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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION.............................................................................
1.1. Background of the Problem..............................................................................
1.2. Statement of Problem........................................................................................
1.3. Objective of the Study.......................................................................................
1.4. Significance of the Study..................................................................................
1.5 Hypothesis of the Study.....................................................................................
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study.....................................................................

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE.....................................

2.1. Theory of Think aloud......................................................................................
2.1.1. Using of Think Aloud.......................................................................................
2.2 The Nature of Reading.......................................................................................
2.3 Concept of Reading............................................................................................
2.4. Aspects of Reading Comprehension...................................................................
2.5. Comprehension Skill...........................................................................................
2.6. The Role of Background Knowledge in Comprehension................................
2.7. The Related of Study...........................................................................................
2.8. Theoretical Frame Work..................................................................................

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.................................................

3.1 Method of The Study........................................................................................
3.2 Population and Sample......................................................................................
3.3 Instrument.........................................................................................................
3.4 Technique of Data Collection............................................................................


This chapter presents the discussion on the background of the study, statement of the
problems, objective of the study, scope and limitation of the study, significance of the
study, assumption of the study, and definition of key terms.

1.1. Background of the Problem

Language is one of the most important things in communication and it is used as a

toll of communication among the nations in all over the world. As an international
language, English is very important and has many interrelationships with various
aspects of life owned by human being. In Indonesia, English considered as the first
foreign language and taught formally from elementary school up to the university

The most often become to complain is the teachers ability in applying appropriate
approaches, methods, strategies or techniques in teaching or learning. So, many
students are not interest in learning English. Therefore, the English teach suggested in
order to be able mastering of method, such as, Nababan (1991: 4) notices that a
qualified teacher is the teacher who is able to suit best method or technique to the
material that is being taught.

In English, there are four skills that should be mastered, they are: listening, speaking,
reading, and writing. The reading skill becomes very important in the education field,
students need to be exercised and trained in order to have a good reading skill.

Reading is also something crucial and indispensable for the students because the
success of their study depends on the greater part of their ability to read. If their
reading skill is poor they are very likely to fail in their study or at least they will have

difficulty in making progress. On the other hand, if they have a good ability in
reading, they will have a better chance to succeed in their study.

One of the methods researchers uses to get a clearer picture of what learners generally
do while reading in a foreign language is think aloud. This is one type of verbal
reports, obtained from the readers during reading (Cavalcanti, 1987).

Think-aloud means that readers report their thoughts while reading, but they are not
expected to analyze their behavior as in introspection (Cohen, 1987). By means of
asking their subjects to say out loud whatever goes through their minds, researchers
hope to get a more direct view of the mental processes readers are engaged in while
reading (Rankin, 1988).

In order to master reading skill, a teacher as an educator have to use good method in
teaching learning process. In this case, the researcher concerns with the effect of think
aloud strategy toward students reading skill study at 9th grade SMP Negeri 19
Mataram in academic year 2013/2014.

1.2. Statement of Problem

Based on the background of study above, the problem of the study is as follows:

1. To what extent is the achievement of students’ Reading skill in study at 9th

grade SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in academic year 2013/2014?

2. To what extent is the effect of think aloud strategy toward students reading skill
study at 9th grade SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in academic year 2013/2014?

1.3. Objective of the Study

Based on the research statement, this particular study aimed at finding out:

1. The achievement of students’ Reading skill in study at 9th grade SMP Negeri 19
Mataram in academic year 2013/2014.

2. The effect of think aloud strategy toward students reading skill study at 9th
grade SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in academic year 2013/2014

1.4. Significance of the Study

The result of the study is expected to be used theoretically and practically:

1. Theoretically

a. The result of this study is expected to be able to widen the skill of teachers in
using think aloud strategy in order to improve student’s reading skill.

b. As a reference to other researchers who want to study think aloud strategy more
intensively in teaching reading.

2. Practically

a. The result of this study is suggested to apply the think aloud strategy to
increase the students’ competence in English reading skill.

b. The use of think aloud strategy in reading can make the students are more
enjoyable in doing their tasks associated with the reading materials.

1.5. Hypothesis of the Study

A hypothesis is a statement of the research assumption about the

relationship between two variables that the researcher plans to test within the
framework of the researcher study (Kumar, 1993: 9).

The hypothesis of this study was prepared as a tentative answer for the research
problem stated previously. In this case the alternative hypothesis as read follow:

“Think Aloud Strategy has effect toward Students Reading Skill ”

Because of statistical computation the alternative hypothesis need to be change into
null hypothesis (Ho)as follow:

“Think Aloud Strategy has not effect toward Students Reading Skill ”

1.6. Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scopes of the study are limited to the subject and object investigated.

1. Subject

The subject of this study at 9th grade SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in academic year

2. Object

The object of this study is the effect of Think aloud strategy towards students reading

1.7. Definition of Key Terms

In order to clarify the key terms used in this study, some definitions are put forward.

Think-aloud have been described as "eavesdropping on someone's thinking." With

this strategy, teachers verbalize aloud while reading a selection orally. Their
verbalizations include describing things they're doing as they read to monitor their
comprehension. The purpose of the think-aloud strategy is to model for students how
skilled readers construct meaning from a text. The think-aloud strategy asks students
to say out loud what they are thinking about when reading, solving math problems, or
simply responding to questions posed by teachers or other students

Reading is a kind of activity in translating written symbols into corresponding sound.

Reading skills enable readers to turn writing into meaning and achieve the goals of
independence, comprehension, and fluency.

3. Reading skill is the capability of understanding or getting information from
reading material.

4. Strategies

According to Gony and Kingsmey (1974:12) the strategy is a process of individual

behavior which modified or changed through practice or learning on the other hand.

5. Effect is words indicate things, which arise out of some antecedent, or follow as
a consequence.


This chapter presents about some related information topic of the recent study. It is
intended to provide some theoretical concepts which could support this investigation.
The discussion is presented under the following sub headings:

1) Theory of think aloud, 2) Using of think aloud, 3) The nature of reading,
3)Concept of reading, 4) Aspect of Reading Comprehension, 5) Comprehension
Skill, 6) The related Study and 7) The Role of Background Knowledge in
Comprehension, and 8) Theoretical frame work.

2.1. Theory of Think aloud

In this research, it was decided to implement the think-aloud strategy because it was
used as an instructional approach, and also because this strategy helped readers to
comprehend more easily what was being read by them. Afflerbach and Johnston cited
by McKeown and Gentilucci (2007), claim that think-aloud serves firstly as a method
of measuring the cognitive reading process, then as metacognitive tool to monitor
comprehension. In that sense, the think aloud is appropriate for this study because
through this strategy the students can monitor their comprehension process.

Another definition of this strategy is provided by Pressley et al. in McKeown and

Gentilucci’s (2007) work: “think-aloud is one of the "transactional strategies" because
it is a joint process of teachers and students working together to construct
understandings of text as they interact with it” (p. 1). Through the interactions that
think aloud promotes, a better understanding of the texts may emerge in the
classroom. Think aloud is also a process in which readers report their thoughts while
reading (Wade 1990). It helps students to reflect upon their own reading process.

In a similar way, Keene & Zimmerman, (1997) declare that “think aloud is a
technique in which students verbalize their thoughts as they read” (p. 1). Thus, this
strategy is useful because students are verbalizing all their thought in order to create
understanding of the reading texts. Another illustration about think aloud is provided
by Tinzmann in Teacher Vision website (2009), he says that:

When students use think out loud with teachers and with one another, they gradually
internalize this dialogue [...] it becomes their inner speech, the means by which they

direct their own behaviours and problem-solving processes. Therefore, as students
think aloud, they learn how to learn, and they develop into reflective, metacognitive,
independent learners, an invaluable step in helping students understand that learning
requires effort and often is difficult.

This argument encloses all the issues that imply think-aloud in a reading process.
Think aloud are also used to model comprehension processes such as making
predictions, creating images, linking information in text with prior knowledge,
monitoring comprehension, and overcoming problems with word recognition or
comprehension (Gunning, 1996 in teacher vision). These sub-strategies will be
defined in the ensuing sections.

The think-aloud is a technique in which students verbalize their thoughts as they read
and thus bring into the open the strategies they are using to understand a text
(Baumann, Jones, & Seifert-Kessell, 1993; Davey, 1983; Wade, 1990). Readers'
thoughts might include commenting on or questioning the text, bringing their prior
knowledge to bear, or making inferences or predictions.

These comments reveal readers' weaknesses as well as their strengths as

comprehenders and allow the teacher to assess their needs in order to plan more
effective instruction

2.1.1. Using of Think Aloud

How to use this strategy

a. Explain that reading is a complex process that involves thinking and sense-
making; the skilled reader's mind is alive with questions she asks herself in order to
understand what she reads.

b. Select a passage to read aloud that contains points that students might find
difficult, unknown vocabulary terms, or ambiguous wording. Develop questions you

can ask yourself that will show what you think as you confront these problems while

c. While students read this passage silently, read it aloud. As you read, verbalize
your thoughts, the questions you develop, and the process you use to solve
comprehension problems. It is helpful if you alter the tone of your voice, so students
know when you are reading and at what points you begin and end thinking aloud.

d. Coping strategies you can model include:

- Making predictions or hypotheses as you read: "From what he's said so far, I'll
bet that the author is going to give some examples of poor eating habits."

- Describing the mental pictures you " see" : "When the author talks about
vegetables I should include in my diet, I can see our salad bowl at home filled with
fresh, green spinach leaves."

- Demonstrating how you connect this information with prior knowledge:

"'Saturated fat'? I know I've heard that term before. I learned it last year when we
studied nutrition."

- Creating analogies: "That description of clogged arteries sounds like traffic

clogging up the interstate during rush hour."

- Verbalizing obstacles and fix-up strategies: "Now what does 'angiogram' mean?
Maybe if I reread that section, I'll get the meaning from the other sentences around it:
I know I can't skip it because it's in bold-faced print, so it must be important. If I still
don't understand, I know I can ask the teacher for help,"

e. Have students work with partners to practice "think-aloud" when reading short
passages of text. Periodically revisit this strategy or have students complete the
assessment that follows so these metacomprehension skills become second nature.

2.2. The Nature of Reading

Reading is an active cognitive process of interaction with print and monitoring

comprehension of establishing meaning which means the brain does not work in
reading, the pupils get information by comprehending the massage and the teacher
motivate the pupils to read (Lado, 1961: 65). Furthermore, Gloria (1988: 43) States
that the definition of reading comprehension is most likely to occur when pupils are
reading what they want to read, or at least what they see some good reasons to read.

Lado (1961: 56):

Reading in the foreign language consists of grasping meaning in the written language.
In this case, reading foreign language is the grasping of full linguistics meaning of
what is to read in subject within the common experience of the culture of which the
language is a central part. He further maintains that linguistics means to include the
denotation conveyed by language to all speakers of it is as opposed to meaning that
are receptive only by those have specific background information not known by the
other speakers in general. In other word, there are some purposes of reading such as
reading for specific items of information, for general and detail information in a given
field, etc. other types of reading, for example readings for literary appreciation are
properly the real of reading in the native language.

Learning to read a new language, the pupils must read carefully, some aloud;
moreover some questions are also important of the passages, as in the following
statement by Berry (1956: 44):

There must be question on the text, this essential. The questions are to help the pupils
understanding every detail on the passage, for example, the passage is about “hide
and seek”. It means that the questions on the passage are able to facilitate the pupils
understanding of the passage; the children are playing hide and seek in the

playground, and the question are (1) who is playing hide and seek in the playground ?
(2) What are the children playing in the playground? (3) What are they doing in the
playground and where are they playing hide and seek?

Psychologists and the reading experts have been conducting extensive research in the
nature of reading and the sequential development of language skill. Among
discoveries of the researchers, as stated by Lewis and Sisk in Gerry (1956: 34) are:

(a) reading is not a single skill but an interrelated process of many skill, (b) reading is
development process, in other words, reading comprehension develops sequentially
as pupils nature, (c) there are developmental pattern from grade to grade and from
year to year, but wide variations in reading ability exist among pupils in any grade or
of any age, and (d) there are no basic reading comprehension which can be taught or
learned once or for all, they are merely simpler or more difficult levels of reading
proficiencies, which can be taught to pupils who are ready to learn.

2.3. Concept of Reading

Although, on the world wide level, the format of teaching reading skill may differ
according to local circumstances, the 1994 English GBPP Stresses the
implementation of teaching reading skill in an integrated skill unit. It means that
reading is thought integrated with the other language skill. Such as, teaching
vocabulary, grammar, punctuation and the way construct sentences, paragraphs and

The development of reading skills mostly occurs in this stage. To be effective reader,
the pupils should be able to (1) scan; (2) skim; (3) read between the lines; (4) read
intensively; and (5) deduce meaning from the context.

2.3.1. Reading Process

In very real sense, reading process is a progress report. It means that a major reason
for the lack of forward motion in attempts to develop more effective reading in
striation was a common failure to examine and articulate a clear view of the reading
process it self. Knowledge is non-cumulative in improving reading instruction largely
because either ignore the reading process and focus on the manipulation of teacher or
pupils behaviors of because they related reading as an unknowable mystery.

Goodman, in Long, H Michael and Jack C Richards (1988: 11) says that: “(1)
Reading is what reading is and everybody knows that; usually this translates to
‘reading is matching sounds to letters’; (2)’Nobody knows how reading works’”. This
view usually leads to a next premise; therefore, in instruction, whatever ’works’ is its

Both views are non-productive at best and the worst seriously impede progress.
Furthermore, the effort has been to create a model of the reading process powerful
enough to explain and predicate reading behavior and sound enough to be a base on
which to build and examine the effectiveness of reading instruction. This model has
been developed using the concepts, scientific methodology, and terminology of
psycholinguistics, the interdisciplinary science that is concerned with how thought
and language are interrelated.

2.3.2. Reading as a Language Skill

From the four integrated skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing skill), the
writer is interested to come up with a more elaborate description about reading skill
as what Tarigan (1987) cited from Huda (2000) calls that reading skill as the third
skill that the children have gained after speaking and before writing.

To the same extent reading should be stimulated when the students need to create the
sense condition. In other words, the students will be guided to find the real answers of

question they have in mind. Purposeful reading is encouraged by creating an interest
in content, by trying in the new experience with personal background of the learning,
by systematically extending the reading vocabulary (Betts).

Ying (2001) states that “reading is the process of recognition, interpretation and
perception of written or printed material. Meanwhile Godman says reading is a
psycholinguistic guessing game, consisting of cycle of sampling, predicting, testing
and confirming.

Ying continues her statement that “reading is a process of hypothesis formation and
verification, it is communicative act between a writer and reader. Consequently, the
reader’s understanding is unlikely to be 100% accurate, as Wallace (1982) cited from
Ying (2001) puts it: “The mother tongue speaker learns to be content with
approximate meaning…. (H)e is satisfied with a meaning which makes sense of the

According to Grellet (1981) reading may be classified as four simply categories,

intensive reading, extensive reading, skimming and scanning (Cited in Ommagio,
1986) Suhirman (2002) further mentions as follows:

· Firstly, intensive reading is reading activity that is being related to further

progress in language learning under the teacher guidance. In this type of reading,
control from a teacher is compulsory and it will provide a basis for elucidation of
difficulties of structure, and for the extension of vocabulary. To the same extent,
Finnonchiro (1983) also glanced that the intensive reading when the student’s
attention should be focused on all expression, nations sound, structure and cultural
allusions will be unfamiliar to them in passage.

· Secondly, extensive reading is developed at the student’s own pace according

to his individual ability (Rivers, 1968 and Suhirman, 2002). In this extent, the activity
is not completely controlled by the teacher. The students have learner to read without

the teacher’s role. The extensive reading activity is mostly concerned with the
purpose of training students to read directly and fluently by his/her own employment,
without the aid of the teacher. Structures in the test will be already familiar to him and
new vocabulary will be introduced slowly in such a way that its meaning can be
deduced from the context.

· The third is skimming

There are great many materials related to each professional area, the students must be
taught to be selective. Skimming techniques will enable them to select the worth

Method of Skimming

§ Preview

By previewing, the student can find out whether a specialist in a certain fields written
book or article and whether it contains the information he/she is seeking.

§ Overview

In over viewing, the student can discover the purpose and scope of the material, and
can find sections that are the special interest to him.

§ Survey

Through survey, the student will get the general idea of what the material contains.

In short, skimming is the skill that helps the students read quickly and selectively in
order to obtain a general idea of the material.

· The fourth is scanning

Scanning helps the student search quickly of the specific information he wishes to get
from the material, such as finding the meaning of a word in a dictionary, finding the

heading under which required information appears an index, finding statistical
information in tables, charts, or graph, and finding the answers to certain questions
from the text.

The procedures for scanning are as follows. First, specific information must be
located. Next the clues which will help to find the required information have to be
decided, then, find the clues. Finally, read the section containing the clues to get
information needed. In this technique, the students are trained to think of clues to help
them find the specific information. These clues may be a word or words, punctuation,
alphabetical order, numbers, etc.

From linguistics point of views, reading is recording and decoding process. Not like
speaking which just involves an encoding process reading applies decoding process
by which a reader must grasp and guess the meaning of written words used in writing
scripts, reading the symbols to the oral language meaning (Anderson in Tarigan
(1991) and Suhirman (2002)). In short, reading can be defined as “bringing meaning
to and get meaning from points or written materials” (Finnochiro and Banama in
Tarigan, 1987, and Suhirman, 2002). It is true by reading people get to know the other
people scientific achievement, or some happening in other region of the country.
Through reading we can improve our skill and enlarge our human development

2.4. Aspects of Reading Comprehension

According to Sheng (2003) reading comprehension questions measure student’s

ability to read with understanding, insight and discrimination. This type of question
explores the ability to analyze a written passage from several perspectives, including
student’s ability to recognize both explicitly stated elements in the passage and
assumptions underlying statements or arguments in the passage as well as the
implications of those statements or arguments. Because the written passage upon
which the questions are based presents a sustained discussion of a particular topic.

There are six types of reading comprehension questions. These types focus on these

(1) The main idea or primary purpose of the passage;

(2) Information explicitly stated in the passage;

(3) Information or ideas implied or suggested by the author;

(4) Possible applications of the author’s ideas to other situations, including the
identification of situations or processes analogous to those described in the passage;

(5) The author’s logic, reasoning, or persuasive technique;

(6) The tone of the passage or the author’s attitude as it is revealed in the
language used.

2.5. Comprehension Skill

According to Hilerachi (1983) most of the reading professional list three categories of
reading comprehension.

· Literal comprehension has to do with understanding or with answering

questions about what an author said.

· Inferential comprehension refers to understanding what an author want by what

was said.

· Critical reading has to do with evaluating or making judgments about what an

author said and meant. Edgar put it well when he referred to these three categories as
“reading the lines ….reading between the lines…..and reading beyond the lines.”

2.6. The Role of Background Knowledge in Comprehension

Ommagio (1986) writes that cognitive psychologist in the late 1960s place great
emphasis on the importance of meaningfulness and organization of background
knowledge in the learning process. Ommagio (1986) quotes Ausubel’s (1968) views
that learning which involve active mental process must be meaningful to be effective
and permanent. In the second language comprehension process, at least three types of
background knowledge are potentially activated:

Godman describes that reading as a “psycholinguistic guessing game” involving the

interaction between thought and language. Efficient readers do not need to perceive
precisely or identify all elements of the text. Rather, they select the fewest, most
productive cues necessary to produce guesses about the meaning of the passage and
verify the hypothesis as the process discourse further (In Ommagio, 1986).

Along with Godman’s idea, Ommagio (1986) also maintains that the efficient
language users will take the most direct routine to their goal comprehension. He
describes reading as a sampling process in which readers predict structures. Clearly,
Ommagio (1996) included as in the comprehension process all three types of
background knowledge: comprehenders make use not only of the linguistic
information of the text, but also of their knowledge of the world and their
understanding of discourse structure to make sense out the passage. In line with the
above statement, as Ommagio (1986) cited from Kolers (1973) also maintains that
reading is only incidently visual. Thus, the reader then contributes more information
by the print on the page.

Finally, Ommagio (1986) presents Yorio’s statement who isolates the following
factors in reading process, those are:

1. Knowledge of the language.

2. Ability to predict or guess in order to make correct choice.

3. Ability to remember the previous cues, and

4. Ability to make the necessary associations between the different cues selected.

2.7. The Related of Study

As the comparison of this research, here are some researches of The Effect Think
Aloud Strategy Toward Students Reading Skill. The first researcher is Alexander
Moreno cardenas ( 2009 ) with title “The Impact Of The Think-Aloud Strategy In The
English Reading Comprehension Of Efl 10th Graders, he found that the students
increased their engagement in the activities because of the think-aloud strategy.
Through the use this strategy they could interact and construct meaning from the texts
at once when they developed the reading tasks. Second, it is important to highlight
that the role of the teacher as a guide was crucial in think-alouds because he could
assist and foster students to use reading strategies such as predicting, visualizing, and
prior knowledge in order to comprehend the reading texts. Being the teacher’s role
only as a guide, students then are the main protagonists of the reading process. Third,
another positive impact of the think-aloud strategy, is that students constantly
mentioned that they had an enhancement in some specific aspects of English
language such as: pronunciation, vocabulary, and listening skill.

2.8. Theoretical Frame Work

Based n the theoretical description and result of the relevant studies, the writer arrives
at theoretical framework of this study.

In teaching and learning process, especially in English, many problems and activities
face by the students and also the teachers. But, mostly the success of the students in

learning the English should be determined by themselves. Beside the students study
the English at the school, they should hard at home, that is by repeating again what
they are getting at the school from the teacher to recognize or memorize the materials.

In English language teaching in Indonesian, reading is placed in high priority, we can

see it from the curriculums. Senior high school curriculums, junior high school
curriculum, even at elementary school emphasize the English language teaching on
the reading comprehension ability.

Therefore, reading is the most important language skills for students t study hard, by
reading the knowledge of the pupils will gradually increase, beside developing their
ability in other language skills. But reading without comprehension is means nothing
because reading comprehension is an active process to get the information from the

By teaching four language skill in interactively, that is involves reading, listening,

speaking and writing. In this case is limited for the reading skills itself to involve the
pupils in learning activities i.e.; (1) To expands the pupils knowledge and art; (2) to
motivates the student to be a good personality in their country; (3) to expands the
pupils social intercourse. So that in this case, the ability of the pupils will be
increased by using textbook with are published by Depdikbud (Government) and
Yudistira (Private Publishing Company).


3.1 Method of The Study

The recent study was an experimental research to find out the result of a
certain technique. According to hadi (1988: 56) that is an experimental design is one
of the precise methods to examine the cause and effect because of the fact, instruction
toward a group and experimental sample. The instructional activity was designed
only to teach reading skill students by using Think aloud strategy as a techniques
toward the experimental group, the group of sample would have test to measure the
effect that students get after treatment. The result of the test would be analyzed and
compare using statistical computation.

This study tries to describe the effect of treatment of two distinction, Think aloud
strategy and reading skill, the research design is pre-test and post-test. Therefore, the
design is called a pre-test and post-test control group design. The study design is
adopted from Ary, et.al (2002: 308).

Table 3.1 Randomized group, pre-test and post-test



Independent variable






Notes :

E = experimental group

C = control group

Y1 = pre-test

X = treatment on the experiment group

Y2 = post-test

This research design will present several characteristics; (1) it has two
groups of experimental subjects or treatment group and control group; (2) the two
groups compared with respect two measurements of observation on the dependent
variable; (3) both groups will be measured twice, the first measurement serve as the
pre-test and the second as the post-test; (4) measurement on the dependent variable

for both groups will be done at the same time with the same test; and (5) the
experimental group manipulated with particular treatment.

3.2 Population and Sample


Population is represent entire/all subject research. Nawawi ( 2003) in Iskandar

( 2009 : 118) population is grand total of subject research which can be consisted of
by the human being, object, animal, flora, symptom, assess the test or event as data
source owning certain characteristic in a research. While according to Sudjana
( 2005 : 74) population is totality of all value which possible, result of
counting/calculating or measurement, quantitative and also qualitative hit the certain
characteristic from all clear and complete corps member is which wish learned by the

In this study, the population of the study includes all nine grade students of the
SMPN 19 Mataram in the academic year 2012/2013. there are as the population and
for observation the samples are only 40 students consist of 2 classes namely
experimented class and control class SMPN 19 Mataram.


Sample is shares or proxy from accurate population ( Arikunto, 2006 : 87). While in
big dictionary of Indonesian, sampel is an used by example of from the lion's share.
While according to Sugiyono ( 2003 : 56) sampel is " some of amount and
characteristic owned by population, As for becoming sampel of at this research is all
student of nine grade class.

Suharsimi (2006) stated that if the subject is less than one hundred it is better
to take the entire subject. Furthermore, if the subject is more than one hundred it can
be taken between 10-15% or 20-25% or more that it. in this research the writer take

40 students as the sample. 20 students is students who join who experimental group
and 20 students as a control group.

3.3 Instrument

In any scientific research, instrument for collecting data was absolutely important.
The accuracy of the result of research was mostly dependent on how accurate the use
of instrument. Before research carried out, the instrument for the data collection
should be well prepared.

Related to the research problems, the writer used reading test as an instrument. Ary
(1979: 216) states that a test is a set of stimuli present to an individual in order to
elicit responses on the basic of which a numerical score can be designed. Moreover,
Heaton (1975: 89) states that the test used must be appropriate in term of our object,
the dependable in the evidence provides, and applicable to our particular situation. In
this case, the researcher gave the students reading test in using Think aloud strategy.

This study aimed at knowing the students achievement in Reading skill, where the
students was asked to tell by using Think aloud Strategy was used to make the
students achievement in reading skill (Nurgiantoro, 1995: 229).

3.4 Technique of Data Collection

The method of collecting data for this research is used testing. A test is a group
of questions, tasks or exercises for measuring individual or groups skill. The contents
or the reading task include factual question, determining a title and determining the
main idea.

The test of those three aspects of reading comprehension was compiled by the writer
herself collecting information about the subjects, which are learned at SMPN 19
Mataram. For those reason, the writer has compiled 25 items of multiple choice and

10 items of essay question taken from various sources. Those choices from multiple
choice questions are as follows:

a. Factual questions : 16 items

b. Determining a title : 4 items

c. Determining the main idea : 5 items

Every question is valued at 4 points, thus a total of 100 points.

So, the essay questions are described a follows.

a. Determining a title : 4 items

b. Determining the main idea : 6 items

There are 4 band scales to measure reading comprehension test in essay questions
described by Lucky Prang, an Australian PhD candidate (2003), the are as follows:

4 - Suitable title of reading passage given

- Idea of the text understood

3 - Title of reading passage suitable but not perfect

- Some difficulties in understanding some of the passage

2 - Title of reading passage is not very fitting

- Difficulties in connecting the different passage

1 - Not able to create a title

- Main idea of the text lost

3.5 Technique of Data Analysis

The technique of data analysis, will be used here is statistical analysis that is
descriptive analysis.

3.6 Hypothesis Testing

Before hypothesis testing, the researcher got the students scores of the
experimental and control group. The score check for the pre-test and post-test. The
first step was the researcher calculated the mean score of experimental group. For the
purposes, to test the hypothesis, it was used t-test with the level of significance 0.05

Before testing the proposed hypothesis, the writer took students’ score of
experimental and control groups, which is the score for pre-test and post-test. Thus,
the writer calculated the mean score of the experimental group. For the purpose, the
following formula is used:


M = the mean score of experimental group

X = the deviation of score pre-test

N = the number of sample

S = the sum of (sigma)

(Arikunto, 1998: 124)

Then, the formula that was used for the control group as follows:


My = the mean score of control group

Y = the deviation score of pre-test and post-test

N = the number of sample

S = the sum of (sigma)

(Arikunto, 1998: 124)

The mean score that obtain through the above formula was analyzed and
interpreted. Finally, the writer computed the hypothesis significant. It was to know
whether the Ho was accepted or not. For the sake of computation, it was used formula
recommended by Arikunto (1998: 300), the formula was as follows:


M= mean deviation of each group

N = number of subject

X = deviation between pre-test and post-test (the experimental group)

Y = deviation between pre-test and post-test (the control group)


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