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Raman Amplifier

† Introduction
† Basic Raman Concept
† High Power Raman Fiber Lasers
† Raman Fiber Amplifier
† Combining EDFA and Raman Amplifier
† Conclusion

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Introduction

† Raman Amplifier was demonstrated in the 1980s


† Unavailability of high-power diode laser pump source
† Why do you need it :
amplify signals from 1270 to 1670 nm
any optical fiber can serve as the amplifying medium
† Raman process itself provides high-power laser
† Disadvantage: Cross-talk

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Basic Raman Concept

† Raman scattering from molecular vibration


† Brillouin scattering from sound wave: Brillouin Amplifier
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Basic Raman Concept

† Spontaneous process: linear


† Stimulated process: Raman laser
† Coherent anti-Stokes scattering: Raman amplifier

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Basic Raman Concept

† Raman Spectrum from SiO2 fiber

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Basic Raman Concept

† Need high power laser


† Need large Raman cross section
† GeO2 Germania: Large Raman cross-section, refractive index

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Raman Fiber Laser

† Higher-order Raman spectrum


† Laser source: Raman fiber laser

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Raman Fiber Laser

† High power are possible


† 5 W, 9.2 W diode-pumped Nd3+ cladding-pumped Raman fiber lasers
† 6.8 W diode-pumped Yb3+ cladding-pumped Raman fiber lasers
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Raman Fiber Laser

† High-order Raman scattering


† Partially reflecting (20%) fiber grating
† Eight out of ten photons are converted to the output
† Capable of generating high power light at any wavelength from 1.2 to 1.7
microns
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Raman Fiber Laser

How Does Cascaded Raman Laser Work

† Raman Stokes
† Stimulated Raman Scattering
† Four Wave Mixing
† Easy phase matching

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Raman Amplifier

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Raman Amplifier

† Coherent anti-Stokes Scattering

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Raman Amplifier

† Phase Matching

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Raman Amplifier

† Amplifier Gain

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Raman Amplifier

† Wide bandwidth Raman amplifier can be realized using


multiple pumps
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Raman Amplifier

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Raman Amplifier

† Lossless transmission by Raman amplifier

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Raman Amplifier

† Walk-off due to wavelength mismatch in a pulsed Raman amplifier

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Raman Amplifier

† Multistage Amplifier
† Counter propagating pump

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EDFA+Raman

† Combined Raman and EDFA transmission Experiment:


DWDM (Lucent)
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EDFA+Raman

† Wide band amplification is possible by dividing into sub-


bands (Lucent)
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EDFA+Raman

† Gain-flattened EDFA+Raman ( Japan)

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EDFA+Raman

† Gain-flattened EDFA+Raman ( Japan)


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EDFA+Raman

† Gain-flattened EDFA+Raman (Japan)

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Conclusions
† High-power laser sources are available by Raman process
itself.
† 200 to 400 nm Bandwidth Amplifiers are possible
Raman, EDFA combination
Flat gain for WDM
New fiber lasers and gratings make it practical
† System with Terabits of capacity are possible

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References

† Optical Fiber Telecommunications, Ivan P. Kaminow (1997)


† Optical Amplifier and Their Application, Douglas M. Baney
(1998)
† Waveguide Optoelectronics, J. H. March (1990)

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