Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 33

The Challenge and Promise of Cognitive Career Assessment

Linda S. Gottfredson
First Published May 1, 2003

Abstract

Abilities are as important as interests in career choice and development. Reviving


cognitive assessment in career counseling promises to help counselees better
understand their career options and how to enhance their competitiveness for the
ones they prefer. Nearly a century of research on human cognitive abilities and jobs'
aptitude demands in the U.S. economy reveals that the two domains are structured in
essentially the same way. The author describes that common structure and how it
can be used in assessing person-job match in terms of general ability level and ability
profile. She also suggests ways of resolving various technical and professional
questions, such as which cognitive abilities to assess, how to assess them, what the
most useful aptitude-based occupational classification would be, and how to use
cognitive assessments in a broader “reality-based exploration” process intended to
expand people's career opportunities.

Keywords Career assessment, cognitive abilities, career choice, aptitude


requirements, occupational classification

Achter, J. A., Lubinski, D., Benbow, C., & Eftekhari-Sanjani, H. (1999). Assessing vocational
preferences among gifted adolescents adds incremental validity to abilities: A discriminant
analysis of educational outcomes over a 10-year interval. Journal of Educational Psychology,
91(4), 777-786. Google Scholar, Crossref

Ackerman, P. L. (1996). A theory of adult intellectual development: Process, personality,


interests, and knowledge. Intelligence, 22(2), 227-257. Google Scholar, Crossref

Ackerman, P. L., & Heggestad, E. D. (1997). Intelligence, personality, and interests: Evidence
for overlapping traits. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 218-245. Google Scholar

Austin, J. T., & Hanisch, K. A. (1990). Occupational attainment as a function of abilities and
interests: A longitudinal analysis using Project TALENT data. Journal of Applied Psychology,
75, 77-89. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Brody, N. (1992). Intelligence (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Google Scholar
Brody, N. (in press-a). Construct validation of the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (STAT):
Comment and reanalysis. Intelligence. Google Scholar

Brody, N. (in press-b). What Sternberg should have concluded. Intelligence. Google Scholar

Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. New York:
Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Davies, M., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. D. (1998). Emotional intelligence: In search of an elusive
construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 989-1015. Google
Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Dawis, R. V. (2002). Person-environment-correspondence theory. In D. Brown (Ed.), Career


choice and development (4th ed., pp. 427-464). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar

Furnham, A. (2001). Self-estimates of intelligence: Culture and gender difference in self and
other estimates of both general (g) and multiple intelligences. Personality and Individual
Differences, 31(8), 1381-1405. Google Scholar, Crossref

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic
Books. Google Scholar

Gottfredson, G. D., & Holland, J. L. (1996). Dictionary of Holland occupational codes (2nd ed.).
Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Google Scholar

Gottfredson, L. S. (1978). An analytical description of employment according to race, prestige,


and Holland type of work. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 13, 210-221. Google
Scholar, Crossref

Gottfredson, L. S. (1980). Construct validity of Holland's occupational typology in terms of


prestige, census, Department of Labor, and other classification systems. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 65(6), 697-714. Google Scholar, Crossref

Gottfredson, L. S. (1981). Circumscription and compromise: A developmental theory of


occupational aspirations [Monograph]. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28, 545-579. Google
Scholar, Crossref

Gottfredson, L. S. (1985a). Education as a valid but fallible signal of worker quality: Reorienting
an old debate about the functional basis of the occupational hierarchy. In A. C. Kerchoff (Ed.),
Research in sociology of education and socialization (Vol. 5, pp. 119-165). Greenwich, CT:
JAI. Google Scholar
Gottfredson, L. S. (1985b). A system for reality-based career exploration: Methods and
materials(Technical report for Grant NIE-83-0002). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, Center
for Social Organization of Schools. Google Scholar

Gottfredson, L. S. (1986a). Occupational aptitude patterns map: Development and implications


for a theory of job aptitude requirements [Monograph]. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 29, 254-
291. Google Scholar, Crossref

Gottfredson, L. S. (1986b). Special groups and the beneficial use of vocational interest
inventories. In W. B. Walsh & S. Osipow (Eds.), Advances in vocational psychology, Vol. 1: The
assessment of interests (pp. 127-198). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Google Scholar

Gottfredson, L. S. (1996a). Gottfredson's theory of circumscription and compromise. In D.


Brown & L. Brooks (Eds.), Career choice and development (3rd ed., pp. 179-232). San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar

Gottfredson, L. S. (1996b, Winter). What do we know about intelligence? The American


Scholar, pp. 15-30. Google Scholar

Gottfredson, L. S. (1997a). Mainstream science on intelligence: An editorial with 52 signatories,


history, and bibliography. Intelligence, 24(1), 13-23. Google Scholar, Crossref

Gottfredson, L. S. (1997b). Why g matters: The complexity of everyday life. Intelligence,


24(1), 79-132. Google Scholar, Crossref

Gottfredson, L. S. (1998, Winter). The general intelligence factor. Scientific American Presents,
9(4), 24-29. Google Scholar

Gottfredson, L. S. (2000). Intelligence. In E. F. Borgatta & R. J. V. Montgomery (Eds.),


Encyclopedia of sociology, Vol. 2 (2nd ed., pp. 1359-1386). New York: Macmillan
Reference. Google Scholar

Gottfredson, L. S. (2002a). g: Highly general and highly practical. In R. J. Sternberg & E. L.


Grigorenko (Eds.), The general factor of intelligence: How general is it? (pp. 331-380). Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Google Scholar

Gottfredson, L. S. (2002b). Gottfredson's theory of circumscription, compromise, and self-


creation. In D. Brown (Ed.), Career choice and development (4th ed., pp. 85-148). San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar

Gottfredson, L. S. (2003). The science and politics of intelligence in gifted education. In N.


Colangelo & G. A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of gifted education (3rd ed., pp. 24-40). Boston:
Allyn & Bacon. Google Scholar
Gottfredson, L. S. (in press-a). Dissecting practical intelligence theory: Its claims and evidence.
Intelligence. Google Scholar

Gottfredson, L. S. (in press-b). On Sternberg's “Reply to Gottfredson.” Intelligence. Google


Scholar

Hartigan, J. A., & Wigdor, A. K. (Eds.). (1988). Fairness in employment testing: Validity
generalization, minority issues, and the General Aptitude Test Battery. Washington, DC:
National Academy Press. Google Scholar

Holland, J. L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work
environments (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Google Scholar

Humphreys, L. G., Lubinski, D., & Yao, G. (1993). Utility of predicting group membership and
the role of spatial visualization in becoming an engineer, physical scientist, or artist. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 78(2), 250-261. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Humphreys, L. G., & Yao, G. (2002). Prediction of graduate major from cognitive and self-report
test scores obtained during the high school years. Psychological Reports, 90, 3-30. Google
Scholar, Link

Hunt, E. (2001). Multiple views of multiple intelligence [Review of the book Intelligence
reframed: Multiple intelligence in the 21st century]. Contemporary Psychology, 46(1), 5-
7. Google Scholar

Jensen, A. R. (1980). Bias in mental testing. New York: Free Press. Google Scholar

Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g factor: The science of mental ability. Westport, CT:
Praeger. Google Scholar

Lubinski, D., & Dawis, R. V. (1992). Aptitudes, skills, and proficiencies. In M. D. Dunnette & L.
M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 3). Palo Alto, CA:
Consulting Psychologists Press. Google Scholar

Lubinski, D., Webb, R. M., Morelock, M. J., & Benbow, C. P. (2001). Top 1 in 10,000: A 10-year
follow-up of the profoundly gifted. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(4), 718-729. Google
Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Boykin, A. W., Brody, N., Ceci, S. J., et al. (1996).
Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. American Psychologist, 51, 77-101. Google
Scholar, Crossref
Peterson, G. W., Sampson, J. P., Jr., Lenz, J. G., & Reardon, R. C. (2002). A cognitive
information processing approach to career problem solving and decision making. In D. Brown
(Ed.), Career choice and development (4th ed., pp. 312-369). San Francisco: Jossey-
Bass. Google Scholar

Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2000). On the dimensional structure of emotional intelligence.
Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 313-320. Google Scholar, Crossref

Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G. E., & McGuffin, P. (2001). Behavioral genetics (4th
ed.). New York: Worth and W. H. Freeman. Google Scholar

Roberts, R. D., Zeidner, M., & Matthews, G. (2001). Does emotional intelligence meet
traditional standards for an intelligence: Some new data and conclusions. Emotion, 1, 196-
231. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel
psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings.
Psychological Bulletin, 124(2), 262-274. Google Scholar, Crossref

Shea, D. L., Lubinski, D., & Benbow, C. P. (2001). Importance of assessing spatial ability in
intellectually talented young adolescents: A 20-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 93(3), 604-614. Google Scholar, Crossref

Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Successful intelligence. New York: Plume. Google Scholar

Sternberg, R. J., Forsythe, G. B., Hedlund, J., Horvath, J. A., Wagner, R. K., Williams, W. M., et
al. (2000). Practical intelligence in everyday life. New York: Cambridge University
Press. Google Scholar

Wigdor, A. K., & Garner, W. R. (Eds.). (1982). Ability testing: Uses, consequences, and
controversies. Part I: Report of the committee. Washington, DC: National Academy
Press. Google Scholar
Career Assessment With Asian-Americans
Frederick T. L. Leong, S. Alvin Leung

First Published June 1, 1994 Research Article

Download PDF Article information

Abstract

The current article provides a review of the issues and problems in conducting career
assessment with Asian-Americans. Existing information about the assessment of
career interests, vocational development, and work values as they pertain to Asian-
Americans are reviewed. Special issues in career assessment with Asian-Americans
such as occupational segregation in vocational choices, educational attainment, and
family influences are also discussed. The article also presents cross-cultural issues
to be considered in the assessment and test interpretation process with Asian-
American clients. Wherever appropriate, guidelines for effective career assessment
with Asian-Americans are offered in the discussion. In the final section, directions for
future research to increase our knowledge base on career assessment with Asian-
Americans are presented and discussed.

Anastasi, A. (1988). Psychological testing (6th ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishing . Brandon, P.R.
(1991). Gender differences in young Asian-Americans' educational attainments. Sex Roles , 25, 45-
61. Google Scholar

Brown, D., Brooks, L., & Associates (Eds.). (1990). Career choice and development . San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar

Crites, J. (1978). Theory and research handbook for the Career Maturity Inventory. Monterey,
CA: California Testing Bureau, McGraw-Hill. Google Scholar
Cronbach, L.J., & Meehl, P.E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin,
52, 281-302. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Fitzgerald, L.F., & Betz, N.E. (1992, April). Career development in cultural context: The role of gender,
race, class and sexual orientation. Paper presented at the Conference on Convergence in Theories of
Career Choice and Development, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. Google Scholar

Fouad, N.A. (1993). Cross-cultural vocational assessment. The Career Development Quarterly, 42, 4-
13. Google Scholar, Crossref

Fox, D. ( 1991). Neuropsychology, achievement, and Asian-American culture: A relative functionalism


oriented times three. American Psychologist , 46, 877-878. Google Scholar, Crossref

Gottfredson, L.S. (1986). Special groups and the beneficial use of Vocational Interest Inventory. In W. B.
Walsh & S. H. Osipow (Eds.), Advances in vocational psychology, Volume 1. The assessment of interests
(pp.127-198). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Google Scholar

Hales, L.W., & Fenner, B.J. (1973). Sex and social class differences in work values . Elementary School
Guidance and Counseling, 8, 27-32. Google Scholar

Hales, L.W., & Fenner, B.J. (1975). Measuring the work values of children: The Ohio Work Values
Inventory. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance , 8, 20-25. Google Scholar

Hansen, J.C. (1987). Cross-cultural research in vocational research . Measurement and Evaluation in
Counseling and Development , 19, 163-176. Google Scholar

Harmon, L.W. (1989). Changes in women's career aspirations over time: Developmental or historical.
Journal of Vocational Behavior , 33, 46-63. Google Scholar, Crossref

Harren, V.A. (1978). Assessment of career decision-making. Unpublished manuscript, Southern Illinois
University, Department of Psychology, Carbondale. Google Scholar

Hauser, R.M., & Featherman, D.L. (1977). The process of stratification: Trends and analysis. New
York: Academic Press. Google Scholar
Haverkamp, B.E. (1987, August). The structure of interests in four minority student populations. Paper
presented at the 96th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York. Google
Scholar

Hayes, S.C., Nelson, R.O., & Jarrett, R.B. (1987). The treatment utility of assessment: A functional
approach to evaluating assessment quality. American Psychologist , 42, 963-974. Google
Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Holland, J.L. (1985). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work
environments (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall . Google Scholar

Holland, J.L., Daiger, D.C., & Power, P.G. (1980). My Vocational Situation. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting
Psychologists Press. Google Scholar

Holland, J.L., & Gottfredson, G.D. (1992). Studies of the hexagonal model: An evaluation (or, The perils
of stalking the perfect hexagon). Journal of Vocational Behavior, 40, 158-170. Google Scholar, Crossref

Hsia, J. (1980, September). Cognitive assessment ofAsian-Americans . Paper presented at the National
Institute of Education-National Center for Bilingual Research Symposium on Bilingual Research at Los
Alamitos, CA. Google Scholar

Hsia, J. (1988). Asian-Americans in higher education and at work . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum . Google Scholar

Hsu, F.L.K. (1970). Americans and Chinese. New York: Doubleday. Google Scholar

Lamb, R.R. (1976). Validity of the ACT Interest Inventory for minority group members. (ACT Research
Report, No. 72). Iowa City : American College Testing Program. Google Scholar

Lamb, R.R. (1978). Validity of the ACT Interesting Inventory for minority group membership. In C. K. Title
& D. G. Zytowski (Eds.), Sex fair interest measurement: Research and implications (pp. 113-
119). Washington, DC: National Institute of Education. Google Scholar

Leong, F.T.L. (1985). Career development of Asian-Americans. Journal of College Student Personnel,
26, 539-546. Google Scholar
Leong, F.T.L. (1986). Counseling and psychotherapy with Asian-Americans: Review of the literature.
Journal of Counseling Psychology , 33, 196-206. Google Scholar, Crossref

Leong, F.T.L. (1991). Career development attributes and occupational values of Asian American and
white American college students. Career Development Quarterly, 39, 221-230. Google Scholar, Crossref

Leong, F.T.L. (1993). The career counseling process with racial-ethnic minorities: The case of Asian-
Americans. Career Development Quarterly, 42, 26-40. Google Scholar, Crossref

Leong, F.T.L., & Chou, E.L. (1994). The role of ethnic identity and acculturation in the vocational
behavior of Asian-Americans: An integrative review. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 44, 155-172. Google
Scholar, Crossref

Leong, F.T.L., & Gim, R.H.C. (in press). Career assessment and intervention with Asian-Americans . In F.
T. L. Leong (Ed.), Career development and vocational behavior of racial and ethnic minorities . Hillsdale,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum . Google Scholar

Leong, F.T.L., & Hayes, T.J. (1990). Occupational stereotyping of Asian-Americans. Career Development
Quarterly, 39, 143-154. Google Scholar, Crossref

Leong, F.T.L., & Tata, S.P. (1990). Sex and acculturation differences in occupational values among
Chinese-American children. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37, 208-212. Google Scholar, Crossref

Leung, S.A. (1993). Circumscription and compromise: A replication study with Asian-Americans. Journal
of Counseling Psychology , 40, 188-193. Google Scholar, Crossref

Leung, S.A., & Harmon, L.W. (1990). Individual and sex differences in the Zone of Acceptable
Alternatives. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 37, 153-159. Google Scholar, Crossref

Leung, S.A., Ivey, D., & Suzuki, L. (in press). Factors affecting the career aspirations of Asian-Americans .
Journal of Counseling and Development. Google Scholar

Lonner, W.J. (1985). Issues in testing and assessment in cross-cultural counseling. The Counseling
Psychologist, 13, 599-614. Google Scholar, Link
Lonner, W.J., & Ibrahim, F.A. (1989). Assessment in cross-cultural counseling. In P. B. Pedersen, J. G.
Draguns, W. J. Lonner, & J. E. Trimble (Eds.), Counseling across cultures (3rd ed.). Honolulu,
HI: University of Hawaii Press. Google Scholar

Lynn, R. (1991). Comment: Educational achievements of Asian-Americans . American Psychologist,


46, 875-876. Google Scholar, Crossref

National Science Foundation. (1990). Women and minorities in science and engineering. Washington,
DC: Author. Google Scholar

Osipow, S.H., Carney, C.G., Winer, J., Yanico, B., & Koschier, M. (1976). The Career Decision Scale (3rd
rev. ed.). Columbus, OH: Marathon Consulting and Press. Google Scholar

Ponterotto, J.G., & Casas, J.M. (1991). Handbook of racial/ethnic minority counseling
research. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Google Scholar

Ponterotto, J.G., Rieger, B.P., Barrett, A., & Sparks, R. (1994). Assessing multicultural counseling
competence: A review of instrumentation. Journal of Counseling and Development , 72, 316-
322. Google Scholar, Crossref

Rosenberg, M. (1957). Occupations and values. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. Google Scholar

Sabnani, H., & Ponterotto, J.G. (1992). Racial/ethnic minority-specific instrumentation in counseling
research: A review, critique, and recommendations . Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and
Development , 24, 161-187. Google Scholar

Sue, D., & Sue, S. (1987). Cultural factors in the clinical assessment of Asian-Americans. Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 55, 479-487. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Sue, D.W. (1975). Asian-Americans: Social-psychological factors affecting their lifestyles. In J. S. Picou &
R. E. Campbell (Eds.), Career behavior of special groups: Theory, research and practice (pp. 97-
121). Columbus, OH: Merrill. Google Scholar

Sue, D.W. (1977). Barriers to effective cross-cultural counseling . Journal of Counseling Psychology,
24, 420-429. Google Scholar, Crossref
Sue, D.W., & Frank, A.C. (1973). A typological approach to the psychological study of Chinese- and
Japanese-American college males. Journal of Social Issues, 29, 129-148. Google Scholar, Crossref

Sue, D.W., & Kirk, B.A. (1972). Psychological characteristics of Chinese-American students. Journal of
Counseling Psychology, 19, 471-478. Google Scholar, Crossref

Sue, D.W., & Kirk, B.A. (1973). Differential Characteristics of Japanese-American and Chinese-American
college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 20, 142-148. Google Scholar, Crossref

Sue, D.W., & Kirk, B.A. (1975). Asian-Americans: Use of counseling and psychiatric services on a college
campus. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 22, 84-86. Google Scholar, Crossref

Sue, D.W., & Sue, D. (1990). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice. (2nd ed.). New
York : Wiley. Google Scholar

Sue, S., & Morishima, J.K. (1982). The mental health of Asian-Americans . San Francisco: Jossey-
Bass. Google Scholar

Sue, S., & Okazaki, S. (1990). Asian-American educational achievements: A phenomenon in search of an
exploration. American Psychologist, 45, 913-920. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Suinn, R.M., Ricard-Figueroa, K., Lew, S., & Vigil, P. (1987). Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation
Scale: An initial report. Educational and Psychological Measurement , 7, 401-407. Google Scholar, Link

Sundberg, N.D., & Gonzales, L.R. (1981). Cross-cultural and cross-ethnic assessment: Overview and
issues. In P. McReynolds (Ed.), Advances in psychological assessment (Vol. 5, pp. 460-541). San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar

Super, D.E. (1957). The psychology of careers. New York: Harper & Row. Google Scholar

Tata, S.P., & Leong, F.T.L. (in press). Individualism-collectivism, network orientation, and acculturation
as predictors of attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help among Chinese-Americans.
Journal of Counseling Psychology . Google Scholar

Tinsley, H.E.A., & Bradley, R.W. (1988). Interpretation of psychometric instruments in career counseling.
In J. T. Kapes & M. M. Mastie (Eds.), A counselor's guide to assessment instruments (2nd ed.) (pp. 39-
46). Alexandria, VA: The National Career Development Association . Google Scholar
Toupin, E.S.W., & Son, L. (1991). Preliminary findings on Asian-Americans: "The model minority" in a
small private east coast college. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 22, 403-417. Google Scholar, Link

Triandis, H.C., Bontempo, R., Villareal, M.J., Asai, M., & Lucca, N. (1988). Individualism and collectivism:
Cross-cultural perspectives on self-ingroup relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
54, 323-338. Google Scholar, Crossref

Walsh, W.B., & Betz, N. (1990). Tests and assessment (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-
Hall. Google Scholar

Westermeyer, J. (1987). Cultural factors in clinical assessment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Psychology, 55, 471-478. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Zane, N. (1991). An empirical examination of Loss of Face among Asian-Americans. Unpublished


manuscript. Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara . Google Scholar
Self-Efficacy Theory as a Basis for Career Assessment
Nancy E. Betz
First Published July 1, 2000 Research Article

Download PDF Article information

Abstract

This article reviews the basic postulates of self-efficacy theory and describes its
applications to the study of career choice and development. Following a discussion of
issues involved in the measurement of perceived self-efficacy with respect to
domains of career behavior, measurement of and research on occupational self-
efficacy, mathematics self-efficacy, self-efficacy with respect to basic domains of
activity, and career decision self-efficacy are reviewed. The relationship of self-
efficacy to vocational interests and the particular relevance of the theory to the career
development of women and members of racial/ethnic minority groups are also
discussed.

Keywords Self-efficacy theory,, career self-efficacy,, social cognitive theory,, career


decision self-efficacy,, self-efficacy and interests

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review,
84, 191-215. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman. Google Scholar

Bandura, A., Pastorelli, C., Barbaranelli, C., & Caprara, G. V. (1999). Self-efficacy pathways to childhood
depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 258-269. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline
Betz, N. E. (1997). What stops women and minorities from choosing and completing majors in science
and engineering ? In D. Johnson (Ed.), Minorities and girls in school: Effects on achievement and
performance (pp. 105-140). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar

Betz, N. E. (1999). Getting clients to act on their interests: Self-efficacy as a moderator of the
implementation of vocational interests. In M. L. Savickas & A. R. Spokane (Eds.), Occupational interests:
Their meaning, measurement, and use in counseling (pp. 327-344). Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black . Google
Scholar

Betz, N., Borgen, F., & Harmon, L. (1996). Skills Confidence Inventory applications and technical
guide. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Google Scholar

Betz, N. E., Borgen, F., Kaplan, A., & Harmon, L. (1998). Gender as a moderator of the validity and
interpretive utility of the Skills Confidence Inventory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 53, 1-19. Google
Scholar

Betz, N. E., & Hackett, G. (1981). The relationship of career-related self-efficacy expectations to
perceived career options in college women and men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28, 399-
410. Google Scholar, Crossref

Betz, N. E., & Hackett, G. (1983). The relationship of mathematics self-efficacy expectations to the
selection of science-based college majors . Journal of Vocational Behavior, 23, 329-345. Google
Scholar, Crossref

Betz, N. E., & Hackett, G. (1997). Applications of self-efficacy theory to the career development of
women. Journal of Career Assessment , 5, 383-402. Google Scholar, Link

Betz, N., Harmon, L., & Borgen, F. (1996). The relationships of self-efficacy for the Holland themes to
gender, occupational group membership, and vocational interests. Journal of Counseling Psychology,
43, 90-98. Google Scholar, Crossref

Betz, N. E., Klein, K., & Taylor, K. (1996). Evaluation of a short form of the Career Decision-Making Self-
Efficacy scale . Journal of Career Assessment, 4, 47-57. Google Scholar, Link

Betz, N., & Luzzo, D. (1996). Career assessment and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy scale.
Journal of Career Assessment , 4, 313-328. Google Scholar
Betz, N., Schifano, R., & Kaplan, A. (1999). Relationships among measures of perceived self-efficacy with
respect to basic domains of vocational activity. Journal of Career Assessment , 7, 213-226. Google
Scholar, Link

Bieschke, K. J. (2000). Factor structure of the Research Outcome Expectations Scale. Journal of Career
Assessment, 8, 303-313. Google Scholar, Link

Blustein, D. L. (1989). The role of goal instability and career self-efficacy in the career exploration
process . Journal of Vocational Behavior, 35, 194-203. Google Scholar, Crossref

Brown, S. D., Lent, R. W. , & Gore, P. A., Jr. ( 2000). Self-rated abilities and self-efficacy beliefs: Are they
empirically distinct? Journal of Career Assessment , 8, 223-235. Google Scholar, Link

Brown, C., Reedy, D., Fountain, J., Johnson, A. , & Dichiser, T. ( 2000). Battered woman's career decision-
making self-efficacy: Further insights and contributing factors. Journal of Career Assessment, 8, 251-
265. Google Scholar, Link

Campbell, N. K., & Hackett, G. (1986). The effects of mathematics task performance on math self-
efficacy and task interest. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 28, 149-162. Google Scholar, Crossref

Campbell, D. P., Hyne, S. A., & Nilsen, D. C. ( 1992). Manual for the Campbell Interest and Skill
Survey. Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems . Google Scholar

Chartrand, J. M., & Rose, M. L. (1996). Career interventions for at-risk populations: Incorporating social
cognitive influences. The Career Development Quarterly, 44, 341-353. Google Scholar, Crossref

Crites, J. O. (1978). Career Maturity Inventory: Theory and research handbook. Monterey,
CA: CTB/McGraw Hill. Google Scholar

Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin,
52. 281-302. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Donnay, D. A., & Borgen, F. H. (1999). The incremental validity of vocational self-efficacy: An
examination of interest, efficacy, and occupation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 432-
447. Google Scholar, Crossref
Fitzgerald, L. F., & Harmon, L. W. (1998, August). Sam Osipow and women's career development: A post
modern update. In F. T. L. Leong and A. Barak (Co-Chairs), Contemporary models in vocational
psychology: A symposium honoring Samuel H. Osipow. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the
American Psychological Association, San Francisco . Google Scholar

Flores, L. Y., & O'Brien, K. (2000). The career development of Mexican American women: A structural
analysis of social cognitive career theory. Unpublished manuscript, The Ohio State
University, Columbus. Google Scholar

Foltz, B. M. (1993). The effect of a career counseling workshop on the career self-efficacy of non-
traditional college students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Clemson University, Clemson,
SC. Google Scholar

Fouad, N., & Smith, P. L. (1996). Test of a social-cognitive model for middle school students: Math and
science. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 338-346. Google Scholar, Crossref

Fukuyama, M. A., Probert, B. S., Neimeyer, G. J., Nevill, D. D., & Metzler, A. E. (1988). Effects of
DISCOVER on career self-efficacy and decision making of undergraduates. Career Development
Quarterly, 37, 56-62. Google Scholar, Crossref

Gainor, K. A., & Lent, R. W. (1998). Social cognitive expectations and racial identity attitudes in
predicting the math choice intentions of Black college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology,
45, 403-413. Google Scholar, Crossref

Gore, P. A., Jr., & Leuwerke, W. C. (2000). Predicting occupational considerations: A comparison of self-
efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations, and person-environment congruence. Journal of Career
Assessment , 8, 237-250. Google Scholar, Link

Hackett, G. (1985). The role of mathematics self-efficacy in the choice of math-related majors of college
women and men: A path model. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 32, 47-56. Google Scholar, Crossref

Hackett, G., & Betz, N. E. (1981). A self-efficacy approach to the career development of women. Journal
of Vocational Behavior , 18, 326-339. Google Scholar, Crossref

Hackett, G., & Betz, N. (1989). Mathematics performance, mathematics self-efficacy, and the prediction
of math-related college majors. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 20, 261-273. Google
Scholar
Hackett, G., Betz, N. E. , Casas, J. M., & Rocha-Singh, I. A. (1992). Gender, ethnicity, and social cognitive
factors predicting the academic achievement of students in engineering. Journal of Counseling
Psychology , 39, 527-538. Google Scholar, Crossref

Hackett, G., & Byars, A. M. (1996). Social cognitive theory and the career development of African
American women. The Career Development Quarterly, 44, 322-340. Google Scholar, Crossref

Hackett, G., & Campbell, N. (1987). Task self-efficacy and task interest as a function of performance on a
gender neutral task. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 203-215. Google Scholar, Crossref

Harmon, L. W., Hansen, J. C., Borgen, F., & Hammer. A. (1994). Manual for the Strong Interest
Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Google Scholar

Harren, V. A. (1979). A model of career decision making for college students. Journal of Vocational
Behavior, 14, 119-133. Google Scholar, Crossref

Holland, J. S. (1994). Self-Directed Search Form R: 1994 edition. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment
Resources. Google Scholar

Holland, J. L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work
environments (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Google Scholar

Holland, J. L., Daiger, D. C., & Power, P. G. ( 1980). Some diagnostic scales for research in decision-
making and personality: Identity, information, and barriers. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 39, 1191-1200. Google Scholar, Crossref

Jordaan, J. P. (1963). Exploratory behavior: The formation of self and occupational concepts. In D. E.
Super (Ed.), Career development: Self-concept theory (pp. 42-78). Princeton, NJ: CEEB. Google Scholar

Krieshok, T. S., Ulven, J. C., Hecox, J. L., & Wettersten, K. (2000). Resume therapy and vocational test
feedback: Tailoring interventions to self-efficacy outcomes. Journal of Career Assessment, 8, 267-
281. Google Scholar, Link

Kuder, F., & Zytowski, D. C. (1991). Kuder Occupational Interest Survey: General manual. Monterey,
CA: CTB/McGraw-Hill . Google Scholar
Lapan, R. T., Boggs, K. R. , & Morrill, W. H. ( 1989). Self-efficacy as a mediator of Investigative and
Realistic General Occupational Themes on the Strong Interest Inventory . Journal of Counseling
Psychology, 36, 176-182. Google Scholar, Crossref

Lapan, R. T., Shaughnessy, P., & Boggs, K. ( 1996). Efficacy expectations and vocational interests as
mediators between sex and choice of math/science college majors: A longitudinal study . Journal of
Vocational Behavior, 49, 277-291. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Layton, P. L. (1984). Self-efficacy, locus of control, career salience, and women's career choice.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Google Scholar

Lee, J. Y. (1994). The relationship between women's self-efficacy expectations and career decision status
at the college level in Korea. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State
University, Columbus. Google Scholar

Lenox, R., & Subich, L. (1994). The relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and inventoried vocational
interests. Career Development Quarterly, 42, 302-313. Google Scholar, Crossref

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D. , Gover, M. R., & Niijer, S. K. (1996). Cognitive assessment of the sources of
math self-efficacy: A thought listing analysis . Journal of Career Assessment, 4, 33-46. Google
Scholar, Link

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D. , & Hackett, G. ( 1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and
academic interest, choice, and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45, 79-122. Google
Scholar, Crossref

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D. , & Larkin, K. C. ( 1984). Relation of self-efficacy expectations to academic
achievement and persistence. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 31, 356-362. Google Scholar, Crossref

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D. , & Larkin, K. C. ( 1986). Self-efficacy in the prediction of academic success and
perceived career options. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 33, 265-269. Google Scholar, Crossref

Lent, R., Lopez, F., & Bieschke, K. (1991). Mathematics self-efficacy: Sources and relation to science-
based career choice . Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 424-430. Google Scholar, Crossref
Lent, R., Lopez, F. G., & Bieschke, K. J. (1993). Predicting mathematics-related choice and success
behaviors: Test of an expanded social cognitive model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 42, 223-
236. Google Scholar, Crossref

Lent, R. W., Lopez, F. G. , Brown, S. D., & Gore, P. A., Jr. (1996). Latent structure of the sources of
mathematics self-efficacy. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49, 292-308. Google
Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Lopez, F. G., & Lent, R. W. (1992). Sources of mathematics self-efficacy in high school students. Career
Development Quarterly, 41, 3-12. Google Scholar, Crossref

Lopez, F. G., Lent, R. W. , Brown, S. D., & Gore, P. A., Jr. (1997). Role of social-cognitive expectations in
high school students' mathematics related interest and performance. Journal of Counseling Psychology ,
44, 44-52. Google Scholar, Crossref

Lucas, J. L., Wanberg, C. R., & Zytoswki, D. G. ( 1997). Development of a career task self-efficacy scale:
The Kuder Task Self-Efficacy Scale. Journal of Vocational Behavior , 50, 437-459. Google
Scholar, Crossref

Luzzo, D., Hasper, P., Albert, K., Bibby, M., & Martinelli, E. (1998). Effects of self-efficacy enhancing
interventions on the math-science self-efficacy and career interests, goals, and actions of career
undecided college students . Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 233-243. Google Scholar, Crossref

Luzzo, D. A., & Taylor, M. (1994). Effects of verbal persuasion on the career self-efficacy of college
freshmen. California Association for Counseling and Development Journal, 14, 31-34. Google Scholar

Matsui, T., Ikeda, H., & Oshnishi, R. (1989). Relations of sex-typed socializations to career self-efficacy
expectation of college students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 35, 1-16. Google Scholar, Crossref

Mathieu, P. S., Sowa, C. J., & Niles, S. G. ( 1993). Differences in career self-efficacy among women.
Journal of Career Development, 19, 187-196. Google Scholar, Link

McNeill, P. (1990). Impact of a problem-solving vocational intervention on career decision-making self-


efficacy and career indecision (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1990). Dissertation Abstracts
International, 51, 852A. Google Scholar
Mitchell, S. L. (1990). The relationship between racial identity attitudes, career self-efficacy, and
involvement in campus organizations among black students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The
Ohio State University, Columbus. Google Scholar

Osipow, S. H. (1972). Success and preference: A replication and extension. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 56, 179-180. Google Scholar, Crossref

Osipow, S. H. (1987). Career Decision Scale manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment
Resources. Google Scholar

Osipow, S. H., Carney, C. G., & Barak, A. ( 1976). A scale of educational-vocational undecidedness: A
typological approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 9, 233-243. Google Scholar, Crossref

Osipow, S. H., & Scheid, A. B. (1971). The effect of manipulated success ratios on task preference.
Journal of Vocational Behavior , 1, 93-98. Google Scholar, Crossref

Osipow, S. H., & Temple, R. D. (1996). Development and use of the Task-Specific Occupational Self-
Efficacy Scale. Journal of Career Assessment , 4, 445-456. Google Scholar, Link

Osipow, S. H., Temple, R. D., & Rooney, R. A. ( 1993). The Short Form of the Task Specific Occupational
Self-Efficacy Scale. Journal of Career Assessment, 1, 13-20. Google Scholar, Link

Peterson, S. L. (1993a). Career decision-making self-efficacy and institutional integration of


underprepared college students. Research in Higher Education, 34, 659-683. Google Scholar, Crossref

Peterson, S. L. (1993b). Career decision-making self-efficacy and social and academic integration of
underprepared college students: Variations based on background characteristics. Journal of Vocational
Education Research, 18, 77-115. Google Scholar

Post-Kammer, P., & Smith, P. L. (1985). Sex differences in career self-efficacy, consideration, and
interests of eighth and ninth graders. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32, 551-555. Google
Scholar, Crossref

Post-Kammer, P., & Smith, P. L. (1986). Sex differences in math and science career self-efficacy among
disadvantaged students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 29, 89-101. Google Scholar, Crossref
Prediger, D. J., & Swaney, K. B. (1995). Using UNIACT in a comprehensive approach to assessment for
career planning. Journal of Career Assessment, 3, 429-452. Google Scholar, Link

Rooney, R. A. (1991). The relationship of task-specific occupational self-efficacy and career interests in
college women and men. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State
University, Columbus. Google Scholar

Rooney, R. A., & Osipow, S. H. (1992). Task-Specific Occupational Self-Efficacy Scale: The development
and validation of a prototype. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 40, 14-32. Google Scholar, Crossref

Rotberg, H. L., Brown, D. , & Ware, W. B. ( 1987). Career self-efficacy expectations and perceived range
of career options in community college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 164-170. Google
Scholar, Crossref

Ryan, N. E., Solberg, V. S., & Brown, S. D. ( 1996). Family dysfunction, parental attachment and career
search self-efficacy among community college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 84-
89. Google Scholar, Crossref

Sells, L. (1982). Leverage for equal opportunity through mastery of mathematics. In S. M. Humphreys
(Ed.), Women and minorities in science (pp. 7-26). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Google Scholar

Siegel, R. G., Galassi, J. P., & Ware, W. B. ( 1985). A comparison of two models for predicting
mathematics performance: Social learning versus math-aptitude-anxiety. Journal of Counseling
Psychology, 32, 531-538. Google Scholar, Crossref

Smith, H. M., & Betz, N. E. (2000). Development and validation of a scale of Perceived Social Self-
Efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment, 8, 283-301. Google Scholar, Link

Solberg, V. S., Good, G. E., & Nord, D. (1994 ). Career search efficacy: Ripe for applications and
intervention programming. Journal of Career Development, 21, 63-72. Google Scholar, Link

Solberg, V. S., Good, G. E., Fischer, A. R., Brown, S. E., & Nord, D. (1995). Relative effects of career search
self-efficacy and human agency upon career development. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 448-
455. Google Scholar, Crossref
Solberg, V. S., Good, G. E., Nord, D., Holm, C., Hohner, R., Zima, N., Heffernan, M., & Malen, A.
(1994). Assessing career search expectations: Development and validation of the Career Search Efficacy
Scale. Journal of Career Assessment , 2, 111-123. Google Scholar, Link

Super, D. E., & Hall, D. T. (1978). Career development: Exploration and planning. Annual Review of
Psychology, 29, 333-372. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Tang, M., Fouad, N. A., & Smith, P. L. (1999). Asian Americans' career choices: A path model to examine
factors influencing their career choices. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 142-157. Google
Scholar, Crossref

Taylor, K. M., & Betz, N. E. (1983). Applications of self-efficacy theory to the understanding and
treatment of career indecision. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 22, 63-81. Google Scholar, Crossref

Taylor, K. M., & Popma, J. (1990). Construct validity of the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy scale
and the relationship of CDMSE to vocational indecision. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 37, 17-
31. Google Scholar, Crossref

Temple, R. D. (1991). The relationship between task-specific self-efficacy and career indecision.
Unpublished master's thesis, The Ohio State University, Columbus. Google Scholar

Temple, R. D., & Osipow, S. H. (1994). The relationship between task-specific self-efficacy,
egalitarianism, and career indecision for females. Journal of Career Assessment, 2, 82-90. Google
Scholar, Link

Tobias, S. (1978). Overcoming math anxiety. New York: Norton. Google Scholar

U.S. Department of Labor. (1981). Selected characteristics of occupations defined in the Dictionary of
Occupational Titles. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Google Scholar

Williams, T., & Betz, N. (1994). The relationships among occupational and task-specific measures of
career self-efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment, 2, 341-351. Google Scholar, Link

Zilber, S. M. (1988). The effects of sex, task performance, and attributional styles on task and career
self-efficacy expectations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State
University, Columbus. Google Scholar
Concurrent Validity of the 2005 Strong Interest Inventory: An
Examination of Gender and Major Field of Study
Courtney E. Gasser, Lisa M. Larson, Fred H. Borgen

First Published February 1, 2007 Research Article

Download PDF Article information

Abstract

This is the first article evaluating the concurrent validity of the 2005 Strong Interest
Inventory (SII). The Basic Interest Scales (BISs) were substantially revised to reflect
the changing workplace, so such an update is particularly important. Concurrent
validity of the 41 content scales in the SII was examined for differentiating 31 college
majors in a national college sample of 1,403 women and 469 men. Using
discriminant analyses, three sets of content scales were used to predict major field of
study. These were six General Occupational Scales, five Personal Style Scales, and
30 BISs. Each set of scales showed substantial concurrent validity in differentiating
college major for women and men. The most specific scales, the BISs, were the most
predictive of major, with hit rates 6 times greater than chance. Results clearly
supported the concurrent validity and counseling utility of the content scales of the
SII.

Keywords Basic Interest Scales, concurrent validity, educational major, hit rates, 2005
Strong Interest Inventory
American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct.
American Psychologist, 57, 1060-1073 Available at www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.htmlGoogle
Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Barnes, J. A., & Herr, E. L. (1998). The effects of interventions on career progress. Journal of Career
Development, 24, 179-193. Google Scholar, Link

Betz, N. E., & Borgen, F. H. (2000). The future of career assessment: Integrating vocational interests with
self-efficacy and personal styles. Journal of Career Assessment, 8, 329-338. Google Scholar, Link

Borgen, F. H., & Harmon, L. W. (1996). Linking interest assessment and personality theory: An example
of convergence between practice and theory. In M. L. Savickas & W. B. Walsh (Eds.), Handbook of career
counseling theory and practice (pp. 251-266). Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black. Google Scholar

Brown, S. D., Lent, R. W., & Gore, P. A. (2000). Self-rated abilities and self-efficacy beliefs: Are they
empirically distinct? Journal of Career Assessment, 8, 223-235. Google Scholar, Link

Buboltz, W. C., Thomas, A., & Johnson, P. (2001). The relationship between MBTI and Strong:
Implications for conjunctive use in counseling. In F. Columbus (Ed.), Advances in psychology research
(Vol. 5, pp. 109-139). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. Google Scholar

Chartrand, J. M., Borgen, F. H., Betz, N. E., & Donnay, D. A. C. (2002). Using the Strong Interest Inventory
and the Skills Confidence Inventory to explain career goals. Journal of Career Assessment, 10, 169-
189. Google Scholar, Link

Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis
for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Google Scholar

Davison Aviles, R. M., & Spokane, A. R. (1999). The vocational interests of Hispanic, African American,
and White middle school students. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development,
32, 138-148. Google Scholar

Donnay, D. A. C., & Borgen, F. H. (1996). Validity, structure, and content of the 1994 Strong Interest
Inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 275-291. Google Scholar, Crossref
Donnay, D. A. C., Morris, M. L., Schaubhut, N. A., & Thompson, R. C. (2005). Strong Interest Inventory
manual: Research, development, and strategies for interpretation. Mountain View, CA: CPP Inc. Google
Scholar

Efron, B. (1983). Estimating the error rate of a prediction rule: Improvement on cross-validation. Journal
of the American Statistical Association, 78, 316-331. Google Scholar, Crossref

Fouad, N. A. (2002). Cross-cultural differences in vocational interests: Between-group differences on the


Strong Interest Inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49, 282-289. Google Scholar, Crossref

Fouad, N. A., Harmon, L. W., & Borgen, F. H. (1997). Structure of interests in employed male and female
members of US racial-ethnic minority and nonminority groups. Journal of Counseling Psychology,
44, 339-345. Google Scholar, Crossref

Gasser, C. E., Larson, L. M., & Borgen, F. H. (2004). Educational aspirations of college students:
Contributions of personality and interests. Journal of Career Assessment, 12, 347-365. Google
Scholar, Link

Hansen, J. C. (2005). Assessment of interests. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Career development
and counseling: Putting theory and research to work (pp. 281-304). New York: John Wiley. Google
Scholar

Hansen, J. C., & Campbell, D. C. (1985). Manual for the Strong Interest Inventory (4th ed.). Palo Alto,
CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Google Scholar

Harmon, L. W., & Borgen, F. H. (1995). Advances in career assessment and the 1994 Strong Interest
Inventory. Journal of Career Assessment, 3, 347-372. Google Scholar, Link

Harmon, L. W., Hansen, J. C., Borgen, F. H., & Hammer, A. L. (1994). Strong Interest Inventory
applications and technical guide. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Google Scholar

Holland, J. L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work
environments (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Google Scholar

Jackson, C. C. (2002). Careers in crisis: The relationship between person-environment fit and job
satisfaction (Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2002). Dissertation Abstracts
International, 62, 4828. Google Scholar
Kahn, J. H., Nauta, M. M., Gailbreath, R. D., Tipps, J., & Chartrand, J. M. (2002). The utility of career and
personality assessment in predicting academic progress. Journal of Career Assessment, 10, 3-23. Google
Scholar, Link

Kaufman, A. S., & McLean, J. E. (1998). An investigation into the relationship between interests and
intelligence. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54, 279-295. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Lachenbruch, P. A. (1967). An almost unbiased method of obtaining confidence intervals for the
probability of misclassification in discriminant analysis. Biometrics, 23, 639-645. Google
Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Larkin, J. E., Harvey, A., & Bechtel, K. M. (2002). Facilitating students’ career development in psychology
courses: A portfolio project. Teaching of Psychology, 29, 207-210. Google Scholar, Link

Larson, L. M., & Borgen, F. H. (2002). Convergence of vocational interests and personality and
personality: Examples in an adolescent gifted sample. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60, 91-
112. Google Scholar, Crossref

Larson, L. M., Rottinghaus, P. J., & Borgen, F. H. (2002). Meta-analysis of Big Six Interests and Big Five
Personality Factors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 217-239. Google Scholar, Crossref

Lattimore, R. R., & Borgen, F. H. (1999). Validity of the 1994 Strong Interest Inventory with racial and
ethnic groups in the United States. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 185-195. Google
Scholar, Crossref

Low, K. S. D., Yoon, M., Roberts, B. W., & Rounds, J. (2005). The stability of vocational interests from
early adolescence to middle adulthood: A quantitative review of longitudinal studies. Psychological
Bulletin, 131, 713-737. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline

Luzzo, D. A., & Day, M. A. (1999). Effects of Strong Interest Inventory feedback on career decision-
making self-efficacy and social cognitive career beliefs. Journal of Career Assessment, 7, 1-17. Google
Scholar, Link

Olsen, L. L. (1996). Concurrent validity of the 1994 “Strong Interest Inventory”: A comparison of
criterion groups by gender (Doctoral dissertation, Iowa State University, 1996). Dissertation Abstracts
International, 57, 2878. Google Scholar
Prince, J. P. (1998). Interpreting the Strong Interest Inventory: A case study. Career Development
Quarterly, 46, 339-346. Google Scholar, Crossref

Ralston, C. A., Borgen, F. H., Rottinghaus, P. J., & Donnay, D. A. C. (2004). Specificity in interest
measurement: Basic Interest Scales and major field of study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 203-
216. Google Scholar, Crossref

Ralston, C. A., Miller, P. J., Zakalik, R. A., Rottinghaus, P. J., & Betz, N. E. (2003, August). Specificity and
synergy of interests and confidence for college career behaviors. Poster presented at the annual
meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada. Google Scholar

Rottinghaus, P. J., Lindley, L. D., Green, M. A., & Borgen, F. H. (2002). Educational aspirations: The
contribution of personality, self-efficacy, and interests. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 1-19. Google
Scholar, Crossref

Savickas, M. L. (1998). Interpreting interest inventories: A case example. Career Development Quarterly,
46, 307-310. Google Scholar, Crossref

Staggs, G. D., Larson, L. M., & Borgen, F. H. (in press). Convergence of interests and personality: Meta-
analyses of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire and the Strong Interest Inventory. Journal
of Career Assessment. Google Scholar

Staggs, G. D., Larson, L. M., & Borgen, F. H. (2004). Convergence of interests and personality: Meta-
analyses of the Strong Interest Inventory and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire.
Manuscript submitted for publication. Google Scholar

Swanson, J. L. (1992). Generating hypotheses from Rachel’s Strong profile. Career Development
Quarterly, 41, 31-35. Google Scholar, Crossref

Strong, E. K. (1927). Vocational Interest Test. Educational Record, 8, 107-121. Google Scholar

Swanson, J. L., & Fouad, N. A. (1999). Career theory and practice: Learning through case
studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). New
York: HarperCollins. Google Scholar
Toman, S. M., & Savickas, M. L. (1997). Career choice readiness moderates the effects of interest
inventory interpretation. Journal of Career Assessment, 5, 275-291. Google Scholar, Link

Watkins, C. E., Campbell, V. L., & Nieberding, R. (1994). The practice of vocational assessment by
counseling psychologists. Counseling Psychologist, 22, 115-128. Google Scholar, Link

Zao, K. E. (2002). Older volunteers, person-environment fit, and life satisfaction (Doctoral dissertation,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2002). Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 5420. Google
Scholar

Zytowski, D. G., & Warman, R. E. (1982). The changing use of tests in counseling. Measurement and
Evaluation in Guidance, 15, 147-152. Google Scholar
Kuder Career Search With Person Match: Career Assessment for the 21
st Century
Donald G. Zytowski
First Published August 1, 2001 Research Article

Download PDF Article information

Abstract

A new approach to interest assessment, Kuder Career Search, is described. The


third generation of the Kuder interest inventories, it goes beyond the conventional
homogeneous and criterion group scaling to match inventory-takers with each of the
individuals in a pool of criterion persons employed in a wide variety of occupations.
The rationale for this novel concept is reviewed as is the methodology of person-
matching. Selected validity data are reported, along with a case example.

Keywords Kuder Career Search, person-match, career assessment, internet-based


assessment, occupational heterogeneity, career stability

Arthur, M.B., Inkson, K., & Pringle, J.K. (1999). The new careers: Individual action and economic
change. London: Sage. Google Scholar

Beardslee, D.C., & O'Dowd, D.D. (1962). Students and the occupational world. In N. Sanford (Ed.), The
American college (pp. 597-626). New York: Wiley. Google Scholar, Crossref
Betz, N.E., & Borgen, F.H. (2000). The future of career assessment: Integrating vocational interests with
self-efficacy and personal styles. Journal of Career Assessment, 8, 329-338. Google Scholar, Link

Brown, S.D., & Gore, P.A. (1994). An evaluation of interest congruence measures: Distribution
characteristics and measurement properties. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45, 310-327. Google
Scholar, Crossref

Dawis, R.V., & Lofquist, L.H. (1984). A psychological theory of work adjustment. Minneapolis: University
of Minnesota Press. Google Scholar

Day, S.X., & Rounds, J. (1997). "A little more than kin, and less than kind:" Basic interests in vocational
research and career counseling. Career Development Quarterly, 45, 207-220. Google Scholar, Crossref

Diamond, E.E. (1965, April). Changes in response to a Kuder verification scale item as a result of
substitution of synonymous phrasing. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Council on
Measurement in Education, New York. Google Scholar

Dolliver, R.H., & Nelson, R.E. (1975). Assumptions regarding vocational counseling. Vocational Guidance
Quarterly, 24, 12-19. Google Scholar, Crossref

Fouad, N.A. (1999). Validity evidence for interest inventories. In M. L. Savickas & A. R. Spokane (Eds.),
Vocational interests (pp. 193-209). Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black. Google Scholar

Fouad, N.A., & Zao, K.E. (2000). Meeting the revolution: Future trends in vocational assessment. Journal
of Career Assessment, 8, 403-409. Google Scholar, Link

Ghiselli, E.E. (1966). The validity of occupational aptitude tests. New York: Wiley. Google Scholar

Gottfredson, G.D. (1977). Career stability and redirection in adulthood . Journal ofApplied Psychology,
62, 436-445. Google Scholar, Crossref

Hansen, J.C., & Swanson, J.L. (1983). Stability of interests and the predictive and concurrent validity of
the 1981 SCII for college majors. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 30, 194-201. Google
Scholar, Crossref

Harmon, L.W., Hansen, J.C., Borgen, F.H., & Hammer, A.L. (1994). Strong Interest Inventory: Applications
and technical guide. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Google Scholar
Holland, J.L. (1994). The Self-Directed Search: Professional users guide . Odessa FL: Psychological
Assessment Resources. Google Scholar

Holland, J.L. (1996). Exploring careers with a typology: What we have learned and some new directions.
American Psychologist, 51, 397-406. Google Scholar, Crossref

Holland, J.L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work
environments (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Google Scholar

Hornaday, J.A., & Gibson, L.A. (1995). The Kuder book of people who like their work. Amherst, NH:
Motivation Press. Google Scholar

Howard, A. (Ed.). (1995). The changing nature of work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar

Howell, R. (2000). One hundred jobs: A panorama of work in the American city. New York: New
Press. Google Scholar

Jackson, D.N. (1977). Jackson Vocational Interest Survey. Ontario, Canada: Research Psychologists
Press. Google Scholar

Krieshok, T.S., Hastings, S., Ebberwein C., Wetterstein, K., & Owen, A. (1999). Telling a good story: Using
narratives in vocational rehabilitation with veterans. Career Development Quarterly , 47, 204-
214. Google Scholar, Crossref

Kuder, F. (1975). Manual for the Kuder E General Interest Survey . Chicago: Science Research
Associates . Google Scholar

Kuder, F. (1977a). Activity interests and occupational choice. Chicago: Science Research
Associates. Google Scholar

Kuder, F. (1977b). Career matching. Personnel Psychology , 30, 1-4. Google Scholar, Crossref

Kuder, F. (1980). Person matching. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 40, 1-8. Google
Scholar, Link
Kuder, F. (1983). Manual for the Kuder Preference Record: Form C . Adel, IA: National Career
Assessment Services. Google Scholar

Kuder, F., & Zytowski, D.G. (1988). Kuder General Interest Survey, Form E, Preliminary manual. Adel,
IA: National Career Assessment Services. Google Scholar

Kuder, F., & Zytowski, D.G. (1991). Kuder Occupational Interest Survey, General manual (3rd ed.). Adel,
IA: National Career Assessment Services. Google Scholar

Lock, J.D., & Hogan, R. (2000). Expanding the focus of career assessment. Journal of Career Assessment,
8, 411-417. Google Scholar, Link

Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist , 41, 954-969. Google
Scholar, Crossref

Meara, N.M., Day, J.D., Chalk, L.M., & Phelps, R.E. (1995). Possible selves: Applications for career
counseling . Journal of Career Assessment, 3, 259-277. Google Scholar, Link

Messick, S. (1995). Validity of psychological assessment: Validation of inferences from persons'


responses and performances on scientific inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50, 741-
749. Google Scholar, Crossref

Mitchell, K.E., Levin, A.S., & Krumboltz, J.D. (1999). Planned happenstance: Constructing unexpected
career opportunities. Journal of Counseling and Development, 77, 115-124. Google Scholar, Crossref

Montrose, D.H., Liebowitz, Z.B., & Shinkman, C.J. (1995). Real people, real jobs: Reflecting your interests
in the world of work. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black. Google Scholar

Mount, M.K., & Muchinsky, P.M. (1978). Concurrent validation of Holland's hexagonal model with
occupational workers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 39, 348-354. Google Scholar, Crossref

Parsons, F. (1909). Choosing a vocation. Boston : Houghton-Mifflin. Google Scholar

Peavy, R.V. (1997). A constructive framework for career counseling . In T. L. Sexton & B. L. Griffin (Eds.),
Constructivist thinking in counseling practice, research and training (pp. 122-141). New York: Teachers
College, Columbia University. Google Scholar
Rifkin, J.A. (1995). The end of work. New York: Putnam. Google Scholar

Tyler, L.E. (1978). Individuality: Human possibilities and personal choice in the psychological
development of men and women. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar

U.S. Department of Labor. (2000). Occupational outlook handbook. Washington, DC: Author. Google
Scholar

Wanous, J.P. (1992). Organizational entry: Recruitment, selection, orientation, and socialization of
newcomers. Reading, MA : Addison-Wesley. Google Scholar

Zytowski, D.G. (1999). How to talk to people about their interest inventory results. In M. L. Savickas & A.
R. Spokane, (Eds.), Vocational interests: Meaning, measurement, and counseling use (pp. 277-293). Palo
Alto, CA: Davies-Black. Google Scholar

Zytowski, D.G. (2001). Kuder Career Search: User's manual. Adel, IA: National Career Assessment
Services. Google Scholar

Zytowski, D.G., & Hay, R. (1984). Do birds of a feather flock together? A test of the similarities and
differences between five occupations Journal of Vocational Behavior, 24, 242-248. Google
Scholar, Crossref