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Basic Logging Measurement

Introduction
 Caliper
 SP

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 GR
 NGT
 Neutron
 Density
 Sonic
 Resistivity
 Induction
Types of log measurements

• SP & GR (record naturally occurring physical phenomena in in-situ


rocks)
• Porosity Logs

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• Sonic logs
• Density logs
• Neutron logs
• Resistivity Logs
• Conventional Electrical Logs
• Induction logs
Invasion Model
Mud
Rm

Uninvaded
zone
Flushed Rt
zone Transition

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Rmc Zone Rw
Rxo

Mudcake Rmf Sw

Sxo
h
CALIPER LOGS
CALIPER LOGS
- Applications:
• Measure borehole diameter
(borehole geometry if multi-arm
caliper tools with 2 or 3 hole
diameters measurements 90° or 60°
relative to each other).

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• Important measurement for drillers:
hole geometry, hole/cement volume.
• Hole diameters are an import input
parameter for the environmental
correction of petrophysical logs.
• Oriented multi-arm caliper logs are
used to identify principle stress
directions - “breakout log”
- Basic Quality Control:
Perform casing check - should read
nominal casing ID.
CALI, C1, C2 Washout: Shale zone?
Mudcake: Permeable zone?
SP (Spontaneous Potential Logging)

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Spontaneous Potential (SP)
• Opposite shales the SP curve
usually defines a more or less
straight line on the log called the
Shale Baseline
• Opposite permeable formations,

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the curves shows excursions from
the shale baseline; in thick beds,
these excursions tend to reach an
essentially constant deflection
defining a Sand Line.
• The deflections may be negative or
positive depending primarily on the
relative salinities of the formation
water and of the mud filtrate.
• SP Curve cannot be recorded in holes filled with non
conductive mud, because such mud does not provide the
electrical continuity between the SP electrode and the formation.
• If Rw ~ Rmf => SP deflection will be very small (the curve will
be rather featureless).

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•The Position of the shale baseline on the log has no useful
meaning for interpretation purposes. The SP sensitivity scale is
chosen and the shale baseline position is set by the engineer
running the log so that the curve deflections remain the SP track.
Origin of SP
SP deflections result from electric current flowing in the mud in the
borehole. These SP currents are developed by two types of
interactions :
1. Electrochemical

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2. Electrokinetic
Electrochemical
The electrochemical interaction is caused by the difference in
salinity between mud filtrate and water formation.

There two types of Electrochemical components, Membrane


Potential (Em) and Liquid Junction Potential (Ej)
SP – Membrane Potential
 Consider a permeable formation with thick shale beds above and below; assume, too, that the two
electrolytes present, mud filtrate and the formation waters contain NaCl only. Only Na+ cations are
able to move through shales from more concentrated to less concentrated NaCl solution. Shales
are impervious to the Cl- anions. This movement of charged ions is an electric current, and the
force causing them to move constitutes a potential across the shale. Since shales pass only the
cations, shales resemble ion-selective membrane, and the potential across the shale is therefore
called the membrane potential.

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SP – Liquid Junction Potential
 Another component of the electrochemical potential is produced at the edge of the
invaded zone, where the mud filtrate and formation water are in direct contact. Here
the Na+ and Cl- can diffuse (move) from either solution to the other. Since Cl- has
greater mobility than Na+, the net result of this ion diffusion is a flow of negative
charges from more concentrated to less concentrated solution. The current flowing
across the junction between solutions of different salinity is produced by an
electromagnetic force (emf) called liquid junction potential.

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SP
SP

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Membrane potential is about 5 x Liquid Junction potential
Electrokinetic potential SP is negligible
Electrokinetic component of SP
 This is generated by the electrolyte flow (of the mud filtrate)
through a permeable, non metallic, porous medium (mudcake).
 The magnitude depends on the differential pressure producing the
flow and the resistivity of the electrolyte.

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 In practice, little or no electrokinetic is actually generated. It will
only become important if there are high differential pressures
across the formations
SP as a permeability or shale indicator

Since invasion can only occur in


permeable formations, deflections

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of SP can be used to identify
permeable formations.

The vertical resolution of SP is


poor, and often the permeable bed
must be 30 ft or more to achieve a
static (flat baseline) SP
Rw from SSP
Under certain circumstances Rw R mfeq
can be estimated from SP. SSP  K c log
•The SP value remains constant for
at least 30 feet.
Rweq
•The area where the SP is constant
R mfeq

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must correspond to a very clean
sandstone. Rweq  SSP
•The value of Rmf must remain
k c
constant across this same interval. 10
These conditions are rare, and K c  61  0.133T F 
large errors in the Rw estimate
may occur.
Use this technique with care! K c  65  0.24TC 

R w eq , R mfeq : Chart _ SP .2
Rmfeq from Rmf or Rw from Rweq
Chart SP-2
If Rmf @ 75degF > 0.1 Ohmm
then Rmfeq=0.85 Rmf @ BHT

If Rmf @ 75 degF < 0.1 Ohmm

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then Rmfeq from chart sp2

Same with Rw
SP as Rw indicator

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SP is more often used
“qualitatively” to predict
whether Rw > Rmf or not.

Rmf = Rw Rw > Rmf Rmf > Rw


“Saline mud” “Fresh mud”
SP for correlation

-ve SP +ve SP
deflection deflection

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SP for correlation
Keep in mind that SP deflection is Rmf dependent and
never an absolute value

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SP log

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Rmf > Rw?
Where is Sand?
Where is Shale?
What is Vsh?
Static SP (SSP)
SSP is the SP deflection opposite a thick,
clean formation. The deflection is
measured from the shale baseline and its
magnitude:
Rmfe
SSP  k log

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Rwe

The value of SSP can be determined


directly from the SP curve, if, in a given
horizon, there are thick, clean, water
bearing beds.
Factors Affecting SP Measurement
 The current flow and hence the SP deflection depends on the
difference between the resistivity of the virgin formation water,
Rw, and that of the mud filtrate Rmf
 In normal cases Rw<<Rmf, the SP deflection from the shale
baseline is negative (left)

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 In the opposite condition, Rw>Rmf, found in fresh formation
waters, the deflection is positive (right)

SP Deflection
Negative Rw>Rmf

SP Deflection
Negative Rw<Rmf
Rmf > Rw
Shale Little deflection
Clean Ss Negative deflection

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Rmf < Rw
Shale Little deflection
Clean Ss Positive deflection
SP Example

The Minimum point on the SP corresponds


to where all the resistivity curves overlay,

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no invasion, a shale.

The Maximum SP deflection in this


example occurs at the same depths
as the resistivity curves show a separation

Rw<Rmf?
Where is Sand?
Where is Shale?
SP reading on Sand?
SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL – SP
APPLICATIONS

• Shaliness Indicator - The example


log is for the case where Rmf > Rw. Baselines
for 100% sandstone and 100% shale can be
established at the maximum and minimum SP

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excursions.The percentage of shale can be
directly obtained for any depth on the log by
ESSP linearly scaling between the shale and sand
base lines. For example:
• SPshale = -10 mV
• SPsand = -40 mV
• SPlog = SP reading from the log = -25 mV
• The percentage of shale will be (SPlog -
SPsand) / (SPshale - SPsand) = -15/-30 = .5 or
50% shale.
Code/Name

 SP, units = mV

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SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL – SP
APPLICATIONS

•Correlation - Correlation permits logs made on one trip into the borehole to be
tied-in (depth matched) with those made on another trip. Correlating is done for
two primary reasons:
 Depth matching between separate trips in the well.

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 Positioning of open hole sampling tools.

•Estimation of Rw under the following circumstances:


 The SP value remains constant for at least 30 feet.
 The area where the SP is constant must correspond to a clean sandstone.
 The value of Rmf must remain constant across this same interval.
SP deflections vs. Salinity
R
SSP = -K log mfe
Rwe

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Rmf = Rw Rmf <Rw Rmf >Rw
SALINE MUD FRESH MUD

K = 61 + .133*F
K = 65 + .24*C
Rw From SSP (use this technique with care!)

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Resistivity changes with Temperature.
 As temperature of the solution increases the activity of the
ions in the solution increases and the solution resistivity
decreases.
 Since we measure all resistivities at formation temperature

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(FT) we must convert the Rmf at surface measured
temperature to Rmf at formation temperature to compute the
ratio of Rmf to Rw (ie SSP).
 We assume salinity of the formation does not change with
temperature and use chart Gen. 9.
 Rw=0.35 @ 75 degF
 What is Rw at 190 degF?? (assuming the salinity does not

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change with temperature)
eg. Rw = .35 @ 75F gives a salinity of 17,000ppm. 17,000ppm @ 190 F yields a resistivity of .135 ohmm.

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Exercises:
1. Rw = 0.21 ohm-m @ 75 degF.
What is the salinity? 30000 ppm

What is the Rw @ 200 degF? 0.08 ohm-m

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2. Salinity = 13000 ppm
What is the Rw @ 75 degF? 0.44 ohm-m
If FT= 180 degF, what is Rw? 0.19 ohm-m
Calculation of Rw
from SP
 Get Rmf @ meas. Temp from log heading along with BHT.
 Compute FT from BHT.
 Calculate SSP from log at maximum deflection (in a clean,

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thick, (water-wet) zone). --- Just read SP from logs for this
training
 Enter Chart SP-1 with SSP, FT., & Rmfe and compute
Rmfe/Rwe.
 Compute Rmf @ FT (Gen-9).
 Convert Rmf to Rmfe @ FT. from Chart SP-2  Rwe
 From Chart SP-2 convert Rwe to Rw at formation
temperature.
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SP Example for Rw
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SP Example for Rw
SP Example for Rw SP-1 Chart

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SP Example for Rw
SP Example for Rw
SP-2 Chart

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Exercise
 Essp = -100 mV @250 degF
 Rmf = 0.7 ohm-m at 75 degF
 What is Rw?

Rmf @ 250 F = 0.2 ohm-m, Salinity = 8000 ppm

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From SP-1 chart; Rmfe/Rwe = 11.5
Rmfe = 0.85 * Rmf (in condition if Rmf @ 75 degF > 0.1 ohm-m)

Rmfe = 0.85 * 0.2


= 0.17 ohm-m
Hence, Rwe = 0.015 ohm-m

From SP-2 chart ; Rw ~ 0.023 ohm-m


GR (Gamma Ray) Logging

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Principle
 The Gamma Ray log is a measurement of the formation’s natural
radioactivity
 Gamma Ray emission is produced by three radioactive series found in
the Earth’s crust
 Potassium (K40) series

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 Uranium series
 Thorium series
 Gamma Ray passing through rocks are slowed and absorbed at a rate
which depends on the formation density
 Less dense formation exhibit more radioactivity than dense formations
even though there may be the same quantities of radioactive material per
unit volume
Gamma Ray Interactions
As they pass through matter, gamma rays experience a loss of energy due to
collisions with other atomic particles. These collisions can be divided into three
basic categories :

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Pair Production
It is the conversion of a gamma ray into an Compton Scattering
electron and positron when the gamma ray It is the scattering of a gamma ray by an orbital
enters the strong electric field near an atom's electron. As a result of this interaction, the
nucleus. It predominates at gamma ray gamma ray loses energy and an electron is
energy levels above 10 MeV. Because the ejected from its orbit. Compton scattering
electron and positron have a combined mass predominates in the 75 keV to 10 MeV energy
equivalent of 1.02 MeV, a gamma ray must range.
have at least this much energy to cause pair
production.
GR Log and Uses

 Bed definition:
 The tool reacts if the shale is radioactive
(usually the case), hence show the sands and
Shale
shales, the permeable zones and non-

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permeable zones
 Computation of the amount of shale:
 The minimum value gives the clean (100%)
shale free zone, the maximum 100% shale
zone. All other points can then be calibrated in
the amount of shale

Reservoir
Vsh=(GRlog-GRsand)/(GRshale-GRsand)
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Application
 Correlation
This is the most widely used application of the GR log. It permits logs
made on one trip into the borehole (openhole, cased hole or both) to be
tied in (depth matched) with those made on another trip.
Correlation is done for three primary reasons:

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 Depth matching between separate trips in the well.
 Positioning of open hole sampling tools.
 Providing the depth control needed for cased hole perforation.
 General lithology indicator
In areas where certain lithology aspects are already known, the GR log
can be used as a lithology indicator.
 Quantitative shaliness evaluation
The GR log reflects the proportion of shale and, in many regions, can be
used quantitatively as a shale indicator.
Operating Environment
One of the biggest features of the GR log is its wide range of
operating environments. It can be run in almost any logging
situation including cased wells, or in openholes drilled with
air, salt mud, oil-based mud or fresh mud.

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The Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry
(NGS)

•Unlike the GR log, which measures only the total


radioactivity, this log measures both the number of gamma
rays and the energy level of each and permits the

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determination of the concentrations of radioactive
potassium, thorium and uranium in the formation rocks.
Principles
Natural Gamma Rays
Gamma ray emission is produced by three radioactive series found in the
Earth's crust.
•Potassium (K40) series, Uranium (U238) series and Thorium (Th 232)

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series.
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NGT Example
NGT Applications

 Lithology identification
 Study of depositional environments
 Investigation of shale types

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 Correlation of the GR for clay content evaluation
 Identification of organic material and source rocks
 Fracture identification
 Geochemical logging
 Study of s rock’s diagenetic history
A major application was to solve North Sea log interpretation problems in
micaceous sands
NGT Elements

 The three radioactive elements measured by the NGT occur in different parts of
the reservoir. If we know the lithology, we can deduce further information
 In Carbonates:
 U - indicates phosphates, organic matter and stylolites

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 Th – indicates clay content
 K – indicates clay content, radioactive evaporites
 In sandstone:
 Th – indicates clay content, heavy minerals
 K – indicates micas, micaceous clays and feldspars
NGT Elements (continued)
 In shales:
 U – in shale, suggest a source rock
 Th – indicates the amount of detrital material or degree of
shaliness

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 K – indicates clay type and mica
NGT/GR Parameters
Vertical resolution 18”
 No formation is perfectly clean, hence
the GR readings will vary. Limestone is Depth of investigation 6”-8”
usually cleaner than the other two
reservoir rocks and normally has a Readings in: API units

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lower GR Limestone <20
 Anhydrite and salt are normally very Dolomite <30
clean, and have very low values
Sandstone <30
Shale 80-300
Salt <10
Anhydrite <10
Code/Name

 GR
 CGR
 SCGR

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 POTA
 THOR
 URAN
 *GR
Exercise
What is the VSH from GR @ 10235
ft?

Approximately 43%
Shale

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VSH = (GR log – GR sand) /
(GR shale – GR sand)
GR log example

Which has better


vertical resolution,
SP or GR?

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Porosity Logs
The major porosity logs are:
 Neutron Logs, n The tool response is
 Density Logs, b affected by the formation
porosity, fluid and matrix.
 Sonic Logs, t

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If the fluid and matrix effects are known or can be determined, the
tool response can be related to porosity, therefore these devices
are referred to as porosity logs.
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Sonic Logging
Sonic Logs
Principles :
In its simplest form, a sonic tool consists of :
 A transmitter that generates a sound pulse

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 A receiver that picks up and records the pulse
as it passes the receiver.

It is simply a recording versus depth of the time, t , required for a


sound wave to traverse 1 ft of formation. Known as the interval
transit time, transit time, t, or slowness, t is the reciprocal of the
velocity of the sound wave.
Sonic borehole waves

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Sonic Tool
 The sonic tools create an acoustic signal and measure how long it takes to pass
through a rock.

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 By simply measuring this time we get an indication of the formation properties.

 The amplitude of the signal will also give information about the formation.
Borehole Compensated Sonic (BHC)

 A simple tool that uses a pair of transmitters and four receivers to


compensate for caves and sonde tilt
 The normal spacing between the transmitters and receivers is 3’ – 5’
 It produces a compressional slowness by measuring the first arrival

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transit times
 Used for:
 Correlation
 Porosity
 Lithology
 Seismic tie in / time-to-depth conversion
Long Spacing Sonic (LSS)

 The BHC tool is affected by near borehole altered zones hence a


longer spacing is needed with a larger depth of investigation
 The tool spacing are 8’-10’, 10’-12’

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 The tool cannot be built with transmitters at each end like a BHC
sonde, hence there are two transmitters at the bottom
 A system called DDBHC – depth derived borehole compensation,
is used to compute the transmit time
 Same as the BHC tool for applications
Array Sonic: Digital Sonic Tool

 Multi-spacing digital tool


 First use STC processing
 Able to measure shear waves and Stoneley waves in hard

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formations
 Used for:
 Porosity, lithology
 Seismic tie/ time-to depth conversion
 Mechanical properties (from shear and compressional)
 Fracture identification (from shear and Stoneley)
 Permeability (from Stoneley)
Array Sonic: Digital Sonic Tool (cont.)

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Sonic Logs

Compr. Shear Stoneley

Rec1

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Rec8

Example waveforms from the eight-receiver Array-Sonic tool


Sonic Logs

Sonic velocities In Formations


 In sedimentary formations the speed of sound depends on
many parameters; principally, it depends on the rock matrix
material (sandstone, limestone, dolomite…) and on the

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distributed porosity.

 Porosity decreases the velocity of sound through the rock


material and correspondingly, increases the interval transit
time ( t)
POROSITY LOGS SONIC TOOL

STANDARD DISPLAY OF
BOREHOLE COMPENSATED
SONIC LOG (BHC)

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- Primary Logging Curves:
DT … Delta Time or Slowness
[μsec/ft; μsec/m]
TT1 - 4 … Transit Times [μsec] for Log
Integrated Transit Time
Quality Control
- Optional Logging Curves:
SPHI … Sonic Porosity [vol/vol]
SVEL … Sonic Velocity [ft/sec; m/sec]
- Sonic Specific Output:
Cycle Skip Integrated Transit Time for comparison
with Seismic One Way Time
- Basic Quality Control:
Check for Cycle Skips and TT1 - TT4.
These curves should run in parallel.
POROSITY LOGS SONIC TOOL

Dipole Shear Imager (DSI)


- Primary Logging Curves:
DT4P… DTcomp, Compressional Slowness
[μsec/ft; μsec/m]
DT4S … DTshear, Shear Slowness [μsec/ft;

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μsec/m]
- Optional Logging Curves:
VpVs…. Dtshear/Dtcomp
PR…….. Poisson’s Ratio

- Sonic Specific Output:


Integrated Transit Time for comparison with
Seismic One Way Time
- Basic Quality Control:
See display left: Coherency Plot projected
onto Slowness Axis
Reprocessing in the field or Computing
Centre possible.
Application of Sonic Logs

 In common oilfield formations, the speed


of sound depends principally upon the
rock matrix material and the porosity.

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The measurement of compressional and
shear wave slowness can help us
estimate:
Porosity (estimated from the
compressional slowness measured by
the sonic log.
Lithology
Presence of natural gas
 Determination of Lithology with Cross
Plot
Application of Sonic Logs
 Detection of the presence of natural gas

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Application of Sonic Logs

 Cement Bond Logs -> used to evaluate


the cement that was put during the well

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completion process.
The Cement Bond Log shows how the
amplitude of the waveform increases
when there is poor cement and
decreases in the intervals when there is
good cement.
Vertical Resolution:
Standard STC (BHC,LSS,MSTC) 24”
Sonic 36”
Parameters
6” DT 6”
Depth of investigation BHC(5”) LSS-SDT(12”)

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Readings in zero porosity: (With 12 feet spacing)
Limestone (0pu) 47.5 us/ft
Sandstone (0pu) 51-55 us/ft
Dolomite (0pu) 43.5 us/ft
Anhydrite 50 us/ft
Salt / Coal 67 / >120 us/ft
Shale >90 us/ft
Steel (casing) 57 us/ft
Code/Name

 DT
 AC
 DT*

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Sonic Porosity

 The porosity from the sonic slowness is different than that from the density or neutron tools
 It reacts to primary porosity only, I.e. it doesn’t “see” the fracture or vugs
 The difference between the sonic porosity and the neutron-density porosity gives a Secondary
Porosity Index (SPI) which is an indication of how much of this type of porosity there is in the

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formation
 The basic equation for sonic porosity is the Wyllie Time Avearge:

t log  t f  1   t ma


t log  t ma

t f  t ma
Sonic Porosity (continued)
 The Wyllie Time Average equation is very simple with the inputs of a matrix slowness and a
fluid slowness
 There is another possibility for transforming slowness to porosity, called Raymer Gardner
Hunt, this formula tries to take into account some irregularities seen in the field. The basic
equation is:

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1

1

  2

t c t ma t f
 A simplified version used on the Maxis is: (C is a constant, usually taken as 0.67 )

t log  t ma
 C
t log
Sonic Porosity Chart

 This Chart shows the relationship


between the sonic compressional
slowness and the porosity. Both the
lithology and the equation must be

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known prior to using this chart
 This chart is entered with the interval
transit time, move up to the lithology
line and read the porosity
Exercise
 Calculate Sonic
Porosity @10200 ft
assuming the matrix
delta is 65 msec/ft and

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the fluid delta t is 189
msec/ft.
Density - Lithology
The density logging tool measures the formation density and
formation lithology.

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Density Tool History

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Density

Principles :
Gamma Ray Interactions

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Gamma Ray Interactions depend on the current Gamma Ray’s energy level
Gamma Ray Source
•Use of chemical source.
•Gamma Ray energy level is generated in Campton Scattering
range (77 keV – 100 MeV).

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Gamma Ray Detection

•Using Scintillation Detector


Formation Density Measurement

•Gamma rays lose their energy when they collide with electrons (Campton Scattering)
•The number of Compton-scattering collision is related directly to the number of
electrons in the formation. Consequently, the response of the density tool is
determined essentially by the electron density. Understanding the relationship
between electron density and bulk density is an essential part of the density

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measurement.
Relationship between Electron Density to Bulk Density

Atomic weight (A) - the mass of an atom.


Atomic number (Z) - the number of electrons in a neutral atom.

Rhoe = Rhob * ( 2Z / A ) Rhoe = Rhob


Most cases, 2Z/A = 1
Some conditions that must exist in order to measure the
density of the formation:
•The source must emit gamma rays at an energy level where Compton
scattering predominates.

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•The source-to-detector spacing must be as such that the gamma rays
travel farther into the formation without losing their energy when they
reach the detector.
Porosity from Density

For a clean formation of known matrix density and fluid


density, the porosity density is:

den = (Rhoma – Rhob)/(Rhoma-Rhof)

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Photoelectric Effect Measurement

The basic principle of lithology

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measurement is having the counts of
gamma rays drop in the energy region
where photoelectric interactions
predominates.

• The spectrum represents the energy lost by gamma rays (emitted from the
source) as they interact with the formation.
• Plot 1 shows the different regions of the energy spectrum.
Photoelectric Effect Measurement

•Number of electron = atomic number,


Z.

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•If you know Z in the given formation,
you can predict the lithology of the
formation.
Photoelectric Effect Measurement

PEF (photoelectric absorption index)


A parameter that links the number of gamma rays that are absorbed by
photoelectric absorption to lithology.

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LDT Uses

 The density tool is extremely useful as it has high accuracy and


exhibits small borehole effects
 Major uses include:
 Porosity

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 Lithology (in combination with the neutron tool)
 Mechanical properties (in combination with the sonic tool)
 Acoustic properties (in combination with the sonic tool)
 Gas identification (in combination with the neutron tool)
 Borehole diameter - A single axis diameter of the borehole is measured from the
face of the skid pad to the end of the caliper arm that holds the skid against the
formation.
Typical Density Response

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POROSITY LOGS- DENSITY & PHOTOLECTRIC EFFECT

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LDT Parameters

Vertical Resolution:
Standard 18”
Enhanced 6”

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Depth of Inverstigation 6”-9”
Readings in zero porosity:

Limestone(0 pu) 2.71


Sandstone(0 pu) 2.65
Dolomite(0 pu) 2.85
Anhydrite 2.98
Salt 2.03
Shale 2.2-2.7
Coal 1.5
Pe Parameters

Vertical Resolution:
Standard 4”

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Readings in zero porosity:

Limestone 5.08
Sandstone 1.81
Dolomite 3.14
Anhydrite 5.05
Salt 4.65
Shale 1.8-6
Code/Name

 RHOB
 RHOZ
 DEN

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 RHO*
 PEF
 PE
Density Porosity
 b   f    ma 1   

 ma   b

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
 ma   f
 There are two inputs into the porosity equation: the matrix density and the
fluid density
 The fluid density is that of the mud filtrate
Por-5: Density Porosity

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12 p.u

2.46 g/cc
Clean Sand Formation Porosity:
Density
ρb = (1-Φd) * ρma + Φd * ρf
 ma  b
D 

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 ma   f

ρ
For ma:
Sandstone: 2.65 g/cc
Limestone : 2.71 g/cc
Dolomite : 2.87 g/cc
Scaling/Porosity
 The density tool is usually run with the neutron
 To aid quicklook interpretation they are run on
“compatible scales”

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 This means that the scales are set such that for a given
lithology the curve overlay
Scaling/Porosity (continued)
 The standard scale is the “limestone compatible” where the neutron porosity
scale is:

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 To fit this, the density log has to have its zero limestone point (2.7 g/cc) on the
same position as the neutron porosity zero and the range of the scale has to fit
the neutrons 60 porosity units hence the scale is:

 Changing to a sandstone compatible scale would put the zero sandstone


density, 2.65, over the neutron porosity zero to give:
Exercise

Calculate Density Porosity


@ 10200 with fluid density
= 1.0 g/cc. Assuming that
the lithology is sandstone

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Density Por ~33%
Neutron

Neutron tools emit high energy neutrons


from either a chemical source or a neutron
generator device (minitron) and measure

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the response of these neutrons as they
interact with the formation, or in many
cases, the fluids within the formation. This
measured response is affected by the
quantity of neutrons at different energy
levels and by the decay rate of the neutron
population from one given energy level to
another. A neutron interacts with the
formation in a variety of ways after leaving
the source, it is the aftermath of these
interactions that is detected by the tool.
 Neutron logs are used principally for delineation of porous
formations and determination of their porosity.
 Neutron logs respond primarily to the amount of hydrogen in
the formation. Thus, in clean formations whose pores are filled

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with water or oil, neutron log reflects the amount of liquid-
filled porosity.
 Gas zones can often be identified by comparing the neutron
log with another porosity log or a core analysis.
 Neutrons are electrically neutral particles, each having a mass almost
identical to the mass of a hydrogen atom.
 When emitted from the radioactive source, the neutrons will collide with
nuclei of the formation materials (billiard-ball collisions). This causes the
neutron to lose some energy.
 The loss of energy per collision depends on the relative mass of nucleus

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with which the neutron collides. The greater energy loss occurs when
neutron strikes hydrogen nucleus (having equal mass).
 The slowing of neutrons depend largely on the amount of hydrogen in the
formation.
 When hydrogen concentration in the formation is large, most of neutrons
are slowed and captured within short distance of the tool. On the contrary,
if the hydrogen concentration is small, the neutrons travel farther from the
course before being captured.
 The response of neutron tools primarily reflects the amount of hydrogen in
the formation. Since oil and water contain practically the same quantity of
hydrogen per unit volume (HI), the responses reflect the liquid-filled
porosity in clean formations.

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 Liquid hydrocarbons have HI close to that of water. Gas, however, has
lower hydrogen concentration, hence neutron log reads too low a porosity.
This characteristic allows the neutron log to be used with other porosity
logs to detect gas zones and identify gas/liquid contacts.
 A neutron and density log combination provides a more accurate porosity.
Neutron – Principles of Operation

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The Figure shows that the neutron slows down to a thermal energy level at a
fairly quick rate. The slowing down rate is determined by the hydrogen index (HI)
of all components of the formation and formation fluids that contain a significant
fraction of hydrogen.
Example of NEUTRON LOGS

STANDARD DISPLAY OF
COMPENSATED NEUTRON
LOG (CNL)
- Primary Logging Curves:
TNPH … Neutron Porosity [vol/vol]

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(NPHI*… Neutron Porosity [vol/vol])
* obsolete replaced by TNPH

- Optional Logging Curves:


NPOR … Alpha Processed (hi-res)
Neutron Porosity [vol/vol]
TALP … Alpha Processing Quality

- Basic Quality Control:


Neutron Porosity values should be
taken with care in front of bad hole -
washout - values might read too high.
CNL is usually run in combination with
LDT(DNL). Zones of poor density
readings are usually identical with poor
neutron porosity readings.
Typical Density Response

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CNT (Compensated NT) Parameters

Vertical Resolution:
Standard (TNPH) 24”
Enhanced 12”

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Depth of Investigation 9”-12”
Readings in zero porosity:

Limestone(0%) 0
Sandstone(0%) -2
Dolomite(0%) 1
Anhydrite -2
Salt -3
Shale 30-45
Coal 50+
Code/Name

 NPHI
 TNPH
 CN

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 CNL
CNT Uses

 The tool measures hydrogen index


 Its prime use is to measure porosity
 Can be used to detect gas

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Combined with the bulk density, it gives the best possible answer
for lithology and porosity interpretation
 It can be used in cased hole
CNT in Cased Hole
 The CNT can be run in cased hole for the porosity
 In addition to the standard corrections some others are needed to take into
account the extra elements of casing and cement
 The standard conditions are:
 8 ¾” borehole diameter

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 Casing thickness 0.304”
 Cement thickness 1.62”
 Fresh water in the borehole and formation
 No stand-off
 75F
 Atmosphere pressure
 Tool centred in the hole
Clean Sand Formation Porosity:
Neutron Matrix Correction (Chart)
NPHI = (1-Φn) * NPHIma + Φn * NPHIf

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(NPHI – NPHIma)
Φn = ---------------- (Chart Por-13b)
(NPHIf – NPHIma)

If NPHI is in LIMESTONE Matrix


Por-13b: Neutron Porosity

38 p.u in Ss

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33.5 p.u in LS
Archie’s Equation

Empirical constant
(usually near unity) Resistivity of

a Rww formation water,

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Sw  n
-m


Water
saturation,
m Cementation
exponent
fraction
Saturation
exponent
Rtt (usually near 2)

(also usually Resistivity of


near 2) Porosity, uninvaded
fraction formation, -m
Archie Parameters

 Rw = resistivity of connate water


 m = “cementation factor”, set to 2 in the simple case
 n = “saturation exponent”, set to 2 in the simple case

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 a = constant, set to 1 in the simple case
 All the constants have to be set
 Two common sets of numbers for these constants are:
 In a simple carbonate, the parameters are simplified to:
 m=2, n=2, a =1
 In a sandstone they become:
 m=2.15, n=2, a =0.62
Saturation Equations
 There are large number of saturation equations, such as:

 Indonesia Equation 1 1
Sw   Vcl  *
1
Vcl
2

 e Rt
 Nigeria Equation Rcl
 Rw
2
1  V   n

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1.4 m
2


   e
 Swcl
Waxman-Smiths Equation
Rt  Rc l aRw 
1 Sw2 BQv Sw
 Dual-Water Equation  *  *
Rt F Rw F

Ct 
 t
m
Sn
wt 
Cw 
Swb
Cwb  Cw 

a 
 S 

wt
 All reduce to Archie’s equation when there is no shale
Rw Determination
• Rw from SP

• Rw from porosity and resistivity (wet zone)

Rw=(Φ^m)*Rt

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• Rw from resistivity only (wet zone)

Rt*Rmf
Rw = --------------
Rxo
• Rw from client (water chemical analysis)

All the Rw from different sources should be in consistent.


Rmf and Rw

•Rmf and Rw should be corrected by temperature (BHT).

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•Chart Gen-9
Exercise

Rt = 20 ohm-m
Rw = 0.6 ohm-m @ 75 degF
= 0.2 ; Vcl = 0

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BHT = 150 degF
M=n=2 ; a = 1
What is water salinity? 10Kppm
What is Rw @ 150 degF? 0.3 ohm-m
What is Sw? 0.61
Exercise

Rt = 100 ohm-m
Salinity (Cl-) = 45 Kppm
= 0.22 ; Vcl = 0

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BHT = 180 degF
M=n=2 ; a = 1
What is salinity (NaCl)? 74 Kppm
What is Rw @ 180 degF? 0.04 ohm-m
What is Sw? 0.09
Clean Sand Formation Workflow
(Density-Neutron)
 ma  b
D 
 ma   f Φd Φn
 dphi
2
  nphi
2

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x 
Crossplot porosity Φ1 2
Rw from SP or Rwa   m Rt
Rw

1/ n
 a Rw 
Sw Sw  
m R  
 t 

I  Rt / Ro  1 / Sw m
F  1 /  m  Ro / Rw
Electric Resistivity Logging

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Resistivity Logs

Resistivity is one of the primary inputs required to evaluate the producing


potential of an oil or natural gas well. This measurement is needed to
determine Sw, which is needed to estimate the amount of oil or natural gas
present in the well.

Resistivity of a formation depends on :

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Resistivity of the formation water
The amount of water
Pore structure geometry

Principles
(Conventional electrical logs)
Currents were passed through the formation from the current
electrodes and voltages were measured between measuring
electrodes.
Focusing
It is forcing the electrical currents to flow in the formation in the situation where the
formation resistivity gets high.
Laterolog devices are focused devices. The term laterolog came about because the
current is forced to flow "laterally" away from the tool.

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There are three types of focusing systems in use today:
Passive Focusing Systems – DLL, ARI
Active Focusing Systems - ARI
Computed Focusing - HRLA
Example of Passive Focusing Passive Focusing Systems
Laterolog measurements began with a
device called the bucking electrode.To
focus the measured current laterally into
the formation, bucking electrodes are
place above and below the measure
electrode. As shown in "Passive

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Focusing" graphic, equal current is
emitted from all three electrodes to focus
the current into the formation. With this
arrangement, the equipotential shapes
distort very quickly. This electrode
configuration is called the Laterolog
Three (LL3) and is known as a passive
bucking system
Distortion of equipotential
surfaces
Example of Active Focusing
Active Focusing
To maintain the shape of the equipotential
surfaces and ensure the measured current
is flowing laterally into the formation in
formations of higher resistivities, the active
bucking system was introduced (LL5

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device). As shown in the "Active Focusing"
graphic, this system places two voltage
electrodes, M1 and M2, between the
current-emitting measure electrode and the
bucking electrode. The measured current is
adjusted until the voltage difference
between M1 and M2 is zero. This ensures
that the area in front of these monitor
electrodes is equipotential and the
measure current is flowing laterally away
from the tool. This is known as the laterolog
deep (LLD) measurement.
Computed Focusing

The Laterolog Tool uses the main monitoring condition of M1 - M2 = 0 as the main control condition.
 Limited Dynamic Range. To maintain M1 - M2 conditions in very high resistivities requires infinite
gain.
 Temperature Variations. Variations in temperature introduce errors in the measurements.

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Continued developments in data processing, transmission, and digital conversion capabilities have
made it possible to take advantage of some electromagnetic principles, specifically the principles of
electromagnetic superposition. These capabilities allow us to obtain focused measurements through
computations instead of by mechanical means. The principles of computed focusing allow us to
maintain the condition of M1 - M2 = 0 by mathematically combining linear combinations of pairs of
operating modes. These operating modes and the combinations used to obtain the different depths of
investigation are shown in the "Computed Deep Focusing" and the "Computed Shallow Focusing"
diagrams. Array laterolog devices have multiple operating modes that are combined together to obtain
a series of computed focusing modes with increasing depths of investigation. An in-depth discussion
of these modes is beyond the scope of this text.
Example of Computed Focusing

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Depth Of Investigation

Different depths of investigation are obtained by varying lengths of bucking current electrodes.

Shallow Focusing
If the current is returned to the tool body, instead of the surface electrode, the equipotential
surfaces distort very quickly and the resistivity measurement is influenced by events very

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close or shallow to the tool. This is known as the laterolog shallow (LLS) measurement.
Deep Focusing
In this system the currents are returned to the surface electrode instead of the tool body.
This maintains the shape of the equipotential surfaces much deeper into the formation
insuring the measure current is flowing deeper into the formation than the shallow
measurement. To measure both the shallow and deep depths of investigation
simultaneously is very desirable to help estimate the invasion profile for more accurate
measurements. The Dual Laterolog (DLT), a device that measures at two depths of
investigation was developed for this purpose.
This tool combines the measurement principles of the LLD and LLS into a single device by
having each measurement operate on a different frequency.
Depth Of Investigation
Invaded Zone or Rxo Devices
To complete the borehole description, devices were developed that measured at
very shallow depths of investigation in the invaded zone (Rxo), also referred to
as the flushed zone. These devices use the principles of active and passive
focusing and change the distance between the emitting electrodes and the

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return electrode to achieve very shallow depths of investigation. Example of the
tools are MSFL, Microlog and MCFL.

Azimuthal Resistivities
Azimuthal resistivities are resistivity measurements made around the
circumference of the borehole. Azimuthal measurements are very useful in
evaluating highly deviated and horizontal boreholes.
Depth Of Investigation

Array Resistivities - HRLA


Laterolog array resistivities are obtained through multi-frequency operating modes (5
curves) employing a shallow-style measurement. By taking an array of measurements we
are able to solve a formation model to determine and correct for environmental effects
(such as shoulder bed effects and invasion) and hence calculate the un-invaded

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formation resistivity, Rt, which is the main goal of this type of measurement.
Laterolog Borehole Effects
 Laterologs measure Resistivity in Series
 Laterologs see the borehole environment as

RLL=Rm+Rmc+Rxo+Rt

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Best measurement is in salt
saturated, low resistivity mud.
Worst readings obtained in fresh
mud.
Measurement can’t be taken in OBM

Rm: Mud resistivity


Rmc: Mud cake resistivity, usually neglected as very small
Rxo: Flushed zone resistivity, depends on Rmf, needs to be known
Rt: Parameter to be measured, the higher the better
Tornado Charts
 The simple invasion model is used to solve for the three unknowns: Rt, Rxo, di
 Three resistivity measurements are needed
 Deep: ILD,ILDH,LLD,AIT90,RLA5
 Medium: ILM,IMPH,LLS,SFL,AIT30,RLA2
 Shallow: MSFL,AIT10,RLA1

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 The equation can be solved using Tornado charts
 Several charts exist: one for each possible configuration of the resistivities. The correct one must be
chosen for each situation
 There are zones on each chart where the solution is impossible, this is where the tool is being run
outside its specifications or the corrections have not been properly applied
Example Tornado Chart

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Code/Name

 Deep: RT,LLD,RLA5,RT*
 Medium: LLS,RLA3
 Shallow: RXO,MSFL,SFLU,RLA1/RLA2

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RESISTIVITY - DUAL LATEROLOG LOG EXAMPLE

STANDARD DISPLAY OF
(PHASOR) INDUCTION LOG (PI)
- Primary Logging Curves:
LLD … Deep Laterolog Resistivity [Ωm]
LLS… Shallow Laterolog Resist. [Ωm]

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SP*…... Spontaneous Potential
* not shown on this display
- Basic Quality Control:
Dual Laterolog readings for formation
resistivities < 1.0 Ωm become inaccurate -
Induction might have been the better
choice. LLS can be severely affected in
large holes - washouts - and not be in
agreement with LLD (LLD less sensitive to
borehole conditions).

SP……see SP section on log quality


control.
Applications
 Correlation, Water saturation, and Invasion analysis

Because laterolog tools have the ability to control the region of investigation in
Vertical, radial and azimunthal directions, these tools have additional apps :

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 Evaluate mud cake and mud resistivity for borehole correction using very shallow
measurements.
 Enhance the evaluations of horizontal and or highly-deviated wells using azimuthal
and array measurements.
 Fracture analysis using azimuthal measurements.
 Enhance the evaluations of thin and invaded formation using array measurements.
 Enhance the accuracy of Rt evaluation in difficult environments such as Groningen
affected areas, high contrasts, thinly bedded formations and high apparent dip by
using array measurements and formation inversion processes.
Open Hole Formation Evaluation

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Section 10:
Induction Logging
Induction Theory
 An induction tool uses a
high frequency
electromagnetic
transmitter to induce a
current in a ground loop of

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formation
 This, in turn, induces an
electrical field whose
magnitude is proportional
to the formation
conductivity
Induction Logs

Induction Principles :
 A high-frequency AC of constant intensity is sent through a
transmitter coil -> magnetic field -> create currents in the
formations as ground loops coaxial with the transmitter coil ->

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magnetic field that induces a voltage in the receiver coil.

 Induction tool works best when the borehole fluid is an insulator,


air or gas, even when the mud is conductive.
Induction: Borehole Effects

 Induction tools measure Conductivity.


 Induction measures resistivity in Parallel
 Thus induction tools see the borehole environment as:

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Cm: Best readings occur in high resistivity mud, OBM is better,
fresh mud is good, salt-saturated mud is worst
Cmc: usually neglected as very small
Cxo: depends on Rmf – needs to be known
Ct: Parameter to be measured, the higher the better
Code/Name

 Deep: RT,ILD,IDPH,AIT90,RT*
 Medium: ILM,IMPH,AIT30/AIT60, A*
 Shallow: RXO,MSFL,SFLU,AIT10/AIT20, A*

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RESISTIVITY - INDUCTION Log Example

STANDARD DISPLAY OF
(PHASOR) INDUCTION LOG (PI)
- Primary Logging Curves:
IDPH … Deep Induction Resistivity [Ωm]
IMPH… Medium Induction Resist. [Ωm]

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SFL* … Spherical Focused Log [Ωm]
SP*…... Spontaneous Potential
* not shown on this display

- Basic Quality Control:


Induction readings for formation
resistivities > 50 Ωm are inaccurate - Dual
Laterolog might have been the better
choice. IMPH (medium induction) can be
severely affected in large holes - washouts -
and not be in agreement with IDPH (IDPH
less sensitive to borehole conditions).

SP……see SP section on log quality


control.
Induction vs Laterolog

Laterolog Induction
OBM no yes
Salt Water Mud Possible in small holes*
yes

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Fresh mud No** yes
High resistivity yes no
Air-filled hole no yes
Low resistivity Possible*** yes
Rt<Rxo Induction prefered
Rt>Rxo Laterolog
Prefered
FMI image versus core

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AUXILIARY LOGS

• TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
Vital Input Log Analysis:
Fluid resistivity changes with temperature - Rw (formation water resistivity)

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and Rmf (mud filtrate resistivity) vary with temperature.
Temperature/Mud Resistivity Measurements:
- Maximum Thermometer’s: Thermometers tied to the tool string and read once
the string returns to surface. The time the tool string reaches the bottom of the
well is recorded on the log header together with the temperature reached. Using
the maximum recorded temperature a linear temperature gradient is established
to correct mud sample measurements to down-hole conditions.
- Auxiliary equipment such as the Environmental Measurement Sonde (EMS) or
auxiliary sensors on logging equipment such as the Platform Express perform
continuous recording of temperature and mud sample resistivity.
LOGGING RESULTS DELIVERABLES

GRAPHICS - Films Prints usually in two different depth scales:


1/200 as main working copy and 1/500 (1/1000) for
correlation purposes.

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Certain measurements are being delivered with Log
Quality Displays verifying the quality of the data
recorded.

DIGITAL DATA - usually recorded on DAT (Digital Audio Tape) in DLIS


(Digital Log Information Standard - API RP 22). The
digital records contain raw data and auxiliary allowing
for subsequent re-computation of log parameters.
Other formats such as LIS, BIT, TIF, XTF, DIPLOG,
LAS (Log ASCII Standard) are also used for small
data sets covering primary log information only.
LOG DISPLAY PRINCIPLE COMPONENTS

LOG HEADER - includes all information about the well logged and information
necessary to describe the environment the measurement has been
informed in (e.g. drilling mud parameters). Tool sketches and

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remarks informing about specific events during the logging
operation complete the header.

MAIN LOG - main display of measurement performed.

REPEAT SECTION - short section of log to prove repeatability of log or re-log of sections
with measurement anomalies.

LOG TRAILER - includes tool/computation parameter table and calibration records.


LOG DISPLAY LOG HEADER 1

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LOG DISPLAY LOG HEADER 2

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LOG DISPLAY LINEAR SCALE

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LOG DISPLAY LOGARTIHMIC SCALE

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LOG DISPLAY LOG TRAILER 1

Tool/Computation

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Parameter Table
LOG DISPLAY LOG TRAILER 2

Calibration

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and Check
Summary
LOG DISPLAY LOG TRAILERS (3)

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Tool Calibration
Details
Petrophysical Analysis Results

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