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BlackBoard

THE ROOTS OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE


©2016 BlackBoard – The Roots of Human Performance

Zweite Auflage 2016

Design and Illustration by Marvin Kochen & Silvagraficas Las Palmas

Important advice:

Please use Blackboard Training System only on a dry and save surface.
We exclude all kind of liabilitys.
Preamble
The reason why you are reading this is based on the especially with complex, omedic sequences of motion.
nature of humankind, “curiosity“ to be more precise. It is unknown whether the situation was like that before
Curiosity why certain things do no longer work the way the injury already. In first place, the aim of every athletic
they are supposed to, when it comes to regeneration training should focus on the inclusion of testing
after surgery or injury – and even more important: funtional foot work on a regular basis, since it is serving
curiosity what to do in order to improve one´s very an active prevention of injuries and, because the risk of
own condition in a situation like that. Concretely, it is injuries does rise without an unlimited function of feet.
about the inside rotation of the front part of the foot Taking into consideration how to make improvements
via the hypothenar of the big toe. It allows to make in this particular field, the Blackboard Training System
up a solid axis within the leg, to create movement was created. A completely new way to train feet and the
through a powerful foot work and with that, to support axis of the lower leg. The Blackboard works with respect
a cleanly erected way of walking. Furthermore, this to the guidelines of nature and makes use of the torsion
rotation has an important influence on the posture between the front and the rear parts of the foot. A
of the body as a whole and, not to forget, it offers a completely new form of training can be held, using the
remarkable effect when it comes to the prevention axis which is being linked three-dimensionally. Various
of injuries. It is significant how often this function situations of competition or daily life can be simulated
causes problems after injuries of the lower body parts. and trained throughout the insertion of the different
For the first time we noticed this phenomenon while wedges installed at the bottom side of the device.
working with professional athletes, persons who have
a very good sense for their own bodies and functions.
Independently from the certain kind of injury, all of the
athletes faced major difficulties to perform a powerful
rotation of the front foot. Even after good recovery,
the rotation was only possible in a very limited way,

2
The neuro muscular system means a big challenge friends from Kassel who always have been, and always will
when re-learning movements. Complex ones are often a be there for me – a good feeling! My family who gave me
sequence of already existing partial schemes. So what to solid roots to stay grounded and, last but not least, my
do if this long term sequence is interrupted due to injury? wife Laura, because she is so wonderful and made my life
Using the Blackboard, we now have the opportunity to complete.
aim our training at the performance of particular units and
with that, to re-adjust the neuro muscular system perfectly.
In addition to orthopadic rehab, the Blackboard can also Twisted regards,
be used for warm up sessions and for strenghtening the
muscles of the feet, legs, stomach and back. I wish you a
good time trying the DynaoMed and I would be grateful Lars Grandjot
if you shared your experiences and impresssions with me.

At this point I would like to say thank you to all those


people who accompanied me on my way and still foster
the project foundation training. Marvin who was a patient
once but turned into a friend creating the layout of
everything you are reading in this very moment. Gregor,
for his input and support in all circumstances. Sebastian
who is facing an intense period of life right now himself,

BlackBoard
but still means a great partner to me. Fabian because of
the med. Frank and Nicole for their big support which I do
not take for granted. My former team of PhysioSport who
kept pushing me with input and criticism if necessary. My THE ROOTS OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE
Table of contents

Stabilty through rotation .............................................................................................................................1


Function..............................................................................................................................................................2
The MAP system ..............................................................................................................................................3
Legende..............................................................................................................................................................4

Chapter 1 Mobilty
Heel bone ..........................................................................................................................................5
Forefoot...............................................................................................................................................7
Big toe .................................................................................................................................................9

Chapter 2 Activation
Heel bone ........................................................................................................................................11
Front foot ........................................................................................................................................ 14
Foot pressure ..................................................................................................................................17

Chapter 3 Performance
Performance....................................................................................................................................19

Chapter 4 Stabilisation of leg axis


Training leg axis .............................................................................................................................21
Stability through rotation

Our foot is like a miracle in the history of evolutionary between front and rear part of the foot which is equivalent
progress. During its development it had to deal with new to the amount of activity being used while walking or
circumstances and grounds again and again. 32 bony jogging. Using this effect, the Blackboard is strenghtening
connections within our feet are responsible for high muscles right from the bottom up to the body shaping
flexibility, but also make them a fragile construction, basis of our muscles. Next to a more solid stand and an
prone to deformation and overstressing. To fight these improved moment of reaction, body form and balance are
aspects, a precise activation of the muscles in legs and influenced in a positive way.
feet is helpful. Because of the specific form of training the
structures of stressing will act according to their original
function. Activities in a sitting or standing position are
not good for our body. They are cutting down the level
of stabilizing muscles. As a consequence of that, the
resulting malfunctions display the main features in the
field of orthopadic treatment in Germany. Just as the rest
of our organism, our feet require activation to perform
well considering their original purpose. If we lack this kind
of activity over a longer period of time, defective positions
are likely to be expected, since our feet still have their task
to be done. The Blackboard training sytem creates a new
form of training by making use of a function seldomly
respected: the transversal rotation, which actually
means the twist of separated body parts against one
another. Through the detachment of the footprint there
is a possibility to generate an enormous level of rotation

1
Function
The Blackboard Training System uses a simple but very
important feature of our body, that you can achieve a
high level of stability with by only using very little effort:
We are talking about transversal rotation, the rotation of
single body parts into different directions. This function
is easy to understand. Think of a towel in your hand.
Without movement, it will be very soft and flexible, but
the moment you grab it on both sides and start to twist its
endings into different directions, you will realise at some
point that the soft rag has turned into a solid structure.
That is basically the same principle our body can make
use of in order to stabilize extremities such as legs
and arms without a major use of energy. Doing so, our
body has to comply with three requirements:sufficient
mobility a good tone of muscles and coordination skills.
Only if the joints and muscles are flexible, positions can
be reached where stability can have a positive effect. Just
as important as mobilty is the factor of body strengh to
be used in order to twist and fix the joints into desired
positions, if necessary even deviant to the rules of gravity.
To use mobility and sheer force adequately, it is vital to
coordinate the movement as a unit. Just the combination
of that will guarantee a smooth flow and connect the
different components mentioned above.

2
The MAP System

The skript of training in this manual always follows carrying capacity. In the final part of performance the
the combination of mobility, activity and perfomance single aspects are adjusted to each other with a special
(MAP). In certain situations, routine may vary. But that is glance on coordination and the speed of contraction. The
something to be analyzed with experts in first instance. faster our muscles react and contract, the faster they will
Efficient movements need a range of conditions. First, master unpredictable situations. The performance part
the joints need to be flexible, to avoid tension and with also improves stabilisation and posture.
that a higher input of energy. Second, the activity of
single structures. Every movement should be present
in the motorical cortex to be performed the best way
possible. The last precondition is the speed to perform
an activity with. This one is influenced by various factors
such as nerves, contractions and the surrounding we
are finding ourselves in. All those parameters play an
important role and should be taken into consideration.
So, we created a training to focus on each of these three
aspects in sequence and none of them should be left out
explicitely. We need mobility for activation what leads
to performance. The exercises must be performed in the
correct order. Mobilisation actively fosters the capability
of the joinst and tendons of the foot and all the structures
will improve as far as flexibilty is concerned. The part of
activation exclusively focusses on muscles we need for
the following performance exercises. In addition to that,
the passive system is strenghtened and structures gain

3
Legend:

ed

Active

4
Chapter 1
Mobility of the heelfoot

Shock absorbance and acceleration


Shock absorbance and acceleration
How to do:
When we walk, our heel bone takes the first ground
3Exercise should be done
contact which makes it play an important role regarding 30-60 Seconds each side.
the process of walking as a whole. In the first phase, it
serves as a shock absorber. The moment it is taking the Please do the movement slowly,
body weight, it turns inside and so impedes that the full Its a mobility exercise.
amount of energy is transmitted to the leg directly. It has a
To get maximum effect, change
similar function with jogging. Even though the heel does plant each trainig you do.
not make first touch with the ground, it slightly rotates
due to the body weight.. This is actually the second main When to do:
function, the flexing of the calf muscles attached.because
of this, the body is able to accelerate without much effort. Mobilisation before Training
This is the principle of a cycle of flexing and contracting.
The muscle has the reflex to contract when it was flexed in Heel spurs
first place. A good example to illustrate this idea is the test Hurt of achilles tendon
of the reflex tendon of the kneecap. Both mechanisms of
the heel bone have in common that they require moblity Frequent calf cramps
to fulfill their task. Therefore, the first exercise of DFT
progression always is a mobilisation. To stress mobility of
the heel bone, calmly try to angle the to a frontal position
while performing the exercises. In case of success, the
knee can be moved to the particular side to support the
motion.
5
Mobility of the heelfoot
Description of the exercise

Keep in mind that the foot should be placed in the center


of the Blackboard. In the beginning of the exercise, the
basic position is to be adjusted (Picture1). You will then
start to move the heel wedge to the outside and inside
alternating, just by using some pressure (Picture 2/3). Picture 1 Picture 2
Focus on the heel bone. The knee may be moved but
is not supposed to take a leading role in this exercise.
Do this until you feel that it is getting easier to perform
this exercise. To mobilise all structures of the heel bone,
you can change the position of the heel wedge just as
described in figures A,B and C. The adjustment of the foot
plate remains unchanged.

Foot plate: fixed


Picture 3
Heel wedge: mobile / perform

6
Chapter 1
Mobility of the heelfoot

Shock absorbance and redirecting force


Equally to the heel bone, the forefoot works shock How to perform:
absorbing while jogging. It receives the sheer force
running through our body to the ground to use it for Exercise should be done
30-60 Seconds each side.
acceleration in a very efficient way. One important
precondition for this is, as described in advance, a high Please do the movement slowly,
mobility of the heel bone. Of course, this is not enough Its a mobility exercise.
for running. The part between forefoot and heel bone
also needs to come up with a minimum of mobility, to
process the horizontal and vertical forces involved. This is When to do:
absolutely necessary because the foot hits the gound in
Mobilistation before Training
a flat position, while the rest of the body is errected. To
perform this function flawlessly, all components of the Flat foot
rotation have to do well. Only this enables the different
levels of the body to use a proper transfer of power. This is Roll off problems
what makes it a key function of smooth walking. Capacity
Hurt of achilles tendon
overload or trauma can decrease the ability for rotation,
which leads to surcharge of other structures (eg. Knees or Insufficienct leg axis
hips). To reduce this, try to install exercises for mobilty into
your training routine on a regular basis. Try to hold the
knee in a straight position and keep your toes as loose as
if they had to play the piano.

7
Mobility of the forefoot
Description of the exercise

Make sure your foot is placed in the center of the


Blackboard. Adjust starting position to begin with the
exercise (Picture 1). Using a little pressure, you now start
moving the foot plate into both directions, one after
another (Picture 2/3). Focus on the forefoot, the knee Picture 2
should not be moving at all. This requires some training in Picture 1
most casses. Perform the exercise until you feel a relief in
moving. To gain an even better mobilisation, chance the
position of the heel wedge, as shown in figure B. The short,
semi-circled stick is slightly transfered in position to have
a larger moment of force for mobilisation. The adjustment
of the foot plate then remains unchanged.

Foot plate: mobile


Picture 3
Heel wedge: fixed / active

8
Chapter 1
Mobility of the heelfoot

Winding (NOS)
Stretching the joint of the big toe means one of the most How to perform:
important preconditions for healthy walking. For an
adequate winding of weight over the big toe, it requires Exercise should be done
the ability to strech over an angle of 65 degrees at least. 30-60 Seconds each side.
If the stretching is limited, the consequence will be an
evasion of the big toe or the winding of the foot will Please do the movement slowly,
take place mostly over the sides. This often leads to a Its a mobility exercise.
change in movements of hips and knees, often followed
by problems due to capacity overload. Enfeebled or
shortened muscles of hips and knees and particular
changes of the machanisms are a common result for this When to do
kind of malfunction. To prevent a situation like that, a
simple mobiity training for the basic joint of the big toe Mobilisation before Training
is sufficient. As usual, one has to keep in mind to put the
leg straight forward. To spread mobilisation of the whole Roll off problems
surface, try to abduct, the toe to the internal side.
Hallux Valgus/Rigidus

Insuficent extension of the hip

Insufficent extension of the Knee

9
Mobility of the big toe
Description of the exercise

Keep in mind to place your foot in the center of the


Blackboard. Adjust starting position to begin (Picture 1).
The opposite leg is put forward by about 1-2 feet. The heel
is now lifted lifted from the ground and slowly moved Picture 1
forward. The big toe shall point straight forward and keep
touch with the foot plate (Picture 2). Repeat the exercise a
couple of times until you feel relaxation.

Foot plate: fixed at the front

Heel wedge: without

Picture 2

10
The arch of the foot
How to perform:
The arch of the foot is actually the body shell of our feet
and with that the basis for any further movement. If there Do the Exercise between 20-30 seconds each side for 4
is some bungling in the shell, the interior design may be rounds.
beautiful, but the owner of the house will always have to
deal with certain problems. It is nearly the same with our To activate the muscle system adequate do the exercise
bodies. If there is a problem relating to the arch of the slowly
feet, one will will struggle to gain fine- working functions,
which will have a negative effect on any further task. That
is why we should keep in mind that a proper progression
includes mobilty AND a resilient framework. To support a When to do:
solid arch, it also takes a strong level of muscles of feet and
legs. The combination of all components complete a well Prevention of Injury
developed arch. If only one of these parts is weakened,
a negative influence for the foot as a whole will be the Flat foot
consequence. Especially in the aftermath of injuries
concerning legs and feet, this form of training should be After any kind of Injury of the lower limb
performed intensively, to offer a fine foundation for “the
house“. After immobilisation (cast)

11
Activation of the heel bone
Description of the exercise (short foot)

Remember to place your foot in the center of the


Blackboard. Adjust starting position to begin. The foot
plate is fixed, the inside of the heel wedge is facing the
ground (Picture 1). You may now start lifting the inner side
of the heel wedge using an active impulse of your heel
ball. It is important not just to relocate body weight to Picture 1 Picture 2
the outer side, but to lift the inner side of the heel actively
using the wedge (Picture 2). Remain in this position for a
short moment before moving back to starting position
(Picture 1). Repeat the exercise until a highly sensible
activation of the calf muscles kicks in. If there is no such
effect, the execution of the exercise may not be correct
and needs to be checked by an expert. (you will always
feel the strongest activation at your weakest point, which,
of course, may vary)

Foot plate: fixed

Heel wedge: Active (slightly moved outside)

12
Activation of the heel bone
Description of the exercise (short foot II)

Remember to place your foot in the center of the


Blackboard. Adjust starting position to begin. The foot
plate is fixed, the outside of the heel wedge is facing the
ground (Picture 1). You may now start lifting the outside
of the heel wedge using an active impulse of your heel Picture 1 Picture 2
ball. It is important not just to relocate body weight to the
inside, but to lift the outer side of the heel actively using
the wedge (Picture 2). Remain in this position for a short
moment before moving back to starting position (Picture
1). Repeat the exercise until a highly sensible activation
of the calf muscles kicks in. If there is no such effect, the
execution of the exercise may not be correct and needs to
be checked by an expert. (you will always feel the strongest
activation at your weakest point, which, of course, may
vary)

Foot plate: fixed

Heel wedge: Active (slighty moved outside)

13
Pronation
The active pronation of the forefoot is a milestone in the
history of evolution. Therefore, it should be appreciated How to perform:
and treated in careful way. As stated in the “mobility“
chapter before, the twist between the front part and the Do the Exercise between 20-30 seconds
rear area of the foot creates higher stability as well as
power transmission from the horizontal to the vertical each side for 4 rounds.
position. To raise such an enormous amount of power, we To activate the muscle system adequate
need an active pronation in the forefoot. This is basically
created by the outer muscles of the calf. In addition to do the exercise slowly
that, some lower interior muscles also take part in the
motion. Since these muscles are located mainly at the
exterior of the calf and originate at the head of the fibula, When to do:
this area always needs to be examined in the case of
problems. A high frequent complication after a trauma Preventive exercise
in suspination is a downward sliding of the fibula. This
leads to a limitation of flexibilty and a different tension Flat foot
within the muscles. Both factors have a negative effect Insufficience of leg aixs
on the leg axis. That is why an injury like that should not
be underestimated. One should always have examination Shint splints
of an expert. Especially if the level of discomfort does not
decrease for weeks. According to our experiences, always After injury of the lower limb
causes problems when it comes to injuries of the lower
extremities. Mostly it is alleviated and so there is only
little chance of performance to a helpful extend. So, the
activation of pronation is vital to be part of any program
for rehabilitation, but regular use for warm-up is fine, too.

14
Chapter 2
Activation of the forefoot

Description of the exercise (calf muscles, outside)

Remember to place your foot in the center of the


Blackboard. Adjust starting position to begin (Picture 1).
The heel plate is fixed, the foot plate is in “active“ mode and
the outside edge is facing the ground. Via active pressure
of the big toe ball, it is the aim to level up the outside of
the foot plate to the tune of the heel wedge (Picture 2).
Try to hold this position for a moment to become aware Picture 1 Picture 2
of the muscles being activated. Then lower the foot plate
actively until you have ground contact with the outside
(Picture 1). Try to point your knees straight ahead forward
during the whole exercise. Repeat the process until you
feel a significant activation of the calf muscles. If there is
no such effect, the execution of the exercise may not be
correct and needs to be checked by an expert. (you will
always feel the strongest activation at your weakest point,
which, of course, may vary)

Foot plate: active

Heel wedge: fixed

15
Activation of the forefoot

Front part of the shinbone

Remember to place your foot in the center of the


Blackboard. Adjust starting position to begin (Picture 1).
The heel plate is fixed, the foot plate is in “active“ mode and
the inside edge is facing the ground. Via active pressure of
the little toe ball, it is the aim to level up the inside of the
foot plate to the tune of the heel wedge. Try to hold this Picture 1 Picture 2
position for a moment to become aware of the muscles
being activated. Then lower the foot plate actively until
you have ground contact with the inside. Try to point your
knees straight ahead forward during the whole exercise.
Repeat the process until you feel a significant activation of
the calf muscles. If there is no such effect, the execution of
the exercise may not be correct and needs to be checked
by an expert. (you will always feel the strongest activation
at your weakest point, which, of course, may vary)

Foot plate: active

Heel wedge: fixed

16
Chapter 2
Activation of the forefoot

Plantar flexors

The plantar flexors are often seen as the main force of How to perform:
movement, because they are responsible for the final
impulse of foot pressure. By their activation they help the Do the exercise between 15-20 Seconds each side.
opposing hip flexor muscles to get activated too what
makes walking becomming an easy and gracefule action. Do it as explosive as possible
Especially older people often have problems building
up a good activity of plantar flexors. The consequence is
that they need an enormous amount of power to move When to do:
forward the opposing leg. So, their walk then appears
non- circular and somehow time-consuming. To keep the Activation before Performance
cycle of walking in a lightly errected form, humans require
a good activity of the plantar flexors. Before this exercise, Push off problems
mobilisation of the big toe shoud always be performed,
because this illustrates basic prerequisite for everything Insufficient hip muscles
that follows up. The extend of the exercise sould be
increased carefully, because it means quite an intense Shint splints
impulse for the calf muscles which can lead to injuries
through capacity overload. Inufficient leg axis

Flat foot

17
Activation of foot pressure

Description of the exercise

Make sure you foot is placed in the center of the Blackboard.


Adjust starting position to begin. The opposing leg is
placed about two backwards, the knee is fully stretched
(Picture 1). Place your hands on the backrest of a chair (not
a rotating one) or use a wall for balance. Keep in mind that
the distance between you and the chair/wall has to be at
least the length of your thigh. The opposing leg initiates
the movement by lifting the knee forwards in an explosive
way, while the heel of the foot that is to be activated also
leaves the ground quickly. At the end of the exercise, the Picture 1 Picture 2
opposing knee (90° angle) should point at the wall the foot
to be activated stands on the ball of the big toe and the
heel is widely lifted from the ground. Repeat the exercise
until you feel a significant activation of the calf muscles.
(target: 25 reps)

Foot plate: fixed at midpoint

Heel wedge: without

18
Chapter 3
Performance

Performance
To reach the optimum, performance plays an important How to perform:
role in the MAP Progrssion System. Mobility, coordination
and power are harmonized with each other in the last Do the exersice 45-6ß seconds
step, to get the best shape possible heading towards
competition. The big advantage of the Blackboard Trainer each side with 60 seconds
is to be found within the speed that our neuro muscular
system has to work with when doing performance pause inbetween sets.
exercises. Because of the firm surface of the training
device, signals are transported directly to our body and the For higher level of difficulty use the triangle wedge
nervous system, which, of course, means a big advantage
in contrast to soft surfaces. This form of senso motoric
training, very direct and goal-oriented, has been found
rarely in training devices so far. But since speed is crucial, When to do
athletes will benefit from the use of the Blackboard. But
not only athletes, also “normal“ people are given the Warming up
opportunity to improve their level of reaction which can
be helpful in daily life. In addition to that, regular training Core controll
helps to prevent injuries of various kinds. Especially when
it comes to no-contact-injuries, the speed of contraction To get faster reaction speed
is important. The following exercises will help to improve
and match the single parts (muscles, tendons, connective Coordination exercise
tissue) perfectly to each other, to be successful in daily
routine AND competition.

19
Description of the exercise

Make sure you foot is placed in the center of the


Blackboard. Adjust starting position to begin (Picture 1).
The wedges are applied in a V shape. The body weight is
shared between heel and forefoot. Now lift the opposing
leg and try to keep both plates away from the ground as
long as possible (Picture 2/3). Try to fix your upper body
in a calm position, the arms are hanging next to the body. Picture 1 Picture 2
Try to hold this position for 30 – 45 seconds, chance sides
afterwards. Repeat the exercise until you feel that it is
easier to keep the balance. If you struggle with balance,
help yourself with a wall or a chair. It is also effective to
ask a partner for help.
For an even stronger effect, replace the wedge of the foot
plate to the side, next to the middle line. Because of the
different position, the calf muscles gain a higher level of
activation. I recommend to include both positions into
your training routine.
Picture 3

Foot plate: Perform / active

Heel wedge: Perform

20
Chapter 4
Leg axis

Stabilisation of leg axis


Leg axis: How to perform:

The leg axis is reponsible for the amount of pressure Do Exercise 30 secondes
hitting the joints of our lower extremeties, so it is up to it,
how fast certain areas are fretted due to high intensities each side 4 times
while training. A stable leg axis leads to an even stressing
of the joints which is an active way to prevent the athlete
from injuries. A solid leg axis requires certain components: When to do
mobility, coordination and strengh. You may train the
correct stand of the leg axis, performing the following Insufficience of leg axis
three exercises. Using this kind of evaluation, we try to
avoid capacity overload in training which will have a Poor posture
negative effect on the points mentioned above. The order
of the exercises is: from easy to difficult- to examine, which Insufficient hip abductors
level of stability we are at. This exercise, with respect to the
individual level of intensity, should be performed every After Injury or immobilisation
second day over a period of three weeks. You may change
into a higher level of intensity then. Inbetween the two
types (easy training and intense training), I recommend
to perform an exercise of medium intensity, which is the
performance of the exercise described without using the
DynMomed Training tool.

21
Training of the leg axis
Description of the exercise (easy form)

The leg axis should be trained with ground contact


to imitate the needs required during the process of
walking. Make sure you foot is placed in the center of the
Blackbaord. Adjust starting position to begin. The outside
of the foot plate faces the ground and so does the inside
of the heel wedge (Picture 1). Using such positioning, the
connections inside the feet experience support, so that Picture 1 Picture 2
it will be easier to perform properly. The opposing leg is
slightly lifted over the ground. Its foot is now moved to
the side of the body, the toes are errected, the bottom is
moved towards the ground (Picture 2). The opposite knee
is pointing forward during the whole exercise to maintain
nice leg axis. Remember: the movement is initiated by the
hip as its main pillar.

Foot plate: Active (placed wide inside)

Heel wedge: Active (placed wide outside)

22
Chapter 4
Leg axis

Training of the leg axis


Description of the exercise (intense form)

Having completed the “easy form“, you can now advance


to the more intense one. The next progression is to be
performed without the Blackboard Training device. Look
for an even floor and perform as described. If you do not
have any difficulties, raise the performance category.
Therefore, make sure you foot is placed in the center of the
Blackboard. Adjust starting position to begin (Picture 1).
The inside of the foot plate faces the ground and so does
the outside of the heel wedge. Using such positioning it
will be more difficult to perform properly. The opposing
leg is slightly lifted over the ground. Its foot is now moved
to the side of the body, the toes are errected, the bottom is Picture 1 Picture 2
moved towards the ground (Picture 2). The opposite knee
is pointing forward during the whole exercise to maintain
nice leg axis. Remember: the movement is initiated by the
hip as its main pillar.

Foot plate: Active (placed wide outside)

Heel wedge: Active (placed wide inside)

23
Literature- and drawinglist
Literature:

Fußchirurgie (Zweite Auflage), Prof. Pisani Giacomo – Thieme Verlag 1993


Kinesiology of the Musculoskeletal System (Second Edition), Donald A. Neumann – Mosby Elsevier 2010
A Guide to Better Movement, Todd Hargrove – Better Movement 2014
Motorisches Strategietraining und PNF, Horst Renata – Thieme Verlag 2005
Calcaneal Eversion – The Switch that Turns On the Engine, PhD Tiberio David
Footstrike and Injury Rates in Endurance Runners: A Retrospective Study, Adam et al. – American College of Sports
Medicine 2012
The Effect of Forefoot Varus on Postural Stability, Cobb Stephan C. et al - Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical
Therapy 2004
Association between toe flexor strength and spatiotemporal gait parameters in community-dwelling older
people, Misu Shogog et al. – Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2014
Local Sensation Changes and Altered Hip Muscle Function Following Sever Ankel Sprain, Bullock Saxton Joanna
– Journal of the American Physical Therapy Association 1994
Relationship of Chronic Ankle Instability to Muscle Activation Patterns During the Transition From Double-Leg to
Single-Leg Stance, Van Deun et al. - The American Journal of Sports Medicine 2007
Prolonged Reaction Time in Patiens with Chronic Lateral Insatbility of the Ankle, Löfvenberg et al. – The American
Journal of Sports Medicine 1995

Drawing 1.
Fußchirurgie (Zweite Auflage), Prof. Pisani Giacomo – Thieme Verlag 1993
24
BlackBoard
THE ROOTS OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE