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THE UTILIZATION OF TAMARIND (Tamarindus indica) SEED

ETHANOLIC EXTRACT AS RUST CONVERTER

____________________

A Research Paper to the Faculty of

Science, Technology, Engineering Program

Batasan Hills National High School

IBP Road, Batasan Hills, Q.C.

____________________

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Research IV

____________________

by

Molles, Karl Wilfrid Daniels O.

March 10, 2017

i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to our God, for without

His help, I would not have done this study.

I would also like to thank my research teachers, Ma’am Adelfa Basco and Sir

George Emmanuel Martin for guiding me and giving me constructive criticisms. Thank

you for imparting me the knowledge to do this study, to Ma’am Adelfa Basco, even

though she’s far away now, she always scares me with her judging eyes but it’s great

because I wouldn’t know my mistakes if not because of her, and to Sir George Emmanuel

Martin for guiding us through our later quarters and giving us hints on what to improve

on our paper.

There are several people that I would like to thank that indirectly helped me on

my journey through research, such as Ma’am Sanada, my past research teacher, she gave

advices and inspired me through my journey in research. And also, to my friends, they

inspired me and kept me going and helped me in my times of need.

I would also like to thank my parents for giving me the financial support to finish

this study.

ii
DEDICATION

This research is dedicated to God, for His glory, and to all the people who helped

me, inspired me and kept me going.

KWDOM

iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE……………………………………………...…………………………... i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………………... ii

DEDICATION……………………………………………...…………………………. iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………...…………………………. iv

LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………. v

LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………...…………….... vi

ABSTRACT…………………………………………………….…………………...... viii

CHAPTERS

I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACGROUND

Introduction………………………………………………………………………..1

Statement of the Problem……………………..………………………………...…2

Significance of the Study…………………………………..……………….……..3

Scope and Delimitations…………………………………………………………..3

II. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Review of Related Literature…………………………………………………...…4

Related Studies………………………………………………………………….....6

Conceptual Framework……………………………………………………………7

Hypothesis of the Study………………………………………………………...…8

Definition of Variables……………………………………………………………8

III. METHODS OF RESEARCH

Collection and Preparation of Materials…………………………………….….....9

Preparation of Set-ups…………………………………………………………....10

iv
Samples of the Study…………………………………………………………….10

Data Collection and Analysis………………………………………………….....10

Data Processing and Statistical Treatment…………………………………….…11

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Results…………………………………………………………………………....12

Discussion………………………………………………………………………..16

V. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary of Findings…………………………………………………………….18

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….18

Recommendation……………………………………………………………...…19

BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................................20

APPENDICES………………………………………………...………………………...22

CURRICULUM VITAE………………………………………..………………............27

REFLECTION……………………………………………………………………….…28

v
List of Figures Page

Fig. 1 Paradigm of the Study 7

Fig. 2 Ferric tannate produced in mg at Various Concentration of 13

Tamarind Seed Ethanolic extract

Fig. 3 Normal Curve 16

Fig. 4 Materials 22

Fig. 5 Samples A and B ethanolic extracts with three replicates each 22

Fig. 6 Samples A and B (Extract still not applied) 23

Fig. 7 Samples A and B (Seconds after applying the extract on the rusted nails) 23

Fig. 8 Samples A and B (12 hours After the extract was applied) 24

Fig. 9 Research Poster 25

Fig. 10 Certification of Authentication of Plant Identification 26

vi
List of Tables Page

Table 1 Ferric tannate produced in mg at Various Concentration of 12

Tamarind Seed Ethanolic extract

Table 2. Data for Standard Deviation 14

(results from the trials 0.6 g/mL concentration)

Table 3. Data for Standard Deviation 15

(results from the trials of 0.4 g/mL concentration)

vii
Abstract

Iron can be easily chemically attacked by many factors in its environment that

leads to rusting, the corrosion of iron. Corrosion is more likely to happen in a humid

environment. When corrosion takes place, it makes the structure fragile and thus

increasing risks. There are many corrosion inhibitors, something that is used to prevent

corrosion, but what if that corrosion already took place? Another disadvantage of using

corrosion inhibitors is that most of it are toxic, which could be a hazard to children and

pets. Rust converters solve these problems. Tannins found in tamarind seeds serves as a

good rust converting component, tannins make a chemical reaction with ferric oxide (rust)

to create ferric tannate, a harmless blue-black substance. This study aims to determine the

effectivity of tamarind seed ethanolic extract as rust converter. The researcher bought 300

grams tamarinds in a supermarket. The plant was identified at UP Biology. The researcher

extracted the tamarind seeds using ethanol. The researcher used 30 grams of tamarind

seeds and 50 mL ethanol, and 20 grams of tamarind seeds and 50 mL ethanol. The study

used the ferric tannate produced technique. The statistical treatment is two sample t-test

(Independent). Measuring the ferric tannate produced is the easiest way to assess the rust

converting effectiveness. When the tamarind seed ethanolic extract was used, rust

conversion took place and prevented further corrosion. The ferric tannate produced a mean

average of 370 mg for 0.4 g/mL and 463.33 mg for 0.6 g/mL and it can be observed that it

increased when the tamarind seed ethanolic extract was increased from 0.4 g/mL to 0.6

g/mL. The ferric tannate produced increased, thus signifying tamarind seed ethanolic

extract as an effective rust converter.

viii
1

CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Acid rains are becoming more and more frequent this days because of the

technological and industrial advancement, there are more and more factories and power

plants that are being built expelling acidic materials in our atmosphere resulting to more

frequent acid rains. Acid rains cause harmful effects and problems such as killing some

plants and animals that are sensitive to the changes in acidity; and can also cause

corrosion to metals in infrastructures, vehicles and statues. Rust conversion is an easy

way to protect and prevent from further corrosion of iron and other metals that form

oxides (rust) (Roberge, 2015). The most used metal on the planet: iron, practically

because it is also the most abundant metal in the planet making it very cheap and is

utilized for its durability and malleability (Blaszczak-Boxe, 2015).

There is an abundance of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) tress on the Southeast

Asian region. These trees bear many brown pods with brown seeds which are surrounded

by a sticky pulp that dehydrates naturally into a sticky paste. The sticky paste is usually

used as a flavoring for many Asian cuisines because of its distinctive tangy taste but the

seeds are usually considered as leftovers or wastes which are not utilized (Mercola,

2015).
2

The seeds of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) has high amount of tannins; tannins

are any group of pale-yellow to light-brown amorphous substances that are found in

plants (The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, 2016). Tannins or also known as tannic

acids can be utilized as rust converters because tannic acids can react to rust (ferric oxide)

and from ferric tannate; a harmless material which will act as a protection of the iron

from further corrosion (Logan, 2015).

The researcher will use ethanol extraction. The ethanol will act as a wetting agent

that will help the solution to enter the porous corrosion layers on a rusting iron; while

penetrating, the tannic acids in the solution will react to the ferric oxide and form into

ferric tannate that will serve as the protection of iron from further corrosion (rusting), but

it was advised to keep away from the treated surface anything that are easily stained

because ferric tannate have the tendency to rub off onto other materials.

Statement of the Problem

The general problem of the study is “How can the Tamarind (Tamarindus indica)

seed extract be feasible as a rust converter?”

Specifically, it seeks answers to these questions:

1. What percentage of concentration of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed

extract is the most feasible in rust conversion?


3

2. Will the ethanolic extraction be able to get the right amount of yield

percentage of tannins to make the Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed extract

feasible as a rust converter?

3. Will the ethanol be feasible as a wetting agent that will help the extract to

access the porous corrosion layers on the rusting iron?

Significance of the Study

The study will help big industries involving buildings and machines. This will

help prolong the life of building structures, machines, artifacts made of metal, and other

materials that are prone to oxidation by protecting it from rusting.

Scope and Delimitation

The researcher aims to measure how effective is the Tamarind (Tamarindus

indica) seed extract on converting the ferric oxide into ferric tannate. The researcher will

not test different extraction methods and wetting agents; the researcher will only use

ethanol extraction and ethanol as a wetting agent.


4

CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This chapter includes a comprehensive review of related literature, related studies,

conceptual framework, hypothesis of the study and definition of variables deemed

relevant to this study. The concepts, ideas and principles cited give evidence to the fact

that the “Utilization of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Seed Extract as Rust Converter” is

feasible.

Review of Related Literature

The following are the Related Literatures that present the basis regarding the

Utilization of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Seed Extract as Rust Converter and to prove

that the study is possible and to further back up the project.

Rust converters are any solutions that are designed to be directly applied on a

corroded iron to convert the ferric oxide into a harmless and adherent material that will

serve as a protection of the iron from further corrosion. Tannin is the main ingredient of

the rust converters, it reacts with the ferric oxide to form ferric tannate, a harmless, color

blue/black material. Tannin needs a wetting material to permit its access into the porous

corroded surface (Roberge, 2015). Tannins are any group of pale-yellow to light-brown

amorphous substances that can be found in plants. There are two main types of tannins;
5

hydrolysable and condensed tannins (The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, 2016).

The only drawback of the ferric tannate is it can rub off onto other materials so it was

advised to keep away objects that are easily stained (Logan, 2015).

Tamarind trees are found abundantly in Southeast Asian region, these trees bear

long, curved, brown pods containing small brown seeds that are surrounded by a sticky

pulp that dehydrates naturally into a sticky paste. This paste is used as a flavoring for

Asian cuisines (Mercola, 2015).

There is a high content of polymeric tannins in tamarind husk; about 39%

(Sinchaiyakit, et al., 2011). The tamarind seed coats are also high in tannins; about 20%;

the tamarind seeds are also high in fiber which is good for the gastrointestinal tract

(Caluwé, Halamová, & Damme, 2010). The seed testa contains 23% tannin; the seed

husk can be an effective fish poison and bark tannins can be utilized for the preparation

of ink and fixing dyes (Bhadoriya, Ganeshpurkar, Narwaria, Rai, & Jain, 2011).

Summary of RRL

A rust converter is a solution that makes a chemical reaction with rust to make it a

harmless material, and tannin is the heart of the rust converters. Tamarind is a tropical

tree that bears pods with sticky pulp which is high in tannins.
6

Related Studies

The following studies pointed to variables, which clearly explained the Utilization

of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Seed Extract as Rust Converter.

There were determined the presence of tannins in the organic extracts of shoots of

the plant Limonium delicatulum ranging from 0.19 to 92.9 mg GAE/g DW; the maximum

content was from acetone extracts and minimum in hexane extracts (Medini, Fellah,

Ksouri, & Abdelly, 2014).

According to Fowomola (2010), the results of their study showed that mango

(Mangifera indica) seed contains alkaloid (0.01 ±0.0 mg/100g), tannins (1.03 ± 0.01

mg/100 g), phytate (1.44 ± 0.01 mg/100 g), cyanide (0 mg/100 g), saponin (0.04 ± 0

mg/100 g) and oxalate (1.49 ± 0.01 mg/100 g).

There was a very high content of tannins, flavonoids and saponins in eucalyptus

(Eucalyptus camaldulensis) leaves. The highest yield was from ethanolic extract followed

by aqueous extract, which are 9.34% and 6.54%, respectively (Shayoub, Dawoud,

Abdelmageed, Ehassan, & Ehassan, 2015).

Summary of RS

Limonium delicatulum has high tannin content in its shoots, maximum from

acetone extracts and minimum in hexane extracts. Mangifera indica seed extracts are also

high in tannins. The Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves also contain high tannin content;

highest from ethanolic extracts and aqueous extracts.


7

Conceptual Framework

Amount of Tamarind Amount of ferric tannate


(Tamarindus indica) seeds in produced in milligrams
grams

IV DV
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica)
seed extract effective as a rust
converter.

Output

Fig. 1: Paradigm of the Study

The amount of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds will affect the amount of

ferric tannate produced which will result for Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed extract

as an effective rust converter. The independent variable of the study is Tamarind

(Tamarindus indica) seeds which will be measured in grams in rational level and the

dependent variable ferric tannate will be be measured in milligrams in rational level.


8

Hypothesis of the Study

The Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed extract has a significant effect on rust

convertion.

Definition of Variables

1. Iron – a heavy type of metal that is very common, occurs naturally in blood, and

is the most used of all metals.

2. Polymer –a chemical compound that is made of small molecules that are arranged

in a simple repeating structure to form a larger molecule.

3. Rust – a reddish brittle coating formed on iron especially when chemically

attacked by moist air and composed essentially of hydrated ferric oxide.

4. Rust conversion – the process of converting rust into a harmless material, uses

rust converters to turn rust into ferric tannate.

5. Seed extraction – the process of getting the extract of a seed: in many different

ways, such as ethanolic extract and hexane extract.

6. Tannin – any of various soluble astringent complex phenolic substances of plant

origin used especially in tanning leather, dyeing fabric, manufacturing ink,

clarifying wine and beer, and in medicine.

7. Tamarind - a tropical Old World tree (Tamarindus indica) of legume family with

hard yellowish wood, pinnate leaves, and red-striped yellow flowers; also: its fruit

which has an acid pulp often used for preserves or in a cooling laxative drink.
9

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methods and techniques of the study, the sample data

gathering procedure and data processing and statistical treatment employed in analyzing

and interpreting gathered data.

Methods and Techniques

I. Collection and Preparation of Materials

Tamarinds are copious in the market; the researcher obtained the

Tamarind seeds from the Commonwealth Market.

II. Tamarindus indica L. plant identification

The researcher brought the specimen to the Biology department of

University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City. They obtained an

authentication that proved and identified the validity of the specimen. The

researcher was able to know that the Tamarind belongs to the family Fabaceae

with the scientific name of Tamarindus indica L.


10

III. Preparation of Set-ups

The researcher prepared two samples with three replicates each of tamarind seed

ethanolic extract. There was 30 grams of tamarind seeds and 50 ml of ethanol and

20 grams of tamarind seeds and 50 ml of ethanol and compared if the tamarind

seed ethanol extract will be feasible as a rust converter by comparing the amount

in milligrams of ferric tannate produced (rust converted). The set-ups were left

overnight before the ferric tannate produced is collected.

Samples of the Study

Sample A Sample B
20 grams of tamarind seeds 30 grams of tamarind seeds
and 50 ml of ethanol and 50 ml of ethanol

Trial 1 Trial 1

Replicate Replicate Replicate Replicate Replicate Replicate


1 2 3 1 2 3

Data Collection and Analysis

The researcher collected the ferric tannate produced and went to UP Diliman Research

and Analytical Services Laboratory to rent an analytical scale to measure the weight of

ferric tannate produced in milligrams.


11

Data Processing and Statistical Treatment

The researcher used two sample t-test (independent) to determine whether there are any

significant differences between the means of the four samples. The researcher will use the

(𝑥1 −𝑥2 )
formula 2
to compare the means of two samples.
𝑠𝑥1 𝑥2 ∗√
𝑛
12

CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

OF DATA

The data gathered are presented, analyzed and interpreted in this chapter to

answer the specific problems in chapter I.

Samples Concentration Replicates (Ferric tannate produced in mg)

(g/mL)
1 2 3

A 0.6 (30 g / 50 470 mg 510 mg 410 mg

mL)

B 0.4 (20 g / 50 360 mg 370 mg 380 mg

mL)

Table 1 Ferric tannate produced in mg at Various Concentration of Tamarind Seed

Ethanolic extract

The Table 1 above states the amount of ferric tannate produced/rust converted in

mg and it can be seen that the ferric tannate produced/rust converted has been increased
13

when the concentration went up from 0.4 to 0.6 g/mL. The ferric tannate produced/rust

converted increased, showing that tamarind seed ethanolic extract as an effective rust

converter.

When rusting occurs, the iron becomes fragile and less sturdy; and the rusted

part of the iron can spread its rust to the nearby parts, and if an effective rust converter

is used, we can prevent the further corrosion of iron and lengthening its lifespan.

Ferric tannate produced in mg


600

500

400

300

200

100

0
Sample A Sample B

Rep. 1 Rep. 2 Rep. 3

Fig. 2 Ferric tannate produced in mg at Various Concentration of Tamarind Seed

Ethanolic extract

The Figure 1 above exemplifies the ferric tannate produced/rust converted with

the use of tamarind seed ethanolic extract and it can be observed that the ferric tannate
14

produced has increased when the tamarind seed ethanolic extract was increased from 0.4

g/mL to 0.6 g/mL.

Usually, measuring the ferric tannate produced is the most used technique to

assess the effectivity of rust converters. When iron rusts, it loses its sturdiness several

lives on the risk, but using a rust converter, it could stop the further corrosion thus

making the structure more durable and could be a danger when buildings with metallic

foundations corrode, making the structure fragile and putting

Two– Sample T-test(Independent)

470+510+410
Sample A mean: = 463.333
3

360+370+380
Sample B mean: = 370
3

x (x-x1) (x- x1)2

470 6.667 44.444

510 46.667 2,177.777

410 -53.333 2,844.444

∑(x− x̅)^2=71.180

Table 2. Data for Standard Deviation (results from the trials 0.6 g/mL concentration)
15

x (x-x1) (x- x1)2

360 -10 100

370 0 0

380 10 100

∑(x − x̅)^2 = 14.142

Table 3. Data for Standard Deviation (results from the trials of 0.4 g/mL

concentration)

Hypothesis Testing

1. State the null and alternative

hypothesis: Ho: µ𝑥1 = µ𝑥2

Ha: µ𝑥1 ≠µ𝑥2

2.Level of Significance

α=0.05

3. Test Statistics

Independent sample mean t-test


16

(𝑥1 − 𝑥2 )
2
𝑠𝑥1 𝑥2 ∗ √𝑛

where: 𝑥1 is the mean for the Sample A

𝑥2 is the mean for Sample B

𝑠𝑥1 𝑥2 is the Grand Standard Deviation

𝑛 is the total number of values

463.3333 − 370
= 3.1502
2
36.2859 ∗ √3

3.1502
4. Critical region

d.o.f.=2n−2=2⋅3−2=4

Critical value: ±2.776

Fig. 3 Normal Curve


-2.776 2.776

5. Decision

Reject Ho and accept Ha since the computed t value is 3.1502 which is in the rejection region and

is more than the critical value which is ±2. 776.Therefore, there is a significant difference between

the 0.4g/mL and0.6g/mL concentration of tamarind seed ethanolic extract. The 0.6g/mL tamarind

seed ethanolic extract concentration can convert rust betterthanthe0.4 g/mL tamarind seed ethanolic

extract concentration. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed ethanolic extract is an effective rust

converter.
17

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of the findings of the study; the conclusions

based on the research output; and the recommendations forwarded in the light of the

conclusions of the study.

The general problem of the study was “How can the Tamarind (Tamarindus

indica) seed ethanolic extract be feasible as a rust converter?”

Specifically, it sought answers to these questions:

1.What percentage of concentration of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed

ethanolic extract is the most feasible in rust conversion?

2. How much yield percentage of tannins will be extracted from Tamarind

(Tamarindus indica) seed using ethanol extraction?

3. Will the ethanol be able to amplify or decrease the rust converting capability of

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed extract?


18

Summary of Findings

Within the context of the study, the following findings were identified:

1. The Table 1 exemplifies the amount of ferric tannate produced/rust converted

when treated with tamarind seed ethanolic extract and it can be observed that the amount

of ferric tannate produced/rust converted has been increased when the tamarind seed

ethanolic extract concentration was increased from 0.4 to 0.6.

2. The amount of ferric tannate produced/rust converted increased, signifying the

effectiveness of tamarind seed ethanolic extract as a rust converter.

3. Tamarinds contains tannins, which makes a chemical reaction with ferric oxide

(rust), to make ferric tannate, a harmless blue-black material.

Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:

1. Measuring the ferric tannate produced is the most used technique to assess the

effectivity of rust converters.

2. When tamarind seed ethanolic extract is used, the rust is converted to ferric

tannate, preventing the further corrosion of the iron.

3. Tamarind seed ethanolic extract is effective as a rust converter.


19

Recommendations

Based on the results of the study, the following recommendations were presented:

1. The researcher recommends that the future researchers may have many samples,

for varying tamarind seed ethanolic extract concentration to further reduce the margin of

error.

2. The researcher recommends that the future researchers may use other extraction

methods other than ethanolic extraction.


20

Bibliography

Bhadoriya, S. S., Ganeshpurkar, A., Narwaria, J., Rai, G., & Jain, A. P. (2011, 6 9).

Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential. Retrieved 7 31, 2016, from

NCBI: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3210002/

Blaszczak-Boxe, A. (2015, 1 6). Facts About Iron. Retrieved 7 31, 2016, from Live

Science: http://www.livescience.com/29263-iron.html

Caluwé, E. D., Halamová, K., & Damme, P. V. (2010, 6). Tamarindus indica L. – A

review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology . Retrieved 7 31,

2016, from Doc Developpement Durable: http://www.doc-developpement-

durable.org/file/Arbres-

Fruitiers/FICHES_ARBRES/tamarinier/Tamarindus%20indica_pharmacological

%20uses.pdf

Fowomola. (2010, 8). some nutrients and antinutrients contents of mango. Retrieved 8 8,

2016, from Academic Journals:

http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380729035_Fowomola.pdf

Logan, J. (2015, 11 20). Tannic Acid Coating for Rusted Iron Artifacts, formerly

published under the title Tannic Acid Treatment – Canadian Conservation

Institute (CCI) Notes 9/5. Retrieved 7 16, 2016, from Goverment of Canada:

http://canada.pch.gc.ca/eng/1439925170382

Medini, F., Fellah, H., Ksouri, R., & Abdelly, C. (2014, 1 24). Total phenolic, flavonoid

and tannin contents and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of organic

extracts of shoots of the plant Limonium delicatulum. Retrieved 8 8, 2016, from


21

ScienceDirect:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1658365514000120

Mercola. (2015). What Is Tamarind Good For? Retrieved 7 12, 2016, from Food Facts by

Mercola.com: http://foodfacts.mercola.com/tamarind.html

Roberge, P. (2015). Rust Converters. Retrieved 7 12, 2016, from Corrosion Doctors:

http://corrosion-doctors.org/MetalCoatings/rust-converter.htm

Shayoub, M. E., Dawoud, A. D., Abdelmageed, M. A., Ehassan, A. M., & Ehassan, A.

M. (2015). Phytochemical analysis of leaves extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis

Dehnh. Retrieved 8 1, 2016, from Omdurman Journal of Pharmaceutical Science:

http://www.oiu.edu.sd/pharmacy/docjor/pharmacy_20150512111821.pdf

Sinchaiyakit, Ezure, Sriprang, Pongbangpho, Povichit, & Suttajit. (2011, 6 6). Tannins of

tamarind seed husk: preparation, structural characterization, and antioxidant

activities. Retrieved 7 31, 2016, from PubMed.gov:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21815420

The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. (2016, 7 4). Tannin. Retrieved 7 16, 2016, from

Encyclopædia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/topic/tannin


22

Appendices

Materials 1 Fig. 4 Materials (from left to right)

Ethanol, tamarind Seeds, weighing scale, measuring cups and spoons, mortar and pestle, rusted
nails

Fig. 5 Samples A and B ethanolic extracts with three replicates each

Sample A: 0.6 g/mL concentration, 30 grams of tamarind seeds and 50 mL ethanol

Sample A: 0.4 g/mL concentration, 20 grams of tamarind seeds and 50 mL ethanol


23

Fig. 6 Samples A and B (Extract still not applied)

Fig. 7 Samples A and B (Seconds after applying the extract on the rusted nails)
24

Fig. 8 Samples A and B (12 hours After the extract was applied)
25

Poster

Fig. 9 Research Poster


26

Fig. 10 Certification of Authentication of Plant Identification


27

CURRICULUM VITAE

NAME: KARL WILFRID DANIELS O. MOLLES

Address: 1 Panther St., Bgy. Bagong Silangan, Quezon City

Place of Birth: Quezon City

Parent’s Name: Wilfredo Aguilar Molles

Sheryl Olandag Molles

Ambition: To become a doctor.

To save lives.

Achievements: I can breathe.

Philosophy in Life: We are not destroying nature, we are killing our own race and the

other species that is in the same era as ours, because nature will adapt, nature cannot be

destroyed, but us…...

Hobbies/Interests: Playing computer games

Playing with my dogs and cats

Reading books, almanacs, encyclopedias, magazines and basically anything that is about

science.

Message to the Readers: The dream of securing yourself is okay, but dreaming of

securing our race is better. Earth is not dying, we are dying. Please take care of our

environment, as you take care of yourself. Have a good day.


28

Reflection

Classmates

School may be hard sometimes but since I got them, they make things easier, even

though I’m not close to some of them, we still help each other. We have created precious

memories together, we had fun times, we got into hard times, we help each other and

never leave anyone behind. We have many differences, but that doesn’t make us

indifferent to each other.

Teacher

Maybe this should be “Teachers” because we’ve got two research teachers this

year. On the first quarters, Ma’am Nerium, with her scary and judging eyes, but she’s a

great person with a great sense of humor, she may be very strict and stern but it’s helping

us to be responsible and to know our mistakes. On the later quarters, Sir Martin, he is

easy going but he still not fails his duty to teach us, to help us improve, he also has a

great sense of humor.

Subject

Research, the subject that I’ve hated since I’ve entered high school, now, I’ve

learned to love it, the journey to find the unknown, it’s like an exciting adventure.

Discovering new knowledge, it doesn’t matter if your results are positive or not, a

research with a negative result is still a research, you still made new knowledge, you still

learned. Research taught me how to be responsible and to stand my ground; defend my

ideas.