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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010

Blind Multiuser Detection in SDMA-aided MIMO OFDM Systems by FastICA Algorithm

Yu Du, Kang Yen, Yechang Fang and Nansong Wu

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Florida International University Miami, Florida, United States E-mail: {dyu002, yenk, yfang003, nwu001}@fiu.edu

Abstract—The techniques of MIMO (Multiple Input and Multiple Output) OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) systems have been adopted by IEEE 802.11n wireless communication standard (Wi-Fi). Multiuser Detection by blind signal separation (BSS) techniques in MIMO OFDM systems recently attracts researchers’ interests by their various advantages. The performance of a MIMO OFDM system mainly depends on reliability and effectiveness of the system, and the measurement of reliability is bit error ratio (BER). On the premise of effectiveness, a new blind multiuser detection approach based on FastICA (fast fixed-point algorithm for independent component analysis) is proposed for a SDMA-aided (Spatial Division Multiple Access) MIMO OFDM system with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) for the target of better reliability. Compared with the usually-used spatial-multiplexing- based MIMO OFDM system, the proposed method offers better BER performance. Simulation results confirm the better reliability of the proposed approach.

Keywords- Blind Multiuser Detection; SDMA; MIMO OFDM; FastICA

I.

INTRODUCTION

The techniques used in MIMO (Multiple Input and Multiple Output) OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) systems have been adopted by IEEE 802.11n wireless communication standard (Wi-Fi) [1], [2]. For any receiver of MIMO OFDM systems, some priori parameters such as characteristics of users and noise, timing information of users and noise, relative amplitude and training sequences are needed [3]. Blind multiuser detection is a novel approach without retransmitting them in MIMO OFDM systems.

Blind signal separation algorithms adopted in MIMO OFDM systems usually contain two classifications, which are second order statistics (SOS) and higher order statistics (HOS). With regard to SOS methods, a subspace approach with short averaging periods has been proposed [4]. Although it achieves a good estimation accuracy, the scheme requires additional information of channel orders for optimizing the ambiguity matrix, and the computation complexity is not lower when the number of subcarriers is larger than 64 [5]. In contrast with SOS, the use of HOS blind signal separation algorithms, which are also called independent component analysis (ICA) [6], decreases the influence caused by the Gaussian noise of transmission channels in MIMO OFDM systems.

The most familiar approach employing HOS in MIMO OFDM systems is Constant Modulus Algorithm [7]. Although this method provides a good solution to inter-symbol- interference (ISI) and inter-user-interference (IUI), it requires more receivers than transmitters. Another approach [8] makes use of tensor based space-time multiplexing and offers some transmission flexibility, but the problem associated with this method is that the transmitters are too complex to be implemented in practical applications. Well-established HOS methods in MIMO OFDM systems include JADE (Joint Approximate Diagonalization of Eigen-matrices) [5], FastICA [9] and Nature Gradient [10]. The JADE-LSTE (Layered Space-time Equalization) approach in [5] applies JADE to all subcarriers and uses a LSTE approach for solving the permutation and scaling indeterminacy problems. However, the limitation of this approach is its complex structure. In [9], FastICA in a MIMO OFDM system is proposed by fractional sampling in the frequency domain, and the permutation and scaling indeterminacy are solved by a PLL (phase locked loop). The fractional sampling is able to increase the number of received signals and to get better diversity at the receiver. However, this method increases the computation complexity. The Nature Gradient approach [10] is applied to each current subcarrier and the previous subcarrier has to be used sequentially to resolve the permutation and scaling indeterminacy. However, this sequential approach brings some error propagation. In general, they select similar linear schemes, and because of the higher computation and complexity of nonlinear blind signal separation algorithms, nonlinear schemes have not been included.

To realize a MIMO OFDM system, several technologies, which include beamforming, space-time coding [8], SDMA [1], spatial multiplexing [5], [7], [9] and network, have been used. Compared with other approaches, SDMA schemes are able to maximize the number of users in wireless communication systems, and the interference can be drastically reduced by users’ channel impulse responses [1]. Furthermore, SDMA schemes can let multiple users in the same time or frequency or code domain to simultaneously share the same bandwidth at different locations by spatial signature, thus the capacity of the system is increased.

FastICA algorithm is capable of separating linearly mixed complex valued source signals with good computational efficiency [11]. The use of FastICA algorithm can also supply

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010

There assumptions made in this model are both the complex source signal s i and AWGN signal n p that have zero

, and the frequency channel transfer

mean and a variance of

functions H ij (i = 1, 2, ···, l and j =1, 2, ···, p) are independent and stationary. The complex Gaussian distributed processes of the frequency channel transfer functions are set to zero-mean and unit variance [1].

enough separating accuracy for mixed complex valued source signals and has most of the advantages of other HOS blind signal separation algorithms. According to the attraction of FastICA algorithm, it is employed to the SDMA-aided MIMO OFDM system.

With enough effectiveness of a MIMO OFDM system, a smaller BER means a better reliability of the system. The objective of this paper is to apply FastICA [6], [11], to SDMA- aided MIMO OFDM systems with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) for detecting multiuser signals with better BER performance. The simulation results show that the proposed approach offers less BER and than the spatial-multiplexing- based MIMO OFDM systems.

This paper is organized as follows. The system model is defined in Section II. Section III describes the proposed FastICA receiver. The simulation of proposed method is presented in Section IV, followed by some conclusions in Section V.

δ

2

l

User 2 User l User 1 Base station with p-element antenna array
User 2
User l
User 1
Base station with p-element antenna array

II. SYSTEM MODEL

A. SDMA-aided MIMO Channel

Compared with a single input single output (SISO) system which is equipped with 1 transmitting antenna and 1 receiver antenna, Figure 1 shows a generic uplink SDMA-aided MIMO system model, where each of l simultaneous users is equipped with a single transmitting antennas, while the base station’s receiver exploits p-element antenna array. The scenario can improve spectral efficiency of the system, diversity gain and capacity of the system. Figure 2 [1] illustrates the schematic of an uplink SDMA-aided MIMO OFDM system. In the k th subcarrier of the n th OFDM symbol received by the p-element antenna array, the set of complex signal vector x[n, k] is constituted by the superposition of the independent signals from l mobile users and corrupted by AWGN. So the received complex signal can be expressed as [1]

Figure 1. Generic uplink SDMA-aided MIMO system model

H 11 H 12 s H 1 1p H 21 H 22 s 2 H
H
11
H
12
s
H
1
1p
H 21
H 22
s
2
H 2p
.
.
.
H l1
s
H l2
l
H lp
x 1 p-element Receiver x Antenna 2 Array . . . x p
x
1
p-element
Receiver
x
Antenna
2
Array
.
.
.
x
p

x = Hs + n = x + n

(1)

Here the indices [n, k] have been omitted for the sake of notational convenience and the vectors x, s, and n are given by

x

= [x 1 , x 2 , ···, x p ] T

(2)

s

= [s 1 , s 2 , ···, s l ] T

(3)

n = [n 1 , n 2 , ···, n p ] T

(4)

B.

Figure 2. The schematic of uplink SDMA-aided MIMO OFDM system

DFT-based OFDM systems

where T denotes transpose. The frequency domain channel transfer matrix H with p*l dimension is given by [1]

H = [H 1 , H 2 , …, H l ] T

(5)

where H i (i = 1, 2, ···, l) is the set of channel transfer function vectors of the l users to each element of the p-element receiver, which is express as [1]

H i = [H i1 , H i2 , …, H ip ] T , i = 1, 2, ···, l.

(6)

OFDM, which is a special multicarrier modulation in the standard parallel data transmission systems, divides the frequency domain into orthogonal overlapping subcarriers. The frequency spectrums of the subcarriers can guarantee that the subcarrier signals do not interfere with each other. OFDM system alters a frequency selective broadband channel into flat fading narrowband channels so that the system maintains a high spectral efficiency.

Figure 3 shows a DFT-based OFDM transmission system and DFT technique can reduce the implementation complexity of OFDM. A sequence of discrete-time BPSK (Binary Phase

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010

Transmitters Receivers H 11 n 1 X S s H x 1 1 OFDM 1
Transmitters
Receivers
H
11
n
1
X
S
s
H
x
1
1
OFDM
1
1p
1
OFDM
Transmitter
.
Receiver
.
.
Base
.
.
.
.
Station
.
.
Antenna
.
H
Array
.
l1
.
n
p
H
x
X
lp
p
p
S
s
l
OFDM
l
OFDM
Transmitter
Receiver

Figure 4. The SDMA-aided MIMO OFDM System Model

Shift Keying) modulated symbols goes through a serial/parallel

converter, and then each block of symbols, S =

, is modulated by IDFT. The new vector, s = [s (0) , s (1) ,

s (3) ···, s (N-1) ] T is demultiplexed into a serial form to generate a

single OFDM symbol. The cyclic prefix (CP) can avoid ISI, and it is inserted for each OFDM symbol at the transmitter and then is taken away at the receiver. Through the DFT demodulation at the receiver, the received frequency symbol can be shown in the following equation.

S (N-1) ] T

[S (0) , S (1) , S (2) , ···,

X (k) = H (k) S (k)

(7)

here the factor H (k) is a complex valued scale at k th frequency.

CP S (0) s (0) S (1) s (1) P/S Input . . S/P .
CP
S
(0)
s
(0)
S
(1)
s
(1)
P/S
Input
.
.
S/P
.
IDFT
.
.
.
S
(N-1)
(N-1)
s
Channel
h
(k)
CP
(0)
X
(0)
x
(1)
(1)
S/P
X
x
Ouput
.
.
P/S
DFT
.
.
.
.
X
(N-1)
x
(N-1)

Figure 3. Block Diagram of DFT-based OFDM systems

Although OFDM scheme increases the implementation complex as shown in Figure 3 compared with a traditional

serial modem, the signal in low speed subchannels is less

sensitive to Inter Symbol Interference (ISI). It is worth noting that the subchannel modulation scheme is not limited to BPSK, and Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QBSK), 16 Quatrature Amplitude Modulation (16QAM), 64 QAM and related modulation schemes have also been selected in recent years.

C. The SDMA-aided MIMO-OFDM System Model

The combination of SDMA, MIMO and OFDM may enhance the quality of wireless communication and increase the throughput of the system. The SDMA-aided MIMO OFDM is illustrated in Figure 4 [1]. The number of antennas decides the complexity of estimation at the receivers and a large number of antennas mean a complex multiuser detection. The linear SDMA-aided mixing model at k th frequency can be described by (8) or in a compact expression shown in (9).

X ⎤ ⎡ H

H

(

1

M

k

X

p

(

k

)

)

⎣ ⎢

=

k

(

11

M

(

1 p

k

)

)

L

O

L

H

H

(

k

l

1

M

(

lp

k

)

)

⎤ ⎡ S

⎣ ⎢

S

X (k) = H (k) S (k) + n (k)

(

1

M

(

l

k

k

)

)

⎤ ⎡ n

n

⎣ ⎢

+

(

1

k

M

(

p

k

)

)

(8)

(9)

III. THE PROPOSED FASTICA RECEIVER

In [5], it is noticeable that the ICA model for MIMO

OFDM systems is an instantaneous linear mixture of each

subcarrier. It is a basic requirement that allows the application

of ICA to blind multiuser detection in MIMO OFDM systems.

In contrast with SOS, HOS blind signal separations have better

BER performance, thus the existing HOS algorithm will be employed in the proposed system. Among existing HOS algorithms, Complex FastICA algorithm [6], [11] is adopted for the proposed SDMA-aided MIMO OFDM system because of its fast convergence, less computation complexity, and high- quality BER performance.

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010

DFT DFT
DFT
DFT
X S s d 1 1 1 1 Complex FastICA . . . . .
X
S
s
d
1
1
1
1
Complex
FastICA
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Reordering
.
Decoding
.
.
.
X
s
d
p
p
p
S
Complex
p
FastICA

Figure 5. FastICA receiver structure

After the DFT modules of the OFDM receivers, FastICA algorithm [5] is applied. It is worth to notice that the received signals need to be whitened before using FastICA to estimate the source signals. According to [11], the minimized or maximized contrast function is

J G (w) = E{G(|w H x| 2 )}

(10)

where G is a smooth even function, E denotes the expectation, w is an n-dimensional complex weight vector, (·) H means the Hermitian transpose, and E{|w H x| 2 }=1.

According to different performance aims, there are mainly three choices of G functions. For the better BER performance target and according to different properties of different G functions [11], we choose:

G(y)

log(

a

1

+ y

)

,

a

1

0.1

(11)

where y is a complex random variable. The one-unite update matrix w [11] is

w + =E{x(w H x)*g(|w H x| 2 )}-E{g(|w H x| 2 )+|w H x| 2 g'(|w H x| 2 )}w

(12)

w

+

w new = ||

w

+

||

(13)

where (·) + denotes the pseudo-inverse, (·)* means complex conjugation, g(·) is the derivative of G(·) , g' (·) is the derivative of g(·), and ||·|| means the Euclidean norm. The w new shows the update procedure. The one-unit algorithm can be extended to the whole separation matrix W (k) =(w 1 (k) , w 2 (k) , ···, w (k) ) at the frequency k, and the estimation of the source signals can be found by s = W H x at different frequencies.

Due to the permutation and scaling ambiguity of BSS methods, the reorder step has to be applied after employing FastICA algorithm. To realize this step, the pre-coding about correlation between data in different subcarriers and data in reference subcarriers is required at the transmitter, and every subcarrier can be the reference subcarrier. The pre-coding step is similar to that given in [5]

p

s(

k

+

nN

)

=

1

[ 2 1 + | a |
[
2
1
+
|
a
|

d

i (

k

+

nN

)

+

ad

i

(

k

r

+

nN

)]

(14)

where k is the index of subcarriers, N is the total number of subcarriers, n is the index of OFDM symbols, the index d i (·) is the unit variance source stream i, the constant a stands for an imaginary valued scalar, and k r is the reference subcarrier.

The reordering module at the receiver calculates correlation between data in each subcarrier and data in the reference subcarrier. In [5], it shows that different correlations mean data in different streams and an estimation of s(n, k) can be obtained by the remaining subcarriers through the following equation

s(n, k) =

D

1

(k)[s (k

1

+

nN),

,s

p

(k

+

nN)]

T

(15)

where D(k) is the non-singular diagonal phase shifting matrix.

The last step is to decode the original source signals. The decoded source stream i is given by [5] and has the form

d

i

(

k

+

nN

)

=

∧ ∧ 2 1 + | a | s ( k ) − a s
2
1
+
|
a
|
s
(
k
)
a s
(
k
i
i
r
IV.
SIMULATIONS

+

nN )

(16)

Regarding the purpose of the research and taking into account both 802.11n [2] 802.11a standard [12], the proposed system, which includes 4 transmitting antennas and a base station with 4-element antenna array, is operated in the 5GHz band, and the system bandwidth is set to 20MHz. Here the set value of transmitting antennas or antenna array is 4 instead of a large number, because increasing antenna elements can make antenna systems grow in size. Furthermore, the number of antenna elements increasing means approach a limit capacity, and it is still an open question about the maximum capacity of a limited-size antenna [13]. The total number of subcarriers is 64 and the length of cyclic prefix is 16. The bit rate of data with BPSK modulation is 16Mbit/s and OFDM symbol duration is 3.2 µs. The simulation results are average values of collected simulation data.

BER

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010

The BER vs. SNR performance of the proposed SDMA- aided MIMO OFDM system and conventional spatial- multiplexing-based MIMO OFDM system is shown in Figure 6. There is about 21% relative BER improvement in average when SNR range is from 5 dB to 30 dB according to Table I’s data. Thus, it demonstrates that the proposed system has less BER at different SNR value and is mainly more robust than the spatial-multiplexing-based MIMO OFDM system.

TABLE I.

RELATIVE BER IMPROVEMENT

SNR(dB)

5

10

15

20

25

30

Relative

           

BER

23.1%

11.6%

20.5%

23.5%

18.8%

28.4%

Improvement

V.

CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, SDMA technique is applied to the MIMO

OFDM system based on the analysis and discussion of different approaches and SDMA is speculated to be one of the most capable ways in improving performance of MIMO OFDM systems. A significant measurement of reliability for MIMO OFDM system, bit error rate, is considered. For better bit error rate performance, FastICA algorithms are demonstrated and one of them is selected to such a target.

A possible simulation structure is designed for proposed

system. And the BER performance of the proposed scenario is analyzed and compared with spatial-multiplexing-based MIMO OFDM system. The simulation results show that the proposed method has better BER performance than spatial- multiplexing-based MIMO OFDM system. Furthermore, the simulation results also illustrate that the complex FastICA algorithm indicates its validity for SDMA-aid MIMO OFDM systems.

0 10 -1 10 -2 10 -3 10 Spatial-multiplexing-based method -4 10 Proposed SDMA-aided method
0
10
-1
10
-2
10
-3
10
Spatial-multiplexing-based method
-4
10
Proposed SDMA-aided method
5
10
15
20
25
30

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SNR(dB)

Figure 6. BER performance of the proposed system and spatial- multiplexing-based method