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PRINCIPLES
OF HEATING
VENTILATING
AND
AIR CONDITIONING

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Ronald H. Howell, PhD, PE, Fellow ASHRAE, retired as professor and chair of mechanical engineering at the Univer-
sity of South Florida and is also professor emeritus of the University of Missouri-Rolla. For 45 years he taught courses
in refrigeration, heating and air conditioning, thermal analysis, and related areas. He has been the principal or co-prin-
cipal investigator of 12 ASHRAE-funded research projects. His industrial and consulting engineering experience ranges
from ventilation and condensation problems to the development and implementation of a complete air curtain test
program.

William J. Coad, PE, Fellow ASHRAE, was ASHRAE president in 2001-2002. He has been with McClure Engineering
Associates, St. Louis, Mo., for 45 years and is currently a consulting principal. He is also president of Coad Engineering
Enterprises. He has served as a consultant to the Missouri state government and was a lecturer in mechanical engineering
for 12 years and an affiliate professor in the graduate program for 17 years at Washington University, St. Louis. He is
the author of Energy Engineering and Management for Building Systems (Van Nostrand Reinhold).

Harry J. Sauer, Jr., PhD, PE, Fellow ASHRAE, was a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at the Univer-
sity of Missouri-Rolla. He taught courses in air conditioning, refrigeration, environmental quality analysis and control,
and related areas. His research ranged from experimental boiling/condensing heat transfer and energy recovery equip-
ment for HVAC systems to computer simulations of building energy use and actual monitoring of residential energy use.
He served as an advisor to the Missouri state government and has conducted energy auditor training programs for the
US Department of Energy. Dr. Sauer passed away in June 2008.

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PRINCIPLES
OF HEATING
VENTILATING
AND
AIR CONDITIONING
6th Edition

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

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Ronald H. Howell William J. Coad Harry J. Sauer, Jr.

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.


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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.

ISBN 978-1-933742-70-0

©2009 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating


and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
1791 Tullie Circle, N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30329
www.ashrae.org

All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

ASHRAE has compiled this publication with care, but ASHRAE has not investigated, and ASHRAE expressly disclaims
any duty to investigate, any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like that may be described herein. The
appearance of any technical data or editorial material in this publication does not constitute endorsement, warranty, or
guaranty by ASHRAE of any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like. ASHRAE does not warrant that the
information in the publication is free of errors, and ASHRAE does not necessarily agree with any statement or opinion in
this publication. The entire risk of the use of any information in this publication is assumed by the user.

No part of this publication may be reproduced without permission in writing from ASHRAE, except by a reviewer who
may quote brief passages or reproduce illustrations in a review with appropriate credit, nor may any part of this publication
be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any way or by any means—electronic, photocopying, record-
ing, or other—without permission in writing from ASHRAE. Requests for permission should be submitted at
www.ashrae.org/permissions.

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ASHRAE STAFF
SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS PUBLISHING SERVICES
Mark Owen David Soltis
Editor/Group Manager Group Manager of Publishing Services
of Handbook and Special Publications and Electronic Communications
Cindy Sheffield Michaels Jayne Jackson
Managing Editor Publication Traffic Administrator
James Madison Walker
Associate Editor PUBLISHER
Amelia Sanders
Assistant Editor W. Stephen Comstock
Elisabeth Parrish
Assistant Editor
Michshell Phillips
Editorial Coordinator
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.

Notes to Instructors
This manual contains solutions to most of the problems in the textbook, Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air
Conditioning, which is based on the 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals. Some of these problems require the use
of tables, figures, or equations in the 2009 Handbook that may not be found in Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and
Air Conditioning.

The solutions in this manual are generally presented in abbreviated form, with some intermediate computations omitted.
Answers and solutions are included for the majority of the problems. The remaining problems are either those requiring
discussion or those whose solutions depend on arbitrary assumptions or data selected by the instructor.

R.H. Howell
W.J. Coad

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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.

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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.

CONTENTS

Solutions to
Chapter 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Chapter 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Chapter 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Chapter 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Chapter 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Chapter 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Chapter 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Chapter 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Chapter 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Chapter 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Chapter 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Chapter 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Chapter 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Chapter 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Chapter 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Chapter 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Chapter 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Chapter 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Chapter 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

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Chapter 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
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Solutions to

Chapter 1
BACKGROUND

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Chapter 1—Background⏐3

1.1 Estimate whether ice will form on a clear night when


ambient air temperature is 45°F (7.2°C), if the water is
placed in a shallow pan in a sheltered location where the
convective heat transfer coefficient is 0.5 Btu/h⋅ft2⋅°F
(2.8 W/m2⋅K).

Heat in by convection = Heat out by radiation to space


(Assume space @ 0°R, Assume water is black body, ε = 1
4
hA ( T air – T water ) = σεAT water
Tw 4
( 0.5 ) ( 505 – T w ) = 0.1714 ⎛ ---------⎞ → by trial and error
⎝ 100⎠
T w ≈ 410°R = – 50°F ∴ will freeze

1.4 Estimate the size of cooling and heating equipment


that is needed for a new bank building in middle America
that is 140 × 220 × 12 ft high (42.7 × 67 × 3.7 m high). Be
conservative.

2
Floor area = ( 140 ) ( 220 ) = 30,800 ft
3
Volume = ( 140 ) ( 220 ) ( 12 ) = 370,000 ft
2 3
From Table 1.1: 250 ft ⁄ ton and 3.0 Btu/h ⋅ ft
2
30, 800 ft
∴Cooling: ----------------------------
2
- = 123 tons
250 ft ⁄ ton
3 3
Heating: ( 370,000 ft ) ( 3.0 Btu/h ⋅ ft ) = 1,110,000 Btu/hr or 1110 Mbh

1.5 Estimate the size of heating and cooling equipment

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that will be needed for a residence in middle America that
is 28 × 78 × 8 ft high (8.5 × 23.8 × 2.4 m high).

2 3
From Table 1.1: 700 ft ⁄ ton and 3.0 Btu ⁄ h ⋅ ft
( 28 ) ( 78 )
Cooling: ---------------------- = 3.12 tons or 3.12 × 12,000 = 37,400 Btu/h
( 700 )
3 3
Heating: [ ( 28 ) ( 78 ) ( 8 )ft ] ( 3.0 Btu/h ⋅ ft )
= 52,400 Btu ⁄ h

1.6 Estimate the initial cost of the complete HVAC


system (heating, cooling, and air moving) for an office
building, 40 × 150 × 10 ft high (12.2 × 45.7 × 3.1 m high).

40 × 150
Cooling unit: ----------------------------
3
= 17 tons
350 ft ⁄ ton
3
Heating unit: ( 40 ) ( 150 ) ( 10 ) ( 3 Btu/h ⋅ ft ) = 180,000 Btu/h
2
Air movement: 17 tons × 400 cfm/ton = 6900 cfm or [1.2 cfm/ft × 40 × 150 = 7200 cfm]
Costs: Cooling system ($1500/ton) × 17 tons = $25,500
Heating system ($2.50/cfm) × 6900 [ 7200 ] cfm = $17,250 [$18,000]
Fans/ducting ( $7.50 ) × 6900 [7200] cfm = $51,750 [$54,000]
Total = $94,500 [$97,500]
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4⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

1.7 Estimate the annual operating cost for the building in


Problem 1.6 if it is all-electric.

2
From Table 1.2: 30.5 kWh / ft ⋅ yr
Energy = ( 40 × 150 ) ( 30.5 ) = 183,000 kWh
Cost = $0.08 ( 183,000 ) = $14,640

1.8 Open-ended design problem.

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Solutions to

Chapter 2
THERMODYNAMICS
AND PSYCHROMETRICS

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Chapter 2—Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics⏐7

2.6 Two pounds of air contained in a cylinder expand


without friction against a piston. The pressure on the back
side of the piston is constant at 200 psia. The air initially
occupies a volume of 0.50 ft3. What is the work done by
the air in ft-lbf if the expansion continues until the
temperature of the air reaches 100°F?

mRT 2 ( 2 ) ( 53.3 ) ( 560 ) 3


PV = mRT V 2 = -------------- = ------------------------------------- = 2.073 ft
P2 ( 200 ) ( 144 )
2
W = ∫ P dv = P ∫ dv = P ( v 2 – v 1 ) = ( 200 ) ( 144 ) ( 2.073 – 0.5 ) = 45,300 ft ⋅ lb f
1

2.7 Determine the specific volume, enthalpy, and


entropy of 1 kg of R-134a at a saturation temperature of
–5°C and a quality of 14%.

from R-134a tables:


1 -⎞
ν = 0.14 ( 0.083 ) + 0.86 ⎛ -----------
3
= 0.0123 m ⁄ kg
⎝ 1310⎠
h = 0.14 ( 395.8 ) + 0.86 ( 192.9 ) = 221.3 kJ/kg
s = 0.14 ( 1.7306 ) + 0.86 ( 0.976 ) = 1.082 kJ/kg ⋅ K

2.8 Saturated R-134a vapor at 42°C is superheated at


constant pressure to a final temperature of 72°C. What is
the pressure? What are the changes in specific volume,
enthalpy, entropy, and internal energy?

from R-134a tables:

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3
1. 42°C = 315 K: P = 1.0721 MPa; v g = 0.0189 m ⁄ kg ; h g = 420.44 kJ/kg
6
S g = 1.7108 kJ/kg ⋅ K u = h – Pν = 420.44 – 1.0721 ( 10 ) ( 0.0189 ⁄ 1000 )
u = 400.2 kJ/kg
1
2. 72°C = 345 K: P = 1.0037 MPa; ----- = 42.0; h 2 = 453, s 2 = 1.81
ν2
u 2 = 608.3

ν 2 – ν 1 = ⎛ ------ – 0.0189⎞ = 0.0049 m ⁄ kg;


1 3
h 2 – h 1 = 453 – 420.44 = 32.6 kJ/kg
⎝ 42 ⎠
s 2 – s 1 = 1.81 – 1.71 = 0.10 kJ/kg ⋅ k; u 2 – u 1 = 427.5 – 400.2 = 27.3 kJ/kg
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8⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

2.9 A tank having a volume of 200 ft3 contains saturated


vapor (steam) at a pressure of 20 psia. Attached to this
tank is a line in which vapor at 100 psia, 400°F flows.
Steam from this line enters the vessel until the pressure is
100 psia. If there is no heat transfer from the tank and the
heat capacity of the tank is neglected, calculate the mass
of steam that enters the tank.
Steam line: P = 100 psi ; t = 400°F

Tank: P 1 = 20 psi, sat vapor


P 2 = 100 psi

3 200
ν 1 = 20.09 ft ⁄ lb m ⇒ m 1 = ------------- = 9.955 lb m
20.09

V2
m 2 = ------ and mi hi = m2 u2 – m1 u1 by trial and error
ν2
200
Try T 2 = 550°F u 2 = 1195 m 2 = --------- = 33.9 lbm
5.9
?
( 33.9 – 9.955 ) ( 1228 ) = ( 33.9 ) ( 1195 ) – ( 9.955 ) ( 1082 )

29400 ≈ 29700 ∴ m i = 33.9 – 9.955 = 23.95 lb m

2.10 Determine the heat required to vaporize 50 kg of


water at a saturation temperature of 100°C.

Q = mh fg = ( 50 kg ) ( 2256.28 ) kJ ⁄ kg = 112,800 kJ

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2.11 The temperature of 150 kg of water is raised from
15°C to 85°C by the addition of heat. How much heat is
supplied?

Q = mc p ( Δt ) = ( 150 kg ) ⎛⎝ 4.180 --------------⎞⎠ ( 85 – 15 ) K = 43,890 kJ


kJ
kg ⋅ K

2.12 Three cubic meters per second of water are cooled


from 30°C to 2°C. Compute the rate of heat transfer in
kilojoules per second (kilowatts).

V· ⎛ ⎞
3
3 m ⁄s
Q = mc p Δt = --- c p Δt = ⎜ -----------------------------------------⎟ ( 4.18 kJ ⁄ kg ⋅ K ) ( 30 – 2 ) K
ν ⎝ 0.001004 m ⁄ kg⎠ 3

Q = 350,000 kW

Q = m Δh = ⎛⎝ ----------------------⎞⎠ ( 125.72 – 8.39 ) = 351,000 kW


3
or
0.001004
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Chapter 2—Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics⏐9

2.13 Consider 10 lbm of air that is initially at 14.7 psia,


100°F. Heat is transferred to the air until the temperature
reaches 500°F. Determine the change of internal energy,
the change in enthalpy, the heat transfer, and the work
done for:
a. a constant-volume process
b. a constant-pressure process.

a. Closed system, constant volume process, perfect gas


ΔU = mc v Δt = ( 10 ) ( 0.171 ) ( 500 – 100 ) = 684 Btu
ΔH = mc p Δt = ( 10 ) ( 0.240 ) ( 500 – 100 ) = 960 Btu
Q – W = ΔU (closed system); w = 0 since constant volume
Q = ΔU = 684 Btu
b. Closed system, constant pressure process, perfect gas
ΔU = 684 Btu ; ΔH = 960 Btu
p = c: Q = mc p Δt = ΔH = 960 Btu
Q – W = ΔU (closed system) ; W = Q – Δu = 960 – 684 = 276 Btu

2.14 The discharge of a pump is 10 ft above the inlet.


Water enters at a pressure of 20 psia and leaves at a pres-
sure of 200 psia. The specific volume of the water is 0.016
ft3/lb. If there is no heat transfer and no change in kinetic
or internal energy, what is the work per pound?

From 1st Law:


P1 ν1 – P2 ν2 g z1 – z2
w = ------------------------------ + ----- ---------------
J gc J
( 0.016 ) ( 20 – 200 ) ( 144 ) ( 32.2 ) ( – 10 )
= ---------------------------------------------------------- + --------------- --------------

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778 ( 32.2 ) ( 778 )
= – 0.533 – 0.013 = – 0.546 Btu/lb m

2.15 The discharge of a pump is 3 m above the inlet.


Water enters at a pressure of 138 kPa and leaves at a pres-
sure of 1380 kPa. The specific volume of the water is
0.001 m3/kg. If there is no heat transfer and no change in
kinetic or internal energy, what is the work per unit mass?

2 2
⎛ ν1 ⎞ ⎛ ν1 ⎞
m ⎜ u 1 + P 1 ν 1 + ----- + gz 1⎟ – ⎜ u 2 + P 2 ν 2 + ----- + gz 2⎟ + Q – W = 0
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
( 138 ) ( 0.001 ) – ( 1380 ) ( 0.001 ) – ( 3 ) ( 9.806 ) – W = 0
W = – 30.66 J ( Note 1 J (Joule) = 1 N ⋅ m )
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10⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

2.16 Air is compressed in a reversible, isothermal,


steady-flow process from 15 psia, 100°F to 100 psia.
Calculate the work of compression per pound, the change
of entropy, and the heat transfer per pound of air
compressed.

P 1 = 15 psi , t 1 = 100°F P 2 = 100 psi , t 2 = 100°F


RT 1 ( 53.3 ) ( 373 ) 3
ν 1 = --------- = ----------------------------- = 9.21 ft ⁄ lb m
P1 ( 15 ) ( 144 )
P1
ν 2 = ν 1 ⎛⎝ ------⎞⎠ = ( 9.21 ) ⎛⎝ ---------⎞⎠ = 1.38 ft ⁄ lb m
15 3
P2 100
P1 ν1
Pν = constant ⇒ p = ------------
ν
2 ν2
w = ∫ P dν ------ = P 1 ν 1 ln ⎛⎝ -----⎞⎠
= P 1 ν 1 ∫ dν
1 ν ν1

w = ( 15 ) ( 144 ) ( 9.21 ) ln ⎛⎝ ----------⎞⎠


1.38
= – 37,800 ft ⋅ lb f ⁄ lb m
9.21
T2 P2
ΔS = C p ln ⎛ -----⎞ – R ln ⎛ ------⎞ = ( 0.24 ) ln ⎛ ---------⎞ – ( 53.3 ) ln ⎛ ---------⎞
373 100
⎝ T 1⎠ ⎝ P 1⎠ ⎝ 373⎠ ⎝ 15 ⎠
= 0 – 101.2 = – 101.2 ft lb f ⁄ lb m ⋅ °R = – 0.13 Btu ⁄ lb m ⋅ °R

2.17 Liquid nitrogen at a temperature of –240°F exists in


a container, and both the liquid and vapor phases are pres-
ent. The volume of the container is 3 ft3 and the mass of
nitrogen in the container has been determined as 44.5 lbm.
What is the mass of liquid and the mass of vapor present
in the container?

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3
V = 3 ft
3
t = – 240°F ν f = 0.02613 ft ⁄ lb m

m = 44.5 lb m = 220°R 3
ν g = 0.0750 ft ⁄ lb m
3
ν = V ⁄ m = 3 ⁄ 44.5 = 0.0674 ft ⁄ lb m
ν = νf + χ ( νg – νf )
ν – νf ( 0.0674 – 0.02613 )
x = ---------------- = ---------------------------------------------- = 0.8445
νg – νf ( 0.0750 – 0.02613 )
m v = mx = ( 44.5 ) ( 0.8445 ) = 37.58 lb m vapor
m L = m ( 1 – x ) = ( 44.5 ) ( 1 – 0.8445 ) = 6.92 lb m liquid
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
© (2009), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org).
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 2—Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics⏐11

2.18 A fan in an air-conditioning system is drawing


1.25 hp at 1760 rpm. The capacity through the fan is
0.85 m3/s of 24°C air and the inlet and outlet ducts are
0.31 m in diameter. What is the temperature rise of the air
due to this fan?

2 2
⎛ v 1⎞ ⎛ V 2⎞ πD
2
2
m ⎜ h1 + -----⎟ – ⎜ h 2 + ------⎟ – w = 0 A = ---------- = 0.0755 m
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 4

V· 0.85
m ( h1 – h2 ) – w = 0 V 1 = --- = ---------------- = 11.26 m/s
A 0.0755
V 2 = V 1 since small ΔT and ΔP
m Cp ( t1 – t2 ) – w = 0
P 1 V· 1 = m· 1 RT 1
( 1.25 ) ( 0.746 ) ( 101.3 ) ( 1000 ) ( 0.85 )
t 1 – t 2 = ---------------------------------- = 0.91 K m· = --------------------------------------------------- = 1.02 kg/s
( 1.02 ) ( 1.005 ) ( 287 ) ( 294 )

2.19 Air is contained in a cylinder. Initially, the cylinder


contains 1.5 m3 of air at 150 kPa, 20°C. The air is then
compressed reversibly according to the relationship pvn =
constant until the final pressure is 600 kPa, at which point
the temperature is 120°C. For this process determine:
a. the polytropic exponent n
b. the final volume of the air
c. the work done on the air and the heat transfer

( 287 ) ( 393 ) 3 ( 287 ) ( 294 ) 3


P 2 ν 2 = RT 2 ; ν 2 = ------------------------------- = 0.1880 m ⁄ kg ν 1 = ------------------------------- = 0.561 m ⁄ kg
( 600 ) ( 1000 ) ( 150 ) ( 1000 )
ν2 n P1 n
a. ⎛ -----⎞ = ------ ; ⎛ 0.188
-------------⎞ = 150
n
--------- 0.335 = 0.25 ; n = 1.27
⎝ ν 1⎠ P2 ⎝ 0.561 ⎠ 600

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V1 1.5 V2 3
b. m = ------ = ------------- = 2.674 kg = ------ ; V 2 = ( 2.674 ) ( 0.188 ) = 0.503 m
ν 1 0.561 ν2
P2 V2 – P1 V1 R ( T2 – T1 )
dv- ------------------------------
c. W = ∫ P dv = c ∫ ---- = - = -------------------------- = – 106.3 kJ
v
n 1–n 1–n
Q = W + m ( U 2 – U 1 ) = – 106.3 + ( 2.674 ) ( 0.718 ) ( 120 – 20 ) = 85.7 kJ

2.20 Water at 20°C is pumped from ground level to an


elevated storage tank above ground level; the volume of
the tank is 50 m3. Initially, the tank contains air at 100
kPa, 20°C, and the tank is closed so that the air is
compressed as the water enters the bottom of the tank.
The pump is operated until the tank is three-quarters full.
The temperature of the air and water remain constant at
20°C. Determine the work input to the pump.
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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12⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

v v
W against air = ∫ Pdv = mRT ∫ dv
----- = mRT ln ----2- = P 1 v 1 ln ----2-
v v1 v1
= ( 100 ) ( 1000 ) ( 50 ) ln ( 0.25 ) = – 6930 kJ
( 50 )
W to elevate = mg Δz = ( 3 ⁄ 4 ) --------------------------- ( 9.8 ) ( 40 ) = 14670 kJ
( 0.001002 )
W total from pump = 6930 + 14670 = 21,600 kJ

2.21 A centrifugal pump delivers liquid oxygen to a


rocket engine at the rate of 100 lbm/s. The oxygen enters
the pump as liquid at 15 psia and the discharge pressure
is 500 psia. The density of liquid oxygen is 66.7 lbm/ft3.
Determine the minimum size motor (in horsepower) to
drive this pump.

·
w· = m· ∫ ν dP = m· ν ( P 2 – P 1 )

= ( 100 ) ( 3600 ) ⎛ ----------⎞ ( 500 – 15 ) ( 144 ) = 3.769 × 10 ft ⋅ lb f


1 8
⎝ 66.7⎠
8
( 3.769 × 10 )
w· HP = --------------------------------- = 190.4 Hp
( 778 ) ( 2545 )

2.22 Air undergoes a steady-flow, reversible adiabatic


process. The initial state is 200 psia, 1500°F, and the final
pressure is 20 psia. Changes in kinetic and potential
energy are negligible. Determine
a. final temperature
b. final specific volume
c. change in internal energy per lbm
d. change in enthalpy per lbm
e. work per lbm

This copy downloaded on 2016-03-20 16:05:39 -0500 by authorized user University of Toronto
P 1 = 200 psi t 1 = 1500°F P 2 = 20 psi
K – 1- 1.4 – 1-
------------ ---------------
P2 K 1.4
a. T 2 = T 1 ⎛⎝ ------⎞⎠ = ( 1960 ) ⎛⎝ ---------⎞⎠
20
= 1015.2 R
P1 200
RT 2 ( 53.3 ) ( 1051.2 ) 3
b. ν 2 = --------- = ------------------------------------- = 19.469 ft ⁄ lb m
P2 ( 20 ) ( 144 )
c. Δu = c u ΔT = ( 0.171 ) ( 1015.2 – 1960 ) = – 161.6 Btu/lb m
d. ΔH = c p ΔT = ( 0.240 ) ( 1015.2 – 1960 ) = – 266.8 Btu/lb m
e. δq – δw = δu = – 161.6 Btu/lb m

2.23 Air undergoes a steady-flow, reversible adiabatic


process. The initial state is 1400 kPa, 815°C, and the final
pressure is 140 kPa. Changes in kinetic and potential
energy are negligible. Determine
a. final temperature
b. final specific volume
c. change in specific internal energy
d. change in specific enthalpy
e. specific work
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 2—Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics⏐13

– 1-
k----------
P2 k 140 0.286
a. T 2 = T 1 ⎛⎝ ------⎞⎠ = 1088 ⎛⎝ ------------⎞⎠ = 563 K = 290°C
P1 1400
b. P 2 ν 2 = RT 2 , R air = 0.0287 N ⋅ m ⁄ g ⋅ K
3
( 140 ) ( 1000 )ν 2 = ( 0.0287 ) ( 563 ) ⇒ ν 2 = 0.115 m ⁄ kg
c. u 2 – u 1 = c v ( T 2 – T 1 ) = ( 0.718 ) ( 290 – 815 ) = – 377 kJ/kg
d. h 2 – h 1 = c p ( T 2 – T 1 ) = ( 1.005 ) ( 290 – 815 ) = – 528 kJ/kg
e. h 1 – h 2 – w = 0 ; w = 528 kJ/kg

2.24 A fan provides fresh air to the welding area in an


industrial plant. The fan takes in outside air at 80°F and
14.7 psia at the rate of 1200 cfm with negligible inlet
velocity. In the 10 ft2 duct leaving the fan, air pressure is
1 psig. If the process is assumed to be reversible and adia-
batic, determine the size motor needed to drive the fan.
[Ans: W = 5.1 hp]

Pv· ( 14.7 ) ( 144 ) ( 1200 )


m· = ------- = ---------------------------------------------- = 88.2 lb m /min
RT ( 53.3 ) ( 540 )
– 1-
k---------- 1.4 – 1-
---------------
P2 k 1.4
T 2 = T 1 ⎛⎝ ------⎞⎠ = 540 ⎛⎝ ----------⎞⎠
15.7
= 550.25°R
P1 14.7
RT 2 ( 53.3 ) ( 550.25 ) 3
ν 2 = --------- = ------------------------------------- = 12.98 ft ⁄ lb m
P2 ( 15.7 ) ( 14.4 )
mν 2 ( 88.7 ) ( 12.98 )
V 2 = ---------- = ---------------------------------- = 144.5 ft/min
A2 ( 10 )
2 2
⎛ v2 ⎞ V2

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W = m h 1 – ⎜ h 2 + ------------⎟ = m c p ( T 1 – T 2 ) + ------------
⎝ 2gcJ ⎠ 2gcJ
2
( 144.5 ⁄ 60 )
= ( 88.2 ) ( 60 ) 0.24 ( 540 – 550.25 ) – -------------------------------------
( 2 ) ( 32.2 ) ( 778 )
= – 13,020 Btu/h = 5.12 hp

2.25 If the fan in the previous problem has an efficiency


of 64% and is driven by a motor having an efficiency of
78%, determine the required power, kW.

HP Ideal ( 5.12 )
HP actual = ------------------------------------- = ------------------------------- = 10.3 hp
( η fan ) ( η motor ) ( 0.64 ) ( 0.78 )

2.26 A fan provides fresh air to the welding area in an


industrial plant. The fan takes in outside air at 32.2°C and
101.4 kPa at the rate of 566 L/s with negligible inlet
velocity. In the 0.93 m2 duct leaving the fan, air pressure
is 102 kPa. Determine the minimum size motor needed to
drive the fan.
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
14⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

P 1 V· 1 ( 101.4 ) ( 1000 ) ( 0.566 )


m = ------------ = ------------------------------------------------------ = 0.655 kg/s
RT 1 ( 287 ) ( 305.2 )
k – 1-
---------- 1.4 – 1
----------------
P2 k 1.4
T 2 = T 1 ⎛ ------⎞ = ( 305.2 ) ⎛ -------------⎞
102
= 305.7 K
⎝ P 1⎠ ⎝ 101.4⎠
RT 2 ( 287 ) ( 305.7 ) 3
ν 2 = --------- = -------------------------------- = 0.860 m ⁄ kg
P2 ( 102 ) ( 1000 )
mν 2 ( 0.655 ) ( 0.860 )
V· 2 = ---------- = ------------------------------------- = 0.606 m/s (small, neglect kinetic energy)
A2 ( 0.93 )
W = m ( h 1 – h 2 ) = mc p ΔT = ( 0.655 ) ( 0.718 ) ( 305.2 – 305.7 ) = 0.24 kW

2.27 In an insulated feedwater heater, steam condenses


at a constant temperature of 220°F. The feedwater is
heated from 60 to 150°F at constant pressure.
a. Assuming the specific heat at constant pressure of
the feedwater is unity, how many Btu are absorbed by
each pound in its passage through the heater? [Ans:
90 Btu/lb]
b. What is the change in entropy of the condens-
ing steam per pound of feedwater heated?
[Ans: −0.1324 Btu/lb m⋅R]
c. What is the change in entropy of 1 lb of feedwa-
ter as it passes through the heater? [Ans:
+0.1595 Btu/lb m⋅R]
d. What is the change in entropy of the combined sys-
tem? Does this violate the second law? Explain.
[Ans: +0.0271 Btu/lb m⋅R, No]

This copy downloaded on 2016-03-20 16:05:39 -0500 by authorized user University of Toronto
= m F.W. C p ΔT ; ⎛ ----⎞
Q
a. Q loss = Q again = C p ΔT
steam F.W. ⎝ m⎠ FW

⎛Q----⎞
⎝ m⎠ F.W. = ( 1.0 ) ( 90 ) = 90 Btu ⁄ lb m F.W.

b. ( m Δh ) steam = m FW ⎛ ----⎞
Q
Assume 1.0 lb m feed water
⎝ m⎠ F.W.
m FW ( Q ⁄ m ) FW ( 1.0 ) ( 90 )
m steam = ------------------------------------ = ----------------------- = 0.0932 lb m
Δh ( 965.3 ) steam

ΔS steam = m s s fg = ( 0.0932 ) ( 1.4201 ) = 0.1324 Btu ⁄ lb m ⋅R


FW

c. ΔS FW = m FW ( s f – sf ) = 1.0 [ ( 0.2150 ) – ( 0.0555 ) ]


150°F 60°F

= 0.1595 Btu ⁄ lbm ⋅ R


d. Δs T = Δs FW – Δs steam = ( 0.1595 ) – ( 0.1324 ) = 0.0271 Btu ⁄ lb m ⋅ R
Does not violate 2nd Law; ΔS is positive.
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 2—Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics⏐15

2.28 Steam at 124 kPa and 96% quality enters a radiator.


The steam is condensed as it flows through the radiator
and leaves as condensate at 88°C. If the radiator is to have
a heating capacity of 1.85 kW, how many kilograms per
hour of steam must be supplied to the radiator?

Steam 1. 124 Kpa, 0.96 quality: h 1 = 444 + 0.96 ( 2241 ) = 2595


2. 88°C liquid: h 2 = 368.6
Q = m ( h 1 – h 2 ) = 1.85 = m ( 2595 – 368.6 )
m = 0.00083 kg/s = 6.6 lb m ⁄ h

2.29 Solve the following:


a. Air at 50 psia and 90°F flows through a restriction in a
2 in. ID pipe. The velocity of the air upstream from the
restriction is 450 fpm. If 58°F air is desired, what must
the velocity downstream of the restriction be?
Comment on this as a method of cooling.
b. Air at 50 psia and 90°F flows through an insulated
turbine at the rate of 1.6 lbm/s. If the air delivers 11.5
hp to the turbine blades, at what temperature does the
air leave the turbine?
c. Air at 50 psia and 90°F flows through an insulated
turbine at the rate of 1.6 lbm/s to an exit pressure of
14.7 psia. What is the lowest temperature attainable
at exit?

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16⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

2 2
⎛ V1 ⎞ ⎛ V2 ⎞
a. ⎜ h 1 + ------------⎟ – ⎜ h 2 + ------------⎟ = 0
⎝ 2gcJ ⎠ ⎝ 2gcJ ⎠
2 2 2
V1 V2 ( 450 ⁄ 60 )
C p + ( T 1 – T 2 ) + ------------ = ------------ = ( 0.24 ) ( 90 – 58 ) + -------------------------------------
2gcJ 2gcJ ( 2 ) ( 32.2 ) ( 778 )
V 2 = 620 fps = 37,200 fpm
Not cooling since temperature will increase as fluid slows down.

b. m ( h 1 – h 2 ) – W = 0
mC p ( T 1 – T 2 ) – W = 0 ; ( 1.6 ) ( 3600 ) ( 0.24 ) ( 90 – T 2 ) = 11.5 ( 2545 )
t 2 = 68.8°F

c. Rev. Adiabatic for Minimum = Isentropic


K – 1-
------------
P2 K 0.286
T 2 = T 1 ⎛⎝ ------⎞⎠ = ( 550 ) ⎛⎝ ----------⎞⎠
14.7
= 388R = – 72°F
P1 50

2.30 Liquid water at a pressure of 10 psia and a temper-


ature of 80°F enters a 1 in. diameter tube at the rate of 0.8
ft3/min. Heat is transferred to the water so that it leaves as
saturated vapor at 9 psia. Determine the heat transfer per
minute. [Ans: 95,800 Btu/min]

V· 1 = 0.8 ft /min
3
P 1 = 10 psi t 1 = 80°F
P 2 = 9 psi Sat. vapor @ 2
2 2
Dia. = 1 in. ⇒ A = 0.7854 in. = 0.00545 ft

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3 3
ν1 ≅ νf = 0.01607 ft /lb m v 2 = 42.367 ft /lb m
80°F

h1 ≅ hf = 48.05 Btu/lb m h 2 = 1141.215 Btu/lb m


80°F

V· 1 ( 0.8 )
U 1 = ------ = ------------------------ = 146.8 ft/min
A ( 0.00545 )
ν2
U 2 = U 1 ⎛ -----⎞ = 146.8 ⎛ -------------------⎞ = 387,024 ft/min
42.367
⎝ v1⎠ ⎝ 0.01607⎠
U1 A ( 146.8 ) ( 0.00545 )
m = ---------- = ------------------------------------------- = 49.78 lb m /min
ν1 ( 0.01607 )
2 2
⎛ U 2 – U 1⎞ ( 387024 ) – ( 1468 )
2 2
Q· = m· ⎜ h 2 – h 1 + -------------------⎟ = ( 49.78 ) 1141.25 – 48.05 + -------------------------------------------------------
⎝ 2gc ⎠ ( 2 ) ( 32.2 ) ( 3600 ) ( 778 )
= ( 49.78 ) [ 1093.165 + 830.43 ] = 95,800 Btu/min

2.31 A refrigerator uses R-134a as the refrigerant and


handles 200 lbm/h. Condensing temperature is 110°F and
evaporating temperature is 5°F. For a cooling effect of
11,000 Btu/h, determine the minimum size motor (hp)
required to drive the compressor.
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
© (2009), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org).
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 2—Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics⏐17

@  x = 1.0 t = 5°F
h = 103.745, s = 0.22470

@  p = 161.05 psi, s = 0.22470


h ≅ 120

W· = m· ( h 1 – h 4 ) = 200 ( 120 – 103.7 ) = 3260 Btu/h

W· = ------------ = 1.28 Hp [Minimum for mechanical vapor compression cycle.]


3260
2545
1 1
COP = ------------------------- = ------------------------------- = 4.4286
TR ⁄ TA – 1 570 ⁄ 465 – 1

W· = ---------------- = 2483.9 Btu/h = 0.976 Hp [Minimum for reversed Carnot cycle]


11,000
4.4286

2.32 A heat pump is used in place of a furnace for heating


a house. In winter, when the outside air temperature is
10°F, the heat loss from the house is 60,000 Btu/h if the
inside is maintained at 70°F. Determine the minimum
electric power required to operate the heat pump (in kW).

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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
18⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

For minimum consider reversible Carnot cycle.


QR QR 1 1
COP heating = ------- = -------------------- = --------------------------- = --------------------------
W QR – QA 1 – QA ⁄ QR 1 – TL ⁄ TH
1
= ------------------------------- = 8.833
1 – 470 ⁄ 530
QR ( 60,000 )
W = ----------------------------- = ----------------------------------- = 1.99 kW
COP heating ( 8.833 ) ( 3413 )

2.33 A heat pump is used in place of a furnace for heating


a house. In winter, when the outside air temperature is −
10°C, the heat loss from the house is 200 kW if the inside
is maintained at 21°C. Determine the minimum electric
power required to operate the heat pump. [Ans: 21.1 kW]

1 1
COP h ( max ) = ------------------------- = ------------------------------- = 9.48
1 – TL ⁄ Th 1 – 263 ⁄ 298
QR 200
W min = --------------------- = ---------- = 21.1 kW
COP max 9.48

2.34 Refrigerant-134a vapor enters a compressor at 25


psia, 40°F, and the mass rate of flow is 5 lbm/min. What
is the smallest diameter tubing that can be used if the
velocity of refrigerant must not exceed 20 ft/s?

3 1 3
25 psi, 40°F ⇒ ρ = 0.449 lb/ft ; v = ------------- = 2.23 ft /lb
0.449
2
V πd ( 20 )
5 ⁄ 60 = A --- = ----------------- ---------------
v 4 ( 144 ) ( 2.23 )

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2
d = 1.70 ⇒ d = 1.30 in.

2.35 An R-134a refrigerating system is operating with a


condensing temperature of 86°F and evaporating temper-
ature of 25°F. If the liquid line from the condenser is
soldered to the suction line from the evaporator to form a
simple heat exchanger, and if as a result of this, saturated
liquid leaving the condenser is subcooled 6°F, how many
degrees will the saturated vapor leaving the evaporator be
superheated? (Use tables.)
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 2—Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics⏐19

h 1 – h 2 = h 4 – h 3 ⇒ ( 40.5 ) – ( 38 ) = h 4 – ( 106.6 )
h 4 = 109.1 Btu/lb m ⎫
⎬t = 44°F
P 4 = 36.8 psi ⎭ 4
°SH = 44 – 25 = 19°

2.36 Ammonia is heated in the evaporator of a refriger-


ation system from inlet conditions of 10°F, 10% quality,
to saturated vapor. The pressure remains constant during
the process. For each pound, determine the changes in
enthalpy and volume. [Ans: 505 Btu/lb; 6.55 ft3/lb]

t 1 = 10°F x 1 = 10% = 0.10 P 1 = P 2 = constant


Sat. vapor @ 2 v f1 = 0.02446 v g1 = 7.304
3
v 1 = ( 0.02446 ) – ( 0.10 ) ( 7.304 – 0.02446 ) = 0.7524 ft /lb m
3
Δv = 7.304 – 0.7524 = 6.552 ft /lb m
h f1 = 53.8 h g = 614.9
h 1 = 53.8 + ( 0.10 ) ( 614.9 – 53.8 ) = 109.9 Btu/lb m
Δh = 614.9 – 109.9 = 505 Btu/lb m

2.37 For a compressor using R-134a with an evaporator

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temperature of 20°F and a condensing temperature of
80°F, calculate per ton of refrigeration
a. displacement
b. mass flow
c. horsepower required
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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20⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

qL 12000
b. m· = ----------------- = ------------------------------------ = 176.7 = 2.94 lb m /min ton
h1 – h4 105.9 – 37.978

a. PD = m· v 1 = ( 176.7 ) ( 1.4101 ) = 249 ft /h ⋅ ton = 415 ft /min ton


3 3

c. w· = m· ( h 2 – h 1 ) = 176.7 [ 117 – 105.9 ] = 1961 Btu/h ⋅ ton


= 0.771 Hp/ton

2.38 For a compressor using an R-22 system operating


between 100°F condensing temperature and −10°F evap-
orator temperature, calculate per ton
a. displacement
b. mass flow
c. horsepower required
qL 12000
b. m· = ----------------- = ------------------------------------ = 186.9 lb m ⁄ h ⋅ ton = 3.12 lb m /min ton
h1 – h4 103.45 – 39.27

a. PD = m· v 1 = ( 186.9 ) ( 1.6825 ) = 314 ft /h ⋅ ton = 5.24 ft /min ton


3 3

c. w· = m· ( h – h ) = 186.9 [ 125 – 103.46 ] = 4018.4 Btu/h ⋅ ton


2 1
= 1.58 Hp/ton

2.39 An industrial plant has available a 4 cylinder, 3 in.


bore by 4 in. stroke, 800 rpm, single-acting compressor
for use with R-134a. Proposed operating conditions for
the compressor are 100°F condensing temperature and
40°F evaporating temperature. It is estimated that the
refrigerant will enter the expansion valve as a saturated
liquid, that vapor will leave the evaporator at a tempera-
ture of 45°F, and that vapor will enter the compressor at

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a temperature of 55°F. Assume a compressor-volumetric
efficiency of 70% and frictionless flow. Calculate the
refrigerating capacity in tons for a system equipped with
this compressor. Plot the cycle on the p-h diagram. [Ans:
12 tons]

3
v ≅ 1.0 ft ⁄ lbm q L = 110 – 44.9 = 65.1 Btu/lbm
2
π3
V· ideal = ( 800 ) ⎛ ---------⎞ ( 4 ) ⎛ ------------⎞
1
compressor:
⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 1728⎠
3
= 13.09 ft ⁄ lbm
V· actual = 4 ( 13.09 ) ( 0.70 ) = 36.65 ft ⁄ min
3

m· q L [ ( 36.65 ) ( 60 ) ] ( 65.1 )
capacity = --------------- = -------------------------------------------------- ≈ 12 tons
12000 ( 0.80 ) ( 12000 )

2.40 A mechanical refrigeration system with R-134a is a capacity of 15 kW, determine:


operating under such conditions that the evaporator pres- a. the refrigerating effect per kilogram of refrigerant
sure is 160 kPa and the liquid approaching the refrigerant circulated
control valve is at a temperature of 41°C. If the system has
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Chapter 2—Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics⏐21

b. the mass flow rate in kilograms per second per kilo-


watt
c. the volume flow rate in liters per second per kilowatt
at the compressor inlet
d. the total mass flow rate in kilograms per second
e. the total volume flow rate in liters per second at the
compressor inlet

a) q e = h 1 – h 4 = 389 – 258 = 131 kJ/kg


1
b) m = --------- = 0.0075 kg/s
131
c) V 1 = mv 1 = ( 0.0076 ) ( 0.126 ) ( 1000 ) = 0.97 l/s
15
d) m = --------- = 0.115 kg/s
131
e) v· = mv 1 = ( 0.115 ) ( 0.126 ) ( 1000 ) = 14.4 l/s

2.41 A vapor-compression R-22 refrigeration system is


being designed to provide 50 kW of cooling when oper-
ating between evaporating and condensing temperatures
of 0°C and 34°C, respectively. The refrigerant leaving the
condenser is subcooled 3 degrees and the vapor leaving
the evaporator is superheated 5 degrees. Determine
a. ideal compressor discharge temperature, °C
b. refrigerant flow rate, kg/s

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c. compressor motor size, kW
d. COP for cooling
e. compressor discharge temperature if compression
efficiency is 60%
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22⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

h 1 = 409 s 1 = 1.76
h 2 = 434 h 3 = h 4 = 237.7
a) t 2i = 55°C
50
b) m = --------------------------------- = 0.292 kg/s
( 409 – 237.7 )
c) P = 0.292 ( 434 – 409 ) = 7.30 kW
50
d) COP c = ------- = 6.85
7.3
( 434 – 409 )
e) h 2a = 409 + ---------------------------- = 451 ⇒ t 2a ≅ 75°C
0.60

2.42 For a line of ammonia compressors, the actual volu-


metric efficiency is given by:
ηva = 94 – 6.1(pd/ps), %
The compression efficiency is fairly constant at 82%. A
compressor in this line has two cylinders, each having a
92 mm bore and a 74 mm stroke. The compressor has
4.5% clearance and operates at 28 r/s. The system is being
selected for an air-conditioning unit and will therefore
operate between an evaporating temperature of 0°C and a
condensing temperature of 35°C. There is 5°C of
subcooling in the condenser and 10°C of superheating in
the evaporator. Sketch and label the system, including
appropriate values for the thermodynamic properties,
starting with state 1 at the compressor inlet. Determine
a. refrigerant flow rate
b. refrigerating capacity
c. compressor motor size

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d. compressor discharge temperature
e. COPc

1 3
h 1 = 252, s 1 = 10.4, v 1 = ------- = 0.303 m ⁄ kg
3.3
1
h 2i = 700, v 2i = ------- = 0.123 t 2i = 95°C
8.1
700 – 525
h 2a = 525 + ⎛ ------------------------⎞ = 738, v 2a = ------- = 0.123
1
⎝ 0.82 ⎠ 8.1
d) t 2a ≈ 110°C
2
2π ( 0.092 )
η av = 94 – 6.1 ⎛⎝ ----------⎞⎠ = 74.85%
1.35 3
PD = --------------------------- ( 0.74 ) ( 28 ) = 0.0275 m ⁄ s
0.43 4
( 0.7485 ) ( 0.0275 )
a) m = ------------------------------------------- = 0.0675 kg/s
0.303
b) Q e = m ( h 1 – h 4 ) = 0.0675 [ 525 – ( – 620.7 ) ] = 77.4 kW
c) W = m ( h 2 – h 1 ) = ( 0.0675 ) [ 738 – 525 ] = 14.4 kW
Qe 77.5
e) COP = ------ = ---------- = 5.4
W 14.4
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Chapter 2—Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics⏐23

2.43 An ammonia refrigerating system is operating with


a condensing temperature of 30°C and an evaporating
temperature of −4°C. For the ideal standard vapor
compression cycle, determine
a. refrigerating effect
b. COP
Sketch and label a p-h diagram showing values.

h 1 = h g @ – 4°C = 494
h 2 = 650
h 3 = h 4 = – 621.4

a) Q e = ( h 1 – h 4 ) = 494 – ( – 621.4 ) = 1115.4 kJ/kg


Qe h1 – h4 ( 1115.4 )
b) COP = ------ = ----------------- = ---------------------------- = 7.15
W h2 – h1 ( 650 – 494 )

2.44 A single-cylinder R-22 compressor has a 50 mm


bore, a 40 mm stroke, and operates at 1725 rpm. Clear-
ance volume is 4%. Determine as close as possible the
actual refrigerating capacity, kW, and the required motor
size, in hp, if the compressor is used in a system operating
between 10°C and 40°C, evaporating and condensing

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temperatures, respectively.

1. h 1 = 408.3, s 1 = 1.7349, v 1 = 0.03462


1
2. s 2 = 1.7349, h 2 ≅ 432, v 2 = ------ = 0.0147
68
3. h 3 = 256.1
4. h 4 = 256.1
Estimated volumetric efficienty based on
re-expansion of TRAPPED GAS.
v1
η v = 100 – cv ⎛ ----- – 1⎞ = 100 – 4 ⎛ ------------------- – 1⎞ = 94.6%
0.03462
⎝ v2 ⎠ ⎝ 0.0147 ⎠
2
π(5)
Piston Displacement = ------------------2- ⎛⎝ ---------⎞⎠ ⎛⎝ ------------⎞⎠ = 0.002258 m ⁄ s
4 1725 3

4 ( 100 ) 100 60
( 0.946 ) ( 0.002258 )
Flow Rate = ---------------------------------------------- = 0.062 kg/s
( 0.03462 )
Q e = 0.062 ( 408.03 – 256.1 ) = 9.42 kW
W = 0.062 ( 432 – 408.03 ) ⁄ 0.746 = 1.99 Hp
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24⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

2.45 For the lithium-bromide/water absorption refriger-


ation system shown below, determine
a. heat required at generator per ton of cooling
b. COP
c. heat rejection ratio, (Qabsorber + Qcondenser)/Qevaporator

State P t x h m
1. 10 mm 90 0.50 –70 9.85
2. 50 mm 150 0 1128 0.197
3. 50 mm 150 0.51 –41 9.65
4. 50 mm 101 0 68.96 0.197
5. 10 mm 52 0 1084.5 0.197

12000
m 2 = m 4 = m 5 = --------------------------------------------
60 ( 1084.5 – 68.0 )

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= 0.197

m 3 = ⎛⎝ ----------⎞⎠ mi = 0.98m 1
0.50
0.51
m 1 = 0.197 + 0.98m 1 , m 1 = 9.85
m 3 = 9.65

a) Q g = 60 [ ( 0.197 ) ( 1128 ) + ( 9.65 ) ( – 41 ) – ( 9.85 ) ( – 70 ) ]


= 30964 Btu/h = 516 Btu/min
12000
b) COP = --------------- = 0.39
30964
c) Q a = 60 [ 9.85 ( – 70 ) – 9.65 ( – 41 ) – 0.197 ( 1084.5 ) ]
= 30450 Btu/h = – 508 Btu/min
Q c = 60 ( 0.197 ) ( 68.96 – 1128 ) = – 12520 Btu/h = – 209 Btu/m

------- = (----------------------------------------
QR 30450 + 12520 )-
= 3.58
Qe ( 12000 )
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 2—Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics⏐25

2.46 In the basic lithium-bromide water absorption


system, the generator operates at 170°F while the evapo-
rator is at 47°F. The absorbing temperature is 75°F and
the condensing temperature is 88°F. Calculate the heat
rejection ratio for these conditions.

State P t x h
1. 8.2 mm 75°F 0.47 –73
2. 33.9 mm 170°F 0 1138
3. 33.9 mm 170°F 0.62 –38
4. -- 88°F 0 56.04
5. 8.2 mm 47°F 0 1081.74

m 1 x 1 = m 2 x 2 + ( m 1 – m 2 )x 3
m 1 ( 0.47 ) = ( m 1 – 1.0 ) ( 0.62 )
m 1 = 4.16, m 3 = 3.16
Q e = ( 1 ) [ ( 1081.74 ) – ( 56.04 ) ] = 1025.7 Btu/lb
Per ton of refrigeration
12000
m 2 = m 4 = m 5 = ---------------- = 11.7 lbm/h
1025.7
Q c = ( 1 ) [ ( 56.04 ) – ( 1138 ) ] = – 1081.96 Btu/lb Q c = – 12659 Btu/hr
Q a = ( 4.16 ) ( – 73 ) – ( 3.16 ) ( – 38 ) – ( 1 ) ( 1081.74 ) = – 1265.34 Btu/lb Q a = – 14800 Btu/hr

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Q g = ( 1 ) ( 1138 ) + ( 3.16 ) ( – 38 ) – ( 4.16 ) ( – 73 ) = 1321.6 Btu/lb Q e = 15460 Btu/hr
Qa + Qc
------------------- = 2.28
Qe

2.47 For the aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration


system shown in the sketch below, complete the table of
properties.
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26⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

3 200 260 0.85 735


4 200 160 0.54 40
5 200 160 0.992 606
6 200 97 0.992 75
7 25 20 0.999 550

2.48 Solar energy is to be used to warm a large collector


plate. This energy will, in turn, be transferred as heat to a
fluid within a heat engine, and the engine will reject
energy as heat to the atmosphere. Experiments indicate
that about 200 Btu/h·ft2 of energy can be collected when
the plate is operating at 190°F. Estimate the minimum
collector area that will be required for a plant producing
1 kW of useful shaft power, when the atmospheric
temperature is 70°F.

p, t, x, h,
Point psia °F lb NH3/lb mix Btu/lb
1 25 80 0.39 –48
2 200 260 0.26 165

For minimum area, maximum efficiency, USE CARNOT CYCLE


QA 200
Δs = ------- = --------- = 0.308
TH 650
Q R = ToΔs = ( 530 ) ( 0.308 ) = 163.24

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2
W = Q A – Q R = ( 200 ) – ( 163.24 ) = 36.8 Btu/h ⋅ ft
3413 2
area = ------------ = 92.74 ft ⁄ kW
36.8

2.50 A 20 by 12 by 8 ft (6.1 by 3.6 by 2.4 m) room c. dew-point temperature


contains an air-water vapor mixture at 80°F (26.7°C). The d. mass of water vapor contained in the room
barometric pressure is standard and the partial pressure of
the water vapor is measured to be 0.2 psia (1.38 kPa).
Calculate
a. relative humidity
b. humidity ratio
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Chapter 2—Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics⏐27

pw 0.2
a) φ = -------- = ---------------- = 0.394 = 39.4%
p ws 0.5073
pw
w = 0.62198 --------------- = ( 0.62198 ) ⎛ ----------------------⎞ = 0.0086 lb m /lb air
0.2
b)
p – pw ⎝ 14.7 – 12⎠
c) t d = t sat @ 0.2 PSI = 53.15°F
Pw V ( 0.2 ) ( 144 ) ( 1920 )
d) m w = ----------------------- = ----------------------------------------------------- = 1.19 lb m
( R ⁄ m w )T ( 1545 ⁄ 18 ) ( 80 + 460 )

2.51 Given room conditions of 75°F (23.9°C) dry bulb


and 60% RH, determine for the air vapor mixture without
using the psychrometric charts
a. humidity ratio
b. enthalpy
c. dew-point temperature
d. specific volume
e. degree of saturation
pw
w = 0.62198 ------ = ( 0.62198 ) ⎛⎝ ------------------------------⎞⎠ = 0.0111 lb m /lb air
0.258
a)
pa 14.7 – 0.258
b) h = 0.24t + w ( 1061 + 0.45t )
= ( 0.24 ) ( 75 ) + ( 0.0111 ) [ ( 1061 ) + 0.45 ( 75 ) ] = 30.2 Btu/lb m
c) t d = t sat @ 0.258 = 60.185°F
RaT ( 53.3 ) ( 535 ) 3
d) v = ---------- = ------------------------------------------------- = 13.72 ft /lbm
Pa ( 14.7 – 0.258 ) ( 144 )

w s = 0.62198 ⎛⎝ ---------------------------⎞⎠ = 0.0187


0.43
e)
14.7 – 0.43
w 0.0111
μ = ------ = ---------------- = 0.593 ( p w = φp s = ( 0.6 ) ( 0.43 ) = 0.258 )

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ws 0.0187

2.52 For the conditions of Problem 2.51 (above), using


the ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart, find
a. wet-bulb temperature [Ans: 65.2°F (18.4°C)]
b. enthalpy [Ans: 30.2 Btu/lbm (70.2 J/g)]
c. humidity ratio [Ans: 0.0112 lb/lb (0.0112 kg/kg)]

a) t wb = 65.2°F
b) h = 30.2 Btu/lb m
c) w = 0.0112 lb m /lb air
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28⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

2.53 Using the ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart, complete the following table.

Dry Bulb, Wet Bulb, Dew Point, Humidity W, Enthalpy h, Relative Humidity φ, Specific Volume v,
°F °F °F lb/lbair Btu/lbair % ft3/lbair
85 60 41 0.0054 26.1 22 13.85
75 60 50 0.0076 26.4 42 13.65
74.5 65 59.8 0.011 30 60 13.75
89.5 70 61 0.01143 34 38 14.1
99 85.5 82 0.0238 50 58 14.6

2.54 Using the ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart complete the following table:

Dry Bulb, Wet Bulb, Dew Point, Humidity Ratio, Relative Humidity, Enthalpy, Specific Volume,
°F °F °F lbv/lba % Btu/lbair ft3/lbair
80 63.5 53.7 0.0088 40 28.8 13.8
70 55 43 0.0058 38 23.1 13.47
100 78 70 0.016 39 42 14.47
97 77 68 0.0157 40 40 14.3
79 65 57 0.01 46 30 13.8
86 60 40 0.0052 20 26.4 13.86
40 29 11 0.001 20 10.3 12.6
74 65 60 0.011 60 30 13.7
85 70 62 0.012 47 33.8 14.0
80 80 80 0.0224 100 43.8 14.1

2.55 Complete the following table using the Psychrometric Chart.

Dry Bulb, Wet Bulb, Dew Point, Humidity Ratio, Relative Humidity, Enthalpy, Specific Volume,

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°C °C °C kg/kg % kJ/kg m3/kg
26.5 17.3 12.2 0.0087 41 49 0.86
21 13 7.6 0.006 40 36.7 0.84
38 25.4 21 0.0155 38 78.2 0.905
41.7 29.2 25.2 0.0207 40 95 0.92
22.2 17 14.2 0.01 60 48 0.85
32 16 4 0.005 18 44.5 0.87
4 –2 –10 0.001 20 6.5 0.78
39.8 23.4 16 0.0115 26 70 0.904
30 21 17 0.012 45 61 0.875
27 27 27 0.0227 100 85.5 0.88

2.56 Complete the following table.

Dry Bulb, Wet Bulb, Dew Point, Humidity Ratio, Relative Humidity, Enthalpy, Specific Volume,
°C °C °C kg/kg % kJ/kg m3/kg
32 24 20.7 0.0155 52 72.2 0.886
40 26.3 21.2 0.0160 34 81 0.91
38.8 24.2 18 0.0130 30 72.5 0.902
33.8 28.1 26.4 0.022 66 90.5 0.9
7 7 7 0.0063 100 23 0.801
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Chapter 2—Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics⏐29

2.57 Without using the psychrometric chart, determine


the humidity ratio and relative humidity of an air-water
vapor mixture with a dry-bulb temperature of 90°F and
thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature of 78°F. The baro-
metric pressure is 14.7 psia. Check your result using the
psychrometric chart. [Ans: W = 0.018 lb/lb, relative
humidity φ = 59%]

@ 90F P g = 0.6989 PSI @ 78F P g = 0.475 PSI


P ws
W* = 0.622 ------------------ = ( 0.622 ) ⎛ ---------------------------------⎞ = 0.02077
0.4748
P – P ws ⎝ 14.7 – 0.4748⎠
( 1093 – 0.556t* )W* – 0.24 ( t – t* )
W = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (t∗ = 78, W∗ = 0.02077)
1093 – 0.44t – t*
W = 0.018 lb m /lb air
(P )( W) ( 14.7 ) ( 0.0179 )-
P w = ------------------------ = ---------------------------------------- = 0.4119 psia
0.622 + W ( 0.622 + 0.0179 )
Pw 0.4119
φ = --------- = ---------------- = 0.59 or 59%
P ws 0.6989

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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.

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Solutions to

Chapter 3
BASIC HVAC SYSTEM
CALCULATIONS

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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.

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Chapter 3—Basic HVAC System Calculations⏐33

3.1 One of the many methods used for drying air is to cool
the air below the dew point so that condensation or freez-
ing of the moisture takes place. To what temperature must
atmospheric air be cooled in order to have a humidity
ratio of 0.000017 lb/lb (0.000017 kg/kg)? To what
temperature must this air be cooled if its pressure is
10 atm?

W = 0.62198 ⎛⎝ -----------------⎞⎠ ⇒ Pw = ------------------- ( P – Pw )


Pw W
P – Pw 0.62198
0.000017
Pw = ---------------------- ( 14.7 – Pw )
0.62198
Pw = 0.000402 – 0.0000273Pw
–4
Pw = 4.02 × 10 PSI ⇒ t sat = – 63°F [Table 3, Chap 1 HF]
0.000017
10 ATM = 147 PSI ⇒ Pw = ---------------------- ( 147 – Pw )
0.62198
–3
Pw = 4.02 × 10 PSI ⇒ t sat = – 27°F

3.2 One method of removing moisture from atmospheric


air is to cool the air so that the moisture condenses or
freezes out. Suppose an experiment requires a humidity
ratio of 0.0001. To what temperature must the air be
cooled at a pressure of 0.1 kPa in order to achieve this

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humidity?

φ = 100% → Pw = Pg : W = 0.0001 = 0.622 ⎛⎝ --------------------⎞⎠


Pg
0.1 – Pg
Pg = 0.0000161 kPa : T < – 60°C

3.3 A room of dimensions 4 m by 6 m by 2.4 m contains


an air-water vapor mixture at a total pressure of 100 kPa
and a temperature of 25°C. The partial pressure of the
water vapor is 1.4 kPa. Calculate:
a. humidity ratio
b. dew point
c. total mass of water vapor in the room

3
V = ( 4 ) ( 6 ) ( 2.4 ) = 57.6 m ; P = 100 kPa ; Pw = 1.4 kPa
Pw ( 0.622 ) ( 1.4 )
a) W = 0.622 ----------------- = ------------------------------- = 0.0088 kg ⁄ kg air
P – Pw ( 100 – 1.4 )
b) @ Pw = 1.4 kPa t sat = Dew point = 11.8°C
c) m a = PaV ⁄ RaT = ( 98.6 ) ( 57.6 ) ⁄ ( 0.287 ) ( 298.2 ) = 66.4 kg
m w = Wm a = ( 0.0088 ) ( 66.4 ) = 0.584 kg
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34⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

3.4 The air conditions at the intake of an air compressor


are 70°F (21.1°C), 50% RH, and 14.7 psia (101.3 kPa).
The air is compressed to 50 psia (344.7 kPa), then sent to
an intercooler. If condensation of water vapor from the air
is to be prevented, what is the lowest temperature to
which the air can be cooled in the intercooler?

@ 1 P 1 = 14.7, t 1 = 70°F, φ = 50%


Pws 1 = 0.3632 Pw 1 = φPws = 0.1816
2 P 2 = 50 psi
3 P 3 = 50 psi, φ 3 = 100%, t 3 = ?
Pw 1
W 1 = 0.622 ------------- = 0.622 ⎛⎝ ---------------------------------⎞⎠ = 0.00778 lb/lb
0.1816
Pws 1 14.7 – 0.1816

W 2 = W 1 = 0.622 ⎛⎝ --------------⎞⎠ = 0.00778 → x = 0.618 psia


x
50 – x
φ 3 = Pw 3 ⁄ Pws 3 = 100 ⇒ Pws 3 = Pw 3 = 0.618 → t 3 = 86°F

3.5 Humid air enters a dehumidifier with an enthalpy of


21.6 Btu/lbm of dry air and 1100 Btu/lbm of water vapor.
There are 0.02 lbm of vapor per pound of dry air at
entrance and 0.009 lbm of vapor per pound of dry air at
exit. The dry air at exit has an enthalpy of 13.2 Btu/lbm,

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and the vapor at exit has an enthalpy of 1085 Btu/lbm.
Condensate leaves with an enthalpy of 22 Btu/lbm. The
rate of flow of dry air is 287 lbm/min. Determine:
a. the amount of moisture removed from the air (lbm/
min)
b. the rate of heat removal required

m· a = 287 lb m ⁄ min hw 3 = 22 Btu ⁄ lb min


ha 1 = 21.6 Btu ⁄ lb m ha 2 = 13.2 Btu ⁄ lb m
hw 1 = 1100 Btu ⁄ lb m hw 2 = 1085 Btu ⁄ lb m
W 1 = 0.02 lb m ⁄ lb air W 2 = 0.009 lb m ⁄ lb air

a) m· 3 = m· w – m· w = ( W 1 – W 2 )m· a = ( 0.02 – 0.005 )287


1 2

m· 3 = 3.16 lb m ⁄ min
b) Q° = m ° [ ( h – h ) + ( W h – W h ) + ( W – W )h ]
a a a 2 w 1 w 1 2 w
2 1 2 1 3

= 287 [ ( 13.2 – 21.6 ) + ( 0.009 ) ( 1085 ) – ( 0.02 ) ( 1100 ) + ( 0.02 – 0.009 ) ( 22 ) ]


Q° = – 5860 Btu ⁄ min
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
© (2009), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org).
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Chapter 3—Basic HVAC System Calculations⏐35

3.6 Air is supplied to a room from the outside, where the


temperature is 20°F (−6.7°C) and the relative humidity is
60%. The room is to be maintained at 70°F (21.1°C) and
50% RH. How many pounds of water must be supplied
per pound of air supplied to the room?

t 1 = 20°F t 2 = 70°F
φ 1 = 60% φ 2 = 50%
W 2 = 0.0078 lb m ⁄ lb air

Pw 1 = φPg 1 = ( 0.6 ) ( 0.0505 ) = 0.0303


P1 ( 0.0303 )
W 1 = 0.62198 --------- = ( 0.62198 ) ------------------------------------- = 0.00128
Pg 1 ( 14.7 – 0.0303 )
mw
m a w 1 + m w = m a w 2 → ------- = w 2 – w 1
1 2 ma
m
------w- = 0.0078 – 0.0013 = 0.0065 lb m ⁄ ( lb air )
ma

3.7 Air is heated to 80°F (26.7°C) without adding water,


from 60°F (15.6°C) dry-bulb and 50°F (10°C) wet-bulb
temperature. Use the psychrometric chart to find:
a. relative humidity of the original mixture
b. original dew-point temperature
c. original humidity ratio

This copy downloaded on 2016-03-20 16:05:39 -0500 by authorized user University of Toronto
d. initial enthalpy
e. final enthalpy
f. the heat added
g. final relative humidity

a) φ 1 = 49%
b) t i * = 41°F
c) W = 0.0054 lb m ⁄ lb air
d) h i = 20.3 Btu ⁄ lb m,
e) h e = 25.2 Btu ⁄ lb m
f) q = 4.9 Btu ⁄ lb
g) φ f = 25%
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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36⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

3.8 Saturated air at 40°F (4.4°C) is first preheated and


then saturated adiabatically. This saturated air is then
heated to a final condition of 105°F (40.6°C) and 28%
RH. To what temperature must the air initially be heated
in the preheat coil?

t 2 = 101°F

3.9 Atmospheric air at 100°F (37.8°C) dry-bulb and 65°F


(18.3°C) wet-bulb temperature is humidified adiabati-
cally with steam. The supply steam contains 10% mois-
ture and is at 16 psia (110.3 kPa). What is the dry-bulb
temperature of the humidified air if enough steam is
added to bring the air to 70% RH?

1. Air 2. Steam 3. Air


t = 100F x = 0.90 φ = 70%
t* = 65F P = 16 psia
h = 29.8 h g = 1152.1
W = 0.0052 h f = 184.5

This copy downloaded on 2016-03-20 16:05:39 -0500 by authorized user University of Toronto
·
ma 1 h 1 + m· s h s = m· a h 3 m· s = m· a ( W 3 – W 1 )
2 2

m· a ( h 3 – h 1 ) = m· s ( h s ) = m· a ( W 3 – W 1 ) ( h s )
2 2

h3 – h1 Δh
h s = --------------------- = --------- = ( 184.5 ) + ( 0.9 ) ( 1152.1 – 184.5 )
W3 – W1 ΔW
Δh-
-------- = 1055 Btu ⁄ lb m Using Psychrometric Chart
ΔW
Δh
through Pt. 1. along --------- = 1055 and 70%
ΔW
t db = 96°F

3.10 The conditions on a day in New Orleans, Louisiana,


are 95°F (35°C) dry-bulb and 80°F (26.7°C) wet-bulb
temperature. In Tucson, Arizona, the air conditions are
105°F (40.6°C) dry-bulb and 72°F (22.2°C) wet-bulb
temperature. What is the lowest air temperature that
could theoretically be attained in an evaporative cooler at
these conditions in these two cities?
New Orleans 80°Fwb
Tucson 72°Fwb
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Chapter 3—Basic HVAC System Calculations⏐37

3.11 Air at 29.92 in. Hg enters an adiabatic saturator at


80°F dry-bulb and 66°F wet-bulb temperature. Water is
supplied at 66°F. Find (without using the psychrometric
chart) the humidity ratio, degree of saturation, enthalpy,
and specific volume of entering air.
Pw 1 s
W s = 0.62198 ⎛⎝ --------------------⎞⎠
*
Pw 1 s @ t = 66F = 0.31636 PSI
P – Pws
* ( 0.62198 ) ( 0.31636 )
W s = ------------------------------------------------- = 0.01368 lb m ⁄ lb aire
( 14.696 – 0.31636 )
*
( 1093 + 0.556t* )W s – 0.24 ( t – t* )
W = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1093 + 0.444t – t*
(-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1093 + ( 0.556 ) ( 66 ) ) ( 0.01368 ) – ( 0.24 ) ( 80 – 66 -)
W = = 0.01044
1093 + ( 0.444 ) ( 80 ) – 66
W 0.01044
μ = ------- = ------------------- = 0.467
Ws 0.01368
h = 0.240t + W ( 1061 + 0.444t )
= ( 0.24 ) ( 80 ) + ( 0.01044 ) ( 1061 + ( 0.444 ) ( 80 ) ) = 30.65 Btu ⁄ lb
RaT ( 53.3 ) ( 540 )
v = ---------- ( 1 + 1.6078W ) = ----------------------------- ( 1 + ( 1.6078 ) ( 0.01044 ) )
P ( 14.7 ) ( 144 )
3
v = 13.832 ft ⁄ lb m

3.12 An air-water vapor mixture enters an air-condition-


ing unit at a pressure of 150 kPa, a temperature of 30°C,
and a relative humidity of 80%. The mass flow of dry air
entering is 1 kg/s. The air-vapor mixture leaves the air-
conditioning unit at 125 kPa, 10°C, 100% RH. The mois-
ture condensed leaves at 10°C. Determine the heat trans-
fer rate for the process.

This copy downloaded on 2016-03-20 16:05:39 -0500 by authorized user University of Toronto
Pw 1 = φPg 1 = ( 0.8 ) ( 4.25 ) = 3.4 kPa

W 1 = 0.622 ⎛ ----------------------⎞ = 0.0144


3.4
⎝ 150 – 3.4⎠

W 2 = 0.622 ⎛ ----------------------------⎞ = 0.0062


1.228
⎝ 125 – 1.228⎠
m a ha 1 + m a W 1 h w – m a ha 2 – m a W 2 h w – m a ( W 1 – W 2 )h f + Q = 0
1 2 3

m a [ ( ha 1 – ha 2 ) + W 1 hg 1 – W 2 hg 2 – ( W 1 – W 2 )h f ] + Q = 0
3

Q = – 1 [ ( 1.0035 ) ( 20 ) + ( 0.0144 ) ( 2556.3 ) – ( 0.0062 ) ( 2519.8 ) – ( 0.0144 – 0.0062 ) ( 42.01 ) ]


Q = – 41.0 kJ/s = – 41.0 W
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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38⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

3.13 Air at 40°C, 300 kPa, with a relative humidity of


35% is to be expanded in a reversible adiabatic nozzle.
How low a pressure can the gas be expanded to if no
condensation is to take place? What is the exit velocity at
this condition?

Isentreopic S1 = S2
Pw 1 = φ 1 Pg 1 = ( 0.35 ) ( 7.384 ) = 2.584 kPa

w 1 = 0.622 ⎛ ----------------------------⎞ = 0.0054


2.584
⎝ 300 – 2.584⎠
Pg 2
W 1 = W 2 if no condensate. ⇒ 0.0054 = 0.622 ⎛ ---------------------⎞
⎝ P 2 – Pg 2⎠
P 2 = 116.18Pg 2
– 1-
k----------
P2 k 116.18Pg 2 0.286
S 2 = S 1 ; T 2 = T 1 ⎛ ------⎞ = 313.2 ⎛ --------------------------⎞
⎝ P 1⎠ ⎝ 300 ⎠
Trial and Error → Try T 2 = 17.2°C = 290.4 K ; Pg 2 = 1.984
( 116.18 ) ( 1.984 ) 0.286
290.4 = 313.2 ⎛⎝ ----------------------------------------⎞⎠
?
= 290.5
300
P 2 = ( 116.18 ) ( 1.984 ) = 230.5kPa
2 2 2
⎛ V1 ⎞ ⎛ V2 ⎞ V2
⎜ h 1 + --------⎟ – ⎜ h 2 + --------⎟ = 0 ; -------------------- = 1.0035 ( 313.2 – 290.4 )
⎝ 2g c⎠ ⎝ 2g c⎠ 2 ( 1000 )
V 2 = 214 m/s

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3.14 By using basic definitions and Dalton’s Law of
partial pressure, show that v = RaT/(p – pw)

⎧ Ra T ⎫
⎪ v a = --------- ⎪
P
⎪ ⎪
⎪ Ra T ⎪
⎪ v s = ------------------ ⎪
⎪ P – P ws ⎪
v = va + μ ( vs – va ) ⎨ ⎬
⎪ μ =
W-
------ ⎪
v = ( 1 – μ )v a + μv s ⎪ Ws ⎪
⎪ ⎪
⎪ ⎪
= ⎛⎝ 1 – -------⎞⎠ v a + ⎛⎝ -------⎞⎠ ( v s )
W W P
⎪ w = 0.622 ---------------- ⎪
Ws Ws ⎩ P – P w⎭
Pw P – Pw Ra T W Ra T Ra T Pw P – P ws P – P ws
= 1 – ⎛ ----------------⎞ ⎛ ----------------⎞ --------- + ------- ------------------ = ------------------ 1 – ⎛ ----------------⎞ ⎛ ------------------⎞ ------------------ + -------
W
⎝ P – P w⎠ ⎝ P ws ⎠ P W s P – P ws P – P ws ⎝ P – P w⎠ ⎝ P ws ⎠ P Ws
R a T P – P ws Pw P – P ws Pw P – P ws
= ------------------ ------------------ – ⎛⎝ -------------⎞⎠ ⎛⎝ ------------------⎞⎠ ( P – P ws ) + ⎛⎝ ----------------⎞⎠ ⎛⎝ ------------------⎞⎠
P – Pws P P ws P P – P w P – Pw P ws
2
R a T ( P – Pws ) ( P ws ) ( P – P w ) – P w ( P – P ws ) + P w ( P – P ws )P
= ------------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
P – P ws P ( P ws ) ( P – P w )
R a T PP ws ( P – Pws ) Ra T
= ------------------ ------------------------------------- = ----------------
P – P ws PP ws ( P – P w ) P – Pw
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 3—Basic HVAC System Calculations⏐39

3.15 In an air-conditioning unit, 71,000 cfm at 80°F dry


bulb, 60% RH, and standard atmospheric pressure, enter
the unit. The air leaves the unit at 57°F dry bulb and 90%
relative humidity. Calculate the following:
a. cooling capacity of the air-conditioning unit, in Btu/h
b. rate of water removal from the unit
c. sensible heat load on the conditioner, in Btu/h
d. latent heat load on the conditioner, in Btu/h
e. the dew point of the air leaving the conditioner
1. 2. 3.
t = 80F t = 51F h ≈ 25
φ = 60% φ = 90% ( h f @ 57°F )
71000 CFM v = 13.2
v = 13.9 h = 23.5
h = 33.7 W = 0.009
W = 0.0132

SCFM = 71000 ⎛⎝ -------------⎞⎠ = 67900


13.33
h c = 29.0
13.9 3

V· ( 71000 ) ( 60 )
m· a = --- = ------------------------------- = 306475 lbm air ⁄ h
v 13.9
a) m· a [ ( h 1 – h 2 ) – ( W 1 – W 2 )h 3 ] = – Q
– Q = ( 306475 ) [ ( 33.7 – 23.5 ) – ( 0.0132 – 0.009 )25 ]
Q = – 3,093,900 Btu/h = 257.8 tons
b) m w = m· a ( W 1 – W 2 ) = ( 306,475 ) ( 0.0132 – 0.009 ) = 1287 lb/h
·

c) Q = m· c ( t – t ) = ( 306,475 ) ( 0.244 ) ( 80 – 57 )
s a p 1 2
= 1,719,900 Btu/h = 143.3 tons
- or -

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( 1.1 ) ( 67,900 ) ( 23 )
= 1.1 ( SCFM ) ( t 1 – t 2 ) = --------------------------------------------- = 143.2 tons
12000
d) Q L = m· w ( h fg ) = ( 1287 ) ( 1076 ) = 1,385,000 = 115.4 tons
- or -
·
= 4840 ( SCFM ) ( Δw ) = ( 4840 ) ( 67,900 ) ( 0.0132 – 0.009 )
= 1,380,000 Btu/h = 115.0 tons
e) td = 54.2°F

3.16 Four pounds of air at 80°F (26.7°C) dry bulb and


50% RH are mixed with one pound of air at 50°F (15.6°C)
and 50% RH. Determine
a. relative humidity of the mixture
b. dew-point temperature of the mixture

by graphical solution
φ mix = 52%
t dp = 55.5°F
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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40⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

3.17 Air is compressed from 85°F, 60% RH, 14.7 psia to


60 psia and then cooled in an intercooler before entering
a second stage of compression. What is the minimum
temperature to which the air can be cooled so that conden-
sation does not take place?

Pw 2 P w = φP g = ( 0.6 ) ( 0.596 )
W 1 = W 2 = 0.62198 --------------------
P – Pw 2 = 0.3576
( 0.62198 ) ( 0.3576 )
W = ---------------------------------------------- = 0.0155 lb/lb
( 14.696 – 0.3576 )

0.0155 = 0.62198 ⎛ ------------------⎞ ⇒ P s = 1.459 psia


Ps
⎝ 60 – Ps⎠
⇒ t d = 114.5°F

3.18 An air-water vapor mixture flowing at a rate of 4000


cfm (1890 L/s) enters a perfect refrigeration coil at 84°F
(28.9°C) and 70°F (21.1°C) wet-bulb temperature. The
air leaves the coil at 53°F (11.7°C). How many Btu/h of
refrigeration are required?

1. 2.
t = 84F t = 53F
t* = 70F saturated
v = 13.97 h = 22
h = 34 h f = 21.1
W = 0.01266 W = 0.00857

This copy downloaded on 2016-03-20 16:05:39 -0500 by authorized user University of Toronto
m· a [ – ( h 1 – h 2 ) – ( W 1 – W 2 ) h f ] = Q
2

( 4000 ) ( 60 )
Q = ---------------------------- [ ( 34 – 22 ) – ( 0.01266 – 0.00857 ) ( 21.1 ) ]
( 13.97 )
= 204700 Btu/h = 17.1 tons
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Chapter 3—Basic HVAC System Calculations⏐41

3.19 Air at 40°F dry bulb and 35°F wet bulb is mixed with
air at 100°F dry bulb and 77°F wet bulb in the ratio of 2
lb of cool air to 1 lb of warm air. Compute the resultant
humidity ratio and enthalpy of the mixed air.

t 1 = 40F t 2 = 100F
* *
t 1 = 35F t 2 = 77F
m· 1 = 2m· m· 2 = m·
W 1 = 0.0031 W 2 = 0.0148
h 1 = 13.1 h 2 = 40.5

m· 1 h 1 + m· 2 h 2 = m· h 3 →
2m· h 1 + m· h 2 ( 13.1 ) + 40.5-
- = 2----------------------------------
h 3 = ----------------------------- = 22.23 Btu/lb
3m· 3
·
m· 1 W 1 + m· 2 W 2 = m 3 W 3 →
2m· W 1 + m· W 2 ( 0.0031 ) + ( 0.0148 -)
- = 2---------------------------------------------------
w 3 = --------------------------------- = 0.0070 lb/lb air
3m· 3

3.20 Outdoor air at 90°F (32.2°C) and 78°F (25.6°C) wet


bulb is mixed with return air at 75°F (23.9°C) and 52%
RH. There are 1000 lb (454 kg) of outdoor air for every
5000 lb (2265 kg) of return air. What are the dry- and wet-

This copy downloaded on 2016-03-20 16:05:39 -0500 by authorized user University of Toronto
bulb temperatures for the mixed airstream?

m· o h o + m· R h R = ( m· o + m· R )h mix
( 1000 ) ( 41.4 ) + ( 5000 ) ( 28.5 )
h mix = ----------------------------------------------------------------------- = 30.65 Btu/lb
6000
m o W o + m R W R = ( m· o + m· R )W mix
· ·

( 1000 ) ( 0.018 ) + ( 5000 ) ( 0.0096 )


w mix = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.011 lb/lb air
6000
*
From Psych. Chart → t mix = 78.3°F ; t mix = 65.8°F
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is
not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
42⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

3.21 In a mixing process of two streams of air, 10,000 cfm


of air at 75°F and 50% RH mix with 4000 cfm of air at
98°F dry-bulb and 78°F wet-bulb temperature. Calculate
the following conditions after mixing at atmospheric
pressure:
a. dry-bulb temperature
b. humidity ratio
c. relative humidity
d. enthalpy
e. dew-point temperature

From Psych. Chart as graphical solution


a) t dB = 81.5°F
b) W = 0.0112 lb/lb
c) φ = 48.0%
d) h = 32.0 Btu/lb
e) t DP = 60.5°F

3.22 Solve the following:


a. Determine the humidity ratio and relative humidity
of an air-water vapor mixture that has a dry-bulb
temperature of 30°C, an adiabatic saturation temper-
ature of 25°C, and a pressure of 100 kPa.
b. Use the psychrometric chart to determine the humid-
ity ratio and relative humidity of an air-water vapor
mixture that has a dry-bulb temperature of 30°C, a

This copy downloaded on 2016-03-20 16:05:39 -0500 by authorized user University of Toronto
wet-bulb temperature of 25°C, and a pressure of 100
kPa.

Pw 2 = Pg 2 = 3.169 kPa
0.622 ( 3.169 )
W 2 = --------------------------------- = 0.0204
( 100 – 3.169 )
a) ma [ ( h1 – h2 ) + w1 hw – w 2 h w + ( W 2 – W 1 )h f ] = 0
1 2 2

c p ( T 2 – T 1 ) + W 2 ( hg 2 – h f )
W 1 = -------------------------------------------------------------------
2
-
hg 1 – h f
2

( 1.0035 ) ( 25 – 30 ) + 0.0204 ( 2442.3 )


w 1 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.0183 kg/kg
2556.3 – 104.89
Pw
0.0183 = 0.62189 ----------------------- 1
⇒ P w = 2.86 kPa
100 – P w 1
1

Pw 2.86
φ = --------1 = ------------- = 0.67 ⇒ 67%
Pg 4.246
1

b) φ = 67% ; W = 0.018 kg/kg ( for 101.3 kPa )


Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
© (2009), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org).
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 3—Basic HVAC System Calculations⏐43

3.23 An air-water vapor mixture at 100 kPa, 35°C, and


70% RH is contained in a 0.5 m3 closed tank. The tank is
cooled until the water just begins to condense. Determine
the temperature at which condensation begins and the
heat transfer for the process.

P w = φP g = 0.7 ( 5.628 ) = 3.94 kPa


1 1

@ dew point : P w = P g ; W = constant ; v = constant


2 2

Pw v m w RT 2 3.94T 2
-----------
2
- = ----------------- ; P w = P g = ----------------
P w1 v m w RT 1 2 2 308.2
= 0.0128T 2
Trial and Error
Try T 2 = 25°C : 4.246 ≠ 0.0128 ( 298 ) = 3.81
T 2 = 30°C : 3.169 ≠ 0.0128 ( 303 ) = 3.88
By Interpolation T 2 = 28.2°C
0.622 ( 3.94 )
W 2 = W 1 = ------------------------------ = 0.0255 kg/kg
( 100 – 3.94 )
Pa V ( 100 – 3.94 ) ( 0.5 )
m a = ---------- = ------------------------------------------- = 0.543 kg
Ra T ( 0.287 ) ( 308.2 )
Q = m ( u2 – u1 ) = ma cv ( T2 – T1 ) + ma W2 ug – ma W1 ug
2 1

= ( 0.543 ) [ 0.7165 ( 28.2 – 35 ) + 0.0255 ( 2414.2 – 2423.4 ) ] = – 277 kJ

3.24 A room is to be maintained at 76°F and 40% RH.


Supply air at 39°F is to absorb 100,000 Btu sensible heat
and 35 lb of moisture per hour. Assume the moisture has
an enthalpy of 1100 Btu/lb. How many pounds of dry air

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per hour are required? What should the dew-point
temperature and relative humidity of the supply air be?

Δh- Qs + Σm· w h w
- = (---------------------------------------------------
100000 ) + 35 ( 1100 -)
------- = ------------------------------
Δw Σm· w 35
= 3957 Btu/lb m
From Psychrometric Chart
φ supply = 90%
t dp = 36°F
m· a h 1 + Q s + m· w h w = m· a h 2
Qs + mw hw ( 100000 ) + ( 35 ) ( 1100 )
m· a = --------------------------- = --------------------------------------------------------- = 11260 lb/hr
h2 – h1 ( 26.6 – 14.3 )
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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44⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

3.25 Moist air enters a chamber at 40°F dry-bulb and


36°F wet-bulb temperature at a rate of 3000 cfm. In pass-
ing through the chamber, the air absorbs sensible heat at
a rate of 116,000 Btu/h and picks up 83 lb/h of saturated
steam at 230°F. Determine the dry-bulb and wet-bulb
temperatures of the leaving air.

V· a = 3000 cfm
Δh- Q s + m· w h w
- = (---------------------------------------------------
116000 ) + 83 ( 1157 -)
------- = --------------------------
Δw m· w 83
= 2555 Btu/lbm
V· 1 3000
m· a = ------ = ------------ = 236.2 lb/min
1 v1 12.7
83
m· a = m a + m w = 236.2 + ------ = 237.6 lb/min
2 1 1 60
116000
Qs = m· c p ΔT ⇒ Δt = ------------------------------------------------ = 34°F
( 0.240 ) ( 257.6 ) ( 60 )
t 2 = 40 + 34 = 74°F
From Psych. Chart
t wb = 64°F

3.26 In an auditorium maintained at a temperature not to


exceed 77°F, and a relative humidity not to exceed 55%,
a sensible-heat load of 350,000 Btu and 1,000,000 grains
of moisture per hour must be removed. Air is supplied to
the auditorium at 67°F.
a. How much air must be supplied, in lb/h?

This copy downloaded on 2016-03-20 16:05:39 -0500 by authorized user University of Toronto
b. What is the dew-point temperature of the entering
air, and what is its relative humidity?
c. How much latent heat is picked up in the auditorium?
d. What is the sensible heat ratio?

a) Q s = m· a c p ( t R – t s )
350,000
m· a = ----------------------------------------- = 143,443 lb/h
( 0.244 ) ( 77 – 67 )
m· w 1,000,000
b) W s = W R – ------- = 0.0109 – ----------------------------------------- = 0.0099 lb/lb
ma ( 7000 ) ( 143,443 )
φ = 70% ; t dp = 57°F
( 1,000,000 )
c) Q L = m· w h w = ---------------------------- ( 1100 ) ≈ h g = 157,100 Btu/h
( 7000 ) 90°F (people)

( 350,000 )
d) ( SHR ) = -------------------------------------------------- = 0.69
( 350,000 ) + 157,000
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Chapter 3—Basic HVAC System Calculations⏐45

3.27 A meeting hall is maintained at 75°F dry bulb and


65°F wet bulb. The barometric pressure is 29.92 in. Hg.
The space has a load of 200,000 Btu/h sensible, and
200,000 Btu/h latent. The temperature of the supply air to
the space cannot be lower than 65°F dry bulb.
a. How much air must be supplied, in lb/h?
b. What is the required wet-bulb temperature of the
supply air?
c. What is the sensible heat ratio?

Qs 200,000
a) m· a = ---------------- = ----------------------------------------- = 81,967 lb/h
c p ( Δt ) ( 0.244 ) ( 75 – 65 )
b) h v ≅ h g @ 85-95°F = 1100 Btu/lb
m· w ( 200,000 ) -
W s = W R – ------
- = 0.011 – ------------------------------------- = 0.0088 lb/lb
m· a ( 1100 ) ( 81,967 )
From Psych. Chart → t = 65°F ; t* = 58°F
( 200,000 )
c) SHR = -------------------------------------------------- = 0.50
( 200,000 + 200,000 )

3.28 A structure to be air conditioned has a sensible heat


load of 20,000 Btu/h at a time when the total load is
100,000 Btu/h. If the inside state is to be at 80°F, 50% RH,
is it possible to meet the load conditions by supplying air
to the room at 100°F and 60% RH? If not, discuss the
direction in which the inside state would be expected to
move if such air were supplied.

20,000
SHR = ------------------- = 0.2
100,000
Not possible to meet conditions with supply

This copy downloaded on 2016-03-20 16:05:39 -0500 by authorized user University of Toronto
since SHR doesn't pass through both room
and supply conditions. If used room becomes
warmer and/or less humid.

3.29 A flow rate of 30,000 lb/h of conditioned air at 60°F b. If a mixture of 50% return air and 50% outdoor air at
and 85% RH is added to a space that has a sensible load 98°F dry bulb and 77°F wet bulb enters the air condi-
of 120,000 Btu/h and a latent load of 30,000 Btu/h. tioner, what is the refrigeration load?
a. What are the dry- and wet-bulb temperatures in the
space?
a) Q s = m· c p ( t R – t s ) Q L = m· ( w R – w s ) ( 1100 )
120,000 = ( 30,000 ) ( 0.24 ) ( t R – 60 ) 30,000 = ( 30,000 ) ( w R – 0.0094 ) ( 1100 )
t R = 76.6°F W R = 0.01031 ⇒ h R = 29.7Btu/lb
t wb = 64.5°F
m· a h a + m· R h R – ( m· a + m· R )h m
( 40.4 ) + ( 29.7 )
h m = ------------------------------------- = 35.05 Btu/lb m
2
≈0
m· a ( h m – h s ) – m· a ( w m – w s )h f + Q = 0 h s = 24.7 Btu/lb m
60°F

Q = – ( 30,000 ) ( 35.05 – 24.7 ) = – 310,500 Btu/h


= 25.9 tons
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46⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

3.30 An air-water vapor mixture enters a heater-humidi-


fier unit at 5°C, 100 kPa, 50% RH. The flow rate of dry air
is 0.1 kg/s. Liquid water at 10°C is sprayed into the
mixture at the rate of 0.0022 kg/s. The mixture leaves the
unit at 30°C, 100 kPa. Calculate:
a. the relative humidity at the outlet
b. the rate of heat transfer to the unit
mw 0.0022
a) W 2 = W 1 + ------- = 0.0027 + ---------------- = 0.0247
m a ( 5°C,50% ) 0.1 and 30°C
φ 2 = 91%
b) m a [ h 1 – h 2 + ( W 2 – W 1 )h f ] + Q = 0 h 1 = 12.7 kJ/kg
3
h 2 = 93.0 kJ/kg
Q = – 0.1 [ 12.7 – 93 + ( 0.0022 )42 ]
= 7.94 kJ/s = 7.94 kW h f = 42.0 kJ/kg
3

3.31 A room is being maintained at 75°F and 50% RH.


The outside air conditions are 40°F and 50% RH at this
time. Return air from the room is cooled and dehumidified
by mixing it with fresh ventilation air from the outside.
The total airflow to the room is 60% outdoor and 40%
return air by mass. Determine the temperature, relative
humidity, and humidity content of the mixed air going to
the room.
Return Outside Air
t = 75°F t = 40°F
φ = 50% φ = 50%
h = 28.2 h = 12.5
W = 0.0092 W = 0.0026
m· R h R + m· OA h OA = ( m· R + m· OA )h m

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( 0.4 ) ( 28.2 ) + ( 0.6 ) ( 12.5 )
h m = --------------------------------------------------------------
(1)
h m = 18.78Btu/lb
( 0.4 ) ( 0.0092 ) + ( 0.6 ) ( 0.0026 )
m· R W R + m· OA W OA = ( m· R + m· OA )W m ⇒ W m = --------------------------------------------------------------------------
(1)
Wm = 0.00524 lb/lb
From Psychrometric Chart t m = 54.5°F ; φ m = 58%
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Chapter 3—Basic HVAC System Calculations⏐47

3.32 A room with a sensible load of 20,000 Btu/h is main-


tained at 75°F and 50% RH. Outdoor air at 95°F and 80°F
wet bulb was mixed with the room return air. The outdoor
air, which is mixed, is 25% by mass of the total flow going
to the conditioner. This air is then cooled and dehumidi-
fied by a coil and leaves the coil saturated at 50°F, which
is on the condition line for the room. The air is then mixed
with some room return air so that the temperature of the
air entering the room is at 60°F. Find the following:
a. the air-conditioning processes on the psychrometric
chart
b. ratio of latent to sensible load
c. airflow rate
d. the percent by mass of room return air mixed with air
leaving the cooling coil

Qs
b) from Load line ------------------- = 0.78
Qs + QL
Q s – 0.78Q s 20,000
Q L = ----------------------------- = ---------------- – 20,000 = 5640

This copy downloaded on 2016-03-20 16:05:39 -0500 by authorized user University of Toronto
0.78 0.78
QL 5640 -
------- = --------------- = 0.282
Qs 20,000
c) Room: mR h3 + QT = mR hR
20000 + 5640
m R = --------------------------------- = 5455 lb m /h
( 28.2 – 23.5 )
d) 2 to 3: ( m R – m 1 )h 2 + ( m 1 )h R = ( m R )h 3
h2 – h3 20.3 – 23.5
m 1 = ----------------- m R = --------------------------- m R = 0.405 m R
h2 – hR 20.3 – 28.2
m 1 = 40.5% of m R
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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48⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

3.33 An air-water vapor mixture at 14.7 psia (101.5 kPa),


85°F (29.4°C), and 50% RH is contained within a 15 ft3
(0.425 m3) tank. At what temperature will condensation
begin? If the tank and mixture are cooled an additional
15°F (8.3°C), how much water will condense from the
mixture?
3 3
v 1 = 15 ft v 2 = 15ft
t 1 = 85°F t2 = ?
φ 1 = 50% φ 2 = 100%
P 1 = 14.7 psia P2 = ?
p s1 = ( 50 ) ( 0.596 ) = 0.288psi p s2 = p g
2

m w1 m w2
W 1 = W 2 ⇒ ---------- = ---------- ⇒ m w1 = m w2
m a1 m a2
ps 0.298 pg
p s v = m w R w T ⇒ ----- 1 = ------------- = 0.000547 = -------2
T1 545 T2
Trial and error produces t 2 = 63.2°F ; p g = 0.287 psia
2

t 3 = 63.2 – 15.0 = 48.2°F ⇒ p g = 0.0167 psia


s

T3
W 1 = 0.622 ⎛⎝ ------------------------------⎞⎠ = 0.0129 lb/lb p a = p a ----- = 14.4 ⎛⎝ -------------⎞⎠ = 13.42 psia
0.298 508.2
14.7 – 0.298 3 1T
1 545

W 3 = 0.622 ⎛ -------------⎞ = 0.00774 lb/lb


0.167
⎝ 13.42⎠
pa v1 ( 14.4 ) ( 144 ) ( 15 )
m a = ------------
1
= ---------------------------------------- = 1.070 lb m cond = 0.00552 lb m
T1 ( 53.3 ) ( 545 )

3.34 Air flowing at 1000 cfm and at 14.7 psia, 90°F, and

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60% RH passes over a coil with a mean surface temper-
ature of 40°F. A spray on the coil assures that the leaving
air is saturated at the coil temperature. What is the
required cooling capacity of the coil?

V1 1000
m· a = ------ = ---------------- = 70.08 lb/min
v1 14.268
·
Q· = m a [ ( ha 2 – ha 1 ) + ( W 2 hw 2 – W 1 hw 1 ) + ( W 1 – W 2 )h ws ]
= ( 70.08 ) ( 60 ) [ [ 0.24 ( 40 – 90 ) ] – [ 0.0183 ( 1100 ) – 0.0052 ( 1074 ) ] + [ ( 0.0052 – 0.0183 ) ( 8.04 ) ] ]
= 111,840 Btu/h = 9.3 tons
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Chapter 3—Basic HVAC System Calculations⏐49

3.35 An air-vapor mixture at 100°F (37.8°C) dry bulb


contains 0.02 lb water vapor per pound of dry air (20 g/kg).
The barometric pressure is 28.561 in. Hg (96.7 kPa).
Calculate the relative humidity, dew-point temperature,
and degree of saturation.

pw
W = 0.622 ⎛ ---------------⎞ = 0.2 ⇒ p w = 0.435 psi
⎝ p – p w⎠
From Chapter 1 p w = 0.949 psi , W s = 0.0432
s

pw 0.435
φ = ------- = ------------- = 45.8%
pw 0.949
s

@ p w = 0.435 t dp = 75.3°F
W 0.02
μ = ------- = ---------------- = 0.463
Ws 0.0432

3.36 Air enters a space at 20°F and 80% RH. Within the
space, sensible heat is added at the rate of 45,000 Btu/h
and latent heat is added at the rate of 20,000 Btu/h. The
conditions to be maintained inside the space are 50°F and
75% RH. What must the air exhaust rate (lb/h) from the
space be to maintain a 50°F temperature? What must the
air exhaust rate (lb/h) from the space be to maintain a 75%
RH? Discuss the difference.

a) Qs = Gs [ cp ( t 0 – t1 ) ]
45,000
G s = ------------------------ = 6250 lb/h
0.245 ( 30 )
b) Q L = G L ( ΔW ) ( 1060 )

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20,000
G L = ------------------------------ = 4740 lb/hr
1060 ( 0.004 )
c) Supply conditions cannot maintain design for given Q s and Q L
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50⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

3.37 Moist air at a low pressure of 11 psia is flowing


through a duct at a low velocity of 200 fpm. The duct is
1 ft in diameter and has negligible heat transfer to the
surroundings. The dry-bulb temperature is 85°F and the
wet-bulb temperature is 70°F. Calculate the following:
a. humidity ratio, lb/lb
b. dew-point temperature, °F
c. relative humidity, %

t = 85
t* = 70
( 1093 – 0.556t* )W s – 0.24 ( t – t* )
a) W = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.0177 lb/lb
1093 + 0.444t – t*
* pw ( 0.739 ) ( 0.491 )
W s = 0.622 --------------*- = -------------------------------------------- = 0.0212 psia
p – pw 11 – 0.739 ( 0.491 )

pw
b) W = 0.622 ------------------ = 0.0177 ⇒ p w = 0.1915 psi = 0.39 in. Hg
11 – p w
From Table 2-1: t dp = 52°F
pw 0.39
c) φ = -------- = ------------- = 32%
p ws 1.213

3.38 If an air compressor takes in moist air (at about 90%


RH) at room temperature and pressure and compresses
this to 120 psig (827 kPa) (and slightly higher tempera-
ture), would you expect some condensation to occur?
Why? If yes, where would the condensation form? How
would you remove it?

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Yes. The air is heavily saturated @ Inlet,
the Compression Process would lower t dewpoint ,
condensation occurs in discharge pipe when exiting
discharge valve. Remove moisture in an aftercooler.

3.39 Does a sling psychrometer give an accurate reading


of the adiabatic saturation temperature? Explain.

Normally within 1°F with a shielded thermometer


in air-water vapor mixtures, because Lewis
Relation is approximately equal to one.
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Chapter 3—Basic HVAC System Calculations⏐51

3.40 An air processor handles 2000 cfm of air with initial


conditions of 50°F and 50% RH. The air is heated with a
finned heat exchanger with 78 ft2 of heat transfer surface
area and a UA value of 210 Btu/h·°F. Also, a steam spray
system adds moisture to the air from saturated steam at 16
psia. The outlet air is at 100°F and 50% RH. Do the
following:
a. Show the processes on the psychrometric chart.
b. Calculate the mass flow rate, lb/min.
c. Calculate the pounds per minute of steam required.
d. Calculate the heat added by the coil, Btu/min.

V· 2000
b) m· = --- = ------------ = 155 lb/min
v 12.9
c) m a ( w 1 ) + m w = m a w 2 ⇒ m w = m a ( ΔW )
m w = 155 ( 0.0208 – 0.0038 ) = 2.65 lb/min
d) Q s = m a ( h 2 – h 1 ) – m w ( h w ) = 155 ( 475 – 16.4 ) – 2.65 ( 1152 )
Q s = 1900 Btu/min

3.41 At an altitude of 5000 ft (1500 m), a sling psychrom-

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eter reads 80°F (26.7°C) and 67°F (19.4°C) wet bulb.
Determine correct values of relative humidity and
enthalpy from the chart. Compare these to the corre-
sponding values for the same readings at sea level.

@ 5000 ft %RH = 53 h = 34.9 Btu/lb


@ Sea Level %RH = 51.5 h = 31.65 Btu/lb

3.42 The average person gives off sensible heat at the rate
of 250 Btu/h and perspires and respires about 0.27 lb/h of
moisture. Estimate the sensible and latent load for a room
with 25 people in it (the lights give off 9000 Btu/h). If the
room conditions are to be 78°F and 50% RH, what flow
rate of air would be required if the supply air came in at
63°F? What would be the supply air relative humidity?

Qs people = ( 250 ) ( 25 ) = 6250 Btu/h Qs total = 6250 + 9000 = 15250


QL people = ( 0.27 ) ( 1100 ) ( 25 ) = 7430 Btu/h QL total = 7430

Q s = m· c p Δt Q L = m· h fg ( W R – W s )
15250 7430 = 69.5 ( 60 ) ( 1100 ) ( 0.0102 – W s )
m· = ----------------------------- = 69.5 lb/min
( 0.244 ) ( 15 ) w s = 0.00850 lb/lb @ 63°F
φ = RH = 70%
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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52⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

3.43 A space in an industrial building has a winter sensi-


ble heat loss of 200,000 Btu/h and a negligible latent heat
load (latent losses to outside are made up by latent gains
within the space). The space is to be maintained precisely
at 75°F and 50% RH. Due to the nature of the process,
100% outside air is required for ventilation. The outdoor
air conditions can be taken as saturated air at 20°F. The
amount of ventilation air is 7000 scfm and the air is to be
preheated, humidified with an adiabatic saturator to the
desired humidity, and then reheated. The temperature out
of the adiabatic saturator is to be maintained at 60°F dry
bulb. Determine the following:
a. temperature of air entering the space to be heated, °F
b. heat supplied to preheat coil, Btu/h
c. heat supplied to reheat coil, Btu/h
d. amount of water required for humidification, gpm

Qs = 200,000
t3 = 60°F
W3 = w4 = 0.0093
t2 = 91.8°F

200,000
a) Q s = 1.1 ( CFM )Δt ⇒ t 4 = ------------------------ + 75 = 101°F
1.1 ( 7000 )
b) Q PH = 1.1 ( CFM ) ( t 2 – t 1 ) = ( 1.1 ) ( 7000 ) ( 91.8 – 20 ) = 552,900 Btu/hr
c) Q RH = 1.1 ( CFM ) ( Δt ) = ( 1.1 ) ( 7000 ) ( 101 – 60 ) = 315,700 Btu/h

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7000 0.0093 – 0.002152
d) m w = m a ΔW = ⎛ -------------⎞ ⎛ ---------------------------------------------⎞ = 0.45 gal/min
⎝ 13.33⎠ ⎝ 8.33 ⎠

3.44 Using the SI psychrometric chart at standard atmo-


spheric pressure, find
a. dew point and humidity ratio for air at 28°C dry bulb
and 22°C wet bulb
b. enthalpy and specific volume

a) W = 0.01403 kg/kg t dp = 19.5°C


3
b) h = 64.7 kJ/kg v = 0.872 m /kg
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Chapter 3—Basic HVAC System Calculations⏐53

3.45 Using the SI chart, find:


a. moisture that must be removed in cooling air from
24°C dry bulb, 21°C wet bulb to 13°C dry bulb, satu-
rated
b. total, sensible, and latent heat removal for the pro-
cess.

1. 24°C db W 1 = 0.0145 kg/kg


21°C wb h 1 = 61 kJ/kg
2. Assume Saturated
13°C db W 2 = 0.00903 kg/kg
h 2 = 36.8 kJ/kg
a. Wa = W2
ta = t1
h a = 48 kJ/kg
mm
------- = ( W 1 – W 2 ) = ( 0.0145 – 0.00903 ) = 0.00547 kg/kg
ma
q t = h 1 – h 2 = 61 – 36.8 = 24.2 kJ/kg
q s = h a – h 2 = 48 – 36.8 = 11.2 kJ/kg
q L = h 1 – h a = 61 – 48 = 13 kJ/kg

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54⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

3.46 An air-conditioned space has a sensible heat load of


200,000 Btu/h, a latent load of 50,000 Btu/h, and is main-
tained at 78°F dry bulb and 60% RH. On a mass basis,
25% outside air is mixed with return air. Outside air is at
95°F dry bulb and 76°F wet bulb. Conditioned air leaves
the apparatus and enters the room at 60°F dry bulb. The
fan must produce a pressure increase of 3.5 in. water to
overcome the system pressure loss. Fan efficiency is esti-
mated as 55%.
a. Draw and label the schematic flow diagram for the
complete system. (Hint: See Fig. 3-1)
b. Complete the table below.
c. Plot and draw all processes on a psychrometric chart.
d. Specify the fan size, scfm, and fan motor rating, HP.
e. Determine the size refrigeration unit needed, in Btu/h
and tons.
f. What percent of the required refrigeration is for (1)
sensible cooling and (2) for dehumidification?
g. What percent of the required refrigeration is due to
the outside air load?

Dry Bulb φ, Enthalpy h, W, ma,


Point scfm acfm vact
t, °F % Btu/lb lb/lb lb/h

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OA 95 42 39.4 0.0150 11380 2528 2710 14.3

r 78 60 32.2 0.0123 34160 7590 7860 13.8

m 82.3 55 34.0 0.0130 45540 10120 10550 13.9

f 84.6 50 34.6 0.0130 45540 10120 10630 14.0

s 60 100 26.7 0.0113 45540 10120 10130 13.35

b) 0.75 ( 32.2 ) + 0.25 ( 39.4 ) = 34.0


0.75 ( 0.0123 ) + 0.25 ( 0.0150 ) = 0.0130
0.75 ( 78 ) + 0.25 ( 95 ) = 82.3
mw 50,000 ⁄ 1100
W s = W r – ------- = 0.0123 – -------------------------------- = 0.0113
ma 45540
200,000
m a = ----------------------------------------- = 45,540 lb/h ⇒ 10120 cfm
( 0.244 ) ( 78 – 60 )
10120 ( 3.5 )
d) w f = --------------------------- = 10.1 HP
0.55 ( 6350 )
10.1 ( 2545 )
h f = 34 + --------------------------- = 34.6 ; W f = 0.0130 ; t f = 84.6
45540
e) q = 45540 [ 34.6 – 26.7 – ( 0.0130 – 0.0113 )28 ] = 357,600 Btuh = 29.8 tons
45540 ( 0.244 ) ( 84.6 – 60 )
f) % sensible = ------------------------------------------------------------- × 100 = 76.4%
357,600
2528 [ 1.10 ( 95 – 78 ) + 4840 ( 0.015 – 0.0123 ) ]
g) % due to OA = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- × 100 = 22.5%
357,600
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.

Solutions to

Chapter 4
DESIGN CONDITIONS

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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.

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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 4—Design Conditions⏐57

4.8 For the person in Problem 4.7 (5 ft, 5 in., 120 lb),
compute the body surface area (ft2).

0.425 0.725
Eq. (4-1): A D = 0.108m l
W = 120 lb l = 65 in.
0.425 0.725 2
A = 0.108 ( 120 ) ( 65 ) = 17.1 ft

4.12 The living room in a home is occupied by adults at


rest wearing medium clothing. The mean radiant tem-
perature is 18°C (64°F). Determine the air temperature
necessary for comfort. [Ans: 30°C (86°F)]

t air + MRT
t o ≈ 75°F ≅ --------------------------- ( Std. 55: t o = at a + ( 1 – a )t r )
2
a = 0.5
t air = 2 ( 75 ) – 64 = 86°F = 30°C

4.13 A room has a net outside wall area of 275 ft2 with a
surface temperature of 54°F, 45 ft2 of glass with a surface
temperature of 20°F, 540 ft2 of ceiling with a surface
temperature of 60°F, 670 ft2 of partitions with a surface
temperature of 70°F, and 540 ft2 of floor with a surface
temperature of 70°F. If the air movement is 20 fpm and
light clothing is being worn, determine the air tempera-
ture necessary for comfort.
Assume occupants have equal view (i.e., all angle factors are identical) of all surfaces.

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Std. 55: t r = ∑ Fρ – i t i ; ∑ A i = 2070
i =1

275 45 540 670 540


MRT = t r = ------------ ( 54 ) + ------------ ( 20 ) + ------------ ( 60 ) + ------------ 70 + ------------ ( 70 ) = 64.1
2070 2070 2070 2070 2070
t o = 75°F = 0.5t a + 0.5t r = 0.5t a + 0.5 ( 64.1 )
t a = 86°F

4.14 Workers on an assembly line making electronic


equipment dissipate 700 Btu/h, of which 310 Btu/h is
latent heat. When the MRT for the area is 69°F, what air
temperature must the heating system maintain for
comfort of the workers if the air movement is 40 fpm?

700 Btu/h-
Activity level = -----------------------
2
= 2 met
19.5 ft
89 + 69
Assuming light clothing (0.75 clo): Fig. 4-3; t o = ------------------ = 79°F
t a = 89°F;
2
Correcting for activity level: t a = 79 – 5.4 ( 1 + 0.75 ) ( 2 – 1.2 ) = 71°F
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58⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

4.15 A room has 1000 ft2 of surface, of which 120 ft2 is


to be heated, and the balance has an average surface
temperature of 60°F. The air temperature in the room is
68°F. The room is occupied by light clothed adults at rest.
Determine the surface temperature of the heated panel
necessary to produce comfort if the air velocity is 20 fpm.
[Ans: 243°F? unfeasible]
880 120
Assume uniform view of surfaces: t r = ------------ ( 60 ) + ------------ ( t p )
1000 1000
t o = 75 = 0.5t a + 0.5t r
880 120
t r = 150 – 68 = 82°F = ------------ ( 60 ) + ------------ t p
1000 1000
t p = 243°F

4.16 Assume that in Problem 4.15, the maximum allow-


able panel temperature is 120°F. The average temperature
of other surfaces in the room remains at 60°F and the air
temperature is still 68°F. What panel area will be required
if the room is occupied by adults at rest?
( 1000 – P ) ( 60 ) + P ( 120 )
t r = 82 = --------------------------------------------------------------
1000
2
P = 367 ft

4.17 In an auditorium, 17,150 students are watching


slides. The MRT is 80°F and the average room air temper-
ature is 72°F. Air enters the room at 57°F. Assume the
lights are out and no heat gain or loss occurs through the
walls, floor, and ceiling.

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a. How much air (cfm) should be supplied to remove
the sensible heat?
b. Explain what must be done to remove the latent heat.

Q s = 150 ( 225 ) ⎛⎝ --------- ⎞⎠ = 1.1 ( CFM ) ( 72 – 57 )


390
a. [ Chap. 7 ]
330
CFM = 2417
b. Supply air must have sufficiently low humidity ratio since latent load
actually represents moisture added,
QL
M H O ≅ ------------
2 1100

4.18 Two hundred people attend a theater matinee. Air is


supplied at 60°F. Determine the required flow rate (lb/h)
to handle the heat gain from the occupants if the return air
temperature is not to exceed 75°F. [Ans: 11,475 lb/h]

q s = 210 Btu/person (Chap. 7)


q s = m· C p ( t r – t s ) = 200 ( 210 ) = m· ( 0.244 ) ( 75 – 60 )
·
V · 11 ,475
m· = 11 ,475 lb/h = --- V = ---------------- ( 13.33 ) = 2550 cfm
ν 60
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Chapter 4—Design Conditions⏐59

4.19 Determine the increase in humidity ratio due to 80


people in a dance hall if air is circulated at the rate of
0.64 m3/s (1350 cfm).
43 ,600
Q L = 80 ( 545 ) = 43 ,600 Btu/h M w = ---------------- = 39.64 lb/h
1100
Mw 39.64
ΔW = -------- = ---------------------------------------------- = 0.0065 lb/lb air
Ma ( 1350 ) ( 60 ) ( 0.075 )

4.20 Specify the MRT for comfort in a space where the


air temperature is 68°F and the relative velocity is 20 fpm,
for sedentary activity and light clothing. [Ans: 92°F]
From Fig. 4-3: MRT = 92°F [Assume medium activity is sedentary]

4.21 Specify completely a suitable set of indoor and


outdoor design conditions for each of the following cases:
a. winter; apartment building; St. Louis, Missouri
b. summer; apartment building; St. Louis, Missouri
c. winter; factory (medium activity); Rochester, Min-
nesota
a. Inside: ti = 72°F, 30% RH; Outside: to = 4.1°F; Φo = 100%
b. Inside: ti = 78°F, 60% RH; Outside: 93.1 db/76.1°F wb
c. Inside: Assume 2 met, 1 clo ⇒ ti = 75 – 5.4(1 + 1)(2 – 1.2) = 66°F, 30% RH
Outside: to = –15.2°F; Φo = 100%
4.22 The mean radiant temperature in a bus is 6°C lower
in winter than the air temperature. For passengers seated
without coats, determine the desired air temperature if the
relative air velocity is 0.2 m/s.

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Assuming Icl = 0.5 with ta = MRT + 6
Trial and Error with Fig. 4-3
t a ≅ 28°C
MRT ≈ 22°C
4.23 For Atlanta, Georgia, specify the normal indoor
design conditions listed below for
a. Winter: Dry bulb = ____°C; W = _______ kg/kg
b. Summer: Dry bulb = ____°C; W = _______ kg/kg
a. Winter: Dry bulb = 22°C; W = 0.004 kg/kg
b. Summer: Dry bulb = 25°C; W = 0.012 kg/kg
4.24 Specify completely indoor and outdoor design
conditions for winter for a clean room in Kansas City,
Missouri, having a 1.2 by 1.2 m radiant panel at 49°C on
each of the four walls. The room is 6 m by 4 by 3 m high
and the other surfaces are all at 22°C. Assume very little
activity and light clothing.
Assume uniform view for each surface: ( ∑ A = 108 )
4 ( 1.2 ) ( 1.2 )49 [ 108 – 4 ( 1.2 ) ( 1.2 ) ]22
t r = ---------------------------------- + ------------------------------------------------------ = 23.4°C
108 108
Fig. 4-3 SI: for v = 0.2 m/s, MRT = 23.4 ⇒ t a = 28°C

t o = – 16.3°C φ o = 100% φ a = 50%


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Solutions to

Chapter 5
LOAD ESTIMATING
FUNDAMENTALS

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Chapter 5—Load Estimating Fundamentals⏐63

NOTE: For the problems in this chapter the answers may vary depending on which tables are used for the R and k
values as well as the assumptions in the selection of the tabulated listings.

5.1 With an 11.2 m/s wind blowing uniformly against


one face of a building, what pressure differential would
be used to calculate the air leakage into the building?

11.2 m/s wind 11.2 ⁄ 0.447 = 25 mph


P v = 0.000482 V2
2
at Standard ρ P v = ( 0.000482 ) ( 25 ) = 0.302 in. H2 O
C s = 0.6 [ Fig. 5-5 at 0° ]
ΔP in = 0.6 ( 0.302 ) = 0.18 in. H 2 O

5.3 A double door has a 1/8 in. crack on all sides except
between the two doors, which has a 1/4 in. crack. What
would be the leakage rate for the building of Problem 5.1?

From Problem 5.1, assume 6 × 7 ft doors.


ΔP = 0.18 in. H 2 O Average crack width is 1/8 in.
Fig. 14, Chap. 27, HBF → 300 cfm/door Two doors at 0.3 in. H 2 O
0.55
CFM = 600 ⎛ ---------- ⎞
0.18
= 453 cfm
⎝ 0.30 ⎠

5.4 Determine the heat loss due to infiltration of 236 L/s


of outdoor air at 9°C when the indoor air is 24°C.

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236 L/s at 9°C with 24°C inside
500 cfm 48°F with 75°F
Q s = 1.23 ( 236 ) ( 24 – 9 ) = 4350 watts
or Q s = 1.1 ( SCFM ) Δt = 1.1 ( 500 ) ( 75 – 48 ) = 14 ,850 Btu/h
*There is also a latent load.

5.5 Give an expression for (a) the sensible load due to


infiltration, and (b) the latent load due to infiltration.

Q s = 1.1 ( SCFM ) Δt = 1.1 ⎛ -----------⎞ Δt = 0.018 CFH ( t i – t o ), Btu/h


CFH
a. Sensible
⎝ 60 ⎠

Q L = 4840 ( SCFM ) ( ΔW ) = 1.1 ⎛ -----------⎞ ( ΔW ) = 80.6 (CFH ) ( W i – W o ), Btu/h


CFH
b. Latent
⎝ 60 ⎠
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64⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

5.6 A building is 75 ft wide by 100 ft long and 10 ft high.


The indoor conditions are 75°F and 24% RH, and the out-
side conditions are 0°F and saturated. The infiltration rate
is estimated to be 0.75 ach. Calculate the sensible and
latent heat loss.

3
Volume = 75 × 100 × 10 = 75 ,000 ft
NV ( 0.75 ) ( 75 ,000 )
@ in W i = 0.0046 CFM = -------- = ------------------------------------- = 937.5
60 60
@ out W o = 0.0007875 Q s = 1.1 ( CFM ) Δt = 1.1 ( 937.5 ) ( 75 – 0 )
Q s = 77 ,300 Btu/h
Q L = 4840 ( CFM ) ( ΔW ) = 4840 ( 937.5 ) ( 0.0046 – 0.0007875 ) = 17 ,000 Btu/h

5.8 A 3 by 3 ft ventilation opening is in a wall facing in


the prevalent wind direction. There are adequate open-
ings in the roof for the passage of exhaust air. Estimate the
ventilation rate for a 25 mph wind.

3 × 3 ft opening 25 mph 2005 HBF, Equations (27) – (29)


Q = C 4 C v AU
Q = 88 ( 0.55 ) ( 9 ) ( 25 ) = 10 ,890cfm

5.9 A building 20 by 40 by 9 ft has an anticipated infil-


tration rate of 0.75 air changes per hour. Indoor design
conditions are 75°F, 30% RH minimum. Outdoor design
temperature is 5°F.
a. Determine sensible, latent, and total heat loads
(Btu/h) due to infiltration.

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b. Specify the necessary humidifier size (lb/h).

3
Volume = ( 20 ) ( 40 ) ( 9 ) = 7200 ft
( 7200 ) ( 3 ⁄ 4 )
SCFM = NV = -------------------------------- = 90
60
a. Q s = 1.1 CFM ( Δt ) = 1.1 ( 90 ) ( 70 ) = 6930 Btu/h
Q L = 4840 ( 90 ) ( 0.0055 – 0.001 ) = 1960 Btu/h
Q t = 6390 + 1960 = 8890 Btu/h
b. m w = Q L ⁄ 1100 = 1960 ⁄ 1100 = 1.8 lb/h
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Chapter 5—Load Estimating Fundamentals⏐65

5.10 A small factory with a 10 ft high ceiling is shown.


There are 22 employees normally in the shop area and 4
employees in the office area. On a winter day when the
outside temperature is 0°F, the office is maintained at
75°F, 25% RH, and the shop is kept at 68°F with no
humidity control. Determine for each area
a. infiltration, cfm
b. minimum required outside air, cfm
c. sensible heat loss due to infiltration, Btu/h
d. latent heat loss due to infiltration, Btu/h

2 3
Office: 700 ft , 7000 ft CFM supply = 700 = V pz
o

2 3
Shop: 2900 ft , 29 ,000 ft CFM supply = 3600 = V pz
s

a. INFILTRATION
Office: 1/2 ach × 7000 ⁄ 60 = 58 cfm (more if traffic)
Shop: 1 1/2 ach × 29 ,000 ⁄ 60 = 725 cfm
b. VENTILATION ( Std. 62.1-2004 ) V bz = R p R z + R a A z
Office: Rp = 5 R a = 0.06 V bz = 5 × 4 + 0.06 ( 700 ) = 62 cfm
Shop: R P = 10 R a = 0.18 V bz = 10 × 22 + 0.18 ( 2900 ) = 742 cfm
Assuming ceiling supply (floor return): E z = 1.0 V oz = V bz ⁄ E z
V oz = 62; V oz = 742
office shop

Assume single system for both spaces:


V oz
Z P = ⎛ -------- ⎞ = --------- = 0.08
62 742
Z P = ------------ = 0.21 = max. Z p ⇒ E V = 0.9
o ⎝ V pz ⎠o 700 s 3600
V ou 804
V ou = Σ = 62 + 742 = 804 cfm; V ot = -------- = --------- = 893 cfm

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EV 0.9
c. q s = 1.10 × CFM × Δt
qs = 1.10 × 58 × ( 75 – 0 ) = 4785 Btu/h
office

qs = 1.10 × 725 × ( 68 – 0 ) = 54 ,230 Btu/h


shop

d. q L = 4840 × CFM × ΔW @ 75°F, 25% } W i = 0.0046; 0°F W o = 0.00079


qL = 4840 × 58 × ( 0.0046 – 0.00079 ) = 1070 Btu/h
offic

qL = 0 no humidifier
shop

5.11 Specify an acceptable amount of outside air for


ventilation of the following:
a. 12 by 12 ft private office with 8 ft high walls
b. department store with 20,000 ft2 of floor area Table 5-9

2
a. Use 5 cfm/person + 0.06 cfm/ft
∴ OA = 5 × 1 + 0.06 ( 12 × 12 ) = 5 + 8.6 = 13.6 cfm
2 2
b. Use 7.5 cfm/person & 15 p/1000 ft + 0.12 cfm/ft
20 ,000
∴ OA = 7.5 × ---------------- × 15 + 0.12 ( 20 ,000 ) = 4650 cfm
1000
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66⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

5.12 A wall consists of 4 in. of face brick, 1/2 in. of


cement mortar, 8 in. hollow clay tile, an airspace 1 5/8 in.
wide, and wood lath and plaster totaling 3/4 in. Find the
U-factor for both winter and summer.

R
Winter Summer
Outside air 0.17 0.25
Face brick, 4 in. 0.44 0.44
Cement, 1/2 in. 0.10 0.10
Hollow clay tile, 8 in. 1.85 1.85
Airspace, 1 5/8 in. 0.95 0.95
Metal lathe and plaster, 3/4 in. 0.47 0.47
Inside air 0.68 0.68
ΣR = 4.66 4.74
U = 1/ΣR – 0.215 0.211 Btu/h/ft2 ·°F

5.13 The ceiling of a house is 3/4 in. (19 mm) acoustical


tile on furring strips with highly reflective aluminum foil
across the top of the ceiling joists. Determine the U-factor
for cooling load calculations.

R
Attic air 4.55
Air gap (top) 4.55
Air gap (bottom) 0.92
Acoustical tile 1.89
Room air 0.92
U = 1/ΣR = 0.078 Btu/h/ft2 ·°F
ΣR = 12.83

5.14 Calculate the winter U-factor for a wall consisting of


4 in. (100 mm) face brick, 4 in. (100 mm) common brick,
and 1/2 in. (13 mm) of gypsum plaster (sand aggregate).

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R
Outside air 0.17
Face brick, 4 in. 0.44
Common brick, 4 in. 0.80
Gypsum (sand) plaster, 1/2 in. 0.09
Inside air 0.68 U = 1/ΣR = 0.459 Btu/h/ft2 ·°F
ΣR = 2.18

5.15 Find the overall coefficient of heat transmission U


for a wall consisting of 4 in. of face brick, 1/2 in. of
cement mortar, 8 in. of stone, and 3/4 in. of gypsum plas-
ter. The outside air velocity is 15 mph and the inside air
is still.

R
Outside air 0.17
Face brick, 4 in. 0.44
Cement mortar, 1/2 in. 0.10
Stone, 8 in. (1/R = 0.08) 0.64 (assume lightweight aggregate)
Gypsum plaster, 3/4 in. 0.47
Inside air 0.68
U = 1/ΣR = 0.40 Btu/h/ft2 ·°F
ΣR = 2.50
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Chapter 5—Load Estimating Fundamentals⏐67

5.16 A wall has an overall coefficient U = 1.31 W/(m2 ·K).


What is the conductance of the wall when its outside
surface is exposed to a wind velocity of 6.7 m/s and the
inside air is still?

1- 1 1 1
--- = ∑ R = ---- + ---- + -----
U hi C ho
1- 1 1 1 2
--------- = ---------- + ---- + ------------- C = 1.63 ( W/(m ⋅ K )
1.31 8.29 C 34.08

5.17 Compute the U-factor for a wall of frame construc-


tion consisting of 1/2 by 8 bevel siding, permeable felt
building paper, 25/32 in. wood fiber sheathing, 2 by 4
studding on 16 in. centers, and 3/4 in. metal lath and sand
plaster. Outside wind velocity is 15 mph.

R
Outside air 0.17
Siding 0.81 Neglecting Studs
Felt paper 0.06
Sheathing 2.06
Airspace 0.97
Lathe and plaster 0.10 U = 1/4.85 = 0.206 Btu/h·ft2 ·°F
Inside air 0.68
ΣR = 4.35

5.18 For the wall of Problem 5.17, determine U if the


space between the studs is filled with fiberglass blanket
insulation. Neglect the effect of the studs.

R corrected for insulation 4.85 – 0.97 + 11.0 = 14.88


U = 0.067 Btu/h·ft2 ·°F

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5.19 Rework Problem 5.18 including the effect of the
studs.

U i = 0.067; R s = 4.85 – 0.97 + 4.35 = 8.23; U s = 0.12

S = ⎛ ------- ⎞ ( 100 ) = 9.4%;


1.5
U av = ( 0.094 ) ( 0.12 ) + ( 0.906 ) ( 0.067 )
⎝ 16 ⎠
2
U av = 0.072 Btu/h· ft ·°F

5.20 A concrete wall 250 mm thick is exposed to out-


side air at −15°C with a velocity of 6.7 m/s. Inside air
temperature is 15.6°C. Determine the heat flow through
14.9 m2 of this wall.

2 2 2
R o = 0.030 ( m ⋅ K ) ⁄ W R i = 0.120 ( m ⋅ K ) ⁄ W R con = ( 0.25 ) ( 0.55 ) = 0.138 ( m ⋅ K ) ⁄ W
1 1 2 2
U = --------- = ----------------------------------------------- = 3.47 W ⁄ ( m ⋅ K ) = 3.47 W ⁄ ( m ⋅ °C )
∑ R 0.03 + 0.12 + 0.138
Q = U ( A ) ( Δt ) = 3.47 ( 14.9 ) [ 15.6 – ( – 15 ) ] = 1540 W
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68⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

5.21 Find the overall coefficient of heat transfer and the


total thermal resistance for the following exterior wall
exposed to a 25 mph wind: face brick veneer, 25/32 in.
insulating board sheathing, 3 in. fiberglass insulation in
stud space, and 1/4 in. walnut veneer plywood panels for
the interior.
Neglecting Studs:
R
Outside air 0.09 ⇒ HBF
Face brick 0.44
Insulating board sheathing 2.06
Airspace, 3/4 in. 1.01
Fiberglass, 3 in. 11.0
Plywood, 1 1/4 in. 0.31 U = 1/ΣR = 0.064 Btu/h·ft2 ·°F
Inside air 0.68
ΣR = 15.59

5.22 What is the thermal resistance of 12.1 cm (4 3/4 in.)


thick precast concrete (stone aggregate, oven dried)?

2
R = ( 0.121 m ) [ 0.76 (m· K)/W ] = 0.092 ( m ⋅ K ) ⁄ W
or
2
R = ( 4.75 ) ( 0.11 ) = 0.52 h· ft ·°F/Btu

5.23 A composite wall structure experiences a –10°F air


temperature on the outside and a 75°F air temperature on
the inside. The wall consists of a 4 in. thick outer face-
brick, a 2 in. batt of fiberglass insulation, and a 3/8 in.
sheet of gypsum board. Determine the U-factor and the
heat flow rate, per ft2. Plot the steady-state temperature
profile across the wall.

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R
Outside air (R1) 0.17 U = 1/ΣR = 1/8.61 = 0.116
Face brick (R2) 0.44
Fiberglass, (R3) 7.00 Ti = 75°F, To = –10°F
Gypsum board (R4) 0.32
Inside air (R5) 0.68 q = UAΔT = (0.116)(85) = 9.87 Btu/h·ft2
RT = ΣR = 8.61

T 1 = – 10°F
R1 0.17
T 2 = T 1 + ------ ( ΔT ) = – 10 + ---------- ( 85 ) = – 8.3°F
RT 8.61
R2 0.44
T 3 = T 2 + ------ ( ΔT ) = – 8.3 + ---------- ( 85 ) = – 3.9°F
RT 8.61
R3 7.0
T 4 = T 3 + ------ ( ΔT ) = – 3.9 + ---------- ( 85 ) = 65.2°F
RT 8.61
R4 0.32
T 5 = T 4 + ------ ( ΔT ) = – 65.2 + ---------- ( 85 ) = 68.3°F
RT 8.61
T 6 = 75°F
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Chapter 5—Load Estimating Fundamentals⏐69

5.24 Find the overall heat transmission coefficient for a


floor-ceiling sandwich (heat flow up) having the follow-
ing construction.
R
Upper air 0.61
Concrete, 2 1/2 in. 0.20
Airspace, upper 0.61
Airspace, lower 0.61
Acoustical tile 1.89
Inside air 0.61
U = 0.22 Btu/h·ft2 ·°F
ΣR = 4.53

5.25 The exterior windows of a house are of double insu-


lating glass with 1/4 in. airspace and have metal sashes.
Determine the design U-factor for heating.

U = 0.87 Btu/h·ft2 ·°F (Table 5-16)

5.26 In designing a house, the total heat loss is calculated


as 17.9 kW. The heat loss through the outside walls is
28% of this total when the overall coefficient for the
outside walls is 1.4 W/(m2 ·K). If 50 mm organic bonded
fiberglass is added to the wall in the stud space, determine
the new total heat loss for the house.

q walls = 0.28 ( 17.9 ) = 5.01 kW; q other = 17.9 – 5.01 = 12.89


1
∑ R = ------
- = 0.714; ∑ R with = 0.714 + 0.05 ( 27.76 ) = 2.1
1.4 fiberglass

0.714

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q walls with = ------------- ( 5.01 ) = 1.70 kW
fiberglass
2.1

q total = 12.89 + 1.70 = 14.6 kW

5.27 The top floor ceiling of a building 30 by 36 ft is


constructed of 2 by 4 in. joists on 18 in. centers. On the
underside is metal lath with plaster, 3/4 in. thick. On top
of the joists there are only scattered walking planks, but
the space between the joists is filled with rock wool. The
air temperature at the ceiling in the room is 78°F and the
attic temperature is 25°F. Find the overall coefficient of
heat transfer for the ceiling.

R
Room air 0.61
Lathe and plaster 0.13
Rock wool 11.0
Attic air 0.61
U = 1/ΣR = 0.0.81 Btu/h·ft2 ·°F
ΣR = 12.35
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70⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

5.28 Determine the U-factor and the temperature at each


point of change of material for the flat roof shown below.
The roof has 3/8 in. built-up roofing, 1 1/2 in. roof insu-
lation, 2 in. thick, 80 lb/ft3 lightweight aggregate concrete
on corrugated metal over steel joists, with a metal lath and
3/4 in. (sand) plaster ceiling. Omit correction for framing.
R
Outside air T1 0.17
Built-up roofing, 3/8 in. T2 0.33
Roof insulation, 1 1/2 in. T3 4.17
Concrete (80)#, 2 in. T4 0.54
Airspace (top) T5 0.61
Airspace (bottom) T6 0.61
Lather and plaster T7 0.13
Inside air 0.61
ΣR = 7.17

0.17
T 1 = – 5 + ---------- ( 80 ) = – 3.1°F
7.17
0.5
T 2 = – 5 + ---------- ( 80 ) = 0.6°F
7.17
5.82
T 5 = – 5 + ---------- ( 80 ) = 59.9°F
7.17
6.50
T 7 = – 5 + ---------- ( 80 ) = 68.2°F
7.17
2
U = 0.139 Btu/h· ft ·°F

5.29 Calculate the heat loss through a roof of 100 ft2 area
where the inside air temperature is to be 70°F, outside air
10°F, and the composition from outside to inside: 3/8 in.
built-up roofing, 1 in. cellular glass insulation, 4 in. con-
crete slab, and 3/4 in. acoustical tile.

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R
Outside air 0.17 A = 100 ft2
Built-up roofing, 3/8 in. 0.33
Cellular glass insulation, 1 in. 2.50 to = 10°F
Concrete, 4 in. 0.32
Acoustical tile, 3/4 in. 1.89 ti = 70°F
Inside air 0.61
U = 1/ΣR = 0.172
ΣR = 5.82

q = UA ( t i – t o ) = 0.172 ( 100 ) ( 70 – 10 ) = 1030 Btu/h

5.30 Calculate the heat loss through 100 ft2 (9.29 m2)
of 1/4 in. (6.5 mm) plate glass with inside and outside
air temperatures of 70 and 10°F (21.1 and –12.2°C),
respectively.

2 2
U glass = 5.91 W/ ( m ⋅ K ) { Table 5-15 } or 1.04 Btu/h· ft ·°F
q = UA ( Δt ) = ( 5.91 ) ( 9.29 ) [ 21.2 – ( – 12.2 ) ] = 1833 W
q = 1.04 ( 100 ) ( 70 – 10 ) = 6240 Bth/h
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Chapter 5—Load Estimating Fundamentals⏐71

5.31 A building has single glass windows and an indoor


temperature of 75°F. The outside air temperature is 40°F.
With a 15 mph outside wind, still air inside, and after
sundown, what can the maximum relative humidity of the
inside air be without condensation forming on the glass?

h i ( 75 – t s ) = U ( 75 – 40 ); 1.46 ( 75 – t s ) = 1.04 ( 75 – 40 )
t s = 50.1°F = dew point; dry bulb = 75°F ∴φ = 40% max.

5.32 Repeat Problem 5.31 for a double glass window


with a 1/2 in. airspace.

h i ( 75 – t s ) = U ( 75 – 40 ); 1.46 ( 75 – t s ) = 0.59 ( 75 – 40 )
t s = 60.9°F = dew point; dry bulb = 75°F ⇒ φ = 61% max.

5.33 A wall is constructed of 4 in. face brick, pressed


fiber board sheathing (k = 0.44), 3 1/2 in. airspace, and
1/2 in. lightweight gypsum plaster on 1/2 in. plaster-
board. When the inside air temperature is 70°F and the
outside temperature is –15°F, how thick must the sheath-
ing be to prevent water pipes in the stud space from freez-
ing?
R
Outside air 0.17
Face brick 0.44
Sheathing x/0.44 0.17 + 0.44 + x ⁄ 0.44 32 – ( – 15 )
-------------------------------------------------- = --------------------------
Airspace 0.94
3.0 + x ⁄ 0.44 70 – ( – 15 )
Plaster 0.45
Plasterboard 0.32 x = 1.0 in.
Inside air 0.68

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ΣR = 3 + x/0.44

5.34 The roof of a rapid transit car is constructed of


3/8 in. plywood (C = 2.12), a vapor seal having negligible
thermal resistance, expanded polystyrene insulation (k =
0.24), 3/4 in. airspace, 1/16 in. steel with welded joints
and aluminum paint. If the car is traveling at 60 mph (film
coefficient is 20.0 Btu/h·ft2 ·°F) when the ambient tem-
perature is –20°F, what thickness of insulation is neces-
sary to prevent condensation when the inside conditions
in the car are 72°F dry bulb and 55% RH?

72°F db; 55% rh ⇒ 55°F dew point


--q- = 0.81 ( 72 – 55 ) = 13.77 Btu/h· ft ·°F
2
Inside: E = 0.6 h i = 0.81
A
R
Outside air 0.05
Plywood 0.47 q 55 – ( – 20 )
--- = 13.77 = -----------------------------------
Polystyrene insulation x/0.24
A ( 1.3 + x ⁄ 0.24 )
Airspace 0.78
Inside air 0 x = 1.0 in.
ΣR = 1.3 + x/0.24
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72⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

5.35 A roof is constructed of 2 in. wood decking, insu-


lation on top of deck, and 3/8 in. built-up roofing. It has
no ceiling. Assuming that the insulation forms a perfect
vapor barrier, determine the required resistance of the
insulation to prevent condensation from occurring at the
deck insulation interface when indoor conditions are
70°F and 40% RH, and the outside temperature is 20°F.

R film Δt film
------------- = ---------------
R total Δt total
t i = 70°F 40% RH
dew point = 44.5°F t o = 20°F
R
Inside air 0.61 0.61 + 2.50 - = 70
-------------------------------------------------------- – 44.5-
---------------------
Wood deck 2.5 0.61 + 2.5 + 0.17 + R ins 70 – 20
Outside air 0.17
Insulation Rins R ins = 2.48

5.36 Determine the summer U-factor for each of the


following:
a. building wall consisting of face brick veneer, 3/4 in.
plywood sheathing, 2 by 6 studs on 24 in. centers, no
insulation, and 5/32 in. plywood paneling
b. ceiling/roof where the ceiling is composed of 1/2 in.
plasterboard nailed to 2 by 6 joists on 16 in. centers
and the roof consists of asphalt shingles on 3/4 in.
plywood on 2 by 4 rafters on 16 in. centers. The roof
area is 2717 ft2 while the ceiling area is 1980 ft2.
c. sliding patio door with insulating glass (double)

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having a 0.50 in. airspace in a metal frame
d. a 2 in. solid wood door with a wood storm door

a. Ri Rs
Outside air 0.25 0.25 Ui = 0.259; Us = 0.107
Face brick 0.44 0.44
Sheathing, 3/4 in. 0.93 0.93 Uav = 0.15(0.129) + 0.85(0.259)
Studs — 5.23 = 0.24 Btu/h·ft2 ·°F (1.36 W/m2 ·K)
Air { 0.68
0.68

Paneling 0.20 0.20
Inside air 0.68 0.68
ΣR = 3.86 7.73
U = 1/ΣR = 0.259 0.129

b. Ceiling Roof
Attic air 0.92 Outside air 0.25 Ro,c = 2.29 + 2.38/(2717/1980) = 4.024
Plasterboard 0.45 Shingles 0.44
Inside air 0.92 Plywood 0.93 Uo,c = 1/4.024 = 0.25 Btu//h·ft2 ·°F
Attic Air 0.76
ΣR =2.29 ΣR = 2.38
U = 0.437 u = 0.420

c. U = 0.81 Btu/h·ft2 ·°F


d. U = 0.46 Btu/h·ft2 ·°F (Table 5-17)
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Chapter 5—Load Estimating Fundamentals⏐73

5.37 A prefabricated commercial building has exterior


walls constructed of 2 in. expanded polyurethane bonded
between 1/8 in. aluminum sheet and 1/4 in. veneer
plywood. Design conditions include 105°F outside air
temperature, 72°F indoor air, and 7.5 mph wind. Deter-
mine:
a. overall thermal resistance
b. value of U
c. heat gain per ft2

R
Outside air 0.25
Aluminum, 1/8 in. –0
Polyurethane (2 × 6.25) 12.50
Plywood, 1/4 in. 0.31
Inside air 0.68
ΣR = 13.74

1 2
b. U w = ------- = 0.0728 Btu/h· ft ·°F
Rw
2
c. q = 0.0728 ( 105 – 72 ) = 2.40 Btu/h· ft

5.38 An outside wall consists of 4 in. face brick,


25/32 in. insulating board sheathing 2 in. mineral fiber
batt between the 2 by 4 studs, and 1/2 in. plasterboard.
Determine the winter U-factor.

R
Outside air 0.17
Face brick 0.44

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Insulating board sheathing 2.06
Airspace 1.01
Fiber batt 7.0
Plasterboard 0.45
Inside air 0.68
U = 1/ΣR = 0.085 Btu/h·ft2 ·°F
ΣR = 11.81

5.39 Solve the following:


a. Compute the winter U-factor for the wall of Problem
5.38 if the wind velocity is 30 mph.
b. Compute the summer U-factor for the wall of
Problem 5.38.
c. If full wall insulation is used, compute the summer
U-value for the wall of Problem 5.38.

a. ∑ R = 11.81 – 0.17 + 1 ⁄ 0.26 = 11.72; U = 0.085


b. ∑ R = 11.81 – 0.17 + 0.25 = 11.89; U = 0.084
c. ∑ R = 11.81 – 1.01 – 7.0 + 11.0 = 14.88; U = 0.067
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74⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

5.40 An exterior wall contains a 3 by 7 ft solid wood


door, 1 3/8 in. thick, and a 6 by 7 ft sliding patio door with
double insulating glass having a 1/2 in. airspace and
metal frame. Determine the summer U-factor for each
door.

2
1 3 ⁄ 8 in. wood dome: U = 0.46 Btu/h· ft ·°F
2
Sliding patio door: U = 0.76 Btu/h· ft ·°F

5.41 If the doors of Problem 5.40 are between the resi-


dence and a completely enclosed swimming pool area,
determine the U-factor for each door.

1 3 ⁄ 8 in. wood door: R inside = 1 ⁄ 0.39 – 0.25 + 0.68 = 2.99


U = 1 ⁄ R = 0.33
Sliding patio door: R inside = 1 ⁄ 0.81 – 0.25 + 0.68 = 1.66
U = 1 ⁄ R = 0.60

5.42 Determine the winter U-factor in W/(m2 ·K) for the


wall of a building which has the following construction:
face brick, 4 in.; airspace, 3/4 in.; concrete, 9 in.; cellular
glass board insulation, 1 in.; plywood paneling, 1/4 in.

1 1
U = --------- = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
∑ R 0.17 + 0.44 + 1.1 + 0.72 + 2.50 + 0.31 + 0.68
2 2
U = 0.169 Btu/h· ft ·°F [ 0.960 W ⁄ ( m ·K ) ]

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5.43 Determine the summer U-factor for the following
building components
a. Wall: wood drop siding, 1 by 8 in.; 1/2 in. nail-base
insulating board sheathing; 2 by 4 studs (16 in. oc)
with full wall fiberglass insulation; 1/4 in. paneling
b. Door: solid wood, 1 1/2 in. thick, with wood and
glass storm door

1 1
a. U i = ---------- = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.0706 Btu/h ft 2 °F
∑ R i 0.25 + 0.79 + 1.14 + 11.0 + 0.31 + 0.68
1 1
U s = ----------- = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.133 Btu/h ft 2 °F
∑ R s 0.25 + 0.79 + 1.14 + 4.35 + 0.31 + 0.68
1.5
S = ------- ( 100 ) = 9.5%
16
b. U w = 0.27; R w = 3.703; R s = 3.703 – 0.17 + 0.25 = 3.784
U s = 0.264
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Chapter 5—Load Estimating Fundamentals⏐75

area to ceiling area is 1:3. The attic is unvented in winter.

5.44 Determine the combined ceiling and roof winter


U-value for the following construction: The ceiling
consists of 3/8 in. gypsum board on 2 by 6 in. ceiling
joists. Six inches of fiberglass (mineral/glass wool) insu-
lation fills the space between the joists. The pitched roof
has asphalt shingles on 25/32 in. solid wood sheathing
with no insulation between the rafters. The ratio of roof

1 1
Roof: U roof = ------------------ = ---------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.463
∑ roof
R 0.17 + 0.44 + 0.934 + 0.62
1 1
Ceiling: U ceiling = ------------------------ = ---------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.0487
∑ ceiling
R 0.61 + 19.02 + 0.32 + 0.61
1 1 2.16 2
R t = ------ + ---------- = 20.54 + ---------- = 22.20; U o ,c = 0.045 Btu/h· ft ·°F
U c nU R 1.3

5.45 The west wall of a residence is 70 ft long by 8 ft


high. The wall contains four 3 by 5 ft wood sash 80%
glass single pane windows each with a storm window;
one double-glazed (1/2 in. airspace) picture window,
5 1/2 by 10 ft; and one 1 3/4 in. thick solid wood door,
3 by 7 ft. The wall itself has the construction of Problem
5.21. Specify the U-factor and corresponding area for
each of the various parts of the wall with normal winter
air velocities.

4 Windows: U sin gle pane = 0.89


Picture window: U = 0.50

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Door: U = 0.46
2 2 2
A w = 4 × 3 × 5 = 60 ft A p 5.5 × 10 = 55 ft A d = 3 × 7 = 21 ft
w

2
A wallproper = ( 70 × 8 ) – 60 – 55 – 21 = 424 ft U wall = 0.064

5.46 A wall is 20 by 3 m, which includes 14% double-


insulating glass windows with a 6 mm airspace. The wall
proper consists of one layer of face brick backed by
250 mm of concrete with 12 mm of gypsum plaster on the
inside. For indoor and outdoor design temperatures of
22°C and –15°C, respectively, determine the heat loss
through this wall, kW.

Wall R
Outside air 0.03 Window: (Assume A1 frame operable)
Face brick 0.078 U = 4.93 W/(m2 ·K)
Concrete, 250 mm 0.138 Awall = (0.86)(20 × 3) = 51.6 m2
Plaster, 12 mm 0.08 Awindow = (0.14)(20 × 3) = 8.4 m2
Inside air 0.12
ΣR = 0.446 ; U = 2.24 W/(m2 ·K)

q = UA Δt = ( 2.24 ) ( 51.6 ) ( 37 ) + ( 4.93 ) ( 8.4 ) ( 37 )


q = 5800 W = 5.8 kW
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Solutions to

Chapter 6
RESIDENTIAL COOLING
AND HEATING
LOAD CALCULATIONS

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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.

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Chapter 6—Residential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations⏐79

6.1 Determine which of the following walls of 150 ft2


gross area will have the greatest heat loss:
a. Wall of 25% single glass and the remainder brick
veneer (U = 0.25 Btu/h·ft2 ·°F)
b. Wall of 50% double-glazed windows with the
remainder of the wall brick veneer
(U = 0.25 Btu/h·ft2 ·°F)
c. Wall of 10% single pane glass and 90% of 6 in.
poured concrete with ho = 6.0 and hi = 1.6 Btu/h·ft2

a. q a = 0.25 ( 0.75 ) ( 150 ) ΔT + 1.13 ( 0.25 ) ( 150 ) ΔT


q a = 70.5 ΔT
b. q b = 0.25 ( 0.5 ) ( 150 ) ΔT + 0.69 ( 0.5 ) ( 150 ) ( ΔT )
q b = 70.5 ΔT
1
c. q c = 1.13 ( 0.1 ) ( 150 ) ΔT + ----------------------------------------------- ( 0.9 ) ( 150 ) ΔT
0.167 + 0.48 + 0.62
q c = 123 ΔT
Wall (c) has greatest heat loss.

6.2 A house has a pitched roof with an area of 159 m2 and


a U of 1.6 W/(m2 ·K). The ceiling beneath the roof has
an area of 133 m2 and a U of 0.42 W/(m2 ·K). The attic
is unvented in winter for which the design conditions are
–19°C outside and 22°C inside. Determine the heat loss
through the ceiling. [Ans: 1.88 kW (6400 Btu/h)]

1 1
R = ---------- + --------------------------------------- = 2.38 + 0.52 = 2.90
0.42 ( 159 ⁄ 133 ) ( 1.6 )

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1 1
U = --- = ------- = 0.345 W/(m 3 ·K) q = UA ΔT
R 2.9
q = ( 0.345 ) ( 133 ) ( 41 ) = 1880 W ( 6420 Btu/h )
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80⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

6.3 Determine the design winter heat loss through each


of the following components of a building located in
Minneapolis, Minnesota:
a. Wall having 648 ft2 of area and construction of 4 in.
face brick; 3/4 in. plywood sheathing; 2-1/2 in.
glass fiber insulation in 2 by 4 stud space (16 in. on
centers); 1/2 in. plasterboard interior wall.
b. A 2185 ft2 ceiling topped by a 2622 ft2 hip roof.
The ceiling consists of 1/2 in. acoustical tile with
R-19 insulation between the 2 by 6 (16 in. on cen-
ters) ceiling joists. The roof has asphalt shingles on
3/4 in. plywood sheathing on the roof rafters. The
attic is unvented in winter.
c. Two 4 by 6 ft single pane glass windows with storm
windows.

t i = 72°F (selected) ; t c = – 13.4°F ( Fig. 4-4 )

Wall Ceiling Roof


Ri Rs Ri Rs R
Outside air 0.17 0.17 Attic air 0.61 0.61 Outside air 0.17
Face brick, 4 in. 0.44 0.44 Insulation 19.0 6.25 Shingles 0.44
Plywood sheathing, 3/4 in. 1.08 1.08 Acoustical tile, 1/2 in. 1.19 1.19 Plywood 1.08
Insulation, 2 1/2 in. 6.7 – Inside air 0.61 0.61 Attic Air 0.62
Airspace 1.01 – ER 21.41 8.16 ER 2.31
Studs – 4.35
Plasterboard 0.45 0.45
Ui = Us = UR =
Inside air 0.68 0.68
0.047, 0.122 0.433
ER 10.53 7.17 S = 10%

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Ui = 0.095, Us = 0.139 Uav (0.1)(0.122) + (0.9)(0.047) = 0.054
S ≅ 15% for 2x on 16 in. Centers

1
U avg = ( 0.15 ) ( 0.139 ) + ( 0.85 ) ( 0.095 ) = 0.10 U C/R = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ U C/R = 0.0525
w 1 ⁄ 0.054 + ( 2622 ⁄ 2195 ) ( 0.433 )
With storm window, treat as double glazing Wwindow = 0.55. Assume wood frame.

ΔT design = [ 72 – ( – 13.4 ) ] = 85.4°F


Selected ⇑ ⇑ 99.6 % Value

Wall loss = ( 0.1 ) ( 648 ) ( 85.4 ) = 5533 Btu/h


Ceiling loss = ( 0.0525 ) ( 2185 ) ( 85.4 ) = 9796 Btu/h
Window loss = ( 0.55 ) ( 48 ) ( 85.4 ) = 2254 Btu/h
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Chapter 6—Residential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations⏐81

6.4 If the building of Problem 6.3 is a residence having a


volume of 17,480 ft3 and is equipped with a humidifier set
for 25% RH, determine
a. Sensible heat load due to infiltration
b. Latent heat load due to infiltration
⇓ Estimated
⎛ 17 ,480 ft 3⎞
Infiltration ≈ ( 0.75 AC/h ) ⎜ -------------------------⎟ = 219 cfm
⎝ 60 min/h ⎠

q s = 1.10 (cfm) ( Δt ) = 1.1 ( 219 ) ( 88 ) = 21 ,200 Btu/h


q l = 4840 (cfm) ( ΔW ) = 4840 ( 219 ) ( 0.0042 – 0.00038 ) = 4049 Btu/h

72°F, 25% ⇑ ⇑ –13.4°F, 100%

6.5 For a frame building with design conditions of 72°F


indoor and 12°F outdoor, determine the heat loss through
each of the following components:
a. Slab floor, 56 by 28 ft, on grade without perimeter
insulation [Ans: 12,100 Btu/h]
b. Single glass double-hung window, 3 by 5 ft, with
storm window in common metal frame
[Ans: 780 Btu/h]
c. 1 3/8 in. thick solid wood door, 3 by 7 ft, with 25%
single glazing [Ans: 490 Btu/h]
d. Sliding patio door, 6 by 7 ft, metal frame with dou-
ble insulating glass having 1/4 in. air space
[Ans: 2192 Btu/h]

a. q = F p P ( t i – t o ) = ( 1.20 ) [ 2 ( 56 + 28 ) ] ( 72 – 12 ) = 12 ,100 Btu/h

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(Table 6-18)
b. q = UA ( t i – t o ) = ( 0.81 ) ( 3 × 5 ) ( 72 – 12 ) = 729 Btu/h
(Table 5-16)
c. q = UA ( t i – t o ) = ( 0.58 ) ( 3 × 7 ) ( 72 – 12 ) = 731 Btu/h
(Table 5-17)
d. q = UA ( t i – t o ) = ( 0.81 ) ( 6 × 7 ) ( 72 – 12 ) = 2041 Btu/h
(Table 5-16)

6.6 Determine the heat loss for a basement in Chicago,


Illinois, which is 8 by 12 by 2.1 m high, of standard
concrete construction, and entirely below grade.
Wall area = ( 2 ) ( 8 + 12 ) ( 2.1 ) = 84 m 2 ; Floor area = 8 × 12 = 96 m 2
U w ,av = 0.980 W/(m 2 ·°C)
U f ,av = 0.164 W/(m 2 ·°C)
t i = 21°C ( selected ) ; t g = t w ,av – A = 2 – 12 = – 10°C
(Table 4-8) (Fig. 6-1)
Δt = t i – t g = 31
q = ( UA Δt ) walls + ( UA Δt ) floor
q = ( 0.980 ) ( 84 ) ( 31 ) + ( 0.164 ) ( 96 ) ( 31 ) = 3040 W
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82⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

6.7 A residence located in Chicago, Illinois, has a total


ceiling area of 1960 ft2 and consists of 3/8 in. gypsum
board on 2 by 6 ceiling joists. Six inches of fiberglass
(mineral/glass wool) insulation fills the space between
the joists. The pitched roof has asphalt shingles on
25/32 in. solid wood sheathing with no insulation
between the rafters. The ratio of roof area to ceiling area
is 1.3. The attic is unvented in winter. For winter design
conditions, including a 72°F inside dry bulb at the 5 ft
line, determine
a. Outside design temperature, °F
b. Appropriate temperature difference, °F
c. Appropriate overall coefficient U, Btu/h·ft2 ·°F
d. Ceiling heat loss q, Btu/h

a. 99.6% value t o = – 4°F, Chicago CO


b. 72°F inside – ( – 4°F ) outside = 76°F
1
c. U c = -------------------------------------------------------- = 0.049
0.61 + 19 + 0.34 + 0.61
1
U R = ------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.43
0.17 + 0.44 + 1.08 + 0.62
1 1 1 1
R t = ------ + ---------- = ------------- + ---------------------------- = 21.8
U c nU R 0.049 ( 1.3 ) ( 0.43 )
1
U T = ---------- = 0.046
21.8
d. q = U T A Δt = ( 0.046 ) ( 1960 ) ( 76 ) = 6852 Btu/h

6.8 A residential building, 30 by 100 ft, located in Des


Moines, Iowa, has a conditioned space which extends 9 ft

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below grade level. Determine the design heat loss from
the uninsulated below grade concrete walls and floor.

t o = – 6.9°F [ Table 4-7 ] ; t a = 35.5°F ; A = 23 [Table 4-8, Fig. 6-1]


Walls: U av = 0.157 (use conservative 8 ft value) [Table 6-16]
Floor: U f = 0.026 (conservative) [Table 6-17]
Q walls = U av A ( t i – t o ) = ( 0.157 ) ( 260 × 9 ) [ 72 – ( 35.5 – 23 ) ] = 21 ,900 Btu/h

Q floor = U f A ( t i – t o ) = ( 0.026 ) ( 3000 ) [ 72 – ( 35.5 – 23 ) ] = 10 ,300 Btu/h


--------------------------------
Total = 32 ,200 Btu/h
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Chapter 6—Residential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations⏐83

6.9 Determine the heating load and specify the furnace


for the following residence (located in St. Louis,
Missouri) with
a. 1 in. fiberglass wall insulation and 2 in. fiberglass
ceiling insulation
b. Full wall fiberglass insulation and 4 in. fiberglass
ceiling insulation
Basic Plan
Wall construction: Face brick, 25/32 in. insulating board
sheathing, 2 by 4 studs on 16 in. centers, 3/8 in.
gypsum board interior
Ceiling: 2 by 6 ceiling joists, 16 in. on center, no flooring
above, 3/8 in. gypsum board ceiling
Roof: Asphalt shingles on solid wood sheathing, 2 by 6
rafters, no insulation between rafters, no ceiling
applied to rafters, 1:4 pitch, 1 ft overhang on eaves,
no overhang on gables
Full basement: Heated, 10 in. concrete walls, all below
grade, 4 in. concrete floor over 4 in. gravel
Fireplaces: One in living room on first floor
Garage: Attached but unheated
Windows:
W1: 3 by 5 ft singles glazed, double-hung wood sash,
weather stripped with storm window
W2: 10 by 5 1/2 ft picture window, double glazed,
1/2 in. airspace
W3: 5 by 3 ft wood sash casement, double glazed,
1/2 in. airspace
W4: 3 by 3 ft wood sash casement, double glazed,
1/2 in. airspace

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Doors:
D1: 3 by 6 ft-8 in, 1 3/4 in. solid with glass storm door
D2: Sliding glass door, two section, each 3 by 6 ft,
8 in. double glazed, 1/2 in. airspace, aluminum
frame
[Ans: (b) 52,000 Btu/h (15 kW)]

Diagram for Problem 6.9


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84⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

Problem 6.9 continued

t a ≅ 44°F
A ≅ 22°F
t i = 72°F t o = 4.1°F W i = 0.0042 W o = 0.00097 t g = 44 – 22 = 22°F

Surface A U Δt = q
W1 windows (6) 90 0.51 67.9 3114
W2 windows 55 0.50 67.9 1872
W3 windows (2) 30 0.51 67.9 1038
W4 windows (2) 18 0.51 67.9 621
D1 door (West) 20 0.26 67.9 349
D1 door (South) 20 0.26 67.9 349
D2 door 40 0.81 67.9 2202
Wall (N, W, E) 1091 0.067 67.9 4963
Wall (S) 204 0.068 67.9 890
Ceiling/Roof 1960 0.067 67.9 8916
24366 Btu/h

Basement wall: Δt = 72 – 22 = 50°F


U av = 0.157 Btu/h· ft 2 ·°F (Table 6-16)
q = ( 0.157 ) [ ( 2 ) ( 70 + 28 ) ( 8 ) ] ( 50 ) = 12 ,300 Btu/h
Basement floor: U f = 0.026 (Table 6-17)
q = ( 0.026 ) ( 70 × 28 ) ( 50 ) = 2550 Btu/h
Infiltration: (Fig. 5-7) ACH ≅ 0.5
q s = [ 0.5 ( 70 × 28 × 8 ) ⁄ 60 ] ( 1.10 ) ( 72 – 4.1 ) = 9758 Btu/h
q L = [ 0.5 ( 70 × 28 × 8 ) ⁄ 60 ] ( 4840 ) ( 0.0042 – 0.00097 ) = 2036 Btu/h
q T = 24,366 + 12 ,300 + 2550 + 9758 + 2036 = 51, 010 Btu/h

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NOTE: U or R values may differ depending on which table is used.
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Chapter 6—Residential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations⏐85

6.10 Determine the total conductance loss through the


wall panel as shown below. The window has a wooden sill
and the plate glass (U = 1.06) covers 85% of the window
area. [Ans: 9640 Btu/h (2.77 kW)]

q = UAΔt
Wall: q = (0.39)(520 – 192– 21)(70 – 40) = 3592
Door: q = (0.64)(21)(70 – 40) = 403
Window: q = (1.06)(192)(70 – 40) = 6105
10,100 Btu/h
6.11 Calculate, for design purposes, the heat losses from
a room of a building as shown in the diagram, if the
outside ambient is 0°F. [Ans: 62,820 Btu/h (18.4 kW)]

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Diagram for Problem 6.11
Volume = ( 24 ) ( 40 ) ( 13 ) = 12 ,480 ft 3 Glass = ( 13.75 ) ( 9 ) + ( 13.5 ) ( 9 ) = 245 ft 2
Net wall = ( 24 ) ( 13 ) + ( 40 ) ( 13 ) – 245 = 587 ft 2 Floor/Ceiling = ( 24 ) ( 40 ) = 960 ft 2
1
U wall = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.381
( 1 ⁄ 1.65 ) + ( 16 ⁄ 9 ) + ( 0.5 ⁄ 5 ) + ( 1 ⁄ 7.2 )
1
U glass = 0.89 U ceiling = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.143
( 2 ⁄ 1.65 ) + ( 0.5 ⁄ 5 ) + ( 1 ⁄ 0.26 ) + 0.98 + 0.85
Floor: F P = 0.68 , P = 64 ft
Infiltration: Assume 1/2 ACH ⇒ CFM = 1.2 ( 12 ,480 ) ⁄ 60 = 104
Heat Losses:
qglass = (0.89)(245)(70 – 0) = 15, 260 Btu/h
qwalls = (0.381)(587)(70 – 0) = 15, 660 Btu/h
qceiling = (0.143)(960)(70 – 0) = 4,800 Btu/h
qfloor = (0.68)(64)(70 – 0) = 3,050 Btu/h
qinfil = (1.10)(104)(70 – 0) = 8,000 Btu/h
Total Loss = 46,800 Btu/h (13.7 kW)
NOTE: U or R values may differ depending on which tables are used.
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86⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

6.12 A room has three 760 by 1520 mm well-fitted


double hung windows. For design conditions of –1°C and
21°C, calculate:
a. heating load from air leakage
b. heating load from transmission through the windows.

Assume single story frame house, 6.7 m/s wind.

Leakage area = ( 3 + 0.3 ) ( 3 ) ( 0.76 ) ( 1.52 ) = 11.4 cm 2 = L


· 2 1/2 1/4
V = [( A ) ( Δt ) + ( B ) (V )] L = [ ( 0.00188 ) ( 39 ) + ( 0.00413 ) ( 6.7 ) 2 ] 11.4 = 5.8 m 3 /h
a. q s = ( 1.232 ) ( 5800 ⁄ 3600 ) ( 39 ) = 73.4 W
b. q tran = AU ( Δt ) = ( 6.2 ) ( 3 ) ( 0.76 ) ( 1.52 ) ( 39 ) = 838 W

6.13 A residence has a total ceiling area of 1960 ft2 and


consists of 3/8 in. gypsum board on 2 by 6 in. ceiling
joists. Six inches of fiberglass (mineral/glass wool) insu-
lation fills the space between the joists. The effect of the
joists themselves can be neglected. The pitched roof has
asphalt shingles on 5/8 in. plywood with no insulation
between the rafters. The ratio of roof area to ceiling area
is 1:3. The attic contains louvers which remain open all
year. The residence is located in Louisville, Kentucky.
For winter design conditions, determine:
a. (a) appropriate temperature difference Δt
b. overall coefficient U
c. ceiling heat loss.

Louisville: t o = 7.1°F ; t i = 75°F ; A c = 1960 ; A R ⁄ A c = 1.3 ; A R = 2548

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·
A c U c t c + t o ( 1.08A c Vc + A R U R ) ·
t a = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
· - Vc ≅ 0.5 cfm/ft 2
A c ( U c + 1.08Vc ) + A R U R
1
U R = ------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.362
0.17 + 0.44 + 0.77 + 0.62
1
U ci = -------------------------------------------------------- = 0.049 ⎫
0.61 + 0.32 + 19 + 0.61 ⎪
⎬ U av = ( 0.1 ) ( 0.115 ) + ( 0.9 ) ( 0.049 ) = 0.055
U cs = ------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.115 ⎪
1
0.61 + 0.32 + 7.14 + 0.61 ⎭
( 1960 ) ( 0.055 ) ( 75 ) + 6 [ ( 1.08 )1960 ( 0.5 ) + ( 2548 ) ( 0.362 ) ]
t a = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ = 9.6°F
1960 [ 0.055 + 1.08 ( 0.5 ) ] + ( 2548 ) ( 0.362 )
a. Δt = 75 – 7.1 = 67.9°F
b. U c = 0.055 Btu/h· ft 2 ·°F
c. q = U c A c ( t c – t a ) = ( 0.055 ) ( 1960 ) ( 67.9 ) = 7319 Btu/h ( 2.15 kW )

6.14 Estimate the heat loss from the uninsulated slab


floor of a frame house having dimensions of 18 by 38 m.
The house is maintained at 22°C. Outdoor design temper-
ature is –15°C in a region with 5400 degree kelvin days.
[Ans: 8.6 kW]
q = FP P ( t i – t o ) = ( 2.07 ) ( 112 ) [ 22 – ( – 15 ) ] = 8580 W

NOTE: U or R values may differ depending on which tables are used.


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Chapter 6—Residential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations⏐87

6.15 Repeat Problem 6.14 for the case where insulation


[R = 0.9 (m2 ·K)/W] is applied to the slab edge and
extended below grade to the frost line.

q = FP P ( t i – t o ) = ( 0.92 ) ( 112 ) ( 22 + 15 ) = 3800 W

6.16 To preclude attic condensation, an attic ventilation


rate of 59 L/s is provided with outside air at –13°C. The
roof area is 244 m 2 and Uroof = 2.7 W/(m2 ·K). The ceil-
ing area is 203 m 2 and Uclg = 0.30 W/(m2 ·K). Inside
design temperature is 22°C. Determine the ceiling heat
loss W with ventilation and compare to the loss if there
had been no ventilation.

·
A c U c t c + t o ( 1200A c Vc + A R U R )
t a = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
· ( Eq. 4-6 )
A c ( U c + 1200Vc ) + A R U R
( 203 ) ( 0.3 ) ( 22 ) + ( – 13 ) [ ( 1200 ) ( 203 ) ( 0.059 ) + ( 244 ) ( 2.7 ) ]
= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
203 ( 0.3 + 1200 ( 0.059 ) ) + ( 244 ) ( 2.7 )
t a = – 12.9°C ; q = ( 0.3 ) ( 203 ) ( 22 + 12.9 ) = 2125 W ( 7250 Btu/h )
1
If uninsulated: U o ,c = --------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.275
( 1 ⁄ 0.3 ) + [ ( 203 ) ⁄ ( 244 ) ( 2.7 ) ]
q = ( 0.275 ) ( 203 ) ( 22 + 13 ) = 1954 W ( 6670 Btu/h )

6.17 For a residence in Roanoke, Virginia, the hip roof


consisting of asphalt shingles on 1/2 in. plywood has an
area of 2950 ft2. The 2300 ft2 ceiling consists of 3/8 in.
plasterboard on 2 by 6 joists on 24 in. centers. The attic
has forced ventilation at the rate of 325 cfm. Determine

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the attic air temperature at winter design conditions.

Ceiling: t i = 72°F
1 1
U c = -------------------------------------------- = ---------- = 0.649 t o = 14.2°F
0.61 + 0.32 + 0.61 1.54
Roof:
1 1
U R = ------------------------------------------------------------- = ---------- = 0.543
0.17 + 0.44 + 0.62 + 0.61 1.84
( 2300 ) ( 0.649 ) ( 72 ) + ( 14.2 ) ( 1.08 ) ( 325 ) + ( 2950 ) ( 0.543 )
t a = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 33.1°F
( 2300 ) ( 0.649 ) + ( 1.08 ) ( 325 ) + ( 2950 ) ( 0.543 )

NOTE: U or R values may differ depending on which tables are used.


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88⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

6.18 Solve the following:


a. A 115 by 10 ft high wall in Minneapolis, Minne-
sota, consists of face brick, a 3/4 in. air gap, 8 in.
cinder aggregate concrete blocks, 1 in. organic
bonded glass fiber insulation, and 4 in. clay tile
interior. Determine the design heat loss through the
wall in winter, Btu/h.
b. If the wall of Part (a) is converted to 60% single
glazed glass, what is the winter design heat loss
through the total wall, Btu/h?
ti = 72°F; to = –13.4°F
a. R
Outside air 0.17
Face brick 0.44
Air gap, 3/4 in. ~ 1.0
Cinder block, 8 in. 1.72
Insulation, 1 in. 4.0
Clay tile, 4 in. 1.11
Inside air 068
ΣR = 9.12

1
U = --------- = 0.110 Btu/h· ft 2 ·°F
∑R
Q = ( 0.11 ) ( 115 ) ( 10 ) ( 72 + 13.4 ) = 10, 803 Btu/h
b. Q = ( 0.60 ) ( 115 ) ( 10 ) ( 1.13 ) ( 85.4 ) + ( 0.40 ) ( 115 ) ( 10 ) ( 0.11 ) ( 85.4 ) = 70, 911 Btu/h
U glass ¡

NOTE: U or R values may differ depending on which tables are used.

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Chapter 6—Residential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations⏐89

6.19 Determine the design heating load for a residence,


30 by 100 by 10 ft, to be located in Windsor Locks,
Connecticut, which has an uninsulated slab on grade
concrete floor. The construction consists of
Walls: 4 in. face brick, 3/4 in. plywood sheathing, 4 in.
cellular glass insulation, and 1/2 in. plasterboard
Ceiling/roof: 3 in. lightweight concrete deck, built-up
roofing, 2 in. of rigid, expanded rubber insulation,
and a drop ceiling of 1/2 in. acoustical tiles, some
18 in. below the roof.
Windows: 45% of each wall is double pane, nonoperable,
metal-framed glass (1/4 in. air gap).
Doors: Two 3 by 7 ft, 1.75 in. thick, solid wood doors are
located in each wall.
NOTE: U or R values may differ depending on which tables are used.

Walls R Ceiling/Roof R
Outside air 0.17 Outside air 0.17
Face brick, 4 in. 0.44 Built-up roofing 0.33
Plywood sheathing, 3/4 in. 0.93 Lightweight concrete, 3 in. ~ 0.42
Cellular glass insulation, 4 in. 12.12 Rubber insulation, 2 in. 9.10
Plasterboard, 1/2 in. 0.45 Air 0.61
Inside air 0.68 Air 0.61
ΣR = 14.79 Acoustical tiles, 1/2 in. 1.25
Uw = 0.0676 Inside air 0.61
ΣR = 13.10
Uc = 0.0763

Windows: U g = 0.69 Floor: F P ≈ 0.84

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1 30 × 100 × 10
Doors: U d = 0.46 Infiltration: @ 1/2 ACH --- ⎛⎝--------------------------------- ⎞⎠ = 250 CFM
2 60
Design Values: t i = 72°F ; φ i = 30% rh ; W i = 0.005
t o = 3°F ; φ o = 100% rh ; W o = 0.00092

Heat Losses:
Walls: Q = (0.0676)(1262)(69) = 5,880 Btu/h
Roof: Q = (0.0763)(3000)(69) = 15,790 Btu/h
Doors: Q = (0.46)(168)(69) = 5,330 Btu/h
Windows: Q = (0.69)(1170)(69) = 55,700 Btu/h
Floor: Q = (0.84)(260)(69) = 15,070 Btu/h
Infiltration: Qs = (1.10)(250)(69) = 18,975 Btu/h
QL = (4840)(250)(0.005 – 0.00092) = 4,940 Btu/h
Total Loss = 121,700 Btu/h

Problems 6.20, 6.21, and 6.22 are essentially open-


ended but should be solved using the RLF method, illus-
trated in Section 6.6.
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Solutions to

Chapter 7
NONRESIDENTIAL
COOLING AND HEATING
LOAD CALCULATIONS

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Chapter 7—Nonresidential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations⏐93

7.1 The exterior windows are of double insulating glass


with 0.25 in. (6 mm) airspace and have metal sashes.
Determine the design U-factor for cooling for the
window.

From Table 5-6, ID #4:


U = 0.81 Btu/h· ft 2 ·°F, if operable, or
U = 0.68 Btu/h· ft 2 ·°F, if fixed

7.2 A store in Lafayette, Indiana, is on the northeast


corner of an intersection with one street running due
north. The bottom of the show windows are 2 ft 6 in.
above the sidewalk; the show windows are 7 ft high. An
aluminum awning with a 3 in. rise per horizontal foot is
to be hung with the bottom strut at the window header.
Both south and west awnings are to have the same dimen-
sions.
a. What minimum distance should the strut extend from
the building to keep the shade line on the windows at
3 P.M. sun time?
b. Which face of the building governs the awning
dimensions?
c. Where will the shade line be at 3 P.M. on the other
face of the building?
d. What is the elevation of the top of the awnings above
the sidewalk?

P = S H cot Ω South, Sept.: Ω = 50°


West, Sept.: Ω = 37°

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a. P south = 7 × cot 50° = 7 ( 0.839 ) = 5.9 ft
P west = 7 × cot 37° = 7 ( 1.327 ) = 9.3 ft
b. West
c. 9.3 = SH ( 0.839 ) ⇒ S H = 11.1 ft, shadow to ground

9.3 ⎛ ------ ⎞ + 9.5 = 11.8 ft above ground


3
d.
⎝ 12 ⎠
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94⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

7.3 Calculate the solar radiation entering through clear


glass as shown below. [Ans 692 Btu/h]

Mullion: M = P tan γ
Tansom: T = P tan β⁄ cos γ
40° N latitude, July 21, 1 P . M ., south
γ ( ψ = 0° from south ) = φ = 37°; β = 66°
17 17
M = ------ tan 37 = 1.1 ft T = ------ tan 66 ⁄ cos 37 = 4 ft
12 12
Area in Sun = ( width – M ) ( height – T )
A s = [ 3 – ( 1.1 – 0.83 ) ] [ 4 – ( 4 – 0.83 ) ] = 2.27 ft 2
Total glass area = 3 × 4 = 12 ft 2

q = As ( E D )SHGC ( θ )IAC + AT ( E d + E r )SHGCD IAC


A s = 2.27 ; IAC = 1 ; A T = 12
Table 7-13, θ = 71° ; Table 7-4, SHGC ( 71 ) = 0.67
Table 7-4, SHGCD ( 71 ) = 0.78

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A
E DN = ---------------------------------- ; A = 1093 W/m 2
exp ( E ⁄ sin β )
B = 0.186 , C = 0.138
1093
E DN = ---------------------------------------------- = 892 W/m 2 = 283 Btu/h· ft 2
exp ( 0.186 ⁄ sin 66 )
E D = E DN cos θ = 283 ⋅ cos 71 = 92 Btu/h· ft 2
2
E d = CYE DN ; Y = 0.55 + 0.437 cos θ + 0.313 cos θ
Y = 0.725
E d = ( 0.138 ) ( 0.725 ) ( 283 ) = 28 Btu/h· ft 2
E r = E DN ( C + sin β )ρg ( 1 – cos Σ ) ⁄ 2 ; cos Σ = 0 for vertical
= 283 ( 0.138 + sin 71 ) ( 0.2 ) ⁄ 2 ρ g = 0.2 (typical)
= 31 Btu/h· ft 2 ·°F
q = ( 2.27 ) ( 92 ) ( 0.67 ) ( 1 ) + ( 12 ) ( 28 + 31 ) ( 0.78 ) ( 1 )
q = 139.9 + 552.2 = 692 Btu/h
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Chapter 7—Nonresidential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations⏐95

7.4 Solve the following:


a. Determine the solar angle of incidence for a vertical
wall facing 15° west of south when the sun has an
azimuth of 79.2° west of south and an altitude of
75.7°. [Ans: 83.8°]
b. Find the solar incident angle (for direct solar radia-
tion) for a vertical surface facing southeast at
8:30 A.M. CST on October 22 at 32° N latitude and
95° W longitude. [Ans: 28.4°]
a. cos θ v = cos β cos γ ; ψ = 15 ; φ = 79.2 ; β = 75.7
–1
γ = φ – ψ = 64.2 θ v = cos [ ( cos 75.7 ) ( cos 64.2 ) ] = 83.8°
b. LCT = 8:30 + 4 ( 90 – 95 ) = 8:10 A.M.
Equation of time = 15.4
AST = 8:10 + :15 = 8:25 A.M. ( 215 min. before noon )
H = 0.25 ( 215 ) = 53.8°
δ ≅ – 10.5°
sin β = cos L cos δ cos H + sin L sin δ
⇒ sin β = 0.396 ⇒ β = 23.3°
cos φ = ( sin β sin L – sin δ ) ⁄ ( cos β cos L )
⇒ cos φ = 0.503 ⇒ φ = 60°
cos θ v = cos β cos γ = 0.8872 ⇒ θ v = 28.4°

7.5 What environmental factors affect the solar intensity


reaching the earth’s surface?
1. Angle through which the solar radiation passes through the atmosphere increases
or decreases the quantity of air mass.

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2. Gas molecules, ozone, and water vapor
3. Dust and other contaminants
4. Height of ground upon which the structure is to be built where the elevation is
substantial.

7.6 Determine the heat being dissipated by 50 pendant


mounted fluorescent luminaires with four 40 W lamps in
each luminaire.
4-40 Watt lamps in each of 50 luminares.
q = ( wattage ) ( use factor ) ( spec. allow. factor ) ( 3.413 )
= ( 50 ) ( 4 ) ( 40 ) ( 1 ) ( 1.15 ) ( 3.413 ) = 31 ,400 Btu/h

7.7 How much sensible, latent, and total heat is contrib-


uted by 50 customers shopping in a drugstore?

Sensible: (50)(250) = 12,500 Btu/h


(Table 7-14)
Latent: (50)(250) = 12,500 Btu/h
Qtotal = 25,000 Btu/h
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
96⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

7.8 A 1 hp motor driving a pump is located in a space to


be air conditioned. Determine heat dissipated to the space
from the motor and pump. [Ans: 3390 Btu/h]
Table 7-16 1 Hp Motor
Assume both in the space 3390 Btu/h

7.9 Calculate the heat gain to a room from an open deep


fat fryer if (a) hooded and (b) nonhooded.

Table 7-18
(a) Hooded: q s = 47, 800 Btu/h
(b) Nonhooded: NOT RECOMMENDED

7.10 Calculate the maximum heat gain through the floor


for a room directly over a boiler room. The air tempera-
ture at the underside of the floor is 100°F, and the room air
temperature desired close to the floor is 70°F. The floor is
4 in. concrete with vinyl tile finish.
[Ans: 18.87 Btu/h·ft2 (18.9 W/m2)]

1 1
U = --------------------------------------------------- = ------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.70
1
---- + R con + R tile + ---- 1 0.61 + 0.31 + 0.51 + 0.61
hi hi
q = ( U ) ( A ) ( Δt ) = ( 0.7 ) ( 1 ) ( 100 – 70 ) = 21 Btu/h· ft 2

7.11 An air-conditioning unit serves an office having the Description Size Occupancy
following areas: General office 25 by 50 ft 75 ft2 per person

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What quantity of outdoor air must be brought into the Director’s room 25 by 25 ft 16 people
air-conditioning unit for ventilation? Conference room 10 by 25 ft Plush furnishings
5 private offices 10 by 10 ft Smoking permitted

Values from Table 5-9:


25 × 50 ft cfm-
General Office: 5 CFM/person × -------------------------------
- + 0.06 -------- ( 25 × 50 ) = 158 cfm
75 ft 2 /person ft 2
Directors Room: 16 people × 5 + 0.06 ( 25 × 25 ) = 118 cfm
50 people
Conference Room: ----------------------- ( 10 × 25 )5 CFM/person + 0.06 ( 10 × 25 ) = 78 cfm
1000 ft 2
Private Offices: Smoking areas not covered by ASHRAE Standards;
This area should have separate system.

Total = 354 cfm


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Chapter 7—Nonresidential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations⏐97

7.12 Suppose the fan of the air-conditioning unit in


Problem 7.11 supplies 3200 cfm to the ductwork.
a. How many air changes per hour are being used?
(Assume a ceiling height of 9 ft.)
b. What is the percentage of outdoor air?
c. Suppose the minimum recommended quantities of
total air and outside air are used, what will be the
percentage of outdoor air?
[Ans: 10, 11%, 15%]
Assume smoking spaces are on separate dedicated system.
Total volume of spaces: [(25 × 50) + (25 × 25) + (10 × 25)]9 = 19,100 ft3
3200 ( 60 )
a. Supply air changes/h = ----------------------- = 10 ach (high)
19 ,000
158 + 118 + 78
b. % OA = ------------------------------------ ( Problem 7.11 ) × 100 = 11%
3200
c. For proper air distribution, a “typical” number of 6 ach is sometimes used. If so,
supply air, cfm = 6 × 19,100 ft3/60 min/h = 1910 cfm
158 + 118 + 78
% OA = ------------------------------------ × 100 = 15%
1910

7.13 A small parts assembly area in a factory has a work-


ing force of 25 men and occupies a space 27.4 by 9.1 m
with a 3 m ceiling. Smoking is not allowed. Determine
a. Sensible heat load from the occupants
b. Latent heat load from the occupants
c. Moisture added from the occupants
d. The minimum volume of outdoor air for ventilation

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e. Suitable summer design inside dry-bulb temperature

a. q s = 25 100
--------- ( 235 ) = 2554 W
230

b. q L = 25 130
--------- ( 235 ) = 3320 W
230
q L ( Btu/h ) 3320 ( 3.413 )
c. Moisture added = --------------------------- = ------------------------------ = 10.3 lb/h ( 0.00128 kg/s )
1100 Btu/h 1100
d. Occupancy (Table 5-9 for metal shop)
( 5 × 25 ) + 0.9 ( 27.4 × 9.1 ) = 349 L/s
e. 20 to 22°C
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
98⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

Problems 7.14 through 7.17. No manual (hand) cool-


ing load method is currently recommended by ASHRAE.
Cooling loads for each of these buildings/spaces should
be determined using the RTS software available on the
CD provided with “Principles.”

7.18 Solve the following:


a. A 115 by 10 ft high wall in Minneapolis, Minnesota
consists of face brick, a 3/4 in. air gap, 8 in. cinder
aggregate concrete blocks, 1 in. organic bonded glass
fiber insulation, and 4 in. clay tile interior. Determine
the design heat loss through the wall in winter in
Btu/h.
b. If the wall of Part (a) is converted to 60% single
glazed glass, what is the winter design heat loss
through the total wall in Btu/h?

ti = 72°F, to = –13.4°F
a. R
Outside air 0.17
Face brick 0.44
Air gap, 3/4 in. ~ 1.0
Cinder block, 8 in. 1.72
Insulation, 1 in. 4.0
Clay tile, 4 in. 1.11
Inside air 0.68
ΣR = 9.12

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1
U = --------- = 0.110 Btu/h· ft 2 ·°F
∑R
q = ( 0.11 ) ( 115 ) ( 10 ) ( 72 + 13.4 ) = 10 ,800 Btu/h
b. q = ( 0.60 ) ( 115 ) ( 10 ) ( 1.12 ) ( 85.4 ) + ( 0.40 ) ( 115 ) ( 10 ) ( 0.11 ) ( 85.4 )
U glass ¡
q = 70, 300 Btu/h
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.

Solutions to

Chapter 8
ENERGY
ESTIMATING METHODS

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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.

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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 8—Energy Estimating Methods⏐101

8.1 The total design heating load on a residence in New


York City is 32.8 kW (112,000 Btu/h) for an indoor
temperature of 72°F. The furnace is off from June through
September. Estimate:
a. the annual energy requirement for heating
b. the annual heating cost if electric heat is used with
the single rate of 16¢/kWh, $/yr
c. the maximum savings effected if the thermostat is set
back to 65°F between 10 P.M. and 6 A.M., $/yr

New York City:


DD = 4848
to = 13; ti = 72; η = 1
CD = 0.77; V = 1

32.8 ⎛ ( 4848 ) ( 24 ) ⎞
a. E = ---------------------- ⎜ ---------------------------- ⎟ ( 0.77 ) = 49 ,800 kWh
( 72 – 13 ) ⎝ ( 1.0 ) ( 1 ) ⎠
b. Cost = ( 49 ,800 ) ( 0.16 ) = $7969 00
⎛ -----
8- 16 ⎞
⎝ 24 ( 65 ) + 24 ( 72 ) ⎠ – 42.5
------
( t i – t o ) with
c. % with Setback ---------------------------------- ( 100 ) = ---------------------------------------------------------------------- = 92% or 8% Savings
( t i – t o ) without ( 72 – 42.8 )

8.3 A home is located in Cleveland, Ohio, and has a


design heat loss of 112,000 Btu/h at an inside design
temperature of 72°F and an outside design temperature of
0°F. The home has an oil-fired furnace. Find the savings
in gallons of fuel oil if the owner lowers the temperature

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in the home to 68°F between 10 P.M. and 6 A.M. every day
during January.

Cleveland:
ti = 72°F; to = 1°F; January 1159 DD
DD = (Days in Period)(65 – to,av) = 1159 = 31(65 – to, av)
to,av = 27.6°F for January

( q L ) ( DD ) ( 24 ) ( 112 ,000 ) ( 1159 ) ( 24 )


Without Setback: E = ----------------------------------- ( C D ) = --------------------------------------------------------- ( 1 )
( Δt ) ( η ) (V ) ( 72 – 1 ) ( 0.7 ) ( 140 ,000 )

E = 448 gal

8 16
With Setback: t i ,av = ------ ( 68 ) + ------ ( 72 ) = 70.67°F
24 24
( 72 – 27.6 ) – ( 70.67 – 27.6 )
% Savings = -------------------------------------------------------------------- ( 100 ) = 3.0%
( 72 – 27.6 )
Fuel Savings = ( 448 ) ( 0.03 ) = 13.4 gal ( 50 L )
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
102⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

8.4 The total design heating load on a residence in


Kansas City, Missouri, is 32.8 kW (112,000 Btu/h). The
furnace is off during June through September.
Estimate:
a. Annual energy requirement for heating
b. Annual heating cost if No. 2 fuel oil is used in a fur-
nace with an efficiency of 80% (assume fuel oil
costs 68¢/L)
c. Maximum savings effected if the thermostat is set
back from 22.2 to 18.3°C (72 to 65°F) between
10 P.M. and 6 A.M. in $/yr

Kansas City:
HL = 32.8 kW (112,000 Btu/h); to = –1°F; ti = 72°F
DD = 5161 CD = 0.77

( q L ) ( DD ) ( 24 ) ( 112 ,000 ) ( 5161 ) ( 24 )


a. E = ----------------------------------- ( C D ) = ----------------------------------------------------- ( 0.77 ) = 1.46 ×108 Btu
( Δt ) ( 73 )
E ( 1.46 ×108 )
b. F = ----------- = ---------------------------------------- = 1300 gal ( 4950 L )
η⋅V ( 0.80 ) ( 140 ,000 )
Cost = ( 4950 ) ( 0.68 ) = $3366
c. t o ,av = 43.9°F
8 16
t i ,av = ------ ( 65 ) + ------ ( 72 ) = 70°F
24 24
( 72 – 43.9 ) – ( 70 – 43.9 )
% of Savings = ------------------------------------------------------------ ( 100 ) = 7.1% Savings
( 72 – 43.9 )
Cost Savings = ( 0.071 ) ( 2300 ) = $165

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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 8—Energy Estimating Methods⏐103

8.5 A residence located in Tulsa, Oklahoma has a design


heating load of 20 kW and a design cooling load of
9.4 kW. Determine the following:
a. Heating energy requirements, kWh
b. Litres of No. 2 fuel oil per season if used as heating
fuel
c. Litres of natural gas per season if used as heating fuel
d. kWh of electric energy if used as heating fuel with
baseboard units
e. kWh of electric energy if used for air-conditioning
system having COPseasonal = 3.4
f. Total airflow rate in L/s if a warm air system is used
g. Total steam flow in kg/s if a steam system is used

Tulsa, OK:
DD = 3680; to = 9°F; ti = 72°F
CDD = 1949; to = 97; ti = 78

( H L ) ( DD ) ( 24 ) ( 20 ) ( 3413 ) ( 3680 ) ( 24 )
a. E = ------------------------------------- ( C D ) = -------------------------------------------------------- ( 0.77 ) = 7.37 ×107 Btu ( 21 590 kWh )
( Δt ) ( η ) (V ) ( 72 – 9 )
7.37 ×107
b. F = ------------------------------------- = 658 gal ( 2500 L )
( 140 ,000 ) ( 0.8 )
7.37 ×107 - = 8770 ft 3 ( 2.48 ×106 L )
c. F = --------------------------------------------------
( 1050 Btu/ft 3 ) ( 0.80 )
7.37 ×107
d. F = ------------------------- = 21 600 kW ⋅ h
( 3413 ) ( 1 )

Q c ⎛ ( CDD ) ( 24 )⎞ ( 9.4 ) ( 1949 ) ( 24 )

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e. E c = ------ ⎜ ----------------------------⎟ = ---------------------------------------- = 6800 kWh
Δt ⎝ COP ⎠ ( 97 – 78 ) ( 3.4 ) Typical ¡
· ·
f. Q s = ( 1.2 ) ( V ) ( t supply – t return ) ; 20 ,000 = ( 1.2 ) (V ) + ( 54.4 – 22.2 )
·
V = 518 L/s
g. Q s = m· ( h fg ) ; 20 kJ/s = m· ( 232.8 kJ/kg ); m· = 0.0086 kg/s
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
104⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

8.6 Estimate the annual energy costs for heating and


cooling a residence located in Cleveland, Ohio, having
design loads of 65,000 Btu/h (heating) and 30,000 Btu/h
(cooling) based on a 75°F indoor temperature. In winter
the thermostat is set back to 60°F for 10 h each night. The
furnace is on from October 1 through May 31. Electric
baseboard heat is used. The air conditioner has an SEER
of 7.3 (Btu/h)/W. Electricity costs 0.0725 $/kWh year
round.
Cleveland:
HDD = 6154; CDD = 613; SEER = 7.3
Average Winter Temperature = 37.2°F; CD = 0.77

Design Temperatures: 1°F Winter ; 86 °F Summer


65 ,000
Winter: ER = ---------------- ( 6154 ) ( 24 ) ( 0.77 ) = 99 ,900 ,000 Btu without Setback
( 75 )
14 10 ( 75 – 37.2 ) – ( 68.8 – 37.2 )
Setback Savings: t i , av = ------ ( 75 ) ÷ ------ ( 60 ) = 68.8°F Savings = ----------------------------------------------------------------- ( 100 ) = 16.4%
24 24 ( 75 – 37.2 )
ER = ( 99 ,900 ,000 ) ( 1 – 0.164 ) = 83 ,500 ,000 Btu with Setback
83 ,500 ,000
Cost: Heating → --------------------------- ( 0.0725 ) = $1774
3413
30 ,000 613 ( 24 )
Summer: ER = ------------------- ----------------------------- = 7560 kWh
( 8 – 78 ) ( 7.3 ) ( 1000 )
Cost: ( 7560 ) ( 0.0725 ) = $548
Annual Cost: 1774 + 548 = $2322

8.7 A residence in St. Joseph, Missouri, has a design c. Cubic feet of natural gas/yr
heating load of 68,000 Btu/h when design indoor and d. kWh
outdoor temperatures are 75°F and 3°F, respectively. The e. Total airflow rate in cfm if a warm air system is used

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furnace is off from June through September. Determine f. Total steam flow in lb/h if a steam system is used
the fuel and energy requirements for heating in: g. Total water flow rate in gpm if a hydronic system is
a. Btu used
b. Gallons of No. 2 fuel oil/yr h. Total electric power in kW if electric heating is used

q 68 ,000
a. ER = -------------------- ( DD ) ( 24 )C D = ------------------- ( 5435 ) ( 24 ) ( 0.77 ) = 94 ,900 ,000 Btu/yr
( ti – to )d ( 75 – 3 )
94 ,900 ,000
b. gal, Fuel Oil = ---------------------------------------- = 966 gal/yr
( 140 ,000 ) ( 0.70 )
94 ,900 ,000
c. ft 3 , Natural Gas = -------------------------------- = 120 ,800 ft 3 /yr
( 1050 ) ( 0.75 )
94 ,900 ,000
c. kWh, Electricity = -------------------------------- = 29 ,300 kWh/yr
( 3413 ) ( 0.95 )
68 ,000
e. ( cfm ) air = ----------------------------------------- = 1120 cfm
( 1.10 ) ( 130 – 75 )
68 ,000
f. ( lb/h ) steam = ---------------- = 68 lb/h
1000
68 ,000
g. ( gpm ) water = ------------------------------------------ = 6.8 gal/min
( 1 ) ( 20 ) ( 60 ) ( 8.3 )
68 ,000
h. kW = ---------------- ≅ 20 kW
3413
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For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is
not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 8—Energy Estimating Methods⏐105

8.8 For a residence located in New Orleans, Louisiana,


the design cooling load is 12 kW (41,000 Btu/h). Deter-
mine:
a. Annual energy requirements for cooling, kWh
b. Cost of this energy if the electric rate is 6.5¢/kWh

New Orleans: q c = 12 kW ( 41 ,000 Btu )


Summer Design: 92 ⁄ 78°F ( Inside = 78°F )
CDD = 2706
Assume Air Conditioner SEER = 13
41 ,000 ( 2706 ) ( 24 )
a. ER = ---------------------- ---------------------------- = 14 ,600 kWh
( 92 – 78 ) 13 ( 1000 )
b. Cost = ( 0.065 ) ( 14 ,600 ) = $951

8.9 An office building located in Springfield, Missouri,


has a heat loss of 2,160,000 Btu/h for design condition of
75°F inside and 10°F outside. The heating system is oper-
ational between October 1 and April 30. Determine:
a. Annual energy usage for heating
b. Estimated fuel cost if No. 2 fuel oil is used having a
heating value of 140,000 Btu/gal and costing $2.50/
gal
Springfield:
DD = 4570; CD = 0.77

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Average Winter Temperature = 44.5°F
2 ,160 ,000
a. ER = ------------------------ ( 4570 ) ( 24 ) ( 0.77 ) = 2.81 ×109 Btu
( 75 – 10 )
2.81 ×109
b. Fuel Cost ≈ ---------------------------------------- ( 2.50 ) = $71, 800/yr
( 140 ,000 ) ( 0.70 )
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
106⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

8.10 A small football promotion office is being designed


for Jacksonville, Florida. The design heating and cooling
loads are 61,200 and 55,400 Btu/h, respectively, based on
99.6% and 1% outdoor design dry bulb temperatures.
Balance point has been estimated as 65°F.
a. Select an appropriate heat pump from the XYZ Cor-
poration models listed on the next page and estimate
the energy costs for summer and winter if electricity
is 8¢/kWh.
b. Compare the heating energy cost for the heat pump
to that for a condensing gas furnace with natural gas
costing $1.20 per therm.

Jacksonville:
Winter: 32°F; HDD = 1327
Summer: 93/77°F; CDD = 2596

a. Heat Pump A060 for 55,400 cooling need


Winter: ( Energy = 5946 kWh see BIN Sheet ) Cost = 0.08 × 5946 = $476
55 ,400 ( 2596 ) ( 24 )
Summer: Cost = ---------------------- -------------------------------- ( 0.08 ) = $1753
( 93 – 78 ) ( 10.5 ) ( 1000 )
61 ,200
b. ER = ---------------------- ( 1327 ) ( 24 ) ( 0.77 ) = 37 ,500 ,000 Btu
( 72 – 32 )
Chapter 19: AFUE = 0.925 = η
37 ,500 ,000
Cost = ------------------------------------------- ( $1.20 ) = $487
( 100 ,000 ) ( 0.925 )

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Problem 8-10 Calculation of Annual Heating Energy Consumption
Climate House Heat Pump Supplemental
A B C D E F G H I Jd Ke Lf Mg Nh
Heat Pump Cycling Heat Seasonal Supple- Total
Weather Heat Integrated Capacity Adjusted Rated Pump Heat Pump mental Electric
Temp. Temp. Data Loss Heating Adjust- Heat Pump Electric Operating Supplied Elec. Con- Space Heating Energy
Bin, Diff. Bin, Rate, Capacity, ment Capacity, Input, Time Heating, sumption, Load, Required, Consump-
°F tbal − tbin hours 1000 Btu/h 1000 Btu/h Factora 1000 Btu/hb kW Fractionc 106 Btud kWhe 106 Btuf kWhg tionh
62 3 879 4.59 81.3 0.76 61.8 6.79 0.07 3.80 418 4.03 0 418
57 8 692 12.24 76.3 0.79 60.3 6.56 0.20 8.35 908 8.47 0 908
52 13 530 19.89 71.2 0.82 58.4 6.32 0.34 10.52 1139 10.54 0 1139
47 18 355 27.54 66.0 0.85 56.1 6.05 0.49 9.76 1052 9.78 0 1052
42 23 288 35.19 61.0 0.89 54.3 5.81 0.64 10.01 1071 10.13 0 1071
37 28 154 42.84 56.0 0.94 52.6 5.56 0.81 6.56 694 6.60 0 694
32 33 83 50.49 51.0 1 51.0 5.30 0.99 4.19 436 4.19 0 436
27 38 24 58.14 46.3 1 46.3 5.05 1 1.11 121 1.40 85 206
22 43 2 65.79 41.7 1 41.7 4.81 1 0.08 10 0.13 12 22
17
12
7
2
–3
TOTALS: 5849 97 5946
a Cycling Capacity Adjustment Factor = 1 − Cd(1 − x), where Cd = degradation coefficient (default = 0.25 d Col J = (Col I × Col G × Col C)/1000
unless part load factor is known) and x = building heat loss per unit capacity at temperature bin. Cycling e Col K = Col I × Col H × Col C
f
capacity = 1 at the balance point and below. Col L = Col C × Col D/1000
b Col G = Col E × Col F g Col M = (Col L – Col J) × 106/3413
c Operating Time Factor equals smaller of 1 or Col D/Col G h Col N = Col K + Col M
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 8—Energy Estimating Methods⏐107

8.11 A 1980 ft2 residence located in Cincinnati, Ohio,


has design heating and cooling loads of 74,000 Btu/h and Performance Data for Model WA-36 Heat Pump
35,000 Btu/h, respectively. Determine Air Temperature, Heat Pump Output, Heat Pump Input,
a. Heating energy requirements, Btu °F 1000 Btu kW
b. Gallons of No. 2 fuel oil if 75% efficient oil-fired 62 44 4.5
warm air system is used 57 43 4.4
c. Therms of natural gas if 88% efficient gas-fired 52 41 4.3
47 39 4.1
warm air system is used
42 36 4.0
d. kWh of electricity if 98% efficient baseboard units
37 33 3.9
are used 32 30 3.7
e. Required airflow, cfm, for warm air systems 27 27 3.6
f. kWh of electricity if heat pump system (WA-36 22 24 3.5
specifications follow) including supplementary elec- 17 22 3.3
tric resistance heat is used 12 19 3.2
g. kWh of electricity for cooling for air conditioner 7 17 3.1
with SEER of 8.5 using degree-day estimation 2 15 2.9
h. Required airflow, cfm, for air conditioning −3 13 2.8

Cincinnati: Winter: 5°F; Summer: 90°F; DD = 5070; CDD = 1080; CD = 0.77

qL e. Q s = ( 1.10 ) ( cfm ) ( Δt )
a. ER = -------------------- ( DD ) ( 24 ) ( C D )
( ti – to )d 74 ,000
cfm = -------------------------------------- = 1160 cfm
78 ,000 ( 1.1 ) ( 130 – 72 )
= ------------------- ( 5070 ) ( 24 ) ( 0.77 ) = 103.5 ×106 Btu
( 72 – 5 ) f. kWh = 15 ,903 kWh → See table below.
35 ,000 ( 1080 ) ( 24 )
103.5 ×106 g. kWh = ---------------------------------------------------- = 8900 kWh
b. F = ---------------------------------------- = 985 gal ( 90 – 78 ) ( 8.5 ) ( 1000 )
( 100 ,000 ) ( 0.75 )
( 35 ,000 ⁄ 1.3 )
103.5 ×106 h. cfm = ------------------------------------- = 1220 cfm
c. F = ---------------------------------------- = 1175 therms ( 1.1 ) ( 78 – 5.8 )
( 100 ,000 ) ( 0.88 )
(assumed 30% latent)
103.5 ×106

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d. F = -------------------------------- = 30 ,900 kWh
( 3413 ) ( 0.98 )

Problem 8-11 Calculation of Annual Heating Energy Consumption


Climate House Heat Pump Supplemental
A B C D E F G H I Jd Ke Lf Mg Nh
74,000/(72 – 5) × 0.77
Heat Pump
= 850 (0.85) Cycling Heat Seasonal Supple- Total
Weather Heat Integrated Capacity Adjusted Rated Pump Heat Pump mental Electric
Temp. Temp. Data Loss Heating Adjust- Heat Pump Electric Operating Supplied Elec. Con- Space Heating Energy
Bin, Diff. Bin, Rate, Capacity, ment Capacity, Input, Time Heating, sumption, Load, Required, Consump-
°F tbal − tbin hours 1000 Btu/h 1000 Btu/h × a
Factor 1000 Btu/h b kW c 6
Fraction 10 Btu d kWh e 6
10 Btu f kWh g tionh
0.93 0.72 0.54 0.39 0.27 0.16 0.60

62 3 726 2.55 44 0.765 33.7 4.5 0.08 261


57 8 639 6.80 43 0.790 34.0 4.4 0.20 562
52 13 611 11.05 41 0.818 33.5 4.3 0.33 867
47 18 599 15.30 39 0.848 34.8 4.1 0.44 1081
42 23 627 19.55 36 0.885 31.9 4.0 0.61 1530
37 28 698 23.80 33 0.930 30.7 3.9 0.78 2123
32 33 711 28.05 30 0.983 29.5 3.7 0.95 2499
27 38 460 32.30 27 1.0 27 3.6 1 12.42 1656 14.86 715
1

22 43 249 36.55 24 1.0 24 3.5 1 5.98 872 9.10 914


1

17 48 131 40.80 22 1.0 22 3.3 1 2.88 432 5.34 721


1

12 53 68 45.05 19 1.0 19 3.2 1 1.29 218 3.06 519


1

7 58 44 49.30 17 1.0 17 3.1 1 0.75 136 2.17 416


1

2 63 18 53.55 15 1.0 15 2.9 1 0.27 52 0.96 202


1

–3 68 8 57.80 13 1.0 13 2.8 1 0.10 22 0.46 105


1

TOTALS: 12,311 3592 15,903


a Cycling Capacity Adjustment Factor = 1 − Cd(1 − x), where Cd = degradation coefficient (default = 0.25 d Col J = (Col I × Col G × Col C)/1000
unless part load factor is known) and x = building heat loss per unit capacity at temperature bin. Cycling e Col K = Col I × Col H × Col C
capacity = 1 at the balance point and below. f Col L = Col C × Col D/1000
b g
Col G = Col E × Col F Col M = (Col L – Col J) × 106/3413
c Operating Time Factor equals smaller of 1 or Col D/Col G h Col N = Col K + Col M
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
108⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

8.12 A small commercial building located in Oklahoma


City, Oklahoma, has design loads of 245,000 Btu/h, heat-
ing, and 162,000 Btu/h, cooling. Balance point for the
building has been estimated at 65°F. Determine:
a. Annual energy requirements for heating, Btu
b. Fuel cost using LPG at $2.50/gal, $
c. Fuel cost using electric baseboard units with electric-
ity at 6.7¢/kWh, $
d. Savings if setback to 55°F is effected between
10 P.M. and 6 A.M., Monday through Saturday, and
all day Sunday, %
e. Cooling season energy cost using cooling degree-
days if conditioner has SEER of 11.5 and electricity
is 7¢/kWh

Oklahoma City:
Winter: 10°F
Summer: 96°F
HDD = 3695; CD = 0.77
Average: 48.3°F; CDD = 1876
245 ,000
a. ER = ---------------------- ( 3695 ) ( 24 ) ( 0.77 ) = 2.69 ×108 Btu
( 72 – 10 )
2.69 ×108
b. C f = ------------------------------------- ( $2.50 ) = $9,963
( 90 ,000 ) ( 0.75 )
2.69 ×108
c. C f = ----------------------------- ( 0.067 ) = $5280
( 3413 ) ( 1.0 )
d. t i ,av = [ ( 6 ) ( 16 ) ( 72 ) + ( 168 – ( 6 ) ( 16 ) ( 55 ) ] ⁄ 168 = 64.7°F

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64.7 – 48.3
% Savings = 1 – --------------------------- = 0.31 or 31%
72 – 48.3
162 ,000 ( 1876 ) ( 24 )
e. C e = ---------------------- -------------------------------- × 0.07 = $2467
( 96 – 78 ) ( 11.5 ) ( 1000 )
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Chapter 8—Energy Estimating Methods⏐109

8.13 A small commercial building in Indianapolis, Indi- b. Annual cooling cost with a conventional vapor com-
ana, has design heating and cooling loads of 98,000 Btu/ pression air-cooled unit, using your choice of
h and 48,000 Btu/h, respectively. Internal heat gains method.
throughout the winter are relatively steady at 4.5 kW. Select a heat pump system for the building from the
Electricity costs 7.1¢/kWh. Estimate: XYZ Corporation models. Determine the
a. Annual heating cost if baseboard electric resistance
a. Annual heating cost and
units are used.
b. Annual cooling cost.

Indianapolis:
Winter: –3°F; Average: 39.6°F; DD = 5577; CD = 0.77
Summer: 88°F; CDD = 974
98 ,000
a. ER = --------------------------- ( 5577 ) ( 24 ) ( 0.77 ) = 135 ×106 Btu
[ 72 – ( – 3 ) ]

135 ×106
Cost = -------------------------------- ( 0.071 ) = $2970
( 3413 ) ( 0.95 )
b. Cooling Unit: Assume SEER = 11 Btu/Wh
48 ,000
CDD = ---------------------- ( 974 ) ( 24 ) = 112 ×106 Btu
( 88 – 78 )

112 ×106
Cost = ---------------------------- ( 0.07 ) = $714
( 11 ) ( 1000 )
( 4.5 ) ( 3413 )
Balance Point: t bal = 72 – ------------------------------------------------ = 60°F
98 ,000 ⁄ [ 72 – ( – 3 ) ]
Heat Pump: Model A-048; SEER = 10.5 ; Watts = 5270
a. Energy Input = 13 ,220 + 5976 = 19 ,196 kWh → See table below.
Cost = 19196 (0.071) = $1363

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112 ×106
b. CDD Method: - ( 0.071 ) = $757
-------------------------------
( 10.5 ) ( 1000 )

Problem 8-13 Calculation of Annual Heating Energy Consumption


Climate House Heat Pump Supplemental
A B C D E F G H I Jd Ke Lf Mg Nh
98,000/[72 – (–3)] =
Heat Pump Cycling
1306 (1.3) Heat Seasonal Supple- Total
Temp. Weather Heat Integrated Capacity Adjusted Rated Pump Heat Pump mental Electric
Temp. Diff. Data Loss Heating Adjust- Heat Pump Electric Operating Supplied Elec. Con- Space Heating Energy
Bin, 60 Bin, Rate, Capacity, ment Capacity, Input, Time Heating, sumption, Load, Required, Consump-
a
°F tbal − tbin hours 1000 Btu/h 1000 Btu/h Factor 1000 Btu/h b kW c 6
Fraction 10 Btu d kWh e 6
10 Btu f kWh g tionh
62 —
57 3 585 3.9 59.2 0.766 45.3 4.99 0.09 263
52 8 586 10.4 55.4 0.797 44.2 4.81 0.24 676
47 13 579 16.9 51.0 0.833 42.5 4.60 0.40 1065
42 18 605 23.4 48.0 0.872 41.9 4.46 0.56 1511
37 23 712 29.9 44.4 0.918 40.8 4.28 0.73 2225
32 28 791 36.4 40.8 0.973 39.7 4.10 0.92 2984
27 33 551 42.9 37.3 1 37.3 3.93 1 20.55 2165 23.64 905
22 38 293 49.4 33.8 1 33.8 3.76 1 9.90 1102 14.47 1339
17 43 152 55.9 30.0 1 30.0 3.58 1 4.56 544 8.50 1154
12 48 97 62.4 27.3 1 27.3 3.45 1 2.65 335 6.05 996
7 53 60 68.9 24.2 1 24.2 3.31 1 1.45 199 4.13 785
2 58 35 75.4 21.2 1 21.2 3.18 1 0.74 111 2.64 557
–3 63 13 81.9 18.4 1 18.4 3.06 1 0.24 40 1.06 240
TOTALS: 13,220 5976 19,196
a Cycling Capacity Adjustment Factor = 1 − Cd(1 − x), where Cd = degradation coefficient (default = 0.25 d Col J = (Col I × Col G × Col C)/1000
unless part load factor is known) and x = building heat loss per unit capacity at temperature bin. Cycling e Col K = Col I × Col H × Col C
capacity = 1 at the balance point and below. f Col L = Col C × Col D/1000
b g
Col G = Col E × Col F Col M = (Col L – Col J) × 106/3413
c Operating Time Factor equals smaller of 1 or Col D/Col G h Col N = Col K + Col M
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
110⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

8.14 A small (2200 ft2) food mart store located in


Charlotte, NC, has design heating and cooling loads of
94,500 Btu/h and 57,400 Btu/h, respectively, based on
inside design temperatures of 72°F (winter) and 78°F
(summer). The store is open 24 h a day and has a rela-
tively constant internal load due to lights, food cases,
people, etc., of 3.3 W/ft2. Select a suitable heat pump for
the XYZ Corporation and estimate its operating energy
costs for both summer and winter if the price of electricity
is 7.4¢/kWh.

Charlotte:
Winter: to = 18°F
Summer: to = 91°F
CDD = 1596

HL 94 ,500
------- = ---------------------- = 1480 Q int = ( 3.3 ) ( 2200 ) ( 3.413 ) = 24 ,780
Δt ( 72 – 18 )

⎛ 24 ,780⎞
t balance = 72 – ⎜ ----------------⎟ = 55°F
⎝ 1480 ⎠
Select Model 060JA
Heat Pump: Total Watts = 6250
SEER = 10.5
Winter: 7187 kWh × 0.074 = $532

57 ,400 ( 1596 ) ( 24 )
Summer: ---------------------- -------------------------------- ( 0.074 ) = $1192
( 91 – 78 ) ( 10.5 ) ( 1000 )

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Problem 8-14 Calculation of Annual Heating Energy Consumption
Climate House Heat Pump Supplemental
A B C D E F G H I Jd Ke Lf Mg Nh
98,000/(72 – 18) =
Heat Pump Cycling
1480 (1.48) Heat Seasonal Supple- Total
Temp. Weather Heat Integrated Capacity Adjusted Rated Pump Heat Pump mental Electric
Temp. Diff. Data Loss Heating Adjust- Heat Pump Electric Operating Supplied Elec. Con- Space Heating Energy
Bin, 55 Bin, Rate, Capacity, ment Capacity, Input, Time Heating, sumption, Load, Required, Consump-
a
°F tbal − tbin hours 1000 Btu/h 1000 Btu/h Factor 1000 Btu/h b kW c 6
Fraction 10 Btu d kWh e 6
10 Btu f kWh g tionh
62
57
52 3 730 4.4 71.2 0.765 54.5 6.32 0.08 369
47 8 684 11.8 66.0 0.795 52.5 6.05 0.22 910
42 13 634 19.2 61.0 0.829 50.6 5.81 0.38 1400
37 18 515 26.6 56.0 0.869 48.7 5.56 0.55 1575
32 23 360 34.0 51.0 0.917 46.8 5.30 0.73 1393
27 28 166 41.4 46.3 0.974 45.1 5.05 0.92 771
22 33 64 48.8 41.9 1 41.9 4.81 1 2.68 308 3.12 129
17 38 23 56.2 37.0 1 37.0 4.61 1 0.85 106 1.29 129
12 43 5 63.6 33.2 1 33.2 4.35 1 0.17 22 0.32 44
7 48 2 71.0 29.4 1 29.4 4.13 1 0.06 8 0.14 23
2
–3
TOTALS: 6862 325 7187
a Cycling Capacity Adjustment Factor = 1 − Cd(1 − x), where Cd = degradation coefficient (default = 0.25 d Col J = (Col I × Col G × Col C)/1000
unless part load factor is known) and x = building heat loss per unit capacity at temperature bin. Cycling e Col K = Col I × Col H × Col C
capacity = 1 at the balance point and below. f Col L = Col C × Col D/1000
b Col G = Col E × Col F g Col M = (Col L – Col J) × 106/3413
c Operating Time Factor equals smaller of 1 or Col D/Col G h Col N = Col K + Col M
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.

Solutions to

Chapter 9
DUCT AND PIPE SIZING

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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.

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Chapter 9—Duct and Pipe Sizing⏐113

9.1 The air velocity in a human occupied zone should not


exceed (a) 10 to 25 ft/min, (b) 25 to 40 ft/min, (c) 40 to
64 ft/min, (d) None of the above.

c. 40 to 60 ft/min

9.2 You are to select the type of outlets for a home to be


constructed in Houston, Texas. Discuss your selection of
outlets and locations for each of the following combina-
tions: (a) Group A or Group C, (b) Group B or Group E.

a. Group A: These outlets would be satisfactory for Houston where cooling is predominant and
heating is minimum.
Group C: These outlets would not be completely satisfactory where cooling is predominant.
b. Group B: These outlets would be satisfactory but probably not as good as Group A.
Group E: These outlets would be satisfactory if properly designed and selected.

9.3 What velocity of air is necessary at a location in a


room such that most people will feel neither cool nor
warm? Assume that the local temperature is equal to the
control temperature of 24.4°C.

24.4°C = 76°F
Δt = ( t x – 76 ) – 0.07 ( V x – 30 ) for t x = 76°F and Δt = 0
V x = 30 fpm ( 0.15 m/s )

9.4 Solve the following problems.


a. Find the airflow through a 12 in. by 24 in. (305 mm

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by 610 mm) duct if the static pressure is measured at
0.5 in. of water (125 Pa) and total pressure is mea-
sured at 0.54 in. of water (135 Pa)
b. The pressure difference available to a 60 ft (18.3 m)
length of circular duct is 0.2 in. of water (50 Pa). The
duct has an ID of 12 in. (305 mm). What rate of air-
flow is expected?
a. P v = P T – P S = 0.54 – 0.50 = 0.04 in. H 2 O

V = 4005 P v = 4005 0.04 = 801 fpm


Q = AV = 801 ( 1 ) ( 2 ) = 1600 cfm
ΔP - 0.2
b. ------------- = ------- ( 100 ) = 0.33 in. H 2 O ⁄ 100 ft
100 ft 60
From Fig. 9-2 V = 1650 cfm ⇒ 1300 cfm
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114⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

9.5 For a residential air-conditioning system, one branch


duct must supply 207 cfm to one of the rooms. The branch
duct has a run of 16 ft. (a) Determine the branch duct size
and the pressure drop from the main duct to the room, and
(b) specify the supply and return grille sizes for the room.

a. 207 cfm – 16 ft branch run V recomm = 600 fpm


From Fig. 9-2 @ 600 fpm, 207 cfm ⇒ D = 8 in.
ΔP -
ΔP = 0.08 ⎛ --------- ⎞
16 ------------- = 0.08 in. H 2 O
⎝ 100 ⎠ 100 ft \
= 0.0128 in. H 2 O
b. return grille – 600 fpm
supply grille ≈ 6 × 9 in. or 5 × 11 in.

9.6 How large of a duct is required to carry 20,000 cfm


(9400 L/s) of air if the velocity is not to exceed 1600 fpm
(8.1 m/s)?

For 20,000 cfm @ 1600 fpm, use 48 in. or larger.


Fig. 9.2

9.7 Given the duct system shown below, plot pv, Δps, and
Δpt for the flow through the system.

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Chapter 9—Duct and Pipe Sizing⏐115

9.8 Solve the following.


a. For Problem 9.7, find the frictional pressure loss
between points (1) and (2).
b. How can the static pressure be increased in a duct
system as the air moves away from the fan?

a. H loss = H 1 – H 2
= P1 – P2 + HV – HV
1 2

= ( 0.32 – 0.05 ) + ( 0.12 – 0.0 )


= 0.39 in. w.g. loss
b. Increase cross-sectional area

9.9 Determine the dynamic loss of total pressure that


occurs in an abrupt expansion from a 1 ft2 (0.093 m2)
duct to a 2 ft2 (0.186 m2) duct carrying 1000 cfm
(470 L/s) of air.
A 1 = 1 ft 2 A 2 = 2 ft 2
Q
Q = AV V = ----
A
1000
V 1 = ------------ = 1000 fpm
1
2 2 2
V1 ⎛ A 1 ⎞ ⎛ V1 ⎞ 1 2
H L = ------- ⎜1 – ------ ⎟ = ⎜ ------------ ⎟ ⎛⎝ 1 – ---- ⎞⎠ = 0.0156 in. w.g.
2g ⎝ A 2 ⎠ ⎝ 4005 ⎠ 2

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9.10 Determine the friction loss when circulating 20,000
cfm (9430 L/s) of air at 75°F (23.9°C) through 150 ft
(45.7 m) of 36 in. (0.914 m) diameter galvanized steel
duct.

From Fig. 9-2 Loss = 0.25 in. H2O/100 ft (150 ft) = 0.375 in. H2O

9.11 Find the equivalent rectangular duct for equal friction


and capacity for the duct in Problem 9.6, one side is 26 in.

From Table 9-1


80 in.
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116⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

9.12 Find the pressure loss between points A and D for


the 12 by 12 in. duct shown below. Air at standard condi-
tions is being supplied at the rate of 2000 cfm in galva-
nized duct of average construction. Elbows No. 1 and
No. 2 have center line radii of 13 and 24 in., respectively.

H- 12
Elbow #1 ---- = ------ = 1.0 From Table 9-4
W 12
⇒ C D = 0.21
V 13
----- = ------ = 1.08
W 12
H 12
Elbow #2 ----- = ------ = 1.0
W 12 ⇒ C D = ( 0.05 ) ( 0.6 ) = 0.03
V- 24
---- = ------ = 2.0
W 12
Table 9-1 D c = 13.1 in. V = 2000 fpm

V 2
P v = ⎛ ------------ ⎞ = 0.249 in. H 2 O
⎝ 4005 ⎠
Fig. 9-2 Loss straight = 0.45 in. w.g. ⁄ 100 ft

⎛ 0.45 in. H 2 O⎞
ΔP loss = ( 10 + 20 + 30 ) ⎜ -------------------------------⎟ + ( 0.21 + 0.03 ) ( 0.249 )
⎝ 100 ft ⎠
= 0.27 + 0.059 = 0.33 in. w.g.

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Chapter 9—Duct and Pipe Sizing⏐117

9.13 Analyze the air-handling system shown in the


following diagram. Determine if a damper is needed in
either section (d) or (b), and if so, in what section. There
is a damper located in section (u) so that the proper static
pressure can be maintained in section (u). If a damper is
needed, what is the pressure loss across the damper?
ρ = 0.075 lb/ft3 f = 0.02
D = 12 in. (R/D)elbows = 1

Q u = 3000 cfm V u = 3825 fpm H v = 0.915 in. H 2 O


u

Q b = 1000 cfm V b = 1275 fpm H v = 0.102 in. H 2 O


b

Q d = 2000 cfm V d = 2550 fpm H v = 0.407 in. H 2 O


d

V-
Section d → 2 elbows --- = 1.0 C D = 0.22 Table 9-4
D
Vd
Straight Section ------ = 2550
------------ = 0.666 C D = 0.04
Vu 3825
ΔP loss = 0.037 + 2 ( 0.22 ) ( 0.407 ) + ( 50 + 40 + 10 ) ( 0.02 ) ( 0.407 ) = 1.03 in. H 2 O
V
Section b → Diverted Flow fitting -----b- = 0.33 C D = 1.1
Vu
ΔP fitting = ( 1.1 ) ( 0.415 ) = 1.01 in. H 2 O Table 9-4

ΔP loss = 1.01 + 0.02 ⎛ ------ ⎞ ( 0.102 ) = 1.03 in. H 2 O


10
⎝1⎠
ΔP loss – ΔP loss = 0 No damper needed.
d b

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9.14 A 1 ft high by 3 ft wide main duct carries 2000 cfm
of air to a branch where 1500 cfm continues in the 1 ft
by 2 ft straight through section and 500 cfm goes into the
branch. Find the actual static pressure regain and the total
pressure loss in the straight through section if the static
regain coefficient is 0.80. If the branch take off is a 45°
cylindrical Y, find the static pressure loss in this section.
R = 0.8 Table 9-4
Q1 2000
V 1 = ------ = ------------ = 667 fpm P v = 0.0277 in. w.g.
A1 3×1 1

1500
V 2 = ------------ = 750 fpm P v = 0.0351 in. w.g.
2×1 2

500
Assume Branch 1 × 1 ft V b = ------------ = 500 fpm
1×1
a. P v = R ( P v – P v ) = 0.8 ( 0.0277 – 0.0351 ) = – 0.006 ≈ 0 in. H2 O
1 2

b. ΔP branch = ( 1 – R ) ( P v – P v ) = 0.2 ( 0.0277 – 0.0351 ) ≅ – 0.0015 ≅ 0 in. H2 O


1 2

V
c. -----L- = 500
--------- = 0.75 C = 0.28 Table 9-4
V1 667
ΔP branch = ( 0.28 ) ( 0.0277 ) = 0.008 in. H 2 O ≅ 0 in. H 2 O
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118⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

9.15 The supply ductwork for an office space is shown in


the following diagram. Size the ductwork by the equal-
friction method and calculate the pressure drop. Assume
a maximum duct depth of 12 in. and that all duct take-offs
are straight rectangular take-offs.

Total cfm = 800 + 900 + 1200 = 2900 cfm V = 1400 fpm


AB
Deq = 20 in. Table 9-1 12 × 30 in.
ΔP
--------- = 0.13 in. H O ( Table 9-4 )
100 2
V
b 1060
First branch take-off ------ = ------------ = 0.76 C = 1.0
V 1400
u
ΔP loss = 1.0 ( 0.122 ) = 0.122 in. H 2 O

Straight through loss ≅ 0 in. H 2 O

Section cfm ΔP/100 ft Deq. Velocity Rectangular Size, in. Length Loss Cum. Loss
A-B 2900 0.13 20 in. 1400 12 × 30 50 ft 0.065 0.065
C-D 2000 0.13 17 in. 1300 12 × 21 8 ft 0.014 0.0754
C-E 1200 0.13 14 in. 1130 12 × 14 60 ft 0.078 + 0.014 0.167
C-H 800 0.13 12 in. 1010 12 × 10 20 ft 0.105 + 0.026 + 0.0054 0.211
B-F 900 0.13 12.5 in. 1060 12 × 11 10 ft 0.013 + 0.105 0.183

H- 12
Elbows Radius Ratio = 1.5 ----- = ------ = 0.86
W 14

⎛ 1130⎞2
Run D Table 9-4 C = 0.18 ΔP = 0.18 ⎜ ------------⎟ = 0.014 in. H O
loss ⎝ 4005⎠ 2

H-
----- 12
Run G Radius Ratio = 1.5 = ------ = 1 Table 9-4 C = 0.09
W 12
2
⎛ 1010⎞
ΔP = 0.09 ⎜ ------------⎟ = 0.005 in. H O

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loss ⎝ 4005⎠ 2

V b 1010
Divided Flow Fitting ------ = ------------ = 0.776 Table 9-3 C = 1.0
V u 1300

1300 2
ΔP loss = 1.0 ⎛⎝ ------------⎞⎠ = 0.105 in. H 2 O
4005
Through loss ≅ 0
Total Pressure Drop ( No Outlet Grille ) = 0.211 in. H O
2
Damper in A-E and A-F or reduce size appropriately.

9.16 The following duct system contains circular, galva-


nized duct. The velocity in the ducts is to be 2000 fpm,
and each outlet is to handle 2000 cfm. Each outlet grille
has a pressure loss of 0.12 in. of water. Estimate the
required pressure increase of the fan.
cfm fpm D ΔP/100 ft ΔP Pv Length
4000 2000 19.2 0.27 0.081 0.25 30 ft
2000 2000 13.5 0.4 0.20 0.25 50 ft
2000 2000 13.5 0.4 0.36 0.25 90 ft

Table 9-4 r ⁄ D = 1.0 ΔP elbow ≅ 0.054 in. H 2 O each


C = 1.34 ΔP div, flow ≅ 0.35 in. H 2 O
Longest Run: ΔP loss = 0.081 + 0.36 + 0.35 + 0.054 + 0.054 + 0.12 = 1.02 in. H 2 O
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 9—Duct and Pipe Sizing⏐119

9.17 Select a fan for the following system. The radius


ratio of the elbows is 1.0 and the elbows are 3 piece. The
pipe is circular. Calculate the frictional pressure loss for
the system and the total capacity required by the fan.

20
Q total = 300 cfm 300 cfm at 1000 fpm → ΔP = 0.24 --------- = 0.046 in.
100
20
100 cfm branch 100 cfm at 1000 fpm → ΔP = 0.46 --------- = 0.092 in.
100
ΔP through ≅ 0.10 ΔP loss = 0.138 in.
straight

200 cfm branch 300 cfm at 1000 fpm → ΔP = 0.046


Branch Loss (Table 9-3) ΔP = 0.08
Elbows (Table 9-3) ΔP ≅ 0.07
Straight ΔP = 0.087
-----------------------------------------------------------
ΔP loss = 0.283 in. H 2 O
Fan must supply 0.283 in. H 2 O static for 300 cfm
Damper the 100 cfm branch

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120⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

9.18
a. Estimate the total pressure loss between points (1)
and (2) and between (1) and (3) in the following
take-off.
when:
V1 = 8.12 m/s Q1 = 1510 L/s
V2 = 6.1 m/s Q2 = 1227 L/s
V3 = 3.05 m/s Q3 = 283 L/s
The duct is rectangular, of commercial fabrication,
and has mastic tape joints.
b. Estimate the static pressure at (3) if the static pres-
sure at (1) is 1.0 in. of water.

V 1 = 1600 fpm Q 1 = 3200 cfm


V 2 = 1200 fpm Q 2 = 2600 cfm Table 9-4
V 3 = 600 fpm Q 3 = 600 cfm
V3 2
ΔP loss = 0.54 ⎛⎝ ------------⎞⎠
------ = 0.375 1600
a.  –  C = 0.54 = 0.086 in. H 2 O
V1 4000
V A2
–­ P V = 0.16 -----2- = 0.75 ------ = 1.08 C = 0.04
1 V1 A1
P V = 0.09
2

ΔP loss = ( 0.04 ) ( 0.16 ) = 0.0064 in. H 2 O


b.  –  P T – P T = 0.086 in. H 2 O
1 3

P S + P V – P S – P V = 0.086 ; P S = 1.0 + 0.16 – 0.023 – 0.086


1 1 3 3 3

P S = 1.05 in. H 2 O
3

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Chapter 9—Duct and Pipe Sizing⏐121

9.19 Solve the following problems: b. If the static pressure at (3) is 0.350 in. of water, what
a. What is the expected approximate frictional pressure friction drop will be required of a damper at 68°F?
from (1) to (2) in the below length of duct. Assume c. What size duct would be required (for ducts C and
round ducts, clean sheet metal, and air at standard D) if the damper is eliminated? What is the velocity
temperature and pressure. in the line? Assume a temperature of 68°F. Assume
Elbow Radius = 36 in. that the static pressure at (3) is still 0.35 in. of water
Grille Loss = 0.1 in w.g. at 600 fpm and that the R/D of the elbow is 2. Also assume that
the grille loss is linear with velocity.
Duct cfm Velocity, fpm Length, ft
A 2000 1000 40
B 1000 600 —
C 1000 600 30
D 1000 600 30

Grille loss = 0.10 in H20 at 600 fpm

a. Section A D = 19 in. ΔP = 0.071 in. H 2 O/100 ft


ΔP = ( 40 ⁄ 100 ) ( 0.071 ) = 0.028 in w.g.
Branch cylindrical tee Table 9-4 V c ⁄ V a = 0.6 C = 1.2
2
ΔP loss = 1.2 ⎛⎝ ------------⎞⎠
1600

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= 0.075 in w.g.
4000
Section C D = 17.5 in. ΔP = ( 0.031 ) ( 30 ⁄ 100 ) = 0.0093 in. H 2 O
Elbow R ⁄ D = 36 ⁄ 17.5 = 2.05 C = 0.13
6000 2
ΔP loss = 0.13 ⎛ ------------⎞ = 0.003 in w.g.
⎝ 4000⎠
Section D ΔP = ( 0.031 ) ( 30 ⁄ 100 ) = 0.0093 in. H 2 O
Total loss = 0.028 + 0.075 + 0.0093 + 0.003 + 0.0093 + 0.10 = 0.225 in. H 2 O
b. at  P S = 0.35 in. H 2 O and P v = P v
2 3

ΔP friction = 0.0093 + 0.003 + 0.0093 + 0.10 = 0.122 in w.g.


ΔP damper = 0.35 – 0.122 = 0.228 in. H2 O
c. P S at  = 0.35 in. H 2 O R⁄D = 2 C = 0.13
2
ΔP = 0.13 ⎛ ------------⎞
V
⎝ 4003⎠
ΔP V 2
ΔP L = 0.35 = ( 30 + 3 ) --------- + 0.13 ⎛⎝ ------------⎞⎠ + ΔP grille
100 4000
Trial and Error Solution: Assume a velocity, using 1000 cfm
Find a D, thus → V = 1300 fpm
D = 12 in.
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122⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

9.20 The pressure (energy) loss between A-B, A-C, A-D,


and A-E must be equal if a proper air balance is to be
achieved. The static pressure required in the duct at points
B, C, D, and E to produce the proper flow from the air
diffusing terminal units (ceiling diffusers) is assumed to
be uniform and to be 0.10 in. of water. Ignoring interfer-
ence losses due to terminal unit take off:
1. Calculate the total pressure loss between A and D.
2. Size the ducts between A and B.
3. Size the ducts between A and C.
4. Size the ducts between A and E.
5. What would the static pressure be at F?
Note: In practical application, minor static pressure
imbalances up to 0.05 in. of water can be absorbed by
adjustment of dampers installed in air-diffusing termi-
nal units and further minor adjustments of diverting
dampers, in branch fittings. For greater imbalances,
duct sizing must be modified and/or butterfly dampers
installed in the branch ducts.

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This is an open-ended design problem with a number of satisfactory solutions.


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Chapter 9—Duct and Pipe Sizing⏐123

9.21 Determine the equivalent feet of pipe for a 2 in.


(50 mm) open gate valve and a 2 in. (50 mm) open globe
valve at a flow velocity of 5 fps (1.5 m/s).
(See Table 11 in Chap. 22, 2009 HBF)

a. at 5 fps – 2 in. pipe → L eq 1 in. elbow = 5.9 ft


open gate valve → 0.5 elbow
L eq = 0.5 ( 5.9 ft ) = 2.95 ft
b. at 5 fps – 2 in. pipe → L eq = 5.9 ft
open globe valve → 12
L eq = 12 ( 5.9 ft ) = 70.8 ft

9.22 A convector unit is rated at 1.8 gpm (0.113 L/s) and


has a 3.4 ft (10 kPa) pressure loss at rated flow. Estimate
the pressure loss with a flow of 2.3 gpm through the
convector.

2 2
⎛W ⎞ ⎛2.3 ⎞
H 2 = H 1 ⎜ ------2- ⎟ = 3.4 ⎜------
-⎟ = 5.6 ft
⎝ W1 ⎠ ⎝1.8 ⎠

9.23 Size the system shown in Example 9.5 for a 10°F


temperature drop. (See Chap. 22, 2009 HBF)
27 ,000
10° ΔT A-B-C gpm = ------------------------- = 5.51 gpm
( 480 ) ( 10 )
45 ,000
D-E-F-G gpm = ------------------------- = 9.18 gpm
( 480 ) ( 10 )
Assume design friction loss = 2.5 ft/100 ft

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Multiply heat required at convectors by ( 20 ⁄ 10 ) = 2 and use Fig. 2.
Supply Side Size, in. Return Side Size, in.
I-II at 14,400 Btu/h (14.4 gpm) 1 1/2 V-VI 4 gpm 1
II-III at 54,000 Btu/h (5.4 gpm) 1 VI-VII 5.4 gpm 1
III-IV at 32,000 Btu/h (3.2 gpm) 1 XI-XII 3 gpm 1
Conv. A at 22,000 Btu/h (2.2 gpm) 3/4 XII-XIII 6.6 gpm 1 1/4
Conv. B at 18,000 Btu/h (1.8 gpm) 3/4 XIII-VII 9.0 gpm 1 1/4
Conv. C at 14,000 Btu/h (1.4 gpm) 5/8 VII-I 14.4 gpm 1 1/2
V-VIII at 90,000 Btu/h (9 gpm) 1 1/4
VIII-IX at 54,000 Btu/h (5.4 gpm) 1
IX-X at 30,000 Btu/h (3 gpm) 1
Assume run containing Conv. E is
Conv. D at 36,000 Btu/h (3.6 gpm) 1
longest run. This should be verified
Conv. E at 14,000 Btu/h (1.4 gpm) 5/8
later.
Conv. F at 16,000 Btu/h (1.6 gpm) 5/8
Conv. G at 24,000 Btu/h (2.4 gpm) 3/4

The head loss for this straight pipe in this run from Fig. 2
I-II (280)(2) = 560 milli-inch (4.67 ft/100 ft)
II-VIII (280)(16) = 4480 milli-inch (37.3 ft/100 ft) From Table 4 and Fig. 2 friction loss for elbow
is 35 ft/100 ft.
VIII-IX (280)(7) = 1960 milli-inch (16.3 ft/100 ft)
IX-X (100)(11) = 1100 milli-inch (9.2 ft/100 ft) From Fig. 4, Fig. 2 the friction loss for Tees is
X-Conv. (200)(3) = 600 milli-inch (5 ft/100 ft) 158 ft/100 ft.
Conv.-X (200)(12) = 2400 milli-inch (20 ft/100 ft)
XI-XII (100)(11) = 1100 milli-inch (9.2 ft/100 ft) Total friction loss for this run = 4.17 ft
XII-XIII (150)(10) = 1500 milli-inch (12.5 ft/100 ft)
XIII-VII (250)(14) = 4750 milli-inch (39.6 ft/100 ft) Pump must supply at least this head at 14.7
VII-I (280)(25) = 7000 milli-inch (58.3 ft/100 ft) gpm.
Total = 212.1 ft/100 ft See Notes in Example for this design.
Convector Losses = 11.9 ft/100 ft
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124⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

9.24 Size the system shown in Example 9.5 for 30°F


temperature drop. (See chapter 22, 2009 ASHRAE Hand-
book—Fundamentals)
27 ,000
30° ΔT A-B-C gpm = ------------------------- = 1.84 gpm
( 490 ) ( 30 )
45 ,000
D-E-F-G gpm = ------------------------- = 3.06 gpm
( 490 ) ( 30 )
Assume design friction loss = 2.5 ft/100 ft
Multiply heat required at convectors by ( 20 ⁄ 30 ) = 0.667 and Fig. 2 to get pipe size.

Supply Side Pipe Size, in. Return Side Pipe Size, in.
I-II at 48,000 Btu/h (4.8 gpm) 1 V-VI 1.33 gpm 5/8
II-III at 18,000 Btu/h (1.8 gpm) 3/4 VI-VII 1.8 gpm 3/4
III-IV at 10,670 Btu/h (1.1 gpm) 5/8 XI-XII 1.0 gpm 5/8
Conv. A at 7340 Btu/h (0.7 gpm) 1/2 XII-XIII 2.2 gpm 3/4
Conv. B at 6000 Btu/h (0.6 gpm) 1/2 XIII-VII 3.0 gpm 1
Conv. C at 4670 Btu/h (0.5 gpm) 1/2 VII-I 4.8 gpm 1
V-VIII at 30,000 Btu/h (3.0 gpm) 1
VIII-IX at 18,000 Btu/h (1.8 gpm) 3/4
IX-X at 10,000 Btu/h (1.0 gpm) 5/8
Conv. D at 12,000 Btu/h (1.2 gpm) 5/8 Assume Conv. E is longest run. Verify
Conv. E at 4670 Btu/h (0.5 gpm) 1/2 after various calculations.
Conv. F at 5340 Btu/h (0.5 gpm) 1/2
Conv. G at 8000 Btu/h (0.8 gpm) 1/2

The head loss for this straight pipe from Fig. 2


I-II (240)(2) = 480 milli-inch (4 ft/100 ft) From Table 4, Fig. 2; loss for elbows = 10.5ft/
II-VIII (100)(16) = 1600 milli-inch (13.3 ft/100 ft) 100 ft.
VIII-IX (170)(7) = 1190 milli-inch (9.9 ft/100 ft)
IX-X (130)(11) = 1430 milli-inch (11.9 ft/100 ft) From Fig. 4; Fig. 2 the total friction loss for
Tees = 79.6 ft/100 ft.
X-Conv. (85)(3) = 225 milli-inch (2.1 ft/100 ft)
Conv.-XI (85)(12) = 1020 milli-inch (8.5 ft/100 ft) Convector loss = 11.9 ft/100 ft

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XI-XII (130)(11) = 1430 milli-inch (11.9 ft/100 ft)
XII-XIII (220)(10) = 2200 milli-inch (18.3 ft/100 ft) Total friction loss for this run = 2.43 ft
XIII-VII (100)(19) = 1900 milli-inch (15.8 ft/100 ft)
VII-I (220)(25) = 5500 milli-inch (45.8 ft/100 ft) Pump must supply at least this head at 4.9
Total = 142 ft/100 ft gpm of flow.

Convector Losses = 11.9 ft/100 ft See Notes in Example 4 in Chap. 9 PHVAC.


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Chapter 9—Duct and Pipe Sizing⏐125

9.25 Size the system shown for iron pipe. The water
leaves the boiler at 200°F and has a 20°F temperature
drop. The convectors have a loss given by the equation:
Loss (milli-inches) = 0.3 (Btu/h output). Note: 1 milli-
inch = 0.001 in. of water.
Assume a 3 ft rise is needed to get to the convectors
and then a 3 ft drop to return to the boiler. What head must
be developed by the pump and what flow rate (gpm) is
required?
(See chapter 22, 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Funda-
mentals)

A B

Iron pipe 20°Δt


24,000 27 ,500
Loop A gpm = ------------------------- = 2.45 ; Loop B gpm = ------------------------- = 2.81
( 490 ) ( 70 ) ( 490 ) ( 70 )
Total gpm = 5.25
Assume Loop B will have longest pipe. Assume 300 milli-inch/ft friction loss.
For Loop B Measured length = 49 ft
From Fig. 1 Loss = ( 225 ) ( 49 ) = 11 ,025 milli-inch
Table 11, HBF, elbows Loss = ( 2 ) ( 1.8 ) ( 2.25 ) = 810 milli-inch
Convectors Loss = ( 0.3 ) ( 27 ,500 ) = 8250 milli-inch

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Fig. 7, HBF, supply tee Loss = ( 3.7 ) ( 225 ) ( 1.8 ) = 1500 milli-inch
return tee Loss = ( 3.7 ) ( 225 ) ( 1.8 ) = 1500 milli-inch
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total loss = 23 ,085 milli-inch
Boiler Circuit:
L = 15 ft – Fig. 1 – 1 in. pipe Loss = ( 180 ) ( 15 ) = 2700 milli-inch
Table 11, HBF, elbows Loss = ( 2 ) ( 2.4 ) ( 180 ) = 864 milli-inch
6 ft riser and return Loss = ( 6 ) ( 180 ) = 1080 milli-inch
Table 11, HBF, boilers Loss = ( 3 ) ( 2.4 ) ( 180 ) = 1296 milli-inch
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total = 5940 milli-inch
Total friction loss = 29 ,025 milli-inches for Loop B.
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126⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

9.26 Rework Problem 9.25 using Type L copper tubing.


Use copper tubes. See Figure 5, chapter 22, 2009
ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals.

gpm = 5.25 gpm; Loop A = 2.8 gpm; 2.5 ft/100 ft; 3/4 in. tube
44
Pipe loss = 2.5 × --------- = 1.22 ft
100
Elbows 2 × ( 1.8 ) ( 2.5 ) = 0.09 ft
Convectors ( 0.3 ) ( 2.29 ) = 0.69 ft
Tees 2 ( 3.7 ) ( 2.5 ) ( 1.8 ) = 0.33 ft
----------------------------------------------------------------
Total = 2.33 ft
Boiler circuit 1.41 ( 21 ) + 2 ( 2.4 ) ( 1.41 ) + 4 ( 2.4 ) ( 1.41 ) = 0.5 ft
Total friction = 2.83 ft for Loop A including Boiler

9.27 A steam system requires 15,000 lb/h of steam at an


initial pressure of 150 psig. The design pressure drop is to
be 6 psi per 100 ft. Determine the size of schedule 40 pipe
required and the velocity in the steam pipe.

15,000 lb/h Pinitial = 150 psig (Fig. 13D, chapter 22, 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals)
6 psi/100 ft – Schedule 40 Select 3 1/2 in. pipe
Velocity at 150 psig = 10,000 fpm

9.28 Determine the pipe sizes for the refrigeration


systems shown in the following figure.
a. Refrigerant lines using R-22

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b. Condenser water lines

This is an open ended design problem; there are many solutions.


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Chapter 9—Duct and Pipe Sizing⏐127

9.29 A gas appliance has an input rating of 80,000 Btu/h


and is operated with natural gas (specific gravity = 0.60)
having a heating value of 1050 Btu/ft3. What size of supply
pipe is necessary when the equivalent length is 70 ft and a
pressure loss of 0.3 in. of water is allowable?
(See chapter 22, Table 26, 2009 ASHRAE Hand-
book—Fundamentals.)

Leq = 70 ft; 0.3 in. H2O

80,000/1050 = 76.19 ft3/h 3/4 in. pipe

9.30 A fan operating at 1200 rpm has been delivering


6500 cfm against a static head of 3.25 in. of water and a
total head of 5.25 in. of water. The air temperature is
130°F, gage temperature, 90°F, and the input power is
6.1 kW. During a time of power difficulty, the operator
notices that the static head is now 2.36 in. of water. There
has been no change in the system. Find:
a. New capacity in cfm
b. New power input in kW
c. Original efficiency of the fan (%)

n 2⎞ 2 h 2 2.38
⎛ ----
a. - = ----- = ---------- ; h 2 = 0.855 ( 1200 ) = 1028 rpm
⎝ n 1⎠ h 1 3.25
Q 2 = ( 6500 ) ( 0.855 ) = 5570 cfm

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3
b. kW 2 = ( 6.10 ) ( 0.855 ) = 3.82 kW

AHP QP t ( 144 ) ( 0.746 ) ( 6500 ) ( 5.25 ) ( 0.036 ) ( 144 ) ( 0.746 )


c. Eff = ------------ = ------------------------------------------ = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BHP ( 33 ,000 ) ( 6.1 ) ( 33 ,000 ) ( 6.1 )
EFF = 65.5%

9.31 A certain damper design introduces a head loss of


0.5 velocity heads when wide open. A damper of this
design is to be installed in a 12 by 30 in. duct that handles
3000 cfm. The pressure drop in the undampered system is
1.5 in. of water. If the pressure drop through the damper
when wide open is to be 5% of the total system resistance,
how much cross-sectional area in the duct should the
damper occupy?

ΔP T = ΔP duct + ΔP damper = 1.5 + 0.05 ΔP T ; ΔP T = 1.58


ΔP damper = 1.58 – 1.5 = 0.08 in. w.g. wide open

12 Pa V 2 12 ( 0.075 )V 2 CFM 2
HV ( in. w.g. ) = --------------------- = ---------------------------------- = ⎛ ----------------⎞
2 g ρw 2 ( 32.2 ) ( 62.4 ) ⎝ 4005A⎠
2
= 0.08 = 0.5 ⎛ ----------------⎞
3000 2
ΔP damper A = 1.87 ft
open ⎝ 4005A⎠
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128⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

9.32 What effect on the following parameters does a


variation in air density have for a fan operating in a
system:
a. flow rate
b. developed head
c. horsepower

Air Density Variation:


a. Flow rate; Volume – Remains same; Mass – Increases with increases.
b. Developed head – Increases directly with density increase.
c. Horsepower – Increases directly with density increase.

9.33 A fan delivers 1500 cfm (708 L/s) of dry air at 65°F
(18.3°C) against a static pressure of 0.20 in. of water
(50 Pa) and requires 0.10 BHP. Find the volume circu-
lated, the static pressure, and the BHP required to deliver
the same weight of air when the air temperature is
increased to 165°F (73.9°C). (Note: Atmospheric pres-
sure is constant.)

1500 cfm, 65°F, P s = 0.20 in. H 2 O, 0.10 bph for air temperature of 165°F
ρ2 T 460 + 65-
----- = -----2 = ----------------------- = 0.81 CFM 2 = CFM 1 = 1500 cfm
ρ1 T1 460 + 165
ρ2
P S = P S ⎛ ----- ⎞ = 0.20 ( 0.84 ) = 0.168 in. H 2 O

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2 1⎝ ρ ⎠
1
ρ2
H P = H P ⎛ ----- ⎞ = 0.10 ( 0.84 ) = 0.084 BHP
2 1⎝ ρ ⎠
1

9.34 Should fans be placed before or after air heaters?


Why?

For the same mass flow rate through the air heater, the fan law gives:

BHP 1 ρ ρ2
-------------- = -----2 BHP 2 = ⎛⎝ ----- ⎞⎠ BHP 1
BHP 2 ρ1 ρ1
if ρ 1 is cold, ρ 2 is warm
then BHP 2 > BHP 1 – Place fan before heater.

9.35 A 40 in. by 24 in. rectangular duct conveying 12,000 cfm of standard air divides into 3 branches (see
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Chapter 9—Duct and Pipe Sizing⏐129

figure). Branch A carries 6000 cfm for 100 ft, B carries


4000 cfm for 150 ft, and C carries 2000 for 35 ft.
(a) Size each branch for equal total friction of 0.15 in. of
water. Do not exceed upper velocity limit of
2000 fpm.
(b) What is the total friction loss if the same quantity of
air, 12,000 cfm of air at 150°F and 14.0 psia, is passed
through the same system as part (a)?
(c) For a fan selected for part (a), at what percentage of
the speed in part (a) must the fan run to satisfy part
(b)?

Branch A Total length = 100 ft + 6 ft. Assume branch similar to elbow.


with r ⁄ w = 1.5 ; H ⁄ W = 1.0 → C = 0.09
2000 2 ΔP
ΔP = 0.04 ⎛⎝ ------------⎞⎠ = 0.0225 in. w.g.; ΔP = 0.15 in. H 2 O = ( 100 + 6 ) --------- + 0.0225

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4000 100
ΔP ⁄ 100 ft = 0.12 in. w.g. ( Chap. 21, 2009 HBF )
Assume W = duct width = 24 in. for 600 cfm and D eg = 33.6
V = 1400 fpm Size = 24 in. × 24 in.
Branch B ΔP = 0.15 in. w.g. = ( 6 + 150 ) ΔP′ ⁄ 100
ΔP′ = 0.096 in. w.g./100 ft
with W = 24 in. V = 1350 fpm Size = 24 in. × 19.5 in.
Branch C ΔP = 0.15 in. w.g. = ( 35 + 6 ) ΔP′ ⁄ 100 + 0.0225
ΔP′ = 0.31 in. H 2 O for 2000 cfm, D eg = 11 in.
V = 1800 fpm Size = 24 in. × 7.5 in.
b. ( Chap. 21, HBF ) K = 0.89 Q actual = 12 ,000 cfm
H o = ( 0.89 ) ( 0.15 ) = 0.133 in. H2 O
c. For Part a. ΔP static, fan = 0.15 + 25 Δp = 0.183 in. H 2 O
Q fan = 12 ,000 cfm

Using fan lows, the required speed for 150°F with 12,000 cfm is rpm2 = rpm1 × 1 × 1.

9.36 A centrifugal fan operating at 2400 rpm delivers


20,000 cfm of air through a 32 in. diameter duct against
a static pressure of 4.8 in. of water. The air is 40°F. The
barometer is 29.0 in. Hg. Determine the horsepower input
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130⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

if the efficiency is 70%. If the fan size, gas density, and


duct system remain the same, calculate the horsepower
required if operated at 3200 rpm.

π 2 π 32 2 20 ,000
A = --- D = --- ⎛ ------⎞ = 5.6 ft ;
2 Q
V = ---- = ---------------- = 3570 fpm
4 4 ⎝ 12⎠ A 5.6
2
12ρ u V cfm 2 20 ,000
h v = ------------------ = ⎛ ---------------- ⎞ = ⎛ ----------------------------- ⎞ = 0.8 in. w.g.
2gρ w ⎝ 4005A ⎠ ⎝ ( 4005 ) ( 5.6 ) ⎠
h t = h s + h v = 4.8 + 0.8 = ( 5.6 in. w.g. ) ( 0.0361 ) = 0.202 psi
( 144 )
AHP = ( 0.202 ) ---------------- ( 20 ,000 ) = 17.6 hp
33 ,000
17.6
a. BHP = ---------- = 25.2 hp
0.70
3200 2
b. BHP 2 = ( 25.2 ) ⎛ ------------ ⎞ = 59.7 hp
⎝ 2400 ⎠

9.37 Compute the efficiency of Fan 303 (Fig. 9-11b)


when delivering 15,500 cfm at 4 in. static pressure (SP).

From Fig. 9-116, fan BHP ≅ 13.4


CFM × ΔP ( in. w.g. ) 15 ,500 ( 4 )
Ideal BHP = ------------------------------------------------- = ------------------------- = 9.8
6350 6350
Wi 9.8
η f = ------- × 100 = ---------- × 100 = 74%
Wa 13.4

9.38 Develop and explain the following relations for fan

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performance:
(a) HP = CFM × ΔP/6350ηf
(b) kWH = HP (0.746) Hours/ηm
(c) Δtf = ΔP(0.371)/ηf
(d) HP ~ CFM3
CFM × ΔP ( in. w.g. ) CFM × ΔP
a. W i = m· ∫ ν dp ≅ m· ν ΔP = ------------------------------------------------- = --------------------------
conversion factors 6350
Wi CFM × ΔP
W a = ------ = --------------------------
ηf 6350η f
b. W ( kWh ) = HP × 0.746 × kW ⁄ HP × time
Motor input ( kWh ) = Fan input ⁄ η m
CFM × 60 CFM × ΔP × 2545
c. W = ( 0.240 ) ( m· ) ( Δt ) = m ∫ ν dp ( 0.240 ) ------------------------ ( Δt ) = --------------------------------------------
13.33 6350η f
Δt = 0.371 ΔP ⁄ h f

d. W = – m ∫ ν dp = – m ν dp ∼ CFM ⋅ ΔP

V 2 CFM 2
ΔP = ⎛⎝ f ---- + C o⎞⎠ ------ ∼ ⎛⎝ ------------ ⎞⎠
L
D 2 A
2 3
W ∼ CFM ( CFM ) ∼ ( CFM )
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Chapter 9—Duct and Pipe Sizing⏐131

9.39 A water pump develops a total head of 200 ft. The


pump efficiency is 80% and the motor efficiency is
87.5%. If the power rate is 1.5¢ per kilowatt-hour, what is
the power cost for pumping 1000 gal?

Hm ( 200 ) ( 1000 ) ( 231 ⁄ 1728 ) ( 62.4 )


WHP = ---------------- = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 50.2 hp
33 ,000 33 ,000
50.2
BHP = ------------------------------- = 72.5 hp
( 0.8 ) ( 0.875 )
Cost = ( 72.5 hp ) ( 2545 ) ( 1 ⁄ 3413 ) ( 0.015 ) = $0.81/h
0.81
---------- = 1.35¢ for 1000 gal
60

9.40 For a certain system it is required to select a pump


that will deliver 2400 gpm (150 L/s) at a total head of
360 ft (110 m), and a pump shaft speed of 2400 rpm.
What type of pump would you suggest?

n Q 2400 2400
η s = ------------
3⁄4
- = ---------------------------- = 1540
3⁄4
H ( 360 )

Use a centrifugal pump.

9.41 A pump delivers 1400 gpm of water. The inlet pipe


is 4 in. nominal and the outlet pipe is 2 in. nominal stan-
dard pipe. The water temperature is 40°F. The surface of
the inlet supply is 40 ft higher than the pump centerline.

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The discharge gage, which is 22 ft above the pump center-
line, reads 180 psi. If the pump and motor combined effi-
ciency is 60%, calculate the necessary input to the motor
in kilowatts.

( 180 ) ( 144 )
H d = ---------------------------- + 22 = 437 ft; H S = +40 ft
62.4

Q = 1400 ⎛ ------------ ⎞ ⎛ ------ ⎞ = 3.11 ft ⁄ s


231 1 3
⎝ 1728 ⎠ ⎝ 60 ⎠
( 3.11 ) ( 144 ) ( 3.11 ) ( 144 )
V d = ----------------------------- = 133 fps; V s = ----------------------------- = 35.2 fps
3.355 12.73
2 2
( 3.11 ) ( 60 ) ( 62.4 ) ( 654 ) Vd – Vs
H p = -------------------------------------------------------- = 385 hp H vd – H vs = ------------------ = 257 ft
( 33 ,000 ) ( 0.60 ) 2g c
kW = ( 385 ) ( 0.746 ) = 287 kW H t = 437 – 40 + 257 = 654 ft
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132⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

9.42 A pump is required to force 9250 lb/h (4200 kg/h)


of water at 165°F (74°C) through a heating system
against a total resistance of 82,300 milli-inches of water
(20.5 kPa). If the mechanical efficiency of the pump is
65%, find the required horsepower input.

1 1 3
ρ = ------------ = ---------------- = 60.9 lb/ft
ν 165° 0.0164
–3
Qρh m· h ( 9250 ) ( 82 ,300 ) ( 10 )
BHP = ----------- = ------- = ----------------------------------------------------------- = 0.05 hp
η η ( 60 ) ( 12 ) ( 0.65 ) ( 33 ,000 )

9.43 How many horsepower are required to pump


66 gpm (4.16 L/s) against 60 ft (18.3 m) of head assuming
75% efficiency?

Qρh ( 66 ) ( 231 ⁄ 1728 ) ( 62.4 ) ( 60 )


BHP = ----------- = -------------------------------------------------------------------- = 1.33 hp
η 33 ,000 ( 0.75 )

9.44 Solve the following problems:


a. A certain system is found to have losses due to
frictional effects according to the equation H =
0.001 (gpm)2 where H is in ft of water. The system is
handling water at 160°F. For a design capacity of
300 gpm, what is the head developed by the pump
and the BHP if the pump efficiency is 80%?
b. What would be the theoretical maximum length of
suction in order to prevent cavitation if the level of

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the supply tank is below the centerline of the pump?
Assume atmospheric pressure to be 14.7 psi.
c. If a capacity of 400 gpm is desired, what would be
the speed ratio n2/n1 for the same pump, density of
fluid, and system?
d. Should a backward- or forward-curved blade pump
be chosen? Would you make arrangements for a
priming system for the pump?

2 ( 300 ) ( 231 ⁄ 1728 ) ( 61.01 ) ( 90 )


a. h = 0.001 ( 300 ) = 90 ft H 2 O BHP = --------------------------------------------------------------------------
( 33 ,000 ) ( 0.80 )
BHP = 8.35 hp
b. P v = 4.74 psi P b = 14.741 psi P s = 10 psi
( 10 ) ( 144 )
H s = ------------------------- = 23.6 ft H2 O
( 61.01 )
η2 η2
c. Q 1 = 300 Q 2 = Q 1 ------ ------ = 400
--------- = 1.33
η1 η1 300
Q 2 = 400
d. backward; yes
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Solutions to

Chapter 10
LIFE-CYCLE COSTS

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Chapter 10—Life-Cycle Costs⏐135

10.1 If $1000 is invested at 8% interest, determine the


value of this money in 10 years.

Sum = Amount (1 + i)n


= $1000 (1 + 0.08)10
Sum = $2159

10.2 Find the present worth of money that will have a


value of $35,000 in 3 years with an interest rate of 9%.

Sum = Amount (1 + i)n


$35,000 = Amount (1 + 0.09)3
Amount = $27,026

10.3 $1000 is invested at the end of each year for 10 years.


Interest is 11%. Find the amount accumulated.

n
(1 + i) – 1
S = R --------------------------- = R ( CAF )
i
10
( 1 + 0.11 ) – 1
S = 1000 --------------------------------------
0.11
S = $16,722

10.4 If $100,000 is invested at 8% interest, find the yearly


withdrawal that will use up the money in 20 years.

n
(1 + i) – 1
- = R ⎛ -----------
1 -⎞
P = R --------------------------

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n ⎝ CRF⎠
i( + i )
20
( 1 + 0.08 ) – 1
$100,000 = R --------------------------------------------
20
-
( 0.08 ) ( 1 + 0.08 )
R = $10,185

10.5 The cost of a new heat pump system is $3000 with


an expected lifetime of 20 years. Neglect energy and
maintenance costs. Find the annual cost if the salvage
value is $0 and the interest rate is 8%.

Series present worth


n
( 1 + i ) – 1-
P = R ⎛⎝ ------------⎞⎠ = R --------------------------
1
CRF n
i( 1 + i)
20
( 1 + 0.08 ) – 1-
$3000 = R ---------------------------------------
20
0.08 ( 1 + 0.08 )
R = $306
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136⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

10.6 A new heating system has a cost of $15,000 and a


salvage value of $5000, independent of age. The new
system saves $1400 per year in fuel cost. Calculate the
break-even point if i = 9%. Neglect maintenance costs.

Initial cost – Salvage = Savings


$15,000 ( CRF, 9%, N years ) – $5,000 ⁄ ( CAF, 9%, N years ) = $1,400
trial and error solution for N years yields
N = 34 years (break even) (reasonable?)

10.7 A new high-efficiency cooling system costs $60,000


and saves $7500 in energy costs each year. The system
has a salvage value of $10,000 in 20 years. Compute the
rate of return. Neglect maintenance costs.

Initial cost – Salvage = Savings


$60,000 ( CRF, x%, 20 ) – $10,000 ⁄ ( CAF, x%, 20 ) = $7,500
trial and error solution for x% yields
rate of return = 11.25%

10.8 The costs of two small heat pump units A and B are
$1000 and $1200 and the annual operating costs are $110
and $100, respectively. The interest rate is 8% and the
amortization is selected as 20 years. Compare the systems
on the basis of present worth.

Present Worth System A System B

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Initial Cost $1000 $1200
CRF (8%, 20 yr.) Operating Cost
= 0.10185 110 × 1/0.10185 $1080
100 × 1/0.10185 $982
Present Worth $2080 $2182

System A is least costly to own.

10.9 Compare the units in Problem 10.8 on the basis of


uniform annual costs.

Costs System A System B


Owning Cost
Initial Cost × CRF
$1000 × 0.10185 $101.85
$1200 × 0.10185 $122.22
Operating Cost $110 $100
Uniform Annual O&O Cost $211.85 $222.22
System A is least costly to operate.
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Chapter 10—Life-Cycle Costs⏐137

10.10 An installation is going to require a 500 ton chiller.


An annual energy analysis for this office building appli-
cation shows that the required ton-hours over the year
will be 2,100,000. The economic data is given below.

Chiller A Chiller B
Average Chiller Efficiency 0.73 kW/ton 0.63 kW/ton
Initial Cost $221,500 $240,500
Installation Cost $19,000 $19,000
Electricity Cost 6¢/kWh 5.9¢/kWh
Maintenance Costs $9,500 $10,000
Estimated Life 20 years 20 years

Perform a simple payback analysis for this option.

A B

Energy Required: 0.73 × 2,100,000 0.63 × 2,100,000


1,533,000 kWh 1,323,000 kWh
Annual Operating Cost: 1,533,000 (0.06) 1,323,000 (0.059)
+9500 +10000
$101,480 $88,057
Initial Cost: $221,500 + $19,000 $240,500 + $19,000
$240,500 $259,500

259,500 – 240,500 $19,000

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Y pb = --------------------------------------------- = ------------------- = 1.41 yrs.
101,480 – 88,057 $13,423

For the remaining time (18.6 yrs.)


savings in operating cost would be
18.6 × 13423 = $250,000
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Solutions to

Chapter 11
AIR-CONDITIONING
SYSTEM CONCEPTS

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Chapter 11—Air-Conditioning System Concepts⏐141

11.1 A room is to be cooled to a temperature of 75°F and


a relative humidity of 50%. If there is negligible latent
load within the space, what is the highest temperature at
which the conditioned air can be supplied (ts)? Why?

ts = dew-point temperature of the space conditions


max

P s at 75°F = 0.87567 in. Hg


P s at 75°F/50% = 0.5 ( 0.87567 ) = 0.43784
t s at 0.43784 in. Hg = 55.12°F

11.2 A room has a total space cooling load of 20 tons and


a sensible heat ratio of 0.90. If the conditioned air is to be
supplied at 20°F less than the room temperature, how
much air must be circulated?

q s = q T ( SHR )
= 20 ( 12000 ) ( 0.9 )
q s = 216000 Btu/h
q s = 1.1 ( CFM ) ( t r – t s )
qs 216000
CFM = ------------------ = ------------------
1.1 ( Δt ) 1.1 ( 20 )
3
CFM = 9820 ft ⁄ min

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11.3 What are the four generic types of air systems
expressed by thermodynamic methods?

Heat - cool - off


Dual stream
Reheat
Variable Air Volume

11.4 What are the 18 fundamental parameters that must


be addressed in the selection and design of an HVAC
system?

Load dynamics Flexibility


Performance requirements Operations requirements
Availability of equipment Service ability
Capacity Maintainability
Spatial requirements Availability of service
First cost Availability of replacement components
Energy Consumption Environmental requirements of space
Operating cost Environmental requirements of community
Simplicity Reliability
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142⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

11.5 Before designing a system, the cooling and heating


load for each room in a building must be calculated?
Why?
Because the system must be designed to add heat or remove it in each room at
the same rate at which the load occurs in order to maintain thermal equilibrium.
Also, an understanding of the nature of the load is fundamental to the selection of a system type.

11.6 If outdoor air at 95°F dry bulb and 78°F wet bulb is
cooled to 75°F dry bulb without any dehumidification,
what will the relative humidity be?

90% RH

11.7 In the air handling unit of Figure 11-1, under design


conditions the outdoor air temperature is 95°F dry bulb
and 78°F wet bulb and the space temperature is 75°F and
50% RH. The supply fan handles 60,000 cfm of air at
55°F saturated (entering the fan). If the minimum outdoor
air dampers are sized for 6000 cfm of ventilation air, what
is the statepoint (dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures) of
the mixed air?
CFMO
t m = t i + ------------------ ( t o – t i )
CFMT
6000
= 75 + --------------- ( 95 – 75 )
60000

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= 77°F db
64°F wb
h m = 29.6 Btu/lb
From Psych. chart

11.8 A constant-flow air-handling system is designed to


circulate 60,000 cfm of air at a total fan pressure rise of 6
in. w.g. The system is designed to operate continuously.
The fan efficiency is 70% and the motor efficiency is
90%.
a. How much power (hp) is required to drive the fan?
b. What will be the annual fan energy consumption?
CFM ( DP t )
a) Hp = ----------------------------
6350η f
60000 ( 6 in. )
= -------------------------------
6350 ( 0.7 )
Hp = 81
CFM ( ΔP f )θ
b) kWh = -------------------------------
( 8512 )η f η m
60000 ( 6 ) ( 8760 )
kWh = ---------------------------------------- = 588100 kWh
8512 ( 0.7 ) ( 0.9 )
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Chapter 11—Air-Conditioning System Concepts⏐143

11.9 If, in the above problem, the sensible space load


were reduced by 25% by using a more energy effective
building envelope and improved lighting system, and this
change were accommodated by reducing the air flow rate
at the same fan pressure and efficiencies, what would be
the reduction in annual fan energy?

q s = CFM ( 1.1 ) ( Δt )
q s ≈ CFM
and kWh ≈ CFM
kWh ≈ q s
∴Δ ( kWh ) = kWh (% reduction in load)
= 588100 ( 0.25 ) = 147000 kWh

11.10 It is desired to transfer a given quantity of heat


energy from one location to another location in a build-
ing. Two methods being considered are either by an air
system operating at 4 in. of water total pressure or by a
water system with a pump head of 40 ft. Calculate the
ratio of fan power required for an air system to pump
power required for a water system with the following
system variables:
Fan efficiency 70%
Pump efficiency 80%
Air Δt 20°F
Water Δt 40°F

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CFM ( ΔP t )
Hp air = ---------------------------
6350η f
q = 1.1 ( CFM ) ( Δt air )
q
CFM = ------------------------
1.1 ( Δt air )
q ( ΔP t ) q(Δ) –5
Hp air = ----------------------------------------------- = ------------------------------------------------ = 4.09 × 10 q
6350 ( 1.1 ) ( Δt air )η f 6350 ( 1.1 ) ( 20 ) ( 0.7 )
GPM ( ΔH )
Hp w = ---------------------------
3960 ( η p )
q = GPM ( 500 ) ( Δt w )
GPM = 8 ⁄ ( 500 ) ( Δt w )
q ( ΔH ) q ( 40 ) –7
Hp w = ----------------------------------------------- = -------------------------------------------------- = 6.31 × 10 q
3960 ( 500 )Δt w ( η p ) 3960 ( 500 ) ( 40 ) ( 0.8 )
–5
Hp air × 10 q-
-------------- = 4.09
------------------------------ = 65
Hp w –7
6.31 × 10 q
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144⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

11.11 A fan with a variable speed drive is selected to


operate at 900 rpm, and it is installed on a spring isolator
mount with 1 in. static deflection. Determine
a. Transmissibility of the isolator
b. Minimum speed that the unit can be operated at
before the transmissibility is 0.50

1
a) TR = -------------------------
2
-
( f ⁄ fn ) – 1
N 900
f = ------ = --------- = 15 Hz
60 60
1
f n = ------ g---
2π y
1 386
f n = ------ --------- = 3.13 Hz
2π 1
1
TR = --------------------------
2
- = 0.046
⎛ ----------⎞ – 1
15
⎝ 3.13⎠
1
b) TR = -------------------------
2
-
( f ⁄ fn ) – 1
2
( f ⁄ fn ) TR – TR = 1
2 TR + 1 0.5 + 1
( f ⁄ f n ) = ---------------- = ---------------- = 3
TR 0.5
f = 3f n

f = 3 ( 3.13 ) = 5.42
N min
f = -----------
60

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N min = 60f = 60 ( 5.42 )
N min = 325 rpm

11.12 Specify typical temperatures for the following:


a. Air leaving a gas-fired warm air furnace
b. Air leaving a heat pump condenser
c. Air leaving the cooling coil of a residential air condi-
tioner
d. Air leaving the cooling coil of a commercial air
conditioner
e. Hot water entering the convectors (radiators) of
a hydronic system
f. Hot water returning to the boiler from the convectors

a. 135°F (57°C)
b. 105°F (41°C)
c. 58°F (14°C)
d. 55°F (13°C)
e. 190°F (88°C)
f. 170°F (77°C)
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 11—Air-Conditioning System Concepts⏐145

11.13 An air-conditioned room has a sensible heat load


of 200,000 Btu/h, a latent heat load of 50,000 Btu/h, an
occupancy of 20 people, and is maintained at 76°F dry
bulb and 64°F wet bulb. Twenty-five percent of the air
entering the room leaves through cracks and hoods.
Outside air is assumed to be at design conditions of 95°F
dry bulb and 76°F wet bulb. Conditioned air leaves the
apparatus and enters the room at 60°F dry bulb.
Use the following letters to designate state points:
A Outside design conditions
B Inside design conditions
C Air entering apparatus (mixed air)
D Air entering room (supply air)
a. Complete the table provided. Point Dry Bulb Wet Bulb h W
b. Calculate the room SHR. A 95 76 39.4 0.015
c. What air quantity must enter the room?
d. What is the apparatus load in tons? B 76 64 29.2 0.010
e. What is the load of the outside air? In lb per hour? In C 80.6 67.2 31.75 0.01125
cfm?
f. Does the room load plus the outside air load equal D 60 56.8 24.3 0.0091
the coil load?

a) A: 95°F db, 76°F wb; h A = 39.4, W A = 0.015


B: 76°F db, 64°F wb; h B = 29.2, W B = 0.010
M A h A + M B h B = ( M A + M B )h c ; M A W A + M e W e = ( M A + M e )W c
( 0.25 ) ( 39.4 ) + ( 0.75 ) ( 29.2 ) = h c ; ( 0.25 ) ( 0.015 ) + ( 0.75 ) ( 0.010 ) = W c
C: h c = 31.75; W c = 0.01125
C: 80.6°F db, 67.2°F wb
Assuming occupancy is included in q s and q L as should be:

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q s = 200000 = M da C p ( t B – t D ) = M da ( 0.244 )(76 – 60)
M da = 51230 lb/h
MW ( 50000 ⁄ 1054 )
D: W D = W B – ---------- = 0.010 – ----------------------------------- = 0.0091
M da 51230
D: 60°F db, 56.8°F wb, h D = 24.3
b) SHR = q s ⁄ ( q s + q L ) = 200000 ⁄ 250000 = 0.8

51230 lb/h; v D = 13.3 ft ⁄ lb; V· = --------------- ( 13.3 ) = 11356 cfm


3 51230
c)
60
d) M da h c – M da ( W c – W D )h f60°F – M da h D + q = 0
51230 [ 31.75 – ( 0.01125 – 0.0091 )28 – 24.3 ] = – q
q = – 378600 Btuh = 31.5 tons
e) O.A. Load: q s = M OA C p ( t A – t B ) = 0.25 ( 51230 ) ( 0.244 ) ( 95 – 76 ) = 59376 Btu/h
q L = M OA ( W A – W B )1054 = 0.25 ( 51230 ) ( 0.015 – 0.010 ) ( 1054 ) = 67495 Btu/h
126872 Btu/h
f) 250000 + 126872 = 376872 ≈ 378600 YES
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146⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

11.14 A space has a sensible heat loss of 60,000 Btu/h


and a latent loss of 20,000 Btu/h. The space is to be main-
tained at 70°F and 40% RH. The air that passes through
the conditioner is 90% recirculated and 10% outdoor air
at 40°F and 20% RH. The conditioner consists of an adia-
batic saturator and a heating coil. Estimate the tempera-
ture and humidity ratio of the air entering the conditioned
space. What is the flow rate in lb/h and cfm? How much
heat is added by the coil to the air in Btu/h? How much
water is added to the air by the adiabatic saturator (lb/h)?

q L = 20000 Btuh
q s = 60000 Btuh
t r = 70°F
t OA = 40°F

r: t r = 70°F, θ r = 40%; W r = 0.0062; h r = 23.7


OA: 40°Fdb, 20% RH; W OA = 0.001; h OA = 10.7
90% recirc.; 10% outside air
m: 0.1 ( 0.001 ) + 0.9 ( 0.0062 ) = W m = 0.0057
m: 0.1 ( 10.7 ) + 0.9 ( 23.7 ) = h m = 22.4 ; t m = 67°F
t wb, m = 53.7°F = t x
x: t = 53.7°F, θ = 100%, W x = 0.0088
60000
SHR (space) = --------------- = 0.75
80000
From Psych. chart: at intersection of W = 0.0088 and space condition line (slope of SHR = 0.75 ):
t s = 102°Fdb, W s = 0.0088, v s = 14.35

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qs 60000
M da = ------------------------- = --------------------------------------- = 7748 lb/h
Cp ( ts – tr ) 0.242 ( 102 – 70 )
or 1853 cfm
q HC = mCp ( t s – t x ) = 7748 ( 0.242 ) ( 102 – 53.7 )
= 90563 Btu/h
M W, AS = M ( W s – W m ) = 7748 ( 0.0088 – 0.0057 ) = 24 lb/h

11.15 Air at the 800 ft3/min leaves a residential air


conditioner at 65°F with 40% RH. The return air from the
rooms has average dry- and wet-bulb temperatures of
75°F and 65°F, respectively. Determine
a. Size of the unit in tons (12,000 Btu/h = 1 ton)
b. Rate of dehumidification

75°Fdb
65°Fwb 65°F, 40% RH, h 2 = 21.4, W 2 = 0.0053, v = 13.335
h 1 = 30 ( 800 ) ( 60 )
M da = ------------------------- = 3600 lb/h
13.335
w 1 = 0.0109

a) q = M da [ h 1 – h 2 – ( W 1 – W 2 )h f ] = 3600 [ 30 – 21.4 – ( 0.0109 – 0.0053 )33 ]


= 30300 Btu/h = 2.52 tons
b) ·
M w = M da ( W 1 – W 2 ) = ( 3600 ) ( 0.0109 – 0.0053 ) = 20.2 lb/h
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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Chapter 11—Air-Conditioning System Concepts⏐147

11.16 In an air-conditioning unit 6000 cfm at 80°F dry a. Cooling capacity of the air-conditioning unit, tons
bulb, 60% RH, and standard atmospheric pressure, enter b. Rate of water removal from the unit, lb/h
the unit. The leaving condition of the air is 57°F dry bulb c. Sensible heat load on the conditioner, Btu/h
and 90% RH. Calculate d. Latent heat load on the conditioner, Btu/h
e. Dew point of the air leaving the conditioner, °F

6000 × 60
M da = ------------------------ = 26100 lb/h
13.8
a) M da h 1 – M da h 2 – M da ( W 1 – W 2 )h 3 + q c = 0
26100 [ 33.8 – 23.4 – ( 0.0132 – 0.009 )25 ] = – q c
q c = – 268700 Btu/h = 22.4 tons
b) M c = M da ( W 1 – W 2 ) = 26100 ( 0.0132 – 0.009 ) = 109.6 lb/h
c) q s = M da C p ( t 1 – t 2 ) = 26100 ( 0.244 ) ( 80 – 57 ) = 146470 Btu/h
= 12.2 tons
d) q L = M c ( 1076 ) = 109.6 ( 1076 ) = 117930 Btu/h = 9.8 tons
e) Dew Point = 54°F

11.17 A space in an industrial building has a winter a. Temperature of the air entering the preheater
sensible heat loss of 200,000 Btu/h and a negligible latent b. Temperature of the air entering the space to be heated
heat load (latent losses to outside are made up by latent c. Heat supplied to preheat coil, Btu/h
gains within the space). The space is to be maintained at d. Heat supplied to reheat coil, Btu/h
75°F and 50% RH. Due to the nature of the process, 100% e. Quantity of make-up water added to adiabatic satura-
outdoor air is required for ventilation. The outdoor air tor, gpm
conditions can be taken as saturated air at 20°F. The f. Temperature of the spray water
amount of ventilation air required is 7000 cfm and the air g. Show the processes and label points on the psychro-
is to be preheated, humidified with an adiabatic saturator,

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metric diagram
and then reheated. The temperature out of the adiabatic
saturator is to be maintained at 60°F dry bulb. Calculate:
r: 75°Fdb, 50% RH; W r = 0.0093, h r = 28.2
OA: 20°Fdb, 100% RH; W OA = 0.002152, h OA = 7.106
Leaving adiabatic saturator: t = 60°Fdb, W = 0.0093
∴wb = 57°F
Leaving preheater: W = 0.002152, WB = 57°F
∴t = 91°Fdb
a) Entering preheater, t = 20°Fdb
b) q s = 200000 = 1.1 cfm ( t s – t r ) = 1.1 ( 7000 ) ( t s – 75 )
t s = 101.5°F
c) q ≅ 1.1 ( 7000 ) ( 91 – 20 ) = 536760 Btu/h (preheat)
d) q ≅ 1.1 ( 7000 ) ( 101.5 – 60 ) = 313740 Btu/h (reheat)

gpm = ---------- ( 0.0093 – 0.0022 ) ⁄ ⎛ 8.33 -------⎞ = 0.44 gpm


700 lb
e)
13.5 ⎝ gal⎠
f) 57°F

g)
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148⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

11.18 In winter, a meeting room with a large window is to


be maintained at comfort conditions. The inside glass
temperature on the design day is 40°F. Condensation on the
window is highly undesirable. The room is to accommo-
date 18 adult males [250 Btu/h (sensible) and 200 Btu/h
(latent) per person]. The heat loss through the walls, ceil-
ing, and floor is 33,600 Btu/h. There are 640 watts of lights
in the room.
a. Determine the sensible heat loss or gain.
b. Specify the desired interior dry-bulb temperature and
relative humidity.
c. If the heating system provides air at 95°F, determine
the required airflow (cfm) and the maximum relative
humidity permissible in the incoming air.

a) q s ( loss ) = 33600 – 640 ( 3.413 ) – 18 ( 250 ) = 26916 Btu/h loss


b) t db = 75°F (selected), D.P. = 40°F, ∴φ = 28%; W r = 0.0052
60
c) 26916 = 1.08 cfm ( 95 – 75 ); cfm = 1246 × ---------- = 5497 lb/h
13.6
Mw ( 18 ) ( 200 ) ( 1070 )
W s = W r – ---------- = 0.0052 – ------------------------------------------ = 0.0046
M da 5497
φ s = 14% max

11.19 A zone in a building has a sensible load of 20.5 kW


(70,000 Btu/h) and a latent load of 8.8 kW (30,000
Btu/h). The zone is to be maintained at 25°C (77°F) and
50% RH.
a. Calculate the conditions (t and W) of the entering air
to the zone if the air leaves the coil saturated.

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b. What flow rate is required in order to maintain the
space temperatures?
c. If a mixture of 50% return air and 50% outdoor air at
36.1°C (97°F) and 60% RH enters the air condi-
tioner, what is the refrigeration load?

70000
a) SHR = ------------------------------------ = 0.70
70000 + 30000
Using protractor on Psych. chart: t = 49°F db, W = 0.0074 at 100% RH
b) q s = M da ( 0.244 ) ( 77 – 49 ) = 70000; M da = 10246 lb/h
c) r: 77°F db, 50% RH; W r = 0.010, h r = 29.4
OA: 97°F db, 60% RH; W OA = 0.023, h OA = 48.7
m: W m = 0.5 ( 0.01 ) + 0.5 ( 0.023 ) ; h m = 0.5 ( 29.4 ) + 0.5 ( 48.7 )
W m = 0.0165 ; h m = 39.05
s: 49°F db, 100% RH; W s = 0.0074, h s = 19.8
M da [ h m – h s – ( W m – W s )h f49° ] = – q
q = – 10246 [ 39.05 – 19.8 – ( 0.0165 – 0.0074 )17 ]
= – 195650 Btu/h = – 57.3 kW
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 11—Air-Conditioning System Concepts⏐149

11.20 Sketch (with line diagrams) and list the advan-


tages, disadvantages, and typical uses of the following
systems:
a. Fan-coil units
b. Terminal reheat system
c. Multizone system
d. Double-duct system
e. Variable volume system
f. Induction system

a) Article 12.8.1
b) Article 12.3.1
c) Article 12.5
d) Article 12.4
e) Article 12.3.2
f) Article 12.7.2

11.21 A general office building in St. Louis, Missouri, has


a winter sensible space heating load of 1,150,000 Btu/h for
design conditions of 75 and −5°F. The heating system
operates with 25% outside air mixed with return air.
a. Schematically draw the flow diagram and label,
including temperatures and flow rates at each loca-
tion.
b. Specify the necessary furnace size.

Note: different outside design conditions may be selected.


a)

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1150000
CFM s = --------------------------------- = 19000 scfm
1.1 ( 130 – 75 )

b) Qf = 19000(1.10)(130 – 55) = 1,570,000 Btu/h = 460 kW

11.22 For the building of Problem 11.21, determine:


a. Annual energy requirements for heating, Btu
b. Annual fuel cost using No. 2 fuel oil at $1.60/gal.

H L × DD × 24 1570000 × 4900 × 24 9
a) E = ---------------------------------- × C D = --------------------------------------------------- × 0.6 = 1.385 × 10 Btu
Δt × k × v ( 75 – ( – 5 ) ) × 1 × 1
= 405800 kWh
9
1.385 × 10 Btu
b) Cost = ------------------------------------- × $1.60/gal = $17600
126000 Btu/gal
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150⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

11.23 To provide comfort conditions for a general office Summer: Sensible space heat gain is 101,200 Btu/h
building, 38 ft by 80 ft by 8 ft, an air-treating unit consist- at design conditions. Latent load is due entirely to the
ing of cooling coil, heating coil, and humidifier is occupancy. The minimum supply air temperature from
provided for this space with the flow diagram as shown. the cooling coil is 58°F.
Ninety people are normally employed doing light a. Determine the fan size (scfm) needed to provide
work while seated. The building is in Kansas City, sufficient air
Missouri. Fan operation is constant all year long. b. Size the heating unit needed, Btu/h
Winter: Sensible space heat loss is 189,000 Btu/h at c. Size the cooling coil needed, Btu/h
design conditions, latent load is negligible. Maximum d. Size the humidifier, gal/h
supply air temperature is 155°F.

Summer design Inside: 78°F, 60% RH (max); W rmax = 0.0124


Outside: 96°Fdb, 74°Fwb; 20° range; W O = 0.013
Winter design Inside: 72°F, 25% RH (min); W rmin = 0.0042
Outside: 6°F, W O = 0.001074, h O = 2.583
Ventilation air General office: 15 cfm/person × 90 = 1350 cfm

a) Q s, w = 189000 = 1.10 ( scfm ) ( 155 – 72 ) ⇒ SCFM = 2070


Q s, s = 101200 = 1.10 ( scfm ) ( 78 – 58 ) ⇒ SCFM = 4600
use 4600 cfm
Q s, w = 189000 = 1.10 ( 4600 ) ( T s – 72 ) ⇒ T s, w = 109.4°F

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b) Winter SCFM on T OA + SCFM r T r = SCFM T T m
1350 ( 6 ) + 3250 ( 72 ) = 4600 T m ; T m = 52.6°F
SCFM O W O + SCFM ⋅ W r = SCFM T W m
1350 ( 0.001074 ) + 3250 ( 0.0042 ) = 4600 W m ; W m = 0.0033
Q s = 4600 ( 1.10 ) ( 109.4 – 52.6 ) = 287400 Btu/h
Q L = 4600 ( 4840 ) ( 0.0042 – 0.0033 ) = 20000 Btu/h
Furnace size = 307400 Btu/h ( say 300000 )
c) Summer s: T s = 58°F, φ s = 100%, W s = 0.0104, h s = 25.2
Ms 90 ( 255 ) ⁄ 1100
r: T r = 78°F, W r = W s + ------- = 0.0104 + ------------------------------------ = 0.0114
Ma 60
46000 × ----------
13.3
m: 1350 ( 0.013 ) + 3250 ( 0.0114 ) = 4600 W m ;W m = 0.0119
1350 ( 96 ) + 3250 ( 78 ) = 4600 T m ;T m = 83.3°F h m = 33.2
M a [ h m – h s – ( W m – W s )h f ] + Q c = 0
4600
------------ ( 60 ) [ 33.2 – 25.2 – ( 0.0119 – 0.0104 )26 ] = – Q c
13.3
Q c = – 165200 Btu/h A/C size
4600 60 1
d) M c = ------------ × ---------- ( 0.0042 – 0.0033 ) = 2.24 or 2 ------------- Humidifier
13.3 8.33 4 gph
* Note: different outside design conditions may be selected.
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Chapter 11—Air-Conditioning System Concepts⏐151

11.24 A view of the air-conditioning system for a build- 1. Supply airflow, lb/h
ing in Denver, Colorado (elevation = 5000 ft; barometric 2. Supply airflow, cfm
pressure = 12.23 psi), is given. Outside air at the rate of
3. Relative humidity at return, %
2500 cfm is required for ventilation. Other conditions at
summer design are 4. Size of cooling unit, Btu/h
Space Loads 5. Latent component of (4)
Sensible = 410,000 Btu/h 6. Sensible component of (4)
Latent = 220,000 Btu/h
7. Sensible cooling load due to outside air, Btu/h
Outside Air: 91°F, 30% RH
For an indoor design temperature of 78°F, determine

410000
1. Q s = m a c p ( t r – t s ) ⇒ m a = ------------------------------------ = 73060 lb/h
0.244 ( 78 – 55 )
73060
2. v· = m a v = --------------- × 13.33 = 16230 cfm @ s: P w = P w, s = 0.2141
60
0.2141
W s = 0.622 ------------------------------ = 0.0110
12.28 – 2.41
h s = 0.24 ( 58 ) + 0.011 ( 1061 + 0.444 – 59 ) = 25.23
Q L ⁄ 1100 220000 ⁄ 1100
3. W r = W s + ----------------------- = 0.0110 + ---------------------------------- = 0.01874 lb v ⁄ lb a ; P w, s = 0.47511 psia
Ma 73060

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Pw Pw 0.26432
w = 0.622 ---------------- = 0.01374 = 0.622 -------------------------- ⇒ P w = 0.26432 psia ; φ = ------------------- × 110 = 55.6%
P – Pw 12.23 – P w 0.47511
h r = 0.240 ( 78 ) + 0.01374 ( 1061 + 0.444 × 78 ) = 33.74
4. m O = 2500 × 60 ⁄ 13.33 = 11250 lb/h ; P w = 0.72113 ; P w = 0.30 ( 0.72113 ) = 0.21634
1 s0 10

0.21634
W O = 0.622 --------------------------------------- = 0.0112 ;h o = 0.240 ( 91 ) + 0.0112 ( 1061 + 0.444 × 91 ) = 34.18
12.23 – 0.21634
h m = [ ( 11250 ) ( 34.18 ) + ( 73060 – 11250 ) ( 33.74 ) ] ⁄ 73060 = 33.80 Btu/lb a
W m = [ ( 11250 ) ( 0.0112 ) + ( 73060 – 11250 ) ( 0.01374 ) ] ⁄ 73060 = 0.1335 lb v ⁄ lb a
m a [ h m – h s – ( W m – W s )h c ] + Q c = 0
73060 [ 33.80 – 25.23 – ( 0.01335 – 0.0110 ) ( 23.07 ) ] = – Q c = 622200 Btu/h
5. Q L ≅ 4840 × CFM × ΔW = 4840 × 16230 × ( 0.01335 – 0.0110 ) = 184600 Btu/h
c

6. 33.80 – 0.240 ( t ) + 0.01335 ( 1061 + 0.444 ⋅ t ) ⇒ t m = 79.8°F


Q s ≅ 1.10 × CFM × Δt = 1.10 × 16230 × ( 79.8 – 55 ) = 443500 Btu/h
c

or Q s = Q T – Q L = 622200 – 184600 = 437600 Btu/h


c

7. Q s ≅ 1.10 × 2500 × ( 91 – 78 ) = 35750 Btu/h


o
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Solutions to

Chapter 12
SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS

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Chapter 12—System Configurations⏐155

12.1 From an energy consumption perspective, list the


four fundamental psychrometric system types from least
consumption to most consumption.

1. Variable - air - volume


2. Heat - cool - off
3. Dual stream
4. Reheat

12.2 In a VAV system with series fan powered terminals,


why must all of the terminal fans be running prior to turn-
ing on the system fan?

If the main fan is blowing air through the terminal fans,


they will turn in the wrong direction. They, being single
phase motors, will run in the direction they are turning
when turned on, thus running backwards.

12.3 What is the advantage of a parallel fan powered


terminal over a series fan-powered terminal?

Less energy consumption, because the fan


does not have to run continuously.

12.4 What is the purpose of using a fan powered terminal


in a variable air volume system?

Provides better mixing, ambient air circulation,


and air distribution. Prevents dumping. All as the
primary supply air throttles down.

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12.5
a. Why do some VAV systems also use dual-duct or
reheat features?
b. In your own words, describe the operating sequence
of the zone or terminal control of
1. A VAV system
2. A VAV reheat system
3. A dual-duct VAV system

a) 1) The dual duct or reheat provides false loading, which keeps the airflow high enough
to assure adequate ventilation and air circulation rate.
2) A VAV system alone cannot handle a heating load.
b) 1) VAV system: As the space cooling load decreases, the space thermostat closes a supply air
damper, reducing the flow of conditioned air to the space. Most systems have a lower limit
setting to assume adequate ventilation and air circulation, below which there is no room
temperature control.
2) VAV reheat system: Similar to (1) above except that when the load falls below the minimum
airflow setting, the reheat valve opens and reheats the minimum volume flow air to prevent
overcooling and maintain room temperature control at all times.
3) Dual-duct VAV system: Similar to (1) above except that when the load falls below the
minimum airflow setting, the warm duct damper starts modulating open mixing warm air
with the conditioned air in increasing amounts to prevent overcooling and
maintaining temperature control at all times.
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156⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

12.6 What is the primary advantage of a separate outdoor


makeup air conditioning unit?

The outdoor air make-up air-conditoning unit (primary air unit [12.6.1])
provides a constant volume of outdoor ventilating air and is used in conjunction
with VAV systems. It also simplifies the design of the system for the space with
no outside air entering the space conditioning unit there is danger of freezing,
no ventilation control dampers, no return air fan, and the cooling coil usually
operates dry, reducing the likelihood of microbial growth in the system.

12.7 Why is a high-pressure primary system fan required


with an induction system?

Because there is a high pressure required to create


the high velocity flow through the induction nozzles.

12.8 Are fan coil units with connections to the outdoors


recommended as an acceptable method for providing
ventilation air? Why?

No. Because when the room thermostat turns the fan coil unit off, untreated
ventilation air can enter the sapce, causing discomfort and sometimes freeze damage
or microbial growth. Also, the quantitiy of ventilation air is not controllable because
of varying pressure differentials resulting from chimney effects and wind variations.

12.9 Why are vertical floor mounted fan coil units


recommended in some applications in preference to hori-
zontal ceiling mounted units? Explain.

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Vertical units can be mounted under windows in extremely cold climates,
providing better heating performance, and horizontal models overhead and
above ceilings can create problems related to condensate collection and disposal,
mixing of return air from other rooms, leakage of pans causing damage to ceilings,
difficulty of access for maintenance and service, and IAQ concerns.

12.10 Size the basic components and sketch the equip-


ment arrangement if the HVAC system now under consid-
eration for the building of Example 12.1 is a triple deck
multizone (hot, cold, and neutral decks).

This is a design problem and many solutions can be found.

12.11 Size the basic components and sketch the equip-


ment arrangement if the HVAC system now under consid-
eration for the building of Example 12.1 is a variable
volume, dual fan, dual duct.

This is a design problem and many solutions can be found.


Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
© (2009), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org).
For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is
not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 12—System Configurations⏐157

12.12 A small single-zone classroom building is being


designed for Knoxville, Tennessee, to use the HVAC
system shown in the sketch. Minimum outside air for
meeting the ventilation requirements of the anticipated
550 occupants will be maintained throughout the year.
Fan speed will be changed between summer and winter.
The duct system will be designed so that at summer air
flow rate the pressure drop does not exceed 3.75 in. w.g.
At winter design conditions, the air is heated to 130°F at
which temperature it is supplied to the conditioned space.
The winter conditioning unit includes both a heating coil
and a humidifier supplied with city water at 60°F. The
humidistat in the return air steam maintains the design
relative humidity of 30% in winter. During summer oper-
ation, the cooling coil supplied air to the conditioned
space at 58°F. The space design loads are
Summer: 423,000 Btu/h sensible (gain)
139,000 Btu/h latent (gain)
Winter: 645,000 Btu/h sensible (loss)
negligible latent Unit Physical Data (Approximate)
Size the following system components: Unit Design Unit Coil Max Unit
2 Size cfm Face Area*, ft2 Wt., lb
a. Cooling coil, Btu/h and ft of face area
3 1,660 2.34 – 3.32
b. Chiller unit, Btu/h
6 2,930 4.31 – 5.86
c. Heating coil, Btu/h and ft2 of face area 8 3,770 5.49 – 7.54
d. Boiler, Btu/h 10 4,820 7.01 – 9.64
e. Humidifier, gph 12 6,150 9.46 – 12.3
≤ 3,600
14 7,110 10.2 – 14.2
Select an appropriate air handler from the following
17 8,400 12.3 – 16.8
data.
21 10,390 15.0 – 20.8
Winter 25 12,190 17.8 – 24.4
30 14,505 21.2 – 29.0

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Dry Bulb, Enthalpy h, W, ma,
Point φ, % SCFM
35 17,050 26.72 – 34.10
°F Btu/lb lb/lb lb/h
40 19,650 30.78 – 39.30 ≤ 4,500
OA 3 100 1.699 .00092 37200 550×15=8250 *
50 24,715 34.22 – 49.43
r 72 30 22.7 .005 8400 1850 66 32,815 48.13 – 65.63
≤ 6,000
10100 80 39,375 56.88 – 78.75
m 16 94 5.57 .0017 45600 (all modules)
100 50,180 73.44 – 100.4
s 130 5.3 36.8 .005 45600 10100
* Actual face area varies with unit coil type.

* Other outdoor design conditions could be used.

Pw 0.119
W s = 0.005 = 0.622 ----------------------- ; P w = 0.119 ; P w, s = 2.2256 ; φ = ---------------- × 100 = 5.3
14.7 – P w 2.2256
h s = 0.240 ( 130 ) + 0.005 [ 1061 + 0.444 ( 130 ) ] = 36.79
Q s = 645000 = 0.244M a ( 130 – 72 ) ; M a = 45600 lb/h = 10100 cfm
37200 ( 1.699 ) + 8400 ( 22.7 )
h m = ------------------------------------------------------------------- = 5.57
45600
37200 ( 0.00092 ) + 8400 ( 0.005 ) Pw
w m = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.00167 = 0.622 ----------------------- ; P w = 0.039
45600 14.7 – P w
37200 ( 3 ) + 8400 ( 72 ) 0.039
t m = ---------------------------------------------------- = 15.7°F; P w, s = 0.042 ; φ = ------------- 100 = 94%
45600 0.042
45600 [ 36.8 – 5.57 – ( 0.0017 – 0.005 ) ( 60 – 32 ) ] + Q h = 0 ; Q h = 1428000 Btu/h Problem 12.12
M h = ( 45600 ( 0.005 – 0.0017 ) ) ⁄ 8.33 = 18 gph continued on
next page.
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is
not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
158⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

Problem 12.12 continued.


Summer
Dry Bulb, Enthalpy h, W, ma,
Point φ, % SCFM
°F Btu/lb lb/lb lb/h
OA 91 48 38.5 .0151 37200 8250
r 78 58 32.0 .0120 49500 11050
m 83.6 53 34.8 .0133 86700 19300
f 85.9 49 35.4 .0133 86700 19300
s 58 100 25.1 .0105 86700 19300

Q s = 423000 = 0.244M a ( 78 – 58 ) ;to M a = 86700 lb/h


( 139000 ⁄ 1100 )
W r = 0.0105 + -------------------------------------- = 0.0120
86700
W m = [ 37200 ( 0.0151 ) + 49500 ( 0.0120 ) ] ⁄ 86700 = 0.0133 lb/lb
h m = [ 37200 ( 38.5 ) + 49500 ( 32 ) ] ⁄ 86700 = 34.8 Btu/lb
t m = [ 37200 ( 91 ) + 49500 ( 78 ) ] ⁄ 86700 = 93.6°F
W fan = 19300 ( 3.75 ) ( 0.0361 ) ( 144 )60 ⁄ 778 = 29000 Btu/h
29000
Assume R f = 60% W fan = --------------- = 48300 Btu/h = 19 hp or 0.56 Btu/lb
0.6
h f = 34.8 + 0.56 = 35.4 Δt = 2.3°F
86700 [ 35.4 – 25.1 – ( 0.0133 – 0.0105 )26 ] + Q c = 0 ;Q c = – 887000 Btu/h
Select 600 fpm face velocity
19300 2
A = --------------- = 32 ft Unit Size 40
600

12.13 A double duct system is to be used for air condi-


tioning of a two-zone building. At winter design outdoor
temperature of 0°F, exterior SPACE 1 has a design sensi-

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ble heat loss of 112,000 Btu/h while interior SPACE 2 has
a net sensible heat gain of 23,500 Btu/h. At summer
design outdoor conditions of 95°F db and 75°F wb,
SPACE 1 has a design sensible heat gain of 67,000 Btu/h
while SPACE 2 experiences a design sensible heat gain of 112000
Winter: CFM 1 = ------------------------------------ = 1850
49,000 Btu/h. Interior design temperatures of both spaces 1.10 ( 130 – 75 )
is 75°F, all year long. Duct pressure drop is 3.1 in. water. 23500
Outside air requirement is 1400 cfm. CFM 2 = --------------------------------- = 1260
1.10 ( 75 – 58 )
Calculate the size of 67000
a. Fan (scfm, pressure, motor horsepower) Summer: CFM 1 = --------------------------------- = 3580
1.10 ( 75 – 58 )
b. Heating coil (Btu/h).
49000
CFM 2 = --------------------------------- = 2620
1.10 ( 75 – 58 )
6200 ( 3.1 ) ( 62.4 ) ( 60 )
a) FAN: hp = v· ΔP = --------------------------------------------------- = 3 hp 6200 SCFM 3.1 in. Hg
( 12 )778 ( 2545 )
b) 1.10 ⋅ x 1 ( 130 – 75 ) = 112000 + 1.10 ( 3580 – x 1 ) ( 75 – 58 ) ;to 60.5x 1 = 112000 + 66950 – 18.7x 1
x 1 = 2259 cfm
1.10 ⋅ x 2 ( 130 – 75 ) = – 23500 + 1.10 ( 2620 – x 2 ) ( 75 – 58 ) ;to 60.5x 2 = – 23500 + 48994 – 18.7x 2
x 2 = 322 cfm
CFM Hc = 2259 + 322 = 2581
4800 ( 75 ) + 1400 ( 0 ) 3 ( 2545 )
t m = ------------------------------------------------- = 58.2 ; t f = 58.2 + -------------------------------------------------------- = 58.3°F
6200 ( 0.24 )6200 ( 60 ) ⁄ 13.33
Q Hc = 1.10 × 2581 ⋅ ( 130 – 58.3 ) = 200000 Btu/h
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
© (2009), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org).
For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is
not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 12—System Configurations⏐159

12.14 To maintain necessary close control of humidity


and temperature required for a computer room, the reheat
air-conditioning system shown in the sketch is used.
Space loads for the computer room include a heat load of
85,000 Btu/h and a moisture load of 42 lb/h. The return air
conditions from the space must be exactly 50% relative
humidity and 78°F. After mixing of the outside ventila-
tion air with return air, the mixed air is at 80°F dry bulb
with a relative humidity of 0.0114 lb/lb. The air is then
cooled to saturation at 50°F by the cooling coil. There is
a 2°F temperature rise across the fan. Air flow is
controlled by a humidistat in the return air duct. The ther-
mostat controls the temperature leaving the reheater.
Size the reheater (kW) and the cooling coil (Btu/h).
From a manufacturer’s catalog, select an appropriate elec-
tric resistance reheater coil. From a manufacturer's cata-
log, select an appropriate chilled water cooling coil.

RETURN AIR CONDITION:


p v, s @ 78°F = 0.475 psia
RH/100 = 0.5 = p v ⁄ p v, s = p v ⁄ 0.475
p v = 0.3375
W r = 0.622p v ⁄ ( p – p v ) = 0.622 ( 0.3375 ) ⁄ ( 14.7 – 0.3375 ) = 0.0102 lb v ⁄ lb a
h r = 0.24t + Wh g = 0.240 + 0.0102 ( 1095.5 ) = 29.91 Btu/lb
[ Note: Psychrometric properties could also have been obtained from the Psychrometric chart. ]

MIXED AIR CONDITION:


80°F, W m = 0.0114 lb v ⁄ lb a

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h m = 0.240 ( 80 ) + 0.0102 ( 1096.4 ) = 31.7 Btu/lb
CONDITION OF AIR LEAVING COOLING COIL:
50°F, RH = 100%; p v = p v, s = 0.178 psia
W cc = 0.622 ( 0.178 ) ⁄ ( 14.7 – 0.178 ) = 0.00762 lb v ⁄ lb a
h cc = 0.240 ( 50 ) + 0.00762 ( 1083.3 ) = 20.25 Btu/lb
SUPPLY AIR CONDITION:
W s = W f = W cc = 0.00762 lb v ⁄ lb a
m a = m s ⁄ ( W r – W s ) = 42 ⁄ ( 0.0102 – 0.00762 ) = 16300 lb/h
t s = t r – Q ⁄ [ m a c p ], where c p = 0.244 Btu/lb °F for moist air
78 – 85000 ⁄ ( 0.244 ) ( 16300 ) = 56.6°F
COIL SIZES (RATINGS)
Q cc = – 16300 [ 31.7 – 20.25 – ( 0.0114 – 0.00762 ) ( 18 ) ] = – 185500 Btu/h
Q rh = 16300 ( 0.244 ) ( 56.6 – 52 ) = 18300 Btu/hr = 5.4 kW (can probably get by with 5 kW heater)
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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160⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

12.15 A small commercial building located in St. Louis, Zone 2 (an interior space)
Missouri is to be conditioned using a variable air volume Winter inside temperature = 78°F
(VAV) system with reheat, as shown in the following Winter design heat loss = 40,000 Btu/h (a gain)
sketch. At this stage of the process, preliminary sizing of Summer inside temperature = 78°F
the central cooling unit, of the reheaters, and of the fan Summer design heat gains = 220,000 Btu/h (sensible)
(scfm) is to take place. There are four zones (separately and 71,000 Btu/h (latent)
thermostated spaces) in the building. Supply air from the Zone 3 (an interior space)
cooling coil is maintained at 55°F during the summer and Winter inside temperature = 78°F
58°F during the winter. Relative humidity off the coil is Winter design heat loss = 115,000 Btu/h (a gain)
approximately 90% in both cases. Minimum outside air Summer inside temperature = 78°F
of 4000 scfm is maintained at all times (just don’t ask Summer design heat gains = 140,000 Btu/h (sensible)
how). The VAV boxes are not to be cut back beyond 50% and 42,000 Btu/h (latent)
of rated flow. The design conditions and calculated Zone 4
design load for each zone are as follow: Winter inside temperature = 72°F
Zone 1 Winter design heat loss = −180,000 Btu/h (a loss)
Winter inside temperature = 72°F Summer inside temperature = 78°F
Winter design heat loss = −55,000 Btu/h (a loss) Summer design heat gains = 210,000 Btu/h (sensible)
Summer inside temperature = 78°F and 52,500 Btu/h (latent)
Summer design heat gains = 124,000 Btu/h (sensible)
and 31,000 Btu/h (latent)
1. Determine required airflow rates [ Q s = 1.10 × CFM s × Δt ]
124000
CFM 1 = --------------------------------- = 4901
1.10 ( 78 – 55 )
220000
CFM 2 = --------------------------------- = 8696
1.10 ( 78 – 55 )
140000 115000
CFM 3 = --------------------------------- = 5534 [check CFM 3 = --------------------------------- = 5288]
1.10 ( 78 – 55 ) 1.10 ( 78 – 58 )
210000
CFM 4 = --------------------------------- = 8300
1.10 ( 78 – 55 )
FAN → 27431 SCFM ⇒ 123750 lb/h
2. Summer (55°F, 90%)
Σm w

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( 31000 + 71000 + 42000 + 51500 ) ⁄ 1100
W r = W s + ----------- = 0.0083 + ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.0097
ma 123750
t r = 78°F ⇒ φ r = 48% [Plenty low, could reset t s to higher value]
t m = [ 4000 ( 94 ) + ( 27431 – 4000 ) ( 78 ) ] ⁄ 27431 = 80.3
W m = [ 4000 ( 0.0144 ) + ( 27431 – 4000 ) ( 0.0097 ) ] ⁄ 27431 = 0.0104
Q cc = 27431 [ 1.10 ( 80.3 – 55 ) + 4840 ( 0.0104 – 0.0083 ) ] = 27431 [ 27.83 + 10.16 ] = 1042000 Btu/h
Cooling coil → 1042 Mbh
* Note:Other outdoor design conditions could be selected.
3. Winter reheater discharge temperature
55000
( t m ) 1 = 72 + ----------------------------------------- = 92.4°F
1.10 ( 4901 × 0.5 )
– 40000
( t m ) 2 = 78 + ----------------------------------------- = 69.6°F
1.10 ( 8696 × 0.5 )
– 115000
( t m ) 3 = 78 + ----------------------------------------- = 40.2°F < 58 ∴ no reheating
1.10 ( 5534 × 0.5 )
180000
( t m ) 4 = 72 + ----------------------------------------- = 111.4°F
1.10 ( 8300 × 0.5 )
REHEATERS
( Q m ) 1 = 1.10 ( 4901 × 0.5 ) ( 92.4 – 58 ) = 93000 Btu/h
( Q m ) 2 = 1.10 ( 8696 × 0.5 ) ( 69.6 – 58 ) = 55700 Btu/h
( Qm )3 = 0 none needed
( Q m ) 4 = 1.10 ( 8300 × 0.5 ) ( 111.4 – 58 ) = 244000 Btu/h
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
© (2009), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org).
For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is
not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 12—System Configurations⏐161

12.16 A commercial three zone office building is being Summer


designed for St. Louis, Missouri where summer outdoor Zone 1: 116,000 Btu/h sensible, 43,000 Btu/h latent
design conditions are 94°F db and 75°F wb and winter (gains)
outdoor design conditions are 3°F and 100% RH. Each Zone 2: 290,000 Btu/h Sensible, 59,000 Btu/h Latent
zone is to contain 10,000 sq ft of floor space. A blow-thru (gains)
Zone 3: 190,000 Btu/h sensible, 39,000 Btu/h latent
multizone unit will be used with cold deck temperature
(gains)
maintained at 58°F all year long and with hot deck
temperature varying from a maximum of 130°F at winter Winter
design to 85°F during the summer. The amount of outside Zone 1: −215,000 Btu/h sensible (loss), negligible
air is to equal the recommended 20 cfm per person in latent
accordance with ASHRAE Standard 62-1989. Design Zone 2: 110,000 Btu/h sensible (gain), negligible
latent
occupancy is to be 10 people per 1000 ft2 of floor area.
Zone 3: −171,000 Btu/h sensible (loss), negligible
The duct system will be designed so that the pressure drop latent
does not exceed 2.0 in. w.g. Fan efficiency is estimated at
65%. In winter, the control humidistat in the common Conduct the preliminary sizing of the fan (scfm and
return air duct is set at 30% RH. Due to the building orien- horsepower), cooling coil (scfm and Btu/h), heating coil
tation and internal zoning, all spaces will experience their (scfm and Btu/h), and humidifier (gal/h). Provide a
peak loads at the same time. The space design loads at completely labeled sketch of the system.
indoor design temperatures of 78°F summer and 72°F
winter are

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USE
116000 215000
CFM 1s = --------------------------------- = 5270 CFM 1w = ------------------------------------ = 3370 CFM = 5270
1.10 ( 78 – 58 ) 1.10 ( 130 – 72 )
290000 110000
CFM 2s = --------------------------------- = 13180 CFM 2w = --------------------------------- = 5000 CFM = 13180
1.10 ( 78 – 58 ) 1.10 ( 72 – 58 )
190000 171000
CFM 3s = --------------------------------- = 8640 CFM 3w = ------------------------------------ = 2620 CFM = 8640
1.10 ( 78 – 58 ) 1.10 ( 130 – 72 )
Fan CFM = 27090
27090
M a = --------------- 60 = 122000 lb/h
13.33
27090 ( 2 ) ( 0.0361 )144 ( 60 )
W = ----------------------------------------------------------------- = 13.1 Hp
778 ( 0.65 )2545
Summer t o = 94 ;to W o = 0.0144 ;to t r = 78 ;to t s = 58, φ s = 100% (max) ⇒ W s = 0.0104
( 43000 + 59000 + 39000 ) ⁄ 1100
W r = 0.0104 + ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ = 0.0115 and 78° ⇒ φ r ≅ 55% ok
122000
6000 ( 94 ) + 21090 ( 78 ) 6000 ( 0.0144 ) + 21090 ( 0.0115 )
t m = ------------------------------------------------------- = 81.5°F W m = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.0121
27090 27090
13.1 ( 2545 )
t f = 81.5 + ------------------------------------ = 82.6°F W f = 0.0121
122000 ( 0.244 )
CFM cc ( max ) = 27090 ( since all zones peak at same time ) Problem 12.16
continued on
Q cc = 27090 [ 1.10 ( 82.6 – 58 ) + 4840 ( 0.0121 – 0.0104 ) ] = 956000 Btu/h next page.
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is
not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
162⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

Problem 12.16 continued.

Winter zone 1 1.10CFMh1 ( 130 – 72 ) = 215000 + 1.10 ( 5270 – CFM h1 ) ( 72 – 58 ) ; CFMh1 = 3739
zone 2 1.10CFMh2 ( 130 – 72 ) = 1.10 ( 13180 – CFM h2 ) ( 72 – 58 ) – 110000 ; CFM h2 = 1174
zone 3 1.10CFMh3 ( 130 – 72 ) = 171000 + 1.10 ( 8640 – CFM h3 ) ( 72 – 58 ) ; CFMh3 = 3839
CFM h = 8752
6000 ( 3 ) + 21090 ( 72 )
t m = ---------------------------------------------------- = 56.7 ; t f = 56.7 + 1.1 = 57.8°F
27090
Humidification: W o = 0.00092 ( 3°, 100% ) ; W r = 0.005 ( 72 ;to 30% )
6000 ( 60 ) 1
M c = ----------------------- ( 0.005 – 0.00092 ) = 100 lb/h ÷ 8 --- = 13gph
13.33 3
Q h = 110 ( 1076 ) + 1.10 ( 8752 ) ( 130 – 57.8 ) = 118400 + 695100 = 813500 Btu/h
c

* Note: Other outdoor design conditions could be selected.

12.17 An air-conditioning unit takes in 2000 cfm of


outside air at 95°F dry bulb and 76°F wet bulb, and 6000
cfm of return air at 78°F dry bulb and 50% RH. The
conditioned air leaves the chilled water coil at 52°F dry
bulb and 90% RH.
a. What is the refrigeration load on the chiller in tons?
b. Assume the conditioned air were reheated to 58.5°F
dry bulb with electric heaters. What would be the
operating cost of these heaters at 2.5 cents per kWh?

OA: 95°Fdb, 76°Fwb, 2000 cfm; W = 0.015, h = 39.4, v = 14.3 ; m· = 8392 lb/h

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r: 78°Fdb, 50% RH, 6000 cfm; W = 0.0102, h = 30.0, v = 13.8 ; m· = 26087 lb/h
s: 52°Fdb, 90% RH, W = 0.00745, h = 20.6, v = 13.07 ; m· = 34479 lb/h
m: 8392 ( 0.015 ) + 26087 ( 0.0102 ) = 34479 W m ; W m = 0.0114 lb/h
h m = 32.3, t m = 82°F
a) m da [ h m – h s – ( W m – W s )h f ] = q c
c

34479 [ 32.3 – 20.6 – ( 0.0114 – 0.00745 ) ( 20 ) ] = q c


q c = 400680 Btu/h = 33.4 tons
b) q rh = m da c p ( t rh – t s ) = 34479 ( 0.244 ) ( 58.5 – 52 ) = 52160 Btu/h = 15.3 kW
Cost = 15.3 ( 0.025 ) = 38 cents/hour
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
© (2009), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org).
For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is
not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 12—System Configurations⏐163

12.18 In Problem 12.17, assume 2000 cfm of return air


bypasses the chilled water coil and is used for reheat.
a. How does the final condition of the air compare with
the reheated air in part (b) of 12.1?
b. Comment on the ability of the leaving air to absorb
latent load in the conditioned space.

(---------------------------
4000 ) ( 60 )-
= 17391 lb/h
13.8
(---------------------------
2000 ) ( 60 -)
= 8696 lb/h
13.8

m: 8392 ( 0.015 ) + 17391 ( 0.0102 ) = 25783 W m ; W m = 0.0118


8392 ( 39.4 ) + 17391 ( 30 ) = 25783 h m ; h m = 33.06
rh: 8696 ( 30 ) + 25783 ( 20.6 ) = 34479 h rh ; h rh = 22.97
8696 ( 0.0102 ) + 25783 ( 0.00745 ) = 34479 W rh ; W rh = 0.0081
t rh = 58°F
W = 0.0081 compared to 0.00745 for 2.11(b), ∴ can absorb less latent load in conditioned space.

12.19 For the building and reheat system shown below, Latent design loads (moisture produced)
determine Space 1: 38 lb/h
a. Fan rating, scfm Space 2: 26 lb/h
b. Return air relative humidity at summer design
conditions, % Year-round: 10% by mass outside air required for
c. Size cooling coil, Btu/h ventilation.
d. Size reheat coils, Btu/h and scfm for each Conditions of cooling coil: 58°F, 90% RH.

Winter: Outside 6°F, W = 0.001; indoor 72°F,


no humidity control.

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Sensible design heating loads
Space 1: 162,000 Btu/h
Space 2: 143,000 Btu/h
Summer: Outdoor 95°F dry bulb, 78°F wet bulb;
indoor 78°F.
Sensible design cooling loads
Space 1: 64,500 Btu/h
Space 2: 55,000 Btu/h

64500 55000
SCFM 1 = --------------------------------- = 2932 SCFM 2 = --------------------------------- = 2500
1.10 ( 78 – 58 ) 1.10 ( 78 – 58 )
a. Fan SCFM = 2932 + 2500 = 5432 cfm ( = 24444 lb/h )
b. 24444 ( 0.0093 ) + 38 + 26 = 24444 W r ; W r = 0.0119 ; φ r, s ≅ 58%,h r, s = 31.8
av av

c. h m = 0.9 ( 31.8 ) + 0.1 ( 41.4 ) = 32.8


w m = 0.9 ( 0.0119 ) + 0.1 ( 0.0169 ) = 0.0124 t m = 80°F
5 ( 2545 )
t f = 80 + --------------------------- = 82.1°F; h f = 33.4
1.10 ( 5432 )
24444 [ 33.4 – 24 – ( 0.0124 – 0.0093 )26 ] + Q c = 0 ;to Q c = 228000 Btu/h
162000 143000
d. t s1 = 72 + --------------------------- = 122F; t s2 = 72 + --------------------------- = 124°F
1.10 ( 2932 ) 1.10 ( 2500 )
Q R = 2932 ( 1.10 ) ( 122 – 58 ) ; Q R = 2500 ( 1.10 ) ( 124 – 58 )
1 2

= 206400 Btu/h = 181500 Btu/h


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164⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

12.20 A basic reheat system has been retrofitted with an


improved control system. For the operating conditions
shown in the sketch below and with all thermostats set at
78°F, for what cooling coil discharge temperature T
should the logic system of the controller be calling if there
is no humidity override?

#1 81000 = 3900 × 1.10 × ( 78 – t s ) ; t s = 59.1°F


1

#2 149600 = 8500 × 1.10 × ( 78 – t s ) ; t s = 62.0°F


2

#3 30100 = 2100 × 1.10 × ( 78 – t s ) ; t s = 65.0°F


3

∴ Coil discharge temperature = 59.1°F

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Solutions to

Chapter 13
HYDRONIC HEATING AND
COOLING SYSTEM DESIGN

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Chapter 13—Hydronic Heating and Cooling System Design⏐167

13.1 What is the maximum temperature at which a heat-


ing water system can be operated if the boiler (hot water
generator) is rated as low pressure by the ASME Boiler
and Pressure Vessel Code?

From 13.1.2, maximum temperature is 250°F.

13.2 Sketch the fundamental components for a chilled-


water system with a single load and source, and a capacity
of 100 tons of cooling.
a. What is the water circulation rate (GPM) required if
the temperature range of the water is 12°F.
b. If the head loss in the system is 60 feet, and the pump
is 80% efficient, what is the pump horsepower?
Motor size?
c. If the motor is 90% efficient and it operates for one-
third of the total hours in the year, what is the annual
energy consumption of the pump?

a) q = GPM ( 500 ) ( Δt )
GPM = q ⁄ 500 ( Δt )
GPM = 100 ( 12000 ) ⁄ ( 500 × 12 ) = 200 gpm
GPM ( ΔH ) 200 ( 60 )
b) Hp = -------------------------- = ------------------------ = 3.79 hp
3960 η r 3960 ( 0.8 )
Motor Hp = 5 Hp
kW 1
c) Annual Energy (kWh) = Hp × hours × 0.746 -------- × -------
Hp η m

kWh = 3.79 × ⎛⎝ ------------⎞⎠ ( 0.746 ) ( 1 ⁄ 0.9 ) = 9173 kWh


8760
3

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13.3 Calculate the size of the expansion tank for a hot Supply water temperature 210°F
water heating system of 1,200,000 Btu/h heating capacity Ambient temperature 60°F
if the tank is a closed tank with an air/water interface and Fill pressure (at tank) 30 psig
the following system parameters are known: Max. operating pressure (at tank) 35 psig
System water volume 6,000 gallons
Steel piping system material
3
v 2 = v f @ 210°F = 0.01670 ft ⁄ lb
3
v 1 = v f @ 60°F = 0.01604 ft ⁄ lb
–6
α = 6.5 × 10 in./in.°F
Δt = 210 – 60 = 150°F
Pa = 14.7 psia
P 1 = 30 + 14.7 = 44.7 psia
P 2 = 35 + 14.7 = 49.7 psia
[ ( v 2 ⁄ v 1 ) – 1 ] – 3αΔt
V t = V s ---------------------------------------------------- (from Equation 13.12)
Pa ⁄ P 1 – Pa ⁄ P2
–6
[ 0.01670 ⁄ 0.01604 – 1 ] – 3 × 6.5 × 10 × ( 150 )
V t = 6000 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
( 14.7 ⁄ 44.7 ) – ( 14.7 ⁄ 49.7 )
V t = 6930 gallons
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168⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

13.4 What tank size diaphragm tank would be required


for the above system?

[ ( v 2 ⁄ v 1 ) – 1 ] – 3αΔt
From Equation 13.14 V t = V s ----------------------------------------------------
1 – P1 ⁄ P2
–6
[ ( 0.01670 ⁄ 0.01604 ) – 1 ] – 3 × 6.5 × 10 × 150
V t = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 – 44.7 ⁄ 49.7
V t = 2280 gallons

13.5 In a given chilled water system, the pump head


required at 640 gpm is 80 ft.
a. What is the system constant, Cs?
b. Plot the system curve from 0 to 800 gpm.

Q ΔH Q ΔH

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0 0 400 31.21
50 .49 450 39.50
100 1.95 500 48.77
150 4.39 550 59.01
From Equation 13.16
200 7.80 600 70.22
Q = C s ΔH 250 12.19 650 82.01
Q 640 gpm 300 17.56 700 95.58
C s = ------------ = ---------- = 71.6 ----------
ΔH 80 ft 350 23.90 750 108.72
2
ΔH = ( Q ⁄ 71.6 ) 800 124.84
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Chapter 13—Hydronic Heating and Cooling System Design⏐169

13.6 In a chilled-water system, the pump is located in a est point in the system which will reduce to 5 psig when
basement equipment room with the expansion tank the water temperature reduces to 45°F.
connected to the pump suction. The pump is the lowest a. What operating pressures (p1, p2) should the expan-
point in the system and the highest point is a pipe in the sion tank be designed for?
penthouse, which is 115 feet above the pump. The b. What pump head is required?
dynamic head losses in the system are c. With the pump off and a cold (45°F) system, what is
Piping and fittings 30 ft the pressure at the pump suction? The pump dis-
Chiller 20 ft charge?
Control valve 10 ft d. With the pump on and a cold (45°F) system, what is
Cooling coil 10 ft the pressure at the pump suction? The pump dis-
charge?
When the system is filled (at 95°F ambient tempera-
ture) it is desired to have a pressure of 10 psig at the high-

P i = 10 psig @ 95°F
P f = 5 psig @ 45°F
3
P 2 = P t @ 95°F w = 62.05 lb/ft
3
P 1 = P t @ 45°F w = 62.42 lb/ft
62.05 ( 115 )
P 2 = 10 + w ( 115 ) = 10 + ---------------------------
144
P 2 = 59.5 psig ≈ 60 psig

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62.42 ( 115 )
P 1 = 5 + --------------------------- = 54.85 psig ≈ 55 psig
144
b) H = ΣH = 30 + 20 + 10 + 10 = 70 ft
c) Assume pressure at pump inlet equals the tank pressure.

(Pump off)

P x = P x = P 1 = 55 psig
2 1

d) P x = P 1 = 55 psig
1

P x = P x + wH = P x + 62.4 ⎛⎝ ---------⎞⎠
70
2 1 1 144
P x = 55 + 30.3 85 psig
2

13.7 In your own words, explain the difference between


a three-way control valve and a two-way control valve as
they affect the hydraulics of the system.

Both vary the flow (gpm) through the controlled load as they modulate. However, from the
system perspective, the three-way valve provides a constant flow variable Δt in the system
as it modulates and the two-way valve provides a variable flow as it modulates.
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170⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

13.8 A control valve is to be sized for a cooling coil with


a capacity of 30 tons of cooling. The water temperature
entering the coil is at 44°F with a 12°F Δt. It is determined
that the valve should have a pressure drop of 5 psi. What
is the required Cv of the valve?

GPM = C v ΔP

C v = GPM ⁄ ΔP
q = GPM ( 500 ) ( Δt )
8 360000
GPM = ------------------- = -------------------- = 60 gpm
500 ( Δt ) 500 ( 12 )
C v = 60 ⁄ Δ5 = 26.83

13.9 A section of 1 in. steel pipe in a 45°F chilled-water


system at 50 psig is in a pipe chase and is isolated between
two service valves. If the chase is at a temperature of 95°F
and the pipe reaches thermal equilibrium with the chase,
what will the final pressure in the pipe be?

( β – 3α )Δt
ΔP = ------------------------------------------------
5 ⁄ 4 ( D ⁄ ( EΔr ) ) + α
solving for 1 in. steel pipe
from Figure 13.28 ΔP @ 50°Δt = 1380 psi
P 2 = P 1 + ΔP
P 2 = 50 + 1380
P 2 = 1430 psig

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Solutions to

Chapter 14
UNITARY AND ROOM
AIR CONDITIONERS

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Chapter 14—Unitary and Room Air Conditioners⏐173

14.1 An air-cooled packaged air conditioning unit with a


hot water heating coil is to be used to condition a small
office suite in a high-rise office building. The unit has a
total cooling capacity of three tons of refrigeration, and
the power requirement to the compressor is 1 kW per ton
of cooling.
How many cfm of air must be brought into the
condenser from an ambient outdoor temperature of 95°F db
and 78°F wb if the condensing temperature is to be 115°F
with a 10°F approach to the leaving air temperature?

Total heat rejected = q rej


q rej = q ref + q motor

= 36,000 + ( 3 ) ( 3413 )
q rej = 46,239Btu/h

q rej = m· ( 0.241 ) ( 115 – 95 )


46,239
m· = -------------------------------------------------------
( 60 ) ( 0.241 ) ( 115 – 95 )
m· = 319.77 lb/min

CFM = m × v
v = 14.37 ft 3 /lb ( at 95°F db and 78°F wb )

CFM = ( 319.77 ) ( 14.37 )


CFM = 4595.12 ft 3 /min

14.2 If the ductwork supplying the air to and from the


condenser section in Problem 14.1 were sized for a veloc-

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ity of 800 ft/min, what would be the cross-sectional area
of the ductwork?
a. From the outdoors to the condenser?
b. From the condenser back to the outdoors?

a.)
A i = CFM i /v
= 4595.12/800
A i = 5.74 ft 2

b.) In passing through the condenser coil, the air


would be heated a a constant humidity ratio. Air at 95°F
db and 78°F wb (w = 117.49 gr/lb) heated to 115°F db has
a final specific volume (v) of 14.85 ft3/lb.

CFM o = m· 2
= ( 319.77 ) ( 14.88 )
CFM o = 4758.18 ft 3 /min
A o = CFM o /v

= 4758.18/800
A o = 5.95ft 2
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174⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

14.3 If the packaged air-conditioning unit of Problem


14.1 were provided with a water-cooled condenser
instead of an air-cooled unit, and 1) the water was
supplied at 85°F, 2) the leaving water temperature was
95°F, and 3) the condensing temperature was 105°F, what
would be
a. The Carnot COP between 40°F suction temperature
and the 90°F condensing temperature?
b. The Carnot COP between the 40°F suction tempera-
ture and the 105°F condensing temperature of the
Problem 14.1 air-cooled unit?

a.)
To
COP a = ---------------
T – To
T o = 40 + 460 = 500°R
T = 105 + 460 = 565°R
500
COP a = ------------------------
565 – 500
COP a = 7.69 (water-cooled)

b.)
T o = 40 + 460 = 500°R
T = 105 + 460 = 575°R
500
COP a = ------------------------
575 – 500
COP a = 6.67 (air-cooled)

14.4 Assuming that the actual power requirement for the

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cooling cycles of Problems 14.1 and 14.3 were propor-
tioned in the same relationship as the Carnot COPs of
Problem 14.3, what would be the kW per ton for the
water-cooled unit of Problem 14.3?

Short Solution:

( 1 )COP a ( air-cooled )
kW/J on = -----------------------------------------------------
COP a ( water-cooled )
6.67
= ----------
7.69
kW/J on = 0.867kW/Jon
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Chapter 14—Unitary and Room Air Conditioners⏐175

14.5 How many gallons per minute of water would be


required for the water-cooled unit of Problem 14.3?

q r = Total heat rejection


q r = Refrigeration capacity and compressor heat
= 36,000 + 3 ( 0.867 ) ( 3413 )
= 44,881
q r = m w ( 1 ) ( 95 – 85 ) ( 60 ) Btu/h
( 44,881 ) ( 7.48 )
GPm = ----------------------------------------------
( 1 ) ( 10 ) ( 60 ) ( 62.4 )
GPm = 8.97 gal/min

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Solutions to

Chapter 15
PANEL HEATING
AND COOLING SYSTEMS

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Chapter 15—Panel Heating and Cooling Systems⏐179

15.1 A room has a net outside wall area of 300 ft2 that has
a surface temperature of 55°F; 50 ft2 of glass with a
surface temperature of 30°F; 560 ft2 of ceiling with a
surface temperature of 70°F; and 560 ft2 with a surface
temperature of 70°F. Estimate the average unheated
surface temperature or the area-weighted mean radiant
temperature.

300 ( 55 ) + 50 ( 30 ) + 560 ( 70 ) + 560 ( 70 )


MRT = AUST = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
300 + 50 + 560 + 560
96400
MRT = --------------- = 65.6°F
1470

15.2 For the room in Problem 15.1, estimate the follow-


ing:
a. radiant output for a 100 ft2 heating panel with a panel
surface temperature of 120°F
b. natural convection output for the ceiling panel when
the air temperature is 70°F

a) From Figure 1, chapter 6, 2008 Systems and Equipment Handbook


2
55 Btu/h ⋅ ft - radiant
Btu 2
55 ------------2- × 100 ft = 5500 Btu/h
h ⋅ ft
b) t p – t a = 120 – 70 = 50°F
From Figure 3, chapter 6, 2008 Systems and Equipment Handbook

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Btu 2
17.5 ------------2- × 100 ft = 1750 Btu/h
h ⋅ ft

15.3 A room has 1500 ft2 of surface area and 320 ft2 is to
be heated. The average unheated surface temperature in
the room is 67°F. The air temperature in the room is 75°F.
The room is occupied by adults in light clothing at a
sedentary activity. Determine the surface temperature of
the heated panel necessary to produce comfort if the air
velocity is 20 fpm.

From Figure 4-3, chapter 4, PHVAC


@ 20 fpm, 75°F air temp.,
MRT = 80.6°F
( 1500 – 320 )67 + 320 ( t )
80.6 = ------------------------------------------------------------
1500
t = 131°F
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180⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

15.4 For Problem 15.3, determine the total heat trans-


ferred by the ceiling heating panel.

t p = 131°F, AUST = 67°F


t p – t a = 131 – 75 = 56°F
2 Figure 1, chapter 6,
Q R = 63 Btu/h ⋅ ft
2008 Systems and
2 Equipment Handbook
Q R = 63 ( 320 ft )
Q R = 20160 Btu/h
2 Figure 3, chapter 6,
Q C = 20 Btu/h ⋅ ft
2008 Systems and
2
Q C = 20 ( 320 ft ) Equipment Handbook
= 6400 Btu/h
Q T = Q C + Q R = 20160 + 6400
Q T = 26560 Btu/h

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Solutions to

Chapter 16
HEAT PUMP,
COGENERATION, AND
HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS

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Chapter 16—Heat Pump, Cogeneration, and Heat Recovery Systems⏐183

16.1 A heat pump is used in place of a furnace for heating


a house. In winter, when the outside air temperature is
15°F, the heat loss from the house is 100,000 Btu/h if the
inside is maintained at 70°F. (a) Determine the minimum
electric power (Carnot COP) required to operate the heat
pump. (b) Determine the actual electric power to operate
the heat pump with a heating COP of 3.

TH 530°R
COP h, Carnot = ------------------- = ------------------------------------- = 9.64
TH – TL 530°R – 475°R
Qh 100000 Btu/h
a. W Carnot = -------------------------------- = ---------------------------------
COP h, Carnot 9.64
Btu
= 10373 -------- = 3.0 kW
h

Qh 100000 Btu/h
W = ------------ = ---------------------------------
b. COP 3
= 33333 Btu/h = 9.8 kW

16.2 An air-source heat pump is to be used for both air


conditioning and heating of a residence, maintaining the
interior at 80°F in summer with an outside air tempera-
ture of 95°F and a cooling load of 36,000 Btu/h. As a heat
pump, it is to maintain 70°F in winter with an outside air
temperature of 2°F and a heating load of 52,000 Btu/h.
Select a heat pump from the table in Problem 8.13,
sized for cooling. What size resistance heater is required
at the winter design condition?

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From the table in Problem 8.13, a cooling load of 36000 Btu/h at 95°F outdoor
requires an A036 heat pump. At 2°F outdoor, this heat pump has an output of
15100 Btu/h. The heating load is 52000 Btu/h.
Supplemental heat = 52000 Btu/h – 15100 Btu/h
= 36900 Btu/h = 10.8 kW

16.3 A 100,000 ft2 building design has a design electrical must be made up by a boiler. Any shortfall in cooling by
load of 5 W/ft2. A reciprocating natural gas engine cogen- the absorber with recovered heat must be made up by the
eration plant is to serve the building. The engine-genera- boiler as input to the absorber.
tor is sized for the electrical load, with salvaged heat Compare design operating costs with hourly design
being used for heating and for driving a single-effect operating costs using conventional equipment (purchased
absorption chiller. The design heating load is 3,000,000 electricity for the building and for cooling with an electric
Btu/h. The design cooling load is 250 tons; the absorber chiller at 1.0 kW/ton, purchased gas for a boiler for heat-
requires 20,000 Btu/ton⋅h input. ing). Use $1.00 per therm, boiler efficiency of 80% for
Calculate hourly design operating costs for heating fuel cost, $0.10/kWh for purchased electricity cost.
and cooling. Any shortfall in heating from recovered heat

Solution on following page.


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184⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

Engine-generator output = ⎛ 5 -----2-⎞ ( 100000 ft ) = 500000 W


W 2
⎝ ⎠
ft
= 500 kW
= 1706500 Btu/h
which is 33% of the fuel input
Btu
Fuel input = 1706500 Btu/hr ⁄ 0.33 = 5171000 -------- input
h
Salvaged heat = 70% (30% + 30%) = 42% of input
Btu
= 2172000 --------
h
Design heating = 3000000 Btu/h

Supplemental fuel input = ⎛ 3000000 -------- – 2172000 --------⎞ ⁄ 80%


Btu Btu
⎝ h h ⎠
Btu
= 1035000 --------
h
Design cooling = 250T
Btu Btu
Absorption chiller input = ( 250T )20000 ------------- = 5000000 --------
ton-h h

Supplemental fuel input = ⎛⎝ 5000000 -------- – 2172000 --------⎞⎠ ⁄ 80%


Btu Btu
h h
Btu
= 3535000 --------
h
Heating Design Condition
Cogeneration Plant
Btu therms
Engine input 5171000 -------- = 51.71 ---------------- = $51.71/h
h h
Btu therms
Supplemental fuel input 1035000 -------- = 10.35 ---------------- = $10.25/h
h h
$62.06/h

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Conventional Plant
Electricity ⎛ 500 kWh
-----------⎞ ( $0.10/kWh ) = $50.00/h
⎝ h ⎠
⎛ 3000000 Btu --------⎞
⎜ h ⎟
Heating ⎜ ------------------------------⎟ ( $1.00/therm ) = $30.00/h
⎜ 10 -------------- ⎟
5 Btu
⎝ therm ⎠
$80.00/h

Cooling Design Condition


Cogeneration Plant
Engine input $51.71/h
⎛ 3535000 --------⎞ Btu
⎜ h ⎟
Supplemental fuel input ⎜ ------------------------------⎟ ( $1.00/therm ) = $35.35/h
⎜ 10 5 -------------
Btu - ⎟
⎝ therm ⎠
$87.06/h
Conventional Plant
Building electricity ⎛ 500 kWh
-----------⎞ ( $0.10/kWh ) = $50.00/h
⎝ h ⎠

( 250T ) ⎛⎝ 1.0 -------------⎞⎠ ( $0.10/kWh ) = $25.00/h


kWh
Chiller electricity
ton-h
$75.00/h
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Solutions to

Chapter 17
AIR-PROCESSING
EQUIPMENT

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Chapter 17—Air-Processing Equipment⏐187

17.1 Air enters a coil at 95°F dry-bulb and 78°F wet-bulb


temperature and leaves at 62°F dry-bulb and 60°F wet-
bulb temperature. The condensate is assumed to be at a
temperature of 56°F. Find the total, latent, and sensible
cooling loads on the coil with air at 14.7 psia.

1. 95 db, 78 wb : w 1 = 0.0168, h 1 = 41.4


2. 62 db, 60 wb : w 2 = 0.0107, h 2 = 26.5
3. 56°F h s = h f = 24 B/lb
4. 95 db w = 0.0107 : h c = 34.6
[ h 1 – h 2 – ( w 1 – w 2 )h 3 ] = q c
41.4 – 26.5 – ( 0.0168 – 0.0107 )24 = q c
q c = 14.75 Btu/lb
q s ≅ h c – h 2 = 34.6 – 26.5 = 8.1 or q s ≈ 0.244 ( 95 – 62 ) = 8.05 Btu/lb
q L ≅ h 1 – h c = 41.4 – 34.6 = 6.8 or q L ≈ ( 0.0168 – 0.0107 )1076 = 6.6 Btu/lb

17.2 Air enters a direct expansion coil at 29.4°C dry bulb


and 21.1°C wet bulb and leaves at 16.7°C dry bulb and
90% RH.
a. How much sensible heat and how much latent heat is
removed from the air by the coil?
b. How much condensate drains off the coil?

29.4°C = 85°F 16.7°C = 62°F 21.1°C = 70 wb, °F


1. 85 db, 70 wb : w 1 = 0.0124

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2. 62 db, 90% RH : w 2 = 0.0107
a) q s = 0.244 ( 85 – 62 ) = 5.61 B/lb
q L = ( 0.0124 – 0.0107 )1076 = 1.83 B/lb
b) m c = ( 0.0124 – 0.107 ) = 0.0017 lb/lb air

17.3 Air enters a direct-expansion coil at 90°F dry bulb


(32.2°C) 60% RH and leaves the coil at 60°F dry bulb
(15.6°C), 95% RH. Find
a. heat removed from air
b. moisture condensed from air
c. SHR for the condition line

1. 90 db, 60% RH : h 1 = 42, w 1 = 0.0184


2. 60 db, 95% RH : h 2 = 25.8, w 2 = 0.0105
q = 42 – 25.8 = 16.2 Btu/lb
Δw = 0.0184 – 0.0105 = 0.0079 lb/lb air
42 – 33.4
SHR = q s ⁄ q T = ---------------------- = 0.53
16.2
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188⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

17.4 Water flowing at 60 lb/min and at 51°F is chilled in


an evaporator to 40°F. The heat transfer area is 20 ft2 and
the heat exchanger has an overall heat transfer coefficient
of 60 Btu/h·ft2 ·°F. The direct-expansion evaporator uses
R-12 and operates at 35°F. Find the evaporator effective-
ness.
t in – t out 51 – 40
Effectiveness = -------------------------------- = ------------------ = 0.687
t in – t out, max 51 – 35

17.5 Outside air at 35°F and 70% RH is supplied to an


air-conditioning apparatus. Recirculated air is returned
from the plant at 69°F dry bulb and 40% RH; 8100 cfm of
outside air mixes with 18,900 cfm of recirculated air. The
mixture is heated by a steam coil and humidified by a pan
humidifier to final conditions of 115°F dry bulb and 20%
RH.
a. What steam flow, in pounds per hour, should be
supplied to the heating coil?
b. Estimate the steam consumption of the humidifier.

OA 35 db, 70% RH : w oA = 0.003, h OA = 11.8, v OA = 12.55


m OA = ( 8100 ( 60 ) ) ⁄ 12.58 = 38725 lb/h

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r : 65 db, 40% RH; w r = 0.006, h r = 23.2 = v r = 13.45
m r = ( 18900 ( 60 ) ) ⁄ 13.45 = 84132 lb/h
m : W: 38725 ( 0.003 ) + 84312 ( 0.006 ) = ( 38725 + 84312 )w m
w m = 0.005

h: 38725 ( 11.8 ) + 84312 ( 23.2 ) = ( 38725 + 84312 )h m ⇒ h m = 19.6


at w m and h m → t m = 59 db
s : 115 db, 20% RH; w s = 0.0128, h s = 41.4
Assume humidifier is steam coil heated pan
type and process is pure humidification.
Leaving heating coil: t = 115°F, w = 0.005, h = 33.2
a) q HC = m da ( h out – h m ) = ( 38725 + 84312 ) ( 33.2 – 14.6 )
q HC = 123037 ( 13.6 ) = 1673300 Btuh
1673300
q HC = 1673300 ≅ m s hf s : m s = --------------------- = 1673 lb/h
1000
b) q Hum = m da ( h out – h in ) – m da ( w out – w in )h f

h f = 28 water @ 60°F
= 123037 [ ( 41.9 – 33.2 ) – ( 0.0128 – 0.005 )28 ]
1043500
= – 1043500 Btuh = m s h fg ⇒ m s = ---------------------
1000
m s = 1043 lb/h
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Chapter 17—Air-Processing Equipment⏐189

17.6 Outdoor air (8000 cfm) at 10°F dry bulb and 50%
RH enters the central apparatus of a split heating system.
It is tempered to 55°F dry bulb. Then, it flows through a
spray humidifier where the leaving sump water is main-
tained at 50°F. The spray humidifier has a performance
factor of 0.80. After leaving the humidifier, the air flows
through a steam heating coil and is heated to 70°F dry
bulb.
a. What is the final relative humidity and humidity ratio
of the air as it leaves the heating coil?
b. Assume steam at 2 psig and 90% quality is supplied
to the tempering coil, the sump water heat exchanger,
and the heating coil. How many pounds of steam per
hour should be supplied to each?

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at :10°F, 50%; W 1 = 0.00064, h 1 = 3, v 1 = 11.82
: 55°F, W 2 = 0.00064; h 2 = 14
h2 – h3 14 – h 3
E = -------------------------- = 0.80 = ------------------ ; h 3 = 17
h 2 – h f50°F 14 – 18
: W 3 = 0.00628
(a) : 70°F, W = 0.00628; h = 23.6, = 40% RH
(b) h steam = 1056 Btu/lb; Δh H O = 1056 – 18 = 1038 Btu/lb
2

60
Tempering Coil: 676.8 ( 14 – 3 ) = 7445 Btu/min × ------------ = 430 lb/h
1038
60
Sump: 676.8 ( 17 – 14 ) = 2030 Btu/min × ------------ = 117.4 lb/h
1038
60
Heat Coil: 676.8 ( 23.6 – 17 ) = 4462 × ------------ = 257.9 lb/h
1038
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190⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

17.7 The heat exchanger for the spray water in Problem


17.6 is out of service for maintenance. The split heating
system is operating as specified except that the sump
water is recirculated. Assume make-up water to the sump
is 37°F and saturating effectiveness is equal to the perfor-
mance factor.
a. What is the final relative humidity and humidity ratio
of the air leaving the heating coil?
b. What is the steam rate (lb/h) for the tempering coils
and for the heating coil?

h1 = 3 h 2 = 14
w 1 = 0.00064 w 2 = 0.00064
55 – t 3
E = 0.8 = ---------------------- ; t sat = 37.5
55 – 37.5
t 3 = 41°F
w 3 = w 4 = 0.00386 ; t 4 = 70°F; RH 4 = 25%
(b) Tempering Coils:to 430 lb/h from Problem 17.8
60
Heating Coil: 676.8 ( 21.2 – 14 ) = 4873 Btu/min × ------------ = 267 lb/h
1038

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17.8 Air at 105°F dry bulb (40.6°C) and 75% RH passes
through a chilled water spray. Air leaves the spray cham-
ber at 45°F dry bulb (7.2°C) saturated. How many grains
of moisture per pound of entering air are condensed?

Pv
1. 105°F db, 75% RH; φ = ----- ; P v = 0.75 ( 1.1021 ) = 0.8266
Ps
Pv
w 1 = 0.622 ---------------------- = 0.0371 lb/lb
14.7 – P v
2. 45°F db, 100% RH; w 2 = 0.0063 lb/lb
Δw = ( 0.0371 – 0.0063 ) = 0.0308 lb s /lb da × 7000 = 215.6 grains/lb da
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not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 17—Air-Processing Equipment⏐191

17.9 Air enters a coil at 35°C dry-bulb and 26°C wet-


bulb temperatures and leaves at 17°C dry-bulb and 16°C
wet-bulb temperatures. The condensate is assumed to be
at a temperature of 13.5°C. Find the total, latent, and
sensible cooling loads on the coil with air at 101 kPa.

1. 35°C, 26°C wb : W 1 = 0.0177; h 1 = 80.2


2. 17°C, 16°C wb : W 2 = 0.0110, h 2 = 45
3. 13.5°C : h 3 = h f = 56.7
q T = h 1 – h 2 – ( w 1 – w 2 )h 3 = 80.2 – 45 – ( 0.0177 – 0.0110 )56.7 = 34.8 J
q s ≅ c p Δt = 1.02 ( 35 – 17 ) = 18.4 J
q w ≅ ( h g – h f )Δw = 2500 ( 0.0177 – 0.0110 ) = 16.8 J

17.10 A building space is to be maintained at 70°F and b. the capacity of the heating coil, Btu/h, if
35% RH when outdoor design temperature is 10°F. 1.to the humidifier is a spray washer using recirculated
Design heat losses from the space are 250,000 Btu/h, spray water with makeup water provided at 60°F
sensible, and 45,000 Btu/h, latent. Ventilation requires 2.to the humidifier is a steam humidifier using dry,
that 1500 cfm of outdoor air be used. Supply air is to be saturated steam at 17.2 psia
at 120°F. Determine: c. the capacity of the humidifier, lb/h.
a. the amount of supply air required, lb/h, and cfm The conditioning equipment and nomenclature are
shown in the following sketch.

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250000 250000
CFM s = ------------------------------------ = 4545 cfm m a = --------------------------------------- = 20492 lb/h
1.10 ( 120 – 70 ) 0.244 ( 120 – 70 )
1500 ( 3.803 ) + 3045 ( 22.8 ) 1500 ( 0.001315 ) + 3045 ( 0.0054 )
h 1 = ---------------------------------------------------------------- = 16.5 ; w 1 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.0040 ; t 1 ≅ 51°F
4545 4545
mw 45000 ⁄ 1100
w s = w r + ------- = 0.0054 + ------------------------------- = 0.0074 ; t s = 120 ; h s = 37.1
ma 20492
h 2 + ( w 3 – w 2 )h h – h 3 = 0
(b)1. h 2 = 37.1 – ( 0.0074 – 0.00405 ) ( 28 ) = 37.0
t 2 = 135.2°F
(b)2. h 2 = 37.1 – ( 0.0074 – 0.00405 ) ( 1153.4 ) = 33.2
t 2 = 119°F
(b)1. Q = m ( h 2 – h 1 ) = 20492 ( 37 – 16.5 ) = 420000 Btuh
(b)2. Q = m ( h 2 – h 1 ) = 20492 ( 33.2 – 16.5 ) = 342000 Btuh
(c) H = m ( w 3 – w 2 ) = 20492 ( 0.0074 – 0.00405 ) = 68.6 lb/h
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192⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

17.11 A spray-type air washer is to be used for humidi-


fication as well as cleaning of 9000 SCFM of air. Inlet
conditions to the washer are 75°F db and 48 F wb. Desired
humidity ratio at outlet is 0.005 lbw/lba. Determine:
(a) the necessary humidification efficiency of the washer, %
(b) the make-up water requirements (humidifying capac-
ity) of the unit, lbw/h.

(a) w i = 0.005 ; w s = 0.007


0.005 – 0.001
E w = --------------------------------- x100 = 65.6%
0.007 – 0.001
9000 ( 60 )
(b) m w = ----------------------- ( 0.005 – 0.001 ) = 162 lb/h
13.33

17.12 A heat pipe air-to-air energy recovery device is


being considered for a system requiring 9000 SCFM of
outside air. Initially, a separate preheater was planned for
bringing the outside air from its –2°F design ambient
outdoor temperature to 40°F. Determine:
(a) the rating (Btu/h) and
(b) the sensible effectiveness (%) to specify for the heat
pipe unit if it is to eliminate the need for the air preheater.

(a) Q = 1.10 ( 9000 ) ( 40 – ( – 2 ) ) = 415800 Btu/h

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40 – ( – 2 )
(b) E s = ----------------------- x100 = 57%
72 – ( – 2 )
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Chapter 17—Air-Processing Equipment⏐193

17.13 The HVAC system for a hospital operating room mine: (a) the necessary size of heating unit (Btu/h) both
which requires 100% outside air is shown in the follow- with and without the energy recovery unit and (b) the
ing figure and includes an air-to-air heat pipe energy humidifier size (gallons/ day). Neglect fan effects.
recovery unit having a sensible effectiveness of 73%. The 2. At summer design conditions (Indoor: 78°F;
air leaving the cooling coil is maintained at 58°F, 90% Outdoor: 95°F db/76°F wb), the space cooling loads
RH, all year long. During winter operation, air leaves the are 146,000 Btu/h (sensible) and 79,000 Btu/h
heater at 130°F. Fan speed is changed between summer (latent). Determine: (a) fan size (hp & scfm), (b)
and winter operation. Design duct system pressure drop sensible coil load, Btu/h, (c) latent coil load, Btu/h,
(summer) is 3.25 in. water. and (d) necessary size of cooling unit, Btu/h, both
1. At winter design conditions (Indoor: 72°F & 30% RH; with and without the energy recovery unit. Include
Outdoor: 5°F & 100% RH) the space load is 235,000 fan effects.
Btu/h (sensible) with negligible latent load. Deter-

t o = 5°F, φ o = 100% ⇒ w o = 0.00102


t r = 72°F, φ r = 30% ⇒ w r = 0.005
t s = 58°F, φ s = 90% ⇒ w s = 0.0093
1.(a) without heat pipe unit:
235000 = 0.244m a ( 130 – 72 ); m a = 16600 lb/h
m a [ 0.244 ( t s – t c ) ] + Q h = 0
1600 [ 0.244 ( 130 – 58 ) ] + Q h = 0; Q h = 292000 Btu/h

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same with heat pipe since cooling coil discharge is same
(b) m h = m a ( w r – w o ) = 16600 ( 0.005 – 0.00102 ) = 66 lb/h ≈ 190 gal/day
13.33
2.(a) 146000 = 0.224m a ( 78 – 58 ); m a = 29900 lb/h × ------------- ⇒ 6650 scfm
60
( 3.25 ) ( 0.036 ) ( 144 )60
W = V· ΔP = 6650 ------------------------------------------------------ = 3.4 HP
778 ( 2545 )
(b) without heat pipe unit:
3.4 ( 2545 )
t 1 = t o = 95°F; t f = 95 + ------------------------------------ = 96.2°F = t 2
29900 ( 0.0244 )
w 1 = w f = w 2 = w o = 0.015
Q s = 6650 ( 1.10 ) ( 96.2 – 58 ) = 279400 Btu/h
with
3.4 ( 2545 )
t 1 = 95 – 0.73 ( 95 – 78 ) = 82.6 ; t 2 = 82.6 + --------------------------------- = 83.8°F
29900 ( 0.244 )
Q s = 6650 ( 1.10 ) ( 83.8 – 58 ) = 188700 Btu/h
(c) with/without :w 2 = 0.015
Q L = 4840 ( 6650 ) ( 0.015 – 0.0093 ) = 183500 Btu/h
(d) with: Q T = 188700 + 183500 = 372200 Btu/h
without: Q T = 279400 + 183500 = 462400 Btu/h
19.5% savings
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Solutions to

Chapter 18
REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT

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Chapter 18—Refrigeration Equipment⏐197

18.1 A condenser used in a refrigeration system has a


capacity of 10 tons at a 40°F evaporating temperature.
When 20 gpm of cooling water enters at 75°F, the
condensing temperature is 90°F. The manufacturer
claims a U-factor of 95 Btu/h· ft2· °F, with a heat transfer
area of 83 ft2. Are these claims reasonable? Why?
Q = UA Δt m = m w C p ( tw o – tw i )
To
Ideally: COP = 1 ⁄ ⎛ ------ – 1⎞ = 1 ⁄ ⎛ --------- – 1⎞ = 10
550
⎝ TR ⎠ ⎝ 500 ⎠
QA 10 tons
COP = 10 = -------------------- = -------------------
QR – QA Q R – 10
Q R = 11 tons ⇒ Q R = 11 × 12000 = 132000 Btuh
132000
t w,o = ---------------------------- + 75 = 88.2°F
20 ( 8.33 )60
( 90 – 75 ) – ( 90 – 88.2 )
Δt m = -------------------------------------------------------- = 6.2°F
90 – 75
ln ----------------------
90 – 88.2
132000
U = ------------------ = 257(needed)
83 ( 6.2 )
More than 95 inconsistent

18.2 Given a compressor using R-22 condensing at 80°F


(26.7°C) and evaporating at 20°F (−6.7°C), find the
enthalpy of the refrigerant when it enters the
a. compressor
b. condenser
c. evaporator
Find the power required for the compressor.

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P 2 = P 3 = 158.33 psia
P 4 = P 1 = 57.795 psia

a) 20°F; x = 1.0; s = 0.22415


h 1 = 106.53 Btu/lb
b) 158.33 psia; s = 0.22415i h1 – h2 – w = 0
h 2 = 118 Btu/lb
w = 106.53 – 118 = – 11.5 B/lb
c) 80°F; h 3 = 33.342 = h 4 q e = h 1 – h 4 = 106.53 – 33.34
HP- ( 11.5 ⁄ 2545 ) q e = 73.2 Btu/lb
-------- = ---------------------------------- = 0.74
Ton ( 73.3 ⁄ 12000 )
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198⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

18.3 What is the maximum theoretical COP of a refrig-


eration device operating between 0°F and 75°F (−17.8°C
and 23.9°C). Why is this theoretical limit difficult to
obtain?

TL 460
Ideal COP = ------------------- = --------- = 6.14
TH – TL 75

18.4 A reference book on refrigeration indicates that a


compressor using R-22 requires a displacement of 40.59
cfm per ton for evaporation at −100°F and condensing at
−30°F. Is this correct? Substantiate your answer with
calculations based on knowledge of R-22 for these condi-
tions. Also, verify the mass flow rate in lb per min.

1) – 100°F, x = 1.0, h g = 93.37, v g = 18.43


3) – 30°F, x = 0, h = 2.547
q e = 93.37 – 2.547 = 90.82 Btu/lb

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12000 ⁄ 90.82 = 132.1 lb/h/ton = 2.2 lb/min
v· = 132.1 ( 18.43 ) = 2435 cfh = 40.6 cfm

18.5 An R-134a refrigerating system develops 10 tons of


refrigeration when operating at 100°F condensing and
+10°F evaporating, with no liquid subcooling or vapor
superheating. Determine the volume of the refrigerant
leaving the expansion valve in cubic feet per minute.

1
1) + 10°F; h f = 15.328, h g = 104.617, v f = ------------- , v g = 1.7357
83.29
3) 100°F; x = 0, h 3 = 45.155
4) h 4 = h 3 = 45.155 = 15.328 + x ( 104.617 – 15.328 ); → x = 0.334

v 4 = 0.334 ( 1.7357 ) + 0.666 ⎛ -------------⎞ = 0.588 ft ⁄ lb


1 3
⎝ 83.29⎠
m = 120000 ⁄ ( 104.47 – 44.94 ) = 2018 lb/h = 33.6 lb/min
v· = 33.6 ( 0.588 ) = 19.5 cfm
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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Chapter 18—Refrigeration Equipment⏐199

18.6 An expansion device has a mass flow rate for


R-134a given by
m = 60 + 0.25Δp
where
m = flow rate in lb/min
Δp = pressure drop across the valve in psi.
For an evaporator temperature of 0°F and a
condenser temperature of 100°F, estimate the piston
displacement required for a compressor if C = 0.04 and
the polytropic compression coefficient n = 1.1 for the
compression process.
P 1 = 21.16 psia
P 2 = 138.83 psia
v 1 = 2.1587
m = 60 + 0.25 ( 138.8 – 21.16 ) = 89.4 lb/min
1
---
P1 n
⇒ v 2 = v 1 ⎛⎝ ------⎞⎠
n n
p1 v1 = p2 v2
P2
1-
------
21.16 1.1
v 2 = ⎛ ----------------⎞ 2.1587 = 0.39 ft ⁄ lb m
3
⎝ 138.83⎠
v1
n v = 1 + C – C ⎛ -----⎞ = 1 + 0.04 – 0.04 ⎛ ----------------⎞
2.1587
⎝ v 2⎠ ⎝ 0.39 ⎠
n v = 0.819
mv 1 89.4 ( 2.1587 )
PD = --------- = -------------------------------- = 235.7 cfm
nv 0.819

18.7 A liquid-to-suction heat exchanger is installed in an

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R-134a system to cool liquid that comes from the
condenser with vapor that flows from the evaporator. The
evaporator generates 10 tons (35.17 kW) of refrigeration
at 30°F (−1.1°C). Liquid leaves the condenser saturated at
100°F (37.8°C), vapor leaves the evaporator saturated,
and vapor leaves the heat exchanger at a temperature of
50°F (10°C). What is the flow rate of the refrigerant?

h 1 = 107.32 P L = 40.76 psia


1
h1 = 112 ( 40.76 psia, 50°F )
h3 = hf = 44.94 P H = 138.83
100F

1
( 112 – 107.32 ) = ( 44.94 – h 3 )
1
h 3 = 40.26 Btu/lb
10 ( 12000 )
m = ----------------------------------------------- = 29.82 lb/min
( 107.32 – 40.26 )60
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200⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

18.8 An eight-cylinder ammonia compressor is designed


to operate at 800 rpm and deliver 30 tons of refrigeration.
The evaporator is to operate at 10°F with a condensing
temperature of 100°F. The vapor enters the compressor at
30°F. The ammonia leaves the condenser as saturated
liquid. If the average piston speed is to be 600 ft/min and
the actual volumetric efficiency at this condition is 83%,
find the bore of the compressor.

Assuming superheating to 30°F takes place in the evaporator


3
1) 30°F, 38.5 psi; h 1 = 627, v 1 = 7.7 ft ⁄ lb
30 ( 12000 )
3) h 3 = h f = 155.2 m = --------------------------------------- = 12.7 lb/min
60 ( 627 – 155.2 )
v· = 12.7 ( 7.7 ) = 97.8 cfm
2
πD
---------- = 8 ( 800 ) ⎛ ------------------⎞ ( 0.375 )
97.8
PH = 211.9 psi, PL = 38.5 psi 0.83 ⎝ 4 × 144⎠
D = 3.0 in bore
x = vt
1
2L = 600 ---------
800
L = 0.375 ft = 4.5 in.

18.9 A condenser is to be selected for a system that gener-


ates 30 tons (105.5 kW) of refrigeration at 10°F (−12.2°C).
The condenser is to operate at 110°F (43.3°C) and is cooled
with 90 gpm (5.68 L/s) of water at 85°F (29.4°C). If the

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expected U-factor of the condenser is 130 Btu/h⋅ft2·°F
[738 W/(m2·K)], calculate the condensing area required.

Assume an ideal Carnot cycle


QA QA 1 1
COP = ------- = -------------------- = ---------------- = ------------------ = 4.7
W QR – QA TH 570
--------- – 1
------ – 1 470
TL
QA 30 ( 12000 )
4.7 = -------------------- = --------------------------------------- ⇒ Q R = 436,600 Btuh
QR – QA Q R – 30 ( 12000 )
Assuming 85°F inlet → Q R = 436,600 = mCp ( t o – t i )
436600
t o = 85 + ---------------------------- = 94.7
90 ( 8.33 )60
( 110 – 85 ) – ( 110 – 94.7 )
Δt m = -------------------------------------------------------------- = 19.6°F
25
ln ----------
15.3
2
436,600 = 130 × A × 19.6 ⇒ A = 171 ft
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Chapter 18—Refrigeration Equipment⏐201

18.10 A cooling tower cools water by passing it through


a stream of air. If 1000 cfm of air at 95°F dry bulb and
78°F wet bulb enters the tower and leaves saturated at
84°F, to what temperature can this air cool water that
enters at 110°F with a flow of 80 lb/min? What is the
makeup water rate?
m da ( h out – h in ) air = mCp ( t ou – t off )
air: in 1000 Cfm, 95°F db, 78°F wb, v = 14.35, h = 41.4, w = 0.0168
1000
m da = ------------- = 69.7 lb/min
14.35
out 84°F db, 100% RH, h = 48.2, w = 0.0256
water: on t = 110°F, m = 80 lb/min, C p = 1.0
69.7 [ 48.2 – 41.4 ] = 80 ( 1 ) ( 110 – t off )
t off = 104°F
make-up = m da ( w out – w on )
= 69.7 ( 0.0256 – 0.0168 ) = 0.61 lb/min
check: 0.61 ( 1046 ) – 0.244 ( 95 – 84 ) = 635 = 80 ( 110 – t off )
t off = 102°F

18.11 Water flowing at 28 kg/min at 11°C is chilled in an


evaporator to 4.5°C. The heat transfer area is 1.9 m2 and
the heat exchanger has an overall heat transfer coefficient
of 341 W/(m2· K). The direct-expansion evaporator uses
R-12 and operates at 2°C. Find the evaporator effective-
ness.

Assuming refrigerant flow is not limiting,


11 – 4.5
Effectiveness = ------------------- × 100 = 72%

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11 – 2
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Solutions to

Chapter 19
HEATING EQUIPMENT

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Chapter 19—Heating Equipment⏐205

19.1 Set up the necessary combustion equations and


determine the mass of air required to burn 0.45 kg (1 lb)
of pure carbon to equal masses of CO and CO2.

⎛ ----- + -⎞ C + ⎛ ------ + ------⎞ O 2 → ------ CO + CO 2


x- -----
x x x x
⎝ 28 44⎠ ⎝ 56 44⎠ 28

⎛ ----- x-⎞
x- -----
⎝ 28 + 44⎠ 12 = 0.45 kg C; x = 0.642 kg CO, CO 2

wt. of air = ⎛ ------------- + -------------⎞ ( 4.76 ) ( 29 ) = 3.6 kg air


0.642 0.642
⎝ 56 44 ⎠

19.2 The gravimetric analysis of a gaseous mixture is:


CO2 = 32%, O2 = 54.5%, and N2 = 11.5%. The mixture
is at a pressure of 20.7 kPa (3 psia). Determine (a) the
volumetric analysis and (b) the partial pressure of each
component.
lb/lbmix lb/mol mol/molmix molmix/lbmix mol/molmix % Volume
a. CO2 0.32 ÷ 44 = 0.00727 ÷ 0.02843 = 0.2555 ~ 25.55%
O2 0.545 ÷ 32 = 0.01705 ÷ 0.02843 = 0.5995 59.95%
N2 0.115 ÷ 28 = 0.00411 ÷ 0.02843 = 0.1447 14.47%
0.02843 molmix/lbmix 99.97%

⎛ n CO ⎞
b. P CO = P mix ⎜ -----------2⎟ = 3 ( 0.2555 ) = 0.7665 psia (5.28 kPa)
2
⎝ n mix ⎠
P O = 3 ( 0.5995 ) = 1.7985 psia (12.39 kPa)
2

P N = 3 ( 0.1447 ) = 0.4341 psia (2.99 kPa)


2

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206⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

19.3 A liquid petroleum fuel, C2H6OH is burned in a b. For combustion with 80% theoretical air, determine
space heater at atmospheric pressure. the dry analysis of the exhaust gases in percentage by
a. For combustion with 20% excess air, determine the volume. [Ans: 5.94% C02, 11.04% CO, 83.02% N2]
air/fuel ratio by mass, the mass of water formed by
combustion per pound of fuel, and the dew point of
the combustion products. [Ans: 11.45, 1.34, 133.9°F]
a. Theoretical: C 2 H 6 OH + 3.25O 2 + ( 3.25 ) ( 3.76 )N 2 → 2CO 2 + 3.5H 2 O + ( 3.25 ) ( 3.76 )N 2
20% Excess (12.0% Theroretical):
C 2 H 6 OH + ( 1.2 ) ( 3.25 )O 2 + ( 1.2 ) ( 3.25 ) ( 3.76 )N 2 → 2CO 2 + 3.5H 2 O + ( 1.2 ) ( 12.22 )N 2 + 0.65O 2
A ( 1.2 ) ( 3.25 ) ( 4.76 ) ( 29 )
--- = ------------------------------------------------------- = 11.45 lb air ⁄ lb fuel
F 2 × 12 + 6 + 16 + 1
( 3.5 ) ( 18 )
m H O = ----------------------- = 1.34 lb H O ⁄ lb fuel
2 47 2

3.5
P w = ----------------------------------------------------- ( 14.7 ) = 2.47 psia
2 + 3.5 + 14.66 + 0.65
DP = 133.9°F
b. 80% Theoretical Air:
C 2 H 6 OH + ( 0.8 ) ( 3.25 )O 2 + ( 0.8 ) ( 3.25 ) ( 3.76 )N 2 → 0.7CO 2 + 1.3CO + 3.5H 2 O + ( 8.0 ) ( 3.25 ) ( 3.76 )N 2
CO 2 0.7 ÷ 11.78 = 5.94% CO 2
CO 1.3 ÷ 11.78 = 11.04% CO
9.78
N2 ------------- ÷ 11.78 = 83.02%
------------------ N 2
11.78
100.0%

19.4 Find the air/fuel ratio by mass when benzene


(C6H6) burns with theoretical air and determine the dew
point at atmospheric pressure of the combustion products
if an air/fuel ratio of 20:1 by mass is used.

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C 6 H 6 + 7.5O 2 + ( 7.5 ) ( 3.76 )N 2 → 6CO 2 + 3H 2 O + ( 7.5 ) ( 3.76 )N 2
Mol Air × lb air ⁄ mol air lb air ( 7.5 ) ( 32 ) + ( 7.5 ) ( 3.76 ) ( 28 ) lb air
------------------------------------------------------------
- = -----------
- = --------------------------------------------------------------------- = 13.25 -----------
-
Mol Fuel × lb fuel ⁄ mol fuel lb fuel ( 1 ) ( 78 ) lb fuel
Mol Air × 29- Mol Air 78 × 20
--------------------------------- = 20, ∴---------------------- = ------------------ = 53.8
Mol Fuel × 78 Mol Fuel 29
Actual Mols Air ………………………53.8
Theorical Mols Air ( 7.5 + 7.5 × 3.76 )…35.7
----------
18.1 mols excess air
C 6 H 6 + 53.8 Air → 6CO 2 + 3H 2 O + 28.2N 2 + 18.1 Air
Mol H 2 O 3
----------------------- = ---------------------------------------------- = 0.054
Mol Exh. 6 + 3 + 28.2 + 18.1
P v = 0.054 ( 14.7 ) = 0.797 psia, ΔP = 94°F

19.5 A diesel engine uses 30 lbm of fuel per hour (3.8 g/s)
when the brake output is 75 hp. If the heating value of the
fuel is 19,600 Btu/lb (45 600 kJ/kg), what is the brake
thermal efficiency of the engine?

75 hp × 2545 Btu/hp·h
η 6 = --------------------------------------------------------- × 100 = 32.5%
30 lb/h × 19 ,600 Btu/lb
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Chapter 19—Heating Equipment⏐207

19.6 Methane (CH4) is burned with air at atmospheric


pressure. The Orsat analysis of the flue gas gives: CO2 =
10.00%, O2 = 2.41%, CO = 0.52%, and N2 = 87.07%.
Balance the combustion equation and determine the air-
fuel ratio, the percent theoretical air, and the percent
excess air. [Ans: 10.48 (vol.), 18.89 (mass), 110.1%,
10.1%]
aCH 4 + bO 2 + cN 2 → 10.0CO 2 + 0.52CO + 2.41O 2 + dH 2 O + 87.07N 2
N2 : c = 87.07

--c- = 79 82.07
Since nitrogen is from air: ------ = 3.76, b = ------------- = 23.16
b 21 3.76
C: a = 10 + 0.52 = 10.52
H: 4a = 2d = 4 ( 10.52 ) → d = 21.04
10.52CH 4 + 23.16O 2 + 87.07N 2 → 10.0CO 2 + 0.52CO + 2.41O 2 + 21.04H 2 O + 87.07N 2
moles air ft 3 air
A ⁄ F ( by volume ) = ( 23.16 + 87.07 ) ⁄ 10.52 = 10.48 ---------------------- or ----------------
-
mole fuel ft 3 fuel
lb air
A ⁄ F ( by mass ) = [ 23.16 ( 32 ) + 87.07 ( 28 ) ] ⁄ ( 10.52 ) ( 16 ) = 18.89 ------------
lb fuel
Theoretical: CH 4 + 2O 2 + 2 ( 3.76 )N 2 → CO 2 + 2H 2 O + 7.52 N 2
2 ( 32 ) + 7.52 ( 28 )
A ⁄ F ( by mass ) = ------------------------------------------ = 17.16 lb a ⁄ lb f
16
18.89
% Theoretical Air = ------------- × 100 = 110.1%
17.16
18.89 – 17.16
% Excess Air = --------------------------------- × 100 = 10.1%
17.16

19.7 Fuel oil composed of C16H32 is burned with the

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chemically correct air-fuel ratio. Find
a. Moisture formed per kg of fuel; moisture formed per
lb of fuel
b. Partial pressure of the water vapor, kPa; water vapor
psia
c. Percentage of CO2 in the stack gases on an Orsat
basis
d. Volume of exhaust gases per unit mass of oil, if the
gas is at 260°C (500°F) and 102 kPa (14.8 psia).
C 16 H 32 + 24O 2 + ( 24 ) ( 3.76 )N 2 → 16CO 2 + 16H 2 O + 90.24N 2
1 mol 24 moles 90.24 moles 16 moles 16 moles 90.24 moles
224 lb or kg 768 lb 2527 lb 704 lb 288 lb 2527 lb
a. M ⁄ F = 288 ⁄ 224 = 1.286 lb m /lb fuel also 1.286 kg/kg
PH O 16
b. ------------
2
= -------------------------------------- = 0.13; PH = 0.13 ( 14.8 ) = 1.924 psia ( 133 kPa )
PT 16 + 16 + 90.24 2O

[dew point = 125°F(52°C)]


16
c. % CO 2 (vol., dry) = ------------------------- × 100 = 15.1%
16 + 90.24
( 16 + 16 + 90.24 ) ( 1544 ) ( 960 ) 2 3
d. PV = nRT; V = -------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 379.5 ft /lb (23.7 m /kg)
( 14.8 ) ( 144 ) ( 224 )
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208⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

19.8 Determine the composition of a hydrocarbon fuel if


the Orsat analysis gives: CO2 = 8.0%, CO = 1.0%, O2 =
8.7%, and N2 = 82.3%.
C a H b + dO 2 + cN 2 → 8.0CO 2 + 1.0CO + 8.7O 2 + eH 2 O + 82.3N 2
N2 : c = 82.3

From composition of air: --c- = 3.76, d = 21.9


d
1.0 e
O 2 : 21.9 = 8.0 + ------- + 8.7 + --- , e = 9.4
2 2
C: a = 8.0 + 1.0 = 9.0
H: b = 2e = 18.8
∴ Composition of fuel: C 9 H 18.8 or C 45 H 94

19.9 Determine the air/fuel ratio by mass when a liquid


fuel of 16% hydrogen and 84% carbon by mass is burned
with 15% excess air. [Ans: 17.49]
H2 : 0.16 × 8 = 1.28 lb O ⁄ lb fuel 2H 2 + O 2 → 2H 2 O
2
4 32 36
1 8 9

C: 0.84 × 32 ⁄ 12 = 2.24 lb O ⁄ lb fuel C + O 2 → CO 2


2
3.52 lb O ⁄ lb fuel 12 32 44
2
1 32/12 44/12

A = 3.52 lb O ⁄ lb fuel ⁄ 0.2315 lbO ⁄ lb air = 15.20 lb air ⁄ lb fuel , theor.


2 2

A ⁄ F = 1.15 ( 15.20 ) = 17.49 lb air ⁄ lb fuel

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19.10 Compute the compositions of the flue gases on a
percent by volume on dry basis (same as Orsat) resulting
from the combustion of C8H18 with 85% theoretical air.

C 8 H 18 + 12.50O 2 + 12.5 ( 3.76 )N 2 → 8.0CO 2 + 9.0H 2 O + 47.0N 2 2H 2 + O 2 → 2H 2 O


0.85 ( 12.5 ) ( 2 ) = 21.25 oxygen atoms available C + 1 ⁄ 2O 2 → CO
– 9.00 for H 2 → H 2 O 2C + O 2 → 2CO
12.25 C + O2 → CO 2
– 8.00 for C → CO
4.25 for CO → CO2 8.00 – 4.25 = 3.75 CO remaining
C 8 H 18 + ( 0.85 ) ( 12.5 )O 2 + ( 0.85 ) ( 47.0 )N 2 → 4.25CO 2 + 3.75CO + 9.0H 2 O + 39.9N 2
4.25 3.75 39.9
CO 2 = ---------- × 1 = 8.9%; CO = ---------- × 100 = 7.8%; N 2 = ---------- × 100 = 83.3%
47.9 47.9 47.9
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Chapter 19—Heating Equipment⏐209

19.11 A liquid petroleum fuel having a hydrogen to


carbon ratio of 0.169 by mass is burned in a heater with
an air/fuel ratio of 17 by mass. Determine:
a. the volumetric analysis on both wet and dry bases of
the exhaust gases
b. the dew point of the exhaust gas.

H H
---- = 0.169 ---- = 0.169 × 12 = 2.028 = 2.03
C C
CH 2.03 + 1.5075O 2 + 5.67N 2 → CO 2 + 1.015H 2 O + 5.670N 2
x ( 1.5075 + 5.6700 )29
----------------------------------------------------- = 17; x = 1.145 or 14.5% excess
1 ( 12 + 2.03 )
CH 2.03 + 1.725O 2 + 6.49N 2 → CO 2 + 1.015H 2 O + 0.2175O 2 + 6.59N 2
1 1
a. wet CO 2 = ---------------- = 11.50% dry CO 2 = ---------------- = 12.95%
8.7225 7.7075
1.015
H 2 O = ---------------- = 11.65%
8.7225
0.2175 0.2175
O 2 = ---------------- = 2.49% O 2 = ---------------- = 2.82%
8.7225 7.7075
6.4900 6.490
N 2 = ---------------- = 74.40% N 2 = ---------------- = 24.20%
8.7225 7.7075
b. P w = 0.1165 ( 14.7 ) = 1.71 psia ( 11.8 kPa ); Dew Point = 120°F ( 49°C )

19.12 Compare the heating value for semianthracite coal


as given in Table 8, chapter 28, 2009 ASHRAE Hand-
book—Fundamentals with the value predicted using the
Dulong Formula. [Ans: 1.24% difference]

From Table 8, pg. 18.8, 2009 HBF

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HV = 13 ,600 Btu/lb
O2 = 5 ; H 2 = 3.9; C = 80.4; N 2 = 1.1; S = 1.1; Ash = 8.5
Dulong: HHV = 14 ,544C + 62 ,028 [ H – ( 0 ⁄ 8 ) ] + 4050S
= 14 ,544 ( 0.804 ) + 62 ,028 [ 0.39 – ( 0.05 ⁄ 8 ) ] + 4050 ( 0.011 ) = 13 ,769 Btu/lb
13 ,769 – 13 ,600
Difference: --------------------------------------- × 100 = 1.24%
13 ,600
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210⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

19.13 Natural gas with a volumetric composition of


93.32% methane, 4.17% ethane, 0.69% propane, 0.19%
butane, 0.05% pentane, 0.98% carbon dioxide and 0.61%
nitrogen burns with 30% excess air. Calculate the volume
of dry air at 60°F, 30 in. Hg (15.6°C, 101.5 kPa) used to
burn 1000 ft3 (28.3 mL) of gas at 68°F and 29.92 in. Hg
(20°C and 101.4 kPa) and find the dew point of the
combustion products.

Table 1, pg. 28.2, 2009 HBF Natural Gas; 30% Excess Air
Methane (CH4) 93.32; Ethane (C2H6) 4.17; Propane (C3H7) 0.69
Butanes (C4H10) 0.19; Pentanes (C5H12) 0.05; CO2 0.98; N2 0.61

A ⁄ F = ( 9.57 ) ( 0.9332 ) + ( 16.75 ) ( 0.0417 ) + ( 23.95 ) ( 0.0069 ) + ( 31.14 ) ( 0.0019 ) + 38.29 ( 0.0005 )
3 3 3 3
= 9.88 ft air /ftgas at 68°F, 29.92 in. Hg = 9880 ft air /1000 ft gas
3 3 3 3
A ⁄ F at 30% excess air → A ⁄ Fa = 1.3 × 9.88 = 12.89ft air /ft gas or 12 ,890 ft air /1000 ftgas
V1 ( RT 1 ) ⁄ ( MP 1 ) T1 P2
------ = ----------------------------------
- = -----------
-
V2 ( RT 2 ) ⁄ ( MP 2 ) T2 P1

V 60°F, 30 in. Hg = 12 ,890 ⎛ ---------⎞ ⎛ -------------⎞ = 12 ,660 ft air /1000 ft gas


520 29.92 3 3
⎝ 528⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠
Methane: → ( 0.9332 )CO 2 + ( 0.9332 ) ( 2 )H 2 O + ( 0.9332 ) ( 2 ) ( 3.76 )N 2
Ethane: → ( 0.0417 ) ( 2 )CO 2 + ( 0.0417 ) ( 3 )H 2 O + ( 0.0417 ) ( 3.5 ) ( 3.76 )N 2
Propane: → ( 0.0069 ) ( 3 )CO 2 + ( 0.0069 ) ( 4 )H 2 O + ( 0.0069 ) ( 5 ) ( 3.76 )N 2
Butane, Pentane: small, neglect
CO 2 : 0.0098CO 2
0.0061N 2
N2 : ------------------------ ------------------------- ----------------------- = 10.71 Total
1.047CO 2 2.019H 2 O 7.702N 2

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9.7% 1.8% 71.5%

With 30% excess air 2.018 1.047CO 2 2.019H 2 O 10.0N 2 + 2.047O 2 = 15.11 Total
P w = 15.11 ( 30 in. Hg ) = 4.0 in. Hg; Dew Point = 126°F

19.14 The proximate analysis of a coal is: moisture =


4.33%, volatile matter = 40.21%, fixed carbon = 45.07%,
and ash = 10.39%. The heating value was determined as
29 000 kJ/kg (12,490 Btu/lb). Find the ASTM rank of the
coal.

Prox.: M = 4.33 ; VM = 40.21 ; FC = 45.07 ; A = 10.39 ; HV = 12 ,490 Btu/lb


Change to Dry: VM = 42% ; FC = 47.1% ; A = 10.9%

Class II. Bituminous, Group 5


High-Volatile C Bituminous Coal

From Table 7, pg. 28.8, 2009 HBF


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Chapter 19—Heating Equipment⏐211

19.15 A fuel oil shows an API gravity of 36. Calculate


the specific gravity at 60/60°F and the pounds per gallon
of fuel. Estimate the ASTM Grade. [Ans: 0.845, 7.05,
No. 2]
Eq. (2), pg. 28.7, 2009 HBF
141.5
Degrees API = -------------------------------------- – 131.5
S.G. at 60/60°F
141.5
36 = -------------------------- – 131.5 ; S.G. 60/60°F = 0.845
S.G. 60/60°F
at 60°F: ν H = 0.01603 ft 2 /lb ; ρ = 62.383 lb/ft 3
2O

ρ fuel oil = 0.845 ( 62.383 ) = 52.714 lb/ft 3


M = 52.714 lb/ft 3 × 0.13368 ft 3 /gal = 7.047 lb/gal
Grade No. 2

19.16 A representative No. 4 fuel oil has a gravity of


25° API and the following composition: carbon = 87.4%,
hydrogen = 10.7%, sulfur = 1.2%, nitrogen = 0.2, mois-
ture = 0, and solids = 0.5%.
a. Estimate its higher heating value.
b. Compute the mass of air required to burn, theoreti-
cally, 1 gallon of the fuel.

141.5
25 = ------------------------ – 131.5
S.G./60°F Eq. (2), pg. 28.7, 2009 HBF
S.G./60°F = 0.904
No. 4 fuel oil, 25°API
C = 87.4; H = 10.7; S = 1.2; N = 0.2; Solids = 0.5
a. HHV, Btu/lb = 22 ,320 – 37 ( S.G. ) = 18 ,903 Btu/lb Eq. (3), pg. 28.7, 2009 HBF

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Table 6: No. 4 1 gal = 7.5 lb ; HV = 145 ,000 Btu/gal
b. A ⁄ F = 0.0144 ( 8C + 24H + 3S – 30 ) Eq. (6), pg. 28.10, 2009 HBF
= 0.0144 [ 8 ( 87.4 ) + 24 ( 10.7 ) + 3 ( 1.2 ) ] = 13.82 lb a /lb f
lb a ⁄ gal fuel = ( 13.82 ) ( 7.5 ) = 103.6lb a ⁄ galf
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
© (2009), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org).
For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is
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212⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

19.17 The following data was taken from a test on an oil-


fired furnace:
Fuel rate = 20 gal oil/h
Specific gravity of fuel oil = 0.89% by mass
Hydrogen in fuel = 14.7%
Temperature of fuel for combustion = 80°F
Temperature of entering combustion air = 80°F
Relative humidity of entering air = 45%
Temperature of flue gases leaving furnace = 550°F
a. Calculate the heat loss in water vapor in products
formed by combustion.
b. Calculate the heat loss in water vapor in the combus-
tion air.
[Ans: 1672.5 Btu/lb (3888 kJ/kg), 29.4 Btu/lb
(68.3 kJ/kg)]
9H 2
a. q 3 = ---------- ( h ) tg – ( h f ) ta Eq. (19), Chap. 28, 2009 HBF
100
( 9 ) ( 14.7 )
= ----------------------- ( 1312.2 – 48.05 ) = 1672.5 Btu/lb f
100
b. q 4 = Mw a [ ( h ) tg – ( h f ) ta ] Eq. (20), Chap. 28, 2009 HBF
= ( 0.0098 ) ( 13.89 ) ( 1312.2 – 1096.12 ) = 29.4 Btu/lb

19.18 An office building requires 2901 MJ (2.75 × 109


Btu) of heat for the winter season. Compute the seasonal
heating costs, if the following fuel is used:
a. Bituminous coal; 31 380 kJ/kg (13,500 Btu/lb);
$70.00 per ton
b. No. 2 fuel oil, 38 500 kJ/L (138,000 Btu/gal); $2.75

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per gallon.
Assume that the conversion efficiency is 75% for the
oil and 61% for the coal.
2 ,750 ,000 ,000 Btu
a. - × $70.00/ton = $11, 680 coal
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13 ,500 Btu/lb × 2000 lb/ton × 0.61
2 ,750 ,000 ,000-
b. ----------------------------------- × $2.75/gal = $73 ,067 oil
138 ,000 × 0.75
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
© (2009), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org).
For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is
not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 19—Heating Equipment⏐213

19.19 Saturated air at 41°F dry bulb (5°C) enters a


furnace; it leaves the furnace at 110°F dry bulb (43.3°C)
and 0.00543 lbv /lba (0.00543 kg/kg) and circulates
through a factory. Air leaves the factory at 65°F dry bulb
(18.3°C) and 63°F wet bulb (17.2°C).
a. What is the sensible and latent heat change for the air
passing through the factory?
b. State whether the air gains or loses sensible and
latent heat during each process. [Ans: qs = +6 Btu/lb
(14.0 kJ/kg), ql = +7 Btu/lb (16.3 kJ/kg)]

a. q s = mc p Δt = 0.24 ( 110 – 65 ) = 10.8 Btu/lb loss


q L = m ( Δw )h f = ( 0.012 – 0.0054 )1060 = 7 Btu/lb gain
g

b. Across space: loses sensible, gains latent, see (a)


Across furnace:
q s = 0.24 ( 110 – 41 ) = 16.6 Btu/lb gain by air
q L = ( 0.0054 – 0.0054 )h f = 0
g

19.20 A plant is maintained at 70°F dry bulb, 60% RH,


and has a low-pressure steam heating system. A makeup
air system is being added to the plant and it has been
decided that the input air should be 10,127 cfm. Outside
design conditions are −1°F dry bulb, 50% RH. The plant
is 250 by 560 ft and normally has 325 people working per
shift.
a. What are the total steam requirements for the heating
coil and the humidifier?
b. What capacity should the humidifier have in pounds

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of water per hour?
Makeup air system for ventilation:
OA: –1°F db; 50% RH; Pv = 0.5(1.754 × 10–2) = 0.009; ν = 11.6
0.009
w = 0.622 ------------------------------ = 0.0004 lb ν /lb a
14.7 – 0.009
r: 70°F db; 60% RH; w = 0.0094
m w = 325 ( 475 ) ⁄ 1100 = 140.3 lb w /h lightbench work
m a = 10 ,127 ( 60 ) ⁄ 11.6 = 52 ,380 lb da /h
140.3
w s = 0.0094 – ---------------- = 0.0067 lb v /lb a
52 ,380
a. q = 52 ,380 { 0.240 [ 70 – ( – 1 ) ] + 1060 ( 0.0067 – 0.0004 ) } = 1 ,242 ,300 Btu/h
b. m H = 52 ,380 ( 0.0067 – 0.0004 ) = 330 lb/h
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
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For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is
not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
214⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

19.21 A residence with a design heating load of 26 kW


(89,000 Btu/h) is to use an oil-fired warm air system with
forced circulation. Return air to the furnace is at 22.2°C
(72°F). Specify the following:
This problem requires catalog data.
a. Supply air temperature
b. Airflow rate
c. Make and catalog number of suitable furnace

a. 135°F
b. q s = 1.10 ( cfm ) ( t s – t r ) ; 89 ,000 = 1.10 ( cfm ) ( 135 – 72 )
Airflow = 1280 cfm

19.22 A residence with a design heating load of 16 kW


(55,000 Btu/h) is to use a forced circulation hot-water
baseboard radiator system. The baseboard units house
copper tubing with aluminum fins and operate with the
inlet air temperature at 18.3°C (65°F). Specify the
following:
This problem requires catalog data.
a. Hot water inlet temperature and outlet temperature
b. Total water flow rate
c. Total length of radiator panel for house
d. Location of panels
e. Make and catalog number of suitable hot water
heater

a. 190°F inlet; 170°F outlet

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b. q s = 490 ( gpm ) Δt ; 55 ,000 = 490 ( gpm )20
gpm = 5.6
c. L ≅ 90 ft from catalog for t av = 180°F

19.23 For the residence of Problem 19-22, electric base-


board units replace the hot water system. Specify
This problem requires catalog data.
a. Total rating of electric system, kW
b. Total length of baseboard units

55 ,000
a. P = ---------------- = 16.1 = 16 kW
3413
b. from catalog: ∼ 250 W/ft = 852 Btu/h/ft
55 ,000
L ≅ ---------------- = 64.5 ft
852
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
© (2009), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org).
For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is
not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 19—Heating Equipment⏐215

19.24 A large classroom has a winter design heat loss of


19.9 kW (68,000 Btu/h) with installed forced circulation
hot-water baseboard radiators. The baseboard units house
copper tubing with aluminum fins and operate with the
inlet air temperature at 18.3°C (65°F). Specify the
following:
This problem requires catalog data.
a. Hot water inlet temperature and outlet temperature
b. Water flow rate
c. Length of radiator panel

a. 190°F inlet; 170°F outlet


b. q s = 490 ( gpm ) Δt ; 68 ,000 = 490 ( gpm )20
gpm = 6.95 ∼ 7
c. from catalog: at t av = 180°F; ∼ 600 Btu/h/ft
68 ,000
L = ---------------- = 113 ft
600

19.25 A large classroom has a winter design load of


26 kW (89,000 Btu/h). A forced circulation warm air
system is to be used with return air at 23.3°C (74°F).
Specify
a. Supply air temperature
b. Airflow rate

q s = 1.10 ( cfm ) ( t s – t r )
a. t s = 135°F (selected)
b. 89 ,000 = 1.10 ( cfm ) ( 135 – 74 )

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Airflow rate = 1330 cfm
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
© (2009), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org).
For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is
not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
216⏐Principles of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning—Solutions Manual

19.26 For a heat loss from the space to be conditioned of


Q, write the expression for determining
a. Amount of air L/s (cfm), which must be supplied if a
hot air system is used
b. Amount of hot water L/s (gpm), which must be sup-
plied if a hydronic system is used
c. Amount of steam kg/h (lb/h), which must be sup-
plied if a steam heating system is used
d. Size, in watts, of electric heaters required if electric
heat is used

· · qs
a. Hot air: q s = 1.2V ( t r – t s ); V ( l ⁄ s ) = --------------------------
1.2 ( t s – t r )
·
b. Hydronic: q s = m w c p ( t in – t out ) w = ρ w V w c p ( t in – t out ) w
w w

· qs
Vw = -------------------------------------------
ρ w c p ( t in – t out ) w
w

qs
c. Steam: q s = m st h f ; m st = ------
g hf
g

P ( watt )
d. Electric: q s ( kW ) = ------------------- ; P = 1000 q s
1000

19.27 List the steps taken when designing a forced-


circulation hot water heating system.
1. Compute the heat required for each room or space
2. Sketch runs, boiler, and convector locations.
3. Compute gpm for each circuit.
4. Select pump.

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5. Find ΔP/ft capacity of pump.
6. Select pipe sizes required.

19.28 Compute the increase in length of 28.3 m (93 ft) of


steel steam pipe when the average steam temperature is
113°C (235°F) and the air is 21°C (70°F). The pipe was
installed during a period when the temperature was
15.6°C (60°F).

–6
α = 6.5 ×10 in./in.
–6
ΔL = αL Δt = 6.5 ×10 ( 93 ) ( 235 – 60 ) = 0.106 ft = 1.27 in.
Copyrighted material licensed to University of Toronto by Thomson Scientific, Inc. (www.techstreet.com).
© (2009), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org).
For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is
not permitted without ASHRAE’s prior written permission.
Chapter 19—Heating Equipment⏐217

19.29 The total mass of steel in the boiler and piping of


a school’s heating system is 9080 kg (20,000 lb). The
piping and boiler also contain 6810 kg (15,000 lb) of
water. After a weekend shut-down, the temperature of the
system is 10°C (50°F). The operating temperature is
93°C (200°F).
a. Assuming the system should be warmed up in one
hour, determine the required furnace size.
[Ans: 764 kW (2,610,000 Btu/h)]
b. For a furnace size of 146 kW (500,000 Btu/h) output,
when should the furnace be started to be up to the
operating temperature of 93°C (200°F) by 7:30 A.M.
Monday morning? [Ans: 2:16 A.M. Sunday]

q a γ = m H O C H O Δt + m s C s Δt = ( m H O C H + m s C s ) Δt
2 2 2 2O

a. q ( 1 ) = ( 15 ,000 × 1 + 20 ,000 × 0.12 ) ( 200 – 50 ) = 2 ,610 ,000 Btu/h


b. 500 ,000 ( γ ) = 2 ,610 ,000; γ = 5.22 h = 5 h – 13 min.
7:30 A.M. – 5:13 = 2:17 A.M.

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