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deals with the behavior of liquids and

gases at rest or in motion

Concerns to explore:
What is the difference between a solid
and a fluid?

How can we further distinguish between

solids and fluids other than basing on
their structures?
How do we treat fluid as a continuum?

What are the fluid properties that are

intimately related to fluid behavior?
• densely spaced molecules
• large intermolecular cohesive forces

• molecules are spaced further apart
• intermolecular forces are smaller than for solids
• molecules have more freedom to move

• greater molecular spacing compared to liquids
• negligible cohesive intermolecular forces

will initially deform, but will not continuously

deform when acted by shearing stress


deforms continuously when acted by shearing

stress of any magnitude

behavior is characterized by considering the

average or macroscopic value of the quantity of

the average is evaluated over a small volume

containing a large number of molecules

volume is small compared with the physical

dimensions of the system of interest, but large
compared with the average distance between

at normal pressures and temperatures, the

spacing of molecules for liquid is on the order of
𝟏𝟎−𝟕 mm and 𝟏𝟎−𝟔 mm for gases

the number of molecules per cubic mm is on the

order of 𝟏𝟎𝟐𝟏 for liquids and 𝟏𝟎𝟏𝟖 for gases
Heaviness of Fluid
1. DENSITY (ρ) - mass (m) per unit volume (V)
Units: slugs/ 𝐟𝐭 𝟑 ; 𝐤𝐠/𝒎𝟑

In liquids, variation in pressure and temperature

generally has a small effect in the value of density.

In gases, density is strongly influenced by both

pressure and temperature.
2. SPECIFIC WEIGHT (ϒ) - weight (W) per unit
volume (V)

𝑾 𝒎𝒈
ϒ= = = ρg

Units: lb/ 𝐟𝐭 𝟑 ; 𝐍/𝒎𝟑

3. SPECIFIC GRAVITY (SG) - ratio of the density of
the fluid to the density of the reference fluid at
some specified temperature

SG(liquid) =
𝝆𝒘𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝒂𝒕 𝟒𝒐 𝑪

SG(gas) =
4. SPECIFIC VOLUME (v) - volume per unit mass

“Fluidity” of fluid
How come two fluids of approximately the
same density behave quite differently when

Viscosity (μ) – absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity

• relates shearing stress and fluid motion

• highly dependent on temperature
• only mildly dependent on pressure and the effect
of pressure is usually neglected
μ = 𝒅𝒖

τ – shearing stress
– rate of shearing strain (velocity gradient)

Units: lb-s/ 𝐟𝐭 𝟐 ; 𝐍 − 𝐬/𝒎𝟐 ; dynes-𝐬/𝒄𝒎𝟐 (𝑷𝒐𝒊𝒔𝒆, 𝑷)

Deformation of material Forces acting on upper
placed between two plates plate
Behavior of a fluid placed between parallel plates
Classifications of fluids based on viscosity:
I. Newtonian
II. Non-Newtonian
A. Shear-Dependent
1. Shear thinning fluids (pseudoplastic)
• the harder the fluid is sheared, the less
viscous it becomes
• e.g. latex paint, colloidal suspensions
2. Shear thickening fluids (dilatant)
• the harder the fluid is sheared, the more
viscous it becomes
• e.g. water-corn starch mixture, water-
sand mixture (quicksand)
3. Bingham plastic
• neither a fluid nor solid
• can withstand a finite shear stress without
motion, but once the yield stress is
exceeded it flows like a fluid
• e.g. toothpaste, mayonnaise
B. Time-Dependent
1. Rheopectic
2. Thixotropic

C. Viscoelastic
“Fluidity” of fluid

Kinematic viscosity (ν) – ratio of the absolute

viscosity to fluid density
ν =

Units: 𝐟𝐭 𝟐 /𝐬; 𝒄𝒎𝟐 /s (𝑺𝒕𝒐𝒌𝒆, 𝑺𝒕)

Compressibility of fluids
How easily can the volume of a given mass of
fluid be changed when there is a change in
1. Bulk Modulus of Elasticity (𝑬𝒗 )

𝑬𝒗 = - 𝒅𝑽

dp – differential change in pressure

dV/V – differential change in volume

The negative sign indicates that an increase in
pressure causes a decrease in volume.
However a decrease in volume will result in an
increase in density. Thus
𝑬𝒗 = 𝒅ρ

Units: 𝐥𝐛/𝐢𝐧𝟐 ; 𝐍/𝒎𝟐

Compression and expansion of gas
1. Constant temperature condition (isothermal
= 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕

2. Frictionless and no heat exchange with the

surroundings (isentropic process)

= 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕
𝒌 =
Cp - specific heat at constant pressure

Cv - specific heat at constant volume

Thus, for an isothermal process

𝑬𝒗 = 𝒑
for isentropic process

𝑬𝒗 = 𝒌𝒑
Ideal Gas Law 𝒑 = 𝝆𝑹𝑻

p – absolute pressure (lb/𝐢𝐧𝟐 ; N/𝐦𝟐 )

ρ - density (slugs/𝐟𝐭 𝟑 ; kg/𝐦𝟑 )
T - absolute temperature ( Rankine, R; Kelvin, K)
R - gas constant (ft-lb/(slug-R) ; N-m/(kg-K)
Compressibility of fluids
2. Speed of Sound or Acoustic Velocity (c) – the
velocity at which the disturbances propagate

𝒅𝒑 𝑬𝒗
𝒄 = =
𝒅ρ ρ
Other properties:
Evaporation – occurs when the molecules at the
surface of a liquid placed in a container open to
atmosphere have sufficient momentum to
overcome the intermolecular cohesive forces and
escape to the atmosphere

Vapor pressure – the pressure exerted by the vapor

on the liquid surface when a liquid is in a closed
container with a vacuum above the surface of the
Boiling – formation of vapor bubbles within a fluid
mass; initiated when the absolute pressure in the
fluid reaches the vapor pressure
Surface tension (σ) – the intensity of the molecular
attraction per unit length along any line in the
• occurs at the interface between a liquid and a gas,
or between two immiscible liquids

• forces develop in the liquid surface which cause the

surface to behave as if it were a “skin” or
“membrane” stretched over the fluid mass
Capillary action in small tubes
• capillary action in small tubes, which involves a
liquid-gas-solid interface is caused by surface


h – height
σ - surface tension
R – radius of tube
ϒ - specific weight of the liquid
ϴ - angle of contact between the fluid and the tube
Surface tension effects are significant in
movement of liquids through soil and other
porous media, flow of thin films, formation of
drops and bubbles, and in break-up of liquid
Sample Problem 1

A magnet wire is to be coated with varnish

for insulation by drawing it through a circular
die of 0.9 mm diameter. The wire diameter is
0.8 mm and it is centered in the die. The
varnish (μ=20 centipoise) completely fills the
space between the wire and the die for a
length of 20 mm. The wire is drawn through
the die at a speed of 50 m/s. Determine the
force required to pull the wire.
Sample Problem 2
(a) By how much does the pressure inside a
2-mm-diameter air bubble in 15°C water
exceed the pressure in the surrounding
water?( At 15°C, σ = 0.0735 N/m).

(b) Determine the excess pressure inside an

0.5 in.-diameter soap bubble floating in
air, given the surface tension of the soap
solution is 0.0035 lb/ft.