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Chapter 9 - Section A - Mathcad Solutions

9.2 TH  (20  273.15)K TH 293.15 K


TC  (20  273.15)K TC 253.15 K
kJ
QdotC  125000˜
day
TC
Z Carnot  (9.3) Z  0.6˜ Z Carnot Z 3.797
TH  TC

QdotC
Wdot  (9.2) Wdot 0.381 kW
Z
0.08 dollars
Cost  ˜ Wdot Cost 267.183 Ans.
kW˜ hr yr

9.4 Basis: 1 lbm of tetrafluoroethane


The following property values are found from Table 9.1:

State 1, Sat. Liquid at TH: H1  44.943 S1  0.09142 P1  138.83


State 2, Sat. Vapor at TH: H2  116.166 S2  0.21868 P2  138.83
State 3, Wet Vapor at TC: Hliq  15.187 Hvap  104.471 P3  26.617
State 4, Wet Vapor at TC: Sliq  0.03408 Svap  0.22418 P4  26.617
(a) The pressures in (psia) appear above.

(b) Steps 3--2 and 1--4 (Fig. 8.2) are isentropic, for which S3=S2 and S1=S4.
Thus by Eq. 6.82):

S2  Sliq S1  Sliq
x3  x3 0.971 x4  x4 0.302
Svap Sliq Svap Sliq

(c) Heat addition, Step 4--3:


H3  Hliq  x3˜ (Hvap Hliq) H4  Hliq  x4˜ (Hvap Hliq)
H3 101.888 H4 42.118
Q43  (H3  H4) Q43 59.77 (Btu/lbm)

298
(d) Heat rejection, Step 2--1:

Q21  ( H1  H2) Q21 71.223 (Btu/lbm)

(e) W21  0 W43  0


W32  ( H2  H3) W32 14.278
W14  ( H4  H1) W14 2.825
Q43
(f) Z Z 5.219
W14  W32

Note that the first law is satisfied:

6Q  Q21  Q43 6W  W32  W14 6Q  6W 0

9.7 TC  298.15˜ K TH  523.15˜ K (Engine)

T'C  273.15˜ K T'H  298.15˜ K (Refrigerator)

TC
By Eq. (5.8): K Carnot  1  K Carnot 0.43
TH

T'C
By Eq. (9.3): Z Carnot  Z Carnot 10.926
T'H  T'C

Wengine Q'C
By definition: K= Z=
QH Wrefrig

kJ
But Wengine = Wrefrig Q'C  35˜
sec
Q'C kJ
Whence QH  QH 7.448 Ans.
K Carnot˜ Z Carnot sec

Given that: K  0.6˜ K Carnot Z  0.6˜ Z Carnot Z 6.556

Q'C kJ
QH  QH 20.689 Ans.
KZ
˜ sec

299
kJ
9.8 (a) QC  4˜ W  1.5˜ kW
sec
QC
Z Z 2.667 Ans.
W
kJ
(b) QH  QC  W QH 5.5 Ans.
sec
TC
(c) Z = TH  (40  273.15)K
˜ TH 313.15 K
TH  TC

TC  TH˜ ¨
§ Z · TC 227.75 K Ans.
© Z  1¹
or -45.4 degC

9.9 The following vectors contain data for parts (a) through (e). Subscripts
refer to Fig. 9.1. Values of H2 and S2 for saturated vapor come from
Table 9.1.

§ 489.67 · § 0.79 · § 600 ·


¨ 479.67 ¨ 0.78 ¨ 500
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ Btu
T2  ¨ 469.67 ¸ ˜ rankine K  ¨ 0.77 ¸ QdotC  ¨ 400 ¸ ˜
¨ 459.67 ¸ ¨ 0.76 ¸ ¨ 300 ¸ sec
¨ ¨ ¨
© 449.67 ¹ © 0.75 ¹ © 200 ¹

§ 107.320 · § 0.22244 ·
¨ 105.907 ¨ 0.22325
¨ ¸ Btu ¨ ¸ Btu
H2  ¨ 104.471 ¸ ˜ S2  ¨ 0.22418 ¸ ˜
¨ 103.015 ¸ lbm ¨ 0.22525 ¸ lbm˜ rankine
¨ ¨
© 101.542 ¹ © 0.22647 ¹
Btu From Table 9.1
T4  539.67˜ rankine H4  37.978˜
lbm for sat. liquid
S'3 = S2 (isentropic compression)

300
The saturation pressure at Point 4 from Table 9.1 is 101.37(psia). For
isentropic compression, from Point 2 to Point 3', we must read values for
the enthalpy at Point 3' from Fig. G.2 at this pressure and at the entropy
values S2. This cannot be done with much accuracy. The most
satisfactory procedure is probably to read an enthalpy at S=0.22 (H=114)
and at S=0.24 (H=126) and interpolate linearly for intermediate values of
H. This leads to the following values (rounded to 1 decimal):

§ 115.5 ·
¨ 116.0 o
¨ ¸ Btu H'3  H2
H'3  ¨ 116.5 ¸ ˜ 'H23  H3  H2  'H23
¨ 117.2 ¸ lbm K
H1  H4
¨
© 117.9 ¹ § 24.084 · § 273.711 ·
¨ 30.098 ¨ 276.438
kJ ¨ ¸ kJ ¨ ¸ kJ
H1 88.337 'H23 ¨ 36.337 ¸ H3 ¨ 279.336 ¸
kg
¨ 43.414 ¸ kg ¨ 283.026 ¸ kg
¨ ¨
© 50.732 ¹ © 286.918 ¹
§ 8.653 ·
o ¨ 7.361
QdotC ¨ ¸ lbm
mdot  mdot ¨ 6.016 ¸ Ans.
H2  H1 sec
¨ 4.613 ¸
¨
© 3.146 ¹
§ 689.6 ·
¨ 595.2
o ¨ ¸ Btu
QdotH  ¬ªmdot˜ H4  H3 º¼ QdotH ¨ 494 ¸ Ans.
sec
¨ 386.1 ¸
¨
© 268.6 ¹
§ 94.5 ·
¨ 100.5
 o ¨ ¸

Wdot  mdot˜ 'H23 Wdot ¨ 99.2 ¸ kW Ans.
¨ 90.8 ¸
¨
© 72.4 ¹
301
§ 6.697 ·
o ¨ 5.25
Z
QdotC ¨ ¸
Wdot Z ¨ 4.256 ¸ Ans.
¨ 3.485 ¸
¨
© 2.914 ¹
TC  T2 TH  T4
§ 9.793 ·
o ¨ 7.995
TC ¨ ¸
Z Carnot  Z Carnot ¨ 6.71 ¸ Ans.
TH  TC
¨ 5.746 ¸
¨
© 4.996 ¹

9.10 Subscripts in the following refer to Fig. 9.1. All property values come from
Tables F.1 and F.2.
T2  (4  273.15)K
˜ T4  (34  273.15)K
˜ K  0.76

kJ kJ kJ
QdotC  1200˜ H2  2508.9˜ S2  9.0526˜
sec kg kg˜ K

kJ
H4  142.4˜ S'2 = S2 (isentropic compression)
kg
The saturation pressure at Point 4 from Table F.1 is 5.318 kPa. We must
find in Table F.2 the enthalpy (Point 3') at this pressure and at the
entropy S2. This requires double interpolation. The pressure lies
between entries for pressures of 1 and 10 kPa, and linear interpolation
with P is unsatisfactory. Steam is here very nearly an ideal gas, for
which the entropy is linear in the logarithm of P, and interpolation must
be in accord with this relation. The enthalpy, on the other hand, changes
very little with P and can be interpolated linearly. Linear interpolation
with temperture is satisfactory in either case.
The result of interpolation is
kJ H'3  H2
H'3  2814.7˜ 'H23  H1  H4
kg K
kJ
'H23 402.368
kg

302
3 kJ
H3  H2  'H23 H3 2.911 u 10
kg
QdotC kg
mdot  mdot 0.507 Ans.
H2  H1 sec

QdotH  mdot˜ H4  H3
kJ
QdotH 1404 Ans.
sec

Wdot  mdot˜ 'H23 Wdot 204 kW Ans.

QdotC
Z Z 5.881 Ans.
Wdot
T2
Z Carnot  Z Carnot 9.238 Ans.
T4  T2

9.11 Parts (a) & (b): subscripts refer to Fig. 9.1

At the conditions of Point 2 [t = -15 degF and


P = 14.667(psia)] for sat. liquid and sat. vapor from Table 9.1:

Btu Btu
Hliq  7.505˜ Hvap  100.799˜ H2  Hvap
lbm lbm

303
Btu Btu
Sliq  0.01733˜ Svap  0.22714˜
lbm˜ rankine lbm˜ rankine

For sat. liquid at Point 4 (80 degF):


Btu Btu
H4  37.978˜ S4  0.07892˜
lbm lbm˜ rankine

(a) Isenthalpic expansion: H1  H4

Btu QdotC lbm


QdotC  5˜ mdot  mdot 0.0796 Ans.
sec H2  H1 sec

(b) Isentropic expansion: S1  S4


S1  Sliq
H1  Hliq  x1˜ Hvap  Hliq
BTU
x1  H1 34.892
Svap  Sliq lbm

QdotC lbm
mdot  mdot 0.0759 Ans.
H2  H1 sec

(c) The sat. vapor from the evaporator is superheated in the heat
exchanger to 70 degF at a pressure of 14.667(psia). Property values
for this state are read (with considerable uncertainty) from Fig. G.2:

Btu Btu
H2A  117.5˜ S2A  0.262˜
lbm lbm˜ rankine

QdotC lbm
mdot  mdot 0.0629 Ans.
H2A  H4 sec

(d) For isentropic compression of the sat. vapor at Point 2,

S3  Svap and from Fig. G.2 at this entropy and P=101.37(psia)


Btu
H3  118.3˜ Eq. (9.4) may now be
lbm applied to the two cases:
In the first case H1 has the value of H4:

H2  H4
Za  Za 3.5896 Ans.
H3  H2

304
In the second case H1 has its last calculated value [Part (b)]:

H2  H1
Zb  Zb 3.7659 Ans.
H3  H2

In Part (c), compression is at constant entropy of 0.262 to the


final pressure. Again from Fig. G.2:

H3  H2A ˜ mdot
Btu (Last calculated
H3  138˜ Wdot 
lbm value of mdot)
BTU
Wdot 1.289
sec
QdotC
Zc  Zc 3.8791 Ans.
Wdot

9.12 Subscripts: see figure of the preceding problem.


At the conditions of Point 2 [sat. vapor, t = 20 degF and P = 33.110(psia)]
from Table 9.1:
Btu Btu
H2  105.907˜ S2  0.22325˜
lbm lbm˜ rankine
At Point 2A we have a superheated vapor at the same pressure and at
70 degF. From Fig. G.2:
Btu Btu
H2A  116˜ S2A  0.2435˜
lbm lbm˜ rankine
For sat. liquid at Point 4 (80 degF):
Btu Btu
H4  37.978˜ S4  0.07892˜
lbm lbm˜ R

Energy balance, heat exchanger:


BTU
H1  H4  H2A  H2 H1 27.885
lbm

Btu QdotC lbm


QdotC  2000˜ mdot  mdot 25.634
sec H2  H1 sec

305
For compression at constant entropy of 0.2435 to the final pressure of
101.37(psia), by Fig. G.2:

Btu H'3  H2A


H'3  127˜ K  0.75 'Hcomp 
lbm K

Btu
Wdot  mdot˜ 'Hcomp 'Hcomp 14.667
lbm
lbm
mdot 25.634 Wdot 396.66 kW Ans.
sec
If the heat exchanger is omitted, then H1 = H4.
Points 2A & 2 coincide, and compression is at a constant entropy of
0.22325 to P = 101.37(psia).

QdotC Btu H'3  H2


mdot  H'3  116˜ 'Hcomp 
H2  H4 lbm K
Btu
Wdot  mdot˜ 'Hcomp 'Hcomp 13.457
lbm

lbm
mdot 29.443 Wdot 418.032 kW Ans.
sec

9.13 Subscripts refer to Fig. 9.1.


At Point 2 [sat. vapor @ 10 degF] from Table 9.1:

Btu Btu
H2  104.471˜ S2  0.22418˜ S'3  S2
lbm lbm˜ R

H values for sat. liquid at Point 4 come from Table 9.1 and H values
for Point 3` come from Fig. G.2. The vectors following give values for
condensation temperatures of 60, 80, & 100 degF at pressures of
72.087, 101.37, & 138.83(psia) respectively.

¨§
31.239 ·
¨§
113.3 ·
Btu Btu
H4  ¨ 37.978 ¸ ˜ H'3  ¨ 116.5 ¸ ˜ H1  H4
¨ 44.943 lbm ¨ 119.3 lbm
© ¹ © ¹

306
(a) By Eq. (9.4):
o
¨§
8.294 ·
H2  H1
Z Z ¨ 5.528 ¸ Ans.
H'3  H2
¨ 4.014
© ¹
H'3  H2
(b) 'H  Since 'H = H3  H2
0.75
Eq. (9.4) now becomes

o
¨§
6.221 ·
H2  H1
Z Z ¨ 4.146 ¸ Ans.
'H ¨ 3.011
© ¹

9.14 WINTER TH  293.15


Wdot  1.5

QdotH = 0.75˜ TH  TC

Wdot TH  TC
=
QdotH TH

TC  250 (Guess)

Given

Wdot TH  TC
=
0.75˜ TH  TC TH

TC  Find TC

TC 268.94 K Ans.

Minimum t = -4.21 degC

307
SUMMER
TC  298.15

QdotC  0.75˜ TH  TC

Wdot TH  TC
=
QdotC TC

TH  300 (Guess)

Given

Wdot TH  TC
=
0.75˜ TH  TC TC

TH  Find TH

TH 322.57 K Ans.

Maximum t = 49.42 degC

9.15 and 9.16 Data in the following vectors for Pbs. 9.15 and 9.16 come from
Perry's Handbook, 7th ed.

§ 1033.5 · kJ kJ § 1186.7 · kJ
H4  ¨ ˜ H9  284.7˜ H15  ¨ ˜
© 785.3 ¹ kg kg © 1056.4 ¹ kg

 o
H4  H15 § 0.17 ·
By Eq. (9.8): z z ¨ Ans.
H9  H15 © 0.351 ¹

9.17 Advertized combination unit:

TH  (150  459.67)rankine
˜ TC  (30  459.67)rankine
˜

TH 609.67 rankine TC 489.67 rankine

Btu TH  TC Btu
QC  50000˜ WCarnot  QC˜ WCarnot 12253
hr TC hr

308
Btu
WI  1.5˜ WCarnot WI 18380
hr
This is the TOTAL power requirement for the advertized combination unit.
The amount of heat rejected at the higher temperature of
150 degF is
Btu
QH  WI  QC QH 68380
hr
For the conventional water heater, this amount of energy must be supplied
by resistance heating, which requires power in this amount.
For the conventional cooling unit,

TH  ( 120  459.67) ˜ rankine

TH  TC Btu
WCarnot  QC˜ WCarnot 9190
TC hr
Btu
Work  1.5˜ WCarnot Work 13785
hr
The total power required is
Btu
WII  QH  Work WII 82165 NO CONTEST
hr

9.18 TC  210 T'H  260 T'C  255 TH  305


By Eq. (9.3):
TC TC T'C
Z Z I  0.65˜ Z II  0.65˜
TH  TC T'H  TC TH  T'C

QC QC QC
WCarnot = WI = WII =
Z ZI Z II
Define r as the ratio of the
actual work, WI + WII, to the r  Z ˜ § 1  1 ·
Carnot work: ¨Z Z r 1.477 Ans.
© I II ¹

9.19 This problem is just a reworking of Example 9.3 with different values of x.
It could be useful as a group project.

309
9.22 TH  290K TC  250K Ws  0.40kW

TC
Z Carnot  Z Carnot 6.25 Z  65%Z Carnot Z 4.063
TH  TC
Ans.
3 -3 2
QC  Ws˜ Z QC 1.625 u 10 kgm sec
QH  Ws  QC QH 2.025 kW

9.23 Follow the notation from Fig. 9.1


With air at 20 C and the specification of a minimum approach 'T = 10 C:

T1  (10  273.15)K T4  (30  273.15)K T2  T1


Calculate the high and low operating pressures using the given vapor
pressure equation

Guess: PL  1bar PH  2bar


PL
§ PL · 4104.67 § T1 · bar
Given ln¨ = 45.327   5.146˜ ln ¨  615.0
© bar ¹ T1 ©K¹ § T1 ·
2
K ¨
©K¹
PL  Find PL PL 6.196 bar
PH
§ PH · 4104.67 § T4 · bar
Given ln¨ = 45.327   5.146˜ ln ¨  615.0
© bar ¹ T4 ©K¹ § T4 ·
2
K ¨
©K¹
PH  Find PH PH 11.703 bar

Calculate the heat load


kmol
ndottoluene  50 T1  (100  273.15)K T2  (20  273.15)K
hr

Using values from Table C.3



QdotC  ndottoluene˜ R˜ ICPH T1  T2  15.133  6.79˜ 10
3
 16.35˜ 10
6
0

QdotC 177.536 kW

310
Since the throttling process is adiabatic: H4 = H1
But: Hliq4 = Hliq1  x1˜ 'Hlv1 so: Hliq4  Hliq1 = x1˜ 'Hlv

T4
´
and: Hliq4  Hliq1 = Vliq˜ P4  P1  µ Cpliq ( T) dT
¶T
1
Estimate Vliq using the Rackett Eqn.

Z  0.253 Tc  405.7K Pc  112.80bar


3
cm kJ
Zc  0.242 Vc  72.5 Tn  239.7K 'Hlvn  23.34
mol mol
( 20  273.15)K
Tr  Tr 0.723
Tc
2

1Tr 7
cm
3
Vliq  Vc˜ Zc Vliq 27.112
mol

Estimate 'Hlv at 10C using Watson correlation


Tn T1
Trn  Trn 0.591 Tr1  Tr1 0.698
Tc Tc
0.38
§ 1  Tr1 ·
'Hlv  'Hlvn˜ ¨ kJ
'Hlv 20.798
© 1  Trn ¹ mol


'Hliq41  Vliq˜ PH  PL  R˜ ICPH T1  T4  22.626  100.75˜ 10
3 6
 192.71˜ 10 0

kJ 'Hliq41
'Hliq41 1.621 x1  x1 0.078
mol 'Hlv
For the evaporator


'H12 = H2  H1 = H1vap  H1liq  x1˜ 'Hlv = 1  x1 ˜ 'Hlv

1  x1 ˜ 'Hlv
kJ
'H12  'H12 19.177
mol
QdotC mol
ndot  ndot 9.258 Ans.
'H12 sec

311