del. unconfin'd MS. Book 1st rdg.' . though or Swinb. ' p. . 106. ' Always Book ' . note to The Lilly {Songs of Experience^. print the two stanzas as one poem. underlined. Deceit to secresy confin'd. — ' Deceit to secresy inclin'd. XVll Love to faults is Always is always blind i . I EY WMR. cautious To anything And refin'd 5 . WBY. & Lawful. Modest. their connexion being obvious. but interest blind. 246. & the soldier peace. XVI They said this mystery never shall cease: The priest promotes war. 5-8 Deceit .

WBY: \st rdg. del. 127. WMR. 7 5 I Earth] I was found in the dark ibid. milk fed infancy for gold youth to slaughter houses I Not p. ' I slept in the Earth 5 In the silent night.' seek for But I . pp. 107 the introductory stanza and catchwords (' I slept in the dark. &c.1 MS. WBY. and finally the title. WBY print as second stanza to preceding poem. Book 4 beauty] See note \st rdg. 9 rosy as morn. i among. Book And] In EY. MS. heard a wild flower Singing a song. new Joy met with scorn. is led. There] The EY. I went. maidens MS. cradled infancy i sold. fears] thoughts R^ (though correctly in DGR). EY p. WBY. .'). gold] 3 youth] youths Swinb. . : . DGR in EY.del. I wander'd 3 flower] thistle MS.^v4\v^. Rossetti 70 XVlll & There souls of men are bought And And And MS. The second and third stanzas on p. 107. Book. . 109. milk fed .. beauty. for a bit of bread.. WBY. and to xvii. sold 2 MS.. I murmur'd And ' I felt my In the morning As To fears delight. 1st rdg. . EY. . Book. and Swinb. XIX The Wild Flower's Song As wander'd the I The green I leaves forest. WMR. Book the] wandered in the all edd. 109 at first formed the entire poem later Blake added on p. 107. del. .

! 4 : And MS. Book. 2 snowy] sunny Swinb. 105. should be thought a crime Swinb. Book 1st rdg. 135. (Index to MS. ! &c. that sweet love . line in their I Printed here for first time. {riote). MS.. (note). index to the MS. MS. I i : p. The king and priest EY. del. Book and ask'd] wooed Swinb. last line is in pencil. MS. WBY ('Couplets 1 : to play added later. a dreadful crime. EY she melted the winter call'd p. 3 The King & XXU Day The sun arises in the East. del. Only printed by EY. Croun'd with warlike fires & raging desires. and & snow with me The it : in all her prime. . pp. sun] day MS. crime] Oil.' i ). i. i. Book .. p. Swinb. Cloth'd in robes of blood & gold Swords & spears & r . 15/ rdg. all edd. i. Ah . that. XXI Merlin's Prophecy The harvest shall flourish in wintry weather When two meet together The King & the Priest must be tied Before two virgins can meet together. 205. WBY. 205. 107. EY {Index). 136 Title and Fragments. 106.Rossetti MS. Book. Book. WMR. del. wintry] windy the Priest] virginities EY a tether in 207. 171 XX Snow Soft I walked abroad on a snowy day I ask'd the soft She play'd And MS. I walked] walked MS. R'. EY quote 4 title 5 and first bosom] ancles . wrath increast All around his bosom roll'd. Book. Book). Book 15/ rdg. DGR.

11 sung] sang Swinb. del. He 's my him let butterfly 17 cry.' EY print both titles. 105. Book. 20 For . EY. 15 hat caught] Cp. ' See preceding note.. Only in Swinb. poem originally ending with ' 20 Of] And MS. iii. and EY. i. del.MS. . Rossetti 172 xxiii The Fairy Come ' My my hither.. soon shall be taught. no. pp. 96. 13 the] his Swinb. And 20 and a line now thoroughly erased the marriage ring ist rdg. If a tear or a smile Will a man beguile. the 7 step] tread stanzasasone. Title in pencil. Book isi rdg. little i sparrows. afterwards engraved by Blake for The Gates of Paradise. : . — 9 fairy a king. If an amorous delay Clouds a sunshiny day. without Swinb. From the leaves I sprung He leap'd from the spray To flee But He in away my . Blake's first title : MS. Book 1.. reproduced in Gilchr. 143. . hat caught. 7. (afterwards erased) was 'The Marriage Ring. EY. p. 11 Swinb. Let him laugh.. gives this instead of the later title indicating the author's deletion of the first. 142. 19. I've pulled out the sting the marriage ring. a sketch in the MS. prints both 12 sprung] sprang Swinb. arrows. 19 is an addition. 99. Book. 10. For Of MS. ss .' So a fairy sung. If 5 the step of a foot Smites the heart to its *Tis the marriage ring Makes each root. . ring] 1.

always found Gratified desire. 137. Book \st . WMR. But could not make the sickle yield. p. p. Eternity ') under the title Opportunity. WBY or Swinb. Book.' Swinb. Book.' ' ' I trap] catch rdg. Several Questions Answered ' — ' (xxxv). EY Fragments. In pencil. as the second stanza of the poem immediately following in the MS. 105. EY. But Desire Gratified Plants fruits of MS. Cp. XXVI In a wife I would desire What in whores is The lineaments of MS. del. del. Book 15^ rdg. Rossetti 173 XXIV The sword sung on the barren heath. Printed by DGR and all later edd.. The tears of repentance you'll certainly wipe But if You . MS. (ii) and WBY ' (3) Couplets and flowery Swinb. Book (xxxv. 4 You can] You'll MS. XXV Abstinence sows sand all over The ruddy limbs & flaming hair. MS. : MS. a flaming] ? flowering ? beauty there. p. Book.MS. 105. in DGR I. (' Couplets all edd. once you let the ripe moment go can never wipe off the tears of woe. 105. Not and Fragments. 3 sung] sang WMR. p. Book. & life DGR.' vii). p. XXVll If you trap the moment before it's ripe. The sickle in the fruitful field The sword he sung a song of death. 105.

and 1st rdg. fool tangled in a religious snare. p. uses He never &c. ivritten in error. did'st play &c. All edd.. . Book 15/ rdg. Book. 2 of a loving eye] In the MS. rubies & pearls of a loving eye. WBY ' ' 3 indolent] idle MS. the secret hoard up in his treasury. transcribed it into the MS.1 MS. I tell . p.' second stanza of cxxv. and the remainder of this piece is therefore ' lost to us. according to his usual practice. 105. of a loving of a loving eye. 2 tangled] caught EY. there] Title added later. indolent never can bring to the mart.. what see you there ? Only in EY. Come A my MS.. Book. So in MS. 4 secret] cunning . del. follow DGR in printing this as with title The Two Kinds of Riches. tell me what thou seest there. and all edd. boy. little Kid. 103 (reversed). all edd. XXIX Lacedemonian Instruction hither. Rossetti 74 xxviii The Kid Thou. MS. XXX Riches The The The Nor countless gold of a merry heart. EY. 103.' to signify that the poem had already been noted elsewhere. del. Book. p. Blake here. . Book man MS. Book.

Songs of Innocence and of Experience with the title A Motto. the Eagle is known from the Owl. p. 238. (xii). Platted quite neat to catch applause. in ' ' : smart] smack all edd. EY p. or WBY. a hang-noose] strong noose all edd. DGR (x). to 5 . Book. . and Placed WBY among Couplets and Fragments' by (14). DGR and Swinb. smooth & neatly pen'd.. WMR (' Couplets and Fragments. with a hang-noose at the end.' MS. xxxiii Her Whole Life is an Epigram smart. the Hypocrite to howl all his good Friends shew their private ends. 7 ends] end WBY. Book.' Not xiii). xxxii Motto Songs of Innocence and the to of Experience The Good are attracted by Men's r perceptions. Knave begins to snarl. WMR. Book. 100. And think not for themselves. MS. ' Not Swinb. 124.MS. loi.. 3 to catch] how to catch Swinb. WMR Not in DGR or EY. p. Rossetti 175 XXXI An Answer the Parson to of the sheep do I don't want Why you not learn peace? you to shear my fleece. Because in MS. His possibly I Her] Not plainly written . Swinb. EY. 103. WBY ' (Notes) p. Till Experience teaches them to catch And to cage the Fairies And And And And then the & Elves. prefixes p.

short pieces. 3 I'm cover'd] I am covered EY. it flies * MS. crost. 105 and 3 kisses] just kisses Eternity's] an eternal MS. DGR ' xxvii. Title 206) as Questions answered (again). e'er] Read ere. MS. WBY. EY. 105 15/ rdg. Book. p. with the title Opportunity. . . ' . 99. [Eternity] He who bends to himself a joy Doth the winged life destroy . Book. stanza was Blake afterwards renumbering them in their present order. MS. Book. on p. of Blake's editors print these fragments together. Book. 100. p.' incorrectly given Printed title Eternity. WMR. .' sunrise] First written on p. The original order of pieces was indicated by Blake's usual marginal 4. originally the I first. del. The second 206. flower of love was lost. Book. XXXV Questions Answered Several i. 105 with 1-4 He and later edd. winged] winged 105 ist rdg.' Blake here transcribes hastily in pencil. : p. Book. all edd. 105 of the MS. del. p. a Doth] Does Book. But he who kisses the joy as Lives in Eternity's sunrise. I The undaunted courage Before & I'm cover'd o'er i my I was in love 5 Mind of a Virgin .' as the first stanza of by the first draft of which immediately precedes it. 2) 3) I) 5» the revised sequence being None figures. . Under the general title Several Questions Answered. i. the first drafts of which are written elsewhere in the MS.MS. o'er. p. Rossetti 176 xxxiv Old maid early e'er I knew Ought but the love that on me grew An And now And wish O I ! that cannot cannot find For Early MS. Printed only by EY. in EY's Index ' (i. had been a Whore.

version. . p. man from the last rdg. where the title is an addition. 15 — that [man] of blood You'll quite remove the ancient curse. p. . place MS.). DGR WBY WMR. EY p. [The Question Answer'd] What is it men in women do require ? The lineaments of Gratified Desire. Book. What is it women do in men require? The lineaments of Gratified Desire. 1st rdg. 103. 206. 10 follows the pre- DGR and later ceding quatrain but with Blake's usual line of separation. Book. London ' 15 black'ning] {Songs of Exp.' Blake at ' Which are beauties sweetest first began this couplet with the deleted line What title ' 10 Beauty's] beauties MS. . of the earlier supply . del. WMR. ' Couplets and Fragments (2). 240. dress ? . Book. . filled all edd. 11 5- An ancient Proverb Remove away Remove away Remove away that black 'ning church. 11. Book. that marriage hearse. . blackening sion. ' MS. ' (title omitted) WBY p. 182. I 18 You'll] 'Twill ' ' MS. 103. p. The look of love alarms. DGR. i. that ' del. Book ist version.. 107. Cp. p. where it Among 6 it 's] 9.MS.13 15-18 Transcribed from MS. Book WBY. 1st rdg. Only in (Notes). 5-8 The hire] Transcribed from Couplets and Fragments (iii). soft deceit Shall win the lover's hire. Book 1st version. in] of MS. . EY. Book Soft . and all edd. the] . 103. SAMPSON N 1st version. 9 These are Beauty's sweetest dress. where it bears the or 'The Question Answer'd. Book 1st ver17 man] dash in MS. print as the two last Unes of 'The look of love alarms. 3- Soft deceit & Idleness. p. edd. 103. HW d'\ I5^z^<?rs2b«. del. ' 'tis . note to WBY.' Not in Swinb. 4. 11-14 Desire] Transcribed from MS. it 's fill'd with fire Because But the look of 5 . 103 of the p. WBY. Rossetti 177 2. dress] MS. Transcribed from MS. (4). ist rdg.

Reproduced as it a chaos to the reader. This last he erased. Probably written about 1793. and Blake accordingly erased the whole passage from Then old — ' ' ' ' ' ' shall have a Priest and a passing bell (A 11.' : ' And ' said Every I bit as love hanging well as war & & — drawing & quartering slaughtering. A. a companion stanza in the same metre ('The Queen of Nobodaddy 19).. Turning to the vacant space in the first column below Several Questions Answer'd Blake added three Fayette stanzas (B iv-vi) followed by a fourth (' Fayette. 9two stanzas of A as originally written. pp. A iii. thou'rt bought & sold ') in the second column underneath B iii. To the latter of these (' The King awoke on his couch of gold') he now added. and C. Some of the stanzas are erased.' This version (A) he next altered by erasing 11. Blake has left no fair copy of this piece. 98 he began a new stanza ('Fayette beside his banner stood') which he cancelled before com- process. thou'rt bought & sold ' —the last 'Who will exchange his own fireside. numerals 4. and final forms.MS. 15 prefixing the marginal refer to the stanzas in each ' . and stands in the MS. ' ' adding the three verses 'Will the mother exchange her pletion. His next change consisted in placing smaller figures 1-12 before the lines which he meant to retain in the order specified. The effect of this is to interpolate uniting the between first A A and i couplet of A iv ii a new second stanza [A *3]. Blake began his first attempt at the head of the second column of p. 14. and finished his work on p. formed by and the second couplet of A iii: — Then he swore a great & solemn oath To kill the people I am loth. Fayette. 2. and stanzas into different orders. below the deleted passage. this rough draft would prove I have therefore endeavoured to represent the various stages in the development of the poem by printing it separately in its I call these three versions initial. 3 to A ii. being an amended version of the deleted stanza at the foot of the second column of the preceding page.' new born babe. 98. A iv. Without title. and some numbered with a bewildering series of marginal figures marking successive attempts at the arrangement of lines into stanzas. B. leaving aloft to only the They first France just touched this Globe '). Resuming in the first column of p. some re-written. 99. Rossetti 178 XXXVl Note Prefatory MS. 99 by drawing a line of separation between the Fayette stanzas in both columns and the matter immediately above. and by lower-case roman numerals. erasing and re-writing three lines in the These three stanzas form the beginning of B. 13. to denote that the original second stanza was to be placed last. These three . 99 to the right of the space filled by Several Questions Answer'd.' and 'Fayette. however unless with we transpose the relative leaves the pronoun he without positions of the second and third stanzas antecedent. mediate. some separated from the rest by boundary lines.' WMR This re-arrangement. Fayette. Book.

added later.' and. Book is/ rdg. & crumb. Rossetti 179 were then numbered 3.MS. ' ' [i] 'Let the Brothels of Paris be opened With many an alluring dance. B vii. On p. Book fife is/ rdg. . v). These changes are manifestly for the worse.' Said the beautiful Queen of France. del. Cancelling the two stanzas above (B vii and Blake's next alteration iv. Book and began writing from the other end. In version C I print the poem as he left it. the stanza O who would smile on the wintry seas. 2427 give a not very accurate account of the evolution of the poem.' WMR A *iii B iv B v B prints the stanzas in the following EY (ii. del. Passages of The Everlasting Gospel and one epigram are found upside down upon the same page. form B. 99 (B ' leaving only that beginning Fayette beheld the King & Queen. 2. i To awake the Physicians thro' the city.' which he re-transcribed below. omitting one stanza (A iv) altogether and ignoring or misinterpreting the successive order : B i ii iii (is/ rdg. 98 we reach the point at which Blake reversed the MS. i to show that their position was to be inverted.) C v B vii B viii. B Blake then added a slightly amended form of the lines beginning exchange his own fireside. This gives us the poem in its fullest and best stanzas ' . As soon as he heard these tidings told 'Arise And & come. Under the B title ' Lafayette. . indicating a new but not very happy revision of the ' viii) Who will ' arrangement of the three last stanzas. Blake seems to have lost his grip of the poem.' the prefixed numbers 2. I. .' a boundary line being drawn around the two retained stanzas.' 8 Famine] MS. both & drum. and to have abandoned any further attempt at completion. no word substituted. and later the figure 3 was struck out to mark the cancellation of Who will exchange dungeon floor. ["] The King awoke on his couch of gold. "i re-arrangements of lines and stanzas indicated by Blake's marginal numbers. at the head of the second column. . 3. N 2 5 : EY. the [Famine] shall eat both crust 3 Physicians] Pestilence MS. was to erase the two Fayette stanzas on p.

the Famine shall eat both crust and crumb. as he heard these tidings told As soon 'Arise And & his come. .i8o MS. 13 praying & singing. To awake the Physicians thro' the city Said the beautiful Queen of France. around] But the bloodthirsty people across the water Will not submit to the gibbet MS. ' . i ' [»] The King awoke on couch of gold. 12 But a great . bell] EY omit. . cough'd. .. many suckers grow around.' Damn [iv] Then he swore a ' To But great the people kill I & am solemn oath loth 16 : . Unless they will bring in The blood of ten thousand by fighting or swinging. Rossetti [Hi] Then old ****** & And Nobodaddy belched ' said. around] There is just such .' . & & love hanging I 9 . B [i] ' Let the Brothels of Paris be opened With many an alluring dance. . And del. WMR. 12 a tree at Java found MS. And the Pestilence darted from her robe. Book snd rdg. they rebel. Book all 9 1st rdg. both fife & 5 : drum.' if shall They 15 swinging] surgery 16-19 Then EY. del.' [iii] The Queen of France just touch'd this Globe. & war bit as well as Every aloft & drawing quartering slaughtering. . they must go to hell: have a Priest & a passing bell. And II. halter. But our good Queen quite grows to the ground. & .

. [vi] Fayette beheld the King In tears & iron bound & Queen 31 . [v] Fayette beheld the Queen to smile And wink her lovely eye And soon he saw the pestilence 17 . But mute Fayette wept tear And fa' guarded them around. Rosseiti i8i [iv] Fayette beside King Lewis stood He saw him sign And soon he saw About hand his 13 . His captains false around. 24 Here follow in the MS. Fayette. thou'rt bought And sold is thy happy morrow & sold 25 . . Thou gavest the tears of Pity away In exchange for the tears of sorrow. WMR 22 tears & iron] curses and iron 17 beheld] liked EY. the deleted stanza ' Fayette.' Who will exchange his own fireside For the steps of another's door? "Who will exchange his wheaten loaf For the links of a dungeon floor ? ' and the two deleted lines Who : — exchange his own heart's blood For the drops of a Harlot's eye 1 25-32 Fayette . floor] These stanzas were at first written in reversed order. . tears sold Pity are exchanged for those selfish slavish fears. From street to street to fly. thou'rt bought For well I see thy tears Of Of & : — . the famine ragfe the fruitful land. Thou'rt bought & sold EY reading I will see for well I see.' and King Lewis This again is followed by the stanza marked for erasure : ' ' ' ' ' ' : ' — ' for 'his banner. Fayette. of iron EY.MS.' — and the deleted beginning of a stanza Fayette beside his banner stood. ' will ' . [vii] Fayette. for tear.

MS. [viii] Will the mother exchange her new born babe For the dog at the wintry door? Yet thou dost exchange thy pitying tears For the links of a dungeon floor 29 ! [First three stanzas as B. . del. for tear. tears . Book i-s^ ro'^g'.1 82 Rossetti MS. But mute Fayette wept tear And guarded them around. MS. 18 curses] . Book . [vi] O who would smile on the wintry seas & Pity the stormy roar? Or who will exchange his new born child For the dog at the wintry door? 13-20 Who reversed order. 21 around] These two stanzas were originally written in 14 stone] steps ist rdg. concluding as below.] [iv] Who will exchange his own fireside 13 For the stone of another's door? Who will exchange his wheaten loaf For the links of a dungeon floor? M Fayette beheld the King & In curses iron bound & Queen 17 . rf^/.

xxxvii-cxxxi { pp. 2-98. Written circa 1800-1810 .POEMS FROM THE ROSSETTI MS. Book. II MS.

and near the foot of the page. a stanza without number (' Poor. in 1797. 6. at the head of page 2. The next piece of any importance is the for poetry. Blake's use of the terms spectre ' ' and ' emanation. The whole of these are written in ink. marked for insertion between 6 and 8. however. are to the left a stanza numbered 2 Daphne. and his final order of the eight retained stanzas. pale. rather an offshoot of The Four Zoas. In the first column of the former page are stanza two deleted stanzas beginning Her weeping she shall ne'er give o'er. to The position poem the original beginning of the volume after it had been half filled by earlier soon poems written from the reversed end proves that it was composed when he resumed his use of the old sketchafter Blake removed to — Felpham. consecutive to 'Let us agree to give up love'). I commit'). numbered i and written The all stanzas. 279) describes 'My Spectre' as 'perfect Jemsakm both for style and matter. 1800 book as a notebook : November.' and Thou hast parted from my side. ' to come in ' ' love did between stanzas 3 and insertion 5. 278. Swinburne {Essay. pp. Butts in Blake's having been written about the same time as the lines to xxxvii may therefore be dated October or letter of October 2.' the former to signify . and written later in pencil around a sketch of in the centre of the page.' Throughout Poor pale pitiable form are not cancelled. of further three on. in either column.' and 'meant for insertion in some ' fresh instalment of prophetic rhapsody by way of complement or sequel It is. In either column. written to that work. the ' I. ' cancelled stanza marked ' When my and stanza 4 (marked for first begin afterwards cancelled and then again Last follow in the position originally indicated). stanzas II and 12 (all four written and numbered in ink) followed by stanza 13 Intermediately between (written in pencil and centred at foot of page). stanzas 2 and 7. in pencil. the latter are stanzas 9 and 10. 1800. To the right. is the stanza beginning the final stanza 14 (i.II ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT xxxvii Prefatory Note MS. 3 and 2. which contains internal evidence pages poem (xli).' with stanzas 3. 5. 8. pp. Book. 2. numbered another and ') pitiable O'er my sins thou sit and moan.e.' and numbered 1. their natural place would seem to be after stanza 3. these and the two top stanzas. in the MS. with one or more arable numbers at the head of each. the same argument and symbolism of which are practically the as those of Milton and Jerusalem. Book— the first piece written from of this and Blake may have intended a final draft. which is almost illegible. Eternity. In the second column of the same page are the cancelled first version of stanza 2. and the unnumbered stanza ('What transgressions form ' ' ' ' arrange them as part of the poem in If so. showing clearly Blake's successive arrangements.

partly from numberings of verses put experimentally and then erased by Blake. 1 8s the reasoning power in man. which he thinks Blake must have so numbered 'by some evident slip of mind or pen. the above is the true text of this poem with the numberings of the The same . rently rejected ') in the notes (p.' the unplaced stanza *2. 14. then stanza version is adopted by Mr. and has been accepted without question by the majority of editors who follow the text of the Aldine edition. with the title 'Broken Love. Yeats. Not is altered from the original. formed by amalgamating couplets taken from the unplaced or rejected stanzas :— ' Poor pale pitiable form That I follow in a storm. and their text contains one or two of their customary deviations from verbal Under the title Spectre and Emanation. but of Imagination in the opening lines of The Four Zoas of reason and emotion into — : — Daughters of Beulah. a fourth and fifth stanza.Rossetti MS. 249). D. and the three unplaced stanzas (' appa' accuracy. through selfannihilation achieved by the infinite tolerance and forgiveness of sin.' and 'When my love did first begin. W. instead of in its revised form. ii. W. Ellis and Yeats print fourteen stanzas with S3'mbolic 'interpretation. 8. 37-41.' which must mystify readers who find. M. G. the author's invocation to the Muses — in Blake's mythology the Daughters. three pages before. The poem as printed in the Aldine a word is erroneously arranged. a.' Of this poem. though the editors have rendered their third stanza meaningless by printing the second in its earlier and cancelled. and stanzas 5. Messrs. the present editors not having seen the MS. Mr. i. 7. Iron tears and groans of lead Thou bind'st around my aching head. The theme is identical with that of the later Prophetic Books. who prints the fourteen approved and numbered stanzas in the text. deep winter dark and cold Till ' A Within my heart thou dost unfold . Rossetti. Mr.' the poem is rather more correctly given by Mr. 3. B. transposing the position of 11 and 12.' 4. the separation two contrary and conflicting selves. ' verses as finally arranged after three re-considerations by Blake. printing stanzas i.' In vol. 6. sing into Division and his resurrection into Unity. and their reunion in a state of regained humanity and moral liberty. is the nearer to the Edition and elsewhere truth .e.' They conclude with the note: 'The text of the poem here is reprinted from the Aldine edition.' descriptive of the meaning which he reads into it. Cp.' and stanzas 8-14. supplies the clue to the meaning of this beautiful but obscure poem. it may be explained. pp. the rejected stanza 'Thy weeping thou shall ne'er give o'er. the unplaced stanza *i. Swinburne (pp. not of Memory. 278.' The latter of these two contradictory statements. ' His His fall fall into the generation of decay and death. 279) prints with commentary the two rejected stanzas 'Thou hast parted from my side. . and his Regeneration by resurrection from the dead. Rossetti gives a very corrupt text. From sin I never shall be free thou forgive and come to me. and the latter his imagination and emotion.

1. 18 .1 86 MS. 13. f. Milton. .' . — ' A deep winter. behind] EY adopt the first rejected form of this stanza : ' ' ' ' ' ' .' Here followed ' And Till two cancelled stanzas : — [ist rdg. is 15. 1. . and closing itself as in steel in a Ratio Of the Things of Memory. 10-13: 11. 23 56. making the necessary changes. of 'shall' to 'shalt' in 1. 14. 8. f. dark & cold. gave forth their Emanations Like Females of sweet beauty'). self-righteousness. & when separated From Imagination. i. Emanation My Weeps far within my incessantly for Sin. 10. cp. the Reasoning is also Jerusalem. who is male. . Spectre follows thee behind. self-hood. I around] before I Spectre] Cp. the Divine Body. 42. f. f.' and comes to come in 1. weep. Her'] sin I the weeping thou \_she'] against thee \_her'\ more & more Thy . Milton. . Jerusalem. in contradistinction to the Spectre. 11. overlooked by Blake. f. pride and agination and self-annihilation ' 14. there we . 54. Rossetti Spectre around me night & day Like a Wild beast guards my way My i . by Martyrdoms and Wars. Within my heart thou didst unfold A Fathomless There we & boundless deep wander. . 3 Emanation] In Blake's mythoalways personified as a female (cp. 1. 2 A Fathomless & boundless deep.' WMR DGR and print the former as their eighth stanza. The Emanation represents imthe Spectre. EY. 7 36. . f. : shall ne'er give o'er. 12. never will from sin be free & comes to me. 74. 28-31 : — 'What do I here before the Judgement without my Emanation? With the daughters of memory. . there we weep On the hungry craving wind My 5 . forgives to thou forgive. WBY. f. & not with the daughters of inspiration I am that Evil One I in my Selfhood am that Satan : He 4 my is Spectre. f. 'she 5-8 A . she forgives 'Thou hast parted from my side Once thou wast a virgin bride Never shalt thou a true love [lover'] : : My find : Spectre follows thee Behind. reason. 16 f.' 'The Spectre See 1. logy the Emanation in 1. and passim. It thence frames Laws & Moralities To destroy Imagination. — Man. 4. 50 Power 11. 11. 34. There we wander. . Milton.

. WMR . 11. .* ' On a dark cold winter night Within my Heart. Loves away. 20 shuddering fears] shadowy fears WBY. . because thou hast cruelly Cut off my loves in fury till I have no love left for thee. the Spectre 'for Attends her as her Guard. Milton.' This is followed deleted stanza quoted only by Swinb. tears] DGR.' loves thought that you would love Seeking for pleasures in my pleasures. f. WMR. * He 5 . 19 built . WMR. And with cold & shuddering fears. :— f. another by and then : When my ' Thou Love did didst call that first f. 9 Thro' the wintry hail & rain. . WMR. fill DGR. . Their marble tombs I built with tears. Jerusalem. Book . Love a Secret trembling. Wheresoever thou dost go. . 1 'winter night dark' for 'winter dark. 16 — fears Fill] ? 13 DGR. Hath DGR. 32*. And Dost] Didst 17. shadowy 18 Has] WBY. Cp. Then thou wast lovely mild and gentle. 3 7 : . night — — : wherever the Emanation goes. 32. Daughter of Babylon. wilt thou return again? When 4 Dost thou not & Pride in Scorn 13 with tempests all my morn. . now thou art terrible In jealousy. ' again] . 18 and joy in my delights. . Spectre still wandering thro' them follows my Emanation. 3 & sin : day. Rossetti 187 3 He scents thy footsteps in the snow.' 13-15 Dost MS.' my all Driving 8 Cp. 30. hunts her footsteps thro' the snow & the wintry hail & rain.' 9-12 "• 4. 11. del. . Milton. Blake's previous deleted readings are 1. build fears EY.MS. begin. My He the Originally fourth stanza. 2. tears EY. my I O 17 my] thy EY. And with jealousies & fears Fill my pleasant nights with tears? Fill 5 Seven of my sweet loves thy knife Has bereaved of their 17 life. Cp. . Dost fears] 15/ rdg. . and unlovely in my sight.

) all edd. 24 Around] About R^ 30 to hfe] in life 28 Thy] My WBY. 33-40 EY . also in MS. omit inverted commas (wtg. 32 as I] and MS. Book 15/ rdg. DGR. Never. 37 : del. And when dead I'll be thy Grave. 25 all forgiving transgressions great & small. 10 'Thro' the Heaven Thou I will fly Night 23 each] at 26 wine] vine & Earth shalt never. Around 7 And seven more Loves in Crown with wine & Pitying Thy my my bed mournful head. EY. WMR. When When & thou return & them to life wilt thou return & view renew live 29 ? ? wilt thou pity as I forgive ? 9 'Never. never quell and thou pursue & Morn & Hell : the flight renew. WMR. alone I'll have thee Living.1 88 MS. And 21 seven more loves attend each night my couch with torches bright. 8 When My wilt loves.' DGR. Rossetti Seven more loves weep night & day Round the tombs where my loves lay. I return: 33 Victory I burn. WBY. Still for .

11. H. hungering. cruel lust of murder. & by Self-annihilation back returning To Life Eternal To be assur'd I am thy real self . take off his filthy garments and clothe him with Imagination. Book isi rdg. 46 What is meant by annihilation' is rendered clear by the following passage from Milton. till that I am thus a ravening devouring lust continually devouring but my Eyes are always upon thee Oh lovely not so Delusion. WBY. 48 Cp. . Book 11. & I cannot crave for any thing but thee ' The Spectres of the Dead. Night vii. & . Book 15/ two stanzas. f. . . 42 root] dig MS. or paltry Harmonies. 339-345 Thou art united with thy Spectre. 8-11. . ' — To cleanse the Face of my Spirit by Self-examination. And another form create And. I 298-306 : — will destroy I created. 1. Swinb. for I am as the Spectre of the Living Deformed Craving . del. . cast off Rational cast off the rotten rags of cast off Bacon Locke and Memory by Inspiration. That body For. Indefinite or paltry Rhymes. Night vii. 45 Fate. del. I come in Self annihilation & the grandeur of Inspiration To To To To Demonstration by Faith in the Saviour. & thirsting. Annihilate thee on the rocks. To bathe in the waters of Life. rdg. to] And I to MS. consummating by pains & labours That coy mortal body. Infernal Grove] See Jerusalem. Rossetti 189 II from Female Love up the Infernal Grove. .. ' : . ' 11.. When I was a ravening. . del. f. del. 42. The Four Zoas.' 47. Let] Swinb. rdg. : ! also — The Four Zoas. i-io MS. . transposes these 45 And. 43. we never can repass the Gates. : ' . . is:- and passim. To be my subservient to 41 I] thou MS. 43. never worthy be Till I turn And shall I To 41 root step into Eternity. Newton from Albion's covering. To cast aside from Poetry all that is not Inspiration. 12 to end thy cruel mocks. EY. brutish. That it no longer shall dare to mock with the aspersion of Madness Cast on the Inspired by the tame high finisher of paltry Blots. Book 1st rdg. to wash off the Not Human. 43 I] : Thou 45-49 And . then shall we unite again in bliss these terrors planted round the Gates of Eternal life Are driven away & annihilated.MS. Thou knowest that the Spectre is in Every Man insane. 37 f. Thou didst subdue me in old times by thy Immortal Strength.

my] thy ibid. sins fast asleep. . 8-12. *2 ' Cp. WBY. . out DGR.MS. 14 & Throughout all Eternity 53 you forgive me. Book MS. & this the Bread.. the last couplet of *3. 11. and *i and *2 as their seventh and ninth Swinb. Book 1st rdg. [Appendix O'er my Unplaced Stanzas] : thou sins Hast thou no O'er my And lull sit sins of thou thy own sins sit & moan *i : thy own? & weep.' Redeemer. Rossetti go I Let us agree to give up Love. said & 53 Cp. 2 of their fourth stanza. use the first See note above. wry . & thou annihilate evaporate & be no more. EY. ' f. WBY *i. WMR. Book *4 thy] 15^ rdg. stanzas. MS.' my WMR. f. *2 Hast thou] Have thine thou I DGR. followed by couplet of *3 as 11. WMR. my MS. 15 Every Emanative joy forbidden as And my] thy MS. Another body will be prepared For me. and EY omit. del. 11. *3 thou sit] 15^ rdg. 98. quotes in Notes. root up the infernal grove And & Then shall we return The worlds of happy 49 . DGR. thou dost sit DGR. see Eternity. which is f. 9. Self Annihilation. WMR. thou] I ibid. 14. Book — a Crime the Emanations buried alive in the earth with *i sit] : . del. ist rdg. 23. del. thine DGR. WBY. I pomp of religion. WBY. thy] my ibid.' See also Jerusalem. Jerusalem. WMR and others. del. Jerusalem. : 'This the Wine. 4 of their fifth stanza . WMR. i. As our dear Redeemer said I forgive you. WMR. slightly altered as IL 3. WMR. 1. thou] thou dost sit DGR. 92.' But if thou dost refuse. Throughout] Through- In Forgiveness of Sins our dear Redeemer said] 55 dear I.

thou their slave And my bed becomes their Grave.' which is not the case. . 43. In altering has Married to marries. They thy Harlots. :— O thou poor Human Form Why wilt thou wander away *I2 Followed *6 Trans- WBY gressions] transgression in said she. but the absence of initials in the second and fourth. Jerusalem. pitiable form That I follow in a storm & Iron tears *9 . pale. finds out whether Her elbows and knees are only Glued together. he finds out whether elbows are only glued together. *3 Poor. 67. Book. woman sitting ' : * When man a He — marries a wife.' The lines are certainly so divided in the MS. without pagination) dressing. Rossetti What Are Transgressions 191 commit I *5 for thy Transgressions fit. Below 4. smiles. f. a graceful little sketch of man in bed. and on the edge of it in a very elementary stage of FY's reproduction of this drawing (vol.MS.' which the colloquial ' ' ' miss the point of the allusion to knees and elbow-grease might have suggested.. ' . *8 my] thy WBY. as well as the indentation. a young p. ' 11. iii. Bind around my *5-*8 This stanza was written after the following one. conveys the idea that it is found on the same page as Daphne. EY (i. Book by the the And let [us go] to With many wiles Woman partly [? ! illegible unerased but day] your [? wiles] win back] your [? woe thou poor child of why compel me to bind thee?' the that does not love Will never O from Tirzah.'' EY elbows.' XXXVIU When a Man Her knees & has Married a Wife. 44 ! stanza : — ' *g Cp.' and calling ' ' the piece ' droll and risque'. prove that Blake meant them to form a couplet. groans of lead aching head. MS. 208) print as a quatrain MS.

Then swore And a great oath that made heaven quake. yell] Supplied 12 cups] spears EY. Mar. but the reference to Lambeth. . His body was free At Lambeth beneath the poplar tree. intripled] ninefold MS. from Swinb. 5. 5 made] would make trees] Blake was away. 26.. 15 Klopstock] Astonished EY. 29) . Book.Rossetti 192 MS. 16 churn] burn MS. cough'd] EY omit. 8 Blake 7. 3 aloft] EY omit.] The stars threw down their [cups and fled. del. ' Fayette (xxxvi. . called aloud to English Blake. 14 And yell] EY omit. . . . Blake was giving his body ease. pp. . . This piece is verj' faintly which had reached a second edition in 1769. 4 in may supply in square brackets from Swinb. Book 1st rdg. 31. lo 9 From he] From Lambeth then shouted he EY. Swinb. * version of . A). bowels began to churn. del. Book. and EY a few words which the present owner of the MS. . . 12-14 cups scarlet] quite EY. . occurs in the first EY. . Book 1st rdg. 32. all his MS.] the intripled turn. and the repetition ' Fayette. And all the devils that were in Answered with a Klopstock And felt hell. ' . 9 turned him round three times three. xxxix When Klopstock England defied. Uprose William Blake in his pride For old Nobodaddy aloft ****** & & Belch'd cough'd i . blushed red] Supplied from Swinb. turned him round] EY omit. written in pencil and a considerable portion of it is no longer legible. of 1. 13 ninefold yell. . Blake of course have been familiar with Collyer's translation of the Messias. Book is unable to decipher. p. . Although written from the unreversed end this piece probably belongs to the same date as those in the earlier section of the MS. . 13. 11 sight] EY omit. . . At Lambeth beneath the poplar From his seat then started he And 5 trees.' EY. The Moon at that sight [blushed scarlet red. The same line 4 ****** I .' point rather to its having been written about 1793. refers the origin of this Rabelaisian jeu d'esprit to the passages from Klopstock rendered into English by Hayley for Blake's benefit during the latter's stay at Felpham in 1803 (Hayley's Diary.

Since Noah was shut in the ark... Since] the old Anything [was created. . p. one the no No one can take the pride. poor Klopstock never pain . Then again old Nobodaddy swore 21 He ne'er [had seen] such a thing before. . . 6. MS. locked in his soul with a ninefold key That from his body it ne'er could be Till to the last [judgment] it was his 17 . Only legible when he had the MS. but Panurge could hardly have improved on the manner of retribution : : ' : devised for flaccid fluency and devout sentiment always running at the mouth. go naked] Supplied from Swinb. it] EY omit. or evil none's to MS. . . SAMPSON O EY del.Rossetii And And MS. Anything] EY omit 29. the title 2 you'll] you EY. i. Book. 31. Book ist rdg.] And so feeling.. Only printed by swear it] tell you MS. hell-found EY.' marginal addition. which apparently were Supplied from Swinb.. Swinb. 4 No one] . Since 'twas the [fashion] to [go naked. 30] Of these lines. blame: Whether tis good shame. del. he beg'd me to turn again And . . 210. round] They turned around 19 ne'er] never EY. Since Eve first chose her hellfire spark. Then 29 And Blake would do this when he **** ** **** ***** What might he not do if he sat down to write? If And And. EY . added later. 32 A xl On the Virginity of the Virgin Mary & Johanna Southcott Whate'er And if is done to her she cannot know. . Book before him. 25 fashion was created] 26 Since] Supplied from Swinb. 193 bowels turned round three times three. And none EY. Swinburne writes in choice Attic or in archaic French could the rest be endured by modem eyes . you'll ask her she will swear it so. Book 1st rdg. 25 ... EY 24 chose] EY omit hellfire] : had seen] supplied from. EY.. omit 20 to] EY omit judgment] 22 ne'er] never Swinb. Supplied from EY 17 . .

But still in Israel's paths they shine. vain all in i .' being obviously suggested by ' first 11. Gem Reflected in the beams divine 5 . 9 And MS. Book. 51. shows that Blake's intention was to end with the lines : ' — & the widow's tear world from fear. some title ' p. B. 41-56 were added. xlii Note Prefatory The first draft of this piece. Mock on You throw the sand Rousseau Voltaire. Rossetti 194 xli Mock on. W. 5 sand] stone poem WBY. Mock on. 52 of this tear shall melt the And every wound it poem : — sword of steel has made shall heal. which A line of separation drawn is continued at the head of the second column. In the first column are found stanzas 1-9 and the first two lines of stanza 10. Book. This page therefore cannot be dated later than April. Yeats' textual alterations. Where Israel's tents do shine so bright. Without DGR and later editors with of the very few pieces which had hitherto. is ' ' (see — The war of swords & spears Melted by dewy tears. ! against the wind. ' ' ' beneath this stanza. which.' Printed by title.' The Hermit's prayer Alone can free the ' 14 comes the beautiful lyric Morning a different treatment of the same idea Below stanza be seen. 7. written without title on p. The Atoms of Democritus Newton's Particles of light Are sands upon the Red sea shore. Blown back they blind the mocking eye. And the wind blows And every sand becomes a it back again. 1803. Scoffers. As one 3 sand] dust WBY.MS. Mock on. before 11. 'tis . consists of fourteen stanzas which Blake later split up into two separate ' poems. this beautiful little might well have been spared Mr. it will .' The xliii). escaped at the hands of Blake's editors. by oversight. 12 of the MS. To the Deists in Jenisalenu and The Grey Monk in the Pickering MS.

with the title The Grey Monk. who.' which in the line this connexion. 220-26). Pity. the Mother I see. with the interpo- between 5 and 6.' Of the stanzas thus rejected Blake made a separate poem which he transcribed into the Pickering MS. : 3 to] with EY where] as EY.' This. begins with the original fifth stanza the line ' ' ' ' .' ' I saw a Monk of Charlemaine Arise. Rossetti The reading * ' morning * mercy.' and between right-hand margin he made two attempts to rewrite stanza 2 which were not adopted in either of the final versions. See Poems from the Prophetic Books. and marking stanzas 12. ' unimportant verbal changes.. gives us the poem entitled To the Deists' engraved at the foot off 52 oiJerusalem. ' and ' The Grey Monk ' with editors' emendations will be found among poems irom Jerusalem and The Pickering MS.' and For a tear is an intellectual thing. the Lastly he indicated clearly the order of the seven stanzas to be used in by marking the first four stanzas 1-4. or from the text of Messrs. he wrote the revised version of stanza 12 : ' Satan first the black bow bent And the Moral Law from the Gospel rent He forg'd the Law into a Sword And spill'd the blood of Mercy's Lord.] ' Against this image of his Lord Titus ! in the Constantine : ! ! ! ! ! & Roman sword — linked to stanza 14 the columns and in by the catchword 'A tear is &c. the Mother said. and stanza two stanzas are common to both versions.' was probably when about to engrave Jerusalem that Blake returned to poem. except for a few Jerusalem. His first change was to reduce its length to seven stanzas by drawing a separation line between stanzas 4 and 5. print the Blake's later text of ' To the Deists rejected readings and omitted stanzas.' This poem I see. Book. and ' we has find Blake been hitherto Sweet Mercy me leads still — 195 invariably misprinted on. These In the footnotes to the present poem I give such variant readings only as MS.' 'Titus Constantine.. said' being changed to 'I die. and 14 to come in after stanza 4. Charle' maine. o a i .' The remaining stanzas (6-1 1) are arranged in the order of the MS. Book. I die. Then below the couplet on Terror and 13. Ellis and Yeats. before my sight I talk'd to the Grey Monk where he stood In beams of infernal light.MS. lation of stanza 4 14 between 10 and 11.' gains additional force in dwelling on the same thought in the couplet which immediately follows ' Terror in the house does roar : But Pity stands before the It this door. and prefixing the numbers 5-7 to When Satan first the black bow bent.' At the same time he added * — When — margin the stanza Charlemaine O Voltaire Rousseau Gibbon vain Your Grecian mocks [^mocks if iron del. are derived from the in their preface to Chapter III of Jerusalem (ii.

.' (i) Sideways. 5-8 Gibbon (fl) side. Rossetti 196 Gibbon arose with a lash of And 5 : The Arose with * steel. ist rdg. in right-hand margin. .' Readings rejected by Blake. Charlemaine & his barons bold Stood by. Charlemaine & his Clouds ofWar [ Must[er around] the Polar ' In printing the above. Thou lazy Monk. 9 ' War.' they said afar.' (b) 4 'Must around the Polar 7 The roll'd] War] Seditious Monk said Charlemaine The Glory of War thou condemn'st . . His body bent.' down] sat him down EY. as * And Voltaire ' for ' hidden by the binding. MS. top of page : ' ? — : 'Gibbon plied his lash of steel. and mocked in iron & gold. his arms & knees Like to the roots of ancient trees. EY in (a) EY 'The glory of reading in last line war thou cursedst 18 will] shall EY. . middle column. 'I see.' ' Voltaire.. del. Book ' warriors ' for ' . now These words are 6 wracking] 5 arose] armed EY. What more has the merciless tyrant said The Monk sat down on her stony bed. And in thy Cell thou shall ever dwell. gold] Variants of this stanza are Sideways. & bind him in his Cell ' ! The blood red ran from the Grey Monk's His hands & feet were wounded wide. 15/ rdg.' the ' My Mother 13 17 said.MS. Voltaire turned his wracking wheel. 2 read barons. Children will die for lack of bread. Voltaire with a wracking wheel schools. I see. In vain condemning Glorious War. 9. Charlemagne and his warriors bold EY. . 20 sat : in vain.' .' (a) 3 arouse the polar bear for ' Muster partially : of Voltaire whirl'd on high. Star. 10 Thou . at top of page ' The Wheel Gibbon aloud his lash does ply.' — in vain. War in iron & gold. .] Star. ' & his barons bold. Rise. del. in Clouds of learning roU'd. racking EY.

. hand to write 25 In the studious hours of deep midnight. 41 sought] found EY. became a tyrant in his stead. . . hollow groan first spoke his woe He trembled & shuddered upon the bed At length with a feeble cry he said A : ' 21 : When God commanded this — . . his thousands strong . . but no word 36 revenge] avenge EY.Rossetti MS. . . 22. See Pref. no tear could flow. * But vain the sword & vain the bow. 34 marched] Deleted in MS. . He told me that all I wrote should prove The bane ' My of all that on Earth love. 23 woe 24 At said] EY oitiit. 21 could] would EY. 31 I mock'd chain] I mock at the rack and the grinding pain EY. I brother starved between two walls my 29 .Thy brother has armed himself in steel To revenge the wrongs thy children feel. children's cry soul appalls I mock'd at the wrack and griding chain bent body mocks at their torturing pain. ' Untill the Tyrant himself relent. substituted. Alone can The hand ' free the world from fear. 197 His Eye was dry. del. 22 first spoke] bespoke EY. first the black bow bent. My ' Thy With father drew his sword in the North he is [marched] forth 33 . EY. Note. He] Between these is an illegible line erased. . . 37 They never can work war's overthrow The Hermit's prayer & the widow's tear . Book 15/ rdg. of vengeance sought the bed To which The And 41 the purple tyrant fled iron hand crushed the tyrant's head. . 45-48 44 And usurped the tyrant's throne & bed MS. shall Slaughter heap the bloody plain 45 The Tyrant who : Resistance & War is the Tyrant's gain. 26 studious] shadowy EY. . Thy : . Untill gain] This stanza was rewritten later.

p.' MS. xliii Morning To Western path. is And with soft grateful tears Ascends the sky. the bitter groan of the Martyr's woe Is an arrow from the Almightie's bow. repentant moan see the break of day. The marks of entirely lacking in the ' ' Rossetti's transcript of all that is of any value in the an erasure in D. find the i Gates of Wrath thro' the Right I urge my way Sweet Mercy leads . ' . 53 And And a sigh is the sword of an Angel King. . With soft repentant me on moan 4 : see the break of day. 8 Exhales on high. del. . — intellectual thing. MS. . For the tear an is 49 forgiveness sweet. Title 12. Book. I The war of swords & spears. . Daybreak. versions.' soft ' correction of DGR :— Sweet morning leads me on With The Printed by later. and the Pickering heal] Omitted in both the Jerusalem 55 of the Martyr's] for another's MS. submission to death beneath his feet tear shall melt the sword of steel. .' day] All edd. of a martyr's EY. G.Rossetti 198 'But the Tear of Love And The And ' —& MS. 49-52 But . Book show that some other word— probably the right one— before in the title may have misled him into 'morning. Morning supposing that the same word and 'Mercy' being somewhat alike in Blake's handwriting. MS. .' The word 'Morning' was repeated in 4 of the song. The Sun freed from fears. Book 1st rdg. he had at first written ' 1. every wound it has made shall heal. Melted by dewy tears. ' editors with the title 4-6 Sweet added 12 morning to ' ' Mercy conveys a meaning received text. read ' I and all later ' to the poem .

Fair one. I. 12. See p. mourn] moan EY. my Friend ! Come on wings of joy we'll fly To where my bower hangs on high Come. O 1 evening winds silent tear. But Pity stands before the door. Where thou dwellest. 5. my sorrow bear. hung all edd. . MS. Tell me. She. Sorrow now is O my and lover at 13 ? an end. have liv'd Each day And I 9 and mourn'd for thee mourn along the wood. Book. xL The Birds He. night hath heard my sorrows loud. 14. 5 . . Book. thou pride of every field i . 3 dost] doth EY. Prefatorj' Note Here printed to xlii. tell me love Where thou thy charming Nest dost build. Rossetti 199 xliv Terror in the house does roar . MS. for the first time. No italics in is sweet. Yonder stands a lonely tree. .MS. ! She. sqq. i8 hangs] 17 . in what Grove. Dost thou truly long for me? And am I thus sweet to thee He. p. He . and make thy calm retreat Among green leaves and blossoms MS. She\ WBY. There I live and mourn for thee my Morning drinks And He. n . thou summer's harmony.

Book. Book \st rdg.' and by EY (xvii) without title. WMR * I You ye] You don't believe won't] would MS. 5 MS.' 3 there] here EY. del. Papers] Save thro' advertisements Adverin the newspapers Gil. . ' Epigrams from Reynolds' Discourses.' iv : — 'When Sir Joshua Reynolds died was degraded. But advertizing Look Look MS. Printed by among Epigrams and on Art and Artists (xiv) with title Colour. The epigrams on Art which begin on this page would appear to be an overflow from those jotted p.' and by EY among Couplets and Fragments (xvi) without title. 56) I .200 MS. there — you'll see at his Pictures S"" Colouring —All Joshua's has taken Wing : ! WMR Gil. . in the 2 But . .' xlvii You You — I won't attempt to make ye won't attempt to wake ye. . 21. EY. 21. p. . while in your pleasant dreams Sleep on Sleep on Of Reason you may drink of Life's clear streams. Book. Blake's Advertisement (^MS. they are quite two things For so the Swallow & the Sparrow sings. Pictures Faded. Book 1st rdg. 266. Rossetti xlvi No real Style of Colouring ever appears. The King dropped a Tear All Nature And all his into the Queen's Ear.. cp. p. don't believe — asleep are ! : 1 I ! Reason and Newton. .. Printed among as a single stanza with title 'Couplets and Fragments' (xv) by Reason. the two stanzas separated by a sketch. but often the contrary. Satirical Pieces ' ' down ' ' ' margins of Blake's copy of Reynolds' Discourses. Book. cp. . in the News Papers. del. ever] now Gil. i. WMR. ' : tisements in newspapers are no proof of popular approbation. 4 All has taken wing] 'tis quite another thing MS. I would attempt 2 ye] you to make you WMR.

Book. Jerusalem. 17. . When he said Only Believe Believe & try ' : 9 ' ! ! & Try. O Sons of Men I am your Rational Power. 1 Reached all the way from Chichester to York. 21. rose over Albion. & my two Wings Voltaire Rousseau Where is that Friend of Sinners. and nothing can course. who teach Humility to Man. . around 11. the beginning 11. 12 ('Only . 1-14. Try. like a ' ! Come hither into the Desart & turn these stones to bread. f. 31-51 were first written. Doubt. 54. never mind the Reason why ' ! WMR omits to 11. This is my glory. and theirs is the p. great reward. And in Will sit melodious accents me down. the prose passage : [' contempt of posterity.MS. EY place 7-12 quotation marks in MS. and hinder my I have enough my exceeding in the approbation of fellow labourers. I go on. theirs is the loss. 11. Book. From York all across Scotland to the Sea This was a Man of Men. as seems to me. and marked is missing.' make all Nature out. was probably composed soon after Sept. in the margin. That is the very thing that Jesus meant.'] I demand If therefore of the amateurs of art the encouragement which is my due. Vain Foolish Man. Cf. : — hoar frost & a Mildew. and beneath the notice of the Public del. why'). 14. they continue to refuse. in craving lust & devouring appetite ? ? ' xlviii MS. Rossetti Reason says Aye! ' Miracle that's the ' Newton says Doubt. 15-24 No . 15-30 being added This fragment. A World of Shapes. wilt thou believe without Experiment And build a World of Phantasy upon my Great Abyss. Who teach Doubt & Experiment. 11. of which for insertion after 1. . . Who teaches Belief to the Nations & an unknown Eternal life? But the Spectre. not mine. ' : to way 20 1 & * don't believe without experiment Doubt.' xlix And his legs carried it like a long fork. Am I not Bacon & Newton & Locke. 22. Saying I am God. MS. following Imagination is my World. that Rebel against my Laws. p. This world of dross is beneath my notice. . 1809. & I ' cry ' I I ! ! These lines occur in Blake's Advertisement. 7-12 ('Doubt why') with enclosed single quotation marks to 11. 9 and 12. * . II.

mistakenly suppose that Boydel and ' of the following piece may be the true names of the lawyers Cur ' Hemp's speaker. ' EY ' ' Quibble . 19 Yorkshire] And Yorkshire 20 their] his EY. alas! committing a Mistake. Stewhard. The Ears of Billy's Lawyer & Dragoon.' the parson. blushing daw. the article on 'Mr. del. and Jack Hemp. del. . MS. go) and may have been part See note to Ixxviii. Book is/ rdg.' for Dr. . and Dady. 9 He bore the wretched Soul of William Blake That he might turn it into Eggs of Gold But neither back nor mouth those eggs could hold. xix) in Screwmuch. Call'd Death a Madman. I carried] covered Soul] . when Examiner ' ' . And Cur my lawyer.' and Scotland refers to the latter's visit to that country Death' is a nickname search of material for his Reliques of Bums (1808). Yorkshire Jack Hemp & Quibble. ' ' for Blake. trembling for the affront 17 Like trembling Hare sits on his weakly paper On which he used to dance & sport & caper. Jack the Fathers Memoirs. ' ' for Flaxman . Book 15/ rdg. Clap'd Death into the corner of their jaw. 25 Both went to Law with Death to keep our Ears on. in the afternoon. whose very name is Hunt. 17 weakly] affront] Deadly the affront 18 sport] shout EY. EY. 21 And Felpham Billy rode out every morn. But my soul also would he bear away. possibly because of his association with Blair's Grave. Bowyer and (i. Only printed by EY in their ' Memoir ' 78-79).202 Rossetti MS. And Stewhard's Eggs are addled and decay'd. my soul ..' for Hayley . del. Not only in his Mouth his own Soul lay. So Stewhard's Soul he buckled to his back. . chap. Blake's Exhibition' appeared in Leigh Hunt's of the poem which Blake alludes (no. He would bear EY. 14 Stewhard's] all my MS. at the instance of the Dragoon (see GilYorkshire was the birthplace of Cromek. The Examiner. Felpham Billy. del. Horseback with Death. EY. Book 1st rdg. MS. daw] saw EY. i. . here called christ. EY. Chichester was the scene to in his Advertisement. over the fields of corn Who with iron hand cuff'd. 16 trembling Book 15/ rdg. But once. 13 His under jaw drop'd as those Eggs he laid. Malkin. 8 So Stewhard s 4 This] That EY. of Blake's trial for high treason. Jack Hemp's parson. weekly EY. EY. of is of course Stothard.' 'Yorkshire Dady. ignoring the play upon words. 5 Like as a Pedlar bears his weary Pack. but see footnote. 10 of] and MS. .

' See Ixxxviii. however. who finish the couplet fortis. 203 For how to starve Death we had laid a plot Against his Price but Death was in the Pot. del. as aqua- that] I This Epitaph so sorrowful my thought is MS. 47 upon] in EY.' 41 ' — But — I have writ so sorrowful my thought is for my tears are aquafortis. 36 designs] have writ with tears. Artists. ! 33 37 ! And Death sits laughing on their Monuments On which he 's written Received the Contents. Twas death in a disguise. For 'twas a kind of Bargain Screwmuch made That Blake's designs should be by us display 'd. . His epitaph 'Come.' the Friend of has not left explaining that a later page of the notebook completes the epitaph. changing the name to John Trot. 43-4 But 27 design . 51 Stewhard] Stothard EY. Book 1st rdg. Who — all Mankind one enemy behind. EY. But EY omit. I'll my own dear epitaph. : ' .Rossetti MS. be buried near a dyke 45 also write And I'll 49 That my friends may weep as much as they Here lies Stewhard the Friend of all &c. He made them pay his Price. ne'er] never . . Because he makes designs so very cheap. O that I ne'er had seen that William Blake.' which is always a reference to a passage already written. — aquafortis] EY. alackaday! He knew both Law and Gospel better than they.' like: * 31 how] now EY. For sorrow that our friend Bob Screwmuch 's gone. alas live to weep out my Eyes. And I. that such a thought could be That Blake would Etch for him and draw for me. knock your head against this stone.' Here again. they misinterpret the force of Blake's ' &c. Or could from Death Assassinette wake — ! — We 29 — thought Alas. . Then Screwmuch at Blake's soul took a long leap. . 'Twas not a Mouse.' And now the Muses upon me smile and laugh .

p. WMR 3 ' warmth glow] warmth do glow EY. 178. WMR (' find them the Errors of the foe. the date of the publication of Hayley's Life of Romney. whom they to death bother'd I i can angry with Macklin. I be angry with Felpham's old Mill ? angry with Flaxman. 212. 23. 3 Or Stothard] Or angry with Boydell. ' MS. Gilchrist. p. del. death shows.' xiii) as above.' for whom of the Bowyer] publisher Hume's History (1806). WBY and Coup. 5 Macklin] Malchin EY. Only ptd. written after June 1810. II. Cp. .' xvi) prefixed by 1. 7. by EY i. i. 23. ? 5 ' ? 8i). Book. except last couplet. Malkin {Fathers Memoirs of His Child. Only printed by EY WMR and WBY print as beginning of (i. ' Boydel] Read 'BoyBlake engraved Hogarth's Scene from the Beggar's Opera Dr. Written in margin of preceding piece. . 2 is] in EY. Book. . Mirth at the Errors of a Foe. their brain H pan — the painter Sussex Man. (1788) : : sumptuous illustrated edition of li Anger & Wrath my bosom rends: i thought them the Errors of friends. Book. which the allusion to Schiavonetti's As li. MS. or Bowyer. poor Schiavonetti. 24. Book ist rdg.' Frag. . or Stothard. But all my limbs with warmth glow: I I MS. and Frag. Printed by ('Coup. Because they did not say O what a beau ye are At a Friend's Errors anger shew. confusing Macklin for whom Blake engraved Stothard's 'Fall of Rosamund (1783) with . 8 by EY with title Friends and Foes. or Cromek. p.Rossetti AIS. . Written about 1809. 1806) dell. or Bowyer or Bu MS. or Boydel. and . 204 1 Was Or Or Or Or angry with Hayley who us'd me so ill. to which William Haines and Blake both contributed engravings. . Hi The Sussex Men And weak I wonder Is not a is if are Noted Fools.

Sept. but MS. Only ptd. title WBY omits. and Frag. 's Iv To F I mock thee not. EY ' viii. To H[unt]. Probably addressed to Flaxman. (' thee I am Mocked: thee Blockhead. Book. p. 26. They will : foolish to think they can find themselves mistaken they could not : wound even Mr. 3 what] that MS.MS.' while EY think this and the preceding epigram are addressed to Haines. Book. ' To DGR the and Same' WMR [i. p.. ' ' . (wrongly) expands title <To Hayley. i. MS.' xiv). 5 Reynolds . Both are. Epigrams. one of the best compliments he ever had. p. by EY i. Only printed by EY 213.' EY. MS. and no. June 4. 75. 181.e.' I have been call'd Thee or Me? I wonder which they Envy ' : — MS. prefatory note to Epigrams from Blake's copy of Sir Joshua Reynolds' Discourses U798). is not a Great Painter. though I by Thou call'st me Madman. 53) wound Mr. 25. i. no. also Blake's Advertisement (MS. 26. Fuseli over my shoulder. 213. ' ' Many people are so 1809. Cp. Cf. Gil. the latter's references to Fuseli and Blake. Rossetti 205 liii ' Fool. Book. p.' they Madman. so] This Reynolds' lectures plainly shew ibid. without doubt.' Cp. Book ist rdg. Barry Fuseli is] Fuseli I so. and Frag.' Flaxman]. EY i. 90. Book. 1809. More Malice in disguise. Than Praise a Man for doing what That Man Reynolds When does most despise? i 4 lectures exactly so he praises Michael Angelo.' ('Coupl. Ixxix. call Coupl.. xvii) with p. Gil. call thee. del. Examiner. 25. Book. 17. Ivi Can there be anything more mean. liv To H You think Fuseli This is I'm glad. 4 That man] Which he ibid. 213.

Swinb.' 19). and I S ] Stothard WBY. Book.' xxi. 2 Mother . and at the same time he was blasting ' P' 53) my • character to Macklin How much of his know. on] upon EY. but the public will know.2o6 Rossetti MS. Advertisement (MS. WBY Coupl. this] there EY. 213. Cp. Ivii S Childhood. p. 38. 4).. his father EY. I on H 's] his Father] Hayley's Swinb. WBY (' Coupl. 27. Was extreme Old and most extremely poor He has grown old & rich & what he will He is extreme old & extreme poor still. Flaxman cannot deny that one of the very first monuments he did I gratuitously designed for him. : : MS. 213. was the happy lot: Father him begot. Only in EY i. 213. EY i.' 20). his p. EY i. Cp. Iviii To Nancy F How can I help thy Husband's copying Me? Should that make difference 'twixt me and thee? MS. Book. 27. as he went my employer. on the nursery in floor. even to Italy. 4 & extreme] and is ' Epigrams from Reynolds' Discourses (v). Book. ' Frag. WMR (' Coupl. (' p. p. Book. as Macklin told me at the time. 27. extreme WBY.' lix H Of 's birth this His Mother on MS. WBY. mother or WMR. will allow to be mine I do not Homer and Dante he far enough off to publish them.

5 Christ ist rdg. would] that line added way] This we all outrage thus to praise his foe when Knaves] thus to it mildness] meekness rdg.' 6). Should Michael Angelo praise Sir Joshua i .' 2 'Tis . [ii] Discourses to the Royal Academy as the Simulations of the Hypocrite who Smiles particularly where he means to Betray. . a fool who tries make such to a Blockhead believe. WMR. He praises Michael Angelo for Qualities which Michael Angelo abhorr'd & He blames Rafael for the only Qualities which Rafael Valued. Book. Rossetti 207 Ix Sir Joshua praises Michael Angelo. EY Cromek i. must MS. . all the world would say. 214 print first line Meat] meal EY. His Praise of Rafael is like His Softness & Candour. vis'd 5 WMR DGR omit. del. the Pharisees in a rougher way. & that Such Artists as Reynolds are at all times Hired by the Satans for the Depres: sion of Art. 28. — Christ M S. Ixi He's a Blockhead who wants a proof of what he Perceive And he 's can't . Gil. 3 all . loves artists as he loves his loves the p. . others I consider Reynolds' Reynolds' Discourses. Book. . note Blake's ' in : : me the Mischief is just the Same whether a Man does it Ignorantly or Knowingly. later. foe] And counts . Whether Reynolds knew what he was doing. & the poisoned feast. but . the hidden trap. DGR p. MS. WBY .' x).' II).' xiii). 28. As much as they were Degraded by the Reputation of Reynolds' Paintings. ('Coupl. only.MS. the Hysteric Smile of Revenge. I Cr Gil. Cp. del. i. ('Coupl. p. Book MS. 'Tis Christian mildness when Knaves praise a foe But 'twould be Madness. is nothing to p. (' Epig. Ixii Cr He MS. (' Epig. I alwaj's consider'd True Art & True Artists to be particularly Insulted & Degraded by the Reputation of these Discourses. EY viii). 'tis Meat : the art to cheat. . (' CoupL' WMR. 29. all cdd. Book. MS. ] Art 208. Book ist DGR. .

WMR. 214. Book. . del. By calling his the ornamental style . . t Only in EY 2 he 's] he has i. p. ye] you Gil. p. Book. rdg. if he could . When he called him the Ornamental Artist. 29. become the Golden Fool. But sure such ornaments we well may spare As crooked limbs and louzy heads of hair. .2o8 MS. Rossetti Ixiii A MS. Book. Ixiv Sir Joshua praised Rubens with a smile. . 214. Till he's MS. Heis]He'sEY. del. 2x4. . Only in EY I i. p. EY. Ixvii. Cp. — WMR ('Coupl. ibid. ] i. Book 15/ rdg. And yet his praise of Flaxman was the smartest. MS. Ixvi He has observ'd the Golden Rule. 29. Book. 5 6 As hair] Like a filthy infectious head A crooked stick & a louzy head of hair. Cr p. 29. . 2 Cr Gil. Ix^ He is a Cock would And would be a Cock MS. in Only praised] praises EY.' xxn) headed 'Cromek. EY I 2nd i. I knew how do ye do? Petty Sneaking Knave O! Mr. 30. of hair MS.' Cromek Gil. 208.

' of Ixxvi.. 53. 31. Why should you be ungrateful to your friends. old proverbs say But not with Money. . Only p. & backbiting. p. all i Till you're at last become the golden fool I sport with Fortune. Ixviii Mr Stothard to Mr Cromek For Fortune's favours you your riches bring. p. Book. p. 5. MS. Sneaking. 215. EY i. Rossetti 209 Ixvii To S- You your Youth observ'd the Golden Rule. favours] favour Swinb. WHY ('Coupl. be unfaithful EY. that is not the way. SAMPSON P . I EY i.' and He has ' for ' Take you ' in 1. — MS. Ixix Mr Cromek to Mr Stothard Fortune favours the Brave.MS.' ' I Youth] life EY. 214. Swinb. 53. Blithe and Gay. ' he ' for ' you. & Odds-&-Ends? MS. ' ' his for ' your. Take you the hide & horns which you may wear. turn back you travel all in vain Turn through the iron gate down sneaking lane. Merry. 5 Take you] You have EY. : Like to the Lion sporting with his Prey. d I ?). In its original form this epigram was written in the third person. Mine is the flesh the bones may be your share. in EY (i. Swinb. Book. 3 be ungrateful] prove ungrateful Swinb. . 4 sneaking lane] Sneaking Lane Swinb. . Turn back. p. But Fortune says she gave you no such thing. 30. 31. 214) 'addressed to (Who was d I 5 A similar misreading of Blake's capital S for I occurs in their text This and the preceding epigram refer of course to Stothard. Book.' 6) without title.

Generous to Enemies promotes their Ends. love without the help of anything on Earth. 7^. EY 215. Title an addition. p. 32. 5 This and the other epigrams on Sir Joshua Reynolds were probably written about the same time as the marginal notes in his copy of Sir Joshua's Discourses. Did 'Sketches by Michael Angelo' write. 215.' xiv). . to be polite. sent his portrait painted by himself. 215. In 1776 Reynolds was elected a member of the Florentine Academy. Go. art form'd for mirth live WBY.' enemies betrays his friends.' ' ' . Book. 32. 25 : He who loves his Ixxi The Angel that presided o'er my birth Said 'Little creature. for their Friendship I may make amends. MS. WBY ('Coupl. Everlasting Gospel. 3 love] WMR. Ixxii Florentine Ingratitude Sir Joshua sent The his own Portrait to i birth Place of Michael Angelo. Rossetti Ixx I am no Homer's Hero you My Generosity That The all know i . and in accordance with their rule. 311. p. .2IO MS. 1. 2 form'd o'er] at Gil. MS. Gil. EY. the paper. 6 And Friends] Cp. 5 Betrayer of his Friends. Mus. del. 31. Only in EY i. form'd of Joy and Mirth. And becomes the Enemy & MS. . Book. WMR (< Coupl. i. 1st rdg. in the hand of the simpering fool And He put And on a dirty paper scroll.' MS. Mirth] thou . Only in EY i. not Generosity to a Foe. Book. p. I that] who Gil.'is). now in the Brit. i. Book of] for . . I profess is my to Friends.

Rembrandt's door. 14. MS. . 19-22. EY omit ih. This epigram refers to the concluding words of the last Discourse delivered by Reynolds at the Royal P a . . For Michael Angelo never did sketch Every line of his has Meaning. . . . ' for 19-22. p. . door] . 9 — 'Tis the trading English. If . reading rejected sprang of for ' sprang from.' writ on The Florentines call it an English fetch. Book.' couplet after 1. 11.' Ixxiii A Pitiful Case The Villain at the Gallows tree. . 33. lo For couplet. 17 calculation] : — These lines written later at foot of page.a. In virtue's praise does cry. Nor Nor 7. first reading of buy] Following this These verses were written by a very envious man. ' ' rejected . . are the lines ' : — after 18 ' 1. The Michael] who . that] . Rossetti The Florentines said Michael Angelo's ' 'Tis a Name 21 I Dutch-English bore. Another reading was ' EY omitYor.Venetian cant 13 To speak Michael Angelo. Only in EY i. Rembrandt] 'Rejected' EY. Who whatever likeness he may have to Michael Angelo Never can have any to Sir Jehoshuan. Nor of the City Clock's Idle Facilities Which sprang from Sir Isaac Newton's omit futilities 11. 14 Tis mean . an incorrect version of the 14.t. and act Rembrandt. . And needs neither Suckling nor Weaning. When he is doom'd to To assuage his misery 1 die. It will set his Dutch friends all in a roar To write Mich.' on Rembrandt's door But you must not bring in your hand a Lie If you mean that the Florentines should buy. 21 .' 19-22 Ghiotto's EY incorrectly call this a 13.MS. Ang. and print this ' facilities ' and ' great Abilities. Ghiotto's Circle or Apelles' Line Were not the Work of Sketchers drunk with Wine ' . 216. . 8 of the City Clock's running fashion of Sir Isaac Newton's calculation. EY insert here.

15/ rdg. 33. Book 15/ rdg. 216. Feed them with the juice of our marrow-bones? MS. and from this place.' i . Book. Book 15/ rdg. 1790 pronounce in this Academy. WMR and EY with title 'Idolatry. in EY i. might be the name of Michael Angelo. Cp. . 7 did howl &] was heard to MS. that he has writ. Book 8 In] Of EY. note to will know now wished Ix. p. In all MS. del.' 5 ' Read Rembrandt for it is fit To make mere common honesty ' . Shall we. 5 his bitter woe. Dec. writ] & * That Sir you Joshua Reynolds to speak Of Michael Angelo. . 33. 7 mere common] either sense or MS. Book. for the sake of being Polite.' 3 his misery] his bitter misery EY. So Reynolds when he came To to die. stocks and stones.212 Rossetii MS.' MS. what the Prophets That the Heathen Gods are all write. ' : Ixxiv To the Royal Academy A Strange Erratum in all the Editions Sir Joshua Reynolds' Lectures Should be corrected by the Young Gentlemen r Of And the Royal Academy's Directors. Instead of ' Michael Angelo. Only p. Ixxv If it is true. assuage Thus aloud did howl & cry 'Michael Angelo Michael Angelo : ! ' ! I should desire that the last words which I should Academy. del. del. 6-8 for .

i. certain Friends. Holy Things. Rossetti 213 And if Bezaleel and AhoHab drew What the finger of God pointed to their View. . Knave ' and S On to a glass of gin. A Fool to a bolt. And worshiped them that they might make Inspired art abhorred. ' Epig. del. \st rdg.' prints first couplet only. All the Atonements of Jehovah spurn'd. neither themselves nor me. The words p. Shall we suffer the Roman and Grecian rods To compell us to worship them as Gods ? 5 them from the Temple of the Lord 9 worshipp'd them that they might make Inspired Art They stole And abhorr'd . Swinb. WMR EY I. Ixxvi To F and S found them blind I And now I : they know taught them how to see . del. ' are an addition. WMR and EY print as quatrain — lo : •They stole them from The Temple of the Lord.' lo that make] . del. themselves] himself »6/rf. .MS. ist rdg. Book 1st rdg. to make MS. . p. 34. . del. (' (1809). Book ist rdg. 217 with 2 a ' ibid. .' viii) with title MS. and I title On F . me] Blake introduces this couplet into his Descriptive Catalogue 2 they knowl he I them] him MS. 53.' See note to Ixvii. The Wood and Stone were call'd the And their And Criminals to Sacrifices turn'd. 9. u Sublime Intent given to their kings. knows I . 'Tis excellent to turn a thorn to a pin. Book.

because I know that you act.Rossetti 2 14 MS. and he lov'd But to MS. . 34. rejoice p. which I shall soon publish. Secret calumny and open professions of friendship are common enough all the world over. i. Fair Elenor. 34. 52) 'The manner in which my character has been blasted these thirty years both as an Artist and a Man may be seen particularly in a Sunday paper called the Examiner.' 1. cp. 217. triumph in EY i.' XXI. as you well know. wife And when he could not act upon Who my my Hired a Villain to bereave MS. at foot of p. Only & for gain. WMR.' . not from : interest. Ends : fall. Advertisement (MS. Ixxvii P loved me not as he lov'd his friends them For loved He me. : published in Beaufort's Buildings. 4 Hired . by DGR ('Coupl. 26 knavish character will often say. 68. Life. Life] The same line occurs one of the Poetical Sketches. and the manner in which I have rooted out the nest of villains will be seen in a poem concerning my three years' Herculean labours at Felpham. Book. Descriptive Catalogue. By the phrase bereave my Life ' Blake here probably means. man means to be your enemy. Book. "of none at all. ' : A '• I answer. 217. own destruction. liv). deprive me of my means of ' in ' this is another reference to the critiques in the Examiner (cp. Ixxviii H To does pretend. to serve his for no Gain at all. notes to xlix. is probably Thomas Phillips Those who say the portrait painter. livelihood . When a base but have never been so good an occasion of poetic imagery. Cp. . We all know that editors of newspapers trouble their heads very little about art and science. forgive enemies never in his life forgave a friend.' xi). he always begins with being your friend."' 4 in] at EY. i). WMR I (' H ] First couplet only ptd. Book. p. EY Hayley DGR. of what interest is it to me to do so and so?" It is of malice and envj' that you have but the contrary. done this I am aware of you. that men are led by interest are knaves. Coupl. even 3 and] EY to your omit. my in P . but from malice. Cp. p. and that they are always paid for what they put in on those ungracious subjects.

Book. They'll still be called 'The World's Honest Man. Only EY in i. 3. Be they as Vile and Base as e'er they can.MS. To Flaxman. & make the World their home. del. Book. 3 Be they as] For they are EY. you are an Ass. . 218. Some men. come Into the World. you are but what you was. . DGR (' Epig. 35. . Ixxx On H y's Friendship When H y finds out what you cannot do. Ixxxi created for destruction. but as EY. He'll still be called "The World's Honest Man. 4 Be . Man] Friend Caiaphas is one. the very thing he'll set you to If you break not your Neck. Book 2nd rdg. 35. 3 Neck] back EY. 4 but what] just what MS.' xvi) both with title (' 218. 218 (title . Rosseiti 2 1 5 Ixxix To F You call me Mad 'tis folly to do so To seek to turn a Madman to a Foe.'" MS. . That is MS. Only 2 & make] to make EY.' 7). Book. . p. you do not. p. Book 1st rdg. 'tis not his fault But pecks of poison are not pecks of salt. If If ' — you think as you speak. do what he can. WMR Epig. MS. p. 36.' MS.' EY i. omitted). . del. ' in EY i.

the Cock and Hen. Whose heart is iron. 218. Epig. ' Title. and a Compliment.. WMR has — made my CoupL' : Gil. ' (' heart to ake for Friendship's sake. DGR. (' face brass. with title 'To the Same' (i. MS.e. 181. more wondrous are the Men. Book. grow Gil. WMR. WMR title. i. mo\e Descriptive Catalogue. and the Bat By sweet reserve and modesty get Fat. . Beetle] spider Gil.' etc.' 17) without title. ! MS. EY . 37. the Owl. 36. Book. 3. 3 Owl] WMR. Ixxxiv H To Thy friendship oft Do be my Enemy MS. More Wondrous.. 218.' xii) < i. Stool and Chair But ah more wondrous still the Charming Fair. and his The Fox. Ixxxiii Imitation of Pope : a compliment to the Ladies Wondrous the Gods. Book.' p.. 37. Only in Imitation of Pope. i. More wondrous still the Table. WBY EY ('Coupl. 4 get] DGR. 2) with general title On Hayley. the Beetle. (' Coupl. Wondrous still. 4 Blake uses this couplet in his Descriptive Catalogue (1809). XXI. his head wood. 218.2i6 Rossetti MS. Hayley).' p.' xviii) with title On Stothard. 307 (last couplet only). i. EY i. 2 Do] Do Gil. out DGR withGil. p. Ixxxii On S You say reserve and modesty he has. EY.

37. Frazer. vii) i. Coupl. line only) i. Cp. For sorrow that poor John Thompson 's gone. i. 37. 37. . 217 Ixxxv Cosway. Book. And all the Virtuous have shewn their backsides. II. This Life is a Warfare against Evils They heal the sick he casts out devils. Flaxman. i . 7. 219. p. with last couplet. 219. addition. 219. MS. 49. Book. This and the two following epitaphs were obviously written before the Stothard lines (cp. as much WMR (' as they like. EY (' Memoir' chap. Only in EY i. & Stothard are also in doubt Lest their Virtue should be put to the rout. : 5 MS. Hayley. xlix. 46). 45. without title. EY (ist . and in corners hides. & Baldwin of Egypt's Lake Fear to associate with Blake. Ixxxvii Another I was buried near this dyke. Ixxxvi An Epitaph Come knock your heads against this stone. 8 One backsides] A marginal 8 shewn] shaved EY. 6 Virtue] friendship EY. p. 11. xlix. Book. p. One grins. t'other spits. 8i.' xviii). . 7 fother] other EY. 50. That my Friends may weep MS.Rossetti MS. .

i. 38. . WMR. . i8r (last couplet only). Angels stand round my spirit my friends upon Earth. in thick clouds And my Angels . have told me that seeing such visions. to be mine — ! is this : Milton lov'd me in childhood. Epitaph '. and shew'd me his face Ezra came with Isaiah the Prophet. xlix. : Russell. but Shakespeare in riper years gave me his hand terrors appeared in the Paracelsus and Behmen appeared to me Heavens above The American War began All its dark horrors passed before my face Across the Atlantic to France Then the French Revolution commenc'd . EY Hayley. i. A. Book.' xxi. title. man's O Father of Heaven and Earth lines that ever I : saw Flax- face. Ixxxviii Another Here John Trot. old authors say But now they stand in everybody's way. with this and other epigrams in the MS. ' I To MY Dearest Friend John Flaxman these bless thee. Book on Flaxman and Hayley the verses written some eight years earlier these interesting lines. who knows to forgive nervous fear. which have not been previously printed. EY. He lies : has not MS. nor Gil. Fuseli was given me to for a Season. G. . ' entitles .. 51. When ! Flaxman was taken in to Heaven. 18). 12 Sept. Cp. 3) with title 'On 219. But by my conjunction with Flaxman. the blessed of Heaven are Italy. xv. the Friend of all mankind left one enemy behind. . WBY (' Coupl' xiv. p. his friend. (« prov'd : by Flaxman lov'd. EY. I could not subsist on the Earth. Cp. Book. Friends were quite hard to find. i. 1800.2 1 Rosseiti 8 MS. . Ixxxix My title Not prais'd MS. Coupl. 1. the rest omit Gil. DGR xvii. And now Flaxman such my lot Now my lot in hath given upon Earth the Heavens me Hayley. I owe to the courtesy of Mr. B. WMR 181.' 2 nor] or as a Genius thus p. is by Hayley. 37.' . DGR.

and the lumber of an awkward French palace are thrown together. in And EY so learn to paint. out i yet you p. DGR.Rossetti MS. a Statesman and a Saint. circa 1810) : . . Book 1st rdg. Advertisement (MS. painted. p. That stink in the nose of a stander-by. 38. Cp. . He mixed them both and so he learn'd to Paint.' 2 stander] passer EY. . and imbecility's journeyman .' xix) with- title. Book. Book. . 2 I . with no outline that you can descry. Coupl. Advettisement (MS. 3 But] For EY. I. Only in EY i. my good And MS.' 5. Cp. : xcii Swelled limbs. xi). Of an hundred journeymen's how-d'ye do Neighbour — ? MS. . finish'd with labour. 38. Venus. But all the pulp-wash'd. How can its execution be any other than the work of a blockhead? Bloated gods Mercury. "EY omit. a EY. Book.Adveriisew^h/ (MS. I. 5. ' — 2 . am . p. WMR (' Epig. 18. more money for his slobberings will give for Rafael's finest things. 219 xc Rubens. am] Rubens was EY.' . i I. del.' MS. i. make him master of your School. Juno. Rubens. It bears this evidence in its face. higledy-piggledy. 63) :' He who could represent Christ uniformly like a drayman must have queer conceptions consequently his execution must have been as queer. Only . Book. . understood Christ was a Carpenter not a Brewer's Servant. ' What man of sense will lay out his * labour of imbecility. journeymen's] journeymen EY. 4 things] thing EY. Cp. I'll 219. p. 4 an] painted] EY omit. . 220. and these must be queer fellows who give great sums for such nonsense and think it fine art. and the rattle-traps of mythology. 6 I Sir] An addition. paint] Rubens had been a Statesman or a Saint . Deceptions MS. A word illegible in MS. money upon the life's . EY (' 5 Sir. Book. Book. .] xci To English Connoisseurs You must And And give Than you I agree that Rubens was a Fool. around clumsy and ricketty princes and — princesses. p. ? p. 19) Rubens' Luxembourg Gallery is confessed on all hands to be the work : ' of a blockhead. 38.

and unbroken colours. Book finishings] . .'s practice is unbroken lines. as a single poem with the title Raphael and Rubens (' Epig. B. 221. p. 27 EY ' : could never have been produced with [Blake's 'Canterbury Pilgrims'] Rubens' light and shadow. MS. The Swallow sings. The correct position of the lines is indicated by prefixed i. 5. 11. i MS. 8. Only in of 11. who arable numerals. Chairs and Stools are Grand.2 Rossetti 20 MS.* 4 That told ' . stanzas as two up arrange The character and expression in this picture Catalogue (1809). and 3. 2. . Blake's copy of Reynolds' Works. 26. To Generalize is to be an Idiot. 7. 7.' xcv and xcvi. omit.' I the] EY 15/ rdg. XCIV These are the Idiots' chiefest arts: To blend and not define the parts. 8 being a marginal addition. for those p. 38. xciu A the for encouragehave paid great sums in the Venetian and Flemish Pretty Epigram ment of those Who ooze Nature and Art in this together suit: is Most Grand is always most Minute. p.' Also Notes in to keep it. a hand. a foot. Mr. 6. pp. 4. Book. 2 of title. xcviii To Particularize is the Alone Distinction of Merit. What where the original title {del. Their art is to lose form his art is to find form and His arts are opposite to theirs in all things. Rubens thinks Tables. broken masses. General Knowledges : ' : are those Knowledges that Idiots possess.' MS. That Fools have their high finishings. 220. Book. have given high Prices for Bad Pictures. and broken colours. EY read ' be 3 The Swallow sings] Let it known '/or told. WMR who ' ' xii). or any thing Venetian or The Venetian and Flemish practice is broken lines. . or with Rembrandt's. 38. Descriptive made Cp. del. in Courts of Kings.) read 'a Pretty Epigram prints this. EY i. omitting ' ' in paid 1. i. unbroken masses. But Rafael thinks a Head. Flemish.

Gil. Sublime. p. 220." 8 Game] aim EY. . Fool] Cp. & That Such Idiots as Rubens. Moser came to me cfe said. xlvii looking over the Prints from Rafael & Michael Angelo in the Library of the " You should not Royal Academy. and to Execute from Rubens Can any Man be Such a fool as to believe that Rafael & Michael p. Vulgar. : ' His power of execution I must — EY obscure the whole grant. however. study these old Hard. 167. . ' 6 The . Graceful. Blake's ms. Namely To Represent Vulgar Artists as the Models of Executive Merit. is the wise man's aim. Must admire Rafael's Execution. note on flyleaf of his copy of Reynolds' Discourse no. Majestic. Advertisement (MS. Book. EY i. .' The following extracts. . as Reynolds artfully ' Why them ? But that we are to Learn to Think from Great Masters. 39. taken from Blake's marginal notes to Reynolds' Discourses. Correggio.' 2. . 55) high-finished ignorance. . show clearly that the last line should be read as an — indignant question involving an answer in the negative : are we to be told that Masters who Could Think. as there may be a fool or a knave in an embroidered : ' I was once also. Rossetti And 22 1 this the Princes' 5 golden rule. & I will shew coat ' : . you what you should Study.' calls ! ' I ' ' . He p. How He then went and took down Le Brun's and did secretly rage.MS. the Judgment to Perform the Inferior parts of Art. & Dry Unfinish'd Works of Art. how can they then be Finish'd ? The Man who does not know The BeginI ning never can know the End of Art. Cannot Admire Rafael. Stupid. Stay a little. . . Stiff.' He who Admires Rafael. Book xcv Wise Rafael. xcvi. 4 His . who does not admire Rafael's Execution. 265. (as continuation of xciii). 126. Low. The Laborious Stumble To make out the parts ' I allow that there is such a thing as Cp. 4 Power] powers EY. His Executive Power must I despise? Rubens. vol. of a Fool. Angelo were Incapable of the meer Language of Art. I also spoke my Mind. Cp. [114] : End in View that Gainsborough had . & Titian knew how to Execute what they could not Think or Invent. MS. xxix. p." Rubens' Galleries. i. i. Book. Blake's notes to Reynolds' Discourses. p. grant] point of this epigram by punctuating the last line . & to Learn to Perform from Underhngs Learn to Design from Rafael. 'The following Discourse is written with the Same Works. But to loose them the Fool makes his foolish Game. things that you call Finish'd are not Even Begun. had not p. Ignorant His power of Execution I must grant ? — — WMR MS. " These I said to Moser. p. v.

del. I p. of Good to walk Come. 19): 'Who that has eyes cannot see that Rubens & Corregio must have been very weak & vulgar fellows ? And This is like what Sir Francis Bacon are we to imitate their execution ? that a healthy child should be taught & compelled to walk like says : — a cripple. Slobbering] globbering EY. between lines EY and 2 the And ' WMR 39. i line. EY i. Book. . Book. learn me.' 12). EY insert this after 1. EY ('Coupl. both great & small. send your Children to the Slobbering School MS. p. Book. while the cripple must be taught to walk like healthy people. . Neighbours. there 's no doubt MS. as part of the poem. DGR WMR. Gil. Advertisement (MS. Give to ! govern all. I e'er] e'er I Book. O. XCVlll The And 1 cripple every step drudges & labours. 265. xciii. 4 See Doubt] His pains are more than ' ! . XCVll If I e'er O May Have MS. Book. the last word. EY. i. WBY. 4 . ('Coupl. e'en I] EY (Index. p. MS. Book ist rdg. : — ! interpolating ' rule I 221 invert order of the two lines. a Go. from an as conclusion of presumably his own form idiot's action my xcv. 222. 39. 221. rare wisdom I drudges] smudges EY. 39. (' Grow to Man's Estate. only) i.' xi). i. Rossetti XCVl Learn the laborious stumble of a Fool ! Go. I DGR. send] Go and send EY. Pain in] springs from Gil. p. and take the wall. Cp.222 MS. what Great Labour ! Pain in Modest Doubt ! MS. WBY Coupl. asi).' says ' : Sir Joshua in astonishment cries out: ' See. (first 4 11.' ix). me a Woman's fate. WMR. others.

Du Crow. 3 taught] wise MS. Book 15^ rdg. MS. 8 . i . 2nd rdg.' The ' before ' 'English.. if ' high labour'd Newton and Bacon cry He 223 6 labour'd] finished EY." omit 'and Gentry. Reynolds. ' . . whole his Englishman.' 2 For Knife] For a button. 6 Warble . Gainsborough. ci. An first] addition. and Dilbury Doodle As the Ignorant Savage will sell his own Wife For a Sword. MS. omit.' all is he crep. . to destroy] that is not And Caudle] EY EY. insert ' (' ' Epig. or Knife So the savage taught.' ix) Du Crow.]. Rubens. or a squall. 40. Book . DGR an addition. i. 5 WMR WMR omit Epig. Book. xcix. For Col.' and read Catelans for 'Catalani. Wardle see Examiner. 7. 8 Experiments] marginal addition.. EY. 1809 passim. DGR.. del. He 6 . to destroy Picture And I call upon Colonel Wardle To give these Rascals a dose of Caudle. WMR. . or a Cutlass. del. . DGR. every step 5 ! ' Being badly Nurst. and insert ' Rembrandt after ' ' EY 222. Rubens ' (' or tune.. a Bauble [buckle 2nd rdg. 4 On] For rdg. Newton experiment EY. 7 cry] EY XCIX On the great encouragement given & English Nobihty by Cor- to Gentry reggio. EY . title prints under this title c. Rossetti He & walks And how stumbles as is 5. jst 5. del. Catalani. . A step] . EY. del. or a knife MS. . 1st rdg.' 3). EY. c. del. spends Fortune On a smear. a dagger. .MS. Experiments from last to first. learned ibid. in title EY . a bead. p. 5 Wardle] ibid. Book print this couplet after ist rdg. del.

' 3 Anglus] Bunglers EY. Book. Or the Hare playing on a Tabor Anglus can never see Perfection But in the Journeyman's Labour. WMR MS. Fuseli it. 40. WMR. as sure as a Groat 's i . 3 is the Pencil] in the art the DGR. p. As when they are drunk they always paint best. 7 When 4 As] And DGR. WMR. EY 222. This ' : opinion is as destructive of the true artist as it is false by all experience.2 Rossetti 24 MS. pray how can they make it? When Men will draw outlines begin you to jaw them Madmen see outlines and therefore they draw them. EY i. 5 They never can Rafael it. WMR.' EY dry. 5 nor] or EY. 40. . CI All pictures that Are painted by painted with sense and with thought Madmen. Give Pensions to the Learned Pig. 41. . these impostors Advertisement (MS. p. . cu On H I write the Pickthank the Rascal thanks. Book. MS. DGR. . p. i. Book. also Advertisement (MS. In the art of painting. Gil. 222. either copied or improved. . 25^! sedulously propagate an opinion that great inventors cannot execute. nor Blake it If they can't see an outline. Cp. Book. DGR. Can Anglus ever ' discern perfection but in the journeyman's labour ? Cp. DGR. p. them] All men have drawn outlines whenever they saw them DGR. . ' i. he and till With Thanks and Compliments MS. For the Greater the Fool is the Pencil more blest. "WMR (see note to xcix). (see note to xcix). WMR. 181. 47) Englishmen have been so used to journeymen's undecided Even Hogarth cannot be ' : bungling that they cannot bear the firmness of a master's touch. Book. extending H I are quite ' to drawn ' Hayley. p. 223. I i. and] or .

2 Because judgment] judgments Gil. 1st rdg. or small. 208. Book 15^ rdg. CIV When you look at If a Man of Sense a picture. Jenny sink awa'] Blake's purposely grotesque spelling of Je ne sais quoi. . EY.. Only in EY i. we can Say all was owing to the Skilful Man i 5 . 223. del.' Cp. ments are EY. Then never flinch. Book . 41. Not prejudiced by feelings great Amiable state he cannot feel at ! MS. all. 223. For the smell of water is but small So e'en let Ignorance do it all.MS. menny wouver in the next piece. MS. Gil. copied with indignant comment on p. 41. : MS. know MS. del. I . SAMPSON EY. EY i. That Blake probably read ' 4 ' ' French with ease may be inferred from his quotation of a passage from Voltaire's Essai stiy les iiiceurs et F esprit des nations. As when it smells of the lamp. i. Book 15/ rdg. Cool] Because I know he judgment is] judgalways judges cool. p. del. Book.. [cxxvii] of his copy of Reynolds' Discourses. you always can see has Painted he. p. . and Jenny sink awa'. Book. Rossetti 225 cm Cromek speaks I always take my judgment from a Fool Because his Judgment is so very Cool . 4 Amiable state] Because wc 3 or] and Gil. 5 we] all MS. but keep up a jaw About freedom.

separated from the two preceding print the second and third couplets as the 1-4. of a Fool MS. MS. Book. 41. no use as it seems to me lighting a lamp. Of displaying up a light when we want not to see. WBY last couplet only. *8 Of] For EY. The errors of a wise man make your Rule. *i will Set to For a great multitude are ignorant. DGR separate epigrams . p. And make 'Twill For there Of 2 Menny written. 6 as distinct pieces . For it 's all sheer loss. 42.2 26 MS. 1. 3 God] heaven EY. skill to them seems raving and rant. 11. . 4. and 5. *s in] into EY. MS. To . 'Twill hold forth a huge splutter with smoke and damp . Book. i : ! 5 Rather than the Perfections of a Fool. is *5 a great splutter with smoke and damp. last couplet is WMR 223. Menny wouver and water skill mad i . and EY i. 223 (with Encouragers' for 'Encouragement' and 'opinion' for 'opinions' in title) print the earlier and clearer version ' which reads : ' — If you mean to please everybody you work both ignorance and skill. See note to civ. The p. Rossetti cv CroEnglish Encouragement of Art mek's opinions put into rhyme : If you mean to Please And like Like displaying oil will Everybody. 4 del. Like putting oil and water in a lamp. Fool] To learn to admire the works . yet they are blockheads you all agree Thank God I never was sent to school To be Flog'd into following the Style of a Fool. 4 Obscurely cxvi You And say their Pictures well Painted be. ranters ! in a 5 lamp. you both Bunglishness & For a great conquest are Bunglers.' wouver] read manoeuvre. Book ist rdg. . when you don't wish to see. as it seems to me. EY i. by a sketch.

civ. WMR . del. and employed numerous Journeymen in manufacturing (as Rubens and Titian did) the Pictures that go under his name. Rembrandt or Correggio MS. WMR. Book. 3 question thus] say to myself MS. EY iii. a Stool Send Battle. del. hinders man who all power of individual possessed by this demon loses all admiration of any other Artist but Rubens. and adopt the Venetian and Flemish. Correggio.Rossetti MS. Correggio is a soft and effeminate and consequently a most cruel demon. Book is^ r-dg. was a great sin. 1. Cp. 43. EY let's DGR. 56-59 a most outrageous demon. a Hog. sudden death. Book. ' 8 an Ass] EY omit. Book ist rdg. he loads it with hellish brownness. is to cause endless labour to whoever suffers him to The story that is told in all Lives of the Painters. Possibly a reference to Blake's manner of using water-colour. 6 Send] For DGR. ! 86. Only in EY 224. 42. omit. O] we MS. . 227 cvii The Washerwoman's Song wash'd them out I And they told me & it wash'd them in. think of the Crippled Harry and Slobbering Joe And then I question thus Are artists' rules i 1 . Correggio] Seeing a Rembrandt or Correggio DGR. or slobbering Joe EY. MS. a WMR . O pray! Rather than be such a blind Human Fool I'd be an Ass. pp. except one. EY. the allusion to water in an epigram on the preceding page of the MS. Rembrandt. and those who were his imitators and journeymen he causes to the Florentine and Roman Artist fear to execute. When When I see I .. so that the is : and though the original conception was all fire and animation. DGR. ' whose whole delight enter his mind. 2 I Joe] Of crippled Harry I think and slobbering Joe DGR. and that one he closes with iron bars. WMR. del. MS. and Q 3 . . he was a petty Prince. 7 blind] EY . Book. Book ist rdg. 7. and blocks up all its gates of light. . ' ' cvni When I see a Rubens. about Correggio being poor and but badly paid for his Pictures. a Worm. a Chair. Cp. p. I think of crippled Harry.' 4 and x). . The manual labour in these Pictures of Correggio is immense.. WMR (' Epig. : To be drawn from the works of two manifest Then God defend us from the Arts I say fools ? 5 ! Murder. and by infusing the remembrances : Rubens is of his Pictures and st^-le of execution. i. in Italy. thought . till the victim is obliged to give up the Florentine and Roman practice. is altogether false . . Descriptive Catalogue. EY. p.

Christian .28 2 MS. sweet MS. that confuse one another. But. the street. there would soon be an end of proportion and strength. and thick-headed. i. and for if one of hinder all correct drawing from appearing to be correct Rafael's or Michael Angelo's figures was to be traced. and Correggio"s reflections and refractions to be added to it. Only in EY 224. MS. del. p. miserable man. in .' v. Book. If you are benevolent You will never win. and pappy. but it shall be at your own peril. — I say again. vii. p. cx you play a Game of Chance. compelled to softness by poverty. and 8). and it would be weak. and take possession of his affections he infuses a love of soft and even tints without boundaries. Friends] Christians I WMR. 4 dear] ibid. though Correggio was not poor. If i. Rossetti immense prices that those who keep manufacalways charge to their employers. Book.' EY i. by a twelvemonth's labour. 225. with title Fuseli. and of endless reflected lights. p. WMR. 2 This is] These are all edd. 224. . 43.' xv) WMR I ' that e'er I] that ever almost make me EY. Know. dear Christian Friends. while they themselves pay their journeymen little enough. ist rdg. where a month would with judgment have finished it better and higher and the poor wretch who executed it would be the Correggio that the life-writers have written of a drudge and a was paid for originally at the tories of art . (' Epig. These hnes are written over an erasure. he will make any true artist so. and lumbering. I ever EY. Book. 47. Esq''^' which probably belonged to the deleted passage. 50. who permits him to enter his mind. like his own works but then it would have softness and evenness. with the title William Cowper.' O Artist! CIX Great things are done when This is not done by jostling MS. Book 2 make me almost] 15/ rdg. . CXI The only Man that e'er I knew did not make me almost spew Was Fuseli he was both Turk and Jew And so. . del. WBY DGR. before you begin. how do you do Who — : ' ? MS. you may disbelieve all this. printed as a quatrain. Men & Mountains meet (' EY Coupl.

Only in EY i. 5 I will MS. Only in WMR ' (' 12 man] one WMR. Book.' is Man not whether a & Polite & & Science. ! Come Listen patient. to say the least of it. perhaps 'Twill. And 'tis most wicked in a Christian Nation For any man to pretend to Inspiration. . . MS. 50. 9 atrocious] most wicked MS. . •The Enquiry in England But whether he is Passive Noblemen's Opinions in Art Not. . queer] 5 Not . : Daughters of Memory. 52. not queer . & Bacon] Priestly done EY. are you here ? will tell I Said to i : Priestly before Joseph of Arimathea. is x Not when He he's well. 'Reynolds' Opinion was ir. 12] Cp. For Joseph cp. If he is. & when Joseph has done make a fool laugh. I'll EY. Book. his by being you love 9 To tell you anything that he can't prove.^ iv. EY. & that all Pretence to Inspiration is a Lie & For if it is a Deceit the whole Bible is a Deceit. Book \st rdg. Fairy see footnote to Poems from Jerusalem. and piece. 19 : for the ' 2 was was — Bacon EY. 5 That Genius May be Taught. & it . Gil. the Public Fame. del. he is a & & Genius ! obedient to Good Man. legibly written. . probably the continuation of the erased stanza. Rossetti 229 CXll For this being a Friend just in the nick. has Talents a Virtuous Ass. p. truth in his extravagant claim. he must be Starved. but waiting till he's sick calls you to his help be you not mov'd . Until. p. 225. If cxiii you what Joseph of Arimathea my Fairy was not it very queer ? & Bacon What. was therefore written before the preceding Coupl.' is referred to in note to cxi. This p. & a Fairy fun. Soul his in & 5 lie. 6 I will] 3 Priestly done] when Joseph & is a Fairy] at a Fairy's EY. is atrocious in a Friend 'tis Prophecy: a confounded Bookseller. This Opinion originates in the Greeks calling the Muse[s] Madness. Notes to Reynolds' Discourses.' xix) with title Blake's Friends. You him spend see Do you believe some Till it wants are prov'd. i. Prove there For sick.MS.

. make Cupid a boy 9 the Cupid girl's mocking plan. Ease from Heaven. preferable first draft of this stanza ' Then : — . and 6 the] a WBY. 225. EY (iii. all except R' 'has for is' (1.MS. p. MS. . all with title Cupid and omission of last stanza (except R') which is printed separately (notes. p. ' . laugh when we do cry. so pierced through WBY. Ri. WMR. for Hell. That the whole business of Is to pick out the 13 his life heads of the darts. 69). is) ' ' ' *9) and to mock for so much (1. WMR. ' (1. WBY. ' ' (1. And wounded with arrowy smarts. And .'v). 5 And And And the Girl shoots with her Eye. for or after in 1806. Book. Rossetti 230 cxiv Grown I oft Love from Seven old in have wish'd MS. ' *ii). 248). ' for ' Then cares] he is become a man ' . *i i). 9-12 And man] All edd. 144). p. And Was to they both are merry & glad. make Cupid to a Boy *9 Was surely a Woman's plan. EY ('Coupl. And then he's so pierc'd with cares. by Swinb. i And why a boy was he? He should have been a Girl. Book. For a boy can't interpret the thing Till he is become a man. Apparently written 54. 56. cxv Why was Cupid a Boy. For a boy ne'er learns so much he Till all and is reading 'never' for 'ne'er' WBY 13 he 's . his bow. EY i. till Seven times Seven. For aught that I can For he shoots with see. print the infinitely ' ' WBY . DGR. (p.

he'll reply: 'A Paint-brush. . p.' And what is the third ? Then he snored like a 'And what the second?' is ' : ' A ' puffing his cheeks out. And Woman into a Statue And away fled every Joy. great wig. and say paint-brush. del. . replied pig. . WBY. EY. there WBY omils. 13 all EY. WMR. WMR. Book. Rosseiti 231 'Twas the Greeks' love of war Turn'd Love into a Boy. . 5 A ' great wig. yonder With — brandt ! &c. of this piece was written elsewhere Blake has added the words to come MS. 20 And] fled] flew EY. EY. out] EY. . . .MS.' ' And what is the third ? he'll bow like a rush. Love] Cupid EY. i? of Stone — Joy] Swinb. a] all that a EY. : ' a leer in his Eye. II he'll] He will EY.' but 17-20 'Twas is no trace of deletion in the MS. calls this 'the last (rejected) stanza.' of Orator i) with title in Following the &c. So if a Great Painter with Questions you push 'What's the first part of painting?' he'll say: 'A Paint. Book. WMR. . EY ' ' ' in Bany : a Poem. ' 9 A He'll smile like a cherub. . I my] of And thrust out his cheeks and 2 part of] thing in MS. . 17 Greeks'] Greek 18 Turn'd] That turned Swinb. Book 1st ydg. DGR.' 13 erhaps this is all a Painter can want: of Remhouse is the house that look But. 7 So push] 8 he'll] he'd So if tp a painter the question you push DGR. CXVl Dear Friend Orator Prig my asked I 'What's the first i : He part of Oratory?' said : 'A great /wig-' Then.' xxi).' (' Coupl. WMR WMR ('Epig. Brush. 6 And EY.' ' And what is ' the second ? with most modest blush. 60.'' my DGR. . dancing a jig he said d bowing profoundly. Swinb.' which indicates that more Prig. 12 he'll] and DGR.' And. WBY.

" xxii). i What's the First Part of Painting.' 13 taste colouring love pp. and said Patronage. 13 A. WMR ('Epig. EY (' Coupl.' And what is the Third she put off Old Age 5 And smil'd like a Syren and said Patronage. ' . pp. 63. ' I Now how do ye do ? ' was before: it more and more. perhaps the continuation of the preceding epigram (cxvi). . p. Blake's Descriptive Catalogue. Cp. ! ! great deal better than Those who MS. Ruth a drawing' : 64. 6r. Snap. on p. the rest. 60. cxvii O dear Mother Outline of wisdom most sage. omit.' ! ' : ' WMR MS. to Please and Engage. . rest as a separate 8 This rdg. 11 for one.Rossetti 2 32 MS. she said 'Patronage. EY. xv. Book. 9. del. — ' ! ! — 9 : ' it 's all Chiaroscuro. too] and lost the 12 them both] both these EY. . This is quite Perfection one Generalizing Tone There 's no outline. Book \st 10 Outline Colouring] marginal addi. He . shadow and the substance do ye] d'ye EY. As he swam he saw the reflection of the bone. there 's no such thing Outline Perhaps : A A . what a brilliant tone MS.' occurs at foot of p. is a black outline.' 2). snap All is He ^A had them both before. . Poco-Pen Colouring He has lost shadow and substance too. This is CXVlll To Venetian Artists That God And is Colouring Newton does shew. all of us know. 60. . tion .' And what is the Second. &c. 5 .' xxiii) followed Tone] Here 's by the two EY omit. A . . Book. one] EY too .'v). 61. (' Epig. before] . this little Fable. 14 taste] have tasted omit. EY poem. DGR. She frowned h'ke a Fury. i the devil this little P'able may make us merry dog went over the water without a wherry bone which he had stolen he had in his mouth He cared not whether the wind was north or south. EY print first couplet ('Coupl. 61 : the first ' couplet with the catchwords Perhaps with the title. No. EY.

But September Nobody (p. Exarjiiner. The rough draft of most of this piece occurs on p. go. and wirey the boundary line. — . and to all Artists who study in the Florentine and Roman Schools. ii. 384. Also Descriptive Catalogue. in i . del. p. at all sees •" Prose] harm EY in omit in. the Greater Liar. and the less keen and sharp.MS. . interlineating 11. . 5-8. 62. Hunt's reference to Blake's Descriptive Catalogue. 65. Rhyming] 15. and bungling. from the first draft on and the addition of 11. in all ages. 11. I EY in Only 63 (reversed). Rossetti 233 If losing and obliterating the outline constitutes a Picture. lineation in the first draft. write in Verse as soft as Bartolloze. 65. Having given great I'll Some blush at what others can see no crime But nobody sees any harm in Rhyming. 76). B. 63. 17." rc/g. The verses were then transcribed on p. where the lines were composed in the following order. Great MS. . me] we EY. added in a slightly changed form. i] Cp. p.' imitation. 54 'These pictures. p.' CXIX Men and Fools do often me inspire But the Greater Fool. 19-22. among numerous others painted for experiment. 15-18. 62). Book. Rhyming MS. Such art of losing the outlines is the it loses all character and leaves what some art of Venice and Flanders * . — : vile tricks. labouring to destroy Imaginative power. 5 in the original Lines 13 and 14 are also an interdraft). afterwards renumbered 1-12. 4 But . Mr. whose enmity to the Painter himself. people call That the more great and golden rule of art as well as of life is this distinct. plagiarism. 8 and 9 (or 4. cxx offence by writing in Prose. Book. . no. The greater is the evidence of weak Great inventors. which Blake. with the couplet 11. 12. . •* The expression" but this is a false notion of expression. . 4. by means of that infernal machine called Chiaro Oscuro. knew this. Book . 2 Fool] fools EY. Only in EY (' Memoir' i. the more perfect the work of art. i and a between 11. 3. will never be so foolish as to do one. in the hands of Venetian and Flemish Demons. MS. were the result of temptations and perturbations. may be removed by an exhibition and exposure of their . p. 1809. sharp.

Book great] "EY omit. 20 A reference to Cromek's 'Account of 20 around] about EY.' Thus Poor Schiavonetti died of the Cromek 17 ' — A thing that tied around the Examiner's neck This is my sweet apology to my friends. because it is rhyme. . Woollett that 'Cooke wished and Strange. Schiavonetti. 19. 13 Cry Blakefied drawing spoils painter and Engraver While I.' in the E. del. July i. 12 that] . center] Cry Tom Cooke 1st rdg. del. 63). looking up to my Umbrella. ' ' Milton only plann'd his bells throughout the land. p. . Book 15/ rdg. outline. which perhaps he : 5. 57) to give Hogarth what he could take from Rafael. Book Mr. arts is written in a paroxysm of insanity. 9 ' And now that Flaxman and lead I my false friends by the nose.' But now MS. del. . . Advertisement (MS. 62\ . . smelling a sweet savour. and mass. my A 11 Some say] marginal addition. and monotonous sing-song sing-song from beginning to end. 1810.' raving] How many Thousands of Conoisseurs ran raving MS. . Book. Homer is very much improv'd by Pope. and perhaps he wrote said that IMilton's it. But at the same time I will allow that stupidity will prefer Dryden. nose] I've given great Provision to my Foes ril lead false Friends by the Nose. : . No one can finish so high as the original Inventor. cries Dryden.' 7] Cp. in which it is a rough. Book. looking quite from skumference to center. 1st rdg. (p. 8 Thousands and colour but he could not. . Thus. * An example of the contrary 6] Cp.vaminer. Resolv'd to be a very contrary fellow.2 Rossetti 34 MS. and I will assert never wrote. Such are Bartolozzi. II. Stothard. (p. proves from circumference to Center MS. Every Fool shook 5 : Tom Cooke cut Hogarth down with his clean graving: Thousands of connoisseurs with joy ran raving. p.' Cries Some say I've given great Provision to my foes. ' ' . Book 1st idg. del. Cry. that is. HY omit. 12 Some ' . 20) us in the characters of Milton and Dryden as they are given in a poem signed with the name of Nat Lee. 's That put them may I in mind of ! 21 their latter ends. Advertisement (MS. and Dryden has finished let Dryden's Fall and Milton's Paradise be read. 62). in rhyme.. unfinished piece.^ marginal addition . 17 Cry. Hayley on his Toilette seeing the sope. 10 Cries] Says MS. (p. Now poem is everybody of understanding must cry out shame on such niggling and poco-pen as Dryden has degraded Milton with. 9 Thus] An addition Then EY.

. 266 with title nature. 226. p. 73. when it comes to another's turn. how you would 226. 3 Admires] Admireth Gil. . yourself. Book.' vi) 2 Like as] Like to EY. first 5 Perhaps a continuation of cxx. which he says that Rafael and Michael Angelo abhorr'd studying On Colourists. To grow sour at what a friend may utter. Knowing and feeling that we all have need of Butter. Circle to see go into. WBY('Coupl. (' Epig. Book. ? Written in continuation of a passage in Blake's Adverp. i. i. del. 66. del. 6 In spite] For 15^ rdg. DOR. Book. 11. it p. Book. how] what EY. Book shall \st rdg. Book. ^ If False Friends. in ' ' WMR * cxxiii Some For It It people admire the work of a Fool. 5 Printed here for the time. you shan't] ne'er now MS. Admires all his colours brown & warm.andio). They ought not. ciii. I MS. WMR. Book ! \st rdg. fie fie! Our Friendship you shan't sever In spite we will be greater friends than ever. cxxiv To God If you have form'd a Go into MS. Mb. peeping in a Mirror.Rossetti MS. p. MS. Cp. Book no MS. del. EY. Gil.ix.' with title Colour and Form. MS. 2. Only in EY 2 & i. do. . 70.'vii.' EY i. as Vasari tells us. And never once perceives his ugly form. 235 CXXl men will act like a maid smiling over a churn. fie ! O fie !] MS. 65. it 's sure to keep your judgment cool . ' iiseimiit. cxxii Call that the Public Voice which is their Error Like as a Monkey. does not reproach you with want of wit is not like a lawyer serving a writ.

CXXVl To Chloe's breast young Cupid But he crept MS. p. 4 upon] on the EY. (vol. With works of Art their Armies meet i .' 5).' stanza of xxx . 227. as for WMR The Two Kinds WBY ' of Riches. was shall sink beneath thy 13. And War MS.' 7 their] her EY. DGR in printing All add.' 4 my God] WBY omits my. And France shall fall down & adore. Book. in at DGR.' has shall So spoke an Angel at my birth Then said Descend thou upon earth Renew the Arts on Britain's shore. Book. 66): that it is ' . or Degrade them. i. 79. 73 (reversed) with and EY with title Riches. Cp. 5 feet. may concern p. MS. EY I (' Coupl. & the Empire is No More. DGR. breast] heart R^ (' Coupl. follow in pencil. p. slily stole. apparently the beginning of a second in EY i. p. Myra's pocket-hole. Rossetti 236 cxxv the Riches of this World May be gifts from the Devil & Earthly Kings. I should suspect that I worship'd the Devil Since all my God If I thank'd first title ' worldly things. WBY WMR. Advertisement Only 'Let us teach Buonaparte and whomsoever else it not Arts that follow & attend upon Empire.MS. 78. Book. Reynolds' & Science. (MS. stanza which Lines p. Book. Empire follows Art. but The Arts. & not Vice Versa as Englishmen suppose. ' .' iv). Remove them. 14 are left unfinished. CXXVll •Now Art France lost its mental Charms subdue the World in Arms.' Also Blake's notes to Empire that attends upon & follows The Foundation of Empire is Art Works [cxxv]).

del. Book. Nail his neck to the Cross: ye all have power over his tail. 13. to Blake's Catalogue of Pictures. on same page as part of Blake's descriptive account of Addition his picture of 'The Last Judgment. : WMR 74. del.Rossetti MS. WBY. 55.' ' 14 Cp. EY ii. 79. 3 But] And MS. Book 4 Who] Whom 15/ rdg. 1st rdg. Book save thy works from Britain's shore 14 Spirit — smile] lovest Britannia's shore Round which Commerce the Fiends of roar. MS. 15/ rdg. * Spirit And who . title ' EY For a Picture of the Last 144) seems unaware that this poem forms part of the MS. &c. p. EY.' But if 9 if who lov'st Brittannia's Isle Round which the Fiends of Commerce smile Spirit 12 And .' p. CXXVlll Nail his neck to the Cross: nail it with a nail. impostors Genius. Book. France shall the arts of Peace restore And save thee from the ungrateful shore. 13 MS. Who shall I dare to shew them to? What mighty Soul in Beauty's form Shall dauntless View the Infernal storm? And these i I 5 MS. And they scorn the immortal Muse. WMR. shew'd to England's Queen. Book rdg. . 237 thy Nation Arts refuse. I Caverns] Visions MS. 87. WBY Judgment p. with WMR (p. But now the Caves of Hell I view. shore] . Book isi 6 daunt'ess] dare to . MS. . p. p. p. Book.' EY. : 140. all except Dedication. del. 57 wrongly regard for which no place can be assigned. 25). Advertisement (MS. CXXIX The Caverns of the Grave I've seen. Book.' this as part of The Everlasting * Gospel. Swinb. In a commercial nation the greatest enemies of are These in all are abroad professions. .' Swinb. del. 170.' headed 'For the Year 1810 iii.

Everything else EY.ROSsettI 238 MS. WMR . del. < . prints I. then 4 and 7 . can crave is] It's R». 9 Re-engrav'd Time after Time. I still go on Till the Heavens & Earth are gone. Gil. WBY (i. p. . Two Gil. . Time may 17 There they shine Eternally. Book can] dare 8 flames] doors ist rdg. 7 with title The place stanzas in correct order. 15 unchang'd] shall rdg. : away ! Mammon for 5 . WBY. Still admir'd by Noble minds.. ist )dg. 7 II MS. ' Thrones. a fifth stanza formed of the second couplet of 4 and the first couplet Swinb. 2. .' is very odd Throne of God. " ' . 2. but rage in vain. del. Egremont's Countess can controll flames of Hell that round me roll If she refuse. rage. dated Aug. Book. 6. sure. 3. It's For everything] Everything R'. . the to be this. 2. the latter 228) and MS. is( rdg. Gil. For everything besides It is away ? i ! I have I can crave. In my Golden House on high. cxxx — up at the dawn of day Get thee away get thee away I rose ' ! Pray'st thou for Riches This is Said I took I the Throne of It only ! grey. crave] It's only can crave EY. 3. the first couplet of 6. a fourth stanza formed of the first couplets of 6 and 4. I R^ EY. The . 89. del. WBY. For above Time's troubled Fountains.' 5 Said said 1] I WMR riches that It WMR . 5. isi Noble] worthy ibid. 3. p. then 7 EY follows Gilchrist with title Mammon order i. On the Great Atlantic Mountains. : Riches that written immediately under and partly around an entry R' has stanzas i. Follow'd by Envy on the winds. still ibid. del. 128 (with title Prayer') arranges stanzas in the of 5. 309. i.. 4. 8 It only riches I . 7 WBY. 13 Ever My Designs unchang'd remain. in their Youthful prime. 1807. ibid. 310.

' Monej^. written from the reversed end of the book.. up of contradiction. EY. 21 of Prayers need say . above stanza C 4 of Fayette' (MS. i6 Cp. if I don't worship him EY. Gil. WBY. Mr assur'd. 'The Laocoon' (Prophetic except Swinb. WMR. omit 'And. 21) & Evil In the Accusation of Sin. just as 10 all edd. p. margin. I I little won't pray to you. & Mental Health. here for first time. So. He You must do. 98. Riches for God knows. WBY. xxxvi). God makes him pay. Church is known by its Steeple. & Mental wealth I've a Wife I love. except Swinb. I shall eat coarser food. EY.MS. as I don't value such things as these. WMR WMR. & that loves me I've all But Riches Bodily.. omit 'And. say] God knows it 's little prayers I need him] if I worship not him R'. & go worse shod. if I do not worship him for a God. 15. edd.' and all edd. Then if Devil. . as a If I says. And Mental Friends. WBY. ii ' : . . except Swinb. cxxxi Do what you And is made will this life's a fiction. ' . i6 money bag] money-bags EY.. pray it must be for other People. 25 if say RV. .' 15 doth] does Swinb. .. 27 So] But RS Gil. 9 I . WBY. which is The Great Satan or Reason the Root of Good Books. For my am in And he I The . he holds my money bag in his hand.. Gil. and marked for insertion here. . 19 And so j-ou] And j-ou 22 God EY. God And Mental 25 please. Book. WBY. to you] Written later in 14 And he] R^ and all edd. which Printed appears upside down. never turns his face away accuser of sins by my side doth stand. . more if to him I would pray he'd pay worst you can do do the so you may And And Be 13 17 worldly things for . Friends] R* and all Wife I love] Wife that I love R^ 13-20 I am . . Rossdti 239 have Mental Joy. And God's presence night & day. So. . 9 Joy] joys R' and Mr Devil. MS.. I must not Pray. Book. EY.

i

POEMS
FROM

THE ROSSETTI

MS.

Ill

'THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL'
^

Written

SAMPSON'

cxxxii
circa

R

1810

ROSSETTI MANUSCRIPT
III

cxxxii

THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL
Prefatory
This poem — or

Note

rather rough studies for a poem which
Blake never carried to completion consists of a series of
fragments scattered throughout the MS. Book. As these
occur for the most part on vacant spaces of pages already

'

partially filled with the draft of his catalogue for the year
1810,' it is plain that 'The Everlasting Gospel' was written
not earlier (though probably not much later) than this

date.

Three of these fragments (/?, y^, and y^) are different treatments of the same theme, Christ's gentleness or humility
one (S) is a mere note or suggestion
while all but the
first few lines of another (77) have been lost to us through
;

;

Blake's neglect to transcribe the remainder of the passage
MS. Book. The several fragments in their present
form contain repetitions of lines and overlapping of thought
and expression which the author would doubtless have
removed on final revision. At one stage in the evolution
of the poem Blake marked the order in which he intended
the parts then written to be placed, and this clue, with
careful observance of the position of later marginal insertions, enables us to arrange the different sections of the
poem in their proper sequence. To carry further the
attempt to give unity to this unfinished piece would involve
editorial omissions and transpositions contrary to the plan
of the present work.
Fragment (3, the 57 11. beginning Was Jesus gentle,'
seems to have been the first draft of the initial section of
the poem.
Handling the same theme again in a different
manner, Blake re-wrote the entire passage in the new form
into the

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y^ (the 38 11., or with marginal additions 46 11., beginning
'Was Jesus humble' and ending 'And take Revenge at
the last Day'), and this again was further altered and
expanded into the revised version y^, to which the title
'
The Everlasting Gospel was prefixed for the first time.
This last section contains 106 11. which Blake, in a marginal
note, reckons as 78, showing that the calculation was made
before the interpolated 11. 21-24, 31-50 and 85-88 were
added in the margin. At this point he indicated the
connexion of y^ with ^, which he then meant to be the
next section, by adding the catchwords was Jesus chaste
or did he &c.,' followed by the couplet {Q) with which the
'

'

poem was

apparently meant to conclude

:

am sure this Jesus will not do
Either for Englishman or Jew.'

'I

The fragment ^ Was

'

'

Jesus chaste contains 96 11., the
being a marginal addition, written after Blake had
noted 94 lines as the length of this passage. Below 1. 94,
without apparent break, he added

two

last

'

'

:

*

Seeing this

made my

I

What

and passion
over the nation.

false Christ in fury

voice heard

all

are those, &c.'

followed at the side, a little lower down, by the two-line
It was Blake's practice to add
epilogue quoted above.
&c.' where a poem or passage had already be jn written
elsewhere, and it seems clear that these three lines were
merely catchwords marking the position of the imperfect
section r],
Messrs. Ellis and Yeats point out that the 7th
stanza of 'To the Jews {Jenisalevi, 1804) begins with the
words What are those golden builders doing ?
As that
poem, however, is written in quatrains with a different
rime-arrangement it could not well have followed here,
'

'

'

'

though Blake

may have

repeated this particular

Of the remaining

line.

portions the four-line fragment 5 Did
Jesus teach doubt is written transversely on the page
opposite the beginning of y^, which it was apparently
meant to precede. Blake does not here add &c.,' and it
is probable that these lines are
merely suggestions of a new
train of thought which he did not develop further.
The
48 II. (e) beginning Was Jesus born of a virgin pure' p^e
found on a scrap of different paper now bound in at the
end of the MS. Book. It can hardly have been written
earlier than May 18 10, since it occupies the fourth page
'

'

'

'

R

2

MS. which were afterwards copied The into. like e. and there is consequently no attempt at is who 175). . such as This life's dim windows of the soul for This life's five windows of the soul'. under the poem A ' ' ' ' . enriched by running commentary.. G. M. upon separate pieces of paper. an afterthought. reduce the entire number of lines in this version to 313. obviously been chosen with a view to elucidating his author's meaning. but its natural position would appear to be immediately before ^. pp. Rossetti 244 of a folded sheet. Rossetti there printing the prologue 11. Ellis and and y^.' The omission of y^ and a few odd couplets rejected for various reasons. of title The (11. 1868. the reader must judge. This passage has no place assigned to it. The fourteen lines beginning The Vision of Christ that thou dost see (a) are introductory to the whole poem. Swinburne's extracts have part. or merely loosely inserted in. where I print it in the present arrangement. and the loss of 77 (perhaps also of 5) may be attributed to the same cause. given prints ' ' ' strict sequence. Rossetti states that this wholly amazing and partly splendid poem is now published in full for the first time.' adding I have done my best to arrange the verses into some sort of order and method with what success. reverently treated. found in y^ But there are no grounds for Messrs. for the most Mr. 148altogether 253 11. 4 omitted) and 43 of 96 ^. the preceding page of which contains part of the draft of Blake's Additions to his Catalogue of Pictures for the Year 1810 and it must have been written later than jS as it has the amended form of 1. but Blake's text is. M. small part only of The Everlasting Gospel was included among the Poems hitherto Unpublished in Gilchrist (1863) Mr. ' ' . 3. ' ' ' The ' Everlasting Gospel were first written. In the Aldine Edition (1874) Mr. the MS. D. W. The interpolation e still leaves the epilogue at the end of the as at first intended. comparatively small number of corrections made in /? show that it must have been copied from an earlier draft. Swinburne [Essay. The poem as reconstructed by Mr. W. to ' ' which they are probably meant to serve as prologue.' A much more comprehensive by Mr. Book. ' Woman taken selection in Adultery.' Probably all the fragments of . 8. Yeats' conjecture that these lines are intended to supersede much of the rest of the poems \read poem '] but rejected by the author before he made up his mind how to fix them in. Here and there slight emendations are made.

imme- . 8\ y^ 93-96. ( transposition 3. and passion — — climax destroys voice heard all over the nation ' to which the epilogue forms the natural the force of this concluding couplet by making it diately follow the speech of Caiaphas (e. 3. 42-60) have made the only attempt up to the present to reproduce the frag- They first give y^ and y^ in and previous version. All-i3>57. 5. Ellis and Yeats (vol. for no MS. pp. which they think was cancelled and so the MS. 51-106. 6. ^. but Mr. B. 1. Seeing this I made my 2. in the inaccuracies in their text are. 4. y^ 11. which. they regard as a cancelled passage. . 25-106 is scarcely e and of The e. ^. I. clearly discernible reason. Such misreadings as Doth read for Both read ' ' ' ' for 'three days long' (y\ 1. : a (except P. though its proper place is followed by e. 13-57. 11. are merely catchwords marking the position of a complete passage.yMl. 4). here as else- where. y^. of 7. 13). apparently earlier ') . Mr. generally adopted the emendations introduced into the text by his predecessor. 11. 6. 41-50. written down elsewhere. ' * — ' ' a separate scrap 21-25. not with those of the author i a into always corresponding (except 11.ai-34. Rossetti Rossetti is divided 245 the following six sections. 4).11. 5. y\ 3. 81-90 . the latter followed by /? ('Another version. 1-20.MS. Later they print as ments as Blake left them. then 6. Messrs. such as we find in Swinburne and Rossetti. ii. of " The Everlasting Gosin favour of 77 " terminates for us with a loose end. 11. 3.' final version as parallel columns. but now unfortunately lost to us.. 25-40 4.e. a. W. 1-20. — — WMR ' . 5). and the omission of rj. 11. Rossetti has 11. — 1-80. 11. 6. 17-48). happy. (. 52) passages show the correctly printed by Blake's earlier editors carelessness with which they transcribed their original. (a. ' 11. 11. due rather to simple blundering than to any attempt to amend their author. ^.91. false Christ in fury . Yeats gives ten lines less than arranges the fragments with more regard for Blake's own His order of the passages is as follows subdivisions.92.' Here they fail to pel see that the 2^ 11. 'all day long' •ten years old' for 'twelve years old (y^ 1. 11. then 8 and ^ (treating the former as a continuation of the latter). marked The numerous y^.

. Mine has a snub nose like to mine. mine] This couplet omitted by all except EY. snubby. 5 Friend] fare DGR. 4 to] EY omit. Socrates taught what Meletus Loath'd as a Nation's bitterest Curse.' 3. So Cai[a]phas I . And Caiaphas was in his own Mind A benefactor to Mankind. Both read the Bible day & night. On the strength of the phrase Friend of all Mankind' MS. 3 great] long EY. Book. Book. Mine speaks in Parables to the Blind. Thine is the Friend of All Mankind 4 . Thine loves the same world that mine hates Thy heaven doors are my Hell Gates. Book xlix and Ixxxviii) and the reference to the 'great hook nose. the bodies of three figures with outJei-usalem. 64 : 'I always thought that Jesus Christ was a MS. where on stretched arms and accusing forefingers are engraved the words Anytus Meletus & Lycon thought Socrates a very Pernicious Man. EY in suppose this prologue to be addressed to Stothard.THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL a \Prologue\ The Vision Is my of Christ that thou dost see Vision's Greatest Enemy. But thou read'st black where I read white. 9-12 Cp. 13 Both] Doth EY. .' WBY. 33. See also prose note or p. p. WBY. 8 12 MS. f. 14 read'st] readest EY. 4 Thine . 93. Thine has a great hook nose like thine. . should not have worshipped him if I thought he had been one of those long spindle-nosed rascals. ' thought Jesus.' ' (cp.

And left his Parents in dismay. quotes with commentary 11. 18 stones] stone WBY. Come. 247 /8 Was He Jesus gentle. and e (1.' said Satan.' John from the Wilderness loud cried Satan Gloried in his Pride. 2. pp. Loud * No My Ye as Sinai's trumpet-sound Earthly Parents I confess 4 : : 8 Heavenly Father's business. Book. as appears from MS. pp. 11. Obedience force me to obey. . earthly parents. as another sentence of equally slovenly construction. mistakenly calling these 'a later division of the poem. 8).' still weaker readings in 7^ and 7. And. 7'. 23. 47-57. a duty then. The MS. the last line of this couplet to I am doing my an heroic attempt to accept the lines as they occur here. or did Give any marks of Gentility? When twelve years old he ran away. I confess I am doing My Father's business. In 7' (1. business] . God's high king & God's high Priest Your Shall Plant their Glories in 20 breast.' It should not be overlooked that in its present form the poem is merely a rough draft.(abandoned No. 34) Blake changes Father's business. 13-57 between conclusion to 7^. come away. earthly parents. col. I'll soon see if you'll obey ' ' 16 ! John for disobedience bled. Cp. 10 1. A fair copy of an earlier draft. 16 you'll] you EY. 8 No . ii. 50. 11.' EY make 10). . (1. understand not what I say. WBY.Rossetti MS. angry. is favour gains with God & Men. by punctuating ' ' No. But you can turn the stones to bread. 44 and WBY places 51. Swinb. following 1. the same lines as 106.. 51. 35-40. 100. Book has no punctuation. And 12 . the very slight alterations made after writing. 6 trumpet-sound] trumpet's sound EY. My which necessitates however in i) : — their * I : — confess heavenly Father's business. When after three days' sorrow found. 168-170. 22. 7* 7. pp.' WMR inserts 11. 17-32. First printed in full by EY.

lightnings] lightning Swinb. And in his hand the Scourge shone He scourg'd the Merchant Canaanite From 44 still bright . ire] . WMR 28 make] give ire. WBY. WBY. There Gates of death let in the Day. the thunder's EY. come your King Is God a The God & God 28 to sieze." meaning of course 25 Thunders] Thunder Swinb. p. EY. 'An ugly specimen of Herod Sacrifice] Swinb. Rossetti 248 If You Caiaphas will obey. smiters with disease. Throughout the land he took his course.. in thunders' sound voice Jesus' Obedient And ' I 24 & : Thus Ye fall . : . And. I sieze make way. And thus with wrath he did subdue The Serpent Bulk 52 of Nature's Dross.writing . . WMR. WBY. And . his furious ire Became a Chariot of fire. Thunders the spiritual Prey. EY. He curs'd the Scribe & 36 Pharisee. bursting World raged Satan in vain . The WMR.. WBY.MS. smiter with disease?' of this He bound Old And. And trac'd diseases to their source. .. 23 If . ' ready. . 33 .' lightnings broke around. And in his Body tight does bind Satan & all his Hellish Crew. i68 " with the sacrifice of bloody prey. His Chain. worship me. Herod You with bloody Prey Feed with the Sacrifice & be If down. 22. Trampling down Hipocrisy. 48 out the Temple of his Mind. WBY. WBY. 26 thunders'] thunder's Swinb. : The God of this World The Chariot Wheels. Broke down from every Chain & Bar And Satan in his Spiritual War Drag'd at His Chariot wheels loud howl'd 40 . . bursting forth his furious 40 There] Those Swinb. 41 &] a EY. in 32 forth. Where'er His Chariot took its way. 50 does] did WBY. and : louder roll'd louder His voice was heard from Zion's Hill.

with most consummate art. 'Follow me. 4. EY. surely not what Jesus intends : must mean the mere love of civility. couplet (as found in 7-. is Blake's 98.' . 18 trap] MS. 2. 2. 56 Womb] Followed in MS. pp. I Came He He to consult him secretly. Book has the marginal addition 11. MS. 3. prefixed to 11. Book) end here in marked here for insertion ' . 12 ' As The 16 the only way to escape Miser's net and the Glutton's trap. ii. first draft of this passage. p. 16 heart] Quotation marks (wanting in 13-16). : — He who This He is loves his enemies hates his friends. He took on Sin in the Virgin's Womb And put it off on the Cross & Tomb To be Worship'd by the Church of Rome. . col. Only printed separately by EY. 5.Rosseiti he had Till nail'd it MS. indicate the transposition of this and the succeeding . II. When they had wander'd three days long These were the words upon His Tongue: 4 No Earthly Parents I confess am doing my Father's business.' that MS. 50. Book by the can55 took] put Swinb.' When the rich learned Pharisee 8 ' . And so He must mean concerning humilitj'. .' He says. to ^. 6. 12 He Scribe] Marginal numbers. 8 No business] See note 5 three days long] all day long EY. . i. or did — doom. 8. I am meek & lowly of heart. not like a Scribe. And left His Parents in dismay. Upon his heart with Iron pen He wrote Ye must be born again. spoke with authority. 7. which this section of the poem originally ended celled line with : 'but on the Cross he sealed Was Jesus Humble. 10-15.' its He Give any proofs of Humility? When but a Child he ran away. II. . 7. Book. 49. 249 to the Cross. was too Proud to take a bribe .

24 28 ' . Me] Why himself. Book ist rgd. 11-16. Descriptive Catalogue (1809) 'All had originally one language and one religion this was the religion of Jesus. Cp.' 23 the] EY omit.' Swinb. 159-167. God wants not Man to humble This Omitted in EY.MS. And thy Revenge abroad display In terrors at the last 32 Judgment day. 32 Cp. pp. Day] Whom f. 59-106. 1-4. 54. pp. creeping Jesus. Haughty toward Man. elf. Thou on the Cross for them shalt pray. . with . He'd have done anything to please us: Gone sneaking into the synagogues And not used the Eiders & Priests Hke Dogs. the ever: . Obey himself to Caiaphas. 35-8. otnit. And take Revenge at the last Day. God's Mercy & Long Suffering Are but the sinner to Judgment to bring. Book the trick of the ancient is If 29 MS. for insertion here: ' Dogs] MS. Humble toward God.' del. Natural Religion (A.). this 20 he had been Antichrist. This is the Race that Jesus ran. fore God becomes . we And 36 as . honest pride. are. that we may be as he is. The revised draft of 7'. If thou humblest thyself. Book has the marginal addition marlted — 24 Not humble as a lamb or an ass. 52. God is no more. lasting Gospel. 53. 43-54. If. 10 me? to ' : There- 35-38 thou shalt torment at the last EY day. Book.' dost thou humble thyself 31. del. Thou art a Man. quotes 11. But when he humbled himself to God. r The Everlasting Gospel Was Jesus Humble? or did he Give any Proofs of HumiHty? MS. with title of poem added for first time. . Then descended the cruel rod. Rossetti 250 But he And acts with triumphant. is the Reason Jesus died. Thine own Humanity learn to adore. . 38 MS. 1st rgd. thou humblest Me Thou also dwelst in Eternity. .

51-106. 1-20.' the omitted passage being prints all. 11.MS. three days] 9. WBY. . 25-40. all 28 the cause that Jesus died. And give with Charity a stone? When but a Child he ran away. .' What can be done with such desperate Who was standing by when Jesus died I Fools Heathen Schools? follow after the What I call'd He who loves 20 Humility. 21-24 a marginal addition. Pride. except the same lines. as his fourth division. 11. 29 For] But EY. What WMR EY. (ii. as the division following the prologue. . Pride] What they called humility. Scribe. they . . . and 11. 21-24. 41-50. These I 7. interspersed with parts of print . WBY.. note to . not like a He says with most consummate Art Follow me." except 11. all .' When the rich learned Pharisee Came to consult him secretly. . pp. jS. 25 betrays] hates MS. And left his Parents in dismay. called pride WMR. 3 Humble] a humble EY.' He wrote Ye He was too proud to take a bribe He spoke with authority. 49-51. 8. 18 heart] See Jiote to 7^. 10 No . When they had wander'd three days These were the words upon his 4 long tongue 8 : No Earthly Parents I confess I am doing my Father's business. not what Jesus intends his This surely is But the Sneaking Pride of Heroic Schools. 58. WMR. division of the poem. . . As that is the only way to escape The Miser's net & the Glutton's trap. Rossetti 251 Boast of high Things with Humble tone. . triumphant Pride. What EY. day business] See and . EY as his fifth 21-24 '" their given separately on p. WBY. del. 16. col. And this is WMR prints by prefixed 5. And the Scribes' & Pharisees' Virtuous Rules For he acts with honest. . . 16 ' heart. was EY. WBY. Final Version. running commentary. I am meek & lowly of ' . All except 24 26 is] . Book is/ li^d. 8 These . call'd 24 Enemies betrays his Friends. . 7 words] This was the word EY. ' WBY WBY. 1. EY Pride] omit. . lines are EY. i) and (. 13. 21 such] those . ' : 12 his heart with Iron Upon pen must be born again.

. WMR. 40 Like d"" Priestly & Bacon & Newton (Poor spiritual knowledge is not worth a button !) If . What was he doing all that time. And] Or EY. o»f^ 52 twelve] ten EY. WBY. And at last he would have been Caesar himself. WBY. EY. it's all a boast & And & pride. ignoring Blake's marginal rearrangement. . like a Christian civil 36 Mild Christian regrets to the Devil confess For affronting him thrice in the Wilderness He had soon been bloody Caesar's Elf. Bacon.MS. WMR. here. WMR. 47 the] Swinb. Book. *44. He had only to say that God was the Devil. Rossetti 252 He did not die with Christian Ease. 46 Or of] Or to Priestley . . 37-44 Mild Attributes] Thus in MS. EY. disdains] did wrong Swinb. 41 position of couplets *4i. Asking Pardon of his Enemies 32 : he had. Blake's prefixed letters and figures 31-50 . Caiaphas would forgive Sneaking submission can always live. . of Christ His Father. WBY. 48 . Isaac confutes God can only be known by His Attributes — : ' 44 . *40 WMR prints 11. . That disdains To vanity of the imagination. For thus the Gospel St. to follow this world's fashion.' teach doubt & 48 experiment Certainly was not what Christ meant. . . . vanity] fallacy EY. . — indicating the order followed in the text {a) For affronting him thrice in the Wilderness : Like (i) (2) (3) (6) (c) d"" Priestly & Bacon *38 & Newton Poor spiritual knowledge is not worth a button For thus the Gospel St. and Newton . is only known WBY. *42. 41-50 as continuation of 5. known] 44 can Gospel . And Or as for the Indwelling of the Holy Ghost. 45 as for] as to Swinb. From He twelve years old to manly prime? 52 meant] These lines are an addition. Newton] Like Doctor Priestley. And the Devil was God. WBY. . WMR WBY and Bacon and Newton EY. . Isaac] Gospel of St. the last couplet being written . His] the Swinb. marked for insertion still later in the margin. and *43.. . print the lines as in this footnote. interchanges the omits. Isaac confutes God can only be known by His Attributes He had soon been bloody Caesar's Elf And at last he would have been Caesar himself. omit. 43 For] But EY And WBY. 40 he] Like Like . WBY WMR . Isaac EY.

EY. a passage from Blake's letter to God keep j-ou and me from the divinitj' Cumberland. WMR . . 1827 of yes. creeping Jesus. Rossetti Was he then 253 Idle. omits. art a Man God is no more own learn to adore. and no too.' 76 80 terrors] terror Swinb. God's Mercy & Long Suffering Is but the sinner to judgment to bring. the Rulers before the People Cursing Even to the temple's highest Steeple. creeping Jesus.. Thy] Thine Swinb. 58 seraph band] Not legibly ? seraph hand EY written. Book 1st rgd. arise to Spiritual Strife. WBY. ass Obey'd Himself to Caiaphas. And thy Revenge abroad display In terrors at the Last Judgment day. . 83 shalt] . . 68 God to 72 thou humblest me. . seraph's hand seraph hand WBY. also dwellst in Eternity. Thou on the Cross for them shalt pray 80 — . ' humblest If thou Thou Thou thyself. as all experimentalists must suppose. dated April 12. WMR.MS. WMR.. del. : — judgment] justice Swinb. Haughty to man. That quite unnerved the seraph band? 56 He had been Antichrist... from supposing up and down to be the same thing. He'd have done anything to please us Gone sneaking into Synagogues. all edd. WBY. humanity Thy : For that Awake. And not us'd the Elders & But Humble as a lamb or Priests like dogs . creeping Jesus] a creeping Jesus MS. or the less About his father's business? Or was his wisdom held in scorn Before his wrath began to burn In Miracles throughout the Land. 55-58 Or band] Swinb. This is the Race that Jesus ran 64 : Humble to God. Antichrist aping Jesus Swinb. the yea. God wants not Man to humble himself: That is the trick of the ancient Elf. If 60 . Cf. nay. WBY. 59 Antichrist. ' — 82 Is] shall Are EY. And when he Humbled himself Then descended the Cruel Rod. WMR. is my : 76 Spirit of Life.

dark Hermaphrodite. Rossetti 54 And take Revenge at the Last Day. 1.' Jesus replied. its Windows 100 of the Soul Heavens from Pole to Pole.' 99 Rooting] Roofing alledd. 98. did WBY. supplies the pardon?' or possibly sentence left unfinished. five Windows windows . . .' 85-88 Jesus Pardon] These lines are an addition. 92 Shooting out against the Light Fibres of a deadly night. 96 Reasoning (? heard) archangels Swinb. take with it a bodily Swinb.' Distorts Swinb. f.' of Innocence. which A 97. . perhaps rightly. & thunders hurl'd 84 : never will Pray for the World. 'Auguries stood. Jerusalem. Book by the lines This Corporeal And is life 's made up : — a fiction of contradiction. . which was afterwards erased in ink and retranscribed in a slightly altered form on p. 13-15: 11. In Doubt. out] Cp. Perhaps Can that which was of women born. Self Contradiction] 1. 102 Five WMR. . can hardly have been intended as part of 'The Everlasting Gospel.' end of . . Cp. The Gates of Paradise. . 8 ' : If we are wrathful loi. 95. . conclusion: 'Can that reason itself into redemption?' 89 woman] women EY. 98 Humility. 'The Keys of the Gates. ' .' Can that which was of woman born. 106. . Humility And does the Sun & Moon blot out. Reasoning upon its own dark Fiction..' 11. 'Two Horrid Reasoning Cloven Fiction. . 89 96 Can 85 &] in EY. Albion will destroy Jerusalem with rooty Groves. In the absence of the Morn.2 MS. 109. 43. ' is Self contradiction. Pick. They'd immediately Go Out. 88 When the soul fell into sleep. WBY. etc. it] Self Contradiction] Cp. If the & Moon Sun We MS.' This couplet. . In doubt which is Self Contradiction ? 96 is only doubt. . . 92 And Archangels] And 91 When] While Swinb. . And Archangels round it weep. Once I did so when I pray'd in the Garden I wish'd to take with me a Bodily Pardon. . carry on the quotation marks to the . no: — should Doubt. Rooting over with thorns & stems The This & buried Soul Five life's Distorts the 84] Followed in the ' all Gems. MS. WBY. EY. ' I . Distorts] dim window .

apparently left These lines are written laterally in pencil. EY. p. ' ' WMR rearrangement.' a connecting line See Introduction to indicating that ({) was then intended to follow 1. his poem. f. The heading is written in pencil at the top of unfinished. 104 the soul slept in the beams of light. MS. seem in his to regard it as a continuation of 2 any] ^*. to perish in a night. . ? Charge Visionaries with decieving. prefixes these two couplets to 7^^. Rossetti And leads you When you see That was born When Distort to Believe a Lie with. And see small portions of the eternal world that ever groweth. Book. . &c. form the penultimate section of the poem. EY misquote 'This was spoken by my spectre to Bacon. WBY.' 11. We * ' & light] Cp. 164. 10. . to perish in a Night.' are led to Believe a Lie ' .MS. the Eye in a night. Or Men call MS. lines. 3. wise for not Believing? The beginning of a new passage. but he will not. 11. 103 leads] EY.' lead WBY.' WBY omit the. Which was Born in a Night. ontits. Newton and Locke. Swinb. 7-16. Pick. John Linnell's Five windows light the cavern'd Man thro' one he breathes the air Thro' one hears music of the spheres thro' one the eternal vine Flourishes that he may receive the grapes thro' one can look . Cp. This ivas spoken by my spectre to Voltaire^ Bacon. or did he Did Jesus teach doubt Give any lessons of Philosophy. 106] This line has Blake's marginal numeration followed by the couplet : — 'I'm sure this Jesus will not do Either for Englishman or Jew — ' and the catchword 'was Jesus Chaste or did he. 103-106 And 78 bread eaten in secret pleasant. Thro' one himself pass out what time he please. Auguries of Innocence. on — f.' and. When the Soul Slept in Beams of Light. 11. 41-50. For stolen joys are sweet. Jerusalem. copy of Europe ' 255 : Cp. which. . 106 the beams] 105 That] Which EY. the lines in the preface. not through. ing power' has been already noted. in margin of page opposite the beginning of ^. . WMR WBY omits. 106. Blake's use of the word spectre' in the sense of reasonthe same page. of Mr. . ofj in EY. p. WBY. while pointing out that this fragment has no place assigned to it. 48. &c. 125-128 : — When we see \with delJ\ not Thro' the Eye.

and when he bid them shake off the dust of their feet against such as refused to lodge them ? I tell you no virtue can exist without breaking these ten commandments : Jesus was all virtue. 8 7. He mock'd ' the Sabbath. 47. And more sucking devils nurs'd ? Or what was it which he took on. 13 might] 9 which] that a!/ except WMR. . 23. and He ' Written on the fourth page of a folded scrap of paper. is .' . WMR makes 1-16. this the latter placing 11.MS. Or . out of him " : if in the greatest Jesus Christ degree . Ask Caiaphas for he can tell. marks in MS. . have been 8 more] MS. the immediately' before the epilogue. Book. prey] No qitot. but they say he never fell. containing Blake's note to Chaucer. hear how he law of ten commandments did he not mock at the sabbath. could Swinb. with more EY. ff. That he might bring Salvation? A 8 subject to be Tempted. . nurs'd] Interlineated in . such a body as might not feel Body From 12 Or The passions that with sinners deal? Yes. been] (have) been Swinb. 25-38. WBY.. bound in at the end of the MS. See prefatory this Swinb. Just such a one as Magdalen. and so mock the sabbath's God ? murder those who were murder'd because of him ? turn : away the law from the woman taken in adultery ? steal the labor of others to support him ? bear false witness when he omitted making a defence before Pilate ? covet when he pray'd for his disciples. 24: 'The Devil answer'd. it WMR. Book. Book. Rossetti 256 Was Jesus Bom of a Virgin Pure & looks demure? With narrow Soul If He intended to take on Sin The Mother should an Harlot been 4 . yet shall not his folly be beaten 4 The] Uisalledd. 48. 170-174. neither pain nor grief Exempted. and acted from impulse not from rules. EY. poem. prints second section of the poem. you ought to love him has given his sanction to the the greatest man. WBY. Or were Jew virgins more still curs'd. Cp. With seven devils in her Pen. — 16 .' etc. and he mock'd unlock'd The Sabbath's God. and also print in WBY EY full. "bray a fool in a morter with wheat. pp. 17-48 He Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790). now ..

EY. In] Not plainly written . 8. 36 . lice] A later 29 which] when 35 Earth's God] WMR.MS. . WBY. . 34 No God MS. Business] See note rdg. O'erturn'd the tent of secret sins. That he might The live above controll. plainly written. marginal addition. A wand'ring vagrant without Home And thus he others' labour stole. ." Obey your '•Woman. . turn'd Fishermen to Divines 20 . . And its golden cords and Pins. Selected for his company. Where He the devil combs — 24 his lice.^ marginal addition. . turn'd the devils into swine That he might tempt the Jews to dine 28 . WBY. " What Parents. to II. ']. that 44 away lost its Prey. His Seventy Disciples sent Against Religion and Government They by Sword of the Justice — fell. 36 other's] other EY. In the Bloody Shrine of War Pour'd around from star to star. Halls of justice.' his . Book ist all edd. 24 Pour'd] Not 26 Halls 21-24." He scorn'd Earth's parents. 'Tis WMR. He left his feather's trade to roam. Rossetti The And 257 Evil spirits from their Shrines. 43 labour] labours EY. WBY. del. what have I says he ? do with thee? to 32 No Earthly Parents I confess I am doing My Father's Business. Publicans and Harlots he And S33 40 . scorn'd Earth's And mock'd the one and the other's Rod : God. 25. . from the Adulteress turn'd God's righteous Law. WBY. And him their Cruel Murderer tell. EY.' 2a 21-24 O'erturn'd star]. to ^. . hating Vice. 48 its] all its . Since which. perhaps 'Pass'd. written transversely 33. a Pig has got a look That for a Jew may be mistook.

Moses commands she be ston'd to death. Nor may the sinner cast one stone. makes 11.92. and Thou alone ! 24 . EY. Thou art good. 20 : ' ! Sinai's trumpets cease to roar ! Cease. 49. . Was Jesus Chaste? or did He Give any lessons of Chastity? The Morning blushed fiery red Mary was found in Adulterous bed Earth groan'd beneath. stone] EY. 18 Pulling] Pulling 20 heard by] heard 7 17.. 19.. 1-80. 20. MS. The Earth trembling and Naked lay In secret bed of Mortal Clay On Sinai felt the hand Divine Pulling back the bloody shrine And she heard the breath of God. 39-50. 91. finger of God. 83-96. 50. 51. WBY. All away began to roll. in silent awe. WBY. Writ with Curses from Pole 12 to Pole. . 152-154. Putting 21-26 Good . What was the sound of Jesus' breath ? He Law His hand on Moses' laid The 8 . sitting] sat omits. and Heaven above Trembled at discovery of Love. EY and ' WMR WBY print in 2 full. prints II. Jesus was sitting in Moses' Chair. WBY. . to write The Heavens are not clean in thy sight. . pp. pp. 169. with the Prologue. Book. 18 was DGR [or ? Putting] it by DGR. 48. f. Lines 7-16. 1-80 his third division. 8 trembling] 17 felt] Swinb. : 4 . As she heard by Eden's flood Good and Evil are no more 16 . of] in the latter putting this passage before EY. and places 11. fell WMR.Rossetti 258 MS. 261. 27-32. ancient heavens. DGR. were first printed by DGR under the title The Woman taken in Adultery. 93-96 among parts of /S and 7'^ as his fourth division of the poem.' Swinb. DGR omits. 53-64. 168. adulterous R'. They brought the trembling woman there. 81-90.

. WMR. 44 Hide not from my sight thy sin.ROSsett MS.' Then what is he 48 ' ' Who shall accuse thee ? Come ye forth. The Seven Let me see Devils that torment thee. EY. WBY. is .. Fear Not. 28 be] good only has Svvinb. And You You And away my trembling Dove. To be 56 A 27 Good only. That have forgot your ancient love. WBY. bow before her feet driven shall 52 . shall lick the dust for Meat . WBY. Meat] meet EY. 39 didst] dost 41 does] doth DGR. 55 You] Ye DGR. WMR. Though thy covenant built Hell's jail. Thou Angel of the Presence Divine. Pale. S 2 . 37 thy] thine Swinb.. . That didst create this Body of Mine. Though thou wast so pure and bright That Heaven was Impure in thy Though thy Oath turn'd Heaven 36 sight. 46 forgiveness] full forgiveness DGR. Lord. 43 Mary] Woman DGR. EY. 54 You] Ye DGR. 47 Has] Hath DGR. 28 A God] As God EY. 50 Fallen] Ye fallen DGR. That forgiveness thou may'st win. Mary. Though thou didst all to chaos roll With the serpent for its soul. though you cannot Love. Still And 40 the breath Divine does move. 44 torment] trouble DGR. Wherefore hast thou writ these Laws A And My created Hell's dark jaws? I will take from thee Presence 28 3a : A cold Leper thou shalt be. WBY. Has no Man condemned thee?' No Man. Swinb. to Pharisee] be WMR. . 36 Impure] not clean EY. WBY. 53 You] Ye DGR. 31 hast] 33 My] My Swinb. is to marginal addition. I 259 To be Good only. is to be God or else a Pharisee. Shall be beggars at Love's Gate. the breath Divine is love. but Hate. Fallen fiends of Heavenly birth. 56 Shall be] Ye shall be DGR You shall be 27. 38 jail] goal Swinb.

WBY omit. 84 Glittering] Glistering EY. wing] all edd. DGR. . blaspheming Thee. 85 Crying] Saying Friends] An addition. . the dumb.. DGR's WMR. WBY. WBY. does not WBY. 85-90 Crying 86 don't] EY. secrets] secret EY. & .. But these would And 65-68 WMR . . Diseases] disease EY. And render that a Lawless thing On which the soul expands its wing. An ever devouring appetite. or Some trifle not worth caring for That they may call a shame and 60 . The Naked Human form divine. Thence rose And 72 secret adulteries. by] with 88 the dumb] and the dumb Swinb. &] EY. When O first Lord. WBY. sin Love's Temple that God dwelleth And hide in secret hidden shrine 64 in. this was these devils let I my 68 sin. 87 The] All Swinb. 70 these] those DGR. Swinb. ' Who don't keep the secrets of holiness! The Mental Powers by But he heals the 57 see 63 That it] . thence did covet also rise. Rossetti thy love ? Let me see it or dark deceit?' Love too long from me has fled *Twas dark deceit. to make them sin . or 'twas custom. Love it ' . And in my burning bosom dwell? And canst Thou die that I may live? And canst Thou Pity and forgive ? Then RoU'd the shadowy Man away From the limbs of Jesus. . WMR. Thou hast forgiven me My Canst Thou forgive my Blasphemy ? Canst Thou return to this dark Hell.26o MS. .. we bind deaf. But this. WMR. Diseases . the WBY. see't call] extract ends. Glittering with festering Venoms bright Crying Crucify this cause of distress. 'Twas covet. EY. In dark pretence to chastity Blaspheming Love. . . WMR. . 84 . An WBY. . call DGR. in. to earn my bread What was Was . the Blind 88 59 has] hath 64 dwelleth in] 68 its] her addition. 76 ' So his prey.

' 94 he] EY. 94 89 has] hath EY. Eat] made] meant A marginal all edd. 13 of death. In three Nights he devour'd his prey. WBY. follows (. 96. is lost. f. f. I made my Voice heard What are those.. & Passion over the Nation. EY. the] this addition. 93 Nights] days Swinb. 52. In three days he devour'd the rejected corse Cp. . . Originally meant to follow WMR this epilogue follows I I 7^. And still he devours the Body of Clay . Note. They are See treat them as the termination of the poem. 1. WBY. Then was perfected his galling 9a pride. it See Prefatory Note. &c. p. . Rossetti 261 Whom God He has afflicted for secret ends. 95.. . 91-96 But eat] Swinb. For Dust and Clay is the Serpent's meat. WBY.' But.. comforts and Heals and calls them Friends. ' : WBY EY. the rest of only quoted by EY. 96 Which] That EY. In . I MS. Book.MS. MS. These which who in fury all lines. when Jesus was crucified. Which never was made for Man to Eat. 54. a passage. p. Jerusalem. 261. Pref. 7] Seeing this False Christ. . p. in WBY am] I'm Swinb. 96 93. 1. Book. catchwords marking the position of immediately follow f. 1. . WMR. 89. 50 . omit. d [^Epilogue] am sure this Jesus will not do. 96 For WBY. Either for Englishman or Jew.

I ll .

.THE PICKERING circa 1801-1803 MS.

' little and two . name used throughout this edition for the smaller of the two Blake holographs from which D.' ' (pp. In 1866. Note Book ["the Rossetti MS. his father's ferring to the inaccuracy of Rossetti's text. And even in the pieces drawn from the second source specified above.' adds Rossetti. where they seemed to lessen obscurity or avoid redundance. volume was welcomed . the MS. from as chaotic a mass as could well be imagined amid which it has sometimes been necessary either to omit. as we learn from Shepherd's introduction to his edition of 1874. or combine. and the purchase eventually of a number of inedited Poems of Blake. ..PREFACE TO THE PICKERING The Pickering MS. former connexion with the Songs of Lnnocence. is the MS. son of the William Pickering who in 1830 had published the first letterpress edition of Blake's Songs of Innocence and of These considerations. as satisfying a public want. and partly from another small autograph collection of different matter lished. 76-116). ' ' ."] to which frequent reference has been made in the Life.' ' . it passed into a second edition (now also exhausted) years later (1868).' somewhat more ' fairly copied. three years after the publication of Gilchrist's work. have been reclaimed. transpose. reExperience. so as to render available what was very seldom found in a final state. G. ' The poems. was bought by Basil Montagu Pickering. means of the same kind have occasionally been resorted to.' says Shepherd. led the Publisher to re-issue his father's volume The together with the newly-acquired pieces in 1866. as regards the first-mentioned source. Rossetti selected the poems hitherto unpub' printed in the second volume of Gilchrist's Life In his introduction to this precious section' he explains that its contents have been derived partly from the MS.

into whose possession the MS. G. The Pickering MS. describes it. in one of his letters to me. cation of my text. Messrs. the volume was bound by F.. Rossetti. Traces of this simple binding may be observed in the three punctured holes. A. M. White. was thought to be permanently lost. through which a cord had evidently once been laced. enabled him to print this section also with the literal fidelity observed in the rest of the poems. William Mitchell. as the binder's stamp shows. must have passed after the death of Pickering and before inscription. by Messrs. The leaves were trimmed down somewhat in binding. about i^ inches apart. Bedford for B. 265 For over thirty years nothing further was heard of the Pickering MS. and the present editor had accordingly decided to reproduce Shepherd's as the best available text. who saw the MS. to the best of his recollection. 1905. Rossetti and Shepherd. Meade & Co. White's kindness the rectifiPickering MS. when the opportune reappearance of the original MS. Dodd. Ellis and Yeats and later editors were thus obliged to follow the versions of these poems given by D. of New York. when in his brother's hands. is a foolscap quarto volume (6x8 drawing paper. the only two editors who had made use of the original autograph. which. without water-mark. had lain perdu for years in the Rowfant Library. their efforts were unsuccessful. as being inches). Mr. constituted the sole authority for the text of some of Blake's loveliest and most extraordinary poems. . of 11 leaves of writing or then. Pickering.Pickering MS. the top and bottom lines of pages 17 and 18 being slightly grazed by the binder's knife. The Pickering MS. Inserted on the inside of the cover is the armorial book-plate of Mr. the great importance of which would was indeed to have been overlooked by its last owner. it is to be presumed. W. seem who was surprised to find among them the long-missing I owe to Mr. stitched into a darkish olive-tinted cover. as well as the following details respecting this undescribed MS. W. though occasional attempts to trace its subsequent ownership were made by the two or three students who realized that this MS. The MS. and. several Blake originals and other works were bought en bloc by Mr. It was lost sight of presumably about the date of Pickering's death in 1 878. This portion of the work in proof. bore no must have been removed when. On the purchase of the Locker Lampson collection in June. paginated consecutively by Blake 1-22. M. The original covers.

Whether of pure lyrical loveliness like The Golden Net and The Land of Dreams. Locker Lampson. corrections. None of the poems are dated. And return'd to its own ' delight — or the figure in The Mental Traveller of the Woman Old who nails the babe down on a rock.' uncouth and grotesque like Long John Brown. with numerous deletions. there is no punctuation. and the few corrections which occur are mostly in the use of capitals. Verses such as the two couplets (11. being acquired by Mr.' obscure as The Mental Traveller and The Crystal Cabinet. and re-arrangements of stanzas. It is noteworthy that all the poems have titles. There is no note of the last-named owner to indicate how it was obtained. the literary contents of which extend over a period of nearly twenty years. is obviously a fair copy of pieces already There is not a single alteration written in approved form. or the person for whom. Mere allegorical interpretations such as W.' or outwardly simple as Mary all alike are characterized by a strain of profound mysticism which is not quite the same as that of the Prophetic Books. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' — — ' ' . Unlike the Rossetti MS. on the first seventeen pages. but the illumination as Swinburne observes of a similar Blake himself is none of the author's kindling. Differing in this respect from the larger MS. though each helps to explain the other. Rossetti 's of ' The Mental Traveller. The pages are without illustrations and contain no prose matter of any kind.. convey the impression of having been written at one time.' however acceptable to readers eager for any light thrown upon Blake's darkness. are not warranted by the poet's theory or practice. M. 67-70) in the 'Auguries of Innocence ' ' ' * ' ' ' ' ' — ' ' — Every Tear from Every Eye Becomes a Babe in Eternity This is caught by Females bright . the Pickering MS. The light may be there. or Jer7isaleni. ascription or other indication of the circumstances under which. this special collection was transcribed.' are only to be understood by reference to parallel allusions in The Four Zoas^ Milton. which with Blake are generally afterthoughts.' attempt Fable or disdained the use of mere allegory of this sort.266 Pickering MS. As in the Rossetti MS. There is no title-page. Book. where most of the poems are found in rough draft. and Catches his Shrieks in Cups of gold. which Blake here as elsewhere employs for the sake of emphasis. the poems of the Pickering MS.

meaning thereby wholly or partly unintelligible to all save the highly initiate they differ in their more fully developed mysticism from the earlier prophetic writings. for these names. 'The Golden Net and The Grey Monk. either in regarding the several poems in the Pickering MS. 135) and two lines of 'Mary' (p. and in a different sense. 134. Yeats (Notes. 177). may confidently be referred to Blake's Felpham period. is a representation of what actually exists. consistently used by Blake in a definite sense. W. W.' which appear in a more perfected form in this MS. they are scattered among pieces written at different times. are found on two leaves of the latter part of the Rossetti MS. Swinburne quotes with comment two stanzas of The Land of Dreams' (pp. Vision.' ' Judgment. by fourteen years. in the aggregate. who. or allegory. Butts introduces two of its lines in a slightly altered form.' The poems of the Pickering MS. p. Fable. 1803. Among the deepest of Blake's writings if I may use the adjective in the sense in which English gypsies apply it to language. and from those of later date in their avoidance of the mythological names which crowd the pages of Milton and Jenisalem. in 1804. This MS. as having been written at widely different times. in whole or part. when Blake in a letter to Mr. is formed by the daughters of Memory. are called Jerusalem. The original drafts of two of the poems.. supply clues to the author's meaning which are absent in these poems. and in a different manner. 349) would appear to date this poem at least as early as 1789.Pickering MS. or by antedating the whole MS. moreover. 267 * he says in his account of the Vision of the Last a totally distinct and inferior kind of poetry. in several of the poems phrases repeated in Milton and Jerusalem^ both of which were engraved. M. written probably in the same year. 'Mary' was certainly written before August i6. To the latter fact indeed part of their difficulty is due. as in several editions of the poet's works. or imagination. in the latter instance using Shepherd's text instead of Rossetti's. M. which W. Imagination is surrounded by the daughters of inspiration. really and unchangeably. Rossetti and Swinburne concur in regarding as the first of the series of the Prophetic Books. a fact liable to be overlooked. In so doing it will be seen that he differs from me. B. Rossetti prints the same pieces as his allegory. In identifying the style of 'The Mental Traveller' with that of Tiriel. have a certain unity of their own.' is — ' ' — ' ' ' .. There are. when.

B.' with interpretation as 'a sun.' prints all the poems. . pp.' but ignore the Pickering variant called The Grey ' ' Monk.' they give the MS. adopting some of his emendations.' they print in vol. but rejecting others in favour of readings evidently taken from Shepherd's Ellis and Yeats (ii. brother. including Long John Brown Mary Bell. Book version of the Monk of Charlemaine. 31-36) print 'The Mental edition. and other late and early sources.' arbitrarily arranged among poems taken from the Rossetti MS. Traveller. Ideas authority. the Island in the Moon.268 Pickering MS. under the general heading. 220-225).myth and a story In the same volume (pp. text generally follows that of the Aldine edition. but with some new readings of their own for which there is no W. Their Little ' ii.. of Good and Evil. with the exception ' of ' Long John Brown. of the Incarnation. Yeats. 72-83.' and The remaining poems.

' 4 these] the DGR. There's an end to Pickering Frown MS.' with less violence.THE PICKERING MANUSCRIPT The Smile There And And is a Smile of Love. p. It . That when it once is smiled There's an end to all misery. ' 11. 9 But only one Smile alone. And And And is a there is a there is Which you For Frown of Hate. Misery] WMR and EY. The omits the round Crystal Cabinet. and retains the And in 1. brackets. evade the anacoluthon by reading followed by : was smiled But only one smile alone ' (And betwixt the cradle and grave It onlj' once smiled can be). . a Frown of Frowns there it 5 strive to forget in vain. except Shep. is a Smile of Deceit.' . WBY. Frown of Disdain. edd. 15. ' 1.17. i there there a Smile of Smiles is In which these two Smiles meet. ' 1. . when it once is Smil'd. adopts DGR's reading of 12 Cp. & That betwixt the Cradle Grave 13 only once Smil'd can be And. 11-16 And . i. DGR and all all Misery. ' And no smile ever DGR. entitle 'Smile and . sticks in the Heart's deep core And it sticks in the deep Back-bone — And no Smile that ever was smil'd.

except for the omission of p. : Wings they had that soft enclose [& when they Round their body when they chose. beginning the poem with the triplet : ' ' : ' : This is Cabinet. Dazzling bright before my eyes. 11.' This again was erased.' — ' A further change consisted in the deletion of opposite to which are written ' 11. In transcribing this poem into the Pickering MS.' was now meant to follow 1. Book. 9-12). The one was clothed in flames of fire.270 MS. without which the reference to the branches Rossetti restores this line. that the to 9. i first ' it into attempt at emendation was to indicate by 11. 14. 2. and tears for ever flow coincides generally with the form in which he afterwards transcribed the smaller autograph collection. young man.' — Beneath a white thorn's lovely May Three virgins at the break of day "Whither. The other clothed in iron wire [sweet desire The other clothed in tears & (15/ rdg. They bore a net of golden twine To hang upon the branches fine.. 10 is meaningless. 5-13 (MS. del. prefixed to couplet. the source of the present text. Book. In this early draft Blake's marginal numbers.' in 1. and runs as follows Beneath the white thorn's lovely May. Blake omitted the line with which the poem originally began 'Beneath the white thorn's lovely May. : — ' Three Virgins at the break of day. and The first revision is found below the opening passage twice re-written. Blake recommencing at the head of the next column Beneath the white thorn's lovely May. They would let them down at will Or make translucent chose {1st rdg. whither away?"' one of Blake's * threefold ' poems. Pickering Note Prefatory The original version of MS. ' found in the Rossetti is written in the left- is title. The initial couplet was next deleted.y]. Blake evidently omitting to recopy the second line of the couplet which he had already twice written Three virgins at the break of day. and. woe Alas for alas for ! woe ! — 11.' rimeless. first line is & left ! ! tears for ever flow.)'] ' This unfinished passage is also struck out. del. 11-14 (MS. Book. ' Blake's terminal line marking the end of the poem. 11. — See note to ' The Crystal . 3 and 4 — ' They cry. " Alas for wo alas for wo alas for wo " : ' ! They Here the cry. sighs. 3-1 1). There Blake's hand column of ' ' ' to The Golden Net The Golden Net first without draft.

del. The Honeysuckle sleeping on the Oak. . 1st rdg. order sweet flow] R' omits. Book ist tears and sighs] sighs & . The other cloth'd in iron wire. . None dare to wake her soon she bursts her crimson curtained bed And comes forth in the majesty of beauty. & tears for ever flow. Book rdg. EY. the Wall-flower. lovely May. Opens her many lovely eyes listening. Book. Men 3 Alas 5 one] DGR. the Rose still sleeps. desire in . 2. And Meadow-sweet downy & Light springing on the air. p. Three virgins at the break of day " Whither. EY. DGR. wo second R'. MS. Pickering 271 The Golden Net Three Virgins at the break of day. ! .MS.' cp. Book. EY. a] opening of the poem (MS. the Carnation. ' First e'er the Joy even ' ' to f. The Pink. 'Whither. RS DGR. & first cloth'd] are sick with Love. WMR. . young man. whither Alas for woe woe alas for ! i away? ' ! They cry. whither away : WHY ' changes a white thorn's thorn's lovely May. i del. the mild Lilly.) — Beneath the white thorn stood in May Three virgins at the break of day ' . — 50-62 : — " ' For ' the white morning breaks joy opens in the flowery bosoms. . ' p. ? the white-thorn's. waving among the reeds. del. . . The one was cloth'd in flames of fire. ! . 31. followed by ' WMR and EY. Pickering MS. alas for wo ! 6 other] iron wire] sweet 7 other cloth'd] third was clothed tears MS. my Dazling bright before 5 Eyes. Yet 3. MS. WMR. the flaunting beauty Revels along upon the wind the White-thorn. young man. every Flower. lovely . which the Sun rising dries first the Wild-Thyme to tears. Milton. begins with the triplet— Beneath a white thorn's lovely May. The Jonquil. was clothed R^.' woe] Alas for wo K\ DGR. the Jessamine.' 11. lead the sweet Dance they wake soft . The other cloth'd in tears & sighs. all 4 Alas alas for . col. opes her heavens every Tree And Flower & Herb soon fill the air with an innumerable Dance. R' begins with an amended version of Blake's second draft of the 1. WMR. . 14.

17 21 Now intreating Burning Fire. O when. is developed into the veil or net of Vala. . 17 my Tears] me 20 on] 18 That] which R>. C^. 21 Over] O'er MS. WBY. Book 1st rdg. except Shep. . . Book. As on downy Pinions soft. did] might DGR.Pickering 272 They bore MS. del. WMR. R'. weep Ri. 13 consum'd] following Blake's revised order of EY. . a Net of Golden twine To hang upon the Branches 9 fine. except Shep. And in tears cloth'd night & day Melted all my 13 Soul away. . del. ' 11. thou hadst caught me in the bands : lines in — Thou hadst woven it with Of love thou refusedst to 9. desire WBY. Fire] flaming fire MS. . Jerusalem. expressed by the silken net and golden cage of the earlier poems. 23 Burning by MS. ' let me places after go. Flaming-fire R' and all edd. Book. EY. Visions of the Daughters of moral of Albion. . R'. To be consum'd in burning Fires And in ungratified desires. the lines in Sketches) : ' — ' How He And sweet I roam'd from ' field to field caught me in his silken net shut me in his golden cage ' 25 {Poetical ' . a Smile That did Heaven itself beguile. Over the Morning of my Day. 25 Tears & sighs] Tears-and26 O rise] When. . Book Iron-wire R* and all edd. WMR. clothed R\ DGR. also the references to f. art. 20. Underneath the Net I stray. O when will the morning rise ? 9 Cp. 16 Melted] It melted R' and all edd. 1st rdg. Book. 14 ungratified desires] unsatisfied burning Fires] flames of fire WBY. Sighs R' and all edd. . 10 silken net They fine] R in MS. When they saw my Tears. except Shep. Bore the Golden Net aloft. Pitying I wept to see the woe That Love & Beauty undergo. Now intreating Iron Wire. 2. will Morning rise? MS. and WBY. .' 1. 30-32 When : the ' the Albion rent thy beautiful net of gold and silver twine. Book sweet desire ibid. In Blake's later mystical writings the simple idea restrictions placed upon love. Now intreating Tears & Sighs. 24 Iron Wire] iron wire MS.

more' ' ' over. The myth itself admits of no glib paraphrase. The same ' — idea is repeated in Jerusalem. M. in bliss & woe Alternate. SAMPSON . Swinburne's commentary on this poem will be found on pp.' to the point from which he started. Everything is eternal. O Sisters. read with their context. 178-181 of his Critical Essay. In other words it is a restatement of ' Blake's favourite doctrine of constant generation and regeneration. then. passing through successive mental states. c. first meaning turn to Mr. Difficult to define precisely. who may well suppose that the places he has passed through exist no more as a man may suppose that the states he has passed through exist no more. and at last returning.' : The poem. and Messrs. render plain the sense telligible. as 'catching shrieks in cups of gold' are in the nature of ideograms. used invariably in the same sense and the same connexion. printed in Gilchrist (ii. f. of the particular lines or stanzas to which they are appended.' Such figures. or to separate from their context.' ' These states exist . Book. That walks about among the stones of fire. but states remain for ever. they serve as useful catchwords to more detailed expositions of the same myth elsewhere. are visions and not allegories. it should be premised that the chapters quoted from will not supply the reader with ' a consecutive narrative of the exact myth presented in this poem. throwing light upon allusions otherwise uninWhile these. He passes through them like a traveller. must be understood as a picture of man's spirit. to distinguish the Eternal Human. 'After which Adam begins again ' ' ' ' ' in endless circle ' — Blake adds — : now. Pickering Note Prefatory 273 'The Mental to Traveller ' A passage in Blake's description of his picture of the Last Judgement (MS.MS. In bringing together these parallelisms from the Prophetic Books I allow to be his own interpreter. Man passes on.' symbolized by the twenty-seven Heavens in Jerusalem. 34-36 of the ing—if not to his exposition. Ellis and Yeats' interpretation as at the same time a sun-myth and a story of the Incarnation on pp. Those who prefer a shorter cut to a mean- Blake — may W. f. as he himself insists. The complete picture must be pieced together from the fragments discovered and identified. Rossetti's ingenious 98) and repeated in the Aldine edition. Referring to the three States or enumerated Churches. 72-74 Learn therefore. 75— Adam to Luther. In my footnotes to The Mental Traveller' I give references to passages in the Prophetic Books. in endless circle. ' ' second volume of their large edition of Blake's Works. from those States or Worlds in which the Spirit travels. 1810) supplements the clue supplied by the author's title to the meaning of this most obscure poem. 11. and must always be understood symbolically and not metaphorically. 49. for Blake's parables.

' 5-8 Cp. caught by Females bright. These are the sports of love. . Jerusalem. 11. the line in another collection . 17. for their food is — — blood of the Captive. too Men & Women of i . & the deadly sport of Luvah's Sons. ' p.' 5 Cp. f. without pain. 71 my feet & hands are nail'd : ' . gold. . they hand them to one another.2 MS. and passim).' 11. 31-34 My Streets are my Ideas of Imagination My 9 Old. we reap in joy the fruit Which we in bitter tears did sow. is always represented as masculine. 11.' 8 Which] That EY. Just as And if the Babe He's given Who nails to a born a is I. Boy Woman With children of & : pleasure. . upon a rock.' 12 Cp. the place of torture of the victims of natural religion. f. 'Auguries of Innocence. 38. & these the sweet delights of amorous play. 24.' or reasoning power in man. same manuscript ' tear return'd to ' is in Eternity its own : ' delight . & they drink the howl & groan. human emotion which The Grey Monk ') of this be understood as the to Cp. Picker i7tg 74 The Mental Traveller Land I travel'd thro' a A Land of Men. 9 In Blake's prophetic writings the spectre. in contrair The distinction to the 'emanation.' . — poem (* For a Tear is an Intellectual Thing. : Houses are Thoughts The my . — and Four Zoos. 3. 37 saw] saw and heard EY. my thoughts. 53. heard & saw such dreadful things cold Earth -wanderers never knew. 67-70 Every Tear from Every Eye : ' Becomes a Babe This is And where of course gives rise to it. which is feminine. Affections. Inhabitants. — . 35-39 ' The cruel joys of Luvah's Daughters lacerating with knives And whips their Victims. Breeding Women walking in pride & bringing forth under green trees 3 heard ' Cups of in 2 Cp. Milton. 11.' or affective self. And As For there the Babe is born in joy That was begotten in dire woe 5 . 67. ' f. 36. f. 1. f. — to the burning rock. ' ' rock' is the druidical altar of Albion {Jerusalem. 1. . They catch the shrieks in cups of gold. Night vii. him down Catches his Shrieks Pickering MS. See also Jerusalem. Jerusalem. : They dance around the dying. 68. walking within my blood vessels.

23.MS. thou my garden of Delight. Till And And binds her down ai . Jerusalem. for his delight. undivided Essence walk'd about Imbodied. 6i. 7. Thou vii. Just as a Husbandman his mould . 28 By dwelling in a garden of delight Blake symbolizes man in a state of unity whose spectre and emanation ' ' ' Cp. Cp. 15 — Vala. threading them among Her woof of terror. once in the the apple trees and Jerusalem. happy Eternity. And she becomes his dwelling-place And Garden See 25 fruitful seventy-fold. he becomes a bleeding youth. I. 11. Just as a Miser counts his gold She lives upon his shrieks cries. 265-71 : lovely Vision.' See also Jerusalem. Four Zoos. : " : morning & I liv'd in a she lived ' — . 13 iron] strong DGR. torturing their victim. in one anothers joy revolving. f. she becomes a Virgin bright Then he rends up his Manacles. i. She cuts his heart out at his side. 1. ' 17 Cp.' See also Night ibid. Mutual there we dwelt. 20. She pierces both his hands & feet. 67. He plants himself in all her Nerves. Terrified. f. 66. & drinking tears of woe. 22.' also Jerusalem.. ' Is his garden of delight away thy stolen Emanation garden of pleasure. every vein & lacteal. 1. Four Zoas.' T 2 : . Night 114-6 11. : — 'every nerve She counted. • 17 . f. 717-719 "O! f. 80. 81. 11. & I the spirit in the garden. and f. & And she grows young as he grows old. Night are not divided. 14. 'Tharmas I vii. Pickering 275 She binds iron thorns around his head. 1. this delightful Tree from the tempests of void Solid. & Is given us for a Shelter Till once again the morn of ages shall renew upon To reunite in those Where thou & I in — ' — mild fields of us. repli'd : watered Enion Among 11. 'The Spectre said. where the daughters of Albion. To make feel it & both cold 13 heat. Her fingers number every Nerve. bind his forehead with thorns of iron. 27. : around] about EY.

. Shep. or rich or poor They soon drive out the aged Host. . 49 young or old.' 40 For door] Forever opens his 44 does] doth all edd. on the hearth Female Babe does spring little And she is all of solid fire And gems & gold. some other take him in 55 . 37 : For ever open His grief is They make Till A their eternal joy & the roofs from the fire 41 . 35 Cp. . except . They are his meat. sore distrest. f. Until he can a Maiden win. Wand'ring round an Earthly Cot. they are his drink He feeds the Beggar and the Poor And the wayfaring Traveller is his door. 33 pearls of a love-sick eye. the description of Jerusalem (spiritual liberty). 45. XXX : — ' 39 And] To 34. MS.276 Pickering MS. A Beggar at another's door. If . Oft blind 32 had] has EY. the emanation of Albion (Jerusalem. walls to ring. Not the ctlnning hdard up in his treasury. countless gold of the akeing heart. except Shep. . An Aged Shadow. & age-bent. 46 Cp. that none . Rossetti The countless gold of a merry heart. Or wrap her in his swadling band. soon he fades. The rubies & pearls of a loving eye. 31 gems] gains Shep. all edd. The idle man never can bring to the mart. But She comes to the Man she loves. 45 hand his Dares stretch to touch her Baby form. door EY. Full-filled all with gems Which he by gold industry had got. except Shep. He wanders weeping Untill far away. 86). And these are the The The The rubies & & 29 gems Human of the Soul. & martyr's groan the lover's sigh. 43 on] upon all edd.

Jerusalem. Does him to Infancy beguile 62 Cp. The Guests are scatter'd thro' the land. Moon faded into a globe Travelling thro' the night. all 65 desart vast without a bound. The wild game of her roving Eye. Do 72 Does] 66. The Garden and its lovely Charms. 57 The Poor Man takes her in his arms The Cottage fades before his sight. Objects of Perception seem to vary. the Clouds bow To meet the flat Earth & the Sea in such an order'd Space : The Starry heavens reach no further but here bend and set And & the two Poles turn on their valves of gold. . EY. except The Shep. f. in several passages. 28. . f. 51. 55 : 69 . Milton. The Microscope knows not of this nor the Telescope. . Moon] Stars. Jerusalem. it is a delusion of Ulro. Sun. f. 11. 34. The honey of her Infant lips. The bread & wine of her sweet smile.' 64 Blake. For the Eye altering alters all The Senses roll themselves in fear. A .' 65 Cp. such space is his Universe: And on its verge the Sun rises & sets. And a dark desart all around. they alter The ratio of the Spectator's Organs but leave Objects untouch'd . — Perceptive Organs vary. every Space that a Man views around his dwelling-place Standing on his own roof. 'By it By it [the the f. For every Space larger than a red Globule of Man's blood Is visionary. 50. And nothing left to eat or drink. refers to the flat earth becoming a ball as a delusion of the modern scientific spirit. 4-20 ' If ' ' ' : — 'The Sky is an immortal Tent built by the Sons of Los. Cp. moon and sun ' . all edd. . or in his garden on a mount Of twenty-five cubits in height. 77 :-^ wheel of religion] the Sun was roll'd into an orb.MS. shrink away. On And sides all if As to that false appearance which appears to the reasoner As of a Globe rolling thro' Voidness. he move his dwelling-place his heavens also move Where'er he goes & all his neighbourhood bewail his loss. Such are the Spaces called Earth & such its dimension. Pickering And 277 to allay his freezing Age. 61 . 1. 11. And The the Earth becomes a Ball flat Moon. Stars.' See also Jerusalem.

' Silent they f. trees bring forth sweet extasy who all in the desart roam 89 . 11. 11. 63: wander'd hand in — hand like two Infants wand'ring m the desarts. And many a pleasant Shepherd's home. . Younger And on the desart wild they both For as he Wander & in terror dismay. With every pathetic story possible to happen from Hate or : — ' Wayward Love. & every Age renews its powers from these Works. and in his circling Ner\'es From Enion WBY. except Shep. passions they kiss'd not nor embrac'd for shame •Alternate Love Hate & fear. 85 various arts of By Till the Till she a weeping Woman Old. 62. Jerusalem. 77 a thicket wild . behold. many a City there is Built. Hyle is become an infant Love. — & his breast. terrified at each others beauty. wide desart planted o'er With Labyrinths of wayward Love. Where roam the Lion. Jerusalem^ 75. 86. 218.MS. Night i.' 11. various arts of love beguil'd . 77 flees] of Los and Enitharmon. 16. While he pursues her night By Love & Hate. Till 76 Cp. in Four Zoos. here is the lovely wayward form That gave me sweet delight by his torments beneath my Veil.' f. look.' 82 desart] desert 's all edd. they shrink themselves in fear. 37-39 =— him lie Look. WBY. 26.' ' The Crystal Cabinet. 81 he becomes a wayward Babe. : . 82. 81 Cp. ' Also ' 1. Then many a Lover wanders here The Sun & Stars are nearer roli'd And The To . 61-64 All things acted on Earth are seen in the bright Sculptures of Los's Halls. 11. Like the wild Stag she Her many fear plants 73 flees away. In embryon & . 83 wayward Love] Cp. 217. and Boar. see Upon my bosom. 11. ' ' . . look. f. the description of the wanderings who in the Brain of Man live.' 85 Cp. Pickering 278 eats & drinks he grows & younger every day. 50 The See also : — desarts tremble at his wrath. & day. Wolf.' 80 arts] art flies 80. 25. hers Scorn Jealousy. Jerusalem.

mourn. awake. . bears. like a dove I when shall I again return wept ! Pickering MS. The original MS. done as I have told.. IMountains. i ! . my Why but cp. 122128). And And none can touch that frowning form. ! *0. 98 100 does] doth all edd. every Tree does shed its fruit. all howling flee. the EY. Boars] Bears. dost thou weep Awake in thy gentle sleep? thy Father does thee keep. Among the lambs. had no two 10 Thomas] This name is plainly written and cannot quotation marks. O wake DGR Oh wake WMR. The Land its] who lions all edd. 103 him] it DGR. Land are its is the Land of Dreams? & what are Mother there. 94 wide] wild EY. DGR and other edd. of Dreams Awake. Pickering 279 But when they find the frowning Babe. His arm is wither'd to its root 97 . ' ? p. pp. 7.' as might be conjectured from several analogies in the story of Vala and Tharmas {^Four Zoas. Boars. Wolves. therefore be a misreading of ' Tharmas. EY. EY. 6 O streams] I follow Shepherd in making these . reads Lions. in 9 sweet delight. except Shep. does] doth all edd. Night ix. clothed in white. what What 1. . For who dare touch the frowning form. as in part of the father's opening speech. above. She nails And all is him down upon the Rock. lines part of the boy's reply. Except it be a Woman Old 10 1 .. . 4 Awake] except Shep. of course. 5. Terror strikes thro' the region wide: They cry 'The Babe! the Babe is Born!' And away on every flee 93 side. the] a little Boy Thou wast thy Mother's only joy 84. . instead of. ! ? ' She walk'd with her Thomas 1 O for joy. its 5 Streams Father I saw my Among the Lillies by waters fair.MS.. 99 Lions. Lions.

She opens her lips 'tis the Month of May. Or again does return the Golden times Her eyes outshine every brilliant ray.' 5 . — & Mary moves in soft To augment with sweet smiles conscious delight. O father! what do we here In this Land of unbelief and fear ? The Land Above the of Dreams better is light of the 17 far. Essay^ p.' See note to 11. makes this stanza part of the preceding speech. omit does. And repeated with pleasure the joys of the And Mary arose among Friends to be free. to the rest of the Fair beauty Nor once blushes to own That sweet Love and Beauty are worthy our care. 8. Mary. the first time she ever was there. . and this view of it is corroborated when we find Blake applying to himself two lines almost identically taken from it. 13 night. But no Friend from henceforward thou. And these are the words upon every tongue i . tho' 'Father. shalt see. could not get to the other side. p. In the Morning the Villagers rose with delight. except Shep.' Mary Sweet Mary. DGR ' this poem appears to be. 9 all the joys of the Night. I also Have wander'd But I pleasant streams in the Land of by all MS. Night 13 Dreams . 6 again does return] All edd. 177. 9-12 Shep. Pickering MS.2 8o Pickering Dear Child. According to and Swinburne. Morning Star. 22. an allegory of the poetic or spiritual mind moving unrecognized and reviled among its fellows . 21. & warm calm the waters wide. Came into the Ball-room among the Fair The young Men & Maidens around her throng. : 'An Angel is here from the heavenly Climes. on one side.

dated Aug.' I will . With Faces Like of Scorn and with Eyes of Disdain.Pickering MS.. except Shep. the morning all cdd. All Faces have Envy. sweet Mary. spite in the my 25 is Beauty. shut to the door damp cold came o'er her. 31 forsakes] forsake Shep. me down in an envious Land ? did And ' 17 . and my Eyes shall not shine And if any Girl's Lover forsakes her for me I'll refuse him my hand. & she trembled & cried She forgot it was Night. the lines occurring in one 16. 281 Some said she was proud. . sitting on the Bed-side. — 17 some O 21. call'd Christian Love. Envy your Merit 's to blame as a not to raise Envy. some. & from Envy be free. weak I will & the tame. she forgot it was Morn. Butts. WBY. .' said the Child in the Street She went out in Morning in plain neat attire. Cp. And came home in Evening bespatter'd with mire. She forgot it was Night. ' . some call'd her a whore. Fiends inhabiting Mary's mild Brain foul 41 . . She remembers no Face like the Human Divine. She trembled & wept. ? in ' 33. but thine . But if you raise For planting such humble will I & Heaven adorn me with bountiful hand. Her soft Memory imprinted with Faces of Scorn 37 . 22 why . 17-20 Shepherd omits . her blushes all fled. not dress fine. born with a different Face? 21 not born like this Envious Race ? then set *To be weak And Lamb and smooth as a Dove. this stanza in his edition of 1866. And A Her & HUies 'O why was Why Why was I roses are blighted I shed. . whore] some reviled her more DGR. . Race] of Blake's letters to Mr. EY. She went out in Morning attir'd plain & neat 33 Proud Mary 's gone mad. 1803 O why was I born with a different face ? Why was I not born like the rest of my race . 35 Morning] in 36 in Evening] in the evening all cdd. . except Shep. 29 keep from the Ball. still ' WMR. . when she passed by.

Giving to airy nothing a name and a habitation Delightful. O who can Time her name is withstand her Rahab. : : : . Rahab Sat deep within him hid his Feminine Power unreveal'd Brooding Abstract Philosophy. the DivineHumanity A Three-fold Wonder. f.' — surround the Passions with porches of iron & silver & beauty around the dark regions of sorrow. They labour incessant. a Face of mild sorrow & care. soft flourishing in beauty. And me up Lock'd with a golden Key. most beautiful. her Heart Inorb'd and bonified with locks of shadowing modesty. Three-fold Each within other. 11. or moral law this poem p. 70. feminine. that when the lips Recieve a kiss from Gods or Men. Some Sons 27. ' f. Milton. in was dancing merrily I 45 : — it plain that the subject of 'Imputing Sin & Righteousness to Individuals.' . three-fold Three-fold embrace returns consuming lives of Gods & Men. unform'd & wretched & melancholy of Death weeping Spectre stands on the threshold little . a threefold kiss returns From the press'd loveliness so her whole immortal form. Her Brain enlabyrinths the whole heaven of her bosom & loins To in put act what her Heart power ? Her name is Vala 3 Cp. On her white marble & even Neck. A passage its bier. with many tears and afflections.282 Pickering And And And thine is thine is thine is That shall never The MS. Creating form Creating the beautiful House for the piteous sufferer. all love and all perfection. makes Rahab. a Face of wild terror & fear be quiet laid till Crystal Cabinet The Maiden caught me Where on She put me into her Cabinet. with bounds to the Infinite putting ofi" the Indefinite Into most holy forms of Thought (such is the power of inspiration). Pickering MS. . in is i . Cabinets richly fabricate of gold & ivory For Doubts The Eternal . Others. to destroy Imagination. Terrified the Spectre screams Of kindness & compassion & & is rushes in fear into their Net born a weeping terror. the Wild. Jerusalem. a Face of sweet Love in despair. Beams mild. lo. : In fires of beauty melting them as gold & silver in the furnace. 17-31. & fears. shining Over her beautiful Female features. 11. in Eternity 1-26 of Los : in : wills .

The MS.Pickering MS. 283 This Cabinet is form'd of Gold Pearl and Crystal shining bright. where it engraving seven as the untitled lines at the end of his — ' Address to the . 'The Mental Traveller. f. which Blake afterwards separated into two poems eight stanzas into the Pickering MS. she a weeping Prefatory Note to The 25. like a Weeping Babe became And A weeping Babe upon the 21 — wild.' see Jerusalem. 12 of the Rossetti forms part of xlii. Book version consisted of fourteen transcribing stanzas. lovely. Another Thames and other Hills. And 9 another pleasant Surrey Bower. 42. shining clear. under the title 'The Grey Monk. O what a pleasant trembling what a smile Fill'd me ! fear — ! a threefold smile that like a flame I burn'd 17 . bent to kiss the lovely Maid. 1. 5 And And And Another England there I saw.' and original draft of MS..' ' 86 :— ' Till And he becomes a wayward Babe. 25 And Weeping Woman pale reclin'd. ' Translucence and ' Opake26 Cp. 85. within it opens into a World a little lovely Moony Night. ' Woman Old. 13 Translucent. found a Threefold Kiss return'd. fill'd 14 For Blake's definitions and comparison of ness. 11. 1 And I strove to sieze the With ardour fierce & inmost Form hands of flame.' The Grey Monk ' 'The Grey Monk' is found on p. Threefold each in the other clos'd. Another London with its Tower. 29 sqq.. And in the outward air again I with woes the passing Wind. Another Maiden like herself. But burst the Crystal Cabinet.

Messrs. In his second version. Pickering MS. DGR. The Grey Monk * ' ' I die. Pickering (Jerusalem. f. I die. 247). Book xlii. with readings sometimes adopted from the Aldine. In the footnotes to the present poem I give only the final readings of the MS. The April 25. in his note to this poem (p. 5 p. and generally as to text.' Mr. here as elsewhere. sought (1. the] her MS. his own text which is entirely unarbitrary. Book version. The latter includes two stanzas which occur in greater part of Jerusaletn. and still omitting the second stanza 'The blood red ran from the grey monk's side. . Book. 5-8 The trees] R^. WBY. I die] I . Rossetti's in the MS. 306).284 Deists ' MS. DGR shall die WBY. Ellis and Yeats. ' and sometimes made on his of which are own his transposition ' responsibility — among the most meaningless and misreadings of 11. had been written before ' The Grey Monk ' version also. Book version. WMR. The blood red ran from the grey Monk's & feet were wounded wide. Butts. DGR. when. one from the engraved version in Jerusalem. and adopts four of his brother's emendations. 33). Book. as we gather from one of Blake's letters to Mr. Book. Rossetti follows Shepherd in number and arrangement the of verses. M. side. I see MS. belonging to the earlier part of the Felpham period. 3 has] hath R^ sat him down DGR. first version of this in his early transcript of poem is based solely on the draft which he gives stanzas 5-10. see. B. . with a few verbal changes of his own.. WHY. his arms & knees Like to the roots of ancient trees. seem ignorant of the fact that Shepherd's edition preserved for us the text of the ' ' for Pickering MS. die I ! the Mother said. Yeats falls into the same error. he says. 11. on the other hand. and omit 'The Grey Monk' as a separate poem. i Children die for lack of Bread. W. 'The arrangement of the verses in the Aldine edition is quite It is. 1803. as under the title The Grey Monk he prints stanzas 5-14 of the MS. i). Book. Book version — ' ' ' He makes. printed in Gilchrist he adds the two final stanzas. though its actual completion in engraved form was probably This dates The Grey Monk' as later than the date on the title-page. 52). 12. W. For deleted words and passages see MS. . I ' 2 die] will die 4 sat down] WMR. Mr.six changes on the authority of the MS. . and WBY omit. MS. adopting two out of the three important ' I die 'for and found ' I see (1.' authorized. changes from the MS. 12. (ii. G. hands His His Body bent. ' Mr. — and not from the MS. DGR. Book. Book. 1804. taking these from the Pickering MS. D. My What more has the merciless Tyrant said ? The Monk sat down on the Stony Bed.

He told me the writing I wrote should prove The Bane of all that on Earth I love. Book. Book. WMR. A . 285 His eye was dry no tear could flow hollow groan first spoke his woe. To avenge the wrongs thy Children feel. also the lines in an earlier letter to the same friend ' : — Must Flaxman look upon me as wild ? And all my friends be with doubts beguil'd Must my Wife live in my Sister's bane ? Or my sister survive on my Love's pain ? ? ' 18 His] Thy R^. But vain the Sword and vain the Bow. WMR. WMR. Book. WBY omits. 23 has] hath marched] is marched MS. Cp. WMR. DGR. WMR. 22 With his thousands strong] By his strong courage R' Book xlii. WBY. Mr. WBY. Thy Brother has arm'd himself in Steel. : ' When God commanded this hand to write 13 In the studious hours of deep midnight. that R^ wrongs 24 avenge] revenge MS. MS. 19 griding] grinding Cry] crying DGR. DGR. 12 with] 15 the In a letter to writing] that all MS. Book. * My brother starv'd between two Walls. WBY inverts the order of these two Hnes. His Children's Cry my soul appalls I mock'd at the wrack and griding chain. 14 studious] 35 shadowy DGR. DGR. said] 10 first spoke] bespoke RS DGR. 12 He . They never can work War's overthrow. WBY. Blake speaks of Hayley's aversion and contempt for his prophetic writings. WBY. WBY. DGR. 13-16 DGR. wrongs] . WBY.Pickering MS. With his thousands strong he marched forth 21 . dated July 6. My 'Thy Father drew his Sword in the North. the grinding WMR. 1803. . * 9 tear] tears II. The Hermit's Prayer and the Widow's Tear Alone can free the World from fear. WBY. . DGR. WMR. bent body mocks their torturing pain. 20 mocks their] mocks at their Shep. WMR. WBY. . 17 . 21 See note to version in MS. He trembled & shudder'd upon the Bed At length with a feeble cry he said 9 : . . Butts.

The couplets are not divided into sections. inverts the order of stanzas 8 stanzas Bed the Purple Tyrant fled iron hand crush'd the Tyrant's head. : ' — tear of love and forgiveness sweet. folTurning to the latter. without marginal 13. became a Tyrant in his Stead. the bitter groan of the Martyr's woe Is an Arrow from the Almightie's Bow. Slaughter shall heap the bloody plain Resistance and war is the tyrant's gain. Book.' 31 the Martyr's] a martyr's 33 found] sought MS. or numerical rearrangement of lines. The tyrant who the first [MS. 5-24) deal with cruelty or kindness to animals. seen that the poem consists of an opening quatrain. But the And The And every wound 29 a Tear] the tear it has MS. For a Tear 29 And And The hand * of Vengeance found the To which The And 29-36 For ' : 33 . its penalty or reward a theme which may have It will be lowed by sixty-four couplets. Prefatory Note to ' Innocence DGR. — made WBY. additions. . The first five stanzas (11. is an Intellectual Thing. WBY Stead] R^ omits. shall heal.' — and Following the MS. The conjecture. Book. that Blake intended the title to refer to the initial quatrain only is not supported by the evidence of the MS. Auguries of ' Pickering MS. a Sigh is the Sword of an Angel King. WBY.2 86 ' Pickering MS. — been suggested to Blake's mind while engraving the plates for Hayley's . WMR. and inserts between them the two Until the tyrant himself relent. submission to death beneath his feet tear shall melt the sword of steel. as if forming quatrains with the rime-arrangement aabb or sometimes aaaa.y be noticed in the first place that the couplets are almost always arranged together in pairs. marks of transposition. it vcxa. Written in a single column. "Book first the] black bow bent. p. . WBY. . Book version 9. therefore. The few exceptions to this rule have the appearance of being marginal interpolations. nor is there a terminal line or other mark of separation between the opening stanza and the proverb-couplets which follow.

55-58. (c) 11. 10 and 11. soldier. 97-102. {g) would seem themes alternately. 77. pity for those whose lot is cast in the land of eternal winter. deferring conclusion. 59-62. 63-74. Stanzas 26. 25 (II. 85-96) pass on from reverence of infant faith to pauper. obscene or noxious animals symbolizing human faults or vices. 45-50. alternate pleasure and grief in human life. 103-110. and 23^ Three more stanzas (11. as in the last stanza of 'The Grey Monk. 85-96.' and may in stanzas 24. 75. 79-84. 29-44. interweaving one with another a canto of terza rima. 19. a theme entirely different from the darker one of predestined misery or delight (11. 37-44 and 45-52) are continuations respectively two themes. 1 19-132. 55-88 and 5962) appear to have been mistakenly copied down in inverted order.' having four identical rimes. all. This paragraph discusses a new topic. 51. 5-24. (/) 11- 11. instead of as a number of disconnected proverb-couplets. 18. I my . and often compress within the narrow limit of a couplet the strength and tenderness of some of the most familiar of the we have 'Infant Sorrow. 63-74) 75-84) marks of weakness. 54- id) 11. and Stanzas 20-22 (11. own print the text as in the original MS. 78. 53. Con- may be It given the poem by following each theme separately would then form seven sections. divided as follows (a) 11.' conclude this truly ' great poem. This theme is continued later in the couplets following 44. 1.' and in stanzas (11. It appears probable that he either different : — to its 1-4. 287 25-28) Blake wanders off into a different (11. 19 ' ing war and peace) ' ' (11. It has the appearance of being an afterthought. marks of woe in beggar.' and 'jealousy' work for evil. {e) 11. to jottings. 53. The couplet which follows (11. 108-110). with exquisite compassion. 111-118.. followed in smaller type by revised version for those who may prefer to read the poem as a whole. denunciation of doubt. The foregoing have treated two like the v^n-ote rimes in down from loose tinuity analysis reveals the curious fact that Blake the couplets in the order of composition or transcribed them rearrangement for future consideration. 27 recall be regarded as a continuation of stanzas 18. MS. 9. 25-28. a theme returned to (after a short digression contrastIn stanzas 15-17 songs. The subjects of the remaining stanzas are strongly reminiscent of those of the Songs of Experience. London. aspect of animal life. 1 19-132) expressing. 54) Stanzas of these — ' A Truth that Beats all 's told with bad intent the Lies you can invent — ' not very closely bound to the preceding lines.Pickering In the sixth stanza Ballads. {b) 11. 76. 1 19-132) with which Rossetti links it in his rearrangement. Stanzas 13 and 14 (11. 55 the return to the quatrain unit is clearly marked by the rimearrangement of the next three stanzas.' 'envy. perhaps in the nature of a personal reflection is on one of the chief modes by which 'slander. At 1. 12 (II. 52.

288
With

Pickering
this

(a)

11.

(6)

11.

may be compared

MS,

Rossetti's rearrangement

:

1-4.

5-10, 17, 18, 11-12, 19, 20, 13-16.
29-32, 41, 42, 33-38, 21-24, 39> 40» 43» 44, 67, 68, 71, 72,

(c)

11.

(rf)

11.

25-28, 45-50, 97, 98.

{e')

11.

99, 100, 77, 78, 101, 102, 75, 76, 51, 5a, 81-84, 79, 80, 113-118.

(J)

11.

85-90, 63-66, 93-96, 103, 104, 91, 92, 105, 106, 53, 54, 107-H0.

{g)

11.

1

19-124, 59-62, 55-58.

ih) 125-132.

The latter arrangement (which has been adopted by all later editors
except Shepherd), readable as it appears on first glance, seems to me to do
great violence to the author's meaning. Passages are torn from their context
and given an entirely different sense, by being placed in an artificial position.

An

example of

this

may

be seen

in Rossetti's

penultimate section, where,
is made to argue that
to misery and endless

by the juxtaposition of two separate passages, Blake
a correct apprehension of the fact that some are born
night will enable us to go through

with safety.

life

Auguries of Innocence
To see a World in a Grain

of Sand,
a Heaven in a Wild Flower,
Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand,

i
.

And

And

Eternity in an hour.

A

Robin Redbreast in a Cage
Puts all Heaven in a Rage.
dove-house fill'd with Doves & Pigeons
Shudders Hell thro' all its regions.
dog starv'd at his Master's Gate

5

A

A

9

Predicts the ruin of the State.

A

Horse misused upon the Road
Calls to Heaven for Human blood.
Each outcry of the hunted Hare

A
A
A

fibre

from the Brain does

13

tear.

Skylark wounded in the wing
Cherubim does cease to sing.
The Game Cock dipt and arm'd for fight
;

Does the Rising Sun

17

affright.

Pickering MS. p. 13.
I

on

a] the Shep.,
all edd. except

WMR.

Shep.
sing all edd. except Shep.
Doth all edd. except Shep.

EY.
15 in]
14 does] doth DGR,
16 A . . sing] Doth make a cherub cease to
18 Does]
17 The] A all edd. except Shep.

WMR,

.

MS.

Pickering
Every Wolf's

&

289

Lion's howl

Human

Raises from Hell a

Soul.

wild Deer, wand 'ring here & there,
Keeps the Human Soul from Care.

The

21

The Lamb

And

misus'd breeds Public Strife,
yet forgives the Butcher's knife.
Bat that flits at close of Eve

The
Has left the Brain that won't Believe.
The Owl that calls upon the Night
Speaks the Unbeliever's

He who

25

fright.

shall hurt the little

Wren

29

by Men.
wrath has mov'd

Shall never be belov'd

He who

the

Ox

Shall never be

to

Woman

by

The wanton Boy

lov'd.

that kills the

Fly

33

Shall feel the Spider's enmity.
He who torments the Chafer's Sprite
Weaves a Bower in endless Night.

The

Catterpiller on the Leaf
Repeats to thee thy Mother's
Kill not the

Moth nor

37
grief.

Butterfly,

For the Last Judgment draweth nigh.
He who shall train the Horse to war

41

Shall never pass the Polar Bar.

Beggar's Dog & Widow's Cat,
Feed them & thou wilt grow fat.
The Gnat that sings his Summer's Song

The

45

Poison gets from Slander's tongue.
The poison of the Snake & Newt
Is the sweat of Envy's Foot.

The poison

of the

Honey Bee

49

Is the Artist's Jealousy.

Prince's Robes & Beggar's Rags
Are Toadstools on the Miser's Bags.

The

22 Keeps]
in the

all edd. except

Keep

Songs of Experience.
'

Paradise,

Keys

44 wilt] shalt
SAMPSON

.

of the Gates,'
'

24 Cp, footnote to 'The Fly'
Shep.
.
37, 38 The
griefj Cp. The Gates of

11.

i,

2

:

.

The Catterpiller on the Leaf
Reminds thee of thy Mother's

all edd. except

Shep.

U

Grief.'

290
A

MS.

Pickermg
Truth that

Beats
It is

's

told with

bad intent

53

the Lies you can invent.
right it should be so
all

;

Man was made for Joy & Woe
And when this we rightly know,

;

57

Thro' the World we safely go.

& Woe

Joy

A

Clothing

are

woven

fine,

for the soul divine.

Under every grief & pine
Runs a joy with silken twine.
The Babe is more than Swadling Bands
Throughout all these Human Lands

61

;

& Born were hands,
Farmer
understands.
Every
Every Tear from Every Eye
Becomes a Babe in Eternity
Tools were made,

65

;

This

is

And

returned to

caught by Females bright,

own

its

69

delight.

The Bleat, the Bark, Bellow, & Roar,
Are Waves that Beat on Heaven's Shore.
The Babe that weeps the Rod beneath

73

Writes Revenge in realms of Death.
The Beggar's Rags, fluttering in Air,

Does

to

Rags the Heavens

tear.

&

The

Soldier, arm'd with Sword
Palsied strikes the Summer's Sun.

Gun,

77

The poor Man's Farthing is worth more
Than all the Gold on Afric's Shore.
One Mite wrung from the Lab'rer's hands
Shall buy & sell the Miser's Lands

81

;

protected from on high,
that whole Nation sell & buy.
who mocks the Infant's Faith
if

Or,

Does

He

Shall be mock'd in
58 Thro'

.

.

.

Age &

85

Death.

go] Safely through the world

we

go

all edd. except

Shep.

'

63, 64 All edd. except Shep. omit semicolon after Bands and punctuate with
.
and
semicolon after ' lands.'
69, 70 This
delight] DGR,
omit ;
73, 74
69 bright] aright
prints in Notes.
a;:^
The Babe
omit;
prints in Notes.
Death] DGR,
'

.

EY

WBY

76 Does]

Do

.

.

.

all edd. except

WMR,

.

WHY.

WMR,

Shep.

EY

WBY

48 Does] Shall

all edd. except

Shep.

Pickering
He who
The

MS.

shall teach the Child to

291

Doubt

Grave

shall ne'er get out.
respects the Infant's faith

rotting

He who

89

Triumphs over Hell & Death.
The Child's Toys and the Old Man's Reasons
Are the Fruits of the Two Seasons.

The

Questioner, who sits so sly,
Shall never know how to Reply.

He who replies to words of Doubt
Doth put the Light of Knowledge
The Strongest Poison ever known
Came from

93

out.

97

Caesar's Laurel Crown.

Nought can Deform the Human Race
Like to the Armour's iron brace.
and Gems adorn the Plow
Arts shall Envy Bow.

When Gold
To peaceful

A

101

Riddle, or the Cricket's Cry,
Doubt a fit Reply.

Is to

The Emmet's Inch & Eagle's Mile
Make Lame Philosophy to smile.
He who Doubts from what he sees

105

Will ne'er Believe, do what you Please.
If the Sun & Moon should Doubt,
They'd immediately Go Out,
To be in a Passion you Good may do.
But no Good if a Passion is in you.

109

The Whore & Gambler, by

the State
Licensed, build that Nation's Fate.
The Harlot's cry from Street to Street
Shall weave
92 Cp. Milton,

'To

f.

43,

Old England's winding-Sheet.
11.

12-17

:

cast ofT the idiot Questioner

But never capable of answering
Silent, plotting

Who

113

when

publishes doubt

who is always questioning
who sits, with a sly grin,

:

to question, like a thief in a cave.

&

calls

it

knowledge, whose Science

is

Whose pretence to knowledge is Envy, whose whole Science
To destroy the wisdom of ages to gratify ravenous Envy.'
100 Armour's] armourer's
103 Riddle] puddle

DGR,

all edd. except

WMR,

WMR, EY omit; WBY prints in

EY.
2

is

102 Arts] hearts

111-112 To

Notes.

U

Shop.

Despair,

.

.

.

you]

EY.

DGR,

MS,

Pickering

292

The Winner's shout, the Loser's Curse,
Dance before dead England's Hearse.
Every Night and every Morn
Some to Misery are Born.
Every Morn and every Night
Some are Born to Sweet Deh'ght.
Some are Born to Sweet Delight,
Some are Born to Endless Night.

We

117

121

are led to Believe a Lie

125

When we
Which

When

see not Thro' the Eye,
was Born in a Night to perish in a Night,
the Soul Slept in Beams of Light.

God appears, & God is light,
To those poor souls who dwell in Night
But does a Human Form Display
To those who Dwell in Realms of Day.
118 Dance] Shall dance all edd. except Shep.

Cp.

'

'

Everlasting Gospel

'And

7",

11.

103-106

:

125-128

129
;

We

.

.

.

Light]

leads

you to believe a lie
you see with, not through, the eye
That was born in a night, to perish in a night.
When the soul slept in the beams of light.'

When

126

When

.

\st rdg. del.

.

.

Eye]

and

;

When we

all edd. e.xcept

see with, not through, the eye, Pickering

Auguries of Innocence
{Revised A rrangemen t)
To

Hold

And

A

World in a Grain of Sand,
Heaven in a Wild Flower,

see a

And

a

Infinity in the

all

Heaven

j"our hand,

dove-house fill'd
Shudders Hell thro'

dog starv'd

in a

Cage

in a

A

A

palm of

Eternity in an hour.

Robin Redbreast

Puts

Rage.
with Doves
all

its

&

regions.

at his Master's

Gate

Predicts the ruin of the State.

A

Horse misused upon the Road

Calls to

Heaven

for

MS.

131 does] doth all edd. except Shep.

Shep.

Human

blood.

Pigeons

MS,

Pickering

of the hunted Hare
from the Brain does tear.

Each outcry

A
A
A

fibre

Skylark wounded

in the

Cherubim does cease

wing,

to sing.

The Game-Cock dipt and arm'd
Does the Rising Sun affright.
Every Wolfs & Lion's howl

for fight

Raises from Hell a Human Soul.
The wild Deer, wand'ring here & there,
Keeps the Human Soul from Care.
The Lamb misus'd breeds Public Strife,
And yet forgives the Butcher's knife.

He who

shall hurt the little

Wren

by Men.
wrath has mov'd

Shall never be belov'd

He who

Ox

the

to

Woman

Shall never be by

The wanton Boy

lov'd.

that kills the Fly

Shall feel the Spider's enmity.
He who torments the Chafer's Sprite
Weaves a Bower in endless Night.

The

Catterpiller

Repeats

to thee

on the Leaf
thy Mother's

Moth nor

Kill not the

grief.

Butterfly,

For the Last Judgment draweth nigh.
He who shall train the Horse to war
Shall never pass the Polar Bar.

The Beggar's Dog

&

Feed them

& Widow's

thou wilt grow

Cat,
fat.

The Bat that flits at close of Eve
Has left the Brain that won't Believe.
The Owl that calls upon the Night
Speaks the Unbeliever's

fright.

The Gnat

Summer's Song

that sings his

Poison gets from Slander's tongue.

The poison
Is the

& Newt

of the Snake

sweat of Envy's Foot.

The poison

of the

Honey-Bee

Is the Artist's Jealousy.

A

Truth that's told with bad intent
all the Lies you can invent.

Beats

& Woe are woven fine,
Clothing for the soul divine

Joy

A

;

Under every grief & pine
Runs a joy with silken twine.
It is right it

should be so

;

Man was made for Joy & Woe
And, when this we rightly know,
;

Thro" the

World we

safely go.

293

MS.

Pickering

294

is more than Swadling Bands;
Throughout all these Human Lands
Tools were made, & Born were hands,
Every Farmer understands.
Every Tear from Every Eye
Becomes a Babe in Eternity
This is caught by Females bright,

The Babe

;

And

return'd to

its

own

delight.

The Bleat, the Bark, Bellow, & Roar,
Are Waves that Beat on Heaven's Shore.
The Babe that weeps the Rod beneath
Writes Revenge in realms of Death.
He who mocks the Infant's Faith
Shall be mock'd in Age & Death.
He who shall teach the Child to Doubt

The

Grave shall ne'er get out.
respects the Infant's faith
Triumphs over Hell & Death.
rotting

He who

Child's Toys and the Old Man's Reasons
Are the Fruits of the Two Seasons.
The Questioner, who sits so sly,

The

Shall never

know how

to

Reply.

replies to words of Doubt
put the Light of Knowledge out.

He who
Doth

A

Riddle, or the Cricket's Cry,
Doubt a fit Reply.
The Emmet's Inch & Eagle's Mile

Is to

Make Lame Philosophy to smile.
He who Doubts from what he sees
Will ne'er Believe, do what you Please.
If the Sun & Moon should Doubt,
They'd immediately Go Out.

The Prince's Robes & Beggar's Rags
Are Toadstools on the Miser's Bags.
The Beggar's Rags, fluttering in Air,
Does to Rags the Heavens tear.
The poor Man's Farthing is worth more
Than all the Gold on Afric's Shore.
One Mite wrung from the Lab'rer's hands
Shall buy & sell the Miser's Lands;
Or,

if

Does

The

protected from on high,
whole Nation sell & buy.

that

Soldier, arm'd with

Sword

&

Gun,

Palsied strikes the Summer's Sun.
The Strongest Poison ever known

Came from Caesar's Laurel Crown.
Nought can Deform the human Race
Like to the Armour's iron brace.

MS.

Pickering
When

295

Gold and Gems adorn the Plow

To peaceful Arts shall Envy Bow.
To be in a Passion you Good may
But no Good

if

a Passion

is

do,

in

you.
The Whore & Gambler, by the State
Licensed, build that Nation's Fate.

The
Shall

Harlot's cry from Street to Street
weave Old England's winding Sheet.

The Winner's

shout, the Loser's Curse,

Dance before dead England's Hearse.
Every Night and every Morn

Some

to

Misery are Born.

Every Morn and every Night
Some are Born to Sweet Delight.
Some are Born to Sweet Delight,
Some are Born to Endless Night.

We

are led to Believe a Lie

When we

see not Thro' the Eye,
in a Night to perish in a Night,
the Soul Slept in Beams of Light,

Which was Born

When

God appears, & God is light,
To those poor souls who dwell in Night,
But does a Human Form Display
To those who Dwell in Realms of Day.

Long John Brown
Little

Bell

Mary

&

Little

had a Fairy

in

Mary

a Nut,

Long John Brown had the Devil in
Long John Brown lov'd little Mary

And

Bell
i

Gut

his

;

Bell,

the Fairy drew the Devil into the Nutshell.

Pickering MS. p. 19.
In Jerusalem, f. 36, 11. 35-37, fairies are described as one of Four ravening
States Permanently Fixed by the Divine Power.'
deathlike Forms. .
Cp. from the Motto to the Songs of Innocence and of Experience,^ in the MS.
'

.

.

*

Book

(xxxi)

:

'The Good are

And

attracted

by Men's perceptions.

think not for themselves

;

Experience teaches them to catch
And to cage the Fairies & Elves
lines perhaps explained by the quatrain which almost immediately precedes
Till

'

:

them

in the
'

MS. Book

The

(xxvii)
trap the moment before it 's ripe,
tears of repentance you'll certainly wipe

But

if

If

:

you

You

once you let the ripe moment go
can never wipe off the tears ot woe.'

;

296 Pickering MS. had a Wolf in his stomach day & night. And the Devil enter d into the Young Man's broth. del. And I wonder whether they mean to kill. Attended by Fairies.' The Devil he raged. p. And he laugh'd at the Devil till poor John Brown Died. At first ' John Brown & Mary Bell. and Pride. I. skip'd out. Joy. 3 Long] 2. 5 in] on all edd. alack for Pretty Mary Bell For the Devil crept in when the Fairy skip'd out. there goes Miss Bell with her fusty old Nut.' the adjectives 3 Little] Pretty Pickering MS. except Shep. two. Her Fairy 5 . Young 15 Joy] love . and three But the Angels of Providence drove them away. And he return'd home in Misery. . ! 17 . And woe & And Title\ 13 . 5 & her] Pickering MS. del. Some Some said he said Then the Fairy skip'd out of the old Nutshell. Love is a Sin. EY. 20. EY being an addition. I He went to Church in a May morning. William Bond wonder whether the Girls are mad. o)tnts &. his dinner. one. Pickering MS. For assuredly he is very ill. is/ rdg. He ' He was soon in the Gut of the loving Young Swain. Though he eat & drank as much as ten Men for 9 . & they guess'd right The fairy skip'd about in his Glory. he had the Devil. 15/ rdg. & the Devil he was wroth. & her Fairy skip'd in laugh 'd at the Devil saying. For John eat & drank to drive away Love's pain But all he could do he grew thinner and thinner. And I wonder if William Bond will die.

21 O William] Shep. .' 'Yes. Then what have I to do with thee? 25 For thou art Melancholy Pale. . if thou dost another Love. Mary. But he came home in a black black cloud. Go & take that other to be thy Wife. down on the right hand That William Bond & his Sister Jane Scarce could recover Mary more. And Another I will have for my Wife. Another I Love far better than thee. 37 thee] Cp. 33 floor. went not out to the Village nor Town. 'O William.' ' 29 And & Mary chill'd. And Mary Green shall her Servant be. And on his Right hand was Mary Green. 28 Then . IMary trembled And Mary fell When Mary woke & found her laid On the Right hand of her William dear. in the midst the Sick Man on his Bed. I do another Love. in Songs vf . But she is ruddy & bright as day. 9 13 17 21 Dost another Love better than poor Mary. On the Right hand of his loved Bed. an Angel of Providence at his Head. And on his Left hand was his Sister Jane. 297 He He went not out to the Field nor Fold. And their tears fell thro' the black black Cloud To drive away the sick man's pain. in the midst a Black Black Cloud. O. And the sunbeams dazzle from her eyne.' oniiis 1. And And And And an Angel of Providence at his Feet.Pickering MS. and there lay down. And took to his Bed. on thy Head is the cold Moon's Shine. Experience ^ To Tirzah. 4. And saw her William Bond so near.

WBY. Seek Love in the Pity of others' Woe. Moony light 45 ! in the heat of Day. seek Love there 49 ! 45-52 All edd. In the gentle relief of another's care. Pickering The Fairies that fled from William Bond Danced around her Shining Head They danced over the Pillow white. the Comforter of Night. 52 In] With . first person. he I in the lives in the thought to find Love But sweet Love is left the Bed. EY. WMR.298 MS. rather as that of the narrator of the story. hot sunshine. place in inverted commas as Bond's. In the naked & outcast. I the in poem treat the it if the speech were William who begins DGR. And I the Angels of Providence thought Love lived But O. 41 . In the darkness of night & the Winter's Snow.

POEMS FROM LETTERS 1800-1803 .

dated September 14. 1 800-1 803. The first Shepherd : five poems are printed by all editors except by Swinburne and Ellis and Yeats only. Flaxman.e. pieces are contained in letters to Mr. The taken from earliest of these are the stanzas enclosed in a letter from Mrs. immediately Four of the before the Blakes' removal to Felpham. Butts. Blake to Mrs. 143. the last . 1800. text of the poems in the letters to Mr. Butts written from Felpham. I place here also a little fairy poem which seems to belong to the same period. Butts is taken from the originals.PREFACE TO POEMS FROM LErrERS Five of the letters written six poems in this section are by Blake or his wife. It was first printed by Swinburne {Essay. pp. I follow Gilchrist for the lines to Mrs. Anna Flaxman. being unable to trace the present whereabouts of the original and for the same reason take my text of 'A fairy leapt upon my knee' from Swinburne's My . kindly lent me by Capt. 144) from an autograph of Blake's on the back of a small pencil-sketch. i. the grandson of Blake's friend. Essay.

11 w. Lambeth. other edd. for Heaven is there of Angels descends through the air 5 . copy supplied to the The poem. that all Away to sweet Felpham. 150. the village then winds. or all that you may. and my friend and thine Descend and ascend with the bread and the wine. The bread and the wine of delight of sweet thought 13 Feed the And village of Felpham by day and by night. Mrs. print in roman. all ' : are probably Gilchrist's. 1800. 149. .' is in a letter H^ercules] B[uildings]. 14 Sept. Flaxman's the wide land. Blake. Dispensing unceasing to Gilchrist.v] The 7 turret] the turret of Hayley's house dated ' sister. from a man. And my brother is there. i. the blossom of hope for a sweet decoy To Do To i . does softly descend. constantly refers to himself as the italics Eartham ' or the ' Hermit of the Turret ' 15 William Hermit of ' in liis letters to his friends. 15.' and signed Catherine Blake. . you can. at his own door the bless'd hermit does stand. stand in the village and look up to heaven precious stones glitter on flight seventy-seven 9 . The Ladder On the turret Through You The its spiral . Anna Flaxman This song to the flower of Flaxman's joy. Hayley.' though obviously Blake's own composition. at my cot it does end. Mrs. Blake's patron.POEMS FROM LETTERS To my dear Friend. entice him to Felpham and far away. see note to 1. signed ' biographer by Miss Den- W.

* WMR. i8o. Book ' xli) : — 'Mock on.Poems from 302 Letters m • U To my Friend Butts I write Vision of Light. Butts. 2''. . & Amaz'd & in fear each particle gazed. . . Great Marlborough Street. ignoring Amazed] All edd. such as they are.' addressed to 'Mr. My i first On The Sun was Emitting His Glorious beams From Heaven's 5 high Streams. Oct'. Blown back they But still blind the mocking eye. iSi. Written in two columns on the first and second pages of a letter dated Felpham. the yellow sands sitting. read gazed . 1800. ' ' . all Into regions of fire. ii. Butts. Amazed 20 . . tho' not such as she produces by her Eldest Son however. 19. WBY ' 13-17 Cp. Over Sea. 'The Atoms of Democritus And Newton's Particles of Light Are sands upon the Red sea shore Where 20 gazed do shine so Israel's tents bright.) These verses are prefaced by the lines Recieve from me a return of verses such as Felpham produces by me. Rousseau (MS. Mock on. of the . Morning Heaven's Mountains adorning : In particles bright. EY.' * : ' .' (See Gilchrist. And every sand becomes a Gem Reflected in the beams divine . and entitle To Mr. I cannot resist the temptation to send them to you.' amazed. Remote from Desire The Light lo Care. in Israel's paths they shine. over Land. the stanzas in the verses beginning ' Voltaire. . I Astonish'd. My Eyes did Expand Into regions of Away from air. Blake's precise use of the spelling ed when he intends the final syllable to be pronounced. 15 The jewels of Light Distinct shone clear.

Saying ' : as Every Stone on the Land. And Saw Felpham sweet Beneath my bright Shadow And my And My We I 35 feet. Each rock & each hill. Heavenly Men beaming Appear'd as One Man.' I stood in the Streams Of Heaven's bright beams. In his bosom Sun-bright I 50 remain'd. Swift I ran. Friend. Each grain of Sand. Continue Expanding. For they beckon'd to me. wife's Sister. 45 Like a Sea without shore. Till the Jewels of Light. earth.form'd. & sea. Like a weak mortal birth. descend In our Shadows on Earth. In soft Female charms And in her fair arms My 30 . Mountain. hill. The Heavens commanding. Each herb & each tree. 55 . limbs to infold In his beams of bright gold Like dross purg'd away All my mire & my clay. Remote by the Sea. knew. . Soft consum'd in delight. like Infants shadow & 40 too. & Star. more & more. Soft he smil'd.Poems from Letters 303 For each was a Man Human. Are Men Seen Afar. Who Complacent began My bright. My Eyes. Cloud. Meteor. Each fountain & rill.

Parent of Youthful Minds.' conclude the letter from which the preceding poem is taken.' which the author hopes Mrs. Fold. Butts Wife of the Friend of those I most revere. B. & happy Wife i . the Mountains around 65 The roarings resound Of the lion & wolf. These ' ' chap. 4 Human Vegetation] Cp. & deep gulph. horn'd with gold These are guards of thou And 1 the voice faded mild remain'd as a Child All I ever had me Before I Ram My By the fountains of Such the Vision 70 : . the real & eternal World of Vegetable Universe is but a faint shadow. iv. & in which we shall live in our Eternal or Imaginative Bodies when these Vegetable Mortal Bodies are no more. To the Christians ' ' : — ' Imagination.' which this .Poems 304 And fj^oni Letters heard his voice Mild. me Appear'd on the Sea. Recieve this tribute from a Harp sincere Go on in Virtuous Seed sowing on Mold Of Human Vegetation. from Sleep the Sides of the Deep. the passage in Blake's introduction to Jcnisaleni. & Behold Your Harvest Springing to Eternal Life. The loud Sea.. known bright Shone & your wife saw you ' ! to : 75 life. Butts will lines. O thou Ram Who awakest On On 60 I horn'd with gold. HI To Mrs. Saying: 'This is My Fold. signed excuse. 5 ! W.

And my Brother Robert just behind. 4 Cp. Fill'd full of hopes.' Blake says 'were Composed above a twelvemonth ago while Walking from Felpham to Lavant to meet my Sister. Silver Angels across my way. With 15 — Notwithstanding They beg. the evil one. 43. Los the Terrible. that mounts fields full who devils fight for themselves Rememb'ring the Verses When my that Hayley sung heart knock'd against the root of With Angels planted 5 — my tongue — Hawthorn bowers. These verses. 17.Poems from Letters 305 IV With happiness stretch'd across the hills In a cloud that dewy sweetness distills With a blue sky spread over with wings. himself in the passing hours.' Printed by all editors except Shepherd. Nov"^ 22. i . (i. Tho' dead. 11. and EY entitle 'Verses.' two lines lines are written sideways & — with the note ought to come in at x in the margin. 19. were omitted when transcribing : ' after line 6.' WMR * 3. moony night a blue sky spread over with wings and a mild moon. they appear upon my path. written in two columns in a postscript to a letter dated 'Felpham. e.' WBY. fears— 20 With a thousand Angels upon the Wind. & my way before A frowning Thistle implores my stay. of Fairy elves. In a black cloud making his mone. they my wrath terrible ^ . they drop their intreat. And a mild With trees And little Sun & & sings . ' In a sweet With 7. the position being also indicated by Blake's catchword ' 16 See note to ' Mad Song {Poetical Sketches). 1802. 1. Pouring disconsolate from behind To drive them off. in And God With And Golden demons lo that none can stay Father my hovering upon the wind. S/VMPSON X . 'Rememb'ring'). Jerusalem. fill'd full of tears. ' 8 These These 2 f. . 44 : — & silence that they had created. What to others a trifle appears Fills me full of smiles or tears 25 . And my Brother John.

. In Blake's reference to his own terrible wrath (1. f. With my inward Eye. 43. building Heavens Twenty-seven-fold. thine little is Holy'. 15). 71. 50).' the thistle said.' Form of strong Urthona' {Jerusalem. 4). by mortals nam'd Time. 35 Poverty. 1. 1. f. 'tis an old Man grey. is depicted as a blacksmith working Los is Time (see note to 1. Heavens over Hells Brooding in holy hypocritic lust. dark black Rock & a gloomy Cave. not of Demonstration ' . — '. 4) and one of the daughters of Albion {ibid. and f. 39). 34). 17. ' ' the passage from Milton quoted in the footnote). 23. f. II. 42. 10. 18) he appears to identify himself with Los The name Los.. 16-23 • & and all . 33 Theotormon. 55-57. Shall bring thy Wife upon a bier And Butts shall give what Fuseli gave.' . And a double vision is always with me. ibid. A 40 27 See note to 1. passint). I. S&e Jerusalem. first mentioned in Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793). 39. : — 'Every Minute Particular ' . U. the emanation of Los {ibid. f. 87. see Milton. symbolizes space . For here does Theotormon lower. 1. L 42 69. Enitharmon is nam'd Space. the Vehicular . are of Faith. Envy. drinking the cries of pain From howling victims of Law . 12) and associated with storms and weeping {^Jerusalem. 16. and * ' ' ' Visions of the Daughters of Albion. thou goest back. And here is Enitharmon's bower And Los the terrible thus hath sworn. 34 lovely Enitharmon {Jerusalem. 90. Because thou backward dost return. thy . 68 :— 1. to God alone.Poems from 3o6 For double the vision my Letters Eyes do see. 47. f. f. Oliver Madoxin his capacity of prophet and seer. is probably a transposition of Sol (cp. as Mr. . is the third of the Four Sons of Jerusalem that never were Generated (^Jerusalem. 8. a Thistle across my way. as to the supreme importance of cultivating and recognizing what he terms 'Minute Particulars. 11. f. Brown conjectured. 31. Belong They ibid. ' ' ' f. one of the Four Zoas {ibid. 1. as the sons of Los.' meaning thereby those personal characteristics which constitute the identity of the individual. & fear. f. . and 'Los 35 ' Los is . f. 11. With * ' my outward. old age. f. 30. 1. f. 23. 8. 40 This allusion is only to be understood by a knowledge of one of the chief articles of Blake's faith in ethics and art. . the spirit of prophecy at his furnace. . 1. 3. 1. elsewhere referred to He is described as fill'd with care {Milton. 44-46 : — f. and inspiration {Jerusalem. 42). 1). 53. If Thou woe art to endless betray'd 30 . own Minute Particulars ones are holy. 1.

49 Cp. And broke him up from his delving root.' 47 Cp. Then Los appear'd in all his power: 55 In the Sun he appear'd.Poems fro7n I struck the Thistle with Letters my 307 foot. & seek with love & sympathy. ' f. liii and Iv. Must the duties of life each other cross ? Must every joy be dung & dross ? Must my dear Butts feel cold neglect Because I give Hayley his due respect? Must Flaxman look upon me as wild. I see a Cave. the Minute Particulars. This is rendered clear by the passage in Jerusalem. 60-64 He who would : ' . & make me struck in my 45 ? 50 afraid. & the curtains of Jerusalem. 56-62 : — easy acknowledge a man to be great & good. a Tree deadly and poisonous. To which all Lineaments tend. unimaginative Instead of the Mutual Forgivenesses. hypocrite. General Good is the plea of the scoundrel. 43. descending before Swell'd & bloated General Forms repugnant to the Divine Humanity. ' f. All broad & general principles belong to benevolence Who protects minute particulars. I see : Pits of bitumen ever burning. Those alone are his friends who admire his minutest powers. & flatterer For Art & Science cannot exist but in minutely organized Particulars. The Rock and the Cave.' wrath The old man weltering upon my path. . the terrible shade. 16. MS. Or my sister survive on my Love's pain The curses of Los. while we Derogate from him in the trifles & small articles of that goodness.' . Book Pickering MS. It is to Instead of Albion's lovely mountains.. And all my friends be with doubts beguil'd? ' Must my Wife live in my Sister's bane.' 1. who is the Only General and Universal Form. note X 3 to ' The Grey Monk. in which 'Minute Particulars' of personal identity are crushed under the weight of reason and natural religion. every one in their own identity ibid. constantly recurring figures in Blake's later Prophetic Books. And his So I dismal terrors spoke. are invariably used as sj'mbols of the state opposed to Jerusalem (or the life of spiritual liberty and imagination). 11. 11. The Infinite alone resides in Definite & Determinate Identity. And not in generalizing Demonstrations of the Rational Power. 55. — do good to another must do it in Minute Particulars. a Rock.

a terrible flaming Sun.' Are I. all things vanish & are seen no more. my path. . . My Wife has no indulgence given Except what comes to her from heaven. . Los had entered into my soul His terrors now posses'd me whole I arose in fury & strength. Thy terrors shall not make me afraid. Milton. . My hands are labour'd day & night. 75 men] man : all edd. Time w^alk . * We eat we little. . finish'd. Behind my back. Los flam'd in With the 55-58 Cp. drink 60 less. Six Thousand Years my station in the Eternal bosom. where Satan Fell and was cut off. nor one Event of Space unpermanent But all remain every fabric of Six Thousand Years Remains permanent. . & the Sun was hot bows of my Mind & the Arrows of Thought. I Los stood in that fierce glowing fire And I became One Man with him arising in my strength. Six Thousand Years & Space obey my will. 20. : : ' I am that Fell from Shadowy Prophet who. 'Twas too late now to recede. Another Sun feeds our life's streams. When I had my 70 Defiance given. and behold. Became leprous & white as snow And every Soul of men on the Earth . 11. And Ease comes never in my sight. 75 & sorrow. that glow'd remote below. The Sun stood trembling in heaven The Moon. just close turned round in terror.Poems from 3o8 Letters My face in fierce flames in my double sight 'Twas outward a Sun. . arrows Swinb. This Earth breeds not our happiness. tho' on the Earth. Nor yet the Space that I do see My Mind is not with thy light array'd. They vanish not from me & mine we guard them first & last The generations of men run on in the tide of Time. ago. up and down for not one Moment Of Time is lost. 78 the Arrows] with . & dearth. & sickness. ' And Los behind f. inward Los in his might. But leave their destin'd lineaments permanent for ever & ever. Felt affliction.' are not . in Six return I : both Thousand Years. : : 60 Ease] rest Swinb. We 65 warmed with thy beams Thou measurest not the Time to me. me 6-25 : — stood.

Into this place the Sons & Daughters of Ololon descended With solemn mourning into Beulah's moony shades & hills. lest they fall into Eternal Death. As the breath of the Almighty such are the words of man In the great Wars of Eternity. S5 delight. f. I a fourfold vision see. To build the Universe stupendous. /ass«V«. Evermore.Poems from My My My Letters 309 bowstring fierce with Ardour breathes arrows glow in their golden sheaves . a Soft Moony Universe. gore. : ' : : : As the beloved infant in his mother's bosom. Because of those who Sleep.' — See also the opening lines of the second book of Milton There is a place where Contrarieties are equally True. Beulah is evermore Created around Eternity appearing To the Inhabitants of Eden around them on all sides. threefold in soft Beulah's night. of man are Beulah. 85 Fourfold the basic idea of Blake's symbolic system. and OrUlro. Cp. round incircled With arms of love & pity & sweet compassion. given in Mercy to those who sleep. Lo ! the Eternal Great Humanity. a fourfold vision is given to 'Tis fourfold in And march before father me . Night i.' See also The Four Zoas. ! : to man. Al-Ulro. Mental forms Creating. brothers & The heavens drop Now And with human my supreme . seen in every face. 98. — 81 brothers] brother all edd. But Beulah to its Inhabitants appears. within without the Universal Man. Eternally Created by the Lamb of God around On all & sides. First On Couches soft with mild of Beulah a most pleasant Sleep music tended by Flowers of Beulah. And it is thus Created. But to The Sons of Eden. the moony habitations of Beulah Are from Great Eternity a mild & pleasant Rest. 11. . Creating Spaces. within each district. 0. 34. feminine. The Daughters of Beulah follow Sleepers in all their Dreams. lovely. Enraptur'd with affection sweet and mild benevolence. Pure. 197-203 'There is from Great Eternity a mild & pleasant rest : — Nam'd Beulah. Jerusalem. Amen Walks among all his awful Family. in fury of Poetic Inspiration. f. 80 . 11. 8-1 1 : And the Four States of Humanity in its Repose — ' Were shewed them. Weeping for Milton mute wonder held the Daughters of Beulah. mild & Gentle. Sweet Female forms winged or floating in the air spontaneous. To whom be Glory & Dominion. and the later Pro- — 86 Beulah] In Blake's mythology the four states phetic Books. This place is called Beulah It is a pleasant lovely Shadow Where no dispute can come.-^. which abounds in fourfold correspondences always conveys the idea of perfection and harmony. Alia. Milton.

you see with. the eye 53. pre- burn what I have I have been very much degraded peevishly written about my friend. 22. ' the outward eye emphasized in a couplet of The Everlasting Gospel. 7^. ' incomprehensible the Vegetated Mortal Eye's perverted & single vision To [i. and dead is When Meek 5 . WMR. e. . each my passive. 11. 10. From . ' Printed by DGR. if it all arise from my own fault. 11. . In a letter addressed to 'M"". not through.' 2 See note to 10 I'm Envy'd] I ' am Mary. 1 1 : : — he to believe a and 'emanation' see introductory note 88 Cp. I offend . Marlborough S* London' dated i6. not 'divided 27-30.' title I. the latter with the Verses. & Single visioHj ' twofold ' By 87 twofold] is 'emanation.' in which Blake describes the circumstances ' Felpham.' contrasted with the ' — to ' : MS. chap. I'm despis'd.' 11. All the pen my my is Talents 1 am either When Elate I & dishonour. or. person degrade. ! meant man's reason and imagination own of harmony. Book xxxvii. I ought to blame myself. in Blake's Letters language. xix). why was was Why When I born with a different face I not born like the rest of I Then I'm silent & Then verse I My one look. too low. Jerusalem. EY. 103. 104 11. Pickering envied EY. a comparison repeated and into 'spectre ' And ' leads When for 'spectre' you f. where ' ' in a state and 'inward eye' of imagination is of reason. or too highly priz'd I'm Envy'd. my shame my Fame. and WMR. MS. lose every Friend. & injuriously treated . to reason separated from imagination]. 1803. 3 When] If EY. Butts Gr. My pictures despise temper chastise terror. when ? my I ? speak.3 Poems from o 1 And May God us keep Newton's sleep twofold Always. August which led to his trial for high treason (see Gilchrist's Life. 9 . the pencil bury. but.' Cp. 21. i race . And starts & my . faced by ' Give me your advice in my perilous adventure : i.

Thou paltry. in silence. .' Swinburne's text (pp. 143. abhorred. Amphitryon watch the struggle 9 O] EY omit. gilded. 144. whose twisted limbs make a sort of spiral cradle around and above the child's triumphant figure an attendant. necklaces. Alcmene and he grasping her hand. . rings. falls back in terror with sharp recoil ' : of drawn-up limbs . on the back of which is a pencilled sketch of Hercules throttling the serpents. Pins. Disgracer of the female form. note\ copied from a loose scrap of paper. O fairies' : lord Therefore in pity lives to 9 ! by us contemned.' 6 paltry] pretty EY. poisonous Weeping. naked. joy and please. thus in tears did soft reply Knowest thou How much not. of patches. he And ' fell upon my 5 worm thigh. Whatever hides the female form That cannot bear the mortal storm Our ' ! we give the female live ? still make And what would turn into disease We will turn to what 13 . and such-like things.Poems from Letters 3 1 r VI A upon my knee and dancing merrily Singing I i fairy leapt 'Thou thing said.

.

1808 1806.DEDICATION OF BLAKE S ILLUSrRATIONS OF BLAWS Published Written 'GRAVE' May circa ist.1807 .

but was returned by the latter upon grounds sufficiently clearly stated in his letter dated May. Schiavonetti ten guineas for etching a plate from the drawing in question. The Queen in w'* I cannot possibly participate. I have returned the drawing with this In note. and I will briefly state my reasons for so doing. . and the list of subscribers Blake's twelve alone considerably exceeded five hundred. This letter. begins your letter demanding four guineas for the sketcJied vignette ded" to the Queen. I rec''*. the first place. 205-207). not (i. Louis Schiavonetti an action resented by Blake. on the understanding that the engraving of the plates was also to be entrusted to the artist. during his lifetime. was actually prepared.' honour ! . employed instead a talented pupil of Bartolozzi's. I was willing to pay Mr. and reprinted by Gilchrist with* great surprise. for designs or 'inventions' were purchased by Cromek the sum of twenty guineas. whose strong feeling with regard to this transaction is evidenced in several of the epigrams in the Rossetti MS. I never to it. I do not think it merits the price you affix In the next place. and others. larity. Cromek. appeared with the recommendations of West. 1807. however. February. was to have formed an additional engraved The design plate with a vignette of Blake's invention. which was first printed in the Geiitletnaiis — Magazine. which is printed in ordinary type on the recto of the leaf following the title-page. Cromek. achieved any degree of poputhe public. to dedicate the work to her honour w*^ have been yours exclus^ but that you might not be deprived of any advantage likely to contribute to your reputation. under any circumstances. violating this unwritten agreement. H. had the remotest suspicion that you*^ for a moment entertain the idea of writing me to supply money to create an ' : Sir. R. Fuseli. 1852. Flaxman. The dedication of this work to Queen Charlotte. widely advertised by its publisher. and submitted by the artist to Cromek. or brought his name prominently before The edition. The allowed you. not me.PREFACE Blake's Illustrations of Blair s Grave is the only work which.

no. ii.' Executed with most List I. W. . 309) special care and completeness in pale semi-neutral tints a very beautiful work. Between the upper angels a space is left for the inscription. The subject is the deliverance of the Human Soul from Death. 70 (Gilchrist. their rises to the left chains riven. are two angels.' ' ' : . is thus described by Mr. . A . M. another holding the unequally-poised balance and a sealed roll a third descends with a key to unlock the fetters of the grave. and Engravings. .The Grave 3 1 5 The original design. clasp their upraised hands in thankfulness for the great deliverance. one sheathing the sword. preserved in the British Museum.Rossetti in his Annotated Lists of Blake's Paintings. and the Ascension of the Above. Just. Drawings. mother with her adolescent and infant family a man and children to the right.

' ! Blair's Grave. And.. Shep. Behold this Gate of Pearl and Gold 10 ! To The dedicate to England's Queen Visions that my Soul has seen. In her mild The Grave And rich Hand is the golden Keys : Heaven's golden Gate. wond'ring. 20 . That Mortal Eyes cannot behold But. 1808. And cold and pale the Limbs repos'd. Shep. The Soul awakes and. sees The Door i . Her Throne my Wings Bowing before ' my I wave 15 . and poor around it wait . when the Mortal Eyes are clos'd. 5 .' 15 regions] region Wilk. The Dedication 14 solemn] silken Wilk. Sov'reign's Feet. by Her kind permission.. From Before the vast regions of the Grave. O Shepherdess of England's Fold.To the Queen of Death is made of Gold. bring What I have borne on solemn Wing. these Blossoms sweet The Grave produc'd In mild repose from Earthly strife The Blossoms of Eternal Life . is signed 'William Blake.

EPIGRAMS FROM ANNOTATED COPY OF REYNOLDS' WORKS BLAKE'S circa 1808 .

The annotations in Blake's Reynolds all refer to the first eight Discourses contained in the first volume of the Works. as he says.' These epigrams. in which he quotes with approval a passage from the Discourses. Book. to Reynolds is in them. referring to his quarrel with Cromek and Stothard the whole of the epigrams may be dated circa 1808. and So say I.' a letter to Mr. Blake given in the following Notes. According to Ellis and Yeats (ii. all his thoughts on art. on tions and epigrams in the 'Discourses' to the year 1820. 315) there can be no doubt that at the time Blake was writing extracts from the Discourses to Butts. while those on the following Discourses are jotted down As the latter are mixed with verses in the MS. 1798). he was looking over his pencilled notes and adding to His only reference. moreover.' adding.' saying.' Blake's later and more prejudiced view of the President of the Academy is forcibly expressed in his note on the titleThis Man was Hired to Depress Art. This is the page my Proofs of this Opinion are Opinion of Will. ' Whatever Blake may have meant by it this cryptic certainly cannot refer to his own age at the time . intrinsic evidence. Butts dated Felpham.' attributes the annotaGilchrist. November 2. however. This is obviously a conclusion from the words Aged Sixty-three in the lines beginning. those written in the copy of Reynolds being probably rather the earlier of the two.PREFACE TO THE EPIGRAMS The nine epigrams which follow are found interspersed a number of prose annotations to Sir Joshua Discourses. 1802. are precisely of the same order as those scattered through ' ' ' ' ' ' : : the pages of the later part of the Rossetti MS. and afterwards copied over and supplemented in ink. When Nations grow ' ' ' ' ' * ' Old. These marginal notes were made at first in pencil.' written in Blake's autograph on Reynolds' the margins of the first volume of his copy of Reynolds' among ' Works (2nd edition. and reconsidering. So says Sir Joshua.

which is now preserved in the British Museum. Was extreme old and most extremely poor He has grown old and rich and what he will He is extreme old and extreme poor still. .Epigrams 3 1 9 A of writing. upon the nursery floor. very similar reference to being born old occurs in one of his epigrams in the MS.' : : My text is taken from Blake's annotated copy of Reynolds. Book written about the same period : ' — S[tothard] in childhood.

' . 320. Hire Idiots to Paint with cold light & hot shade. unless they are born with Determinate Organs. And beauteous Forms that Love does wear Some look to find out Patches. leave the best in disgrace. WMR EY ii. of Rafail 257.' (' Epig. written at foot of title-page. i. EY i. comment on Sir Joshua Reynolds' account impressions of Raphael. 4 Labours of Ignorance] 11 Some look to see the sweet Outlines. Powder'd Hair. The prose passage Men who have been Educated with Works of Venetian Artists under their Eyes Cannot see Rafael. iii). vol. I saw & I knew immediately Gil. i.EPIGRAMS Advice of the Popes who succeeded the of Rafael Age first the Arts if you'd Mankind Degrade. i. 259. ' 318 {reading to the popes who succeeded to the age ')• 2 hot] not EY. Gil. labour of idleness Gil. Degrade Reynolds. And with Labours of Ignorance fill every place. vol. the difference between Rafael & Rubens. & Blake's of his disappointment at his preceding these lines runs : first — ' . Paint. & Stays p. I you'd] you would Gil. Give high Price for the worst. ii. xv. Bracelets Reynolds. I am happy I cannot say tliat Rafael Ever was from my Earliest Childhood hidden from Me.

too fortunately free. but by every other mode incessantly endeavoured to debase and assimilate this free and happy country to the all model of ^& ferocious and enslaved Republick of France ! — "These Adam-wits. the Arts grow And Commerce settles on every Tree And the Poor & the Old can live upon Cold.Epigrams 321 111 When France got Were Savage vol. who since the era above mentioned. i. 323. Only in Gil. 'twixt fools & Knaves. p. no precedent was found Of MEN. p. Ear] Gil. vol. have not only on occasions gratuitously pleaded the cause of the enemies of their country with the zeal of fee'd advocates. Reynolds. Began to dream they wanted liberty And when no rule. 3 The . 259 and EY ii. Sixty-three. Europe. . vol. Suggested by the following footnote memoir of Reynolds prefixed to the Discourses: — 'How in Malone's justly may we apply the immediately following lines of the same great Poet to those demagogues among us." . MS. first i. free. . IV When S' Joshua Reynolds died All Nature was degraded The King drop'd a tear into the Queen's Ear. For all Reynolds. beneath Reynolds' dedicatory letter to the Members of the Royal Academy and following Blake's prose comment The Rich Men of England form themselves into a society to Sell & Not ' : — to . ciii. Cf. They led their wild desires to woods and caves. below the account of Reynolds' death. to France. 323. . Reynolds. i. And thought that all but savages were slaves. V When Nations grow Old. are Born Poor. [iv]. by laws less circumscribed and bound. . ' This couplet is printed only by EY ii. And all his Pictures Faded. & after— Slaves. cix. prints as two lines. Aged Gold. Book xlvi. p. i.

and Gil. or propriety But if general censure was given to that school from the of expression. i. & to the Destruction of ail Form or OutUne. 3 And WMR print as two lines. Interest or his Duty. to blind all Suggested by the following passage in the fourth appears that the principal attention of the Venetian painters. 324. sight of a picture of Titian. 99. knew & despised all that Titian could do. O Venus now thou art Quite a Venetian Roman. Reynolds. . . we all agree. i. Ang. See Introduction. : . — I ' If the Venetian's Following Blake's prose note Outline was Right. and WMR print as two lines. 333. and . 98. XIX throw his Contempt on such Trading own either his '). . this it ' : — ' tempt & Neglect of Form Itself. Cold] Gil. As if Mich. ' By i. . WMR (' Epig. Purposely & Intentionally. vu A pair of Stays to mend the Shape Of crooked Humpy Woman. 264. seemed to be engrossed by the study of colours. know Exhibitions. in the opinion of Michael Angelo. VI On the Venetian Painter He makes the Lame But then he Strives to walk. 259. Discourse : — vol.Epigrams 322 Buy Artist who does not The Pictures. in italics. had seen but One Picture of Mich.' Printed only by EY ii. Ang.' Titian ! Gil.' iv). p. EY ii. (' Epig. and more especially on Tintoret ? Venetian attention is to a ConBlake prefaces his couplet by the note Reynolds. how much more heavily and more justly would the censure fall on Paolo Veronese. p. does not WMR 258. . EY ii. vol. to the neglect of the ideal beauty of form. his Shadows would destroy it & deform its appearance. I When Gold] . i. WMR print as a separate line.' Gil. Put on. who can see. 4 Aged Sixty-three] Gil.

Epigrams 323 Vlll Venetian Than all ! is no more on a Crooked Whore. Why on Art Such ? Idiots are not Artists Printed only by EY ii. Suggested by the passage in the sixth DisThose who have undertaken to write on our art and have represented it as a kind of inspiration. as well as the other Venetians.' Blake's note on this is Titian.' This couplet follows Blake's prose note Bacon's philosophy has Destroy'd true Art & Science. which. however awkward in his imitators. to the exclusion of Titian for though his style is not so pure as that of many other of the Italian school. I wish to be understood to mean Paolo Veronese and Tintoret. behold the Philosopher's grave was born quite a Fool. IX O Reader. this : ' Y 2 . course : — * — art may be acquired. i. 337. yet there is a sort of senatorial dignity about him. but he died quite a Knave. seem to insure a much more favourable disposition from their readers.' Printed only by EY ii. loo. ! He vol. p. when I speak of the Venetian painters. thy Colouring Boulster'd Plasters Reynolds. ' — followed by the present couplet. as a gift bestowed upon peculiar favourites at their birth. whether there are any means by which Reynolds. seems to become him exceedingly. so far from : — ' Senatorial Dignity appear to me to give always the Characters of Vulgar should Titian and the Venetians be Named in a Discourse Stupidity. p. is a Knave. i. coldly. Suggested by the following passage in the fourth 'For my own part. 333. 147. and have a much more captivating and liberal air. Discourse: — . vol. than he who attempts to examine. The Man who says that the Genius is not Born but Taught.

i .

POEMS FROM THE 'TROPHETIC 1789-180- 'BOOKS' .

The greater number of the Prophetic Books are written a variety of forms of free verse. a storehouse of his mythology. and epithet must . and a fervent exposition of his mystical gospel. no less than Digestion : . name. in imitation of Milton.' This name. T/ze Marriage of Heaven and Hell. Broadly epic in character. One book. varying from the semirhythmic Ossianic verses of Tirielto the short irregular metre The of Ahania or the pseudo-hexameters of Jerusalem. though he refers to them as inspired or dictated. ' ' poem ' is We — written dwell on Earth can : who every thing or Sleep. is conducted by do nothing of ourselves Spirits. they are in content a verbal and pictorial rendering of Blake's visions. In Blake's Address to the Public which serves as Introduction to the first chapter of Jerusalem^ he furnishes. Either more or less than literature according to the point of view of the reader. first employed by Gilchrist to describe Blake's Visionary Writings. the following account of the measure in which the in . is almost entirely in prose the others are composed in different measures.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO POEMS FROM THE 'PROPHETIC BOOKS' In the present section I group together the lyrical poems from the works commonly known as the * Prophetic Books. be interpreted symbolically. absent in the later books nearly every phrase. is nowhere used by the poet himself.' The Prophetic Books fall under a category of their own. In the earlier of these writings symbolism is wholly. it is impossible to subject them to any ' prefixes to ordinary standard of criticism without ignoring the primary intention of the author. latter may possibly have been suggested to Blake's ear by the passages from Klopstock's Messiah which Hay ley read and translated to him during his stay at Felpham.' and ' ' ' two of the number the sub-title A Prophecy. or almost wholly.

Blake. ii. This is the work called Outhoonl included in a list of books by Blake. 1891. on religious grounds. offered No for sale by his widow to a Mr. pictorial design plays an increasingly prominent part. TJie Book of Los and Ahattia. Crawford. The labour of this must have been very great. while one at least would appear to have been lost or destroyed. however. forming part Mrs. The effect. to be a necessary and indispensible part of Verse. grand. us ' copy is known to exist. Other of the Visionary Writings were never engraved. : ! ! and Science ' ! The greater number of the Prophetic Books were produced by the method of relief engraving which Blake first employed in the Songs of Innocence. Tiriel and The Four Zoas.Prophetic Books 327 'When a this verse was first dictated to me. Painting. Human Race Nations are Destroy'd or Flourish in proportion as Their Poetry. both published in 1795. complementary to and scarcely less important than the text itself. and developing into a species of secondary symbolism. into whose hands they passed after the death of . But I soon found that. I consider 'd Monotonous Cadence. Milton and Jemsalem. and in Blake's next hooks. and Music are Destroy'd or Flourish The Primeval State of Man was Wisdom. in the mouth of a true Orator. and the prosaic for inferior parts: all are Poetry Fetter'd Fetters the necessary to each other. the artist appears to have resorted to the simpler is less process of ordinary etching. by Frederick Tatham. and probably for this reason in two works. ceasing to be mere illustration as in the Songs of Innocence. like that used by Milton & Shakspeare & all writers of English Blank Verse derived from the modern bondage of Rhyming. the mild & gentle for the mild & gentle parts. but by far the greater number were destroyed. Two of these. which was at Sotheby's in March. Every word and every letter is studied and put into its fit place the terrific numbers are reserved for the terrific parts. both of cadences & number of syllables. Art. but as much a bondage as rhyme itself. survive in MS.. H. A MS.\\& In the works engraved in reverted to his original method. such monotony was not only awkward. an 'Angel' of the Irvingite church. . attributed to Blake. I therefore have produced a variety in every line. W. of the Lakelands Library of Mr. was sold This MS. 262). relief. A few of these engraved Prophetic Books are known to by two or three examples only. Ferguson (Gil.

neatly mounted on cartridge paper. In the exegetical field the only important are those of Swinburne and Messrs. and of a concordance displaying in chronological sequence the names. and phrases symbolically used. Swinburne's Critical Essay (1868) still remains the greatest real utility. . names and most readable introduction to the Prophetic Books. who print Jerjisalem with a brief introduction. as my introduction and footnotes to that poem show. cf. Strictly speaking. The latter editors. the latter being small leaflets treating of art and classic poetry. containing poems. 4"*. in many ways helpful and suggestive. commentaries of the different books. Quaritch that the MS. under the heading Dogmatic Writings. is too incomplete to be of any and an index which.' a sequel to The Gates of Paradise^ should also be accounted one of the Prophetic ' ' Books. In the following list of the Prophetic Books the term is interpreted in its broader sense to include some of the earlier writings in which the mythological element is not very prominent. in their much space devote and paraphrased The three-volume edition of Blake. any attempt at interpretation must necessarily be of a somewhat tentative character. Few of Blake's editors have endeavoured to grapple with ' . The Keys of the Gates.Prophetic Books 328 — Blake (W.) purchased by Mr. In the absence. of any adequate apparatus for the study of his text. both entitled Ther'e is 7io Natural Religion^ and two of the socalled Sibylline Leaves. the difificulties of the Prophetic Books. An initial step towards supplying the former want has been taken by Messrs. to their theory of his symbolic system. inscriptions to the 7 sections. was catalogued Angels and Devils. is somewhat lessened by the omission of references to the passages upon which their conclusions are based. indeed. notably through the want of legible and properly indexed reprints. Ellis and Yeats. and resold for a small sum. value of their work. and 34 original drawings by this celebrated artist. autograph manuscript. Quaritch. I append also.' The former consist of a series of propositions couched in purely abstract terms.' I am informed by Mr. Russell and Maclagan. was proved to be not by Blake it was put up again at Sotheby's. descriptions of two small early works. however. and by the introduction of private opinions not drawn from Blake's writings. words.

which is incomplete. its former owner. She knew them not ] . on the outer cover of which is written 7 (seven) The handwriting of William Blake. These are the Gods fear which came from [interpolated for Gods like these nor male nor leaves of blank.' " The Second Piece begins (p. is plainly Pages MS. Rossetti's. It contains two pieces. and tunes her Notes ? When Buxom Joy doth fan his wings. ' [6]. a Virgin ever young. These leaves are now mounted upon rather larger paper. I. more — I ' : ! | : : ! ! | strong. 7^ x 5 inches.' and a few other of the last I have therefore dated it as falling pieces in Blake's Poetical Sketches. dost thou ' : | | [ I accost me ? " | ' The Second Piece ends {p.' The MS. "'when all around Summer hath spred her Plumes. and ink and pencil corrections and additions. the verso of the last leaf being There is no dated watermark. the division into metrical lines being marked in red ink by Mr.' 'The Couch of Death. if they list. 22) : " O'er yonder lake [ the winds their . This extremely early autograph MS. and Strengthen her weak arm." cried the muse. written in ink. evidently belongs to the same period as 'Contemplation. with a few deletions. who brought forth wonder. Grief perch'd upon my brow. according to Mathew's 'Advertisement.. The MS. There is also a red ink note of Mr. Grief. and thought Embrac'd Her. [5]) Go see the City Hand Go see the Natu ral tie of flesh & blood Go see.EARLIER WORKS no symbolism. W.' friends Join'd Hand in The First Piece ends (p. from whom came Ignorance. between the year 1777 (when. find but Self love | Stands Between. Rossetti. [6]) Woe. why. And after Leaden Sloth. ' : ' : | | — | | female are. The First Piece begins {imperfectly) (p. consists of four crown 8vo paper. [i]) father of Curiosity. M. the first of which begins imperfectly in the middle of a poem. circa 1777-1783. then She bore Pale desire. Both are written straightforwardly as prose. indicating where two of Blake's afterthoughts should be inserted. tears started at the Sound. "What does this mean. I the ties of marriage love thou Scarce Shalt . the year in which the book was printed.' the last pieces in that volume were written) and 1783." I cried. together ming|ling yet they all war with Shame. 1. but Single | Pregnate bring forth mighty powers — or. . & Golden Pleasures Beam around my head.. but or little (Characterized by some extent of the Prophetic anticipatory to Books proper) Seven-Page MS.

2. xii. M. I'll guard thee living. The whole of the first fragment has been printed by Mr. Neatly written.) Another line on the same page. Mr. "Mne" are scratched out M.. farewrell. W.' I owe the above description to the courtesy of Signora Rossetti Angeli. | I | — ' eight years of age. and is Tiriel. hand. marked for insertion on p. and now in the possession of Mr. Referring to the handwriting of is 'neatly executed.. (in section 8) " I am Tiriel. my time is gone. 133-129). B. There is no date on the watermark of the paper.' This MS. [7] are two passages belonging to the first piece. the verso off 8 blank. One Law for the Lion & Ox is Oppression. In the original blue-grey paper cover bearing the inscription in Blake's in Blake's earlier autograph. by Mr. Quaritch. Yeats conjectures. vol. who entitles the poem 'The Passions. divided into metrical lines by the editor. who has been kind enough to lend me the original MS. as Mr. or even before that. Tiriel. or love in a golden bowl ?' which Blake afterwards engraved as ' : ' part of the Motto to The Book of Thel. f. Rossetti in his Aldine edition (1874). the handfirst draft evidently not the rough writing appears to me to belong to no late period in his life. Gilchrist. S." a new and : This character With the words less precise kind . but vanished ever from my Sight. ' ' is one law given for the lion the patient Ox ? is obviously the ' & Why of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790). Rossetti ascribes this piece to a rather early date in [Blake's] career say 1785. untimely lost. 6. Mr.Prophetic Books 330 Sad Complainings bear for Conrade lost. M. Tiriel M. he conceives. B. 1903. 22) And is there not one law for both source of the ' last line ' : the lion and the ox ? An ' additional proof that Tiriel was written before Thel is found in the The daughters of Mne Seraphim led round opening line of the latter book their sunny flocks. W. W. Its correct place." it Said no more. and afterwards altered this to The daughters of the Seraphim without erasing the meaningless Mne from ' : ' ' ' ' the plate. upon eight leaves of foolscap quarto paper 8| x t\ inches. though with several deletions. (See footnote to that poem where the erased passage is quoted in full.' On p. and additions. circa 1788-1789. W. Rossetti says the MS. would have ' | ' ' ' seen just before or just after TheV It is evidently just before. ' King of the West. of handwriting prevails up to near the close of the poem. Autograph MS. pp. Yeats' statement that 'the letters in the Bodleian copy' is incorrect. formerly the property of Mrs. Each section of the poem. Written upon both sides of the leaf. Rossetti in the Monthly Review (August. 1. when he was twenty| When . thy Conrade once. headed by arabic numerals 1-8.' Here. for an erased Can wisdom be put in passage on the verso of f 7 contains the line a silver rod. it seems probable that Blake at first intended to write The daughters of Mnetha' (one of the personages first introduced in Tiriel).' On grounds of the character of the handwriting Mr. lov'd even unto Death now Dead. thee I from approaching ill. begins at the top of a new page.' as well as of another line in the Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793. was first printed by Mr. [4]. Blake. corrections.

Har. outstretch'd at Typ. Mistaken father of a lawless race my voice is past. And Aged ' Gates of his beautiful palace. Tiriel stood before the [But dark were his once piercing eyes del. The rest of the poem has a certain interest and meaning as a story. B. Consuming all. . more of a direct appeal from the soul of Blake to the soul of the reader. EY Har iii. The point is worthy of notice since it appears to have misled one Referring to Mr. And now my both flowers & fruits. 8 recto." . Reprints : WMR. I 331 think. It is more directly mystical. that Blake. & his wife fading in death They stood before their once delightful palace. Moreover. '"Accursed race of Come In Tiriel! behold your [aged del. clearly indicating. Yeats says ' : resembles rather that of "The Mental Traveller" than the more vehement and broken style of the later prophetic poems. perhaps in much more summary fashion than he had at first intended. recto. 1. makes it clear that "Tiriel" It was belongs to an earlier period than any other of the prophetic books. i) : — 'I. (f. " The Ghost of Abel. f. 7 ends) humble the immortal spirit. 31 . & a drear sandy plain Returns my thirsty hissings in a curse on thee. ' [Hypocrisy the ideot's wisdom to Compell'd Till I am 11. see the death of to subtil as a serpent in a paradise. and the slight difference perceptible between that of the last page and a half and the earlier of is merely such as may be attributed to the sharpening of a quill pen which had grown somewhat coarse. the erased line referred portion to repeated in Thel proves that this page could not have been written later than 1789. & Heva's feet in awful death.] father. once the Queen of all the western plains . Come.] (f." It is symbolical rather than allegorical. the wise Ct" & pray repugnant forth. and thus the Voice : Of aged Tiriel arose. I 1. ' . 1-7) : Such was Myratana. But now his eyes were darkened." — Tiriel — man's folly del. the two handwritings Mr. after an interval some years. but this latter page is as purely mystical as "Europe.] With Myratana. dent upon mystical knowledge for its interest. O ! * He ceast. 7 verso. look on her that bore you.] arms I here have borne your dying mother. and much more wholly depen. you accursed sons. the quality of the handwriting is the same throughout. W. [aged del. took up the poem and finished it. that his sons might hear in their gates.' In the opinion of the present editor. The probably followed by style of the later lines seems to the present writer to be much later than the style of the rest of the poem.Prophetic Books of handwriting begins .' WBY. Rossetti's remarks on The style of the poem. & forth my weak Come Ends come forth. insects & warbling birds." or "Jerusalem. which at least of Blake's commentators." or "America. sons of the Curse. paradise is fall'n.' Begins (f.

The Argument i plate. see | | | & XXXIV & XXXV | Chap. who stretched out his arms. 24. ' Collation : i plate. 71-5). 2. H.' ' Text begins (f. : This the book as originally conceived. 11. who is now Isaiah Attraction | | | | : ] | | : | I ! | is my particular friend we often read the Bible to. Text ends (f. are the necessary to Human existence. embracing the flame of fire. sumed. and arose as Elijah. Without Contraries is no progression.' ' : : Why a Tongue impress'd with honey from 16-22) (f. and Repulsion. 'Thel 6 ' plates . trembling & affright? a tender curb upon the youthful burning boy? a little curtain of flesh on the bed of our desire? Why Why Why ' The Virgin Facsimile Reproductions DGR Typ. Now is the dominion of Edom. which the world shall have whether they will : 1 I | [ | . Reprints: Gil. The last three plates. (f. the return of Adam into Paradise . I have also The Bible of Hell. The daughters of Mne {sic. the Eternal Hell revives. Reason and Energy. inhaling terror. his writings are the linen clothes folded up. : (Gil. about 6 x 4^ inches. & he was conbecome a Devil. EY Muir (coloured). Rintrah roars. And thus her gentle lamentation falls like morning dew. L. every wind ? Why an Ear. Note This Angel. Love and Hate. 3) round their sunny flocks. ii. & shakes his fires in the burden'd air Hungry clouds swag on the deep. read 'the ') Seraphim led Begins (f.' would seem to have been wanting described by Gilchrist {Life. i. 3) : As a new heaven is begun. 2) : ' — ' Song also occurs separately. she in paleness sought the secret air. All but the youngest To fade away like morning beauty from her mortal day.' started from her seat.gether in its infernal or diabolical sense. The 4. iii. which the world shall have if they behave well. & with a shriek she came into the vales of Har. a whirlpool fierce to draw creations in ? Ends ' : a Nostril wide. but written and probably engraved in 1790. The Argument ' begins 1.' is the active springing from Energy. text 25 plates Collation title-page i plate. 1876. Thel's Motto ' i plate. M. | j date. And lo I Swedenborg the Angel. 3. relief engraving. Heaven of Marriage I | and Without Hell. relief engraving. i. Good is the passive that obeys Reason religious call Good is Heaven. Evil is Hell. Fled back unhinder'd till B. title-page 8 plates. I beheld the Angel. containin the copy ing *A Song of Liberty. 11. WBY. 79-89) and may have been an addition to ' ' . sitting at the tomb .Prophetic Books 332 Book The 3. W. about 6x4 inches. 2-10) 'When he had so spoken. & The Author Thel of | | | I Printer Will"^ Blake 1789. Extracts: 76. Down by the river of Adona her soft voice is heard. and it is : now thir | ty-three is years since its advent. 8. 1. From these contraries spring what Evil Good & Evil. 27 plates. WMR.

to Gilchrist. ' : this post passage . 1863 {Rossetti Papers. . Rossetti. 1905.' Swinburne also would appear to have seen either this transcript or the original. Gil. necessarily great in a certain way. by J. Rossetti. I thought I had (and still believe I have. the possessor of an original copy The statement is incorrect. Typ. 2) the Earth . 224. L. Gilchrist In a letter to W. but I did not think it at Prophetic memorable performance it in no esteem. which. 1. Reprints'. it of course is an ordinary piece of typography. Book I. Mr. Gilchrist refers to her MS. 27. 25. held all Swinburne also read that copy Brother. W.' In a letter to the present editor dated June 21. . & concurred with Neither original nor transcript can Mr. M. H. tice. is.'] for the & Ox Lion Oppression. One Shilling. ought nevertheless to be looked up.' * A Song of Liberty was heard over ' ' i. in 1791. was printed in ordinary typography. 208- 78-86. 15) he says that this ' poem or apology for a poem. I send by dated November 18 of the same year. right) about the same time. Swinb. without illustrations. find it) a copy of this piece about the prisoners in the Bastille. say 1862.'s French Revolution. Extracts. if as they can hardly be without some personal interest or empirical value. was published anonymously. : The Eternal Female groan'd it : ' Let the Priests of the Raven of dawn no longer. Severely realistic not. The French Revolution Book the First. Palmer's handwriting. Mrs. like the Poetical Sketches and Descriptive Catalogue. in The French Revolution. consisting mainly of mere wind and extant. is ^^^iZ One Law \half-page picture of Nebuchadnezzar. Camden Hotten (coloured). little The . since in his Essay (p. Muir (coloured). Johnson. My remember Brother. the best which must have been among the residuum your brother it. M. lay the bound. destroyed. p. the only original work of its author worth splutter. Mrs. I am grieved to say. after .' In a later letter to Mr. in quarto format. or build the roof! Nor pale religion's letchery call that For every thing that lives is Holy virginity that wishes but acts not all I ' 14-21) 11. & (if I in itself. Linnell is or was my who Its interest is a striking or also looked into it. WBY. in Mr. even if no better in workmanship than this first book. as far as I know.' now be traced. Rossetti writes: *I myself have actuallj' seen & read B. adding: 'Mr. when I was lending some help to Mrs. called The French Revolution (the first of seven projected books). . i. whom tyrant he calls free. dated July 19. minus. Linnell is the only possessor I know of an original copy. That French Revolution & is Book to dealing with historical facts as such. this work of Blake's. Contrary to his usual prac- gives no description or extracts from this book. unillustrated. a long hunt. though I cannot. that . This was at the time. : | | ! | I | ' 1 | Facsimile Reproductions EY ! | : W. being Blake's work. ends (f. in deadly black. Gilchrist writes Mr. whom the above title is transcribed. 5. Gilchrist in relation to the Life. but it comes much nearer than any . begins (f. 27). curse the sons of joy Nor his accepted brethren. iii. with hoarse note. not in the tone of the Prophetic Books. or even nothing six other books. According from : Poem a Seven Books.Prophetic Books or no. copy of the poem.

W. 11. Extracts : Gil. sometimes placed full-page towards America. 2) : — | Lambeth Printed j . The shadowy daughter of Urthona stood before red Ore. Along the vales of Leutha seeking flowers to comfort her .' B. America Collation A (f." sits the margin'd ocean. about 1 1 . ' i plate each. & men bliss . — birds. relief engraving. 1. behold their eternal joy. a bow like that of night. you * now a flower. 229-234. 'The Daughters of Albion hear her woes. sighs . ' and sometimes as frontispiece. i. Prophecy | in the frontispiece : Prophecy Begins a I William Blake ' lives is Theotormon but . conversing with shadows dire. Typ. " dewy bed ? I see thee dare not pluck thee from thy I 1 & dark hair the nameless female stood. 2) : — Enslav'd. Visions ' 8 plates. 6-13) " The sea fowl takes And And : art thou a nymph & trees. . . 14 plates 1. in their valleys. M. 105-108. L. * ' I the wintry blast for a cov'ring to her limbs . 3. burning stores. 1876. last plates. Reprint : WBY & echo back her sighs. 7. Oothoon wander' d in woe.' . Begins ' and title-page : design. and title-page ' 3. for every thing that Thus every morning wails Oothoon Upon I holy. 6| x 4f inches. Facsimile Reproductions : H. glancing wings. 179-183. the pestilence to adorn him with gems & gold Arise. the wild snake. 18 plates. Muir (coloured). and sing your infant joy little and drink your Arise. Swinb. And thus she spoke to the bright Marygold of Leutha's vale. the Daughters of Albion their mountains Upon ' i plate each. relief engraving. weep a trembling lamentation . fourteen suns had faintly joumey'd o'er his dark abode : His food she brought in iron baskets. his drink in cups of iron When Crown'd with a helmet A quiver with its by year 1793. about 9J x6f inches. 179-187.Prophetic Books 334 II THE PROPHETIC BOOKS Visions 6. 10. of America. For the ** soft soul Art thou a flower ? Now ' a nymph Ends (f. 'Preludium 2 plates. EY iii (reduced). & beasts. Daughters of the of | ] more than the Heart knows sees | Albion The Eye | Printed by Will'^ Blake | : 1793Collation I plate ' The Argument (f.

With fierce disease and lust. Stiff Filled with blasting fancies. They slow advance to shut the five gates of their law-built heaven. 109-112. : Book i. M. chapters i-ix 15 plates. full-page illustrations of the :— The nameless shadowy female rose from out the breast of Her snaky hair brandishing on the winds of Enitharmon. Gil. The arrangement 17 plates. ' Collation : title-page and Preludium i plate each. EY iii (reduced). with a cry Call'd all : his that The the ruddy tide. 18. & their bolts and hinges melted. and the ancient Guardians. relief engraving. To cause my name to vanish. 17. Gil. 130. Reprints (Extracts) by W™ . France. The word First ' ' . 8c cries in groans Facsimile Reproductions 9. smitten with their own plagues. : Typ. 3. 129. terrors flew The Lions lash their wrathful tails. Reprints {Extracts). ' Preludium 2 plates. 235-237. ten full-page illustrations without text variously arranged in different copies ' 10 plates . 1. B. around golden chariots. 1797.' : Typ. about 9^ x 6f inches. i. that my place may not be For I am faint with travel. The furious On sun glow'd fiery red. a Europe \ | W. Printed | : The End of the book first [ of Urizen. about 6x4 inches. his sons to the strife of blood. round the abodes of men. anguish and dismay. And & the fierce flames burnt round the heavens. The Tygers couch upon the prey. Muir. M. shook all nature to the utmost pole. in snaky thunders clad. found ? Like the dark cloud disburden'd in the day of dismal thunder. But the five gates were consum'd. Fainting upon the elements. Colophon Lambeth Urizen of | | iii (reduced). EY W. Muir (coloured). plates varies somewhat in different copies. unable to stem the fires of Ore. (f. Spain & Italy In terror view'd the bands of Albion. 335 shudderings shook the heav'nly thrones. Collation frontispiece and title-page : 'A Prophecy' two 11 plates. B.' Facsimile Reproductions 8. relief engraving. head he rear'd. 242-245. raging with red wheels dropping with blood 11.Prophetic Books Ends * :— 16-23) 11. wilt thou bring forth other sons. : '"O mother Enitharmon. 27 plates. without text 2 plates ' plate each. and with mildews of despair. i Begins (f. Swinb. Swinb. And thus her voice arose Ore. 1876. 2) ' ." Ends (f. Prophecy | Lambeth Printed By | Will'» Blake 1794. & suck And Enitharmon * Then Los arose And. ' — 3-11): 'The I [First] Blake 1794.

about 9 x6|^ inches. & fear not ' To Ends I unfold your dark visions of torment. glandous wine dance In rivers rush. three fulltitle-page page illustrations variously arranged in different copies . is Begins 1. The 1795- Gil. desire. col. & Egypt it : left it.' plates . thus the 35-40) : Song began. In heart-formed Africa. : engraving. and Facsimile Reproductions 11. Urizen faded. the Eternal Prophet. 6) : ' When And Obscure.' 27. Aged Mother. (f. 132-134. relief Collation r plate. : The remaining And called And ' 9. (f. shadowy. ' 2. Muir (coloured). : Gil. and shook the steadfast Earth. 11. 8 plates. blood.' Facsimile Reproductions Typ. M. the salt ocean rolled englob'd. 1876. Swinb. & clasps Her bosom swells with wild & And delight. Eternals. (f. Begins 2.Blake The End of the Book of Los. Who the chariot of Leutha guides Since the day of thunders in old time. Reprint {Extracts) 10. 2) : i. i. 3. And thus her speech broke forth. Reprints {Extracts) plain. W. Trembled. type. it at the tables of Eternity.' — 'The Grave shrieks with Her hollow womb. : i. 5-9) — '8. (f. 2. solitary ! hear your call gladly. Book of Los Lambeth Printed by W. [ I | | Colophon: Collation etched EY iii (reduced). 5 plates. i. dale. 2) sung : — ' I will sing you a song of Los.^6 in the title-page. And Ends 11. Ariston shudder'd. 2. call'd all together the pendulous earth left they They So Fuzon children of Urizen. col. Eno. 131. ' 1. Eternals spurn'd back his religion. Begins (f. Blake The Song of Los is Ended Urizen Wept. & milk. & On mountain. which was probably purposely erased from Blake's stereomost copies. .Prophetic Books 2. Song of Los Lambeth Printed by W. : Typ. M. 'Asia' 2 plates. The | I | Colophon: 1795. | 'Africa' 2 plates. 1876. Sitting beneath the eternal Oak. Dictate swift winged words. void. in wanting — Of the primeval Priest's assum'd power. B. 6. He 1. 255-257. Los 3 ' text. gave him a place in the north. to four harps. EY iii (reduced). : B. & shakes the solid stem. & shout.' : ] frontispiece and title-page i ' plate each.

col. inches. According of Urizen. etched text. 21-26) : '9. selfish fear. col. EY : I ' iii. The Four Zoas The Torments of Love & Jealousy The Death and Judgement of Albion the Ancient 13. But now alone over rocks.. Whatman 1794. W. Reprint : WBY. : Self-destroying. formed four rivers. into a vast globe his wrath. Renew Where On the Where bones of beasts are strown bleak and snowy mountains. working proofs of Blake's " illustrations to Young's "Night Thoughts (published 1797). silent burnings. 136 . 252. 47 sheets old engraving by Blake cut in two : . Obscuring the immense Orb of fire. Book of Ahania | Lambeth J Printed \ by Blake 1795. i. together with 4 small fragments. In a fleshy slough. chariot. Ellis). The I EY : iii. i. about i title-page 5|x3| plate each. 337 11. 3. with watermark 'J. Shot down his wide bosom and shoulders . mountains. the paper same size and date where marked. a & his Heart Form Was completed. 13-21) Cast out from thy lovely bosom Cruel jealousy. On clouds of And his right the thunder-stone Son of Urizen's Ends (f. how can delight in these chains of darkness. consists of 70 separate leaves or sheets of paper (not 70 pp. Jun. I owe to the kindness of Mr. 14. a Human Illusion In darkness and deep clouds involv'd. . and Collation: frontispiece 'Ahania' 4 plates. 253. 135. On ' 1. Description John Linnell. col. 'The MS. the following admirably clear and exact account of this autograph MS. 2. i.' Facsimile Repmduction 12.' 21 sheets. size 16^ by i2f in. 2. 2) : Fuzon on a chariot iron-wing'd. Moulding As smoke rages his hand burns red is moulded. Flowing down into night till . blank. bones from the birth are buried Before they see the light Facsimile Reproduction Typ. to Swinburne The Book of Ahania may have been originally intended as the second book 6 plates. as stated by Mr. Till his Brain in a rock. : — These 70 loose sheets are made up as follows drawing paper. in its cloud. Swinb. in ? Man | | I | | by William Blake 1797. ' 6.. SAMPSON Z .' 11.Prophetic Books Ends (f. Begins (f.. Extracts : Gil. spiked flames rose : his hot visage Flam'd furious sparkles his hair & beard. 5.

12." This was afterwards altered in pencil to the final form given above. " many erasures'' and corrections are made. form. afterwards some alterations and additions were made upon the text or upon the margins. but it cannot of 'The date of the MS. ii. 298. is in an unfinished condition. 61 sheets have the text of the poem written upon both sides of the paper with regard to the 47 sheets with the engravings to Night Tlioughts printed upon one side of each sheet. Ellis considers it was in progress for some years. however." " it it is only possible was unpaged and unsorted. e. finished for publication. 1797." " is specified on the title-page. 1794.'" (See vol. consequently the position of many of the sheets as determined by Messrs. wherein he registered and expressed his ideas without any restriction." and this date not altered by subsequent revision. this MS. xiv. " Vala" I do not." This. Had they marked in their printed copy where the beginning and the end of each sheet of paper MS. 295-300.) which are marked by Blake. 10. only the first 14 pages were numbered by himself. and that he never once intended this MS. there are good and substantial reasons why he never did or could have done ' . followed in bold script capitals by the heading *'VALA. 3'''* chap. . the page upon which the poem begins. Ellis' own error in transcription. ii. and add by what slip Blake gave the Epistle 14 chapters is incomprehensible. occur. the only available space on the printed side was the blank rectangular space in the middle of each sheet. left for the text of Young's poem and here Blake has written. and a large part a first draft of the poem. The 68 sheets. nor even as a whole for any public inspection . I consider this work more as a private study that Blake executed for himself. as in the title-page. p." (i.e. 'The title is written on one side of the first sheet of paper. critics would have been enabled to judge for themselves as whether the arrangement or order of the sheets as printed has been of the to correctly made or not.Prophetic Books 38 and written upon on one side only (back) 2 sheets = 70 sheets." " to conjecture the sequence. 'The poem is written in ink throughout. Ellis and Yeats must be in a degree conjectural. There is no other evidence as to when the MS. Ellis " " Ephesians iii c. as written in ink. was written except that afforded by the date of the paper. Ellis and Yeats' description of it. the head of the second sheet. was never properly looked over b3- the author or finally sorted into Nights. According to Messrs. and not put in order. The text of The Four Zoas appears to be in an unsettled condition. In its first — — . Now besides the beginning and the ending of each Night pp. without 1 At accents. ro"' verse). 10 v." "the arrange- ment of the loose sheets occupied us during several long days. and Yeats say that Blake in the ninth Night quotes '" " Ephes. was course have been begun before 1794. with its pencil illustrations for publication. of the Ancient Man I it | read: "VALA A DREAM of | | The Death and Judgement Nine Nights by William Blake or | ] | | 797. parts written fairly. for Blake himself has written plainly in ink (in his usual form) * In vol. erased in favour of "The Four Zoas." which is not here. written in Greek characters. "the MS. with 7 exceptions (where one side only is written on) i. Mr. is the motto from Ephesians vi. hold that this poem should be placed in the same category with those poems or "Prophecies" that Blake wrote. on the grounds of fairness. must be Mr. and himself printed and published.

to my father. 197. date on the title-page probably represents the j'ear in which the engraving of the First Book was begun or finished. Following Mr. : . ! In his ancient strength. which shook the heavens with wrath.' which title. Rossetti. now in the Lenox Library. 45 plates. Linneirs note shows. The war of swords departed now. life a private gift of it. which is also identical in arrangement with the copy described in the catalogue of the Blake Exhibition held at the Grolier Club of New York in 1905. 13. all For The Dark Religions are departed. New York. Room copy. the streams & valleys. in a somewhat incorrect text. rather than that which The saw the completion of the entire work. no longer the Spectre Los.' The Four Zoas exhibits in a less condensed and consequently more intelligible form the same set of ideas that characterize Milton and Jcntsaleiii. Only printed by EY (^iii. 3-28 (ff. 33. however.Prophetic Books 339 Therefore he kept this study in an unfinished state by h'm during his with his other papers that were never made public. 41 and 45 being full-page The Beckillustrations) . ff. In quoting from Milton in my footnotes the folio references are to the Print 3> 5? 8*. Book the Second' 17 plates. EY entitle the poem 'Vala. just as he had left it. 8. illustrations). to form the golden armour of science intellectual War. Marshalled in order for the day of Intellectual Battle. end). about 61 x 4^ inches. Blake 1804 To Justify the | 1 | ) reigns.' The Author & Ways of God to | Men. ford copy from the Hamilton Palace Library.' — Night the Ninth ends ' Urthona is arisen in his strength no longer now Divided from Enitharmon. ff. wail'd in dismal fear. the was earth & moved shudder'd. Short extracts are printed by WBY 196. ' 15 The order of the plates in this copy differs somewhat 17. Where is the Spectre of Prophecy? where the delusive Phantom? Departed & Urthona rises from the ruinous walls. was afterwards rejected in favour of T/ic Four Zoas. with facsimiles of a few pages of the original. M. relief engraving. Mil|ton a Poem Printer W. Collation: 26 title-page and 'Preface' i plate each. With all their woods. from that of the example in the Print Room of the British Museum. 29-45 (ff' 29. 32*. 'Book the First' and 21 being full-page. & sweet Science in 12 Books 14. and at last made this. lacks the Preface and has five additional plates of text numbered plates. 38. the three books constituting a group in which one may trace the highest development of Blake's mysticism. The heavens quake. & the mountains. ^ Night the First begins : — •The Song of the Aged Mother. Z 2 . as Mr. Detached lines and lengthy passages of The Four Zoas were engraved by Blake as part of Jerusalem. Hearing the march of long resounding strong heroic Verse. W.

I begins ' (f. in all their strength.' . 1. 44. Reprints {Extracts) Gil. Swinb. Jerusalem Albion 1804 | | | | Printed I | ' : frontispiece. . 27) Deists (f. 76). 3 (f. (f. 259-274. 4' 22 plates {ff. Record the journey of immortal Milton thro' j'our Realms ' Of Of terror. to delight the wanderer and repose thirst & freezing hunger Come into my hand. 77) 'Chap. .Prophetic Books 340 Book the First begins 1. 1804. Became its prey. full-page end100 plates. 53-75). an offering and an atonement For Death Eternal. 4) : — Of the Sleep of Ulro and of the passage through Eternal Death and of the awaking to Eternal Life ! ! ! I . 51). in the heavens of Albion. The Waggons ready terrific Lions & Tygers sport & play All Animals upon the Earth are prepar'd. 4. title-page. see Poems from Jenisalein. Blake S*"^ Molton St. ' ' ' . . the image of the Invisible God. about 9x6i inches. 2 23 plates (ff. Muses who inspire the Poet's Song. must be understood to represent the year in which the first chapter was begun er finished. 78-99). 11. 26). : 3) — Daughters of Beulah. EY iii. i) : — Rintrah & Palamabron view the Human Harvest beneath Their Wine-presses & Barns stand open the Ovens are prepard. . and not that of the completion of the whole work. 52) Chap. frontispiece to Chap. : i. (coloured). 1-3) . 'To the Jews' Chap. I Colophon Collation : The Emanation of The Giant by W. For intropiece (f. The End of The Song of Jerusalem. 100) ductions to chapters 1-4. 1. vegetated In likeness of himself. Beneath your land of shadows. To the (f. 3 23 plates (ff. a curse. f.'' ' ' Chap. W. 15. ' To the Christians' (f. even till Jesus. 22 plates (ff. Muir : Typ. 184-195. frontispiece to Chap. of its sacrifices and Its offerings. As in the case of Milton the date on the title-page. your mild power descending down the Ner\'es of my right arm. in it caus'd the Spectres of the Dead to take sweet form And Tell also of the False Tongue. From out the Portals of my Brain. 36-39 . To the Public ' i plate each (ff. his Emanation. H. . 28-50). relief engraving. 2 (f. & mild lustre.' Book ' the Second ends (f. 3. 45. WBY 207-209. 195-198. I ' ' ' . in soft sexual delusions moony varied beaut}'. & before the Gates Of Jerusalem. where by your ministry His burning ! By The Eternal Great Humanity Divine planted his Paradise. 4 (f. Facsimile Reproductions L. 4-25% frontispiece to Chap. ' 'Chap. in the heavens beneath Beulah. To go forth to the Great Harvest & Vintage of the Nations. the former and longer work being probably the last to be completed. ' The engraving oi Jerusalem was apparently begun about the same time as that of Milton.

Nature has no Time. ' Human Forms identified even Tree. 4. Days & Hours reposing. Collation Begins ' : 2 plates. after To Lord Byron What title in the as above) : — Wilderness. | The reference to Blake's first stereotype probably refers to his earliest use of this process in the Songs of Innocence. All Clothed In thy Covenant of the Forgiveness of Sins. 276-292. And And heard the I Name of their Emanations : they are named Jerusalem. from the Thirty-two Nations of the Earth among the Living is Creatures. Earth & Stone. then Awaking into his Bosom in the Life of Immortality. at sun-rise : then Spreading his beams of Love. Metal. going forth. in sleep. Imagination is Eternity. of Abel A Revelation In the Visions Seen by William Blake. Months. wake expand am in you. Can a Poet doubt the Visions of Elijah ? Nature has no Outline. i. in the midst of the darkness of the Oath. 11. EY iii (reduced). Nature has no Supernatural & dissolves. The Ghost 16. about 4I x6i% inches. Extracts: Gil. but Imagination has.' Facsimile Reproductions Pearson. Colophon: 1822. as has been commonly supposed. Jehovah | ? | | Ends ' On [i. 183-194. Typ. : WBY Swinb. 98. and not. . 11. 4 Such ' ! : And And ends (f. from the Living Creatures of the Earth. 198-207."' ! ! ! I ' ' Chap. (f.' doest thou here. 99. to an earlier issue of The Ghost of Abel. mutual in love divine Fibres of love from man to man thro* Albion's pleasant land. night after night. dictating the words of this mild song. f. Human Forms identified living. 2. 1-5) :— the Cry from all the Earth. 26-31) : — each side a Chorus of Angels entering Sing the following of the Heathen Swore Vengeance for Sin Then Thou : The Elohim I stood'st O Elohim Jehovah. * 341 I & "Awake awake O sleeper of the land of shadows. & All . and you in me. i. Reprint: Russell and Maclagan. 54-56 . | of Jehovah W. Forth. 11. from the great City of Golgonooza in the Shadowy Generation. Blake's Original Stereotype was 1788. 1904. but Imagination has. all returning wearied Into the Planetary lives of Years. 1. . relief engraving. Death. Brotherhood ? O Holy I Is this .Prophetic Books 'This theme me calls Awakes me & ev'ry morn see the Saviour over me.

already known . relief engraving. and Love. 230. Relief engraving. H. . But the number of plates in in '' might be another title for the which one Oothoon plays a prominent the two not corresponding decisively negatives such a supposition. Collation: frontispiece. of this book the entry is iii.' Ill DOGMATIC WRITINGS 18. 2s. as indisputable evidence that such a book does or did exist. Brotherhood. 6 plates .' Therefore God becomes as we are. On the frontispiece. All that 7 known is EY W. Muir (coloured). 'The Argument' i plate each. 17. II 2 plates 12 plates. Typ.' Ends is I (f. Reprint: L. Naturally he ' : Man & Printer W. Reprint : Outhoon. Ferguson (Gil. There is j No Natural Religion f j WitJwutdate. propositions I-VI. .' Typ. I think. by Peace. 295-297. ' : WMR An ' : " Outhoon ingenious friend suggested that Visions of the Daughters part. of Albion. each in his station fixt in the Firmament. with small pictorial designs. WBY 229. 262) A work 12 plates. Price (C2. 176. a among number of works by Blake offered for sale by his widow to Mr. called Outhoon. Blake. 6 inches more or less.Prophetic Books 342 The Elohim saw their Oath Eternal Fire they rolled apart trembling^ over The Mercy Seat. But the above must be taken. title-page. ii. hnt probably circa 1790. Swinb. od. 12) : ' II I Reason or the not the same that it | shall be we have we know more. Muir (coloured). Linnell has never heard of it. ] | | ' .*^ I have never seen a copy of this. Extracts: EY | iii. Facsimile Reproductions : Date 7inhioivn. 175.' has no notion of moral fitness | | only a natu]ral organ subject to is | Sense. [«]. that we may be as he is' i plate propositions I.' ra-|tio of all when | Facsimile Reproductions: W. about 2 x iJ inches. the imprint is 'The Author The Argument Begins (f. nor been able to find adds anyone who has. Even Mr. in reversed writing. 3") but from Education.

x. A drawing of the Laocoon occupies the centre of the plate. 39 at right) Form. 38-40 at left^ Mathematic Form is Eternal in . but why Homer's is peculiarly so I cannot tell. Withotit date.' Ends (11.Prophetic Books There 19. as Babylon & Egypt. is : | Eternal Existence. relief engraving.' ' ' ' : | ' : | | ' ' ' : | Ends Gothic 37) \\. 2) Every Poem must necessarily be a perfect Unity. 232-233.) date. Reprint: Gil. Imagination Denied. Reprint : Principle & Religions. Small print. On Homer's 30. 10. 26) Sacred Truth has pronounced that Greece & Rome. 9. all all similars men are alike (the' infinitely have one source The true Man. | | the Reasoning Memory Living Form Facsimile Reproduction EY iii.1 As 7'''. the true faculty of knowing must be the faculty which exThis faculty I treat of.' ' with surrounding designs. Collation frontispiece title-page. but circa 1 816-1820. is : Living . but circa as (On Poetry. On Homer's Poetry begins (1. ii. 7 plates 2 X 1. 38. Facsimile Reproduction : EY iii.' periences. (11.] Imprint'. Principle i" ' — in the Principle 7"^. 'Grecian is Mathematic Form: (11. the Classics. 160.' On Virgil begins {\. & not Goths nor Monks. Small Broadside. were destroyers of all Art.' iii. At foot of leaf Nations. H. 159. Without Virgil. Art cannot be Read Matthew c. ' : Ends various) ' (f.' : Typ. about relief engraving. 5f X4I inches. 22-24) The Classics.' 'Art Degraded. EY : 1 8 1 6. while the whole of the surrounding space is filled with disconnected aphorisms on art and the conditions under which it is fostered. 4^x3! inches. ('The Voice of one crying ' i ' plate each. line engraving. 3) experiment. v. The Argument. that Desolate Europe with Wars. . it is.2 inches. As the true method of knowledge is Begins (f. so far from being parents of Arts & Sci-| ences as they pretend. No is | Natural j 343 Religion | Without \b\ date." : 'Where any view of Money exists. 10) So all Typ. Extract: L. War carried Governed the . : Wilderness ' '). [The Laocoon. At head on but of leaf: War only. Drawn & Engraved by William Blake. 8 20. 21. The Argument 10 plates. hit probably circa 1790. .

In silent deceit.' ' . poisons inhaling from the morning rose. 27. of Hell. note to song from An Golden Net' (Pickering MS. 4 f. or love in a golden bowl? Is the sun a king warmed without wool. and WMR omit pit . mistaken. end together in a curse. 1. "O weak. These 3. father of a lawless race! Thy laws. . & poison in their tongue With daggers Or eyed with .). sparks of Hell. Prayers plow not Sorrows not weep not. Island in the Moon. DGR I. 'He said.' the rest being in prose. or stretch voice . 2 i. Cp. f. breathing out blood Some close shut up ! . g. two last lines. iii.POEMS FROM THE PROPHETIC BOOKS From THE BOOK OF THEL Motto Thel's Does the Eagle know what is in the Or wilt thou go ask the Mole ? Can Wisdom be put in a silver rod. As the plow follows words. 1. Or those whose mouths are graves. Thy God of Love. Joys laugh : : Among the ' Proverbs Marriage of Heaven and Hell. whose teeth the gates of eternal death little ? Can wisdom be put in a silver rod. O Har! & Tiriel's wisdom. and were deleted by Blake. or with infernal brands Flinging flames of discontent & plagues of dark despair. or does he cry with a Of thunder does he look upon the sun & laugh. His little hands unto the depths of the sea to bring forth scaly tribe [word above illegible] The deadly cunning of the it to the morning?"' 4 Cp. 4. so God rewards prayers. Or Love in a golden bowl ? Thel. lines occur in a passage in 7"«V/f/ of which all but 11. one of the preceding proverbs. title. From THE MARRIAGE OF HEAVEN AND HELL Praises reap not. hid beneath their lips. thy heaven of joy Why is one law given to the lion &c the [Ox del. and & spread to ' The 9."] patient Ox? Dost thou not see that men cannot be formed all alike Some nostril'd wide.

above an illustration of a nude kneeling female figure. ' sang O'er Los. 9-14. The speaker here is Oothoon. And i shakes his awful hair. my virgin fears. whose story references to which occur in several of the Prophetic Books probably formed the Visions. 4 Leutha. I And 5 . The song which Enitharmon reviving him to Life.' 3 to unbind] again to unbind EY. a daughter of Los. 2. 11. and the Prophetic Books. I hid in Leutha's vale! And plucked Leutha's Flower. passim. 1. nine bright spheres of harmony rise silver locks. WBY. . 28). 12. list I See note to Poems from Letters. who — — subject of the lost engraved no. See of Prophetic Books. a sprite f. 9.' iv. kissing springs upwards from the petals of a flower. is depicted as a bird of paradise ' in a vale of flowers : see Europe. f. 33. work Oitihooii. round the fiery king. Four Zoas. Night ii. 17. I was not ashamed I And trembled I in i .Prophetic Books 345 From VISIONS OF THE DAUGHTERS OF ALBION The Argument loved Theotormon. one of the daughters of Beulah (cp. I rose up from the vale But the terrible thunders tore My virgin mantle in twain. Milton. From THE FOUR ZOAS At the And first Sound the Golden Sun arises from the Deep. f. The Eccho wakes the moon to unbind her The golden Sun bears on my song. 1.

. And & Furious lifts & sport rend the nether up rugged head hovering wings. . they i6 deep The deep The The terrible . For the Earthworm renews the moisture of the sandy plain. The Lovers' night bears on my song And the nine Spheres rejoice beneath my powerful controll. . ' written in the MS. Song Liberty. Heaven and of Hell. . drink your bliss For every thing that lives is holy for the source of life Descends to be a weeping babe.' II . WBY. even to EY. 6 is] in WBY.. 27.Prophetic Books 34^ The joy of woman Who Love dies for the Death of her most best beloved is 6 of her In torments of fierce jealousy & pangs of adoration. WBY. ' 30 regions] region WBY. ever dying. is of her most not distinctly- 13 upon] sounding upon of the holy] The same words end the chorus 23 For EY. stretch abroad. fading cry ever living in is voice living cry. WBY. They sing unceasing to the notes of my immortal hand. is inmost joy. you Arise & ! . The solemn silent moon Reverberates the long harmony upon my limbs. and may be unweary. n every one seeks for his mate to prove his inmost joy. I 26 And I strike the terrible string. of her most best] even of her most WBY unceasing] unwearied EY. wake sweet joy in dens of sorrow. its 21 little glancing wings & sing your infant joy. WBY. Now my left hand stretch to Earth beneath. Arise. In forests of And wake & I plant a smile affliction. vanishes with a his lost in infinite And. 26 stretch to] f. this EY word . the bubbling springs of life in regions of dark death.' Mmtiage of 28 dens] dews EY. The birds & beasts rejoice & play.

now breed the 5 scaly tortoise. where the sons of And the Virgins sang. once the haunt of Swans. sink I on the bed of solemn sleep 31-35 35 And on] • senses I EY. I ! For thou hast touched Now And am I my five & nothing. The houses of my harpers are become a haunt of crows. Nine virgins cloth'd in light compos'd the song to their The immortal And at my voices. . EY. delusive hopes Kindling. And 31 answer'd thee. Four Zoas. end. or I faint beneath these beams of thine. II compos'd the song] made songs EY. 33 five] awakest me] The poem continues 31 thine] thy on EY. . And on the bones I my tears. till thou awakest me. WBY omits. . O. banquets of new wine my head was crown'd with joy. weeping. The mountains of Urizen. My fountains. fall & they faint. on whose tops silver. EY. . She led him into Shadows & thence fled. are rocks of Desolation. 12 banquets] banquet EY. Night ' v. once of wisdom dwelt. Los heard reviving: he Siez'd her in his arms. palace walked in gardens of delight. 9 drop Once how I walked from sons of wisdom stood around. like a bright rainbow. in Rapturous delusive trance.' 11 Ah ! how shall mansion Ah! how submit to this dark Urizen the King r ? Once on the heights this? is I stretch'd my throne sublime. fine : — Thus sang this Lovely one. The Woes of Urizen shut up in the deep dens of Urthona. outstretch'd the immense. the harpers follow'd with harps. & fading.' 9 Once 3 of Urizen] EY omit. Upon & smiling.Prophetic Books am weary 347 lay thine hand upon me. delight] Once how I from my 10 follow'd] came EY. & water them in vain. my palace in gardens of delight. The gardens of wisdom are become a field of horrid graves.

30 Saying . Deep] Saying. 24 darken] darkened EY. on Till my silver hover' d But now bed I slept. light that filled bright the deep. and lo. for who call'd & And ' said. He I holy workmanship. Light spring up and shine. envyings] envying EY. .Prophetic Books 348 Then in And walked ivory pavilions I slumber'd in the noon. Were kept back from my Lord & from his chariot of mercies. & sweet dreams round me . than the swifter light. . .' & my my me from heard the mild 'O Light spring up from the Deep. up from the deep EY. 25 eyes] eye EY. & holy voice & I sprang crown'd me 29 up with a Son who wanders on the ocean. 15 round me hover'd] hovered round EY. Go forth & guide shine. his forget the spheres Was a reflection of his face 1 well remember. Because the Steeds once of Urizen. gave to me a silver scepter. did I close my treasuries with roofs of solid stone. golden crown. O O O I keep the horses of the day in silver pastures? 21 refused the lord of day the horses of his prince. Saying. 13 in the silent night among sweet smelling my flowers. 17 soags are turned into cries of Lamentation under & my palace deep sighs my Mountains. my land & my darken'd is men wise are departed.' 13 pavilions] palaces EY. And darken all my Palace walls with envyings & hate ? O did ! I ! ! Fool to think that ! I could hide from his all piercing 25 eyes The gold & Fool silver could ! I & costly stones. I sprang 31 & crown'd me] crowned EY. My Heard on roofs .

& find that pulsation That shakes deep 49 my caverns with strong Shudders . 46 steeds of Light] EY omit of th}-] the EY. wither'd by winds. Then love shall shew its root in deepest Hell. The stars threw down their spears & fled naked away. 47 Steeds] steeds of light EY. 41 on the steps] on steps EY. When thought is closed in caverns. I siez'd thee. . even to the hell. bow'd down with him. This may be the thy wife] . that they might run chariot of pride. In my left hand falling. Hell] EY. didst Then thou keep with Strong Urthona the gates of heaven But now thou gates of on the steps step'd art living . 34 councils] council EY. I call'd I siez'd thee. And thy fair divine. by winds] by the winds EY. . beauteous Luvah thou art faded like a flower. crown'd with the gold of heaven. night] That shakes my cavern with strong shudders. . will I these Explore arise. When thou didst bear the golden cup at the immortal tables Thy children smote their fiery wings. Light 50 That . . We fell. 38 is EY omit is.Prophetic Books went not wrath I forth hid myself on black clouds of I : 349 my 33 : the stars around my feet in the night of councils dark. 37 And like a lilly is thy wife Vala. perhaps this is the night Of Prophecy. 35 spears] spears of light EY. 52 When . too pure for 41 locks shadow'd thine eyes from the divine effulgence. way from Enitharmon. 42 the] this EY. Because thou gavest Urizen the wine of the Almighty 45 in thy golden For steeds of Light. night EY. & Luvah When Thought is hath burst his clos'd in Caves. And. Thy pure feet other feet. I I pour'd the stolen wine. dark Urthona. love shows roots in deepest hell . dens. drunken with the immortal draught. gave to thee the Steeds. from fell my throne sublime.

temptuous be cultivated towards the poor and oppressed— in fact the antithesis of Blake's own sentiment passage seems to me : — 'Can And This passage. Smile when they frown. The lines are connecting the couplet with a passage in The Four Zoas. Say he is overgorg"d.' but was unable to see how this could ' ' ' ' ' I have come to the conclusion that this is the right reading. Thou Four Zoas. . With pomp give every crust of bread you give. we reluctantly leave the deciphering of the word that It would have biographical interest. and when a So shall we . In the opinion of Mr. word.' The argument of this conexplanatory of that of the couplet. If pale. the doubtful word might be From a photointended for compose. Written in pencil on the right-hand margin of the verso of the third sheet of Night vi. not be in sorrow too?* I in Night vii. Say he smiles you hear him sigh. man looks pale With labour & abstinence say he looks healthy & happy. in as an interesting illustration of the note of Elizabethan imitation surviving his prophetic writings as late as 1797.' conquer. there are enough And. worldly-wise advice. Both are as to the attitude to to the addressed man. & drowns his wit tho' you know that bread & water are all In strong drink if Preach temperance. but worthy of quotation.' or improve. even too many. shall never have peace within thy breast." shalt After fruitless efforts. let them die .' cannot be injui-e to future editors. frown when they smile. me to of this Linnell. If you would make the poor live with temper. say he is ruddy. Jun. by supplied kindly passage. With regard to this word EY comment: the original. which occurs ' see another's woe. not only as a specimen of Blake's shrewd satire..' inspire.' I read the word Mr. Born. when his children sicken. graph make good sense. and causes the couplet to read as follows 'One conquer] I illegible in : "Till thou dost Thou (?) — injure the distrest never have peace within thy breast. & pomp. as conquer. or nearly twenty years after the date Since then of his boyish effort 'King Edward the Third. . runs: — Compell the poor to live upon a Crust of bread by soft mild arts gove[r]n over all: let Moral duty tune your tongue But be your hearts harder than the nether millstone.Prophetic Books 50 111 Till thou dost [conquer] the distrest. looks like nothing but an impossible term. . with gracious cunning then give with Magnify small gifts: reduce the man to want a gift. & our Earth will be overrun Without these arts. John Linnell.

those just & Worlds shall live for ever. Reduce all to : 35 pity his children till .' Beside rooted the tree of Mystery. in different aspects. and sighs and death-sweat of the victims of Urizen's laws. true to our own Imaginations. symbolize See Four Zoas. O Young Men of the New Age set Latin slaves of the Sword. as spaniels are taught with we 1 can art. 70.Prophetic Books He can Flatter his wife afiford. Perturbed black and deadly. in Jesus our Lord. ! your foreheads against the ignorant Hirelings.in mountain Gil. WBY. who would. but when the New Age is at leisure to Pronounce. however.' which is formed of the 8 Mills] ' tears them hills Gil.. which we WMR. of Plato & Cicero. Ellis. for ever Painters on you I call. ! Sculptors! Architects! Suffer not the fash[i]onable Fools to depress your powers by the prices they pretend to give for contemptible works. the Court & the University. is Prophetic Books. where. passage & f. These lines occur as part of the Preface following the prose The Stolen and Perverted Writings of Homer & Ovid. depress Mental & prolong Corporeal War.' For the context see Ellis and Yeats (iii. on the strand of a lake of waters but of spaces. this passage printed with such extraordinary inaccuracy as to suggest that the whole poem has been practically rewritten by Mr. and the Blake's conception of natural religion. or the expensive advertizing boasts that they make of such works believe Christ : & his Apostles that there is Men whose whole Greek or Roman Models a Class of We do not want either Destroj'ing. if they could. For we have Hirelings in the Camp. all will be set right. 71). mountains] delight is in we are but if of Eternity. . Night viii. is From MILTON And did those feet in ancient time Walk upon England's mountains And was the holy Lamb of God On 1 ? green England's pleasant pastures seen ? And did the Countenance Divine Shine forth upon our clouded hills And was Jerusalem builded here Among these dark Satanic Mills? 5 ? ' 2.' 2 upon] over Swinb. are set up by artifice against the Sublime of the Bible. & those Grand Works of the more ancient & consciously ' Milton. In Blake's mythological world the mills of Satan are ' not situated eastward of Golgonooza (or Law). Shakspeare & Milton Memory were both curb'd by the general malady & infection from the silly Greek & Rouze up. passim. ' : professedly Inspired Men will hold their proper rank. which all Men ought to contemn. our will. & the Daughters of shall become the Daughters of Inspiration. All these.

I will not cease Xor 13 Sword sleep my shall From JER USALEM [To the Public] Reader And of books Jemsalem. I pretend not to holiness of men yet I pretend to love. . converse with daily as man with man. which is ' ' ' ' words Sheep on the banks of the Ocean. The Enthusiasm . . sinful ! ! to . ' ' : I again display my Giant forms to the Public former Giants & Fairies having reciev'd the highest reward possible. . & . begins After m}.Prophetic Books 352 Bring Bring Bring Bring my Bow of burning gold my Arrows of desire my Spear O clouds. . The gaps here and in the preceding prose passage are the result of flaws in Blake's stereotype. . & the more to have an interest in Therefore what you do not the Friend of Sinners...' ' After this come the lines above. Reader. will never enter there. . I also hope the Reader will be with me. of those with whom to be connected is to be . the missing words having been chipped out It may have been Blake's intention to insert either by accident or design. the and .three years slumber f. but I know of no copy in which this has been done.. . the Divine Body. to see. WMR. me for this energetic exertion of vay talent. I. 2 them by hand. . 3. of Sin he who waits to be righteous before he enters into the Saviour's I am perhaps the most kingdom. I cannot doubt that this more consolidated & extended Work will be as kindly recieved. followed by Blake's account Of the Measure in which the . . .. of the following Poem.. This headed To the Public (flanked on either side by the and Goats '). wholly One in Jesus our Lord. ..' Printed only by Swinb. approve.. of heaven God from whom of that forming part of Blake's introduction to Chap.. Swin- . address. Till we have built Jerusalem In England's green & pleasant Land. unfold my Chariot of fire me me me me ! 9 ! ! ! ! from Mental Fight.. and WBY.. Poem is written. the Author hopes .. to whom the Ancients look'd and saw his day afar off. My . in my hand. who is the God and Lord . . The Spirit of Jesus is continual forgiveness with trembling & amazement. i.

& the form is the Divine Vision. which SAMPSON 27. thus supplies the lacunae. 11 Such visions As my I Jerusalem f.' begins A a : — This . Again Thunder of Thought. Earth. And A This is Jerusalem in every Man. be. is headed ' To the Jews. 54. i To Primrose Hill and Saint John's Wood. • • • 111 [To the Jews] The fields from Islington to Marybone. 1-5 : — In great Eternitj'. Tabernacle of Mutual Forgiveness. 26. on a plate containing a full-page illustration of the figure of Jerusalem watching Hand ' in flames. every particular Form gives forth or Emanates Its own peculiar Light. Among Jerusalem.' some such — — [best boon] of heaven [lover] of books ! of that God from whom [they first were given]. Even from the depths of Hell his voice I hear in To Man Within the unfathom'd caverns of my Ear. 284. me is named : Liberty. f. Male & Female Clothings. though not. forming part of Blake's introduction to Chap. p. Jerusalem. & flames of fierce desire. . have appear'd to order'd race have run Engraved in capital letters.' Reader ' ! my the passage might be better preserved by continuity of reading as : 9 Hell. burne. — : Reader ' And The lover of books ! of that — opinion. Jerusalem is called Liberty among the Children of Albion.' the Light Tent And & 2 race] course Russell and Maclagan. lover of heaven God from whom all things are given. Essay.Prophetic Books Who 353 mysterious Sinai's awful cave the wondrous art of writing gave. he speaks in thunder and in fire. 11. 2. henceforth shall live in harmony. f. preface. white on a black ground. Were builded over with pillars of gold And there Jerusalem's pillars stood. the Sons of Albion. Therefore I print nor vain my types shall : & Heaven. is his Garment. in very happily 5 And ! 9 types] type WBY. Jerusalem. C'p.

the Eternal. ' ' " But now the Starry Heavens are fled from the mighty limbs of Albion. the Emanation of the Giant Albion. & is.' be unnecessary to explain to any student of Blake that 'Jews' here mean the Hebrew race as 'Jerusalem' means the city so named.Prophetic Books 354 Her Little-ones ran on the fields. is explained by a passage in the same chapter. the most Ancient. in the loins of Abraham & David. O Israel. Ye are united. who were Druids. what I — both see and hear In regions of Humanity.' Sacrifice & War. became apparent on Earth. : ' I write in South Molton Street. Heber. It is True and cannot be controverted. in One Religion. The Return of Israel is a Return to Mental as the Prophets had foretold. his Bride. Take up the Cross. ' ! ! " All things Begin it to Wickedness. the Saviour. Pancrass & Kentish-town repose Among her golden pillars high. This poem summarizes the principal myth told in more detailed form in Chap. 38. in London's opening streets. and Noah. followed by the paragraph ' Satan : ' If If Humility is tradition that your Christianity you. & the Everlasting The Wicked will turn Huzza Selah Gospel. Shem. the Righteous to Righteous- ! & End in Albion's Ancient Druid Rocky Shore. 'Jerusalem. O ye Inhabitants of Earth. 2. this you received from the Druids. f. The former signifies merely the dwellers in Jerusalem or state of spiritual liberty. the Lamb of God. Amen ness. .& : they were separated from him by cruel Sacrifices and when compulsory cruel Sacrifices had brought Humanity into a Feminine Tabernacle. 43 . contained in his Limbs are all — the true Christians Animals is True. Among her golden arches which 9 Shine upon the starry sky. & follow Jesus." 'Your Ancestors derived their origin from Abraham. 5 The Lamb And fair Jerusalem. 11.' After this come the lines above. The Religion of Jesus. Paraplirases of this poem may be referred to in Ellis and Yeats It will as little ' ' . & in his Chaotic State of Sleep & Adam & the whole World was Created by the Elohim. 42. The geographical symbolism under which Blake typifies mental states by London districts. Among the little meadows green. the Emanation of the Giant Albion that the Learned have explored ? Patriarchal Religion ? If it is true. You have a tradition that Man anciently contain'd in his mighty limbs all things in Heaven & Earth." Albion was the Parent of the Druids. Can I it be ? Is it a Truth Was Britain the Primitive Seat of the my title-page is also True. Man O Jews. as the Druid Temples (which are the Patriarchal Pillars & Oak Groves) over the whole Earth witness to this day. of God among them seen. that Jerusalem was. divided under his fourfold sj'stem into four quarters.

well wrought affections Enamel'd with love & kindness. Go on. and the bricks. 17 our] her Shep. with cruel Og.Books Pj^ophetic 355 The Jew's-harp-house & the Green Man. near mournful Ever weeping Paddington ? is that Calvary and Golgotha Becoming a building of pity and compassion ? Lo The stones are pity. The Ponds where Boys to bathe delight. Labour of merciful hands the beams & rafters are forgiveness The mortar & cement of the work. Should Crucify What 21 are those golden Builders doing 25 Near mournful ever-weeping Paddington. . Welhng's Gil. Standing above that mighty Ruin. in Satan's Synagogue. What WMR. She walks upon our meadows green of God walks by her side 1 . (ii. never forgotten. loveth thee Thou art one with her & knowest not of self in thy supreme joy.' Is : : ! : : : See also the conclusion of prose note A to vi. well contrived words. '• — where was the burying-place that Of soft Ethinthus ? near Tyburn's fatal Tree ? is Mild Zion's hills.. builders in hope tho' Jerusalem wanders far away. 25 Cp. And every English Child is seen. 12. Children of Jesus & his Bride. Always comforting the remembrance the floors. The fields of Cows by William's farm. Where Satan the first victory won : 196-198) and in the Introduction to the reprint of Jerusalem edited by Russell and Maclagan. & the tiles engraven gold. firm fixing. devotion : O Prepare the furniture. Without the gate of Los among the dark Satanic wheels. Shine 13 in Jerusalem's pleasant sight. are those golden builders doing ? f. The curtains. The cielings. tears of honesty the nails ! : : : : the screws & iron braces are well wrought blandishments. : thy pitying looms wrought . The Lamb 7 . thanksgiving Lambeth. a 3 . humility And And : . the Lamb's Wife. written in the original stereotype WBY. most ancient promontory. 15 William's] This name is obscurely Willan's Shep. ' . I Marybone] Marylebone WBY. tears & in sighs. 25-44 II. & With Moral Self-righteous Law. For comfort woven the hearths. Jerusalem. Forgiving trespasses and sins Lest Babylon. into lovely forms there the secret furniture of Jerusalem's chamber wrought Lambeth the Bride.

Create a Heaven in which all shall be pure of Chastity Striving to In their Own Selfhoods. & acros the Sea. Jerusalem. f. 37 in flames of fire stretch'd his Druid Pillars far. & who chargeth his Angels with . .Prophetic Books 356 Where Albion And beneath the slept fatal Tree. 29 the Druid's golden Knife Rioted in human gore In Offerings of Human Life? They groan'd aloud on London Stone. — 53 Cp. 24-31 Polypus of Death. He wither'd up the Human Form By laws of sacrifice for sin. Thro' Maiden. The Rhine was red with human blood The Danube roU'd a purple tide 45 . wither 'd up sweet Zion's Hill every Nation of the Earth From 49 . And in a dark Land gave her birth. They groan'd aloud on Tyburn's Brook 33 : Albion gave his deadly groan. He wither'd up Jerusalem's Gates. in Natural Selfish Chastity And to & holy banish Pity dear Mutual Forgiveness & to become One Great Satan to the most powerful Selfhood to murder the Divine : Inslav'd In : : Humanity whose sight folly r all are as the dust. O Spectre over Europe and Asia. : * 53 O Withering the By Laws Human Form by Laws of Sacrifice for Sin. from Lambeth's Vale. 11. On the Euphrates Satan And over Asia stretch'd He stood. Satan his name He . ! translucent all within. Till it But O became a Mortal Worm. Poplar & Old Bow. 49. And Albion's Spectre from his Loins Tore forth in all the pomp of War. his pride. Jerusalem Down War & In fell 41 thro' howling. & Abhorrence I am wither'd up. all the Atlantic Mountains shook. death 8: woe.

By his own law shall surely die. Jerusalem. 84 law] hand Russell and Maclagan. cruel Patriarchal pride 77 . thy Love my Spirit to Subdue my Spectre Create . ' ! . 81 . The Bride and Wife of the Lamb. f. 11. O God. The Human Hands. . Jerusalem. 46. Form was the still 357 Human Face & Feet. 11. And passing thro' the Gates of Death.' — 81 Cp. Destroying all the World beside ? A man's worst enemies are those Of his own house & family And he who makes his law a curse. 76 Cp.Prophetic Books The Divine Still Weeping. Art thou return'd to Albion's Land. And Jerusalem thy Bride? is Come to Depart arms my & : never more but dwell for ever here . 25-28 79 alone] above Shep. when a man's worst enemies Alas in a Religion Shall be those of his own house and family Of Generation. 1 here reclaim thee as my own. Jesus And Vision ! in still was seen. mortal clay. thou art Not an Avenger : ' ! — . 33. Worship'd as God by . warlike Fiend Spectre of Albion In clouds of blood & ruin roU'd. 17. to destroy by Sin and Atonement happy Jerusalem. he is the Great Selfhood the Mighty Ones of the Earth. — Satan arm'd in 73 ! gold ! thy soft Family-Love. ! My Selfhood Is this Thy 69 . Human Form was the & weak thine the 57 Divine . to thy Fear. And O Lamb thou of God whom ! I 65 Slew in my dark self-righteous pride. The time will come. thine ! & thine & Breath. f. Planting thy Family alone. 18 So spoke the Spectre to Albion : — ' Satan. 61 Entering thro' the Gates of Birth.

And cast his Spectre into the Lake. walk'd in every Nation. 42. 10-12 Awake. And cast his own Spectre into the Lake — Untill the arrival of that hour. Book \st rdg. Book \st rdg.. Both heart 85 Cp. Jerusalem. in — London every Nation walk'd. 4. Each Man is in his Spectre's power. del. 11. Monk of Charle- his] the MS. At some time Blake numbered these four lines in the MS. Amen. del. Jerusalem. Milton. to read : — 'When his Humanity awake. intending the stanzas . & in heart 11.' . ever & ever. here apparently intended as a continuation of the time. The original draft of these lines is found on p.' IV Each Man is in his Spectre's power Untill the arrival of that hour When his Humanity awake. Book. mutual in love In the Exchanges of And London & harmony. f. i. awake Him Of : ' — reclaim thy Reasoning Spectre. 4 his] his own MS. opposite these In the margin of the printed for the preceding : — first lines is an unfinished stanza. written immediately below one of the stanzas of 'The maine' ('When Satan first the black bow bent'). del. 3. 'And there to Eternity aspire The selfhood in a flame of fire. in every Land. I Each Man] This world MS. . 24. Book \st rdg. Mutual shall build Jerusalem. ' f. Albion. written in reversed characters on a scroll to the left of a large bowed figure. Subdue to the Divine Mercy. Book the MS. 43 : hand hand. 41. Cast him down into the Lake ! Los. 12 of the MS.' MS. Seated on the scroll is a sprite holding a pen in his hand. that ever burneth with fire. Till then the Lamb of God 4 Cp. afterwards deleted.Prophetic Books 35^ Exchanges every Land my In Shall walk 85 & mine. Book. 3 When his] Untill MS. 2. 40. * f.

the Selfish Virtues of the Natural Heart. ' You. but how cannot concieve. he . and not of the Forgiver of Sin and their God Deism Your Religion. " God. and many believed what they saw.' and The Spiritual States of the Soul are all Eternal. are so : O Deists you are ! profess yourselves the Enemies of Christianity and you the Enemies of the Human Race & of Universal also Man is born a Spectre or Satan. Righteousness. following the conclusion of Blake's preface to Chap. when a Religious Man falls into Sin. ! — by the means of what you call Natural Religion and Natural Philosophy. Will any one say "Where are those who worship Satan under the Name of God?" Where are they? Listen Every Religion that Preaches Vengeance for Sin is the Religion of the Enemy & Avenger. & will erect the Synagogue of Satan. New a Experimental Theory. as the Ancients saw plainly by Revelation. or a Methodist either. charge the Spiritually Religious with a Monk. 52. This was the Deism is the same. in the same. On f. i : Grey Monk talk'd with the I 359 as we stood light. Rousseau. and Prophecied of Jesus. and of Natural Morality or Selfthe is Worship God of the of this World. to We be holier than others . which State must be put off before he can the State named Rahab perpetuate Tyrant Pride.' The address either side of the title ' ' ' runs ' : — He never can be a Friend to the Natural Morality. & the Laws of that Babylon which he foresees with the Spiritual and not the Natural Sword. Man must & will have Some Religion if he has not the Religion of Jesus he will have the Religion of Satan. Human Race who is the Preacher of he is a flatterer who means to betray. shall shortly be destroyed He is in . Gibbon. & his present State. O Deists is Satan Named by the Divine Name.Prophetic Books [To the Deists] Monk saw a I of Charlemaine my Arise before sight In beams of infernal Jerusalem. & requires Selfhood continually & must continually be changed into his direct But your Greek Philosophy (which is a remnant of Druidism) Contrary. or Natural Religion to . can be a Hypocrite are Men of like passions with others. & is altogether an Evil. Hume. & pretend not 'Voltaire. 3. Hypocrisy I . be the Friend of Man. Nature. ' To the Deists are the bracketed sentences Rahab is an Eternal State. Distinguish between the Man. therefore. & ends Religion of the Pharisees who murder'd Jesus. ! ." and destroying all who do not calling the Prince of this World to the intire abrogation of ' : worship Satan under the Name of God. teaches that Man is Righteous in his Vegetated Spectre— an Opinion of fatal & accursed consequence to Man.

. Book xlii. call'd his Confessions. In my footnotes I give here the final readings For deleted readings see MS. conescape my charge that you are Pharisees & Hypocrites. 'When Satan first the black bow bent. is version in the Pickering MS. Rise. Men Good by Nature. & especially the Religious whose errors Rousseau found no friend. probably added by Blake when about to Stanzas 4 and 6 occur also as stanzas 2 and 8 of the this poem. Book version. Book xlii.Righteous. & Friendship cannot exist without Forgiveness of sins continually. & Fredericks. & not a confession. Book version of the stanzas. under the title The Grey Monk. Book. for Whitefield pretended not to be holier than others but conVoltaire Rousseau You cannot fessed his Sins before all the World. . Book. Book WBY. for you are talking of the Virtues of the Human Heart. Forgivers of Sin. you shall ever dwell ' ' Thou 9 ! ' . 9 sound] said you] thou MS. and traninto the Pickering MS. Gibbon arose with a And The 5 Voltaire with a wracking wheel Schools. himself one. which is Natural Religion. lazy Monk In vain condemning glorious War And. War. original stanza 12 stanza 6 engrave . 12 of the MS. can never be the cause of a But the Religion nor of a single War Martyrdom. 3 as beams we] where he MS.Prophetic Books 360 lash of steel. Foote in calling Whitefield Hypocrite was .' is a revised . as he WBY. and particularly of your ! ! stantly own. MS.' The first (see MS. in clouds of learning roU'd. engraving seven stanzas here as part oi Jerusalem. he found them Evil. The Book written by Rousseau. that vou by you may accuse others. of the MS. & bind him ^ : ' in his Cell ! to ought not to be call'd a Hypocrite this title is more properly to be given a Player who falls into Sin. of Jesus. is an apology & cloke for his sin. who alone are its causes & its actors. . the Lewis's thought ' War. 4 In beams] In the 11 your] thy MS. Those who Martyr others or who cause War are Deists. this display of pretended Virtue chiefly design to expose. ' ' ' ' four stanzas are practically the same as those of the version in the MS. but never can be The Glory of Christianity is To Conquer by Forgiveness. But you also charge the poor Monks & Religious with being the causes of while 3'ou acquit & flatter the Alexanders & Caesars. in your Cell. Arose with War in iron & gold. whose profession is Virtue & Morality & the making Men Self. Book. Forgiveness of Sin. . they sound afar. stanza 7 is also the final version of the original draft and a marginal addition. All the Destruction therefore in Christian Europe has arisen from Deism. This Blake afterwards separated into two distinct poems. and The Grey Monk in the Pickering MS.' The original version forms part of a larger poem found in first draft on p.). scribing others. Book.

f. He forg'd the Law into a Sword. And let the shadowy drum speed on the arrows black. is an Intellectual thing a Sigh is the Sword of an Angel King the bitter groan of a Martyr's woe Is an Arrow from the Almightie's Bow. WBY. 77. Only wind it into a ball.Prophetic Books 361 red ran from the Grey Monk's His hands & feet were wounded wide. And spill'd the blood of mercy's Lord. the Martyr's WBY omits the. version. For a Tear 13 red ran] ran red 11. 18 And the Moral] 24 this] 27 a Martyr's] 25 a Tear] the tear MS. Night bow draw . engraved from the the MS. WMR. His body bent. Book.' which is found both in the MS. Again the black Four Zoas. Titus O ! 17 Charlemaine Rousseau Gibbon Vain Constantine ! Voltaire 21 ! ! 13 ! ! Your Grecian Mocks & Roman Sword Against this image of his Lord . Book. The blood side.' These lines occur as continuation of a passage which in its reference to the and the northern drum are reminiscent of the stanza Thy father drew his sword in the north. Book. : Again the elemental strings to your right breasts draw. vii (EY. 46 (reversed) of version being the first deleted . When Satan first the black bow bent And the Moral Law from the Gospel rent. ' 17 Cp. MS. the only difference in the first MS. VI [To the Christians] give you the end of a golden string. 642-644) : — 25 . his arms & knees Like to the roots of ancient trees. draft on p. Jerusalem. And And WBY. It will lead you in at Heaven's gate I Built in Jerusalem's wall. Book and in the ' battle Pickering the MS.

but that which is a Sin in the sight of cruel Man. I know of no other Christianity. Every moment lost is a moment that cannot be redeemed every pleasure that intermingles with the duty of our station is a folly unredeemable. . the struggles of intanglement with incoherent roots. devastation of the things of the Spirit ? Answer this to yourselves. & expel from among you those who pretend to despise the labours of Art & Science. calling it pride & selfishness & sin. which alone are the labours of the Gospel. even as south a . in some Mental pursuit for the Building up of Jerusalem.Prophetic Books 362 ' have given ' ' ' in 1. That to Labour in Knowledge is to build up Jerusalem and to Despise Knowledge is to Despise Jerusalem & her Builders? And remember He who despises & mocks a Mental Gift in another. which has the two mottos in the left margin Religions and Saul. 3. is not so in the sight of our kind God. which Dies ? What is Immortality but the things relating to the Spirit. are they not all Mental Gifts ? shipped in Spirit & in Truth. i. before all the World. and of no other Gospel. & & manifest to the thought ? Can you think at all & not pronounce heartily. & is planted like the seed of a wild flower among our reading for give ' lines of Blake's preface to ' ' ' ' ' We . mocks Jesus. the real & eternal World. of this Vegetable Universe is but a faint shadow. are they any Performances ? What are all the Gifts of the Is God a Spirit who must be worGospel. Why persecutest thou me ? runs :— are told to abstain from fleshly desires that we may lose no time from the Work of the Lord. This stanza forms the opening The Chap. than the liberty both of body & mind to exercise the Divine Arts of Imagination. wheat. the giver of every Mental Gift. Idleness. discountenance every one among you who shall I call pretend to despise Art & Science upon you in the Name of Jesus What is the Life of Man but Art & Science ? is it Meat & Drink ? is not the Body more than Raiment ? What is Mortality but the things relating to the Body.' Devils are False preface. Imagination. Saul. which Lives Eternally? What is the Joy of Heaven but Improvement other than Mental Studies & ! ! What are the Pains of Hell but Ignorance. and are not the Gifts of the Spirit Every-thing to Man ? O ye Religious. & in which we shall live in our Eternal or Imaginative Bodies when these Vegetable Mortal Bodies are no more. & thundering course round heaven & earth. addressed To the Christians. All the tortures of repentance are tortures of self-reproach on account of our leaving the Divine Harvest to the Enemy. Let every Christian as much as in him lies engage himself openly & publicly. Wheel Of fire surrounding all the heavens it went From west to east against the current of : Creation. not this plain : ! which always appear to the ignorance-loving Hypocrite as Sins. Is in the things of the Spirit? Bodily Lust. and devour'd all things in its loud Fury. ' I stood among my valleys of the And saw a flame of fire. What were which all their spiritual gifts ? What is the Divine Spirit ? is the Holy Ghost any other than an Intellectual Fountain ? What is the Harvest of the Gospel & its Labours? What is that Talent which it is a curse to hide? What are the Treasures of Heaven which we are to lay up for ourselves. The Apostles knew of no other Gospel.

" " Is this the law of Jesus. Go therefore. "It is the Wheel Its Name of Religion. Shepherd prints note to the preceding poem. Heal thou the sick of spiritual disease.' vi and vii as a single poem with the title Jerusalem. like to the Pharisees Crucifying & encompasing sea <& land For proselytes to tyranny & wrath. cast out devils in Christ's name. This terrible devouring sword turning every way?" He answered: "Jesus died because he strove : I its Name Against the current of this Wheel Is Caiaphas. It is Natural Religion. Book. forming the conclusion of the address 'To the and immediately following the long passage quoted in the footNot in the MS. Creating Nature from this fiery Law By self-denial & forgiveness of Sin. at foot of Christians. To smite with terror Those that are & with punishments sick. the dark Preacher of Death. little And I asked a Watcher & a Holy-One he answer'd. & said. And close her from thy ancient walls? ! f.' * 4 close] chase Swinb. from its dire Travelling thro' the night And restless fury Man himself shrunk up By it the . To the Christians. Pity the evil for thou art not sent . wept. & of punishment. Opposing Nature.Prophetic Books By it Sun was roU'd the into an orb 36 o . . Moon faded into a globe for." forth out of thy For Hell : is : ' Vll [To the Christians] England ! awake ! awake awake ! ! r Jerusalem thy Sister calls Why wilt thou sleep the sleep of death. 77. Into a root a fathom long. But Jesus is the bright Preacher of Life. & the Prisoners set free. But to the Publicans & Harlots go Teach them True Happiness. but let no curse : Go mouth to blight their peace open'd to Heaven thine eyes beheld The dungeons burst. Of sin. of sorrow. .

couplets. where this stanza is engraved in reversed characters Below the two the left margin of a three-quarter-page illustration.' which seem intended as title to the lines above. .64 Prophetic Books Thy hills & valleys felt her feet Gently upon their bosoms move Gates beheld sweet Zion's ways Then was a time of joy and love. .. are the words Especially to the in ' Female. if Jentsahyn. Recieve the Lamb of God to dwell In England's green & pleasant bowers. 2 and 3.' and place between Russell and * 11. also written in reversed writing. the time returns again & London's towers : souls exult. 8r. Vlll [Especially to the Female] In Heaven the only Art of Living Is Forgetting But You & Forgiving on Earth Forgive you shall not find where to Live. Maclagan misread especially the Female. f. : Thy And now Our .

later date and revised at some .VERSES from FOR THE SEXES THE GATES OF PARADISE Written between 1805 and 18 10.

as first issued. book of Engravings. title-page. before the date and imprint and publishers' imprint on plates were added. are executed. The Ancient Britons according to Caesar. has the in their earliest state. The Druids. 1793. in 1882. The British 1793. not by the artist's usual cameo etching At the foot of process. Museum Print Room copy is an example of this first The Beckford issue. 4. : 3. beth The book in this form consisted of a frontispiece. but by ordinary line engraving. or edition. Women in a Siege {these three frontispiece 8. Giants ancient inhabitants of England. Blake No. ' The History Price..' Price.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PREFACE TO THE GATES OF PARADISE Blake's GaUs of Paradise. which vary in size from 2| x if to 4I x 2| inches. Women fleeing from War. 9. the original pencil sketches for which are found in the Rossetti : \ \ \ — \ \ \ \ | I I MS. dated [Lambeth] May 17. Alfred in the countryman's . and sixteen numbered plates of emblematic designs. with Blake's imprint as publisher. King Lear. sold at the Hamilton Palace sale. Boadicea inspiring the Britons against the Romans. where it is described as The Gates of Paradise. a companion volume of England. The Britons' distress depopulation. The book is advertised in Blake's prospectus of October 10.) 6. a small to refer to of which no copy is known to exist. 7. The Gogmagog the Giant into the sea. The Landing of Julius Caesar. a small engravings on title ' book of Engravings. of The Gates of Paradise. The plates. 5. was a small foolscap octavo picture-book with the title For Children The Gates of Paradise [ru/e] \_aflying figure'] 1793I Published by W. y' The would seem preceding entry. copy. 2. & Corineus throws {^del.and Sketch-book supplies a clue to the contents of this missing work \ Blake may also have intended to * This entry reads Landing of Brutus. The i. 3J. {del). jfohjison St. It appears to me probable that the rough draft of subjects for a history of England written on the outer page of Blake's Manuscript. unnumbered subjects are a marginal addition). 13 Hercules Buildings Lamand J. each is a short inscription or legend. Paul's Church Yard.

). 250. Ch. 20 (77. i. The Penance 18. Gilchrist (i. ' ' ' ' ' and Jerusalem. VIII. I agree with 12. beheaded {subjects 77. and Drawings.). Famine occasioned by the Popish interdict (a marginal addition). Charta. poet's biographer could not have fallen had he made any serious attempt to trace the gradual evolution of Blake's symbolic system. it may 14. watry folly.' represented in the earlier gospel. A pro- .' as Doubt self-jealous.' while the ' ' ' ' dark hermaphrodite — ' (or a humanity divided against itself) somewhat violently — favourite figure in Jerusalem is offered as the interpretation of the picture illustrating original plates have been worked over and elaborated in this second issue. printed several years later though Blake has left unaltered the original imprints. stirring the Con" crown'd.' Gil. Edward Edward 15. as my footnotes to the Keys amply demonstrate. the figure of Fire being ' The Fire. interpreted for the sexes.' (See — W. 16 (75 del. These lines. The Cruelties used by Kings & Priests. M.Gates of Paradise 367 engrave and issue. Cloud.' The Gates of Paradise a book which is known to us only from its title-page For Children. 10. 'themselves a little obscure. dated 1793. 102) regards the Keys. 19 {16. reading into what were at first simple allegorical pictures for children the later developed elaborate symbolism in which Blake clothed his full-fledged mystical Thus we find Water. issue by the figure of a survivor of the Deluge. at Calais. ^^ ^^^ ^oot of the frontispiece and sixteen plates of emblems.). 22 {20 del. up the Londoners to resist W. W. deleted). 18 are a marginal addition. Edwin & Morcar Conq^ II. and considerably changed edition. spect of Liberty. of Jane Shore.). the A King John & Mag.' ' now represented as blind in order that the descriptive text. however. is an error into which the original motives. are additions. A 21 (7p del. 18 del. Engravings. 13. house. belong to the same period as Miltofi dise I .ge : For The the Sexes \ Gates | \ of Para| This is in reality a second ^prologue of ten lines\.). 17.) The Gates of Paradise also appeared with the new Rossetti's t/nda ted tit\e-pa. The Plague.' merely as versified explanations of the artist's This. subsequently The fire of London. the Gates of Hell. The lines on the new title-page beginning Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice/ and some part of the The three supplementary plates legends. ' the Black Prince brings his Captives to his father. containing the Keys of the Gates and To the Accuser appear also for the first time. ij del. The Reformation by H. as the contrary to 'For Children. — ' 'Annotated Lists of Blake's Paintings.

Gates of Paradise

368

authority for the text of TJie Gates of Paradise
second form is the copy in the possession of
Mr, John Linnell, junior, formerly belonging to his father,
The twenty-one plates are
Blake's friend and patron.
printed upon separate sheets of paper measuring about
There is no dated watermark. One of the
51. X 4f inches.
two copies from the Rowfant Library is an example of
the first issue, with imprints, but without the legends to the
and the Keys of
plates, and with the second title-page
the Gates inserted from the later impression, probably by
Mr. Frederick Tatham, to whom it formerly belonged.
The plate To the Accuser who is the God of this World

My

in

this

'

'

'

'

is

lacking.

At

a

some

still

later date

Blake retouched the plates and made

further alterations in the text.

These

last revisions

the prologue on the title-page, and in the change
'
in the
of I to
Keys of the Gates.' In the present
edition I follow Blake's final version, taking my text from
a copy in the possession of Mr. W. A. White, of Brooklyn,
New York. This copy, which must have been one of the
There are
last printed, bears the dated watermark 1825.
two other examples of this book in its final form one a copy
in the possession of Mr. James T. Linnell, and the other
a duplicate from the Rowfant Library since acquired by

occur

in

'

'

'

We

'

Mr.

W. A.

White.

Gilchrist, misled perhaps by Blake's retention in the
later issues of the original dated imprints, appears to regard
'

the two forms of The Gates of Paradise For Children
and For the Sexes as contemporaneous issues of the
same work with different title-pages. He also ignores the
'

'

'

fact (first, so far as I
aware, suggested by Mr. W. A.
White in a letter to the present writer) that the Keys
must have been written long after the first
of the Gates

am

'

'

appearance of the little book in 1793.
A comparison of the metaphorical figures found in the
Keys of the Gates with those used by Blake in his
earlier and later prophetic books has convinced me that
could only
the verses in the two issues for the sexes
have been written about the same time as Jerusalem
'

'

'

'

or Milton.
Blake, it is true, not infrequently in certain
earlier writings anticipates the complex mystical formulae
found in those written several years later, or repeats,

long intervals, thoughts or expressions adumBut in the Keys of the
brated in his simpler poems.
Gates
we find no such confusion of earlier and later

after

'

'

Gates of Paradise

369

The whole is a harmonious composition,
repeating in an extremely condensed form, often in identical
words, the full evangel of Jcriisalein.
further clue to the date of the Keys of TJic Gates of
Paradise ' for the sexes may be found in the repetition
In
in 'The Everlasting Gospel' (y^, 1. 96) of the line

symbolism.

A

'

'

'

*

The Everlasting Gosdoubt which is self-contradiction.'
pel,' which was written about 1810, itself contains a con'

number

siderable

of striking parallelisms with

passages

Jerusalem which I have given in the footnotes to that
poem. Jenisalcin bears on its title-page the date 1804,
but this represents the year its engraving was begun rather
than finished, and its completion may well have been the
work of several years. The first issue of TJic Gates of
Paradise in its altered form for the sexes may thus
be assigned with some certainty to the last half of the
decade ending 1810 ^.
Mr. W, M. Rossetti, followed by all later editors^ dates
the 'Keys of the Gates' 1793, with the remark that it
should, strictly speaking, be placed chronologically between
the Songs of Linoccnce and the Songs of Experience.
Messrs. Ellis and Yeats stumble at the threshold of the
The Gates
truth in curiously stating it in its converse form
"
"
value
of Paradise soon after Lafayette are of incalculable
"
Their " keys
will
as interpreting the Prophetic Books.
open the meaning of all the myth, though they will not,
in

'

'

'

:

of course, explain its story.'
All editors follow Gilchrist's text (based apparently upon
B^), but omit the numbers referring to the engraved plates.
facsimile by Mary Hughes and William Muir reproduces

A

*

on the strength of a passage in Blake's Adver(ii. 260),
Public Address,' which refers to the Examiner's attack upon him,
place the first appearance oi Jerusalem at some time later than August, 1808.
'The manner
This passage, which is found on p. 52 of the MS. Book, runs
Ellis

and Yeats

tisement or

'

:

which my character has been blasted these thirty years, both as an Artist
and as a Man, may be seen particularly in a Sunday paper called the
Examiner, published in Beaufort's Buildings the manner in which I have
in

;

poem concerning my three
Felpham, which I shall soon publish.' This,
however, can hardly refer to Jerusalem, though Blake's allusion to his three
years" Herculean labours at Felpham are reminiscent of the opening words
But
of the Address to the Public with which that poem commences.
Jerusalem, though part of it may be the result of his three years' labours at
Felpham, is certainly not a poem conceriiiug ihem and only a very esoteric
school indeed could interpret it as an allegory of his quarrel with Hayley
and Hunt.
rooted out the nest of villains will be seen in a

years"

Herculean labours

at

'

'

'

'

;

SAMPSON

B D

Gates of Paradise

370

the frontispiece, plates 1-6, 8-16, and the plate 'To the
Accuser,' apparently from B^ or B^, with the title-page of
Plate 7, as the legend shows, also
A, For Children.'
belongs to A. Prefixed in ordinary letterpress is the prologue from the title-page of B \ and in a somewhat corrupt
version The Keys of the Gates,' which would seem to have
been wanting in the copy facsimilized.
Appended is a list of the plates of The Gates of Paradise
with their several legends, in the first issue For Children
For the Sexes
(A), and in the first and second issue
'

'

'

'

'

*

(B^andB^).

Frontispiece.
[A caterpillar on a leaf. On a second
human chrysalis like a babe in swaddling-clothes.]
B^ and B^. What is Man
The Sun's
A. What is Man
on
he
it
when
unfolds
the
Depends
Organ that
Light
[i]

leaf a

!

!

|

|

beholds

it.

\Title-page?^

[ii]

A. For

Children

B^ For

etc.

the

B^. For the Sexes etc. (with changes in text of
prologue, for which see footnotes).
1. [A woman under a weeping-willow, holding a babe in
her left arm, and pulling a mandrake out of the ground by
its hair.]
A, B\ and B-. I found him beneath a Tree.
2.
[Old man, resting his hands on his knees, sits upon
a rock beneath a leafless tree in a deluge of rain. The
encroaching flood rises to his feet.] A. Water. B^ and
B^. Water
Thou Waterest him with Tears.
from a crevice
3. [Crouching figure of a man emerging
in a rock.]
A. Earth. B^ and B^. Earth He struggles
into Life.

Sexes

etc.

|

|

4. [Man seated upon a white cloud clasps his forehead
with both hands and gazes steadfastly before him. Behind
him the sky studded with stars.] A. Air. B^ and B^.

On Cloudy Doubts and Reasoning Cares.
[Fiend, blind in B^ and B^, but not in A, standing in
flames, armed with spear and shield.] A. Fire. B^andB^.
That end in endless Strife.
Fire.
6. [Cherub issuing from an Q%g.\
A, B^, and B^. At
the
breaks
shell.
he
for
ripe
hatching
length
7. [Boy in garden, hat in hand, chases flying fairy.
second fairy lies face downwards crushed at his feet.]
A. Alas!
B^ and B^. Alas! [the original inscription
written in centre of page with the addition of the words on
the Female
either side and below] What are these ?
Air

[

5.

|

A

.

Martyr
8.

Is
|

She

also the Divine

Image

.

.

?

[Seated old man, with sword in right hand, leans

Gates of Paradise

37

1

sorrowfully on his elbow, averting his head from the figure
son!
of a joyfully departing youth.]
A, B\ and B'-.

My

my

son

!

of world prepares to mount
9. [Man standing on edge
Two lovers
ladder reared against the crescent moon.
I want
watch him.] A, B^, and B-. I want
One arm upthrust, and head
10. [Man drowning in sea.
A, B^, and B-.
just disappearing beneath the waves.]
!

!

Help! Help!

under a tree, an old man with spectacles
wings of a boy who struggles to escape. Before
him the setting sun. Sec facsimile?^ A. Aged Ignorance.
11. [Seated

clips the

B^ and

B-.

Aged Ignorance

|

Perceptive Organs closed,

their Objects close.
12. [Old man and four sons

and daughters in dungeon
A, B\ and B'-^. Does thy God, O Priest, take such
vengeance as this ?
bed on which
13. [Man, woman, and two children, beside
lies a corpse, watch the ascending spirit of an old man
who points upward.] A, B\ and B^. Fear and Hope are
cell.]

|

Vision.
14.

[Man with

walking-stick striding along country lane.]

A, B^ and B-. The Traveller hasteth in the Evening.
15. [Old man, leaning on crutch, passes through gateway of tomb.] A, B\ and B-. Death's Door.
16.
[Woman in white grave cerements, seated on the
|

A huge worm crawls around her
in burial crypt.
A, B\andB-. I have said to the worm Thou art
my mother and my sister.
Sec text.
[17, 18]. Keys of the Gates.
is the God of this world.
who
Accuser
To
the
[19].

ground
feet.]

See

;

text.

Bb

|

Gates of Paradise

372

FOR THE

THE GATES OF

SEXES.

PARADISE
\Prologue\
Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice,
Such are the Gates of Paradise,
Against the Accuser's chief desire,
Who walk'd among the Stones of Fire.
Not in the first issue of The Gates of Paradise, 'for Children' (1793).
Engraved, in sHghtly different form, on the title-page of the undated first
issue of the Gates for the Sexes' (B'), and, as above, on the later issue of
'

EY (iii. 62), and WBY,
(B"). Printed by Gilchrist (i. 102),
the three latter with the title Introduction,' and by W. Muir with title
Prologue.'
the

WMR,

same

'

'

I
'

Cp. Jerusalem,

f.

49,

11.

25-29

:

Withering the Human Form by Laws of Sacrifice for Sin,
By Laws of Chastity & Abhorrence I am wither'd up.

&

Striving to Create a Heaven in which all shall be pure
holy
In their Own Selfhoods, in Natural Selfish Chastity
to banish Pity
:

And
also
'

f.

dear Mutual Forgiveness
92,

When

15-20

11.

:

'

;

their Crimes, their Punishments, their Accusations of Sin,

all

Al} their Jealousies, Revenges, Murders, hidings of Cruelty in Deceit,
Appear only in the Outward Spheres of Visionary Space and Time,
In the

Shadows

of Possibility by Mutual Forgiveness for evermore.
& in the Prophecy, that we may Forsee 8c Avoid

And

in the

The

terrors of Creation

Vision

&

Redemption

&

Judgment.'

also Jerusalem, f. 7, 1. 66, and f. 43, 1. 61.
Here also may be added
Blake's daring and beautiful perversion of the Agnus Dei, which forms the

See

concluding lines of the second chapter oi Jerusalem: —
'

Come,

O

thou

To Sin &
To Sin in
To record

Lamb

of God, and take

to hide the Sin in

away

sweet deceit

is

the remembrance of Sin.
lovely

!

the open face of day is cruel & pitiless
But
the Sin for a reproach, to let the Sun go down
In a remembrance of the Sin is a Woe & a Horror,

A

1

brooder of an Evil Day, and a Sun rising in blood
then, O Lamb of God, and take away the remembrance of Sin.'
!

Come

3 See note to
11.
'

18-27.

'

Epilogue.'

4 Cp. Jerusalem,

4,
f.

49,

5 Cp. Jerusalem 'To the Public,'
11.

72-74

:

Learn therefore, O Sisters, to distinguish the Eternal Human
That walks about among the stones of fire in bliss & woe
Alternate.'

f.

3,

Gates of Paradise

373

Jehovah's Finger Wrote The Law
Then Wept then rose in Zeal and Awe,

5

;

;

And

the Dead Corpse, from Sinai's heat,
Buried beneath his Mercy Seat.

O

Christians

You

rear

.

Christians

B and all cdd.
'

5 Finger] fingers
.

!

me Why

tell

!

on your Altars high

it

6 Then]

He

9

?

all edd.

7,

8

And

Seat]

.

'

And
Hid

WMR,

B\

Gil.,

W.

Muir.

in the midst of Sinai's heat

beneath His Mercy Seat.'
EY, WHY.
'And in the midst of Sinai's heat
Hid it beneath the Mercy Seat.'
it

The Keys
The

Catterpiller on the Leaf
Reminds thee of thy Mother's

i

Grief.

of the Gates
I.

My

Man

Eternal

set in

The Female from

Repose,

his darkness rose

Engraved upon two plates of 23 and 29
printed to follow plate
Sexes.'
I,

;

lines respectively,

which arc

16 in both issues of Gates of Paradise 'for the

2 Cp. 'Auguries of Innocence' {Pickering MS.),

37, 38

11.

:

'The

Caterpillar on the leaf
Repeats to thee thy mother's

The 'Eternal Man,' or Fourfold Man'
when fallen into mortality) is Blake's term
'

3
'

Four

states of
'

And

Humanity

in its

grief.'

(called by the name of 'Albion'
for Universal Humanity. For the

'

Repose see

Milioti,

the Eternal Man, even Albion upon the

4 This refers to the

'

division

'

'

of

Man

into his

'

f.

34,

'

:

'

He

When

divides into

8, also

&

46

'

(imagination)

the Individual appropriates Universality
Female.'

Male

I.

:

Male and Female Con-

Spectre (reasoning power) and Emanation
chief theme oi Jerusalem.
Cp. f. go, 11. 52, 53
'

trarieties,'

1.

Rock of Ages.'

— the

Gates of Paradise

374

found me beneath a Tree,
Mandrake, and in her Veil hid me.
Serpent Reasonings us entice
Of Good and Evil, Virtue & Vice,

And She

5

A
2.

Doubt

3.

Struggling thro' Earth's Melancholy,

4.

Naked

5.

Blind in Fire, with shield and spear,

Two

Self Jealous,

f.
'

Veil

'

and the

Natural Religion.'
'

And

Also

'

ii,

He

22

1.

:

13

Self contradiction,

is

is like

a mandrake in the earth.'
'

'
7 Serpent is one of Blake's names
lines immediately following referring to his hete noir

see note to

for Nature, this
'

Fear,

Horrid Reasoning Cloven Fiction,

6 Cp. Jerusalem,
'

9

folly.

Shame and

in Air, in

In Doubt, which

For the

Watry

1.

19.

Cp. Jefusalem,

f.

1.

29,

76

:

the vast form of Nature like a serpent play'd before them.'

The

'

Everlasting Gospel

{Rossefti

MS.

cxxxii),

j3, 1.

53

:

'The Serpent Bulk of Nature's Dross.'
8

all edd. omit.

&]

Is

whether he

For definition of

'

description of the
f.

29,

11.

Cp. Jerusalem,

whether a Man

'I care not

39, 40

is

a

f.

is

Wise Man

91,

11.

Good

54,

55

:

or Evil

:

all

that

I

care

or a Fool.'

'

Good and Evil see Jerusalem, f. 10, 11. 7-16. 9 Cp. the
Shadow from Albion's wearied intellect,' Jerusalem,
'

:—

'A sweet entrancing

self-delusion, a wat'ry vision of Albion,

Soft exulting in existence

;

the

all

Man

absorbing.'

interesting to note (a fact hitherto, I believe, overlooked) that the whole
of the page of Jerusalem in which these lines are found occurs also, with
It is

Man or Ancient Man
The Four Zoas was written or
The Four Zoas (Night iii).
begun about 1797, the date on the title-page, though its completion may
perhaps be some years later. Forty-seven out of the seventy leaves of which

a few trifling differences such as the substitution of

'

'

'

'

for 'Albion,' in

the manuscript

is

composed are proofs of Blake's

illustrations to

Young's

Night Thoughts, published in the same year.
II, 12 Cp. Jerusalem, f. 7, 11. 38, 39
Vala comes from the Furnace in a cloud, but wretched Luvah
Is howling in the Furnaces, in flames among Albion's Spectres.'
:

'

13 Fiction] fictions all edd.

13-15 Cp. Jerusalem,
'

...

A

64,

in self contradicting agonj-

dark Hermaphrodite they stood.'

Cp. also 'The Everlasting Gospel,' 7',
'

f.

11.

95, 96:

Reasoning on its own dark Fiction,
In doubt, which is Self Contradiction.'

11.

27-31

:

Gates of Paradise
A dark Hermaphrodite We stood, —

375

Rational Truth, Root of Evil and Good.
Round me flew the Flaming Sword;

17

Round

her snowy Whirlwinds roar'd,
Freezing her Veil, the Mundane Shell.

where the Dead dwell

rent the Veil

I

6.

When weary Man enters his Cave.
He meets his Saviour in the Grave.
Some find a Female Garment there.
And some a Male, woven with care

21

;

Lest the Sexual Garments sweet
Should grow a devouring Winding sheet.
One Dies Alas the Living and Dead
!

7.

One
We]

15

:

and One

!

B ^ and all edd.

I

wept &

'I

!

!

slain

is

said

is

fled

17 Cp. Jerusalem,

"Is

:

25

this the

f.

!

77,

11.

56-62:

law of Jesus,

This terrible devouring sword turning everj- waj- ?
It is Natural Religion.'
He answer'd ...
18 Cp. Jerusalem,
'.

.

f.

19 Freezing] Freeing

Of
also
'

f.

Mundane

the
59,

1.

7,

73

:

indignant self-righteousness like whirlwinds of the north.'

.

11.

2-9

:

W.

Muir.

Shell,

Cp. Jerusalem, f. 63, 1. 44
'among the Caverns

which

froze on all sides

;

f.

64,

i

I.

:

'
;

For the Veil of Vala, which Albion cast into the Atlantic Deep
catch the Souls of the Dead, began to Vegetate & Petrify
Thus, in process of time, it became the beautiful Mundane Shell,

To

.

23, 24 Cp. Jerusalem,

f.

II.

54,

3,

4

:

&

.

'

Tent

.

of the Spectres of the Dead & the Place
& of awaking again into Eternity.'

The Habitation
Of Redemption

A

Tabernacle

of

This

Mutual

is

Jerusalem

Forgiveness,

in

Male

every Man,
and Female

'

Clothings
also
'

f.

61,

Man

1.

51

in the

:

;

Resurrection changes his Sexual Garments at Will.'

25 Cp. Jerusalem, f. 90, 1. 37
Lest the Sexual Generation swallow up Regeneration
and Mt'ltou, f 43, 11. 25-28
:

'

'

:

;

'These are the Sexual Garments, the Abomination of Desolation,
Hiding the Human Lineaments, as with an Ark & Curtains
Which Jesus rent & now shall wholly purge away with Fire
Till Generation is swallow'd up in Regeneration.*
;

27 Dead] the dead

W.

Muir.

In the later Prophetic Books Blake uses

Thro' evening shades I haste away To close the Labours of my Day. :— ' & when the Male & Female Appropriate Individuality. 30 .' 49. But when once I did descry 12. Self Accurst. 54. and 7. 11. 1. The Door And the Thou'rt 16. 32 See description of plate 8 ness. 20. I clip'd the Wings Of all Sublunary Things. 45 Cp. 31. . description. Milton. in Ages of Eternity. — War and deadly contention. and The Four Zoas. double Spectres. that cannot Die. . 11. f. over the Web death' as the equivalent of bodily or 'vegetative' 90.' See also Jerusalem. On the shadows of the Moon. 3 17. 8. : In Aged Ignorance profound. . Man with Man. . Holy and cold. f. And weeping ' f. Hermaphroditic worshippers of a God of cruelty & law. . . 30) see Jerusalem. Cp. 42 Cp. Muir. f. Spectres] spectre (' Reasoning Pride & Self-righteous- the divided to 1. : . Blake's illustration to Blair's Grave. passim. and passim.' ' 39 my] icy all edd. 59.' Jerusalem. 45 Worm Weaving in the Ground my Mother. drovvn'd ! 9. 49 of Life. ' f. too long for quotation. the Universal & Man. of the Daughters of Los weaving the Web of Life with tears and lamentations. 13.' ibid. Wife. 1. 1. also Jerusalem. 26-55. 37 And in depths of my Dungeons Closed the Father and the Sons. f. to the Tomb: Weaving to Dreams the Sexual strife. 41 The Immortal Man 14. 21 31. f. Albion 43 shades] shadows W. ! -^ : 10. 18. For references every Man. Sister. speeches Power in Muir. Jerusalem. Daughter. 11. they become an Eternal Death. 29 By My Son my Son thou treatest me But as I have instructed thee. of Death I open found. 8. 53-55 11. Jerusalem. Climbing thro' Night's highest noon In Time's Ocean falling. f.' ' . 'Death's Door. 6. 96. and light and love. 50 Cp. f. life. Between Father and Son. Was A the Lord. W. i. 15. from the Womb : . 4-6 : — knew that it Humanity. & Albion saw his Form. Jerusalem.Gates of Pai^adise ^^6 In Vain-glory hatcht and nurst. they conversed as 1.

52. canst thou ever change Kate Nor into i Man . 18-25) Man must & will have Some Religion if he has not the Religion of Jesus. Named by the Divine Name. Jcnisaleni. Book. Compell'd others to serve him in moral gratitude & submission. thou art but a Dunce. Jerusalem. Nan. ' For Sin. cxxx). 10-14 : God by — the Mighty — Ones of the Earth'.' — ' Sin. 11. ' f. God and destroying all who do not worship Satan under the Name of God. setting himself above all that is called God . f. 9. Dream under Engraved on a single plate printed as the the Hill. 61. print as a single stanza. Where Satan. which in the Rossetti Rossetti calls and Swinburne 'Prayer' (MS. Truly. 52 every Criminal an Infant Love. Devil. And dost not know the Garment from the Every Harlot was a Virgin once. & will erect the Synagogue of Satan. 11. Synagogues worship Satan under the Unutterable Name. I : : : 'Satan. 98. f. 1. 1. 18 ' : — ' : . And the Spectres of the Dead. in In the untitled War.Gates of Paradise 2>77 \Fjpilogiie\ To who the Accuser The God is World of This My Satan. Will any one say. 11. Where are those who worship Satan under the Name of God ? Where are they ? Listen Every Religion that Preaches Vengeance for Sin is the Religion of the Enemy & Avenger and not of the Forgiver of Sin and their God is Satan. last leaf of the issue 'for the All edd. calling themselves Sons of God. thou art still The Son The lost Morn of in Traveller's weary Night's decline. calling the Prince of this World. Tho' thou art Worshipped by the Names Divine Of Jesus and Jehovah. the 'accuser of for Satan or * 5 ' Mr. Worship'd as and Milton.' Mammon ' sins' stands 3 Cp.' Title\ Cp. Being call'd God. Blake's Address to the Deists at the beginning of the third chapter oi Jerusalem (f. poem & in the 49 : — where are his all Human Sacrifice Druid Temples of the Accuser of MS. 33. making to himself Laws from his own identity. he will have the Religion of Satan.' all In his . Sexes. f.' See also Jerusalem.' : Every Harlot was once a Virgin : ' 5-8 Cp. 48.

Jerusalem^ f. in Legend all edd. 4. Not B ') A. forming a quatrain. 56 : — Objects of Perception seem to vary Perceptive Organs close their Objects seem to close also Perceptive Organs vary If the : : : note also the repetition of the latter to the legend of plate 11 in B^ and line. to be read and 5. B and B° ^ these four lines. omit. . occur as legends to plates respectively illustrating Water. which seem intended consecutively. 3. omit. 11. 37. when he unfolds it. : cloudy Doubts and Reasoning Cares. 11. That end Not him with Tears struggles into Life. 38 such was the variation of Time : & Space. Depends on the Organ that beholds it. 2. 34. to Frontispiece of The Gates ' — for the Sexes' (B' and Cp. 11 Thou He On waterest in A.^ If f.' * Which vary See ' also ibid. All edd. according as the Organs of Perception vary. Air and Fire. 98. ' : in the addition B^. 55. In in endless Strife.o Gates of Paradise yS \^From the Legends to the Plates^ The Sun's Light. Earth. slightly changed.

& Baldwin of Egypt's Lake Cr loves artists as he loves his Meat . Human Heart Dear Mother. dear Mother. and listen to my song Come knock your heads against this stone Cosway. tell me what thou seest there Come 173 347 126 224 35 1 201 201 As As my 322 208 212 176 Are not the joys of morning sweeter As I walk'd forth one may morning Awake.INDEX OF FIRST LINES PAGE A crowned king A fairy leapt upon my knee A A flower was offer'd to 62 3" me black thing among the snow A pair of Stays to mend the Shape Petty Sneaking Knave I knew Strange Erratum in all the Editions Abstinence sows sand all over Ah how shall Urizen the King submit to this dark mansion Ah. the Church Cruelty has a cold Degrade first the Arts if you'd Mankind Degrade what you will this life 's a fiction Does the Eagle know what is in the pit Each Man is in his Spectre's power Earth rais'd up her head England awake awake awake Father father where are you going ? For Fortune's favours you your riches bring For this is being a Friend just in the nick . Frazer. awake. Fortune favours the Brave. my Deep ! sparrows Come. old proverbs say 120 320 239 344 358 107 363 102 209 229 209 . 125 133 ! ! . Kings. Sun-flower weary of time All pictures that 's painted with sense and with thought All the night in woe little — A A ! ! . ! ! ! 345 279 235 lOI 205 132 174 172 17 217 217 207 135 is Do ! 117 204 168 60 170 223 Call that the Public Voice which is their Error ? Can I see another's woe Can there be anything more mean Children of the future Age Come hither. An Old maid early e'er I knew And did those feet in ancient time And his legs carried it like a long fork And in melodious accents I Anger & Wrath my bosom rends I wander'd the forest the Ignorant Savage will sell his own Wife At the first Sound the Golden Sun arises from the little Boy hither. my boy.

Index of First Lines 8o PAGE Fresh from the dewy hill. I told travel'd thro' a Land of Men 156 274 walked abroad on a snowy day wander thro' each charter'd street was angry with my friend was buried near this dyke wash'd them out cS: wash'd them in went to the Garden of Love will tell you what Joseph of Arimathea wonder whether the Girls are mad write the Rascal thanks. till he and I 171 131 121 . that thro' heaven wide Great Men and Fools do often me inspire Great things are done when Men & Mountains meet Grown old in Love from Seven till Seven times Seven Hail Matrimony. the Friend of all mankind Honour & Genius is all I ask ! How How How I help thy Husband's copying sweet I roam'd from field to field sweet is the Shepherd's sweet lot always take my judgment from a Fool can Me ? ' Mother said Dreamt a Dream what can it mean I die ! the ! my 60 284 122 162 ? wind found them blind I taught them how to see give you the end of a golden string : have no name heard an Angel singing laid me dowTi upon a bank love the jocund dance love to rise in a . Hear the voice of the Bard Hear then the pride & knowledge of a Sailor Her Whole Life is an Epigram smart. 175 21S 59 206 157 231 . . . though I by rose up at the dawn of day . am a Statesman and a Saint saw a chapel all of gold saw a Monk of Charlemaine saw a Monk of Charlemaine my 213 361 89 158 156 13 summer morn lovM Theotormon mock thee not. made of Love Having given great offence by writing in Prose He has observ'd the Golden Rule He's a Blockhead who wants a proof of what he can't Perceiv He is a Cock would . ! He makes the Lame to walk. all agree . . 217 227 127 229 296 224 . Rubens. smooth & neatly pen'd Here lies John Trot. —thee am Mocked . the merry year Give Pensions to the Learned Pig Golden Apollo. 55 233 208 207 20S II asked cry 21 233 228 230 89 225 ! am no Homer's Hero you all know ask^d a thief to steal me a peach I 15 224 130 345 205 238 219 157 195 359 my told love love. we He who bends to himself a joy . fear'd the fury of 322 176 106 59 210 my Dear Friend Orator Prig my matches as far as Guildhall die.

Mary Bell thee ? had a Fairy in a Nut Phebus came strutting in Lo the Bat with Leathern wing Love and harmony combine Love seeketh not Itself to please Love to faults is always blind Fool. I say. Rousseau Mutual Forgiveness of each Vice mother bore me in the southern wild mother groan'd. My My My My silks and fine array My Spectre around me night & day My title as a Genius thus is prov'd 90 12 186 218 : ! ! ! ! . laden with fruit.Index of First Lines 38 1 PAGE If e'er I Grow to Man's Estate . what the Prophets write men will act like a maid smiling over a churn If you have form'd a Circle to go into If you mean to Please Everybody. thou art sick ! 40 222 58 179 109 88 295 59 59 ! ' 235 235 226 228 116 364 In futurity In Heaven the only Art of Living Is this a holy thing to see Justice hath heaved a sword to plunge Learn the laborious stumble of a Fool Leave.' I have been call'd Little . Know. my father wept on. ' : Memory. O leave [me] to my sorrows Let the Brothels of Paris be opened Little Little 222 212 lot 237 220 200 128 236 6 232 40 8 61 161 323 123 26 5 5 310 7 206 100 . Merry Sparrow Mock 12 call . my father wept mother groan'd. O thou. I Mock on. 121 in Albion's breast ! Little Fly Lamb who made . and stained O dear Mother Outline of wisdom most sage O for a voice like thunder. who lookest down O why was born with a different face O Winter bar thine adamantine doors I ? ! Of H 's birth this was the happy Once a dream did weave a shade thee 119 169 205 14 96 194 372 129 162 Nail his neck to the Cross nail it with a nail Nature and Art in this together suit No real Style of Colouring ever appears Nought loves another as itself Now Art has lost its mental Charms O Autumn. behold the Philosopher's grave O Rose. you will If you play a Game of Chance. to whose fury the nations are O thou who passest thro' our vallies in O thou with dewy locks. before you begin If you trap the moment before it 's ripe In a wife 1 would desire If If it is true. hither come Merry. you Joe O lapwing thou fliest around the heath O Reader.' they Madman. Voltaire. and a tongue O holy virgin clad in purest white O.

. 175 171 103 177 282 126 228 .. Silence The The . of books . of heaven : Remove away that black'ning church S in Childhood. Wise Reader .. when he unfolds it The Sussex Men are Noted Fools The sword sung on the barren heath The veiled Evening walked solitary down the western 8 237 174 222 316 353 . Graceful. form a shade Sweet Mary. and shook the silent tower The Catterpiller on the Leaf The Caverns of the Grave I've seen The countless gold of a merry heart . ! 91 353 92 2 So 219 199 232 210 Sweet dreams. was foiled Silent. on the nursery floor Samson. the strongest of the children of men. prepare the iron helm of war Rafael. The cripple every step drudges &: labours The Door of Death is made of Gold The fields from Islington to l^.Iarybone The Good are attracted by ]Men's perceptions The harvest shall flourish in wintry weather The little boy lost in the lonely fen The look of love alarms The Maiden caught me in the Wild The modest Rose puts forth a thorn The only Man that e'er 1 knew The sun arises in the East The sun descending in the west The Sun does arise The Sun's Light. come Some people admire the work of a Fool Sound the Flute Such visions have appear'd to me ! Soft deceit 160 177 320 215 235 ! & . 171 .Index of First Lines 382 P loved Phebe drest PAGE me not as he lov'd his friends like beautie's Piping down 214 Queen 55 the valleys wild Pity would be no Prayers plow not 86 134 344 41 221 352 177 206 more Praises reap not Prepare. the first time she ever was there Swelled limbs. Silent Night Since all the Riches of this World Sir Joshua praised Rubens with a smile Sir Joshua praises Michael Angelo Sir Joshua sent his own Portrait to Sleep Sleep I sing . with no outline that you can descrj' Terror house does roar in the That God is Colouring Newton does shew The Angel that presided o'er my birth The bell struck one. created for destruction.. how he 44 161 236 208 207 210 beauty bright Idleness Some look to see the sweet Outlines Some men. Villain at the Gallows tree . Majestic. and 42 211 246 . Sublime. Vision of Christ that thou dost see 99 87 378 204 173 hills.

Who is this. W'hen S'' Joshua Reynolds died W^hen the green woods laugh with the voice of joy When the voices of children are heard on the green When the voices of children are heard on the green W hen you look at a picture. Rembrandt. 236 198 214 98 302 288 377 'Twas on a Holy Tnursday. the Arts grow Cold When old corruption first begun When silver Snow decks Susan's cloaths When silver snow decks Sylvia's clothes I . their innocent faces clean Tyger Tyger burning bright Venetian all thy Colouring is no more Want Matches ? Was I angry with Hayley who us'd me so ill ! 95 no . to this place men in women do require is Born of Mortal Birth is it Whate'er Whate'er to her she cannot know has Married a Wife. . Correggio When a is done Man 191 16 321 215 227 192 97 321 When Klopstock England defied When my mother died was very young When Nations grow Old. ! 323 ! Welcome. thou art but a Dunce 167 56 . S3 23 47 . . and Love To my Friend Butts I write To see a World in a Grain of Sand Truly. My Satan. did'st play Thou waterest him with Tears Thy friendship oft has made my Three Virgins at the heart to ake break of day thou dost [conquer] the distrest Till 350 To a lovely mirtle bound To be or not to be To Chloe's breast young Cupid slily stole To find the Western path does pretend To forgive enemies H To Mercy. little 169 57 61 many mayors 301 7 165 174 378 216 271 Kid. . this country has brought forth This frog he would a wooing ride This song to the flower of Flaxman's joy Thou fair-hair"d angel of the evening Thou hast a lap full of seed They Thou. . Europe. Pity. in what Grove Whether on Ida's shady brow 321 91 . What 60 204 47 177 123 193 stranger. that where only 94 108 225 199 17 with unerring step dares tempt the wilds. . Peace. 43 . . There's Doctor Clash There is a Smile of Love There souls of men are bought . he finds out whether WTien early morn walks forth in sober grey When France got free. . you always can see Where thou dwellest.Index of First Lines PAGE The wild winds weep 14 61 . & 269 170 220 sold These are the Idiots' chiefest arts said this mystery never shall cease This city &. 'twixt fools & Knaves When H y finds out what you cannot do When I see a Rubens.

With happiness stretch'd across the hills Wondrous the Gods. M. . I ? 166 164 . . Fm glad Youth of delight. .Index of First LhZ7tes 84 Why art thou silent & invisible Why of the sheep do you not learn peace Why should be bound to thee Why should I care for the men of thames Why was Cupid a Boy PAGE 168 . 230 304 305 216 209 215 2CO 219 216 226 205 124 d Oxford : Printed at the Clarendon Press by Horace Hart. more wondrous are the Men You all your Youth observ'd the Golden Rule You call me Mad 'tis folly to do so — You don't believe— I won't attempt to make ye You must agree that Rubens was a Fool You say reserve and modesty he has You say their Pictures well Painted be You think Fuseli is not a Great Painter. I "^ O? y I .A. come hither . Wife of the Friend of those I most revere .

.

I .

na 2 8 1969 / PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRAF .

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