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Unit 3

Antilock brake system
What is ABS? Why is it required? How does it work? Electronics part of it.
Diagrams: BD
Graphs: Road friction Vs Slip, Slip with and without ABS
 Safety feature that assists the driver in deceleration of the vehicle in poor and marginal
 Panic braking by driver = loss of direction of vehicle and locking of wheels
 During braking Vehicle skid may happen
 For a car travelling at a speed U and the wheels rotating at an angular speed ω

ω =(Π/30) RPM
 When the wheel is rolling U=Rω where R = tyre radius
 When brake is applied, a torque is applied in opposition to the wheel rotation. This force
decelerates the car (diag)

During braking, the wheel angular speed begins to decrease = difference between vehicle
speed,U and tyre speed over road, ωR
SLIP, S = U – ωR
Normally S=0, as …..
During extreme braking S=1 as ….
S=1 ----- fully locked wheels
Consider lateral friction .tyre-road interface.

The friction coefficient for braking force Fb = N μb μb braking friction coefficient

The friction coefficient for lateral force Fl = N μl μl lateral friction coefficient

The lateral coefficient of friction is the ease with which a vehicle will skid on a road. It is the
ratio between the lateral force and the normal force acting on the contact point
As braking increases, brake torque increases.
As brake force increases, slip increases, wheels get locked.
Related to brake force is brake friction, it increases. After a point, it becomes saturated. This has
to be stopped to avoid slip. This is done by a modulator. It regulates the brake pressure to
maintain slip as close to optimum value as possible. Brake pressure is regulated by opening and
closing of brake valves electronically (solenoid valve and stepper motor).
Graph of friction co efficient to slip (with and without ABS)


ABS first estimates the torque applied to the wheel at the road surface by the braking force
Wheel torque, Tw = R Fb
It then applies an opposition torque, Tb = kbP P=brake Pressure kb = brake constant
The difference between these two torques acts to decelerate the wheel.
Tw = Tb + Iw w` where Iw is the MOI of the wheel and w` is the deceleration
As brake is applied, brake torque increases and wheel angular rotation decreases.

Graph of Tw Vs Slip

Electronic suspension system

 Made of springs, shock absorbers and other linkages to connect wheel assembly to the car
 Purpose: To isolate car body motion as much as possible from wheel motion due to bad road
 Two performance measures: RIDE and HANDLING
 RIDE: Motion of the car body in response to road bumps or irregularities
 HANDLING: refers to how well the car body responds to the dynamic motion such as
cornering or hard braking.
RIDE improves with reducing shock absorber damping while HANDLING improves with
increasing damping
Two types of suspension:
Active: Power is added to the suspension via a hydraulic or pneumatic power source
Passive: Just a dissipative element
SEMIactive: Adjust damping in accordance with driving conditions. Regulates the absorption

Mass of the car body = SPRUNG MASS ( mass supported by the springs)
Spring constnt is decided based on the desired height of the car body under no load condition.
Typically weight on front wheels > weight on rear wheels
Therefore, Front spring constant > rear
Connections: M,B,D