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# INTRODUCTION:

## A cyclotron is a machine Used to accelerate charged

particles to high energies. The first cyclotron was built
by Ernest Orlando Lawrence and his graduate student,
M. Stanley Livingston, at the University of California,
Berkley, in the early 1930's.
A cyclotron consists of two D-shaped cavities
sandwiched between two electromagnets. A
radioactive source is placed in the center of the
cyclotron and the electromagnets are turned on. The
radioactive source emits charged particles. It just so
happens that a magnetic field can bend the path of a
charged particle so, if everything is just right, the
charged particle will circle around inside the D-shaped
cavities. However, this doesn't accelerate the particle.
In order to do that, the two D-shaped cavities have to
be hooked up to a radio wave generator. This
generator gives one cavity a positive charge and the
other cavity a negative charge. After a moment, the
radio wave generator switches the charges on the
cavities. The charges keep switching back and forth as
long as the radio wave generator is on. It is this
switching of charges that accelerates the particle.
Let's say that we have an alpha particle inside our
cyclotron. Alpha particles have a charge of +2, so their
paths can bent by magnetic fields. As an alpha particle
goes around the cyclotron, it crosses the gap between
the two D-shaped cavities. If the charge on the cavity in
front of the alpha particle is negative and the charge
on the cavity in back of it is positive, the alpha particle
is pulled forward (remember that opposite charges
attract while like charges repel). This just accelerated
the alpha particle! The particle travels through one
cavity and again comes to the gap. With luck, the radio
wave generator has changed the charges on the
cavities in time, so the alpha particle once again sees a
negative charge in front of it and a positive charge in
back of it and is again pulled forward. As long as the
timing is right, the alpha particle will always see a
negative charge in front of it and a positive charge in
back of it when it crosses the gap between cavities.
This is how a cyclotron accelerates particles!
A cyclotron consists of two D-shaped regions known as
Dee's. In each dee there is a magnetic field
perpendicular to the plane of the page. In the gap
separating the dees there is a uniform electric field
pointing from one dee to the other. When a charge is
released from rest in the gap it is accelerated by the
electric field and carried into one of the dees. The
magnetic field in the dee causes the charge to follow a
half-circle that carries it back to the gap.
While the charge is in the dee the electric field in the
gap is reversed, so the charge is once again accelerated
across the gap. The cycle continues with the magnetic
field in the dees continually bringing the charge back to
the gap. Every time the charge crosses the gap it picks
up speed. This causes the half-circles in the dees to
increase in radius, and eventually the charge emerges
from the cyclotron at high speed
Definition of Cyclotron
A circular particle accelerator in which charged
subatomic particles generated at a central source are
accelerated spirally outward in a plane perpendicular
to a fixed magnetic field by an alternating electric field.
A cyclotron is capable of generating particle energies
between a few million and several tens of millions of
electron volts.
PRINCIPLE OF CYCLOTRON :
It is based on the principle that a positive ion can
acquire sufficiently large energy with a comparatively
smaller alternating potential difference by making
them to cross the same electric field time and again by
making use of a strong magnetic field.
How the cyclotron works

## In the cyclotron, a high-frequency alternating

voltage applied across the "D" electrodes (also called
"dees") alternately attracts and repels
charged particles. The particles, injected near the
center of the magnetic field, accelerate only when
passing through the gap between the electrodes. The
perpendicular magnetic field (passing vertically
through the "D" electrodes), combined with the
increasing energy of the particles forces the particles to
travel in a spiral path.
dees and so they are accelerated (at the typical sub-
relativistic speeds used) and will increase in mass as
they approach the speed of light. Either of these
effects (increased velocity or increased mass) will
increase the radius of the circle and so the path will be
a spiral.
(The particles move in a spiral, because a current of
electrons or ions, flowing perpendicular to a magnetic
field, experiences a force perpendicular to its direction
of motion. The charged particles move freely in a
vacuum, so the particles follow a spiral path.)
The radius will increase until the particles hit a target
at the perimeter of the vacuum chamber. Various
materials may be used for the target, and the collisions
will create secondary particles which may be guided
outside of the cyclotron and into instruments for
analysis. The results will enable the calculation of
various properties, such as the mean spacing between
atoms and the creation of various collision products.
Subsequent chemical and particle analysis of the target
material may give insight into nuclear transmutation of
the elements used in the target.
emitted by moving charge d particles deflected by a
magnetic field. The Lorentz force on the particles acts
perpendicular to both the magnetic field lines and the
particles' motion through them, creating an
acceleration of charged particles.

Functions:
Cyclotrons have a single electrical driver, which saves
both money and power, since more expense may be
allocated to increasing efficiency.
Cyclotrons produce a continuous stream of particles at
the target, so the average power is relatively high.
The compactness of the device reduces other costs,
such as its foundations, radiation shielding, and the
enclosing building.
Cyclotrons have a single electrical driver, which saves
both money and power, since more expense may be
allocated to increasing efficiency.
Cyclotrons produce a continuous stream of particles at
the target, so the average power is relatively high.
The compactness of the device reduces other costs,
such as its foundations, radiation shielding, and the
enclosing building.

## Limitations of the cyclotron

The magnet portion of a 27" cyclotron. The gray object
is the upper pole piece, routing the magnetic field in
two loops through a similar part below. The white
canisters held conductive coils to generate the
magnetic field. The D electrodes are contained in a
vacuum chamber that was inserted in the central field
gap.
The spiral path of the cyclotron beam can only "sync
up" with klystron-type (constant frequency) voltage
sources if the accelerated particles are approximately
obeying Newton's Laws of Motion. If the particles
become fast enough that relativistic effects become
important, the beam gets out of phase with the
oscillating electric field, and cannot receive any
additional acceleration. The cyclotron is therefore only
capable of accelerating particles up to a few percent of
the speed of light. To accommodate increased mass
the magnetic field may be modified by appropriately
shaping the pole pieces as in the isochronous
cyclotrons, operating in a pulsed mode and changing
the frequency applied to the dees as in
the synchrocyclotrons, either of which is limited by the
diminishing cost effectiveness of making larger
machines. Cost limitations have been overcome by
employing the more complexsynchrotron or linear
accelerator, both of which have the advantage of
scalability, offering more power within an improved
cost structure as the machines are made larger.
Use of the cyclotron
For several decades, cyclotrons were the best source of
high-energy beams for nuclear physics experiments;
several cyclotrons are still in use for this type of
research.
Cyclotrons can be used to treat cancer. Ion beams from
cyclotrons can be used, as in proton therapy, to
penetrate the body and kill tumors byradiation
damage, while minimizing damage to healthy tissue
along their path.
Cyclotron beams can be used to bombard other atoms
to produce short-lived positron-emitting isotopes
suitable for PET imaging
There are basically two applications for the cyclotron.
It's a particle accelerator, and, though it can be
adapted to accelerate any charged particle, it is most
frequently applied to accelerate positive charges.
Protons are frequently the choice. We use the
cyclotron in the physics lab, and in medicine.
In the medical area we are developing the cyclotron as
a proton treatment source. More medical facilities are
being set up with the cyclotron providing accelerated
protons to irradiate tissue. The proton, unlike gamma
rays, has a depth of penetration that can be finely
tuned (by "tuning" the cyclotron) to limit damage to
other tissues.
The cyclotron is also used to create radioactive
materials that are used as radiation sources which can
be implanted. The radioactive materials can also be
used as tracers in medical work ups and in research,
and also to provide "luminosity" in some imaging
because of the way tissue takes up these selected
materials. These mostly short-lived radionuclide's are
"big business" in medical and biophysics.
In the physics laboratory, we use the cyclotron to
create particle streams that we then slam into targets.
This is the continuation of research to investigate the
quantum mechanical world. The cyclotron can be used
to "feed" another or other accelerators to get higher
energies and a "bigger bang" in the world of collisions.
Bibliography
The data used in this project was taken from the
following sources:
 www.wikipedia.com
 www.scribd.com
CONTENTS

 Introduction
 Definition of Cyclotron
 Principle Of Cyclotron
 How the cyclotron works
 Functions: