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Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Lao jiang

Luya is an erect, smooth plant arising from thickened, very aromatic rootstocks. Leafy
stems are 0.4 to 1 meter high. Leaves are distichous, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 15
to 25 centimeters long, and 2 centimeters wide or less. Scape arising from the
rootstocks is erect, 15 to 25 centimeters high, and covered with distant, imbricate
bracts. Spike is ovoid to ellipsoid, about 5 centimeters long. Bracts are ovate, cuspidate,
about 2.5 centimeters long, and pale green. Calyx is 1 centimeter long or somewhat
less. Corolla is greenish yellow, and its tube is less than 2 centimeters long, while the lip
is oblong-obovate and slightly purplish.

- Widely
cultivated in the
- Nowhere
- Native of tropical
- Now pantropic.

• A methanol
extract yielded
the presence of
alkaloids, and
tannins. (See
study below) (40)
* Pungent
principles, mainly
zingerone and
shogaol, provides the characteristic taste.
• The most biologically active phenolic compounds, gingerols and shogaols, are found in
the root.
• Volatile oil, 1.23 to 3% - gingerol, zingerone, zingiberene, cineol, borneol,
phellandrene, citral, zingiberene, linalool, geraniol, chavicol, vanillyl alcohol, camphene;
• Study on concentrations (%) of essential oil and phenols in fresh (F) and dried (D) gingers
yielded: essential oils: 0.267 ± 0.027 (F) and 0.147 ± 0.034 (D); phenols: 0..249 ± 0.027 (F) and
1.605 ± 0.068 (D). Main constituents of essential oils in fresh and dried ginger were: ß-
bisabolene 4.140 and 2.755; bornel 2.415 and 3.040; camphene 17.365 and 12.635; 1,8-cineole
5.083 and16.910; α-curcumene 6.210 and 4.427; geranial 6.613 and 4.513; limonene 12.708 and
16.720; v-muurolene 9.476 and 9.025; Neral 4.140 and 0.000; α-pinene 5.405 and 3.534;ß-
sesquiphellandrene 5.750 and 4.275; and α- zingiberene 9.476 and 8.930, respectively. (see study
below) (54)

• Extracts and active constituents have shown potent antioxidant, antiinflammatory,
antimutagenic, antimicrobial and possible anticancer activities.
• Considered adaptogenic, anodyne, anthelmintic, antiallergenic, antibacterial,
anticoagulant, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, antifungal, antithrombotic, antitumore,
antiulcer, aphrodisiac, carminative, diuretic, rubefacient, anti-platelet aggregation,
hypolipidemic, thermoregulatory.
• Pungency is attributed to the pungent principle, zingerone and shogaol, while the
aroma is imparted by the volatile oil.
• Considered stomachic, carminative, stimulant, diaphoretic, sialagogue, and digestive.

Parts utilized
Tops, leaves and edible roots.

- One of the most popular flavoring agents.
- Used as flavoring for confectioneries, ginger ale, ginger beer, ginger champagnes, and
other beverages.
- Tahu or salabat, a native beverage, is prepared from the rhizomes.
- A prominent condiment in Filipino cuisine.
- Taken with rock salt before meals is cleansing to the tongue and throat and increases
the appetite.
- In Malaya fresh ginger is an important ingredient in curry.
- In the Philippines, pounded rhizome, alone or mixed with oil, used as revulsive and
- As antiseptic, tincture of dried rhizome prepared with 70% alcohol (not rubbing
alcohol) and applied on superficial cuts and wounds; or, juice from fresh rhizome used
- As digestive aid and for flatulence and tympanism, decoction of the rhizome drunk as
- Ginger juice rubbed on and around the navel is said to cure all kinds of diarrhea.
- For rheumatism, roasted rhizome is pounded and mixed with oil and applied locally.
- For sore throat and hoarseness, warm decoction of the rhizome is drunk as ginger tea
(salabat); piece of small rhizome chewed for the same.
- Rhizome used as cough remedy, rubefacient, carminative and diuretic.
- Also used for hangovers.
- For chronic rheumatism, ginger infusion ( 2 drams in 6 ounces of boiling water and
strained) is taken at bedtime
- Poulticed of pounded and warmed leaves applied to bruises.
- Ginger taken with rock salt before meals is said to clean the tongue and throat and
increase the appetite.
- Chewing ginger is said to diminish biliousness and delirium, relieve sore throat,
hoarseness and aphonia, and increases the flow of saliva.
- Dried ginger used as corrective adjunct to purgatives to prevent nausea and intestinal
- Juice from fresh ginger in gradually increasing doses is a strong diuretic in cases of
general dropsy.
- For headaches: Ginger plaster (bruised ginger in water to the consistency of poultice)
is applied to the forehead. Same preparation may be helpful for toothaches and facial
- Hot infusion used for stoppage of menses due to cold.
- In Indo-China, cataplasm used for furuncles; when mixed with oil is antirheumatic.
Rhizomes also used for tuberculosis, general fatigue and uterine affections.
- In Perak, rhizomes used as vermifuge.
- In the Antilles powdered rhizome used as revulsive for pleuritis.
- In Ayurvedic medicine, used for inflammation and rheumatism.
- In India, used as carminative adjunct along with black pepper and long pepper.
- In Chinese folk medicine, pulverized fresh ginger used for baldness and vitiligo. Juice
from fresh root used for treatment of burns.
New uses
• Motion Sickness / Pregnancy-related Nausea: Antiemetic properties. Used for
Nausea, motion sickness (1 gm taken 1/2 hour before the voyage). Stimulates
digestion. Possibly antiinflammatory.
• Ginger tea
Ginger tea preparation, the Chinese way : Bring one cup of water to boil. Add one
teaspoon of the roasted (parched and browned) rice and a small piece of ginger root.
Boil for one minute. Let stand to cool for drinking. (Preparation of dried rice: Pour
enough water to cover 1/2 cup white rice in a flat dish; and let stand overnight. In the
morning, drain off the excess water. Roast the rice in a dry pan, stirring constantly until
parched and brown. Store in a glass jar for future use, tightly covered to keep moisture
• Ginger lozenges
• Wash and peel the ginger, then mince.
• Spread and air-dry for a day or oven-dry at 250 C.
• Grind and strain the dried ginger.
* In a mortar, mix 1 cup ground ginger and 1 cup confectioner's sugar.
• Pound and mix while gradually adding water until a pulp is formed.
• Level the pulp on a board lined with wax paper.
• Using a mold, make balls from the pulp and wrap each lozenge in aluminum foil.

• Prokinetic:
Pharmacological basis
for the medicinal use of
ginger in
disorders: Study
confirmed prokinetic
activity of the extract.
constituents may
explain its use in
hyperactive states as in
colic and diarrhea.
• Antidiarrheal: Study
results indicate that in
the absence of
antimicrobial action, Z
officinale exhibits its
antidiarrheal activity by
affecting bacterial and
host cell metabolism.
• Antibacterial: (1)
Antibacterial Activity Of
Allium cepa (Onions)
And Zingiber officinale
(Ginger) On
Staphylococcus aureus
And Pseudomonas
aeruginosa Isolated
From High Vaginal
Swab: The study
showed both plants had
antibacterial activity on
the test organisms,
ginger having more
inhibitory effect, and
confirming their folkloric use. (2) In a study on the comparative effect of ginger and
some antibiotics on two pathogenic bacteria, results showed the ginger extract of both
plant and root showed the highest antibacterial activity against S. aureus and Strep
pyogenes while three antibiotics showed less extent of activity compared to the ginger
• Anti-inflammatory / Anti-thrombotic: The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as
a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent: Study suggests ginger can be
used as a cholesterol-lowering, anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory agent.
• Antioxidant / Anticancer: Study showed Zingiber officinale may exert its anticancer
effect by replacing the action of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and
catalase in removing superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide causing oxidative
damage to cells.
• Antibacterial (Garlic/Ginger) Synergism: Study investigated the therapeutic effects
of ginger and garlic against Klebsiella pneumonia, whether the combined extract could
be synergistic or antagonistic in rats. Study showed a synergistic relationship, garlic
ameliorating the efficacy of ginger only against Klebsiella infection.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Arthritis / Prostaglandin Inhibition: Study suggests one of
the mechanisms by which ginger shows ameliorative effects could be through inhibition
of prostaglandin and leukotrine biosynthesis - as a dual inhibitor of eicosanoid
• Gastroprotective: Study results suggest cytoprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects
with significant protection against ethanol-, HCl-, NaOH-induced gastric lesions and prevention
of the occurrence of gastric ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and
hypothermic restrain stress.
• Decreased Sperm Motility: Study results conclude that ginger can induce toxic effects on
sperm parameters, ie, a lower percentage of motility and grading when methanolic ginger is
added to semen fluid.
• Hepatoprotective: Study of the ethanol extract of Z officinale showed protective effect
against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity with better protective effect at higher dose levels.
• Anti-Aging: Study in mice showed ginger extract significantly reduced the
development of atherosclerotic lesions and lowered LDL-cholesterol.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of rhizome extract in Swiss mice showed anti-
inflammatory and analgesic properties with significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced
paw edema and reduction of writhing induced by acetic acid.
• Pregnancy-Related Nausea: Reasonable evidence suggests that ginger roots is
effective in reducing pregnancy-related nausea. However, there is conflicting data on its
efficacy for preventing motion sickness or post-operative nausea.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antibacterial / Hypoglycemic / Analgesic: Study of ethanol
extract showed (1) reduction of carrageenan-induced paw swelling and yeast-induced
fever (2) blood glucose lowering (3) inhibition of gram- and gram+ bacteria (4) dose-
dependent prostaglandin release inhibition.
• Analgesic: Study demonstrated the daily consumption of raw and heat-treated ginger
resulted in moderate to large reduction in muscle pain following exercise-induced
muscle injury. The findings agree with findings of ginger's hypoalgesic effects in
osteoarthritic patients.
• Antiarthritic: Study of the alcoholic extract of ZO can ameliorate inflammatory processes in
rat collagen-induced arthritis, together with reduction of serum levels of interleukins, TNF, and
anti-CII antibodies. It also showed to be superior to indomethacin 2 mg/kg/d at most measured
parameters. The extract presents an alternative to NSAID use in RA.
• Hypoalgesic Effect on Exercise-Induced Muscle Pain: Study on healthy volunteers
showed daily consumption of raw and heat-treated ginger resulted in moderate to large
reductions in muscle pain following exercise-induced muscle injury. (18)
• Anticancer / Anti-Inflammatory: Ginger extract significantly reduced the expression
of NFkB and TNF-a in rats with liver cancer. It may act as an anticancer and anti-
inflammatory by inactivating NFkB through suppression of proinflammatory TNF-a.
• Delayed Diabetic Cataract Progression: Results showed ginger was effective
against the development of diabetic cataracts in rats, mainly through its antiglycating
potentiation, and also, through an inhibition of the polyol pathway. As such, dietary
sources, such as ginger, can be explored for its potential in preventing or delaying
diabetic complications. (23)
• Neuroprotective / Memory Benefits: Study showed cognitive function and neurons
density in rat hippocampus receiving ginger rhizome extract were improved white the
brain infarct volume decreased. The effect may be through antioxidant activity of the
extract. Results demonstrate the beneficial effect of ginger rhizome in protecting against
focal cerebral ischemia. (24)
• Anti-Ulcerogenic Effect / Acetic Acid Induced Colitis: Study in a model of acute
colitis showed ginger hydroalcoholic extract was effective in protecting against
experimental colitis. (25)
• Antidiabetic / Amylase and Glucosidase Enzyme Inhibitory Effect: Studies have
targeted digestive enzymes as targets for modulation of glucose concentration through
inhibition of enzymatic breakdown of complex carbohydrates. In this study, glucosidase
and amylase activities on rice were inhibited by the addition of ginger with consequent
significant reduction in glucose percentages. Results were comparable to Acarbose on
glucosidase activity. (26)
• Antimicrobial / Anticancer: Study has showed many diarylheptanoids and gingerol-
related compounds from the rhizome of ZO possess significant antiproliferation activity
on HL-60 cells, probably through induction of cell apoptosis. Another study has shown
ginger extract and 6-gingerol to both directly interfere with colon cancer proliferation.
Results show ginger's phytochemical potential for chemoprevention and therapy. In this
study, the ethanol and chloroform extracts were found to possess antibacterial
properties against 8 microorganisms.(27)
• Antidiabetic / Hypolipidemic: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of raw ginger for
hypoglycemic potential of ginger in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Raw ginger was significant
effective in lowering serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol levels. Results indicate
hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic potential. Raw ginger was also effective in reversing diabetic
proteinuria in diabetic rats. (30)
• Cytotoxicity / Toxicity / Anticancer Activity / Cholangiocarcinoma: Study
evaluated a crude ethanolic extract of ginger against CCA in mice. Results from in vitro
and in vivo studies showed promising anticancer activity with an absence of any
significant toxicity. However, MDR1 and MRP3 may be involved in CCA resistance to
the ginger extract.(31)
• Cognitive Enhancer / Middle-Aged Women: Study evaluated the effect of ginger
extract on cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Ginger-treated groups have
significant decrease in P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, with enhanced
working memory. Results suggest ginger to be a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged
women. (32)
• Anti-Liver Fibrosis: Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanolic one, showed
potential benefits for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride
(CCl4). Evaluation was done using antioxidant parameters, liver markers and liver function
enzymes, and cholestatic markers. (33)
• Cardiovascular Toxic Effects: Study evaluated the acute and subacute
cardiovascular toxicity of ginger in adult male albino rats. In high doses (500mg/kg) for
28 days, ginger produced both hypotension and bradycardia with degenerative changes
in cardiac myocyte fibers. The effects may be partially due to vasodilatation with increased
nitric oxide release or synthesis and partly from a calcium channel blocking effect, and perhaps,
a cholinomimetic effect.(34)
• Ginger Benefits in Acute Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea: In a double-blind,
multicenter trial using placebo and various doses of ginger, results showed all doses of
ginger significantly reduced acute nausea compared to placebo. Results suggest ginger
supplementation at a daily dose of 0.5 g to 1.0 g significantly helps in reducing the
severity of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea. (35)
• Ginger Essential Oil for Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting: A 5% solution of
essential oil of ginger in grape seed carrier oil, applied naso-cutaneously, can be administered
safely for prevention and management of nausea in general anesthesia patients at high risk for
post-operative nausea and vomiting.(36)
• Synthesis of Nanoparticles: Study synthesized silver nanoparticles using Zingiber
officinale extract which acts as reducing agent as well as a stabilizing agent. The
nanoparticles were stable at physiologic conditions and were blood compatible. Z.
officinale is reported to be a more portent antiplatelet agent than aspirin. Its use as
vectors for applications in drug therapy, gene delivery or as biosensors, where there is
direct blood contact is justified by the study. (37)
• Pro-Fertility Reproductive Functions: Study investigated the effects of an aqueous
extract of Z. officinale in male reproductive functions in rats. Treatment cause a significant
increase in testes and epididymis weight, with dose and duration dependent increases in sperm
count and motility, a significant increase in testosterone level, and significant reduction of
malonhydialdehyde levels. Results suggest pro-fertility properties which may be due to its potent
antioxidant properties and androgenic activities. (38)
• Hepatoprotection / Heavy Metals: Study evaluated the protective activity of Z.
officinale against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver.
Z. officinale affected bioavailability, elimination and uptake of the metals in a time-dependent
manner with highest benefit in reducing Cd, followed by Hg and least protection to Pb in the
liver. (39)
• Antibacterial: Study evaluated crude aqueous and organic extracts of rhizome of Z.
officinale against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The pattern of
inhibition varied with solvent used for extraction and organism tested. Extracts from
organic solvents showed more consistent antibacterial activity. Staphylococcus aureus
was significant inhibited by almost all the extracts. (40)
• Chemopreventive Against Aspartame Induced Testicular Toxicity / Roots: Study
evaluated the chemopreventive effect of Z. officinale roots against aspartame induced rat
testicular toxicity. Pretreatment with ginger extract produced a detectable decrease in lipid
peroxidation level. Natural components may have chemopreventive effects against aspartame
related testicular toxicity. (41)
• Terpenoids Induce Apoptosis in Endometrial Cancer Cells: Study showed
terpenoids in steam distilled extract of ginger are potent inhibitors of proliferation of
endometrial cancer cells. Terpenoids from SDGE mediate apoptosis by activating p53.
• Anti-Inflammatory in Type 2 Diabetes: Study evaluated the effect of ginger on pro-
inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-a) and the acute phase protein hs-CRP in type2
diabetic patients. Results showed ginger supplementation significantly reduced the
levels of TNF-a, IL-6, and hs-CRP. It can reduce inflammation in type 2 diabetic patients and
may potentially diminish the risk of some chronic complications of diabetes. (43)
• Anti-Ulcerogenic / NSAID Induced Gastric Damage: Study evaluated the anti-
ulcerogenic activity of an extract of Z. officinale in indomethacin (NSAID) induced gastric
damage in an animal model. The ginger root significantly the gastric damage induced by
indomethacin with an efficacy comparable to omeprazole. (44)
• Gingerol / Anti-Diabetic: Study investigating active constituents of the rhizome of Z.
officinale identified pungent phenolic gingerol constituents, of which (S)-[6] Gingerol was
the most abundant component. (S)-[8]-gingerol was the most potent on glucose uptake,
the activity of which was found associated primarily with an increase in surface
distribution of GLUT4 in L6 muscle. The increase glucose uptake in L6 rat skeletal
muscle cells by gingerol pungent principles support the potential for the use of ginger
and its pungent components in the prevention and management of T2DM. (45)
• Antioxidant on Formalin-Induced Testicular Toxicity: Study investigated the
possible antioxidant activity of Z. officinale ethanol extract on formalin-induced testicular
toxicity in rats. A 10% formalin triggered oxidative stress in testicles with a significant
increase of MDA concentration. Rats exposed to formalin and treated with the ginger extract
significantly increased catalase (CAT) activity. Z. officinale showed protective neutraceutical
capacity to help overcome the oxidative stress induced by the formalin. (46)
• Antifungal / Synergism: Study evaluated the effect of an ethanolic extract of ginger
on candida albicans in vitro. Results showed pronounced activities against Candida
albicans. Although ethanol in itself has antifungal activity, the ethanol extract of ginger
has synergistic activity. (47)
• Improvement of Growth and Enhanced Immunity in Aquaculture: Review focuses on the
use of ginger as growth promoter, antimicrobial agent, and antioxidant and as immunostimulant
in aquaculture. (49)
• Potential Use in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Zingiber officinale has been traditionally used as
alternative medicine for rheumatoid arthritis. Review discusses variious phytochemical
constituents of ginger with potential therapeutic roles in amelioration of RA symptoms and
possibly RA itself. (50)
• Homeopathic Z. officinale in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A prospective, non-
randomized open-llabel study evaluated the effectiveness of homeopathic Z. officinale for the
treatment of acne vulgaris in 32 participants. Results showed statistically significnt (p<0.001)
changes in lesion counts, GAGS scores and Acne-QoL scores were observed. (52)
• Effects of Ginger on Nausea and Vomiting in Early Pregnancy / Meta-Analysis: A meta-
analysis of clinical trials was conducted on the use of ginger for NVEP. Criteria selected were:
(1) randomized placebo-controlled design; (2 use of ginger or Z. officinale; and (3) extractable
data on improvement in NVEP. Meta-analysis concludes that ginger is an effective
nonpharmacological option for the treatment of NVEP. (53)
• Differences in Active Compounds between Fresh and Dried Gingers: Studies have shown
differences in the chemical compositions between fresh and dried gingers. There are two groups
of active compounds: volatile essential oils and fragrant or harsh phenol compounds. Fresh
ginger yielded 38 compounds while dried ginger yielded 43 compounds. Dried ginger yielded
seven more compounds: linalool, terpinen-4-ol, a-terpineol, citronellol, ß-neral, o-elemene, and
neryl acetate. By contrast, neral and trans-farnesal in fresh ginger are not detected in dried
ginger. (see constiituents above) (link to study for details on constituents) (54)
• Antispasmodic: Study evaluated the antispasmodic effect of ginger on rat intestine in vitro.
The antispasmogenic effect of ginger was apparent in the in vitro experiment on rat jejunum as
eviidenced by reduction in magniture of ACh induced contraction. (55)
• Effect on Salivation: Study evaluated the effect of systemic administration of seven different
herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. Of the seven, the salivation induced by ginger was
significantly higher (p<0.01). Further studies are suggested to identify the responsible constituent
for stimulation of saliva secretion. (56)
• Renoprotective Effects in Glycerol Induced Damage: Study evaluated the protective effects
of ginger extract on glycerol-induced acute renal failure in Sprague-Dawley rats. The ginger
extract significantly decreased the markedly increased serum creatinine, Na+ and BUN in
glycerol-treated rats. All adverse effects were reversed by ginger supplementation. Results
suggest ginger can be used as a nephroprotective nutrient. (57)
• Acute and Subacute Cardiotoxicity: Study evaluated the acute and subacute cardiovascular
toxicity of ginger in adule male albino rats. In acute toxicity study, a single dose of 2500 mg/kg
can be toxic by causing severe hypotension and bradycardia with induction of prenecrotic
changes in the cardiac tissue. In subacute toxicity testing, a daily dose of 50 mg/kg for 28 days
produced bradycardia with waviness in the cardiac muscle fibers; 500 mg/kg for 28 days
produced hypotension and bradycardia with degenerative changes in cardiac myocyte tissue. The
hypotensive and bradycardic effects may be partially due to induction of vasodilatation by
increasing NO release or synthesis and partially due to calcium channel blocking effect. (58)
• Antimicrobial: Study evaluated various extracts of onions (Allium cepa) and ginger (Z.
officinale) against E. coli, S. typhi, and B subtilis, common causes of gastrointestinal infects. The
ethanolic extract of ginger gave the widest zone of inhibition against two of the three test
organisms. Although both plants had antiimicrobial activities on the two gram negative test
organisms but not effective on the gram positive test organism, ginger showed more inhibitory
effect. (59)
• Anti-Parasitic on Limnatis nilotica: Study evaluated the anti-parasitc effect of Z. officinale
on Limnatis nilotica leech population. Results showed antiparasitic and disinfectant activities
causing less toxic effects than chemical drugs. (60)
• Effect on Platelet Aggregation: Review did a systematic review on results of clinical and
observational studies on the effect of gnger on platelet aggregation. Review concludes that the
evidence that ginger affects platelet aggregation and coagulation is equivocal and further study is
need to address the question. (61)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of
ginger in adult albino rats in acute and chronic inflammatory settings. Results showed decreased
signs of both acute and chronic inflammation and was comparable to standard anti-inflammatory
drug diclofenac sodium. (62)
• Effect on Fatty Liver Induced by Oxytetracycline: Study evaluated the potential therapeutic
and protective effects of Z. officinale against oxytetracycline induced fatty liver in albino rats.
Treatment with ginger ameliorated most of the abnormal biochemical parameters and improved
the induced degenerative histopathological changes. Pretreatment with ginger prior to induction
of fatty liver gave some protection against factors that experimentally induced fatty liver. (63)
• Antiparasitic / Anti-Toxoplasmosis / Roots: Study evaluated the antiparasitic effect of ginger
root extract and GE/F1 fraction against Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo. The GE/F1
strongly inhibited the proliferation of T. gondii-infected C6 cells and T. gondii in a dose-
dependent manner compared to sulfadiazine. The GE/F1 not only induces anti-T. gongii effects
causing inactivation of apoptotic proteins in infected hos cells through direct inhibition of T.
gondii but also has antiparasitic properties which inhbit inflammatory cytokine secretion in vivo.
• Effect on Serum Lipids: Study evaluated the lipid lowering activity of ginger in male rabbits.
Results showed highly significant reduction in cholesterol together with highly significant
reduction of triglycerides and LDL. The ginger extract was more efficient than atorvastatin in
lowering of lipids. (65)
• Anti-Emetic in Cancer Chemotherapy / Review: Review presents the anti-emetic
observations and variability in response of the anti-emetic effects of ginger in cancer
chemotherapy. Preclinical studies with experimental animals (dogs and rats have shown
various extracts and ginger juice possess anti-emetic effects against chemotherapy-
induced nausea and vomiting. Gingerl, the active principle, has been shown to possess
anti-emetic effects in minks. In humans, while most studies have been supportive of
preclinical observations, s few have beenn contradictory. While the exact anti-emetic
mechanism is unknown, ginger phytochemicals, especially 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol,
and 6-shogaol, may function as 5-HT3 antagonist, NK1 antagonist, antihistamiic, and possess
prokinetic effects. (66)
• Antidepressant: Study evaluated the effect of Z. officinale hydroalcoholic extract as well as its
interaction with conventional anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs usiing tail suspension and
forced swim tests. Results showed antidepressant activity comparable to standard drug. The
antidepressant effect seem to be mainly associated with activation of dopaminergic system. (67)
• Extraction of Z. officinale Oil by Soxhlet Distillation: Zingiberene is the main compound of
ginger. Study reports on the extraction of ginger oil by Soxhlet distillation. Of four solvent types,
methanol gave the highest yield of ZO oil at 8 hours extraction time which is 27.33% of mass
yield. (68)

Concerns / Drug Interactions

• The German Commission E recommends that it be avoided during pregnancy due to
possible inhibition of testosterone binding in the fetus.
• The use in pregnancy for hyperemesis gravidarum is controversial. Some suggest it
should not be recommended for nausea during pregnancy. Caution is given to use by
pregnant women with a history of bleeding disorders and miscarriages. (see meta-
analysis study above 53)
• Anticoagulant concerns: Ginger can have moderate Interactions with medications
that slow blood clotting (anticoagulants) and drugs that can decrease platelet
adhesiveness (antiplatelet drugs) with increased potential for bruising and bleeding.
Other medications that may slow blood clotting are clopidogrel, diclofenac, ibuprofen,
naproxen, dalteparin, enoxaparin, heparin, warfarin, and others. (51)
• Minor interactions: Medications for diabetes may interact with ginger and cause
lowering of blood sugar (glimepiride, glyburine, insuln, pioglitazone, glipizide, etc.).
Ginger can also interact with medicines that lower blood pressure such as calcium
channel blockers (nifedipine, diltiazen, felodipine, amlodipine, and others.) (51)

Popular condiment and perennial market produce.
Candied ginger and lozenges.
Dried powdered gingeroot.
Tinctures, tablets, capsules, syrups and teas in the cybermarket.

Momordica charantia Linn.
Ampalaya is a climbing vine, nearly or quite smooth, annual vine. Tendrils are simple,
up to 20 centimeters long. Leaves are 2.5 to 10 centimeters in diameter, cut nearly to
the base into 5 to 7 lobes, oblong-ovate, variously toothed, and heart-shaped at the
base. Male flower is about 12 millimeters long, and is peduncled, with a rounded, green,
and about 1 centimeter long bract approximately at the middle. Female flower is yellow
flower, about 15 millimeters long, long-stalked with pair of small leaflike bracts at middle
or toward base of stalk. Fruit, in cultivated form, is green, fleshy, oblong, cylindric, 15 to
25 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, ribbed and wrinkled, bursting when mature to
release seeds; in wild forms, ovoid, about 2 to 4 centimeters long. Seeds are oblong,
compressed 10 to 13 millimeters long, and corrugated on the margins.
- Year-round vegetable, extensively cultivated in the Philippines for its bitter edible fruit.
- Wild forms found in open fields, thickets, and waste places at low and medium
altitudes. (See: Ampalayang ligaw)
- Probably of Asiatic origin.
- Pantropic.

- Phytochemical study yielded alkaloids, glycosides, aglycone, tannin, sterol, phenol and
- 1898 study reported a bitter alkaloid and a glucoside.
- Leaves and fruit yielded a bitter principle, momordicin.
- A petroleum ether extractive yielded a highly aromatic ethereal oil, a fixed oil, traces of free
fatty acids and carotene.
- Ethyl ether fraction yielded chlorophyll, a glucoside-like substance and resin.
- Water soluble extractive yielded a saponin-like substance and mucilaginous bodies.
- Study for chemical constituents of leaves isolated five compounds from an 85% ethanol extract,
identified as: Momordicin I (1), Momordicin IV (2), Aglycone of MomordicosideI(3), Aglycone
of Momordicoside L (4) and Karavilagenin D (5). (33)
- Proximate composition of bitter gourd leaf (L), fruit (F) and seed (S) yielded moisture % 17.97
L, 10.74 F, 20.69 S; total ash % 15.42 L, 7.36 F, 9.73 S; crude fat % 3.68 L, 6.11 F, 11.50 S;
fiber % 3.31, 1.7 F, 29.6 S; crude protein % 27.46 L, 27.88 F, 19.50 S; carbohydrate % 32.34 L,
34.31 F, 9.18 S; caloric value (k/cal/100g) 213 L, 241 F, 176 S. (Bakare et al., Nutritional and
chemical evaluation of Momordica charantia. J Medicinal Plants Res. 2010; 4:2189-
2193.) (36)
- Vitamin composition (PPM) yielded A traces, E 800±14, C 66000±141, B12 5355±7.10, folic
acid 20600±42.43. Mineral analysis (PPM) yielded calcium 20510±5.77, magnesium 255±0.69,
sodium 2200±1.15, potassium 413±1.45, iron 98±0.23, zinc 120±1.15, manganese 156±0.33,
copper 32±1.85. (Bakare et al., Nutritional and chemical evaluation of Momordica
charantia. J Medicinal Plants Res. 2010; 4:2189-2193.) (36)
- Preliminary phytochemical screening of fruit extract yielded alkaloids, saponin, glycosides,
steroids, and sterols. (see study below) (41)
- Proximate and mineral composition of fruit yielded moisture 93.20%, ash 7.36%, lipids 6.11%,
fiber 13.60%, protein 27.88 6.11%, carbohydrate 34.31%, energy 241.66 kcal/100 g, magnesium
0, sodium 2.40 mg/100g, potassium 171.00 mg/100g, iron 1.8 mg/100g, zinc 0, manganese 0.08
copper 0.19
phosphorus 70
vitamin C 96

- Considered
astringent, antidiabetic, abortifacient, antirheumatic, contraceptive, galactagogue,
parasiticide, anthelmintic, purgative, emetic, antipyretic, febrifuge, emmenagogue,
cooling , tonic, vulnerary.
- Fruit considered tonic and stomachic.
- Studies have shown antidiabetic, adaptogenic, anti-inflammatory, membrane stabilizing,
antioxidant, cholinomimetic, analgesic, antimicrobial, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-
dengue, antifungal properties.

Parts utilized
Leaves, roots and fruits.

Edibility / Nutritional
- Both wild and cultivated forms are edible.
- Fruit of wild form usually roasted over fire and eaten with salt or "heko."
- The leaves and fruit - used as vegetables - are excellent sources of Vit B, iron,
calcium, and phosphorus. It has twice the amount of beta carotene in broccoli and twice
the calcium content of spinach. Characteristically bitter-tasting, slight soaking in salty
water before cooking removes some of the bitter taste of the fruit.
- In India, fruit eaten in curries.
- In the Philippines, juice expressed from the green fruit is given for chronic colitis: also
used for bacillary dysentery.
- Astringent powdered leaves or root decoction can be applied to hemorrhoids.
- Leaf juice for cough and as a purgative and anthelminthic to expel intestinal parasites,
and for healing wounds.
- Seeds also used to expel worms.
- The vine or the juice of leaves used as mild purgative for children.
- In large doses, the fresh juice is a drastic purgative.
- Decoction of roots and seeds used for urethral discharges.
- Juice of leaves used for chronic coughs.
- Leaves and shoots used as vulnerary.
- Sap of leaves used as parasiticide.
- Fruit macerated in oil used as vulnerary.
- Fruit considered tonic and stomachic; used in rheumatism, gout, and diseases of the
spleen and liver.
- Pounded leaves used for scalds.
- Infusion of leaves or leaf juice used for fevers.
- Used for chronic stomach ulcers.
- Root sometimes used as ingredient in aphrodisiac preparations.
- Decoction of root used as abortifacient.
- Fruit in large doses considered a drastic purgative and abortifacient.
- In India, root used as astringent; applied externally to hemorrhoids.
- In Lagos, decoction of leaves used as stomachic.
- Leaves used as anthelmintic and antipyretic, and applied externally to leprosy.
- In India and Malaya, pounded leaves are applied to skin diseases, burns and scalds.
- Poultice of leaves used for headaches.
- Infusion of flowers used for asthma.
- Olive or almond oil infusion of the fruit, without the seeds, used for chapped hands,
hemorrhoids, and burns.
- Root, along with fruits and seeds, used as abortifacient, as well as remedy for urethral
- In Batavia, vine used as anthelmintic, purgative, and emetic.
- In Jamaica, leaf decoction or infusion is taken for colds, as laxative and blood
cleanser. Warm tea infusions also used for toothaches and mouth infections. Also used
as a bath/wash for skin eruptions and acne.
Used for eczema, malarial, gout, jaundice, abdominal pain, kidney (stone), leprosy,
leucorrhea, piles, pneumonia, psoriasis, rheumatism, fever and scabies. Also, boiled
leaves and decoction of plant used to promote lochia.
- In Antilles, sweetened decoction of leaves used as emmenagogue and vermifuge.
- In Cuba, used for diabetes mellitus; used for wounds refractive to other treatments, for
skin disease, and for sterility in women.
- In Puerto Rico, used for diabetes.
- In Indo-China, fruit macerated in salted water used for fluxes, catarrh, and children's
coughs. Seeds employed in the treatment of dysentery.
- In Brazil, seeds used as anthelmintic.
In China, used as hypoglycemic and antidiabetic.
In Turkey, used for healing of cutaneous lesions and peptic ulcers.
- Seeds with oil, employed as cosmetic.
- Leaves used to clean metals.
Philippine News: Diabetes Mellitus
A Philippine herb that has recently gained international recognition for its possible
benefits in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Despite its bitter taste, it has also become
a popular nutritional drink for a boost of vim and vigor. In fact, the more bitter, the better,
as it is believed that the bitterness is proportionate to its potency.
Studies have suggested that ampalaya contains a hypoglycemic polypeptide, a
plant insulin responsible for its blood sugar lowering effect. Other benefits suggested
were body detoxification (including removal of nicotine), strengthening of the immune
system and fertility regulation.
It is increasingly recommended as an adjunct or supplement to traditional therapeutic
regimens for diabetes mellitus.
Other (Kitchen) Preparations
Steam ampalaya tops (upper four leaves) and eat half a cup twice daily. As a decoction,
boil six tablespoons of finely chopped leaves in two glasses of water over low fire (for 15
minutes). Drink 1/3 cup, three times a day, 30 minutes before meals. Don't use
aluminum pots (clay or enamel only).

• Analgesic / Cholinomimetic:
A methanol leaf extract study of
Momordica charantia in rodents
suggested cholinomimetic and
analgesic activities. (1)
• Antidiabetic and adaptogenic
properties: Adaptogenic
properties are indicated by the
delay in the appearance of
cataracts, the secondary
complications of diabetes and
relief in neurological and other
common symptoms even before
the hypoglycemia occurred. (2)
• Anti-inflammatory /
Membrane Stabilizing
Property: The study reports the
anti-inflammatory and
membrane stabilizing property of
an aqueous extract of
Momordica charantia leaves in
rats. The results suggest the
anti-inflammatory activity may
not be related to membrane-
stabilization. (3)
• Antimicrobial: Study on
various extracts of Cassia tora,
Calendula officinalis and
Momordica charantia showed
activity against all tested
bacteria, Staph aureus being
more susceptible to the aqueous
extracts. (4)
• Larvicidal: Study showed M. charantia to have good larvicidal activity against three
container breeding mosquitoes: An. stephensi, Cx quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti
suggesting a potential for the fruit extracts use in potable waters against mosquito
larvae. (6) A methanolic leaf extract of M. charantia showed larvicidal and pupicidal
activity against first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of malarial vector Anopheles
stephensi. (45)
• Antidiabetic / Estrous Cyclicity Effect: Study results suggest the antidiabetic
potential of MC and AP could restore the impaired estrous cycle in alloxan-induced
diabetic rats.(7)
• Antidiabetic / Saponins: Study showed the saponin constituents extracted from MC
induced significant hypoglycemic activity in hyperglycemic and normal mice. (8)
• Anxiolytic / Antidepressant / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of methanol extract of dried
leaves of MC showed significant anxiolytic activity and antidepressant and anti-
inflammatory activities. (9)
• Antidiabetic / Glucose Lowering: A water soluble extract of the fruit significantly
reduced blood glucose concentrations in diabetic and after force-feeding in rats. Fried
karela fruits consumed as daily dietary supplement produced a small but significant
improvement in glucose tolerance.
• Antidiabetic: An aqueous powder extract of the fresh unripe whole fruit reduced
fasting glucose by 48% comparable to glibenclamide, a known synthetic drug. Testing
showed no nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. As an edible vegetable, it presents a safe
alternative to reducing blood glucose.
• Antidiabetic: Study targeted a 1% decline in A1c with an estimated power of 88%.
With the observed decline of 0.24%, the achieved power was only 11%. Study failed to
make a definite conclusion on M. charantia's effectiveness.
• Anti-Ulcerogenic / Gastroprotective: An olive oil extract of M charantia showed ulcer
inhibition a gastroprotective effect against indomethacin. (12)
• Phytochemicals: Study of chemical constituents of unmatured fruits yielded vincine,
mycose, momordicoside A and momordicoside B.
• Phytochemicals / Extract-Metformin Synergism: Study yielded alkaloids,
glycosides, aglycone, tannin, sterol, phenol and protein. Use of the extract for
pharmacologic interactions with half doses of metformin or glibenclamide or both in
combination caused a decrease in blood sugar greater than that caused by full doses in
a 7-day treatment study. Results suggest a synergism activity.
• Antioxidant: Study of Momordica charantia fruit extract exerts a protection to AC-
induced hyperammonemic rats against oxidative stress possibly through prevention or
inhibition of the lipid peroxidative system by its antioxidant, hepatoprotective effect and
maintenance of cellular integrity. (15)
• Antioxidant / Chemoprotective: Study demonstrated the antioxidant and
chemoprotective activities of M. charantia fruit extract in experimental rat models.
Results strongly suggest chemoprotective action against CCl4-induced toxicity. Indirect
inhibition of CYP1A dependent activities suggest a promising cancer chemopreventive
action by lowering metabolic activation of various carcinogens and/or
• Review / Cucurbitane-type Triterpenoids / Charantin: Cucurbitane-type
triterpenoids are the main active constituents of M. charantia. Some have potential
biological and pharmaceutical activities including anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anticancer,
anti-HIV, antifeedant and antioviposition activities. Charantin, an anti-diabetic
compound, is a typical cucurbitane-type triterpenoid, with a potential for the the
treatment of diabetes. (18)
• Antioxidant / Chemoprotective: Study of bitter melon extract modulates signal
transduction pathways for inhibition of breast cancer cell growth and can be used as a
dietary supplement for breast cancer prevention. (22)
• Obesity / Adipogenesis Reduction: Study of bitter melon juice showed potent
inhibition of lipogenesis and stimulator of lipolysis activity in human adipocytes. BMJ
can be an effective alternative therapy to reduce adipogenesis in humans. (23)
• Antileukemic Potential / Seeds: Study of fractionated seed extracts in human
myeloid HL60 cells showed differentiation inducing activity with potential for use in
differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation.
• Anti-Dengue: Study of evaluated the antiviral effects of six plants on dengue virus
serotype 1 (DENV-1). Results showed the methanol extracts of A. paniculata and M.
charantia possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of DENV-1 in in vitro studies. (25)
• Anti-Diabetes / Review: Bitter gourd increases insulin secretion of the pancreas,
decreases intestinal glucose uptake, and increases uptake and utilization of glucose in
peripheral tissues. Although human studies are weak in design and results, some
studies do indicate safety and anti-diabetic effects. (26)
• Hepatoprotective / Acetaminophen Intoxication: Study evaluated the
hepatocurative effects of Mormodica fruit extracts in rabbits intoxicated with
acetaminophen. Results showed animals treated with the fruit extract had less liver
damage due to acetaminophen intoxication, indicating hepatoprotective properties. (27)
• Inhibition of Human Adipocyte Differentiation: Study showed bitter melon is a
potent inhibitor of lipogenesis and stimulator of lipolysis activity in human adipocytes.
Results suggest bitter melon juice may prove to be an effective complementary or
alternative therapy to reduce adipogenesis in humans. (28)
• Antifungal: Study showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus
niger, and Candida albicans. Phytochemicals identified included steroids, tannins,
alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, and terpenoids. (29)
• Hypoglycemic and Antiglycation Activities: Two-arm, parallel, randomized, double-
blind, placebo controlled trial evaluated the fruit pulp effect of bitter melon on long-term
glycemic control and glycation status in T2 diabetic patients. Results showed reduction
of A1C from baseline greater than the placebo group, with a significant decline of total
advanced glycation end-products. Study concludes bitter melon is beneficial not only for
glycemic control, but also on potential systemic complications of type 2 diabetes
mellitus. (30)
• Effects on Blood Rheological Properties in Diabetic Patients: Study showed PEG
microspheres adsorbed with nanofraction extracts of M. charantia reduced blood
viscosity. The use of nanoparticles extract of M. charantia and its absorption on PEG
microspheres may represent an alternative for control and treatment of blood disorders
in diabetic patients. (31)
• Biodiesel Potential of Seed Oil: Study showed M. charantia oil has potential as
nonedible raw material for biodiesel production. The low value oxidative stability of
MSOMEs can by solved by adding antioxidant additives. (32)
• Antimicrobial / Foodborne Pathogens: Study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of
24 hydroalcoholic extracts from stem-leaf, pulp, seeds of M. charantia against bacteria
and fungal strains. Gram negative Pseudomonas spp. was more susceptible towards all
the extracts than gram positive and fungal strains investigated. Results suggest a
potential for use of the extracts in control of Pseudomonas spp. in food industry ad well
as for therapeutic purposes. (34)
• Acute Toxicological Study: Study evaluated the toxicity level of M. charantia by
acute toxicity test using Sprague Dawley rats. Results suggests M. charantia was safe
at 2000 mg/kg. According to OECD guidelines, the toxicity level of this plant is class 5:
>2000 mg/kg. (35) Study evaluated the acute oral toxicity effects of Momordica
charantia in Sprague Dawley rats based of OECD Guidelines 423. Results suggest the
LD50 of the ethanolic extract of M. charatia is considered safe to be consumed below
2000 mg/kg. The highest dose can provoke toxic effects to the blood, tissue and vital
organs, especially liver. The study results aid in providing information on safety level
recommendations and dosage of the EE for further applications or commercialisation.
• Beneficial in Diabetic Cardiac Fibrosis: Study evaluated the effect of M. charantia
fruit extra ct on hyperglycemia induced cardiac fibrosis in male Sprague Dawley rats.
Results showed the fruit extract possess antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and cardiac
protective properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiac
fibrosis. (38)
• Lectin / Ribosome Inactivating Protein / Antitumor / Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma:
Study investigated the antitumor activity of M. charantia lectin, a type II ribosome
inactivating protein. The MC lectin showed potent cytotoxicity , induced apoptosis, DNA
fragmentation, G1-phase arrest, and mitochondrial injury in both types of NPC
(nasopharyngeal carcinoma) cells. Results showed the potential of type II RIP, MCL for
prevention and therapy of NPC. (39)
• Antibacterial / E. coli Prophylaxis: Study evaluated MC extract for secondary
metabolites and antibacterial activity. Results showed maximum activity against E. coli
and suggest a potential as prophylactic medicine for E. coli. (40)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Fruit: Study evaluated a fruit extract for analgesic
and anti-inflammatory activity in rat models. Results showed analgesic activity with
significant inhibition of acetic acid induced writhing and tail immersion test induced pain.
Extract also showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan induced
paw edema testing. (41)
• Anthelmintic / Antioxidant / Fruit: Study investigated the in vitro anthelmintic activity
of methanol extract of whole fruit, fruit peels, seed and fresh juice against Indian adult
earthworm (Eisenia foetida) and antioxidant activity using the DPPH scavenging assay
method. The methanol extract of fruit peels showed potent anthelmintic activity similar
to standard albendazole. Whole fruit and seed extract, whole fruit juice and peel juice
also showed in vitro anthelmintic activity. Methanol extract of fruit peel showed strong
DPPH scavenging activity; juice of fruit peel showed good radical scavenging effect.
• Momordica charantia as a Probable Cause of a Case of Atrial Fibrillation: Study
reports a case of a 22-year old man who complained of palpitations and weakness, and
found to have atrial fibrillation. The history suggested the consumption of M. charantia
juice as the "probable cause" of the cardiac arrhythmia, scoring 6 on the Naranjo
adverse drug reaction category: 9 or >, definite; 5-8, probably; and 1-4, possible, and 0,
doubtful. (43)
• Inconclusive Anti-Diabetic Effects on Meta-Analysis: Previous data has showed
inconclusive and inconsistent results about the benefits of bitter melon in patients with
diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to determine if bitter melon has a favorable effect in
lowering plasma glucose in diabetic patients. The meta-analysis included a total of four
RCTs (randomized controlled trials), each with 40-66 participants. Study concluded that
bitter melon supplementation compared with no treatment did not show significant
glycemic improvement on either A1c or fasting plasma glucose. Study suggests a larger
sample of patients evaluated over a longer period of time to determine whether bitter
melon is truly ineffective in diabetic patients. (44)
• Charantin: Charantin is a steroidal glycoside, existing as equal mixture of stigmasterol
glucoside and ß-sitosterol glucoside and considered to have blood sugar lowering
property equivalent to insulin. Study suggests generation of further and substantial
clinical data to establish its hypoglycemic potential. (46)
• Charantin / Antimicrobial: Charantin confirmed better antimicrobial activity of
charantin when compared with standard, against bacterial species such as gram
positive B. subtilis, gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal strain
Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (47)
• Antimutagenicity / Chemopreventive: Study investigated the antimutagenicity and
chemopreventive activity of an 85% ethanol extract of bitter melon against the formation
of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Results showed significant
inhibition of ACF formation in the colon, suggesting possible chemopreventive potential
against colon carcinogenesis. (48)
• Evaluation of Antidiabetic Properties by Metabolomics: Study investigated
changes in urinary metabolic profile of normal, STZ-induced type 1 diabetic rats.
Results showed diabetic rats had higher levels of succinate, creatine, creatinine, urea
and phenylacetylglycine in the urine. Administration of M. charantia extract regulated
the altered metabolic processes, and, thus, has the potential for treating diabetic
patients. (49)
• Cardioprotective / Cholesterol Effects: Study showed M. charantia plant extract has
cardioprotective properties by its dose-dependent effects on blood cholesterol. Longer
duration of treatment may play a role development of higher HDL/LDL rations. (50)
• Increase Glucose and Amino Acid Uptakes in L6 Myotubes / Fruit Juice: Study
investigated the effect of M. charantia juice on either 3H-2-deoxyglucose or N-methyl-
amino-a-isobutyric acid (14C-Me-AIB) uptake in L6 rat muscle cells cultured to the
myotube stage. Results showed M. charantia fruit juice acts like insulin to exert its
hypoglycemic effect and can stimulate amino acid uptake into skeletal muscle cells just
like insulin. (51)
• Kuguacin / Anticarcinogenic Properties: Study has isolated and elucidated
nineteen cucurbitcins names kuguacins A-E from the roots and kuguacin F-S from vines
and leaves of M. charantia. Study evaluated the underlying potential of kuguacin J as an
anticancer agent. Findings suggest kuguacin J exerts anticancer properties in various
experimental models. Kuguacin J exerted a marked decrease of LNCaP cell
proliferation and viability, suggesting a possible role in the growth inhibition of LNCaP.
One of the mechanisms by which it inhibits proliferation of cancer cells could be through
regulation of cell cycle progression. Kuguacin J caused significant induction of
apoptosis and presents a potential for prostate cancer inhibition. (52)
• MOCHA DM Study / Effect of M. charantia Tablets on Glucose and Insulin Levels
in the Postprandial State Among Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Study evaluated the
effect of MV and placebo on insulin and glucose among type 2 diabetic patients. In this
double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial on 40 type-2 diabetic subjects
receiving a single dose of 100 mg/kg/day of ampalaya, results showed an incremental
dose effect with more rapid and shorter-lived stimulation of insulin secretion than
placebo, resulting in lower meal-related glucose excursions. (55)
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Toxicity: Study showed the protective effect of
Ucche (Momordica charantia var. muricata (Willd.) against carbon tetrachloride induced
hepatotoxicity in rats indicated by diagnostic indicators of liver damage and
histopathological analysis. Activity was attributed, at least in part, to its antioxidant
activity and ability to modulate inflammation and fibrosis in the liver. (57)
• Benefits of Roasting Bitter Gourd / Increased Antioxidant Activity: Study
evaluated the effect of roasting bitter melon fruits, leaves, stems, and roots on
antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, reducing power, and FRAP assays. The roasted
bitter melon exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity than unroasted BM in the
test methods used. Roasted roots showed higher antioxidant activity than other
extracts. Antioxidant compounds including flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids increased,
while flavanols decreased following the roast processing. (59)
• Improved Glycemic Control in Patients with Insulin Resistance and Pre-
Diabetes: Review discusses the benefits and limitations of bitter melon
supplementation in the context of epidemic levels of insulin resistance and pre-diabetes
in the world. Overall, it remains controversial whether bitter melon has proven benefits
in lowering blood sugar among pre-diabetics or helps in slowing the progression of the
disease. While evidence, examined as a whole, suggests possible beneficial effect,
further clinical studies that meet rigorous methodological standards are warranted
before policy recommendations are established. (60)
• Effect on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium / Potential for Adjuvant Therapy: Study
tested the hypothesis whether M. charantia can favorably alter processes in
cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of T2DM and
related cardiovascular disease. Results suggested bitter melon extract failed to
positively affect type 2 DM and cardiovascular-related outcomes at a level suggesting
use as stand alone treatment. However, the encouraging effects on cardiac function
enhancement, suppression of post-ischemic/reperfused infarct size extent and capacity
to modulate serum cholesterol, suggest a potential use as adjuvant therapy for the
management of T2DM. (61)
• Antiglycation / Antioxidant: The accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts
(AGEs) and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Study
compared the antiglycation and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of pulp (MCP)
and flesh (MCF) and charantin in vitro. MCF antioxidant activity was higher than MCP.
All extracts inhibited the formations of AGEs and CML (carbxymethyllysine) in a dose-
dependent manner. Activity may be attributed to its antioxidant properties, in particular,
the total phenolic content of the extracts. The use of MC may not only reduce
hyperglycemia but also protect against build-up of tissue AGEs and reduce oxidative
stress in diabetic patients. (62)
• Effect on Liver Function / Fruit: Study evaluated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract
of M. charantia on liver function and tissue structure in mice. Results showed a single
dose of fruit extract at doses up to 4000 mg/kg cause no significant adverse effects on
liver enzymes and tissue structure. (63)
• Seasonal Variations in Anti-Diabetic and Hypolipidemic Effects / Fruit: Study
investigated the seasonal variation in anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic activities of M.
charantia fruits harvested at different seasons of the year (spring, summer, autumn, and
winter). Results showed antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of fruit extracts vary
during seasons of the year. Spring sample produced the highest activity. (64)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study reports on an eco-friendly and
cost-effective synthesis of silver nanoparticles using M. charantia leaf extract as
reduction agent. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited strong antibacterial activity
against Klebsiella pneumonia bacteria. (65)
• Cytotoxicity / Seeds: Study evaluated the cytotoxicity on bitter melon seed powder
extracts against HEK293 cells and RBCs. The water-ethanol extract showed the highest
cytotoxicity in inhibiting cell growth but with less cytotoxicity on RBC lysis. The ethanol
extract had less cytotoxicity on cell growth inhibition but lyzed RBCs completely. (66)
• Topical Bitter Melon for Atopic Dermatitis: Study reports on a case of a 6-year old
female with severe refractory atopic dermatitis that responded to treatment with topical
bitter melon in an open half-side comparison study. The bitter melon was prepared by
boiling 3-4 fresh bitter melons until they attain the consistency of boiled squash, cooling,
and then pureeing, including peel, pulp, and seeds, straining and rubbing the stew-like
paste to the patient's skin. (67)
• Anti-Cancer via Caspase Activity, Cytochrome-C release and Calcium
Overloading: Study investigated the anti-cancer effect of an active water-soluble
extract of M. charantia on cell viability and cellular mechanisms in inducing cell death
using six different cancer cell lines. The crude water extract could stimulate release of
cytochrome-c and elevated intracellular free calcium concentrations in different cancer
cell lines. Results clearly show that M. charantia exerts an anti-cancer effect via an
insult to mitochondria resulting in apoptosis, calcium overloading, and subsequently, cell
death. (68)

None known.

- Wild-crafted.
- Perennial vegetable market produce.
- Tablet and capsule formulations in the cybermarket.

Psidium guajava Linn.
Bayabas is a somewhat hairy plant reaching a height of 8 meters. Young branches are
4-angled. Leaves are opposite, oblong to elliptic, and 5 to 1 centimeters long, the apex
being pointed, and the base usually rounded. Peduncles are 1- to 3-flowered. Flowers
are white, 3 to 3.5 centimeters across, with in-curved petals, coming out solitary or two
to three in the leaf axils. Numerous stamens form the attractive part of the flower.
Inferior ovaries develop into round or obovoid green fruits 4 to 9 centimeters long,
turning yellow on ripening and have edible, aromatic, seedy pulp.
- Widely distributed throughout the
Philippines in all islands and
- Common in backyards and
settled areas.
- In thickets and secondary forests
at low altitudes, ascending to at
least 1,500 meters.
- Introduced from tropical America.
- Thoroughly naturalized.
- Pantropic in distribution.

- Phytochemical screening yielded
alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides,
polyphenols, reducing compounds,
saponins and tannins.
- Leaf products have isolated more
than 20 compounds, including
alkaloids, anthocyanins,
carotenoids, essential oils, fatty
acids, lectins, phenols, saponins,
tannins, triterpenes, and vitamin C.
- Leaves contain a fixed oil (6%)
and volatile oil (0.365%).
- Fixed oil, 6%; volatile (essential)
oil, 0.365%; eugenol; tannin 8-
15%; saponins; amydalin; phenolic
acids; malic acid; ash, aldehydes.
- Fruit contains "glykosen" 4.14 to
4.3%, saccharose 1.62 to 3.4 %,
protein 0.3%, etc.
- Bark contains 12 to 30% tannin.
Roots are also rich in tannin.
- Contains catequinic components and flavonoids.
- Major constituents of leaves are tannins, ß-sitosterol, maslinic acid, essential oils,
triterpenoids and flavonoids.
- Chloroform-methanol extracted lipids of guava seeds was 9.1% on a dry weight basis. Analysis
yielded 12 fatty acids, with a pattern similar to cottonseed oil. Protein content of seeds was
9.73% on a dry weight basis. (26)
- Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoid, tannin, terpenoids and steroids from the leaves, and
saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids from the bark. (see study below) (43)
- Preliminary phytochemical analysis of powdered leaves by four solvent extracts (H20/H,
EtOH/E, CHCl3/C, and Benzene/B) yielded flavonoids (CB), terpenoids (HEC), quinones (E),
oil and fat (HECB), phenols (HECB), starch (ECB), protein (E), carbohydrate (HECB), cellulose
(HECB). (47)
- GC-MS analysis of fruit yielded 65 compounds. Major constituents were α-pinene, 1,8-cineole,
β-caryo- phyllene, nerolidol, globulol, C6 aldehydes, C6 alcohols, ethyl hexanoate and (Z)-3-
hexenyl acetate. Unique fruit flavor was attributed to the presence of C6 aldehydes, C6 alcohols,
ethyl hexanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, terpenes and 1,8-cineole. (57)

- Antidiarrheal, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antioxidant hepatoprotective, anti-allergy,
antimicrobial, antigenotoxic, antiplasmodial, cardioactive, anticough, antidiabetic,
antiinflammatory, antinociceptive.
- Bark and leaves are astringent and vulnerary.

Parts utilized
Leaves, bark, fruit, flowers, roots.

Edibility / Nutrition
- Well known for its edible fruit.
- Fruit can be eaten raw or processed into beverages, ice cream, syrup, jellies and
- Ripe fruit is eaten as vegetable and used as seasoning for native dishes, like sinigang,
- Very high in vitamin C (80 mg in 100 gm of fruit) with large amounts of vitamin A.
- In the Philippines, the astringent, unripe fruit, the leaves, bark cortex, and roots -
though more often the leaves only - are used in decoction for washing ulcers and
-Fresh leaves used for wounds and toothache.
- Decoction or infusion of fresh leaves used for wound cleaning to prevent infection and
to facilitate healing.
- Warm decoction of leaves for aromatic baths.
- Decoction of bark and leaves used for diarrhea.
- For diarrhea, boil for 15 minutes 4 to 6 tablespoons of chopped leaves in 18 ounces of
water. Strain and cool. Drink 1/4 of the decoction every 3 - 4 hours.
- Bark used internally for chronic diarrhea of children and adults - half an ounce of the
bark or root bark in six ounces of water is boiled down to 3 ounces, and given in
teaspoon doses. Also used for prolapsus ani of children.
- Decoction of rootbark also used as mouthwash for swollen gums.
- Root-bark has been recommended for chronic diarrhea.
- For toothache, chew 2-3 young leaves and put into the tooth cavity.
- In India, water decoction of leaves used for treatment of jaundice.
- In Mexico, decoction of leaves used for cleaning ulcers. Ground leaves used as
poultice. Leaves also used as remedy for itches. Fruit also used as anthelmintic.
- In Uruguay, decoction of leaves used as vaginal and uterine wash, especially in
- In the West Indies, decoction of young leaves and shoots used as febrifuge and for
antispasmodic baths. Infusion of leaves used for cerebral affections, nephritis, and
cachexia. Pounded leaves used locally for rheumatism; extract used for epilepsy and
- In Costa Rica, decoction of flower buds used for diarrhea and to improve blood flow.
- In African folk medicine, leaves used for treatment of diarrhea.
- For gum swelling, chew leaves or use the leaf decoction as mouthwash 3 times daily;
chewed leaves.
- For skin ulcers, pruritic or infected wounds: Apply decoction of leaves or unripe fruit as
wash or the leaf poultice on the wound or use the decoction for wound cleansing. It is
also popularly used for the wound healing of circumcision wounds.
- Guava jelly used as heart tonic; also for constipation.
- Ripe fruit is used as aperient.
- Water in which the fruit is soaked used for diabetes.
- In Nicaragua, P. guajava is a traditional treatment for Giardia-induced diarrhea.
- For nosebleeds, densely roll the bayabas leaves and place into the nostril cavity.
- As vaginal wash, warm decoction of leaves as vaginal wash (after childbirth) or
- Leaf extract used in skin whitening products.
- Toothbrush au-natural: Bayabas twigs, chewed at the ends until frayed, used as
alternative for toothbrushing with whitening effect.
- Inspired by the folkloric use of bayabas leaves for wound healing and treatment of
acne, study reports on making soap out of boiling bayabas leaves and mixing the
extract with sodium hydroxide, oil, and water. (46)
- Wood is suitable for carpentry, turnery, fuel or charcoal.
- A favorite rural use for tool handles.

• Assessment of two medicinal plants, Psidium guajava L. and Achillea
millefolium L., in in vitro and in vivo assays: Study on the cytotoxicity and
mutagenicity of the plants provide info on its safety for use as therapeutic agents. (1)
• Antihypertensive / Antidiarrheal: In the study, P guajava leaf extracts was more
active than D mespiliformis in their antagonistic effects on caffeine-induced calcium
release from the sarcoplasmic
reticulum of rat skeletal muscle.
Results might explain their use
as antihypertensive and
antidiarrheal agents in
traditional medicine through an
inhibition of intracellular calcium
• Antidiarrheal / Quercetin:
Quercetin is a main active
constituent. Spasmolytic and antidiarrheal effects are attributed to quercetin-derived,
flavonoids and glycosides.
• Anticestodal: Anticestodal efficacy of Psidium guajava against experimental
Hymenolepis diminuta infection in rats : The study showed anticestodal efficacy and
supports folkloric medicinal use in the treatment of intestinal-worm infections in
northeast India. (5)
• Hypoglycemic / Hypotensive: The leaf of Psidium guajava is used extensively in
African folk medicine. The study shows that the aqueous leaf extract of P. guajava
possesses hypoglycemic and hypotensive properties and provides pharmacological
credence to the folkloric use of the plant for type-2 diabetes and hypertension in some
rural African communities. (6)
• Microbicidal / Antidiiarrheal: Microbicidal effect of medicinal plant extracts (Psidium
guajava Linn. and Carica papaya Linn.) upon bacteria isolated from fish muscle and
known to induce diarrhea in children: Study concludes that guava sprout extracts is a
feasible treatment option for diarrhea caused by E coli or S aureus-produced toxins,
with quick curative effect, easy availability and low cost. (14)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Aqueous extracts of leaves have shown antimicrobial activity
against Shigella spp., Vibrio spp., S aureus, B-strep, E coli, P aeruginosa and B subtilis.
• Guava Extracts and Radiolabelling: Study showed aqueous PG extract could
present antioxidant action and affect membrane structures in ion transport altering
radiolabelling of blood constituents with Technitium (Tc99m) and precautions applied to
nuclear medicine procedures on patients using guava extracts. (8)
• Antidiabetic: Study of extract of leaves of PG showed to possess antidiabetic effect in
type 2 diabetic mice model, the effect in part, mediated via the inhibition of PTP1B
(protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B). (9)
• Trypanocidal: Study showed that PG leaf extract possessed trypanocidal properties
attributed to broad antimicrobial and iron chelating activity of flavonoids and tannins.
Iron chelation was suggested as a effective way of killing trypanosomes. (10)
• Antitumor: Study showed P guajava extracts to be efficacious in preventing tumor
by depressing
Tr cells
• Radical
Study showed
extracts from
distilled water,
65% ethanol
and 95%
ethanol with
effects on
scavenging hydroxyl radicals and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Flavonoids may be one of
the antioxidative components. (12)
• Antiproliferative / Anticancer / Leaf Oil: A study on the antiproliferative activity of
essential oil from 17 Thai medicinal plants on human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB)
and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines. In the KB cell line, Psidium guajava leaf oil
showed the highest anti-proliferative activity, more than 4x more potent than vincristine.
The results suggested the potential of Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment. (13)
• Spasmolytic: A morphine-like spasmolytic action involving the inhibition of
acetylcholine release and the transmural transport of electrolytes and water has been
reported as possible modes of antidiarrheal action of P guajava leaf extracts. The
extract also inhibited the growth of causative agents for enteric fever, food poisoning,
dysentery and cholera.
• Antispasmodic: In a study of acute diarrheic disease, a phytodrug developed from
guava leaves, standardized with its quercetin content, exhibited a decrease in the
duration of abdominal pain. (15)
• Antioxidant / Hypocholesterolemic: A study done to determine the effects of guava
consumption on antioxidant status and lipid profile in normal male youth showed a
significant increase in level of total antioxidants and reduced oxidative stress and also
increase the level of HDL cholesterol significantly. (16)
• Anti-Ulcer: Study showed rats pretreated with P guajava extract from fresh tender
leaves showed antiulcer activity in aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model with a significant
reduction of ulcer index, pepsin activity, free and total acidity, volume and mucus
content of gastric juice. (17)
antioxidants and reduced oxidative stress and also increase the level of HDL cholesterol
• Antibacterial: Study evaluated the antibacterial activities of aqueous and ethanol-
water extracts from leaves, roots and stem bark of P. guajava. The AE of leaves roots
and stems were active against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and B.
subtilis and virtually ineffective against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The EW showed
higher activity than the AE. (19)
• Leaves Extracts / Differences in Hypoglycemic Potential: In a mice model, study
showed the water soluble, edible alcohol, and edible alcohol-soluble extracts of wild
Psidium guajava leaves may have different hypoglycemic potential. (20)
• Hepatoprotective / Leaves: Study in male and female rats showed the aqueous
extract of P. guajava leaves may be hepatoprotective (not hepatotoxic), with
hematopoietic potentials. (21)
• Anticancer Activity / Review: Review of a limited number of studies revealed guava
extracts may have anti-cancer activity. One study tested guava fruit extract against a
proliferation of cancer cell lines. One study in mice used a combination of bark, leaf, and
root extract to inhibit growth of B16 melanoma cells. (23)
• Corrosion Inhibition / Mild Steel: Study evaluated the corrosion inhibition behavior of
an extract of guava leaves towards mild steel in HCl media. Results showed the extract
has good inhibition efficiency (IE) and acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. As extract
concentration increases, IE also increases. (25)
• Hepatoprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of P.
guajava in CCl4-, paracetamol- and thioacetamide-induced liver injury. Results showed
significant reduction of liver enzymes and bilirubin. Higher doses prevented increases in
liver weight. (27) Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of P. guajava in acute
experimental injury induced by carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol or thioacetamine and
chronic liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. Results showed the aqueous
extract of leaves possess good hepatoprotective activity in both acute and chronic liver
injury models. (54)
• Antihyperglycemic / Unripe Fruit Peel: Study evaluated the glycemic potential of an
aqueous extract of unripe fruit peel in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed
normal, mild, and severely diabetic rat models had hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect.
• Analgesic / Antipyretic / Dried Leaves: Study of an ethanol extract produced
significant reduction of pyrexia in yeast induced hyperpyrexia and hot plate latency
assay. Analgesic activities were observed in early and late phase of formalin induced
paw licking tests in rats. (29)
• Anti-Epileptic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti epileptic activity of a leaves extract
of P. guajava in seizure induced by maximal electroshock and pantaloon territorialize.
Results showed the leaves extract at higher and medium doses produced highly
significant and sustained increases in onset of convulsions and decrease in rate of
convulsion. Activity may be due to presence of flavonoids and saponins. (30)
• Effect in Hyperactive Gut Disorders / Diarrhea and Gut Spasm: Study evaluated
the mechanisms responsible for its use in diarrhea and gut spasm. A crude extract
showed protection in castor oil-induced diarrhea model, similar to loperamide. In
isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, crude extract showed potent effect against high K+
than spontaneous pre-contractions, similar to verapamil. Results indicate the crude
extract possesses Ca++ antagonist-like constituent/s to explain its inhibitory effect on
gut motility. (31)
• Antibacterial / Leaves and Essential Oil: Study evaluated essential oils and various
leaf extracts of P. guajava for antimicrobial effect. Of the bacteria tested,
Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited, with the methanol extract showing
greatest bacterial inhibition. Essential oil extract showed inhibitory effect against S.
aureus and Salmonella spp. (32)
• Antibacterial / Infectious Diarrhea: Study evaluated crude decoction and quercetin
for antibacterial effect on virulence of common diarrheal pathogens viz. colonization of
epithelial cells and production and action of endotoxins. Decoction of P. guajava
showed antibacterial activity towards S. flexneri and Vibrio cholerae, with decreased
production of E. coli labile toxin and cholera toxin. Its spectrum of antidiarrheal activity is
not due to quercetin alone. (33)
• Antibacterial / Antifungal / Leaves and Bark / Skin Disorders: Study evaluated the
effects of P. guajava on organisms responsible for skin disorders. P. guajava solutions
of leaf and bark extracts were effective in inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus. aureus
and S. epidermis, and fungi Mentagrophytes gypseum and Trichophyton
mentagrophytes. Tetracycline as control showed significantly stronger inhibition, which
may be due to the fact that it is a pure chemical vs the crude extracts of P. guajava
solutions. (34)
• Wound Healing Potential / Cytotoxic Effects: Study evaluated the wound healing
potential in vivo and cytotoxic effects in vitro of P. guajava leaf extract and commonly
used corticosteroids. In vitro, the extract caused a decrease in cell viability and growth
compared to control and corticosteroids. In vivo, the extract caused acceleration of
wound healing. (35)
• Periodontal Disease / Adjunctive Therapy: Study evaluated the potential of P.
guajava in the treatment of periodontal disease. Review suggests therapeutic potential
of guava as adjunct in treating periodontal disease. (36)
• Gastroprotective / Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: Study evaluated a leaf extract for
gastric secretory and protective properties on ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) induced gastric
mucosal injury in rats. Results showed gastroprotective properties attributed to
stimulation of mucus secretion by the guava extract. (37)
• Antibacterial / Wound, Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: Study evaluate crude
aqueous extracts of leaves against bacteria associated with surgical wound, burns, skin
and soft tissue infections. Results showed potent inhibitory activity against growth of
pathogenic Proteus mirabilis, Strep pyogenes, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and P.
aeruginosa. (38)
• Hepatotoxic and Hepatoprotective Disease / Erythromycin Induced Liver
Damage:Study of aqueous extract of leaves on erythromycin-induced liver damage in
albino rats showed hepatoprotective activity at lower dose and hepatotoxic property at
higher dose. (39)
• Anti-Trypanosomal Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanolic extracts of leaves for
anti-trypanosoma and cytotoxicity activity in bloodstream species of Trypanosoma brucei brucei
(BS427) and HEK293. Results showed inhibition of growth of T. b. brucei, with selectivity index
comparing favorably with pentamidine and diminazne. (40)
• Antidiarrheal Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous leaf extract for
antidiarrheal activity in experimentally induced diarrhea in rodents. PGE (50-400 mg/kg
p.o.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.01) protection of rats and mice
against castor oil-induced diarrhea, inhibited intestinal transit, and delayed gastric
emptying. Like atropine, it produced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.01) anti-
motility effect and caused inhibition of castor-oil induced enteropooling. Like loperamide,
PGE induced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.01) delay in onset of castor-oil
induced diarrhea, decreased frequency of defecation and decreased severity of
diarrhea in rodents. (42)
• Anti-Inflammatory Activity / Leaves and Bark: Study of leaf and bark tannin fraction
of Psidium guajava showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in in-vitro models. The
anti-inflammatory activity is probably due to the presence of tannin (gallic acid). (see
constituents above) (43)
• Wound Healing / Tannins / Leaves and Bark: Study of P. guajava leaf and bark
tannin fraction showed significant effect on wound healing models. A tannin-rich fraction
formulated in ointment form showed significant percentage wound protection at tested
concentrations. The wound healing activity was attributed to the presence of tannin
(gallic acid). (44)
• Cardioprotective in Diabetes / Antiglycative / Leaves: Study evaluated the
antiglycative potential of ethyl acetate fraction of leaves in streptozotocin induced
diabetic rats. Results showed a significant decrease in liver alpha 2 macroglobulin, a
protein associated with early stages of cardiac hypertrophy. Results suggest the PGEt
extract may be beneficial in preventing cardiovascular complications associated with
diabetes. (45)
• Hyperglycemic Effect / Fruit Peels: Study evaluated the glycemic potential of P.
guajava fruit peel extract on blood glucose of normal and STZ-induced sub-diabetic
female albino wistar rats. Results showed a hyperglycemic effect from a single oral
administration of variable doses of P. guajava fruit peel extract. Results suggest diabetic
patients should peel off the guava fruit before consumption. On the other hand, the fruit
peel could be useful for hypoglycemia induced by excess insulin or other hypoglycemic
drugs. (48)
• Antibacterial Microcapsules for Cotton Fabric / Leaves: Study prepared
antibacterial cotton fabric by using microcapsules containing P. guajava leaf extract.
Leaf extract was applied to cotton fabric by direct printing with a binder and assessed
for antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. Results showed cotton fabric
finished with microcapsules containing P. guajava leaf extract showed antibacterial
activity against S. aureus, but not against E. coli. (49)
• Testosterone Effect / Contraceptive / Hypolipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated an
aqueous extract of PG leaves on testosterone level and serum lipid parameters in rats.
Results showed male fertility regulation with reduction in serum testosterone suggesting
significant contraceptive efficacy, together with sizable reduction in weight of organs,
i.e., testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle. (50)
• Antidiarrheal Activity / Fruits Study evaluated the antidiarrheal potency of ethanolic
fruit extract of Psidium guajava using Wistar albino rats. Results showed significant
(p<0.05) antidiarrheal activity evidenced by reduction in rate of defecation (78.33% at 600
mg/kg body weight compared to loperamide at 100%). The activity was attributed to flavonoids
and tannins probably through denaturation of proteins and forming protein tannates which
minimize intestinal mucosal permeability. LD50 of the crude methanolic extract was 10,715
mg/kg. (51)
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Antitumor: Study evaluated the phenolic and flavonoid
levels, antioxidant activity, lethality assay, antibacterial and antitumor activities of dried
P. guajava extract. The guava extract yielded high levels of phenolics (766.08 ± 14.52 mg/g)
flavonoids (118.90 ± 5.47 mg/g) and antioxidant activity (87.65%). LD50 was 185.15 µg/ml.
MIC was 250 µg/ml for Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, and S. oralis. IC50 in HeLa, RKO and
Wi cell lines were 15.6 ± 0.8 µg/ml, 21.2 ±1.1 µg/ml and 68.9 ± 1.5 µg/ml, respectively. Results
suggest the dry extract of leaves has potential as topical application in the oral cavity, the
development of antitumor formulation, and, also, as functional food. (52)
• Sperm Boosting Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of P. guajava
leaves on serum parameters of healthy male wistar rats. Results showed a dose-dependent
increase in percentages of motile spermatozoa in guava leaf extract treated animals.
• Amelioration of Arsenic Toxicity: Study evaluated the effect of P. guajava leaf
extract on arsenic induced biochemical alterations in Wistar rats. Results suggest
kidney damage caused by arsenic can be repaired to some extent by AEPG50. (53)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study investigated the antioxidant activity of Psidium guajava leaf
extract for antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging method using ascorbic acid as
standard. The leaf extract showed strong antioxidant activity. IC50 of the P. guajava extract was
45.5 ± 0.044 µg/mL compared to ascorbic acid standard of 25.8 ± 0.204 µg/mL. (55)
• Antiplaque Activity: Aqueous extracts of P. betle and P. guajava showed profound effect on
the ultrastructure of selected dental plaque bacteria viz., Streptococcus sanguinis, S. mitis, and
Actinomyces sp. Extracts interfered with normal growth cycle and development of bacterial cells
slowing down plaque development. (56)
• Comparative Antidiabetic Activity / Fresh and Dry Leaves: Study evaluated the
comparative antihyperglycemic activity of fresh and dry leaves of P. guajava against alloxan-
induced diabetic rats. The fresh leaf extract showed significant anti-hyperglycemic activity
compared to dry leaves, producing nearly equal reduction in blood glucose compared to that of
standard glibenclamide 10 mg/kg. (58)
• Antioxidant / Antimutagenic / Leaves: Study evaluated various solvent fractions of P.
guajava leaf for antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. A methanolic extract showed
maximum antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid and BHT as tested by DPPH, FRAP,
and CUPRAX reducing ability assays. The methanolic fraction at 80 µg/ml concentration
inhibition above 70% mutagenicity. Findings suggest high amount of phenolics responsible for
the broad spectrum antimutagenic and antioxidant properties in vitro. (59)
• New Source of Antioxidant Dietary Fiber / Fruit: Study of pulp and peel fractions
showed high dietary fiber (48.55-49.42%) and extractable polyphenols (2.62-7.79%). All
fractions showed remarkable antioxidant capacity correlating with total phenolic content. Results
showed the peel and pulp can be used to obtain antioxidant dietary fiber, a new product which
combines dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds. (60)
• Analgesic / Dried Leaves: Study evaluated methanolic and aqueous extracts of dried leaf of
P. guajava for analgesic property inn adult male wistar albino rats using formalin and acetic acid
induced writhing and hot plate tests. Results showed analgesic property in the order of
methanolic < aqueous < combined methanolic and aqueous. (61)
• Hepatoprotective Fruit Polysaccharide Supplementation / Paracetamol Toxicity:
Study evaluated the effect of polysaccharide from guava fruit on paracetamol (PCM)-induced
liver injury on Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed PCM induced alterations (glycogen
depletion, vacuolisation, loss of cell membrane, inflammatory cells infiltration, hepatocellular
distortions) were attenuated by PPG supplementation. (62)
• Biocidal Triterpenoids / Betulinic Acid and Lupeol / Leaves: Study isolated two
triterpenoids viz., betulinic acid and lupeol from the leaf extract of P guajava. The two
compounds were found active against all tested bacteria and fungi. Compound 1 showed better
antimicrobial activity compared to compound 2. (63)
• Nephroprotective / Doxorubicin Induced Renal Toxicity / Leaves: Study investigated
the protective effect of ethanolic extract of P. guajava leaves against doxorubicin-induced
nephrotoxicity in rats. Results showed amelioration of doxorubicin-induced toxicity at 100 and
300 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract. (64)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study reports on a simple, rapid, cost-
effective, and environment friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava
leaf extract. The nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Results showed promise as an alternate antibacterial agent in the field of agriculture for large-
scale production. (65)

- Wild-crafted.
- Supplements, tinctures, teas in the cybermarket.
Allium sativum L.

Bawang is a low herb, 30 to 60 centimeters high. True stem is much reduced. Bulbs are
broadly ovoid, 2 to 4 centimeters in diameter, consisting of several, densely crowded,
angular and truncated tubers. Leaves are linear and flat. Umbels are globose, many
flowered. Sepals are oblong, greenish white, slightly tinged with purple. Stamens are not
exerted from the perianth.

- Extensively grown in Batangas, Nueva Ecija, Ilocos Norte, Mindoro, and Cotobato.
- A native of southern Europe.
- Now widely cultivated in most parts of the world.
• Garlic contains at least 33 sulfur compounds, several enzymes, 17 amino acids, and
minerals. The sulfur compounds are responsible for the pungent odor and many of its
medicinal effects.
• Saponins; tannins; sulfurous compounds; prostaglandins; alkaloids; volatile oils; allicin
• The antihelmintic property is
due to allyl disulphide content.
• The most important chemical
constituents are the cysteine
sulfoxides (alliin) and the
nonvolatile glutamylcysteine
peptides which make up more
than 82% of the sulfur content of
garlic. Allicin, ajoenes and
sulfides are degradation
products of alliin.
• Some of garlic's effect is
attributed to alicin, its active
ingredient, which is converted to
ajoene, allyl sulfides and
• Allicin (dially thiosulfinate or
dially disulfide) is generated only
when the garlic is crushed or cut,
which activates the enzyme
allinase which metabolizes alliin
to allicin.
• Aged garlic products lack allicin, but may have activity due to the presence of S-
• Bulb: allicin; volatile oil, 0.9% - allyl disulfide, allypropyl disulfide; inulin; protein; fat,
1.3%; carbohydrates, 0.2%; ash, 9.4%; choline, 0.7%; myrosinase.
Leaves: Protein, i.2%; fat, 0.5%; sulfides.

• Antibacterial, antihelminthic, antimycotic, antiviral, antispasmodic, diaphoretic,
expectorant, fibrinolytic, hypotensive, promoting leucocytosis, lipid lowering and platelet
aggregation inhibition.

Parts utilized
Bulbs: Features prominently as a condiment and flavor in Filipino cuisine.
Herbalists, with concerns that cooking diminishes medicinal potency, recommends
eating raw garlic cloves.

Edibility / Culinary
- Widely used by Filipinos for flavoring dishes.
- In the Philippines, bulbs used for hypertension. Also used as diuretic, and eaten fresh
or burned for coughs in children.
- Arthritis, rheumatism, toothaches: Crush several cloves and rub on affected areas.
- Crush clove applied to both temples as poultice for headache.
- Crush garlic or cut clove crosswise and rub directly to areas of insect bites.
- Decoction of leaves and bulbs for fever and as hypotensive, carminative, expectorant,
and antihelmintic.
- Juice from freshly crushed garlic used for colds, cough, sore throat, hoarseness,
asthma and bronchitis.
- Decoction use for tonsillitis.
- Steam inhalation of chopped garlic and a teaspoon of vinegar in boiling water used for
nasal congestion.
- Fresh garlic has been used as a complement to INH therapy for tuberculosis. In
Mexico, fresh bulb is eaten as a preventive for tuberculosis.
- In India, garlic juice diluted in water, applied externally to prevent hair from turning
- Diluted juice used for earaches
and deafness.
- In the Antilles, used as vermifuge.
- Also used for menstrual cramps.
- Used for digestive problems and
gastrointestinal spasms.
- Infusion of a peeled broiled clove
used for gas pains.
- Juice of bulb with common salt
applied to bruises and sprains; also
used for neuralgia and earache.
- Rubbed over ringworm for soothing
- In WWI, fresh raw juice was used
as antiseptic for control of wound

• Antibacterial, antifungal,
antiparasitic: Topically, ajoene
0.4% cream, has been found 70%
effective in certain dermatologic
fungal infections. A 0.6% gel was
effective in tinea corporis and tinea
• Anticandidal: Study on the mode
of action of aqueous garlic extract
(AGE) against Candida albicans showed garlic treatment affected the structure and
integrity of the outer surface of the yeast cells. Growth was affected in a number of
ways: decreased total lipid content, higher phosphatidylserines and lower
phosphatidylcholines, and decrease oxygen consumption of AGE-treated C. albicans.
AGE exerts its effect by oxidation of thiol groups causing enzyme inactivation and
subsequent microbial growth inhibition.
• Hypertension: Studies suggest a beneficial antihypertensive effect but blood-lowering
effects probably not dramatic. Other studies show a vascular benefit through
improvement of aortic elasticity and possible slowing of the rate of atherosclerosis
• Hyperlipidemia / Antioxidant:Controversial, but probably has beneficial effect on
serum cholesterol and LDL levels. Some studies have shown a 4% to 12% lowering of
total cholesterol. It seems to have no effect on high density lipoprotein (HDL).
• Hypocholesterolemic / Fresh Bulbs: Study of feeding of fresh garlic bulbs to
induced-hypercholesterolemic rats showed decrease in total and LDL cholesterol and
increase in HDL levels. (6)
• Lipid Profile Benefits: Study concluded that garlic extracts may have a beneficial
effect on blood lipid profile and antioxidant status. (7) Study evaluated the effect of
Allium sativum on experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in guinea pigs. Aqueous and
alcoholic extracts showed significant hypolipidemic activity with significant reduction in
triglycerides, LDLc, VLDLc and atheriogenic index. (36)
• Anti-cancer / Chemoprotective: Possible anticarcinogenic properties, specifically
colon, stomach and prostate cancers— in stomach cancers, probably through its
inhibitory effect on H. pylori. In epidemiologic studies on stomach and colorectal cancer
prevention, the garlic use was 3.5 grams to 30 grams of fresh or cooked garlic per
week. • Studies provide ample evidence for a role of garlic in cancer prevention. The
tumor inhibition may be through compounds like organosulfur in garlic.
• Effect on Salivary Gland Tumorigenesis: Study showed garlic may have an
adjuvant effect on various defense mechanisms against -induced carcinogenesis in sub-
maxillary salivary glands of rat through increased availability or utilization of beta-
carotene. (10)
• Hepatoprotective / Hematologic Effects: Study results on female Wistar rats
suggest garlic and vitamin C have some hepatoprotective and hematological effects. (3)
• Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the effect of increasing doses of A. sativum aqueous
extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed promising hypoglycemic and
hypolipidemic activity. Glibenclamide was used as standard. (29) Study results of
ethanolic extracts of AS in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats suggest that
A. sativum can be considered an excellent candidate for future studies on diabetes
• Sperm Immobilization Activity : Study of crude extract of A. sativum bulb showed
spermicidal activity in vitro. (8)
• Hepatopulmonary Syndrome Treatment: A trial showed garlic may improve
oxygenation and symptoms in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome. (9)
• Anti-Thrombotic Activity : Study of extracts of Allium sativum and Vernonia
amygdalina showed both extracts offered protection against thrombosis produced by an
intravenous injection of ADP and adrenalin, with A sativum showing the stronger
activity. (11)
• Diallyl Sulfide / Anti-Cancer: Study showed diallyl sulfide, a thioether found naturally
in garlic, when given by gavage to mice, inhibited by 74% the incidence of colorectal
adenocarcinoma induced by 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine. (12)
• Cardiovascular Benefits: Garlic is an ideal herb with its several cardiovascular
benefits: blood pressure lowering, antihyperlipidemic effects, platelet inhibition and
fibrinolytic effects, antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic effects. (14)
• Antibacterial / Anti-Staph aureus: Study of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum
showed concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.
• Antitumorigenesis: Study showed garlic oil may have an adjuvant effect on host
defense mechanisms against DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in sub-maxillary glands of
rat through increased availability and utilization of beta-carotene. (16)
• Antimicrobial / Crude Juices: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of crude
juices of Allium ascalonicum, Allium cepa, and Allium sativum. Results showed strong
antibiotic properties, and the complete absence of development of resistance from
juices of Allium species merit consideration. (17)
• Antioxidant: In a study using DPPH scavenging method, raw garlic extract showed a
color change from deep violet to yellow, indicating antioxidant activity. (18)
• Essential Oil / Antibacterial / Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Essential oil extract from
Allium sativum bulbs showed inhibitory activity on growth of over 50% of Pseudomonas
aeruginosa strains tested. (19)
• Antibacterial / Garlic and Ginger Comparative Study: In a study comparing the
antimicrobial potency of various extracts of garlic and ginger, results showed all the
bacterial strains to be most susceptible to garlic aqueous extract while showing poor
susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract. (21)
• Chemoprevention: Experimental studies provide compelling evidence that garlic and
its organic allyl sulfur components are effective inhibitors of tumor growth. (22)
• Anti-Ulcer: Study showed the protective role of raw Nigelia sativa, garlic, and onion
against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and gastric acid secretion. Raw or boiled Nigella
sativa, garlic or onion significantly inhibited histamine stimulated acid secretion. Raw
Nigella sativa and garlic showed a decrease in ulcer index. Boiling reduced the potency
of garlic and onion. (23)
• Allyl Alcohol and Garlic in Oxidative Stress Effects on C. Albicans: Study
evaluated on the effects of purified constituents, in particular, allyl alcohol, a metabolic
product that accumulates after titration of garlic cloves on anticandidal activities. Typical
changes of oxidative stress were observed—NADH oxidation and glutathione depletion,
and increased reactive oxygen species.
• Antimicrobial Effects with Combined Extracts: Study evaluated the in vitro
antimicrobial effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (A. sativum), ginger
(Zingiber officinale) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia) against S. aureus, Bacillus spp., E. coli
and Salmonella spp. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger did not
inhibit any of the test organisms. The highest inhibition zone was seen with combination
of extracts on Staphylococcus aureus. (25)
• Antibacterial Against Multiple-Drug Resistant Pathogens / Cloves: Ethanol
extracts of cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger showed effective antibacterial activity
against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens. The highest inhibition zone observed
with garlic was against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (26)
• Effect on Systolic and Diastolic Pressure in Essential Hypertension: Study
evaluated the effect of garlic on blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension.
Study showed a significant decrease in both systolic and diastolic pressure in a dose-
and duration-dependent manner, when compared to atenolol and placebo. (27)
• Improved Diabetic Control with Garlic Supplementation: Study evaluated the
potential effect of garlic in T2DM with the addition of garlic tablets to standard
antidiabetic therapy. Results showed the combination of garlic with typical antidiabetic
remedy improved glycemic control in addition to an antihyperlipidemic activity. (28)
• Anthelmintic: An alcoholic extract of bulb of A. sativum has shown moderate in vitro
anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides. (20) Study evaluated
methanol extracts of various plant materials of ethnoveterinary importance in Pakistan,
including A. sativum, for in vitro anthelmintic activity. All the studied plants showed
anthelmintic activity. (31)
• Analgesic / Anti-Nociceptive: Study evaluated the analgesic and anti-nociceptive
effects of Allium sativum powder in animal models. Results showed the ASP to be
effective in both non-narcotic and narcotic models of nociception, suggesting possible
peripheral and central mechanisms as well as peripheral pathways through inhibition of
prostaglandin synthesis. (30)
• Immune System Enhancement / Black Garlic: Study evaluated black garlic—
created from ordinary fresh garlic—for antitumor activity. Heat extracts of black garlic
were rich in S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) and enforced anti-tumor activity with a 50% cure
rate of BALB/c mouse fibrosarcoma. The black garlic enhanced cellular immunity by
raising the activity of NK (natural killer cell) cells which may play a critical role in
eradication of tumor cells inn vivo. There was also generation of cytokines of NO, IFN-y,
IL-2, and TNF-a from the extract-treated mouse spleen cells. (32)
• Antihypertensive : Study evaluated the cardiovascular effects of aqueous extracts of
garlic on normotensive and hypertensive rats using the two-kidney one clip model.
Aqueous garlic extracts caused a decrease in blood pressure and bradycardia by direct
mechanism not involving the cholinergic pathway in normotensive and 2K1C rats,
suggesting a likely peripheral hypotensive mechanism. (33)
• Effect on the Pharmacokinetic of Metformin / Herb-Drug Interaction: Study
evaluated the pharmacokinetic interactions of Metformin with Allium sativum. Allium
sativum altered the pharmacokinetics of Metformin in rats, increasing bioavailability by
significantly increasing its Cmax and AUC0-12hr and a slight increase in t1/2. (34) Study
evaluated the effect of garlic on metformin in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
• Effect on Liver Glycogen Deposition and Gonadal Protein Metabolism: Study
evaluated the effect of garlic extract on glycogen deposition in the liver and protein
metabolism in gonads of female albino rats. Results showed a significant increase in
glycogen and protein level on low and medium dose of garlic extract, with a significant
decrease in glycogen level with high dose of extract. The quantity of protein depends on
rate of protein synthesis or on rate of degradation. (35)
• Pharmacodynamic Interaction with Cilostazol in Diabetic Patients: Garlic is
known to have antiplatelet properties. Garlic showed significant inhibition of platelet
aggregation. Cilostazol showed significant inhibition at all three time points tested. In the
randomized, open label, placebo-controlled, crossover study of type II diabetes patients,
coadministration of aged garlic extract and cilostazol did not produce any significant
change in the antiplatelet activity of the individual drugs. (38)
• Virucidal: Garlic has been shown to have antiviral activity. Study identified garlic
associated compounds: diallyl thiosulfinate (allicin), allyl methyl thiosulfinate, methyl allyl
thiosulfinate, ajoene, alliin, deoxyalliin, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide. Activity was
determined against selected viruses including, herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes
simplex virus type 2, parainfluenza virus type 3, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus,
and human rhinovirus type 2. Virucidal activity was: ajoene > allicin > allyl methyl
thiosulfinate > methyl allyl thiosulfinate. Results indicate virucidal activity and
cytotoxicity may depend upon the viral envelope and cell membrane, respectively. (39)
• Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Induced Liver Damage: Study showed
administration of A. sativum extracts protected against paracetamol liver damage in
rats. (40)
• Nephroprotective / Cisplatin Toxicity: Study evaluated the in vivo antioxidant and
nephroprotective potential of ethanolic extract of garlic against cisplatin induced
nephrotoxicity in Wistar male rats. Cisplatin induction decreased renal antioxidants with
associated increase in kidney weight, lipid peroxidation and serum kidney markers.
Treatment exhibited a protective effect as evidenced by boosting of antioxidant levels
and markers reverting back to near normalcy. (41)
• Antibacterial / Anti-Pseudomonas / Anti-Staph: Study evaluated the effect of crude
preparation of garlic on clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and
Staphylococcus aureus. Results showed the targeting of bacterial cell wall and
bacteriolytic action of the extract. The extract appeared to interfere with DNA and RNA
synthesis. (42)
• Effect on Systolic Blood Pressure: Pilot study showed individuals with blood
pressures on the lower side are more likely to consume more garlic in their diets.
Findings were statistically significant for systolic blood pressure only. The average garlic
use was 134 grams per month; 67 % of use was cooked in foods while the rest
consumed it in raw form or in pickles. (43)
• Processed Black Garlic / Enhancement of Anti-Tumor Potency / Antibacterial:
Black garlic processed from ordinary white garlic clove in temperature- and humidity-
controlled conditions showed enhanced anti-tumor potency. The aged black garlic
yielded an increased amount of amino acids and organo-sulfur substance, S-allyl-
L.cysteine (SAC), which might have contributed to the anti-tumor potency. Tumor cure
rate was 50% against Meth A fibrosarcoma of BALB/c mouse. (44)
• Antifibrinolytic: The fibrinolytic system dissolves fibrin clots in circulation. Study
showed the garlic extract exhibited fibrinolytic effect. Minimum concentration and
maximum time showed the best results. (45)
• Antihyperglycemic / Antihypercholesterolemic /Combination with Ginger: Study
evaluated the single and combined effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale
(ginger) against hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in alloxan induced diabetic
rats. Results showed the combined use of garlic and ginger is more effective in
controlling hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia compared to either one alone. (46)
• Hypocholesterolemia: Study evaluated the effect of garlic supplementation on
reducing cholesterol levels on 50 healthy patients given 3 g of raw garlic daily for a
period of 90 days. Results showed a significant decrease in cholesterol levels: 13%
(p<0.001) from 269.30 to 233.93 mg/dL in male patients and 10% (p<0.001) from
260.30 to 233.90 mg/dL in female patients. (47)
• H. pylori Inhibition: Study investigated the antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of
garlic against Helicobacter pylori. The concentration of AGE (aqueous garlic extract)
required to inhibit bacterial growth was between 2-5 mg/ml. Boiling and heat treatment
reduced the efficacy of the AGE. An antibacterial synergistic effect was seen in
combination with a proton-pump inhibitor (omeprazole) in rate of 250:1. (48)
• Effect on Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Heat-Stressed Mice: Study evaluated the
effects of garlic extract on reproductive hormones in female mice under heat stress.
Results showed significant increase in estrogen and progesterone levels and suggests
potential to neutralize negative effects of stress affecting the pituitary-gonadal axis and
ovarian hormonal secretion. (49)
• Benefit in Type 2 DM Patients / Powder and Aqueous Extract of Bulbs: Study
showed both dry powdered plant and aqueous extract of bulbs of Allium sativum
decrease blood and urine glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, especially in the
group taking oral hypoglycemics with inadequate blood glucose control. (50)

• Anticoagulant Use: Reports have suggested that garlic may decrease platelet
aggregation and have antifibrinolytic activity; therefore, should be used with caution in
patients on anticoagulant therapy.
• Induction of Cytochrome P450-34A: Concern for patients on cyclosporine and
protease inhibitors. May increase the effects of hypoglycemic drugs.

Perennial market produce.
Commercial: Tablets, extracts, capsules, powder and tea.

Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

Suganda is an erect, spreading, branched, rather coarse, strongly aromatic, green herb,
with fleshy stems. Leaves are fleshy, broadly ovate, 4 to 9 centimeters long, often heart-
shaped, and somewhat hairy, with rounded toothed margins, with the tip and base
decurrent. Flowers are small, and occur in distant whorls. Calyx is bell-shaped; the
throat is smooth inside, with two lips, the upper lip being ovate and thin, the lower lip
having four narrow teeth. Corolla is pale purplish and 5 times longer than the calyx, with
a short tube, inflated throat, and short lips.

- Cultivated for its
aromatic leaves.
- Certainly introduced.
- Also occurring in India to

- Fresh leaves yield 0.055
volatile oil, largely
- Phytochemical screening
yielded carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, tannins, flavanoids, saponins, glycosides.
- Aerial parts yielded essential oil with 28 constituents, 16 of which were identified. Thymol
(83.39%) was the major compound, while 1-octen-3-ol, terpine-4-ol, eugenol, trans-
caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide and α-cadinol were present as minor constituents. (16)
- Study of flowers and aerial parts for essential oils yielded four compounds from flowers
oil and twelve from the aerial parts. The major constituent was carvacrol in flowers and
aerial parts, 50.98% and 77.16% respectively. Other constituents were p-cymene, ß-
caryophyllene, and trans-a-bergamotene. (17)
- Aqueous leaf extracts yielded tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides, and
polyuronides. GCMS yielded 11 chemical compounds (97.6%), the principal constituents of
which include linalool (50.3%), nerol acetate (11.6%), Germany acetate (11.7%) and carvacrol
- Essential oil yielded 26 compounds. Major compounds were carvacrol (28.65%), thymol
(21.66%), α-humulene (9.67%), undecanal (8.29%), γ-terpinene (7.76%), ρ-cymene (6.46%),
caryophyllene oxide (5.85%), α-terpineol (3.28%) and β-selinene (2.01%). (see study below)
- Study survey shows the occurrence of 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to
different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids,
sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols, and aldehydes. (42)
- GC-MS study of leaf for volatile constituents yielded linalool (50.3%) as major component,
carvacrol (10.3%), geranyl acetate (11.75%), nerol acetate (11.6%), y-terpinene (3.2%), p-
cymene (2.9%), nerol (2.3%), a-4-carene (1.3%), caryophyllene (1.2%), and ß-myrcene (0.8%).
- Crude ethanolic extract of leaves yielded alkaloids, flavanoids, terpenoids, phenols,, saponins,
carbohydrates, and protein. (see study below) (46)

- Aromatic, carminative, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, tonic, stimulant.
- In India, considered antilithiotic, chemopreventive, antiepileptic, antioxidant.

Parts utilized

Edibility / Culinary
· As condiment, provides fragrance to salads and strong-smelling meat dishes.
· Sometimes, used as flavoring for drinks.
· In India, leaves of the green type often eaten raw with bread and butter. Chopped
leaves used as a substitute for sage. (21)
· In the Philippines, macerated fresh leaves applied externally to burns.
· Leaves are bruised and applied to centipede and scorpion bites. Also, applied to temples and
forehead for headache, help in place by a bandage.
· Leaves in infusion or as syrup used as aromatic and carminative; used for dyspepsia and also as
a cure for asthma.
· The Malays used the plant juice or decoction for pains around the areas of the heart or
· Decoction of leaves given after childbirth.
· In Indo-China, given for asthma and bronchitis.
· The juice of the leaves for dyspepsia, asthma, chronic coughs, bronchitis, colic,
flatulence, rheumatism. The dose is one tablespoonful of the fresh juice every hour for
adults and one teaspoonful every two hours, four times daily, for children. As an
infusion, 50 to 60 grams to a pint of boiling water, and drink the tea, 4 to 5 glasses a
day. For children, 1/2 cup 4 times daily.
· For otalgia (ear aches), pour the fresh, pure juice into the ear for 10 minutes.
· For carbuncles, boils, sprains, felons, painful swellings: Apply the poultice of leaves to
the affected area, four times daily.
· For sore throats, a decoction of two tablespoonfuls of dried leaves to a pint of boiling
water, taken one hour before or after meals.
· In India, leaves are used traditionally for bronchitis, asthma, diarrhea, epilepsy,
nephro-cystolithiasis, fever, indigestion and cough. Also used for malarial fever,
hepatopathy, renal and vesicle calculi, hiccup, helminthiasis, colic, and convulsions.
· The Chinese used the juice of leaves with sugar, for cough in children, asthma and bronchitis,
epilepsy and convulsive disorders.
· Leaves are applied to cracks at the corners of the mouth, for thrush, headaches; against fever as
a massage or as a wash.
· Used for bladder and urinary afflictions, and vaginal discharges.
· Used as carminative, given to children for colic.
· In Bengal, used for coli and dyspepsia.
· Expressed juice applied around the orbit to relieve conjunctival pain.
· Fresh leaves rubbed on clothing or hair at the time of bathing for its scent.
Recent uses and preparations
Respiratory ailments like cough, asthma and bronchitis: Squeeze juice of the leaves.
Take one teaspoon every hour for adults. For children above 2 years old, 3 to 4
teaspoons a day.
• Antioxidant / Anticlastogenic / Radioprotective: Antioxidant, anticlastogenic and
radioprotective effect of Coleus aromaticus on Chinese hamster fibroblast cells (V79)
exposed to gamma radiation: The hydroalcoholic extract of CA showed dose-dependent
radical scavenging against free radicals, rendered radioprotection against radiation
induced DNA damage. Study results established antioxidant, anticlastogenic and
radioprotective activities and suggests a potential for chemoprevention. (2)
• Antioxidant: Study of freeze-dried aqueous extract of Ca clearly established the
antioxidant potency of freeze-dried extract of C aromaticus.
• Mast cell stabilization property: Study showed stabilization of mast cells in rat
mesenteric tissue and suggests further studies into mast cells with its role in Type 1
hypersensitivity-mediated diseases like asthma and rhinitis. (3)
• Antimicrobial: Results showed the antimicrobial activity and suggests the herb could
be an ideal choice for treating reproductive tract infections. (3)
• Antimicrobial: Study showed the antimicrobial effect of Coleus amboinicus, Lour
folium infusum toward C albicans and Strep mutans. (7)
• Anticlastogenicity: Study of ethanolic extract of C aromaticus showed a protective
effect against cyclophophamide and mitomycin-C induced cytogenetic damage. (6)
• Anti-Inflammatory: In a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, the aqueous
extract of Coleus aromaticus exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, attributed to the
inhibition of mediators released from the 2nd phase of inflammation. (8)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study showed both ethanol and hot water leaf extracts of
Coleus aromaticus to possess potent antibacterial activity, the ethanol extract showing
greater activity. Results provide scientific support for the centuries-old use of the plant
as a medicinal herb. (9)
• Forskolin / Antioxidant / Anti-Asthma / Pulmo-protective: Study isolated forskolin,
a diterpenoid, from a methanolic extract of C aromaticus. C aromaticus has been used to
treat asthma. Forskolin has been thought to be responsible for its pharmaceutical activity through
restoration of antioxidant enzyme activity with its ability to scavenge free radicals. The results
validate the use of forskolin as an anti-asthmatic agent. (11)
• Insecticidal / Anti-Termite: Study investigating the leaf essential oil of C. amboinicus
yielded six components. The major component was thymol (94.3%), followed by
carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, spathuylenol, terpinen-4-ol. The oil was insecticidal to
white termites (Odontotermes obesus Rhamb). It was more active than synthetic
insecticides, Thiodan and Primoban-20 against termites, although it was ineffective
against Tribolium castaneum, a stored product pest. (13)
• Galactagogue / Bangun-bangun Leaves: Participants in an Indonesian of study of
Batakneese women were given bangun-bangun soup during their nursing period, most
consuming a bowl of soup three times daily for 30-40 days. The study aimed to gather
information about the women's beliefs and experiences in the use of the herb. The
participants felt their breasts become full with breast milk. Most felt consuming CA
leaves helped control postpartum bleeding and help "uterine cleansing." (14)
• Anthelmintic / Antimicrobial: A chloroform and methanol extract of leaf and leaf oil
showed significant anthelmintic activity. The plant extracts also showed antibacterial
activity against test organisms, with very poor antifungal activity. (15)
• Effects on Cell Viability / Flavonoids: A cell viability assay revealed an aqueous
extra t of C. aromaticus leaves and methanolic extract of Annona squamosa leaves to
show significant results. Total flavonoid contents were 2.60% and 2.4% respectively.
• Wound Healing / Leaves and Roots: Study evaluated wound healing activity of
aqueous extract of leaves and roots of C. aromaticus in excisional wound model in
albino rats. A ten percent ointment of aqueous extract of root showed complete
epithelization after 12 days, while a 5% ointment of leaf extract showed complete
healing after 16 days. (19)
• Diuretic Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated a water extract of leaves for diuretic
activity in male albino rats. Results showed significant increase in urine output and
electrolytes concentration. (20)
• Forskolin / Healing / Lung Protective: Study evaluated antioxidant potency of
forskolin for protective action in lung damage in rats caused by ova albumin. Results
showed forskolin exhibited better antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation induced by ova
albumin and aluminum hydroxide. (22)
• Hepatoprotective Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of
P. amboinicus against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Results showed
significant alteration of paracetamol induced changes in the serum and tissue enzymes
to near normal values, together with improvement of histopathology profile. (24)
• Antibacterial Against Enteric Pathogens: Alcoholic leaf extracts exhibited
antibacterial activity against enteric pathogens such as Shigella sp., Salmonella typhi,
and Escherichia coli. (25)
• Antidiabetic / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the effect of Coleus aromaticus leaves
on blood glucose and antioxidant enzyme levels in alloxan rendered diabetic rats.
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts significantly lowered the alloxan mediated
hyperglycemia. Activity of antioxidant enzymes such as DOD, CAT, and GPxase were
increased in liver homogenate of diabetic animals treated with the extracts. (26)
• Antineoplastic / Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma: Study showed the intraperitoneal use of
aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus at a dose of 200 mg/k produced antineoplastic effect
in ascitic form of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. (28)
• Phenolic Content / Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity: Study for phenolic contents of crude
leaf extracts yielded phenolics like caffeic acid, coumaric acid, rutin, quercetin and gallic acid.
An acetone extract showed higher antibacterial activity than an EA extract, both showing highest
activity against B. cereus. Both extracts showed inhibitory effect on cancer cell lines HCT-15
and MCF-7. (29)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antitumor / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and
antitumor activities of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves. Results showed significant
decreases in paw edema in the carrageenan method and inhibition of growth of sarcoma-180 and
Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumors in mice. (30)
• Antifungal / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the antifungal and anti-
inflammatory properties of a methanol extract of leaf in Balb/c mice models. Results showed
significant antifungal activity compared with standard antifungal drug Fluconazole. Results also
showed significant reduction of inflammation when compared to standard drug Diclofenac. (31)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial: Study synthesized silver nanoparticles from the
aqueous extract of P. amboinicus. The silver nanoparticles outperformed silver nitrate
and plant extracts in antimicrobial effect on Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus
aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus sp. and Candida albicans. (32)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: In-vivo and in-vitro study evaluated the analgesic and
anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous extract of Plectranthus amboinicus. Results
showed inhibition of pain induced by acetic acid and formalin and inflammation induced by
carrageenan. The effects were mediated by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory mediators through
blocking NF-xB activation. (33)
• Toxicological Evaluation: Study for acute and sub-acute toxic effects of the aqueous
leaf extract in albino mice showed a high LD50 value. No mortalities were observed
during acute and subacute toxicity study periods. However, the extract caused treatment-
related toxicological abnormalities with increased dosage (necrosis of hepatic cells with
generalized congestion in renal cortex, pneumonitis, and sloughing of intestinal villi). Results
suggest the aqueous extract is safe as indicated by high LD50, but should be used with
caution at high doses. (34)
• Anti-Urolithic: Study evaluated the antilithiotic activity of fresh juice of leaves of Pl
amboinicus. Urine and histopathological results showed antilithiotic activity, particularly
of calcium oxalate origin. (35)
• Antimalarial / Acute Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the toxicity and antiplasmodial
properties of P. amboinicus. Acute oral toxicity test revealed no mortality or evidence of adverse
effects in the treated mice. Different extract doses tested against Plasmodium berghei showed
significant reduction of parasitemia in the in-vivo prophylactic assay. (36)
• Neuroprotective / Aluminum-Induced Neurotoxicity : Study investigated the
neuroprotective effect of PA in aluminum induced neurotoxicity in rats. Treatment
showed significant attenuation of lipid peroxidation and reversed the decrease in brain
CAT and GSH levels. Results suggest a potential role in the management of
Alzheimer's disease and oxidative stress. (37)
• Cytotoxic and DNA Protecting / Essential Oil of Leaves: Essential oil of leaves
showed cytotoxicity against breast (MCF-7) and colorectal (HT-29) cancer cell lines,
protected against 75% of DNA damage in 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells, and significant
concentration dependent reduction in MMP-9 production. Results suggest the essential
oil is a potent bioactive substance with potential for use in herbal medicinal
preparations. (38)
• Larvicidal / Antimalarial / Anopheles stephensi / Essential Oil: Study showed the
essential oil of P. amboinicus is an inexpensive and ecofriendly source of a natural
mosquito larvicidal agent to control/reduce the population of malarial vector mosquito
Anopheles stephensi. (see constituents above) (39)
• Antidiabetic / Effect on Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzyme: Study explored the
possible mechanisms of Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract in alloxan-induced
diabetic rats. Results showed an antihyperglycemic effect with dose-dependent
reduction in gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-
diphosphatase). Results suggest the antidiabetic activity of PA was mediated through
the regulation of carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities. (40)
• Potential in Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Study investigated the therapeutic
efficacy of P. amboinicus in treating Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in a rat model. P.
amboinicus significantly inhibited footpad swelling and arthritic symptoms in collagen-
induced arthritic rats, while serum anti-collagen IfM and CRP levels were consistently
decreased, together with decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFR-a, IL-6, and IL-
1ß. Results demonstrated the potential anti-arthritic effect of PA in treating RA. (43)
• Antibacterial / Potential for Food Preservation: Study evaluated extracts of leaves
in preventing spoilage of artificially inoculated model food systems (cabbage and
papaya) and natural microflora of chicken meat through its effect on nucleic acid
leakage from bacterial cells and degradation of bacterial cell wall. Results showed the
potential use of ethyl acetate and acetone extracts or Indian borage leaves in food
preservation. (44)
• Activity Against MRSA Skin Abscesses: Study evaluated the effectiveness of P.
amboinicus against MRSA clinical isolates. An ethyl acetate (EA) fraction showed
synergism with vancomycin and an additive effect with ciproflloxacin. There was a
significant reduction in abscess volume, bacterial cell counts in abscess slurries and
inflammatory scores. Results showed effectiveness of PA fractions against MRSA using
in vitro and in vivo assays. (45)
• Antioxidant / Anti-Proliferative on MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line /
Leaves: Crude ethanolic extracts of P. amboinicus showed antioxidant and
antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells lines which may be attributed to the
presence of n-Hexadecanoic acid and phytol. (46)
• Interference of Essential Oil on Anti-Candida Activity of Antifungals: Study
showed that essential oil of P. amboinicus can interfere with the effectiveness of some
clinically used antifungals, mainly itraconazole and ketoconazole. (47)
• Phenolic Constituents / Toxicity Profile: Study investigated the active principles in a
hydroalcoholic extract and brine shrimp lethality assay for toxicity profile. HPLC
screening of ethyl acetate fraction of hydroalcoholic extract yielded flavonoids such as
rutin, quercetin, luteolin, and gallic acid. The fraction also showed good acute oral
toxicity effect with LC50 value of 198.630 µg/ml. (48)
• Anticancer / ß-Sitosterol / Leaves: ß-Sitosterol, a steroid from P. amboinicus,
showed activity in inhibition of cancer growth toward T47D, MCF-7, HeLa, and WiDr cell
lines through P13K, EGFR, ER-a, ER-ß, and HER-2 pathways. Results suggest
potential of ß-sitosterol as an anticancer agent. (49)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of
hydroalcoholic extract of leaves from P. amboinicus against the denaturation of protein
in vitro. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory effect which may be attributed to
polyphenolic content and may be a synergistic activity rather than a single compound.
• Anticancer / HeLa Cell Lines: Study evaluated the cytotoxic activity of n-hexane,
ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of P. amboinicus using MTT assay. All three extracts
showed cytotoxic effect to HeLa cells with IC50 of 76.322 µg/ml, 143.291 µg/ml, and
88.997 µg/ml, respectively. n-Hexane and ethanol extracts were selective to HeLa cells.
• Phytotoxicity / Leaf Essential Oil / Potential as Bioherbicides: Study evaluated the
essential oil of P. amboinicus and its chemotypes, carvacrol and thymol, on germination
and root and aerial growth of Lactuca sativa and Sorghum bicolor and on its action on
cell cycle of meristematic root cells of L. sativa. Results showed the essential oil of P.
amboinicus, carvacroal and thumol have potential for use as bioherbicides. (52)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial Activity on Polypropylene Non Woven
Surgical Mask: Study reports on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using silver
nitrate and utilizing leaves extract of P. amboinicus. Non-woven polypropylene fabric
treated with P. amboinicus herbal extracts showed good antimicrobial activity, air
permeability and bacterial filtration efficiency. (53)

Cultivated for condiment and culinary use.
Blumea balsamifera (Linn.) DC.

Sambong is a half woody, strongly aromatic shrub, densely and softly hairy, 1 to 4
meters high. Stems grow up to 2.5 centimeters in diameter. Leaves are simple,
alternate, elliptic- to oblong-lanceolate, 7 to 20 centimeters long, toothed at the margins,
pointed or blunt at the tip, narrowing to a short petiole which are often auricled or
appendaged. Flowering heads are stalked, yellow and numerous, 6 to 7 millimeters
long, and borne on branches of a terminal, spreading or pyramidal leafy panicle. Discoid
flowers are of two types: peripheral ones tiny, more numerous, with tubular corolla;
central flowers few, large with campanulate corolla. Involucral bracts are green, narrow
and hairy. Anther cells tailed at base. Fruits are achenes, dry, 1-seeded, 10-ribbed,
hairy at top.
- Common in open fields, grasslands and waste areas at low and medium altitudes.
- Flowering from February to April.
- Propagation by cuttings and layering.
- Also occurs in China, Hainan, Bhutan, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand,
- Volatile oil, 0.1 - 0.4% - l-borneol, 25%, l-camphor, 75%, limonene, saponins,
sesquiterpene and limonene, tannins, sesquiterpene alcohol; palmitin; myristic acid.
- Yields flavonoids, terpenes (borneol, limonene, camphor, a-pinene, b-pinene, 3-
carene, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, triterpenes, and cryptomeridiol), lactones
(blumealactone A, B, C).
- Fractionation of ethylacetate extract of leaves isolated nine flavonoids.
- Main essential oil components are 1,8-cineole (20.98%), borneol (11.99%), β-caryophyllene
(10.38%), camphor (8.06%), 4-terpineol (6.49%), α-terpineol (5.91%), and caryophyllene oxide
- Studies have isolated more than 100 volatile or non-volatile constituents, including
monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, flavonoids, organic acids, esters, alcohols,
dihydroflavone, and sterols. (23)
- Study of volatile oil of B. balsamifera yielded 42 kinds of compounds. The volatile oil contains
mainly sesquiterpenoids. (see study below) (24)

- Considered anthelmintic, antidiarrheal, antigastralgic, antispasmodic, astringent,
carminative, emmenagogue, expectorant, stomachic, and vulnerary.

Parts utilized
Leaves (fresh or dried) and young roots before flowering.
Mature, healthy, fully expanded leaves are harvested while senescent leaves are
discarded. Air-dry until they crumble when crushed with the fingers. Store in amber
colored bottles in a cool, dry place.

- Leaves used a flavoring ingredient.
- Leaves as poultice for abscesses.
- Decoction of roots and leaves for fevers, kidney stones, and cystitis.
- Decoction of leaves used to induced diuresis for purpose of treating kidney stones.
- Sitz-bath of boiled leaves, 500 gms to a gallon of water, for rheumatic pains of waist
and back.
- Used in upper and lower respiratory tract affections like sinusitis, asthmatic bronchitis,
- Applied while hot over the sinuses. Used for wounds and cuts.
Fresh juice of leaves to wounds and cuts.
- Poultice of leaves applied to the forehead for relief of headaches.
- Tea is used for colds and as an expectorant; likewise, has antispasmodic and
antidiarrheal benefits.
Postpartum baths.
- In Vietnam, decoction of fresh leaves used for cough and influenza or as inhalation of
vapour from boiling of leaves. Poultices of pounded leaves applied to hemorrhoids; an
alcoholic maceration used as liniment for rheumatism.
- 3% ethanol solution used to soothe itching.
- In Thailand, dried leaves are chopped, made into cigarettes and smoked for treating
- For fever, leaves boiled and when lukewarm used as sponge bath.
- Decoction of roots used for fever.
- Decoction of leaves, 50 gms to a pint of boiling water, 4 glasses daily, for stomach
- In SE Asia widely used for various women problems. Postpartum, leaves are used in
hot fomentation over the uterus to induce rapid involution. Also used for menorrhagia,
dysmenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding and leucorrhea.
- Roots used for menorrhagia.
- Decoction of roots and leaves used for rheumatism and arthritis; also used for
treatment of postpartum joint pains.
- Poultice of fresh leaves applied to affected joint.
- In Chinese and Thai medicine, leaves used for treatment of septic wounds and other
- A sitz-bath of boiled leaves used in the treatment of lumbago and sciatica.
- In Chinese medicine, used as carminative, stimulant, vermifuge, expectorant, and
- Pesticide: Roots and leaves used as natural pesticides against storage pests and leaf
hoppers in rice.
• Fever: decoction of roots; boil 2 - 4 handfuls of the leaves. Use the lukewarm
decoction as a sponge bath.
• Headaches: apply pounded leaves on the forehead and temples. Hold in place with a
clean piece of cloth.
• Gas distention: boil 2 tsp of the chopped leaves in 1 cup of water for 5 minutes. Drink
the decoction while warm. Also used for upset stomach.
• Postpartum, for mothers' bath after childbirth.
• Boils: Apply pounded leaves as poultice daily.
• Diuretic: Boil 2 tbsp chopped leaves in 2 glasses of water for 15 minutes. Take 1/2 of
the decoction after every meal, 3 times a day.

Camphor cultivation
• Can be cultivated as a source of camphor. Experiments in China produced 50,000
kilos of leaves per hectare, with a possible borneol yield of 50-200 kilos per hectare. L-
borneol is easily oxidized to camphor. source

New applications
As a diuretic and for dissolution of renal stones.
- As a diuretic in hypertension and fluid retention. Also used for dissolution of kidney
stones. Some clinical studies, including double blind/placebo randomized studies, have
shown encouraging results for Sambong to be both safe and effective in the treatment
of kidney stones and hypertension. The National Kidney and Transplant Institute has
promoted the use of this herbal medicine for many renal patients to avert or delay the
need for dialysis or organ transplantation.
- Being promoted by the Department of Health (DOH) as a diuretic and for dissolution of
renal stones. One of a few herbs recently registered with the Bureau of Foods and
Drugs as medicines.
Other benefits
- Possible benefits in use patients with elevated cholesterol and as an analgesic for
postoperative dental pain.

• Sesquiterpenoids and
Flavonoids: Study yielded two
new sesquiterpenoid esters 1
and 2. Compound 2 showed to
be slightly cytotoxic. Nine
known flavonoids were also
isolated, two of which showed
plasmin-inhibitory activity. (2)
• Anticancer / Hepatoma:
Study of methanolic extract of
BB suggest a possible
therapeutic potential in
hepatoma cancer patients. (1)
• Anticancer / Growth
Inhibitory Effect / Hepatoma:
Study of B balsamifera extract
induced growth-inhibitory
activity in rat and human
hepatocellular carcinoma cells
without cytotoxicity. Findings
suggest a possible therapeutic
role for the B balsamifera
methanol extract in treatment of
hepatoma cancer patients. (6)
• Urolithiasis / Calcium
Stones: Study shows sambong
to be a promising chemolytic
agent for calcium stones. (3)
• Antispasmodic / Cryptomeridiol: Study isolated cryptomeridio from the dried leaves.
Results showed antispasmodic activity from various plant parts.
• Antifungal / Antibacterial: Phytochemical study of leaves yielded icthyothereol
acetate, cyptomeridiol, lutein and ß-carotene. Antimicrobial tests showed activity against
A niger, T mentagrophytes and C albicans. Results also showed activity against P
aeruginosa, S aureus, B subtilis and E coli. (7)
• Dihydroflavonol / Abrogation of TRAIL Resistance in Leukemia Cells: Study
shows combined treatment with a dihydroflavonol extracted from Blumea balsamifera
exhibited the most striking synergism with TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-related
apoptosis-inducing ligand) and suggests a new strategy for cancer therapy. (8)
• Antibacterial: Study of 12 crude alcoholic and aqueous extracts from 5 medicinal
plants, including B balsamifera, showed potential antibacterial effect against S aureus.
• Radical Scavenging: Study of Blumea balsamifera extracts and flavonoids showed
the methanol extract exhibiting higher radical scavenging activity than the chloroform
• Leaf Volatile Oil Components: Analysis of leaf essential oil revealed 50 components
contributing to 99.07 % of the oil: borneol (33.22%), caryophyllene (8.24%), ledol
(7.12%), tetracyclo[6,3,2,0,(2.5).0(1,8) tridecan-9-ol, 4,4-dimethyl (5.18%), with
phytol(4.63%), caryophyllene oxide(4.07%), guaiol (3.44%), thujopsene-13 (4.42%),
dimethoxy- durene (3.59%) and γ-eudesmol (3.18%). (11)
• Antiplasmodial Activity: Study of roots and stem showed significant antiplasmodial
• Hepatoprotective Activity: Study isolated blumeatin (Blu, 5,3,5'-trihydroxy-7-
methoxy-dihydro-flavone and showed hepatoprotective activity against carbon
tetrachloride (CCl4) and thioacetamide. It also shortened the pentobarbital sleeping time
in CCl4-intoxicated mice.
• Antimicrobial Activity / Essential Oil: In a study of various extracts and essential oil
for antibacterial and antifungal activities, results showed the essential oil to be most
potent. The oil showed significant activity against B. cereus, S. aureus and C. albicans;
a hexane extract, against E. cloacae and S aureus. Results showed B. balsamifera
extracts have activity against various infections and toxin-producing microorganisms.
• Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity: Study of aerial parts yielded a new
dihydroflavonol, (2R,3S)-(−)-4′-O-methyldihydroquercetin, together with seven known
compounds. Most of the compounds showed significant concentration-dependent
xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Compounds 1, 6, and 8 showed more potent
inhibitory activity than control allopurinol. (14)
• Urinary Stone Dissolution: Sambong used in-vitro showed dissolution of urinary
stones, with a faster activity on uric acid stones. No significant effect was noted with
struvite and calcium stones. (15)
• Anti-Tyrosinase / Anti-Cancer Activities: An ethylacetate extract of leaves yielded
nine flavonoids. The anti-tyrosinase activity of dihydroflavonols (1,2) and flavonols
(5,6,7) were stronger than arbutin. In cytotoxicity evaluation, compounds 2,4 and 9 were
active against KB cells. Compound 9 showed strong cytotoxicity against human lung
cancer cell lines and moderate toxicity against oral cavity (KB) cancer cell lines. (18)
• Fumigant Compounds / Essential Oil: Essential oil was found to have fumigant
toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. Essential oil components 1,8-
Cineole, 4-terpineol, and α-terpineol showed pronounced fumigant toxicity against S.
zeamais adults, more toxic than camphor. The crude essential oil also possessed
strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults. (19)
• Apigenin / Aldose Reductase (AR) Inhibitory Agent: Study evaluated fractions of
Blumea balsamifera for their ability to inhibit aldose reductase activity in rat lenses.
Apigenin, identified from the active EtOAc fraction, exhibited high AR inhibitory activity.
Results suggest a useful natural source for a novel AR inhibitory agent against diabetic
complications. (20)
• Insect-Repellent Potential: Study evaluated 54 species of plants from 49 genera and
26 families for insect-repellent activity. Blumea balsamifera (UV=0.09) was one of 7
species with insect repellency based on their UVs (useful value). The leaves and stems,
dried and burned, is said to drive insects away. (21)
• Hepatoprotective / Blumeatin: Study showed oral blumeatin (5,3',5-trihydroxy-7-
methoxydihydro-flavone) exhibited significant protective activity against liver injury cause by
paracetamol and prednisolone. (Xu, S.B.; Hu, Y.; Lin, Y.C.; Yang, Z.B. Study on protection of
blumeatin against experimental liver injury and aggregation of platelet. Suppl. J. Sun Yatsen
Univer. 1994, 48–53) (23)
• Volatile Oil / Biologic Activities: Study of volatile oil from dried leaf powder yielded
42 kinds of compounds. Screening for biologic activity showed relatively strong
antitumor activity and anti-plant pathogenic fungi and some antioxidation activity. (24)
• External Application of Volatile Oil / Safety Study: Study of volatile oil yielded 41
components. Damaging effects of BB oil diluted with olive oil on liver was assessed.
Results confirm the safety of short term BB oil consumption, although high oil doses
may lead to mild liver injury and the response might be weakened in the case of
cutaneous wounds. (25)
• Anti-Arthritic / Antioxidative: Study evaluated the effect of an ethyl acetate fraction
of BB residue on rats with adjuvant arthritis immunized through Freund's complete
adjuvant (FCA). Results showed high dose BBE could significantly ameliorate joint
swelling and arthritis index, effectively inhibit synovial hyperplasia, down-regulate the
levels of MDA, NO, OH, ALP, AST, ALT, NAG, SA, IL-1, IL-6, TNFa and up-regulate
serum levels of SOD and GSH. (26)
• Anti-Diabetic / Antioxidative: Study evaluated the antidiabetic and in vivo antioxidant
property of hydro-ethanolic extract of leaves of B. balsamifera in streptozocin induced diabetic
rats. Results showed significant reduction in blood glucose. There was also significant alteration
in elevated lipid profile along with serum marker enzymes. Antioxidant potential was evidenced
by significant increase in GSH and CAT measurements. (27)

Tablets and extracts in the cybermarket.

Quisqualis indica Linn.
Niog-niogan is a large climbing, woody shrub reaching a length of 2 to 8 meters. Brown
hairs give the younger parts a rusty appearance. Leaves are oblong to elliptic, opposite,
7 to 15 centimeters long, rounded at the base and pointed at the tip. Flowers are
fragrant, tubular, showy, first white, then becoming red, reddish-purple or orange,
exhibiting the range of colors in clusters, on the same flower stalk. Fruit is narrowly
ellipsoid, 2.5 to 3 centimeters long, with five, sharp, longitudinal angles or wings. Seeds
are pentagonal and black.

- In thickets and secondary
forests throughout the
- Ornamentally planted for
its flowers.
- Also occurs in India to
- Introduced in most tropical

Parts utilized
Seeds (dried nuts) and

- Phytochemical screening
yields major classes of
constituents: alkaloids,
carbohydrates, protein, amino acid, saponins, glycosides, steroids, tannins, flavonoids
and phenolic compounds.
- A water extract of gum from the seeds gave an alkaloidal reaction; 3.87% of potassium
sulphate was found.
- Seeds yielded the presence of oleic acid and palmitic acids in the oil; and sitosterol
and isolated acetyl derivative from the saponifiable matter.
- Plant yields a fatty oil, 15%; gum; resin.
- The nut yields 12.96 percent moisture; a yellow oil, 28.37 percent of the original nut.
- Studies yield quisqualic acid, quisqualin A.
- An analysis of the seed reported the presence of oleic and palmitic acids in the oil, in addition
to sitosterol, and an acetyl derivative from the saponifiable matter.
- Leaves yield rutin, trigonelline, L-proline, L-aspargine, and quisqualic acid.
- Flower gum yields pelargonidin-3-glucoside.
- Floral volatiles by n-hexane extraction yielded 24 constituents, amounting to 74.88% of the
total composition. Major components of the oil were hydrocarbons (61.38%) among which α-
pinene, the major terpenoid, and 1-ethyl-1-phenyl decane (8.13 %), the dominant aromatic.
Petroleum ether extract of of leaves yielded palmitic acid (27.73%) as the major component of
the saponifiable component, and α-amyrin, of the unsaponifiable portion. Crude protein was
2.06%. An unusual protein, dihydro-quisqualic acid, was isolated for the first time. Galactose,
glucose, arabinose and L-rhamnose were identified as free sugars. (

- The taste resembling coconuts.
- Oil from the seeds are purgative.
- Considered anthelmintic, antiinflammatory.
- Study on ascariasis reported the plant to possess anthelmintic properties.
- Excessive dosing reported to cause hiccups.
- Fruit is considered tonic and astringent.

• Flowers are edible.
• Anthelmintic: Dried seeds preferable for deworming.
• Adults: Dried nuts-chew 8 to 10 small- to medium-sized dried nuts two hours after a
meal, as a single dose, followed by a half glass of water. If fresh nuts are used, chew
only 4-5 nuts. Hiccups occur more frequently with the use of fresh nuts.
• Children 3-5 years old: 4-5 dried nuts; 6 - 8 years old: 5-6 dried nuts; 9-12 years old: 6-
7 dried nuts.
• Roasted seeds for diarrhea and fever.
• Plant used as a cough cure.
• Leaves applied to the head to relieve headaches.
• Pounded leaves externally for skin diseases.
• Decoction of boiled leaves used for dysuria.
• Ifugao migrants use it for headache.
• Ripe seeds roasted and used for diarrhea and fever.
• In Thailand, seeds used as anthelmintic; flowers for diarrhea.
• In India and Ambonia, leaves used in a compound decoction to relieve flatulent
distention of the abdomen. Leaves and fruits are reported to be anthelmintic; also used
for nephritis.
• In India and the Moluccas, seeds are given with honey as electuary for the expulsion
of entozoa in children.
• In Indo-China, seeds are used as anthelmintic and for rickets in children.
• The Chinese and Annamites reported to use the seeds as vermifuge.
• In China, seeds macerated in oil are applied to parasitic skin diseases. Seeds are also
used for diarrhea and leucorrheal discharges of children.
• In Amboina compound decoction of leaves used for flatulent abdominal distention.
• In Bangladesh, used for diarrhea, fever, boils, ulcers and helminthiasis.

Adverse reactions - diarrhea, abdominal pain, distention and hiccups - are more likely if
nuts are eaten in consecutive days or when fresh nuts are eaten.

• Polyphenols / Antioxidant: Flower extract yielded high polyphenol contents and
showed strong antioxidant activity.
• Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor: Acetylcholine is one of the most important
neurotransmitters in the central or peripheral nervous system. The methanolic extract of
Q indica flower dose-dependently inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity. (1)
• Fixed Oil Storage Effect: Study showed one year storage does not significantly affect
the physical constants of the fixed oil. (2)
• Larvicidal Activity / Aedes aegypti Mosquito: In a study screening 11 plant species
of local flora against the IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Quisqualis indica was one of
the plants that showed some larvicidal activity against Ae aegypti, albeit, at
comparatively higher doses. (4)
• Antipyretic: Study evaluated the antipyretic activity of the methanolic extract of leaves
of Q. indica in brewer yeast-induced pyrexia model in rat. Results showed significant
dose-dependent antipyretic activity. (5)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of a hydroalcoholic
extract in Wistar rats. Oral administration of the extract showed dose-dependent and
significant anti-inflammatory activity in acetic acid- induced vascular permeability and
cotton-pellet granuloma model, comparable to Diclofenac. the anti-inflammatory activity
was attributed to bradykinin and prostaglandin synthesis inhibition property of the
polyphenols. (6)
• Immunomodulatory: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of a
hydroalcoholic extract of flowers in Wistar rats in a cyclophosphamide-induced
myelosuppression model. Results showed significant immunomodulatory activity. (7)
• Phytochemicals / Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Anticonvulsant /
Antihyperglycemc / Antipyretic:Phytochemical studies floral volatiles and leaves were
done. (See constituents above) Alcoholic extract showed remarkable anti-inflammatory,
analgesic, anticonvulsant and antipyretic effects. The isolated mucilage exhibited
significant anti-hyperglycemic effect. Antimicrobial testing showed pronounced effects
against most of the tested microorganisms. (11)
• Intestinal Ascariasis / Comparative Study with Pyrantel Pamoate: In a
comparative study of Q. indica and pyrantel pamoate in the treatment of intestinal
ascariasis, 85% complete cure was seen with Quisqualis indica and 90% for Pyrantel
pamoate. There was 15% and 10% decrease in ova count for Q. indica and P. pamoate,
respectively. A second dose resulted in compete eradication. QI had 10% side effects
compared to 55% with PP. (12)
• Anti-Diarrheal / Leaves: Study evaluated a petroleum ether extract of leaves of Q.
indica against experimentally induced diarrhea. The plant extracts showed dose-
dependent significant anti-diarrheal effects in all treated groups, with results compared
to loperamide PO and atropine sulfate IP. (13)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of Q.
indica leaves in rodents. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory and both central
and peripheral analgesic activities. (14)
• Hypolipidemic Effect/ Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of
methanolic extracts of aerial parts and flowers on passive smoking induced
hyperlipidemia in rats. Results showed significant concentration- and dose-dependent
reduction of harmful lipid layer in blood serum. There was reduction of LDL, VLDL,
cholesterol, and triglycerides with elevation of HDL. (16)
• Antimicrobial Effect / Flowers: In a study of methanol extract of flowers of Q. indica,
C. gigantea, P. tuberose, the dry flower extract of Quisqualis indica showed the best
antimicrobial property of the flowers studied. (17)
• Antimutagenic: Expressions from 17 plants, including Quisqualis indica, reduced the
mutagenicity potential of mitomycin C, dimethylnitrosamine and tetracycline and
exhibited antimutagenic effects. (18)

Tsaang gubat
Carmona retusa (Vahl.) Masam.

Tsaang gubat is an erect, very branched shrub growing up to 1 to 4 meters high.
Leaves are in clusters on short branches, obovate to oblong-obovate, 3 to 6 centimeters
long, entire or somewhat toothed or lobed near the apex and pointed at the base, short
stalked and rough on the upper surface. Flowers are white, small, axillary, solitary, 2 or
4 on a common stalk, borne in inflorescences shorter than the leaves. Calyx lobes are
green, somewhat hairy, and linear, about 5 to 6 millimeters long. Corolla is white, 5
millimeters long, and divided into oblong lobes. Fruit is a drupe, rounded, yellow when
ripe, 4 to 5 millimeters in diameter, fleshy, with a 4-seeded stone, fleshy on the outer
part, and stony inside.

- Easily found from the Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in
most or all islands and provinces, in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium
- Also occurs in India to
southern China, Taiwan, and

- Phytochemical screening
yielded alkaloids, flavonoids,
glycosides, tannins, terpenoids,
and saponins.
- Major constituents of leaves
yielded an intractable mixture of
triterpenes, namely α-amyrin
(43.7%), ß-amyrin (24.9%), and
baurenol (31.4%). (see study
below) ( 2)
- Qualitative phytochemical analysis of petroleum ether (PE), methanol (M), and chloroform (C)
extract of leaves yielded alkaloids (M), flavonoids (PE, M), saponins (M,C), phenols (PE,M),
tannins (M), cardiac glycosides (PE,M,C), terpenoids (PE,M,C) and cardenolides (M,C). (see
study below) (23)
- GC-MS analysis of crude extract of C. retusa yielded 14 phytochemical compounds. Main
constituents were α-amyrin, (1H) naphthalenone, 3,5,67,8,8a-hexahydro-4-8a-dimethyl-6-(1-
methylethenyl)- and 9,19-cycloergost-23(28)-en-3-ol,4,14-dimethyl-acetate, (3a,4a,5a). (27)

- Considered analgesic, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antispasmodic
and anti-mutagenic.

Parts utilized
Leaves, roots.

Tea made from the leaves.
- Leaf decoction or infusion for abdominal colic, cough,
diarrhea and dysentery.
- Root decoction used as an antidote for vegetable
- For diarrhea: Boil 8 tbsp of chopped leaves in 2
glasses of water for 15 minutes; strain and cool. Use 1/4
of the decoction every 2 or 3 hours. Decoction has also
been used as a dental mouthwash.
- Decoction of leaves used as disinfectant wash after
- In Sri Lanka, used for diabetes: 50 gm of fresh leaves
or roots are chopped; 100 cc of water is added, and 120
cc of juice is extracted by squeezing, and given once or
twice daily.
- In Vietnam, dry roots and stems used for treatment of
back pain and numbness of hands and feet.
- In Tamil, India, juice of leaves taken internally for three
to four months to induce fertility. (25)
New Application
• Being promoted by the Department of Health (DOH) as an antispasmodic; for
stomach/abdominal pains.
• One of a few herbs recently registered with the Bureau of Foods and Drugs as

• Antiallergic Activity: Tsaang gubat, together with Lagundi and Sambong, were
studied for possible anti-allergic substances to counter the histamine release from mast
cells that cause type-1 reactions. From tsaang-gubat, rosmarinic acid and microphyllone
were isolated. (1)
• Triterpene Bioactivities / Antinociceptive / Anti-inflammatory: Study of Carmon
retusa leaves yielded an intractable mixture of triterpenes, namely α-amyrin, ß-amyrin
and baurenol. At a dose of 100 mg/kg mouse, the triterpene mixture exhibited 51%
analgesic activity, but showed only 20% anti-inflammatory activity. (2)
• Antidiarrheal / Antibacterial: On charcoal tracing test, the triterpene mixture (α-
amyrin, ß-amyrin and baurenol) showed a 29% anti-diarrheal activity, which increased
to 55% at dosage of 250 mg/kg mouse. The triterpene mixture showed moderate
antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Trichophyton
mentagrophytes. (2)
• Antimutagen / Leaves: An antimutagenic principle was extracted from the leaves of C
retusa with ethyl alcohol. (3)
• Anti-Tumor: Carmona retusa leaf extracts were tested for anticancer property and
results showed it can be used as an anticancer agent. (5)
• Antiallergic Dimeric Prenylbenzoquinones: A methanol extract showed inhibitory
activity on exocytosis in antigen-stimulated rat basophils. (10)
• Antibacterial / Constituents: Methanol, chloroform, and petroleum ether extracts
yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, tannins, cardiac glycosides,
terpenoids, cardenolides and phlobatannins. All the extracts exhibited moderate to
appreciable antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, K. pneumonia, Shigella
flexneri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (11)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study of an alcoholic extract of Carmona retusa by in vitro assays
(human RBC membrane stabilization method, heat induced hemolysis, and proteinase
inhibitory activity) showed anti-inflammatory activity comparable to standard diclofenac. (12)
• Triterpene Mixture from Leaves / Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Diarrhea,
Antimicrobial:The major constituent of Carmona retusa leaves is an intractable mixture
of triterpenes viz. alpha-amyrin (43.7%), beta-amyrin (24.9%), and baurenol (31.4%).
The mixture showed analgesic activity (51%) and anti-inflammatory activity (20%),
antidiarrheal activity (29%) with the charcoal tracing test, and moderate activity against
S. aureus, Candida albicans, and T. mentagrophytes. (13)
• Antibacterial: In a study of crude ethanol extracts of 12 Philippine medicinal plants for
antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant bacteria, favorable antagonistic activities
were exhibited by Ehretia microphylla, together with P. guajava and P. niruri. Best
activity was shown by P betle. (17) Petroleum ether, methanol and chloroform extracts
showed moderate to appreciable antibacterial activities against B. subtilis, K. pneumonia, S.
flexneri, and P. aeruginosa. (see constituents above) (23)
• Antimicrobial / Roots: Study of chloroform and alcohol root extracts showed
promising activity against Bacillus subtilis (26 mm), Bacillus cereus and Candida
albicans ( 24 mm), Pseudomonas putida and Staphylococcus aureus (20 mm) and
Escherichia coli (18 mm). The alcohol extract showed comparatively higher
antimicrobial activity than the chloroform extract. (18)
• Effect on Folliculogenesis / Roots: Study evaluated the effect of E. microphylla on
folliculogenesis, relative ovarian and uterine weight, and the number of ovarian surface
follicles in female Wistar albino rats. Results showed a significant stimulatory effect on
female reproductive activity which can enhance fertility in female adult rats. (20)
• Wound Healing: Study evaluated the wound healing activity of various extracts of roots,
stems and leaves of Carmona retusa with petroleum jelly as base in concentrations of 5% and
10%. Nitrofurazone (0.2%) ointment was used as standard drug. Results showed remarkable
stimulation of wound closure at both 5% and 10% concentration, as evidenced by acceleration of
the wound healing process and increased epithelization in the treatment groups. (21)
• Anticancer / Quercetin / Human Hepatoma Cell Line (HepG2): Study isolated
quercetin from an ethanol extract of Carmona retusa and was analyzed for anticancer
activity on HepG2 cells lines by MTT assay. Results showed significant and concentration-
dependent anticancer activity. Significant apoptosis was shown at 53 µg/ml concentration of
extract yield of flavonoid quercetin. Results suggest promise for the flavonoid quercetin as an
anticancer agent. (22)
• Antimitotic / Antiproliferative: Study evaluated the in vitro cytotoxicity,
antiproliferative, anti-mitotic and DNA fragmentation assays of fresh stems of Carmona
retusa. The alcoholic extract showed significant antimitotic and antiproliferative activity.
The antimitotic index was 12.5 and 12.7 mg/mL respectively, near the standard 12.2 for
lapachol. (24)
• Antioxidant / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the antioxidant potential, total flavonoid and
phenolic content in extracts of aerial parts of Cordia retusa (Vahl.) Masam. Results showed C.
retusa possesses potent antioxidant activity, high flavonoid and phenol content. The antioxidant
property may be due to polyphenols and flavonoids in the extract. (26)
• Carbon Nanoparticles As Anode in Lithium Batteries: Study reports on the synthesis of
carbon nanoparticles from tea leaves of Ehretia microphylla for application in lithium battery.
Efficiency of charging and discharging was found to be more than 96%. (28)

- Wild crafted.
- Tablets and tea bags in the cybermarket.

Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth

Pansit-pansitan is an erect, branched, annual herb, shallow rooted, reaching up to 40
centimeters high, with very succulent stems. Stems are round, often about 5 millimeters
thick. Leaves are alternate, heart-shaped and turgid, as transparent and smooth as
candle wax. Spikes are green, erect, very slender, 1 to 6 centimeters long. Tiny dot-like
flowers scattered along solitary and leaf-opposed stalk (spike); naked; maturing
gradually from the base to the tip; turning brown when ripe.
- An annual
herb, favoring
shady, damp
and loose soil.
- Often grows in
groups in nooks
in the garden
and yard.
- Conspicuous
in rocky parts of
- Propagation
by seeds. - -
Numerous tiny
seeds drop off
when mature
and grow easily
in clumps and
groups in damp
- Pantropic species of American origin.

• Preliminary phytochemical screening of methanol extracts of stems yielded
carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, with the absence of
saponins and proteins.
• Study yielded 5 new bioactive compounds: two secolignans, two tetrahydrofuran
lignans, and one highly methoxylated dihydronaphthalenone.
• Proximate analysis of leaves yielded a high ash content, a higher crude fiber content,
and a still higher carbohydrate content. Mineral analysis showed low manganese, iron,
zinc and copper, with high sodium content. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids,
cardenolides, saponins and tannins.
• An ether soluble fraction of the whole plant yielded 4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl)-1, 3-
benzodioxole or apiol, in a liquid state, 2,4,5,-trimethoxy styrene, mp 138°, and three
phytosterols, campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. (14)
• Study of essential oil showed the main components to be dillapiole (39.7%) and trans-
caryophyllene (10.7%). (20)
• An ethanol extract of leaves yielded fifteen compounds: bicyclo[7.2.0]undec-4-ene,
4,11,11-trimethyl-8-methylene, 10,12-octadecadiynoic acid, 3,7,11,11-
tetramethylbicyclo [8.1.0] undeca-2,6-diene, 2,6-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl phenol,
1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-methoxyethenyl) benzene, 1,3-benzodioxole, 4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-
propenyl), oxalic acid, cyclohexylmethyl tridecyl ester, ethyl alpha-d-glucopyranoside,
hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, 10-octadecenoic acid
methyl ester, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol, (Z)6,(Z)9-pentadecadien-1-ol,
9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid ethyl ester and N,N-dimethyldodecanamide. (see study
below) (25)
• Proximate analysis showed P. pellucida to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and
total ash contents. The high ash content (31.22%) suggests a high-value mineral
composition of potassium, calcium, and iron. (27)
• GC-MS study of whole plant for bioactive components yielded 32 compounds. Major
components was apiol (22.64%) followed by (3-Methoxy-nitrophenyl) acetic acid, methyl ester
(8.14%), phytol (7.47%), n-hexadeconoic acid (7.29%), E-2-tetradecen-1-ol (6.92%), 5H-
cyclopropa (3,4) benz (1,2-e) azulen-5-one, 4,9,9a- tris(acetyloxy)-3-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-
(5.89%), stigmasterol (4.60%), 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (4.00%), campesterol
(3.19%), a- sitosterol (2.92%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, (Z,Z,Z)- (2.79%), Z,Z- 2,5-
pentadecadien-1-ol (2.53%) and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (2.01%).

• Considered anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, refrigerant, analgesic, antifungal,

Parts utilized
Leaves and stems.

- Leaves and stems may be eaten as vegetable.
- In salads, the fresh plant has the crispness of carrot sticks and celery.
- Infusion and decoction of leaves and stems are used for gout and arthritis.
- Decoction of leaves used for urinary tract infections.
- Externally, as a facial rinse for complexion problems.
- In Ayurveda, used to pacify vitiated cough, pitta, constipation, kidney diseases, urinary
retention, dysuria, urinary tract infection, emaciation, edema and general weakness.
- Pounded whole plant used as warm poultice for boils, pustules and pimples.
- In Jamaica and the Caribbean used for colds and as a diuretic for kidney problems.
- In South America, solution of fresh juice of stem and leaves used for eye inflammation.
Infusion and decoction of leaves and stems used for gout and arthritis. (15)
- In Brazil, used for abscesses and conjunctivitis.
- In Bolivia, decoction of roots used for fever; aerial parts for wounds.
- In Nigeria used for hypertension.
- In Bangladesh, leaves used in the treatment of excited mental disorders.
- In Africa, used for convulsions and tumors.
- Used for headaches, rheumatic pains, impotence.
- In Cameroon used for fracture healing.
- In Brazil, used to lower cholesterol; for treatment of abscesses, furuncles and
New uses
Belongs to the "preferred list" of Philippine medicinal plants, being studied for its use in
the treatment of arthritis and gout.
For arthritis: Leaves and stems of the fresh plant may be eaten as salad. Or, as an
infusion, put a 20-cm plant in 2 glasses of boiling water; and 1/2 cup of this infusion is
taken morning and evening.

• Analgesic / Antiinflammatory: Extract study of aerial parts of PP tested in rats and
mice exhibited anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The antiinflammatory activity
was attributed to interference with prostaglandin synthesis. Results also showed low
toxicity. (1)
• CNS Depressant Activity: Study of peperomia leaf extract showed dose-dependent
depressant effects probably due to psychoactive substances that are CNS depressant.
• Antipyretic: Study of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of an ethanol
leaf extract of Peperomia pellucida on rabbits showed antipyretic effects comparable to
a standard aspirin. (3) In a study that evaluated the effect of Peperomia pellucida crude leaf
extract on boiled milk-induced fever in male white mice, results showed no antipyretic effect.
• Antibacterial: Study of methanolic extract of PP exhibited a very good level of broad
spectrum antibacterial activity. (4) A methanol crude extract showed growth inhibition for E.
coli at 1% and 10% concentration, but no inhibition of growth of S. aureus. (24)
• Phenological Antiedematogenic: P pellucida has a phenological cycle of about 100
days. The aqueous extract is used as antiedematogenic during pheophases 1 and 2 of
winter and spring.(5)
• Anti-Cancer: Study isolated five new compounds, including two secolignans, two
tetrahydrofuran lignans, one highly methoxylated dihydronaphthalenone with known
peperomins A, B, C and E. Compound 1 and peperomin E showed growth inhibitory
effects on three cancer cell lines.(6)
• Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the potential systemic toxicity of acute oral use of P.
pellucida freeze-dried aqueous extract powder in mice. In excessive amounts, P.
pellucida showed a dose-dependent increase in adverse effects in the major systems of the body.
The moderate slope of the dose-response line was suggestive of a moderately wide margin of
safety of the plant.(7)
• Analgesic / Anti-Arthritic Study: Study showed both twice daily P. pellucida
decoction and ibuprofen treatment significantly lowered the mean scores on pain,
stiffness and disability on the WOMAC arthritis index on patients with knee joint
rheumatism. (8)
• Xanthone Glycoside / Antibacterial: Study isolated patuloside A, a xanthone
glycoside from P. pellucida. The compound showed significant antibacterial activity
against four Gram-positive bacteria (B subtilis, B megaterium, S aureus, Strep ß-
hemolyticus) and six Gram-negative bacteria (E coli, S dysenteriae, S sonnei, S flexneri,
P aeruginosa and S typhi.) (9)
• Antihyperuricemic: A randomized controlled study of the effect of freeze-dried
aqueous extract powder of P. pellucida in male adult Sprague Dawley rats showed a
mean % decrease from hyperuricemic level of 44.1% compared to allopurinol's 64.0%.
Results indicate P. pellucida may be used as an alternative medication for
hyperuricemia. (11)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant: A petroleum ether extract significantly reduced
carrageenan-induced hind paw edema. The methanol extract showed the strongest free
radical scavenging activity. Results suggest the plant is a good natural source for anti-
inflammatory and antioxidant therapy. (12)
• Phytochemical / Antimicrobial / Toxicological Evaluation: Photochemical studies
yielded alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. Extracts inhibited growth of Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, and B. subtilis, while only the methanol extract inhibited
Staphylococcus aureus. Oral doses as high as 5g/kg did not cause death or toxicological
symptoms in mice. Histopathological effects of an aqueous methanol extract on the liver, spleen
kidney and heart of rats showed mild to moderate congestions and infiltrations of chronic
inflammatory cells.(16)
• Mineral Composition / Nutritional Attributes: Study evaluated the proximate and
mineral composition and nutritional attributes of P. pellucida. Results showed it to be
rich in crude protein, carbohydrate, and total ash contents. The ash content suggest a
high-value for potassium, calcium, and iron as main elements. Results suggest P.
pellucida can serve as a good source of protein, energy, and micronutrients.(17)
• Hypotensive Effect / Cytochrome P450 Effect: Study evaluated P. pellucida for its use
as an antihypertensive remedy and its impact on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity.
Results showed a dose-dependent hypotensive, bradycardic, and vasorelaxant effects probably
mediated through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms. An aqueous extract showed poor in vitro
inhibition on CYP3A4 enzyme making it unlikely to cause clinically significant pharmacokinetic
drug interactions via the enzyme inhibition.(19)
• Anticancer / Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study showed P. pellucida leaf
extract possessed anticancer activities. The plant extract was found to inhibit growth of
various bacterial pathogens and inhibit 30% of DPPH, free radical. Phytol was the major
compound in the plant extract, followed by 2-naphthalenol, hexadecanoic acid, methyl
ester and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, and (Z,Z)-methyl ester. Results indicate the leaf
possessed vast potential as a medicinal drug especially in breast cancer treatment. (21)
• Fracture Healing by Anabolic Effect on Osteoblasts: Study evaluated an ethanol
extract of P. pellucida on bone regeneration following bone and marrow injury in rats.
Results showed the EE dose-dependently induced bone regeneration at the fracture site, with
significantly increased mineral deposition compared to controls. Findings suggest acceleration of
fracture repair via stimulatory effect on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. (22)
• Hemostatic Effects: Study showed P. pellucida plant crude extract had coagulation
properties that can induce blood clotting and augment thrombocyte production. (23)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: An ethanol extract of leaves yielded fifteen compounds and
showed marked antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus
faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Proteus mirabilis. The
synergistic effect of the compounds might have caused the high antibacterial activity. (see
constituents above) (25)
• Antidiabetic / Antioxidant / Hypolipidemic: Study investigated the antidiabetic and
antioxidant properties of Peperomia pellucida in alloxan induced diabetic male albino rats.
Diabetic rats on diets supplemented with P. pellucida showed reduction in blood glucose,
significant reduced serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, and significantly
reduced lipid peroxidation. (26)
• Antiamoebic: Study evaluated P. pellucida for antiamoebic activity. A methanol fraction
of dried plant caused morphological and structural changes in Acanthamoeba cysts. (28)
• Antihypertensive: Study evaluated the anti-hypertensive effects of Peperomia pellucida
extract on arterial blood pressure in male, normotensive rats. Intravenous administration of the
extract produced marked fall in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate. (29)
• Hypoglycemic / Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of an ethyl acetate extract in
alloxan induced diabetic mice showed significant hypoglycemic effect. Results also
showed significant analgesic activity in the acetic acid induced writhing model, which may be
attributed to the presence of flavonoid, steroid, alkaloid, tannin and saponin noted on
phytochemical screening. (30)
• Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer: Study evaluated the anti-ulcerogenic activity of aerial
parts of P. pellucida in necrotizing agent and indomethacin induced models in rats.
Results showed significant protection in various experimental models with significant
pretreatment inhibition of gastric mucosal damage. (31)
• Anti-Hyperuricemic Effect on Potassium Oxonate-Induced Hyperuricemia: Study
showed an anti-hyperuricemic effect of Peperomia pellucida extract in potassium
oxonnate induced hyperuricemia in white male rats. (35)

Yerba buena
Mentha arvensis Linn.

Hierba buena is a prostrate, smooth , much-branched, usually purplish, strongly
aromatic herb, with stems growing up to 40 centimeters long, with ultimate ascending
terminal branches. Leaves are elliptic to oblong-ovate, 1.5 to 4 centimeters long, short-
stalked with toothed margins, and rounded or blunt tipped. Flowers are hairy and
purplish to bluish, borne in axillary headlike whorls. Calyx teeth are triangular or lanceolate
and hairy; the corolla is also hairy.
- Native of Europe.
- Introduced by the Spaniards.
- Widely cultivation to some extent in all parts of the Philippines.
- Thrives well at high elevations; rarely flowers in lowlands.

- Plant yields a volatile oil (0.22%) containing pulegone, menthol, menthene,
menthenone and limonene.
- Study showed the shoot leaf gave the highest yield of oil, 0.62%; while the stems had
negligible yield. Menthol was the major component of all the oils. Other oils identified
were: B-caryophyllene oxide, a-phellandrene, terpinolene, limonene, menthone and
pulegone. (18)
- Phytochemical screening of powdered plant samples (root, stem, and leaves) yielded alkaloids,
polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and diterpenes.
- Study of aerial parts for essential oil yielded major components of (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-
octadecatrien-1-ol (50.06%), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone (7.50%), and 3,4-dihydro-8-
hydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-ben- zopyran-1-one (6.60%). (see study below) (30)
- Carminative, stimulant, stomachic, aromatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, sudorific,
- Oil is rubefacient and stimulant.
- Tops and leaves are carminative.

Parts utilized
Leaves and stems.

- Cultivated as a spice for
- Leaves used for tea.
- Used in salads to provide
- Used as a flavoring in
confections and dentrifices.
- One of the oldest household
remedies known.
- In the Philippines, tops and
leaves are considered
carminative; when bruised used
as antidote to stings of
poisonous insects.
- Mint is used in neuralgic
affections, renal and vesical
- Used for stomach weakness
and diarrhea.
- Decoction and infusion of
leaves and stems used for
fever, stomach aches,
dysmenorrhea, and diuresis.
- Pounded leaves for insect
bites, fevers, toothaches,
- Crushed fresh plants or leaves
are sniffed for dizziness.
- Powdered dried plant as
- Crushed leaves are applied on
the forehead and temples for
- For toothaches: (1) Wet a small piece of cotton with juice expressed from crushed
leaves; apply this impregnated cotton bud to the tooth. (2) Boil 6 tbsp. of leaves in two
glasses of water for 15 minutes; strain and cool. Divide the decoction into 2 parts and
take every 3 to 4 hours.
- For flatulence: Boil 4 tbsp of chopped leaves in 1 cup water for five minutes; strain.
Drink the decoction while lukewarm. Facilitates expulsion of flatus.
- Alcohol or ether extract used as local anesthetic for affections of the nose, pharynx,
and larynx.
- Used for obstinate vomiting of pregnancy.
- An alcoholic solution of menthol has been used as inhalation for asthma. Menthol is
also used as local anesthesia for headache and facial neuralgia.
- Decoction or vapor from menthol used with lemon grass as febrifuge. Also used in
- Plant used as emmenagogue; also used in jaundice.
- Dried plant used as dentrifice.
- Leaves and stems used as carminative, antispasmodic, and sudorific.
- Infusion of leaves used for indigestion, rheumatic pans, arthritis and inflamed joints.
- For coughs, boil 6 tbsp of chopped leaves in 2 glasses of water for 15 mins; cool and
strain. Divide the decoction into three parts; take 1 part 3 times a day.
- Diluted essential oil used as wash for skin irritations, burns, pruritus, scabies,
ringworm and as mosquito repellent.
- For arthritis, warm fresh leaves over low flame; then pound. Apply pounded leaves
while warm on the painful joints or muscles.
- As mouthwash, soak 2 tbsp chopped leaves in 1 glass of hot water for 30 minutes;
strain. Use the infusion as mouthwash.
- Peppermint oil is often
used in pharmaceutical
preparations to subdue
unpleasant medicinal
- Menthol derived from
the essential oil is used
in pharmaceutical,
perfumery and food

• Radioprotective /
Leaves: Study of mint
extract on mice showed
benefit with pretreatment
of mice with reduction in
the severity of symptoms
of radiation sickness and
mortality. (1)
• Anti-candida: A study of essential oils and ethanolic extracts of leaves/roots of 35
medicinal plants in Brazil screened for anti-Candida activity. Mentha arvensis was one
of 13 essential oils that showed anti-candidal activity. (2)
• Anti-fertility / Male Contraceptive: A study of the ether extract of MA on male mice
showed reduction of number of offspring, with decrease in testes weight, sperm count
and motility, among others. Results suggest that the ether extract of MA possess
reversible antifertility properties. (3)
• Reversible Male Contraceptive Effect: Study of aqueous extract solution in male
mice caused inhibition of fertility while maintaining normal sexual behavior. All induced
effects returned to normalcy within 30 days of withdrawal of 60-day treatment. (7)
• Post-coital Antifertility Effect: A study on the uterotonic fraction of MA caused
significant interruption in pregnancy in rats, pronounced in the post-implantation period.
• Antibiotic Resistance-Modifying: A report on the ethanol extract of MA showed a
potentiating effect of the extract on gentamicin and presents a potential against bacterial
resistance to antibiotics. (4)
• Potentiatiing Effect with Chlorpromazine Against Bacterial Resistance: Study
showed extracts of M arvensis could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with
resistance-modifying activity, such as in the case of aminoglycosides - a new weapon against
bacterial resistance to antibiotics, as with chlorpromazine. (9)
• Anti-Gastric Ulcer: Study of various extracts of Mentha arvensis showed a protective
effect against acid secretion and gastric ulcers in ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation-induced
and 90% ethanol-induced ulcer models. (6)
• Herbal Liniment / Analgesic: M arvensis provides potent analgesic action and is
used externally in rheumatism, neuralgia and headaches. In an herbal liniment where it
was combined with four other medicinal plants, the liniment was found effective in ligament
or muscle injury pain (sprains, strains, spasms, tennis elbow, etc), less so in osteoarthritis of the
joint and periarthritis of the shoulder. No adverse reactions were reported. Efficacy was noted
better in synergism with oral or parenteral analgesics. (8)
• Volatile Constituents /
Menthol: Study showed the
shoot leaf gave the highest
yield of oil, 0.62%; while the
stems had negligible yield.
Menthol was the major
component of all the oils.
Other oils identified were: B-
caryophyllene oxide, a-
phellandrene, terpinolene,
limonene, menthone and
pulegone. (10)
• Linarin / Anti-
Flowers extract of M
arvensis yielded linarin
rutinoside), with selective dose-dependent inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase. (11)
• Anti-Allergic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study on anti-allergic activity using a histamine
inhibitory assay showed the ethanol extracts of leaf and root markedly inhibited the
release of histamine from mast cells. On anti-inflammatory testing using a histamine-
induced paw edema model, all extracts showed anti-inflammatory effect suggesting the
presence of compounds capable of inhibiting histamine release from the mast cells and/or block
histamine receptors. (12)
• Effect on Haloperidol-Induced Catalepsy: Study in mice suggested Mentha arvensis
significantly reduced oxidative stress and cataleptic score induced by haloperidol.
Results suggest it can be used to prevent the drug-induced pyramidal side effects. (13)
• Antifungal Activity / Leaves / Study Against Oral Pathogens: Study evaluated
hydroalcoholic extracts for antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens: Streptococcus mutans,
S. sobrinus and Candida albicans. Results showed antifungal activity against C. albicans and a
potential use for human antifungal use. Results showed no antibacterial effect. (15)
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Liver Damage: Study evaluated various extracts
of leaves against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. Results showed a
hepatoprotective effect with significant reductions of liver enzymes almost comparable
to silymarin. Hepatoprotection was confirmed by histopathological examination.
Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids,
glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, phenolic compounds.(16)
• Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of an ethanol extract of leaves of
M. arvensis through various assays:TBAR, DPPH, NO radical scavenging, superoxide
radical scavenging and phosphomolybdonum method. Results showed significant dose-
dependent antioxidanat activity in all the assays. (17) A methanol extract of roots exhibited
good antioxidant potential using DPPH, reducing power, metal chelating, nitrous oxide scanging
and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays. (29)
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of leaves of M. arvensis
against Ascardia galli which resembles the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides. Results showed a
petroleum ether extract with maximum anthelmintic activity probably through both blocking of
energy metabolism and worm paralysis.
• Anticargiogenic: Study evaluated
the efficacy of crude extract and solvents
of M. arvensis against human cariogenic
pathogens Streptococcus mutans,
Streptococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus
aureus, and Lactobacillus casei isolated
from patients with dental disease.
Analysis for secondary metabolites
yielded alkaloids, tannins flavonols,
steroids, xanthones and glycosides.
Results showed significant amounts of
phytochemicals with antioxidative
properties which could be responsible for
its antimicrobial property. (21)
• Antidepressant / Antioxidant:
Study of aqueous extracts in Swiss albino mice showed significant in vitro antioxidant (DPPH,
NO, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays) and antidepressant (Tail suspension and Forced
swim tests) activity. (22)
• Anticancer / Growth Suppression and Apoptosis: Study evaluated Mentha arvensis
for in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell line (Hep G2 cell line). Results showed MA
significantly suppresses growth and induces apoptosis. (23)
• Comparative Antioxidant Study: Study evaluated powdered plants extracts of M.
arvensis, Allium porrum and Elettaria cardamomum for antioxidant activity using free
radical scavenging assays. Mentha arvensis exhibited the maximum content of phenols
and flavonoid compounds, and greatest antioxidant profile. (24)
• Nanoparticles / Leaves / Antioxidant Study: Study showed Mentha arvensis
mediated silver nanoparticle arvensis exhibited high antioxidant properties. (25)
• Nanoparticles / Leaves / Antioxidant Study: Study of ethanolic extract of M. arvensis
in albino mice showed (1) free radical scavenging activity by DPPH assay, (2) antimicrobial
activity against S. typhi, S. paratyphi, S. boydii, S. pyogenes and S. aureus, (3) cytotoxic lethality
against brine shrimp nauplii, and (4) analgesic effect in acetic acid induced writhing. (26)
• Nephroprotective in Cisplatin Induced Toxicity: Study of evaluated the effect of M.
arvensis on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed
nephroprotective action evidenced by blood parameters and histopathological studies, and
attributed to the presence of flavonoids and related compounds. (27)
• Thrombolytic / Cytotoxic: Study of Mentha arvensis, M. spicata, and M viridis showed
clot lysis activity and low cytotoxicity activity. Results suggest the plants can be incorporated as
thrombolytic agents with in vivo effects to improve the atherothrombotic patients. (28)
• Essential Oil / Aerial Parts / Use for Reduction of Mental Stress: Study showed the
fragrant chemicals of essential oil of M. arvensis reduce the level of mental stress and has a
potential for use in the treatment of psychophysiological disorders. (see constituents above)
• Absorptive Removal of Chromium Ions / M. arvensis Biomass: Study investigated
the binding capacity of M. arvensis biomass for chromium ions from aqueous synthetic effluents.
Results showed MA biomass can be used for removal of toxic ions from industrial effluents. (31)

Commercially: Analgesic tablets, tea.

Averrhoa carambola Linn.
Balimbing is a small tree growing to a height of 6 meters or less. Leaves are pinnate,
about 15 centimeters long. Leaflets are smooth, usually in 5 pairs, ovate to ovate-
lanceolate, the upper ones about 5 centimeters long and the lower ones smaller.
Panicles are small, axillary and bell-shaped, 5 to 6 millimeters long. Calyx is reddish
purple. Petals are purple to bright purple, often margined with white. Fruit is fleshy,
green to greenish yellow, about 6 centimeters long, with 5 longitudinal, sharp and
angular lobes. Seeds are arillate.
- In cultivated and semi-
cultivated areas throughout the
- Introduced from tropical
- Now pantropic.

- Studies indicate the presence
of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids
and tannins.
- Seeds yield an alkaloid,
harmaline, C13H14N20.
- Phytochemical screening of leaf
extract yielded alkaloids,
glycosides, phenol, tannins,
flavonoids, protein and
diterpenes. (see study below)
- Nutrient analysis of raw, fresh star
fruit (per 100 g) showed: energy 31
Kcal, carbohydrates 6.73 g, protein
1.04 g, total fat 0.33g, cholesterol 0
mg, dietary fiber 2.80g; (Vitamins)
folates 12 µg, niacin 0.367 mg,
pyridoxine 0.017 mg, riboflavin
0.016 mg, thiamin 0.014 mg,
vitamin A 61 IU, vitamin C 34.4
mg, vitamin E 0.15 mg, vitamin K 0 µg; (Electrolytes) sodium 2 mg, potassium 133 mg;
(Minerals) calcium 3 mg, iron 0.08 mg, magnesium 10 mg, phosphorus 12 mg, zinc 0.12 mg.
(Source: USDA National Nutrient data base) (32)
- Study on fruit extract showed total phenolic (1.216 mgGAE/g extract), flavonoids (767
mgCE/g extract), proanthocyanidin 586 mgCE/g extract, and condensed tannins (18.35 mgCE/g
extract. (see study below) (33)

- Vermifuge, laxative, refrigerant, antiscorbutic, febrifuge, sialogogue, antiphlogistic,
stimulant, emmenagogue, anodyne, emetic.
- Studies have suggest hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, nephrotoxic,
neurotoxic, negative inotropic and chronotropic properties.
- Fruit is considered laxative, refrigerant, antiscorbutic, appetite stimulant, febrifuge,
antidysenteric, sialagogue, and antiphlogistic.
- Seed regarded as narcotic, anodyne, emetic and emmenagogue.
Parts used
Leaves, flowers, seeds, fruit.
Edibility / Culinary /
- Edible fruit is a source of iron (low
in calcium) and vitamins B and C,
oxalate and potassium.
- Because of high potassium content,
the fruit should be excluded from the
diets of patients with renal failure.
- In the Philippines, the fruit is eaten
with or without salt; the juice used for
- Fruit used in making pickles and
- In Java, flowers are used in salads.
- Decoction of leaves used for
aphthous stomatitis and angina.
- In Tonkin, flowers are used as
- Boiled flowers used to expel worms:
50 gms to a pint of boiling water;
drunk in normal doses.
- Malays use a poultice of crushed shoots or leaves used externally for headaches,
chickenpox, and ringworm.
- The Chinese and Annamites use the flowers for cutaneous affections; also use the
fruit as an eye salve for ophthalmic affections.
- Leaves applied externally for fevers.
- Fruit syrup used as cooling drink for fevers.
- Decoction of leaves and fruit used to arrest vomiting.
- Fruit is laxative; also used for hematemesis, melena and other forms of hemorrhages.
- Decoction of fruit, 50 gms to a pint of boiling water, 4-5 glasses a day used for
bleeding piles.
- Juice of fresh fruit for affections of the eyes.
- Seed is used for asthma and colic: Powdered seeds, 10 gms to a cup of warm water,
drunk 4 times daily.
- In Brazil, used for headaches, eczema, vomiting, coughing and hangovers. Also, used
as appetite stimulant, diuretic, antidiarrheal, and febrifuge.
- In India, the ripe fruit is used to stop hemorrhages and relieve hemorrhoidal bleeding.
Khasi tribe of Meghalaya use the ripe fruit in the treatment of jaundice. In Ayurveda, ripe
fruit is considered tonic and digestive; causes biliousness. Dried fruit is used for fevers.
- The dried fruit or juice used for fevers.
- Plant used as reproductive organ stimulant for both males and females. In females it is
used to increase the flow of milk and menstrual fluid. It acts as an emmenagogue;
sometimes used as abortive.
- In Ayurveda, preparations of its fruit and leaf preparations are used to pacify impaired kapha,
pitta; used for pruritus and skin diseases, worm infestations, diarrhea, vomiting, hemorrhoids,
intermittent fever, over-perspiration and general debility. (35)
- Seed regarded as narcotic, anodyne, emetic, and emmenagogue. Seed powder, in
doses of 1/2 to 3 drams or as watery infusion, considered a good anodyne in asthma,
colic, and jaundice.
- In Bangladesh, leaves and fruits used in treatment of diabetes.
- Cleaning: The acid type carambola dissolves tarnish and rust, occasionally used for
cleaning and polishing metal.
- Stain remover: Like kamias, fruit juice is used in washing clothes and to remove spots
and stains.
Contains potassium oxalate which is used for dyeing.

• Cardiac Effects /
Negative Inotropic and
Chronotropic Effects:
The study showed that the
A. carambola extract is an
agent that strongly
depresses the heart rate
and the myocardial
contractile force. Although
the active compound has
not been identified, its
action on the L-type Ca2+
channels is important to
explain the mechanism of
action of this plant on the
mammalian atrial
myocardium. (1)
• Fatal outcome after
ingestion of star fruit
(Averrhoa carambola) in
uremic patients: The
study warns that patients
with renal failure who
ingest star fruit may
develop neurological
symptoms and run the risk
of death in severe cases.
Hemodialysis, especially on a daily basis, is the ideal treatment for star fruit intoxication.
• Neurotoxicity: Report of study on 32 uraemic patients who ingested star fruit. Most
common presenting symptoms were persistent hiccups, vomiting, mental confusion,
psychomotor agitation, insomnia, paresthesias and seizures. Ideal treatment was daily
• Antioxidant: Research reports the residues from star fruit juicing process is a rich and
excellent source of extractable phenolic antioxidants. (6)
• Convulsant / Neurotoxic Fraction: Study yielded a nonproteic neurotoxic fraction
from the star fruit Averrhoa carambola. It was shown to inhibit GABA binding in a
concentration-dependent manner. It produced behavioral changes in animals, including
seizures - tonic-clonic to status epilepticus. (7)
• Anti-Ulcerogernic Effect: Water-alcohol extract of A carambola showed significant
anti-ulcer activity in the acidified-ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats, with no activity in
the indomethacin and acute stress ulcerogenic models.
• Human Cytochrome P450 Inhibition: Fruit juice-drug interaction has been a concern
since the discovery of the grapefruit juice-drug interaction. Other fruits have been found
to inhibit CYP3A in vitro. Study showed star fruit juice inhibited the seven CYP isoforms
tested, with the strongest inhibitory effect against CYP2A6 and the least towards
CYP3A4. (8)
• Hypotensive Effect: Study of aqueous extract of Averrhoa carambola in isolated rat
aorta demonstrated hypotensive effects, in part, attributed to inhibition of the contractile
mechanisms involving extracellular Ca++ influx. (12)
• Topical Anti-Inflammatory: Study in mice evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory
effects of various extracts of leaves, fractions and flavonoids on skin inflammation. The
ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective. (13)
• Antioxidant / Antimicrobial: Nitric oxide radicals generated from sodium
nitroprusside was inhibited by A. carambola fruit extracts at various stages of ripening.
Methanolic and water extracts of fruits showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli,
Salmonella typhi, Staph aureus and Bacillus cereus. (14)
• Hypoglycemic: Treatment of male Sprague Dawley rats with fruit pulp for eight weeks
significantly decreased blood sugar levels. The change was insignificant in female rats, which
was attributed to hormonal changes. (16)
• Analgesic / Fruit Extract: Treatment investigated the analgesic effect of a fruit extract of
A. carambola in Swiss albino mice by acetic acid-writhing test (peripheral action) and radiant tail
flick test (central action). Results showed significant central and peripheral analgesic activities.
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Cytotoxicity / Bark: Study evaluated a petroleum ether
of bark of Averrhoa carambola for antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties.
Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides and steroids. The extract
exhibited good antibacterial action, especially against S. typhi, P aeruginosa, E coli and B
megaterium. There was concentration dependent DPPH radical scavenging activity. On brine
shrimp lethality testing, the LC50 was calculated at 19.95. (18)
• Anthelmintic / Leaf: Study evaluated anthelmintic potential of a leaf extract of A.
carambola against Pheretima posthuma as test worm. Results showed significant paralysis and
death of worms especially at higher concentrations. (19)
• Electrophysiologic Effects: Study evaluated the electrophysiological changes produced
by an aqueous extract of leaves on isolated right atrium preparations of guinea pig heart. The
extract produced various kinds of atrioventricular blocs, increased QT interval, increased QRS
duration, and decrease cardiac rate. The results caution against the use of such extracts because it
can promote electrical and mechanical changes in the heart. (20)
• Prophylactic / Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Study evaluated the protective roles of fruit
of Averrhoa carambola on diethylnitrosamine-(DENA)-induced and CCl4-promoted liver cancer
in Swiss albino mice. Results showed considerable reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield,
and tumor burden. There was also a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation. Results shows a
prophylactic roles against hepatocellular carcinoma in mice, and suggests a potential as a
chemopreventive natural supplement against cancer. (21)
• Radioprotective / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the radioprotective efficacy of
ethanolic extract of leaves of Averrhoa carambola. Results showed supplementation with
Averrhoa carambola has potent antoxidant activities and probably act as radioprotective against
gamma radiation induced oxidative damage. (22)
• Oxalic Acid Content: Oxalic acid is the principal acid in A. carambola and A. bilimbi.
It is a food toxicant which may decrease the availability of dietary calcium by forming
poorly absorbed calcium-oxalate complex. Study revealed higher levels of oxalic acid in
sour green carambola (5.5 - 10.9 mg/g) than in sweet fruit (0.5 -1.7 mg/g). Oxalic acid
levels in both sweet and sour carambola decreased as the fruit matured, with variations from
season to season. (23)
• Anticoagulant Activity: Study of an ethanolic extract of leaves and fruits in diabetic
male Wistar rats showed very significant anticoagulant effect, attributed to the high level
of oxalic acid acting as a metal cation chelator, presumably binding to blood calcium,
removing the calcium ion from the blood, and inhibiting the clotting process. (24)
• Hepatoprotective Activity / CCl4-Induced Injury / Stems: Study of a stem ethanolic
extract showed hepatoprotective activity in CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rat.
Silymarin was used as standard. (25)
• Fruit Juice Effect on Alkaline Phosphatase: Study evaluated the in vivo effect of
star fruit juice on activity of alkaline phosphates in female Sprague Dawley rats. Results
showed star fruit juice at different storage times selectively induced the activity of
alkaline phosphatase in rat liver but not in the heart and kidney. (26)
• Antihyperglycemic / Leaves: Study evaluated antihyperglycemic activity of methanol
extracts of leaves of three plants: A. carambola, F. hispida, and S. samarangense. All three
showed reductions in blood glucose in mice. Glibenclamide was used as standard. (27)
• Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study of leaves of A. carambola on carbon
tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in mice demonstrated hepatoprotective and antioxidant
activity . Pretreatment of extract significantly controlled the levels of serum biochemical and
antioxidant enzymes. (28)
• In Vitro Cytotoxicity / MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line / Leaves: Study of leaf extract
for in vitro cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) showed an IC50 value of
170.326 µg/ml. (see constituents above) (29)
• Attenuation of Fluoride Induced Toxicity / Fruit: Study evaluated the potential of star
fruit as dietary supplement in attenuating the fluoride induced hyperglycemia,
hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress in a rat model. Diet supplementation with star fruit
powder significantly restored fluoride induced elevation of glucose, lipids, and oxidative stress.
The activity could be due to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols,
ascorbic acid and fibers in the fruit. (30)
• Anti-Browning Effect of Honey and L-Cysteine on Fresh Cut Fruit: Study evaluated
the anti-browning effect of L-cysteine and honey through PPO activity and total phenolic content
in carambola slices. Overall quality analysis showed honey (10%) enriched with L-cysteine
(0.5%) significantly extended the shelf life of fresh-cut carambola. Honey can be used as edible
coating to maintain fresh-like appearance of carambola slices up to 12 days. (31)
• Tumor Inhibitory / Antiagiogenic / Proapoptotic / Fruit: Study evaluated the tumor
inhibitory activity of Averrhoa carambola fruit extract on EAC cells administered in mice
targeting angiogenesis and apoptosis. Results showed potent proapoptotic and antiangiogenic
activity, which was attributed to catechin, epicatechin and ferulic acid present in the extract. (see
constituents above) (33)
• Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the preclinical toxicological effects
of hydro-alcoholic extract from A. carambola leaves on Wistar rats and Swiss mice. Results
showed relatively low subchronic and acute toxicity in the test animals. (36)
• Suppression of Adipocyte Differentiation / Effect on Obesity / Peels: Study evaluated the
ability of A. carambola peel extract in suppressing adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1
preadipocytes and its potential to treat obesity and its related diseases. (--)-Epicatechin was
identified as the bioactive compound likely responsible for suppression. Computational docking
study showed the likely receptor binding mode of (-) -epicatechin as the likely mechanism in
overall suppression of adipocyte differentiation. (37)
• Reduction of Blood Pressure in Normotensive Subjects / Fruit: Study on sweet star fruit
juice showed a significant changes in blood pressure, while differences in the dose did not
produce significant effects. (38)
• Anti-Lipase Activity / Anti-Obesity / Ripe Fruit: Study evaluated the methanolic extracts of
98 medicinal, herbal and aquatic plant materials from Malaysia for its effect on porcine
pancreatic lipase (PPL) activity. Results showed 19.4% of the extracts had anti-lipase activity.
The ripe fruit of Averrhoa carambola was one of four that showed highest (100%) anti-lipase
activity equivalent to 0.11 µg orlistat/mL. The remarkable inhibitory activity of some of the plant
extracts suggests a potential and convenient source of anti-obesity agents. (40)
Toxicity / Caution !
• Report of toxicity and death in fruit consumption by patients with renal failure.
Star fruit intoxication may be harmful and even life threatening in uremic patients. The
neurotoxicity is classified into three levels of intoxication: (1) Mild, with hiccups, vomiting
and insomnia. (2) Moderate, with psychomotor agitation, numbness and mental
confusion, and (3) Severe intoxication, with worsening confusion, coma, seizures,
hypotension and shock, in various confusing clinical presentations. Daily dialysis, is the
ideal treatment and most efficient way of removing the neurotoxicity.
• High Potassium Content: Because of its high potassium content, star fruit should be
one of the food substances that should be excluded from the diet of patients with renal
• Renal Toxicity: Study reports on two cases of star fruit toxicity: acute kidney injury
and chronic kidney disease. Acute kidney injury was reported in a 56-year old female
diabetic patient who consumed a large amount of star fruit juice at once. The other was
a case of a 60-year old diabetic who presented with acute-on-chronic renal failure
following fruit juice consumption over 2-3 years. Both showed histologically confirmed
oxalate induced renal injury, the former with acute tubulo-interstitial disease while the
latter showed acute-on-chronic interstitial disease. (39)

Limited backyard cultivation.
Blue gum eucalyptus
Eucalyptus globulus Labill
Lan an
Scientific names Common names
Eucalyptus globulus Labill Australian blue gum tree (Engl.)
Blue gum eucalyptus (Engl.)
Blue gum tree (Engl.)
Eucalyptos (Tag.)
Eucalipto (Bis.)
Iron bark (Engl.)
Stringybark (Engl.)
Lan an (Chin.)
There are over 500 different species sharing similar medicinal properties.
This Philippine compilation includes several species of Eucalyptus, a few with a sharing a confusing crossover of color-referring common names: (1)
Eucalyptus globulus, blue gum eucalyptus (2) Eucalyptus deglupta, bagras, rainbow gum (3) Eucalyptus camaldulensis, red gum eucalyptus (4)
Eucalyptus tereticornis, red gum tree, forest red gum. (5) Eucalyptus robusta, beakpod eucalyptus, brown gum, red gum.(6) Eucalyptus cinerea, silver
dollar eucalyptus.

Eucalyptus is an evergreen tree that reaches a height of 15 meters or more. Bark is grayish, peeling off
in thin, long strips, whitish gray underneath. Young leaves are cordate, glaucous-blue, and clasping the
stem. Mature leaves are leathery, lanceolate, dark green, usually somewhat sickle-shaped, more than
30 centimeters long. Flowers are white, about 1.5 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is obovoid or somewhat
rounded, about 8 millimeters in diameter.
- Usually planted as a garden plant in Baguio and Manila.
- Grows vigorously in the Baguio area.
- Native to Australia.
- Also in North and South Africa, India, and southern Europe.

• Yields a volatile oil, 0.01 - 1.96% - cineol, 80%, d-alpha pinene, camphene, fenchene, butyric and
caprionic aldehydes, ethyl and iso-amyl alcohols, acetic acid, cymol, sesquiterpene, eudesmos, 1-
• Of the more than 300 species, the species with the highest yield of eucalyptus oil are E. globosus, E.
tereticornis, E. polyanthemos and E. citriodora.
• Leaves, buds, branches and bark yield taxifolin and eriodictyol.
• Study of essential oil yielded 53 oil components:1,8-cineole, α-pinene, limonene, aromadendrene, δ-
cadinene, and globulol were the most abundant compounds, representing 93% of the total oil.
• Study of fruits yielded 15 compounds: beta-sitosterol, betulinic acid, stigmasterol, euscaphic acid, 2a-
Hydroxybetulinic acid, macrocarpal B, macrocarpal A, oleanolic acid, 3,4,3'-O-trimethylellagic acid, 3-O-
methylellagic acid 4'-O-(2"-O-acetyl )-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, camaldulenside (cypellocarpin C, 3-O-
methylellagic acid 4'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, 3-O-methylellagic acid, ellagic acid, and gallic acid.

• Oils are in classified into: (1) medicinal, containing eucalytol or
cineol (2) industrial, containing terpenes, used in mining
operations, and (3) aromatic, as in E. citriodora.
• Considered anesthetic, antibronchitic, antiseptic, anticatarrh,
antiparasitic, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, antiviral, cooling,
antiinflammatory, diuretic, febrifuge, rubefacient, analgesic, insect
repellent, sedative, expectorant, stimulant.

Parts used
Mature leaves, oil.

- Blue gum leaves used as therapeutic herbal tea.
- As antiseptic and deodorant, leaves are crushed and applied on
affected areas.
- Decoction of leaves as tea for cough, asthma, hoarseness,
- Pure eucalyptus oil, two drops in a tsp of warm water, for
coughs, whooping coughs, asthma and bronchitis.
- Infusion of leaves used for asthma, catarrh, bronchitis,
whooping cough, coryza, dysentery, diabetes, fevers and colds, malaria, rhinitis, tuberculosis.
- For sinusitis, breathing of vapor of decoction of leaves.
- Decoction of leaves used for washing and cleaning wounds.
- Other uses: Diabetes, lumbago, sciatica, toothaches, tuberculosis, dysentery, gout.
- In China, used for promote eschar formation.
- In France, leaf extract used as hypoglycemic.
- In Guatemala, leaf decoction for fever. Hot water extract of dried leaf used for ringworm, wounds,
ulcers, pimples and as vaginal douche.
- In India, as mosquito repellent and insecticide.
- In Italy, as inhalation therapy for asthma; also for diabetes.
- In Kenya, for snail infestation.
- In Mexico, for urethritis, laryngitis, cystitis, gastritis, enteritis; as antipyretic and antimalarial.
- In Tunisia, for bronchial conditions and cough.
- In Spain, for colds, catarrh, diabetes.
Preparation for use: Gather the leaves,
dry in the sun for 5-6 hours. Place in a paper
bag, tie and hang in the shade for a week.
Decoct 50 gms of the dried leaves in a pint of
boiling water; drink 6 glasses daily. For fresh
leaves, use 60 to 70 gms to a pint of boiling
water, drink the same amount.
• Mastitis: A herbal gel made from C longa,
Cedrus deodara, G glabra and E globulus,
applied twice daily, is used to treat and prevent
subclinical mastitis in crossbred cows.
• Bovine endometriosis: Cow with
endometritis were given an intrauterine
infusion of a 10% solution of a tincture of E
• Ectoparasites: Two experimental herbal
mixtures containing E globulus along with
several other plant oils have been used on
dogs to treat ectoparasites.
- Biopesticidal: Leaves burned for use as
Insect repellant. Extract used to kill fleas.
- Timber: Although of poor quality, used for
fence post and pole construction.
- Perfumery: Oil used in perfumery.

Extraction of oil
Boil mature leaves in water, condensing the
vapor to recover the oil. Eucalyptus globulus
yields less oil than the other varieties used for
commercial production of medicinal grade oils.

• Antibacterial: Antibacterial Activity of Three
Medicinal Plants: Eucalyptus Globulus,
Aristolochial Latas and Vitex Negundo against
Enteric Pathogens: The medicinal plants
tested showed varying degrees of antibacterial
activity with the maximum zone of inhibition
obtained with E. globulus.
• Antihyperglycemic: In the study,
incorporation of eucalyptus in the diet and
drinking water reduced hyperglycemia and
associated weight loss of STZ-treated mice.
The study showed pancreatic protection or
regeneration following exposure to
streptozotocin. Data indicate E globulus
represents an effective antihyperglycemic
dietary adjunct for the treatment of diabetes.
• Antibacterial: (1) Antibacterial activity of leaf
essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and
Eucalyptus camaldulensis: Study suggested
the potential usefulness of the two Eucalyptus
species as a micobiostatis, antiseptic or as a
disinfectant agent. (2) Study of the antibacterial
activity of E globulus leaf extract was done on
isolates of S aureus, S pyogenes, S pneumoniae and
H influenza from 200 clinical specimens. Results
suggest further studies to clarify its therapeutic role
in the treatment of respiratory tract infection.
• Chemical Constituents of Fruit: Five
compounds were isolated from the fruit:
betulonic acid, betulinic acid, ursolic acid,
corosolic acid and daucosterol.
• Acaricidal: Study on the acaricidal effects of the essential oils of two medicinal plants – Pelargonium
roseum and E globulus – showed a dose-dependent effect on mortality rate for adult ticks and mass of egg
production. Results showed both plants can be considered as potential candidates for the biocontrol of R
annulatus in the field.
• Antioxidant / Anti-Diabetic: Study results conclude that eucalyptus possess antioxidant and
antidiabetic activities. Data indicated eucalytus either increase antioxidant power or reduce oxidative
stress due to reduction in plasma glucose in diabetic rats, which prevents excessive production of free
radicals through glycation of proteins.
• Antioxidant / Food Dye: Study showed the SCF (superficial fluid extract), methanolic and water
extracts of the stem bark possess similar free radical scavenging and antioxidative activity higher than
synthetic antioxidants BHT. The SCF extract also showed to be a good source of yellow natural food
• Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the effects of eucalyptus leaves on STZ-induced damage in pancreatic
islets. Results suggest EG caused dose-dependent amelioration of the diabetic state by partial restoration of
pancreatic beta cells and repair STZ-induced damage in rats.
• Hepatotoxicity: Study of aqueous extract of E. globulus leaves on biochemical parameters of rat liver
showed deleterious effects on liver membrane and functional integrity. Repeated administration produced a
significant increase in ALP in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanism may be due to enzyme induction by the
• Eucalyptone / Antibacterial: Study of an ethyl acetate bark fraction of small twigs isolated a new
pholoroglucinol, eucalyptone G, together with nine other known compounds. Eucalyptone G exhibited
antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and E coli.
• Antiplasmodial / Antibacterial: In a study for antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of eleven extracts
prepared from seven selected plants in Western Cameroon, seven extracts from five different plants, including E
globulus leaves showed activity with weak or no toxicity. E. globulus also had the highest extraction yield.

2. 2. HERBAL MEDICINE  As part of primary health care and because of the increasing
cost of drugs, the use of locally available medicinal plants and herbs in the Philippine
backyard and field have been found to be effective in the treatment of common ailments
as attested to by the National Science Development Board, other government and private
agencies/ persons engaged in research.  The DOH is advocating the use of the following
ten herbal plants.
3. 3. HERBAL MEDICINE REPUBLIC ACT 8423  Otherwise known as TAMA
the Philippine Institute of Traditional and Alternative Health Care (PITAHC) to
accelerate the development of traditional and alternative health care in the Philippines,
providing for a traditional and alternative health care development fund and for other
T A L U B B Y 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Sambong Akapulko Niyog-niyogan Tsaang
Gubat Ampalaya Lagundi Ulasimang Bato Bawang Bayabas Yerba Buena
5. 5. HERBAL MEDICINE Reminders on the Use of Herbal Medicine       Avoid
the use of insecticides as these may leave poison on plants. In the preparation of herbal
medicine, use a clay pot and remove cover while boiling at low heat. Use only the part of
the plant being advocated. Follow accurate dose of suggested preparation. Use only one
kind of herbal plant for each type of symptoms or sickness. Use only half the dosage
prescribed for fresh parts like leaves when using dried parts.
6. 6. HERBAL MEDICINE Reminders on the Use of Herbal Medicine     Decoctions
loose potency after some time. Dispose of decoctions after one day. To keep fresh during
the day, keep lukewarm in a flask or thermos. Leaves, fruits, flowers or nuts must be
mature before harvesting. Less medicinal substances are found on young parts. Stop
giving the herbal medication in case untoward reaction such as allergy occurs. If signs
and symptoms are not relieved after 2 or 3 doses of herbal medication, consult a doctor
7. 7. HERBAL MEDICINE SAMBONG A plant that reaches 1 ½ to 3 meters in height
with rough hairy leaves.  Young plants around mother plant may be separated when
they have three or more leaves. Scientific Name: Blumea balsamifera
8. 8. HERBAL MEDICINE SAMBONG USES:  Anti-edema  Diuretic  Anti-
urolithiasis PREPARATION:  Boil chopped leaves in water for 15 minutes until one
glassful remains. Cool and strain.  Divide decoction into 3 parts. Drink one part 3 times
a day.  NOTE: Sambong is not a medicine for kidney infection
9. 9. HERBAL MEDICINE AKAPULKO      Ringworm Bush Bayas-bayasan This
plant is about 1 to 2 meters tall The leaves are embraced with 8 to 20 oblongelliptical
shaped leaflets It has flowers with oblong sepals Scientific Name: Cassia alata
10. 10. HERBAL MEDICINE AKAPULKO USES:  Anti-fungal: Tinea Flava, Ringworm,
Athlete ’s Foot and Scabies PREPARATION:  Fresh, matured leaves are pounded. 
Apply as a soap to the affected part 1 to 2 times a day.
11. 11. HERBAL MEDICINE NIYUG-NIYOGAN     Chinese Honey Suckle A vine
which bears tiny fruits and grows wild in backyards. The seeds must come from mature,
dried but newly opened fruits. Propagated through stem cuttings about 20cm in height.
Scientific Name: Quisqualis indica L.
12. 12. HERBAL MEDICINE NIYUG-NIYOGAN USES:  Anti-helmintic (used to expel
parasitic worms.) PREPARATION:  Seeds of niyug-niyogan are eaten raw two hours
before the patient’s last meal of the day.  Adults may take 10 seeds; children 4 to 7
years of age may eat up to four seeds only; ages 8 to 9 may take six seeds and seven
seeds may be eaten by children 10 to 12 years old.  Not to be given to children below
four years old.
13. 13. HERBAL MEDICINE TSAANG GUBAT  Forest Tea or Wild Tea  A shrub with
small, shiny nice-looking leaves that grows in wild uncultivated areas and forests.
Scientific Name: Carmona retusa
14. 14. HERBAL MEDICINE TSAANG GUBAT USES:  Diarrhea  Stomach ache
PREPARATION:  Boil the following amount of chopped leaves in 2 glasses of water
for 15 minutes or until amount of water goes down to 1 glass. Cool and strain.  Wash
leaves and chop. Boil chopped leaves in 1 glass of water for 15 minutes. Cool and
filter/strain and drink.
15. 15. HERBAL MEDICINE AMPALAYA     Bitter Gourd or Bitter melon A
climbing vine with tendrils that grow up to 20 cms long. Leaves are heartshaped, which
are 5 to 10 cms in diameter Fruits have ribbed and wrinkled surface that are fleshy green
with pointed ends at length and has a bitter taste. Scientific Name: Momordica charantia
16. 16. HERBAL MEDICINE AMPALAYA USES:  Lowers blood sugar levels  Diabetes
Mellitus (Mild-non insulin dependent) PREPARATION:  Gather and wash young
leaves very well. Chop. Boil 6 tablespoons in two glassfuls of water for 15 minutes under
low fire. Do not cover pot. Cool and strain. Take one third cup 3 times a day after meals.
17. 17. HERBAL MEDICINE LAGUNDI      5 Leaved-Chaste Tree A shrub growing
wild in vacant lots and waste land. Matured branches are planted. The flowers are blue
and bellshaped. The small fruits turn black when ripe. It is better to collect the leaves
when are in bloom. Scientific Name: Vitex negundo
18. 18. HERBAL MEDICINE LAGUNDI USES:  Asthma and cough  Fever, Dysentery,
Colds & Pain  Skin diseases and wounds  Headache  Rheumatism, sprain, contu
sions, insect bites.  Aromatic bath for sick patients
19. 19. HERBAL MEDICINE LAGUNDI PREPARATION:  For Asthma, cough and fever,
boil chopped raw fruits or leaves in 2 glasses of water left for 15 minutes until the water
left in only 1 glass (decoction). Strain.  For Dysentery, colds and pain, boil a handful of
leaves and flowers in water to produce a glass full of decoction 3 time a day.
20. 20. HERBAL MEDICINE LAGUNDI PREPARATION:  For skin diseases (dermatitis,
scabies, ulcer, ecze ma) and wounds, prepare a decoction of the leaves. Wash and clean
the skin/wound with the decoction.  For headache, crushed leaves may be applied on the
forehead.  For rheumatism, sprain, contusions and insect bites, pound the leaves and
apply on the affected part.
21. 21. HERBAL MEDICINE ULASIMANG BATO  Silver bush or Shiny bush  Pansit-
pansitan  A weed with heartshaped leaves that grow in shady parts of the garden and
yard. Scientific Name: Peperomia pellucida
(Rheumatism and Gout) PREPARATION:  Wash the leaves well. One and a half cup
leaves are boiled in two glassfuls of water over low fire. Do not cover pot. Cool and
strain. Divide into three parts and drink each part 3 times a day a day.
as salad. Wash the leaves well. Prepare one and a half cups of leaves (not closely
packed). Divide into three parts and take as salad 3 times a day.
24. 24. HERBAL MEDICINE BAWANG  Garlic A low herb and grows up to sixty cms
high  Leaves are flat and linear  Bulbs consist of several tubers Scientific Name:
Allium sativum
25. 25. HERBAL MEDICINE BAWANG USES:  For hypertension  Toothache  Lowers
cholesterol levels in the blood PREPARATION:  May be fried, roasted, soaked in
vinegar for 30 minutes, or blanched in boiled water for 5 minutes. Take two pieces three
times a day after meals.
26. 26. HERBAL MEDICINE BAWANG PREPARATION:  For toothache, pound a small
piece and apply to affected part. CAUTION: Take on full stomach to prevent stomach
and intestinal ulcers.
27. 27. HERBAL MEDICINE BAYABAS  Guava A tree about 4 to 5 meters high with
tiny white flowers with round or oval fruits that are eaten raw. Scientific Name: Psidium
28. 28. HERBAL MEDICINE BAYABAS USES:  For washing wounds  For toothache 
For diarrhea PREPARATION:  Warm decoction is used for gargle.  Freshly pounded
leaves are used for toothache. Guava leaves are to be washed well and chopped. Boil for
15 minutes at low fire. Do not cover pot. Cool and strain before use.
29. 29. HERBAL MEDICINE YERBA BUENA  Peppermint A small multibranching
aromatic herb. The leaves are small, elliptical and with toothed margin.  The stem
creeps to the ground, and develop roots. Scientific Name: Mentha cordifelia
30. 30. HERBAL MEDICINE YERBA BUENA USES:  For pain in different parts of the
body as head ache, stomach ache  Rheumatism, arthritis and headache  Cough and
cold  Swollen gums & toothache  Menstrual and gas pain  Nausea and fainting 
Insect bites & Pruritus
31. 31. HERBAL MEDICINE YERBA BUENA PREPARATION:  For pain in diff. parts
of the body, boil chopped leaves in 2 glasses of water for 15 minutes. Cool and strain. 
For rheumatism, arthritis and headache, crush the fresh leaves and squeeze sap. Massage
sap on painful parts with eucalyptus.
32. 32. HERBAL MEDICINE YERBA BUENA PREPARATION:  For cough and cold, get
about 10 fresh leaves and soak in a glass of hot water. Drink as tea. Acts as an
expectorant.  For toothache, cut fresh plant and squeeze sap. Soak a piece of cotton in
the sap and insert this in aching tooth cavity. Mouth should be rinsed by gargling salt
solution before inserting the cotton. To prepare salt solution: add 5g of table salt to one
glass of water.
gas pain, soak a handful of leaves in a glass of boiling water. Drink infusion. It induces
menstrual flow and sweating.  For nausea and fainting, crush leaves and apply at
nostrils of patient.  For insect bites, crush leaves and apply juice on affected part or
pound leaves until paste-like and rub this on the affected part.