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THE KAVARY POLYTECHNIC

COLLEGE

MULTI PURPOSE ABRASIVE BELT


GRINDER

PROJECT WORK 2007-08

REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR


AWARD OF THE “DIPLOMA IN MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING” OF THE STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL
EDUCATION,
GOVT.OF TAMILNADU

UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF


MR.S.SHANMUGAM ., B.E.,
(LECTURER IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
NBA ACCREATED
THE KAVARY POLYTECHNIC
COLLEGE

MULTI PURPOSE ABRASIVE BELT GRINDER

PROJECT WORK DONE BY,

NAME: REG.NO:

R.MANI 2672314

S.MURUGAN 2672312

R.KRISHNAMOORTHY 2672302

K.PARTHIBAN 2672318

K.NARAYANAN 2672316

A.RAMESH 2672336

FINAL SEMESTER MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 2007-08


SUBMITTED TO DIPLOMA IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.
STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
GOVT.OF TAMILNADU.
THE KAVERY POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE
MECHERI-636453.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHENICAL ENGINEERING


BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
OF THE PROJECT

MULTI PURPOSE ABRASIVE BELT GRINDER

CERTIFIED THAT THIS IS BONAFIED RECORD OF


PROJECT WORK DONE BY,

OF VI SEMESTER OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
DURING THE YEAR 2007-08.

REG.NO :

SUBMITTED FOR BOARD EXAMINATION OF - - 2008

HEAD OF THE DEPT PROJECT GUIDE

EXTERNAL EXAMINER INTERNAL EXAMINER


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

At this pleasing moment of having


successfully completed our project, we wish to
convey our sincere thanks and gratitude to the
management of our college and our beloved
chairman A.Anbalagan-M.A., who provided all the
facilities to us.

We thank to express our sincere thanks


to our principal,
Mr.S.MadhanmohanB.E.,PGDGA.,MBA., for
forwarding us to do our project and offering
adequate duration in completing our project.

We are also grateful to the Head of


Department Prof. Mr.A.George-BE., for her
constructive suggestions & encouragement
during our project.

With deep sense of gratitude, we extend


our earnest & sincere thanks to our guide
Mr.S.shanmugam-B.E., Department of Mechanical
for her kind guidance & encouragement during
this project.

ABRASIVE BELT GRINDER


CONTENTS
CONTENTS

SYNOPSIS

1. INTRODUCTION

2. NEED FOR ATTACHMENT

3. LITERATURE SURVEY

4. WORKING PRINCIPLE

5. DESCRIPTION AND FABRICATION OF

COMPONENT

6. CONSTRUCTION OF ATTACHMENT

7. WORKING OF UNIT

8. DESIGN AND DRAWINGS

9. MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION

10. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

11. APPLICATIONS

12. LIST OF MATERIALS

13. COST ESTIMATION

14. CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

PHOTOGRAPHY
SYNOPSIS
SYNOPSIS

The Machine we designed and fabricated is used for

grinding any shape of object like Circular, Rectangular, and

Polygon. In our project the work abrasive belt is used to

grinding the material. The abrasive belt is rotated by the

single phase induction motor.

Hence our project namely abrasive belt grinder is a

Special type of Machine. According to the type of material

to be grind, the grinding tool can be changed.

This project gives details of grinding various shapes

and sizes of components. This machine can be widely

applied in almost all type of industries. By varying the

pulley sizes I can get a high end speed of over 10,000 rpm

if needed.
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION

Our project is design and fabrication of Multi Use

abrasive belt Grinder. It is used to grind the machining

surfaces to super Finish and accuracy.

It can be used as an external Grinder by fixing the belt

grinder attachment on the conveyor roller. The principle

parts of this attachment are main body, motor with pulley,

bearings, rope pulley and conveyor abrasive belt etc.


NEED FOR BELT
GRINDER
NEED FOR ATTACHMENT

Generally some components in engineering field

require surface finish and accuracy. For example a

cylindrical part requires finish outside the body; it requires

cylindrical grinding machine.

The above machinery cost will be more, and also

unless we have lot of similar jobs, we equity keep these

costly machines idle. To avoid this heavy investment and

also to fill our requirement in grinding of such above jobs,

we can manufacture this belt grinder.

As the cost of this machine is less, we can

keep this idle when we don’t have enough jobs.

There won’t be any loss for us, due to this

machine.
LITERATURE SURVEY
LITERATURE SURVEY

SLOW GRINDING:

Grinding is widely regarded as a necessary evil, an art

rather than a science. The oldest machines in any shop are

typically grinding machines because there isn't enough

justification to invest in new ones. Until now, any increase

in productivity on a grinding machine has been made in

small steps-a different wheel might yield more parts per

dress and a few more parts in the pan at the end of the day;

some experimentation with feed rates might yield a few

more parts. But with some unconventional modifications,

that same grinding machine has the potential to remove

twice the material in the same amount of time.


FAST VS SLOW GRINDING:

Lately the focus has been on high-speed grinding and

machining. The theory is that a grinding wheel, which is

literally millions of tiny cutting tools, will remove more

material the faster it is rotated. We have all read about

research initiatives using special wheels at 30,000 rpm or

more. But the higher the wheel speeds, the higher the

temperatures in the grinding zone.

So along with the high-speed spindles and wheels,

high-pressure coolant systems with special delivery nozzles

had to be developed to overcome the air turbulence caused

by the high-speed wheel. This is all very expensive and


difficult to justify in a production-oriented environment

where today's profit margins are slim.

Has anyone ever considered that maybe we are going

in the wrong direction? Slow speed grinding has been

discussed in the past, and some experimentation was done

years ago. But it never really caught on, perhaps because

people had a perception problem with the word "slow,"

relating it to the feed and production rates rather than

simple wheel speed.

Add that older grinding machines have no precise

control over wheel speeds, especially in the 1000 to 2500

rpm range, and you have a highly efficient grinding process

that has been largely ignored.


WORKING PRINCIPLE
WORKING PRINCIPLE

The abrasive belt is used to grind the material. This

abrasive belt is rotated by the single phase induction motor.

In our project consist of end bearings with bearing cap,

roller wheel, shaft, single phase induction motor and

abrasive belt. This whole arrangement is fixed on the frame

structure where the component rests.

The roller wheel is mounted on the two end bearings

with bearing cap by suitable arrangement. There are two

roller wheel is used in our project to rotate the abrasive

belt. One side of the roller wheel shaft, one v-pulley is

coupled by the suitable arrangement. The single phase

induction motor with V-pulley arrangement is used to

rotate the abrasive belt through the belt drive mechanism.


DESCRIPTION AND FABRICATION
OF COMPONENTS
DESCRIPTION AND FABRICATION OF

COMPONENTS

1. Main Frame structure

2. Roller Shaft.

3. ‘V’ pulley

4. Bearing Cap with Bearing

5. Abrasive Belt

6. Roller Wheel

7. Single phase Induction Motor

1. MAIN FRAME STRUCTURE:

This is made of MILD STEEL material.

The whole parts are mounted on this frame structure

with the suitable arrangement. Boring of bearing sizes and

open bores done in one setting so as to align the bearings


properly while assembling. Provisions are made to cover

the bearings with grease.

2. ROLLER SHAFT:

This is machined as per the drawing. One end is

machined to hold the ‘V’ belt pulley and the other end is

fixed to the frame structure. Middle portion is machined to

suit the bearing as a roller wheel. This roller with bearings

is assembled in main body. This roller will be rotated

through the ‘V’ belt pulley during the operation.

3. ‘V’ PULLEY:

This is made of C.I material and machined to standard

type if single ‘A groove. Roller is rotated by the motor

through this pulley and ‘V’ rope. Diameter of this pulley is

design to run the spindle near to 2000 rpm.


4. BEARING CAP:

This is made of MILD STEEL material. This is

machined as per the drawing. This covers the bearings and

also tights the bearings with the main body by welding

Bearings:

This is a standard size hall bearing No.6202 NBI.

This is enable the roller to rotate and wear the Load smooth

and rigidly.

5. ABRASIVE BELT:

This abrasive belt is manufactured in various grades.

We have to select the grades according to the material

which we have to grind.

6. ROLLER WHEEL:

This is made of MILD STEEL material. There are two

roller is used to drive the abrasive belt.


7. SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR:

It is found to drive the roller shaft which fixed on the

end of the frame structure. The free end of the shaft in the

motor a large pulley is found around which the belt runs.

The other specification about the motor is discussed in

design part of the machine.

Single-Phase Theory

Because it has but a single alternating current source, a

single-phase motor can only produce an alternating field:

one that pulls first in one direction, then in the opposite as

the polarity of the field switches.

A squirrel-cage rotor placed in this field would

merely twitch, since there would be no moment upon it. If

pushed in one direction, however, it would spin.


The major distinction between the different types of

single-phase AC motors is how they go about starting the

rotor in a particular direction such that the alternating field

will produce rotary motion in the desired direction. This is

usually done by some device that introduces a phase-shifted

magnetic field on one side of the rotor.


1. Split-Phase Motors:

The split phase motor achieves its starting capability

by having two separate windings wound in the stator. The

two windings are separated from each other. One winding

is used only for starting and it is wound with a smaller wire

size having higher electrical resistance than the main

windings. From the rotor's point of view, this time delay

coupled with the physical location of the starting winding

produces a field that appears to rotate. The apparent

rotation causes the motor to start.

A centrifugal switch is used to disconnect the starting

winding when the motor reaches approximately 75% of

rated speed. The motor then continues to run on the basis of

normal induction motor principles.


2. Capacitor-Start Motors

Capacitor start motors form the largest single grouping

of general purpose single phase motors. These motors are

available in a range of sizes from fractional through 3HP.

The winding and centrifugal switch arrangement is

very similar to that used in a split phase motor. The main

difference being that the starting winding does not have to


have high resistance. In the case of a capacitor start motor,

a specialized capacitor is utilized in a series with the

starting winding.

The addition of this capacitor produces a slight time

delay between the magnetization of starting poles and the

running poles. Thus the appearance of a rotating field

exists. When the motor approaches running speed, the

starting switch opens and the motor continues to run in the

normal induction motor mode.

This moderately priced motor produces relatively high

starting torque, 225 to 400% of full load torque. The

capacitor start motor is ideally suited for hard to start loads

such as conveyors, air compressors and refrigeration

compressors. Due to its general overall desirable


characteristics, it also is used for many applications where

high starting torque may not be required.

The capacitor start motor can usually be recognized by

the bulbous protrusion on the frame where the starting

capacitor is located.

Permanent-Split Capacitor Motors

The capacitor of this motor is left in series with the

starting winding during normal operation. The starting

torque is quite low, roughly 40% of full-load, so low-inertia


loads such as fans and blowers make common applications.

Running performance and speed regulation can be tailored

by selecting an appropriate capacitor value. No centrifugal

switch is required.

Shaded-Pole Motors

The shaded pole motor is the simplest of all single

phase starting methods. In the shaded pole motor, the stator

poles are notched and a copper short circuiting ring is

installed around a small section of the poles.


As a result of the alteration of the filed pole

configuration, the build-up of the magnetic field is delayed

in the portion of the pole surrounded by the copper shorting

ring. From the rotor's point of view, this makes the

magnetic field seem to rotate from the main pole toward the

shaded pole. This slight appearance of field rotation is

adequate to start the rotor moving and, once started, it will

accelerate up to full speed.

The shaded pole motor is simple and inexpensive, but

has low efficiency and a very low starting torque. Speed

regulation is poor, and it must be fan-cooled during normal

operation. Shaded-pole motors are thus used in shaft-

mounted fans and blowers, and also small pumps, toys, and

intermittently used household items.


CONSTRUCTION
CONSTRUCTION

The stand (or) base is to carry the whole machine. The

two conveyor roller is fixed to the two ends of the frame

stand with the help of end bearing (6202) with bearing cap.

The conveyor roller shaft is coupled to the single phase

induction motor with the help of v-pulley and belt drive

mechanism. This total arrangement is used to rotate the

abrasive belt from one place to another place with the help

of conveyor mechanism.

Bearings are covered by bearing cap which is welded

to the frame stand. The motor pulley and roller pulley is

connected by the V-belt drive mechanism. The abrasive

belt is mounted on these two roller wheel so that it will

running continuously.
WORKING OF UNIT
WORKING OF UNIT

This machine is fixed on the work table, where the

compound rest. Where the motor is on, the abrasive belt

and the roller wheel will be rotated, on the RPM of about.

Job is held on the hand, for example, if we grind a surface

of a body, the abrasive belt will be rotating on higher RPM.

Depth of grinding may be given by cross slide, and the

longitudinal movement will be given by manual feed.

Normally depth per cut will be 0.02 to 0.05 MM. The

grinding stone is connected to the roller shaft so that the

grinding wheel is rotated. The mild grinding operation is

done with the help of grinding wheel.


DESIGN AND
DRAWINGS
DESIGN AND DRAWINGS

DESIGN CALCULATION:

RPM of the abrasive belt should be high.For this using

standard motor having 1440 RPM, the abrasive belt speed is

converted to higher RPM.

FORMULA:D x RPM = D1 x RPM1

Where,

D - The motor pulley diameter

D1 - Main shaft Pulley diameter

As per our design

D - 76 mm

D1 - 47 mm

Motor RPM - 1440

Therefore,

Main shaft RPM = (D x Motor RPM )/D1

= (76 x 1440)/47

= 2300 RPM
MAIN SHAFT PULLEY
MOTOR PULLEY
FRAME STAND
CONVEYOR ROLLER
BEARING-6202
2D VIEW OF ABRASIVE BELT GRINDER
MAINTENANCE AND
LUBRICATION
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION

This abrasive belt grinder machine required less

maintenance. Bearings only to be take care. So the bearing

is packed with grease of good quality. The grease need not

be changed often. Once in 350 hours is enough to run.


ADVANTAGES &
DISADVANTAGES
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES:

1. The machine is compact and rigid in size.

2. Maintenance is less.

3. It can be used on any place of small grinding

application

4. By varying the pulley diameter the speed of the

abrasive belt to be changed.

DISADVANTAGES:

1.The abrasive belt should be changeable one for

different material. This process takes more time.


APPLICATIONS
APPLICATIONS

1. Grinding outside the job in any size of body can be

done.

2. As the feed is given automatic, 0.8 micron finish may

be achieved.

3. By changing the grades of abrasive belt grinding it can

be used to grind the carbon steel, Alloy steel and

stainless steel etc.

FIELD OF APPLICATION

Wherever grinding finish is required it can be used.

For example, outer dia of spindle of varies machines.


LIST OF MATERIALS
LIST OF MATERIALS

SL. NO. PART NAME MATERIAL QTY

1 Roller Wheel M.S 2

2 Shaft M.S 2

3 Abrasive Belt Abrasive 1

4 Motor Aluminium 1

(Body)

5 Bearing Steel 4

6 Pulley M.S 2

7 V-Belt Rubber 1

8 Bearing cap M.S 4

9 Frame Structure M.S 1

10 Bolt and Nut ---- -----


COST ESTIMATION
COST ESTIMATION

SL. NO. PARTNAME MATERIAL QTY AMOUNT(RS)

1 Roller Wheel M.S 2 400

2 Shaft M.S 2 200

3 Abrasive Belt Abrasive 1 500

4 Motor Aluminium 1 2700

5 Bearing Steel 4 300

6 Pulley M.S 2 150

7 V-Belt Rubber 1 300

8 Bearing cap M.S 4 200

9 FrameStructure M.S 1 500

10 Bolt and Nut ---- ----- 100

11 Fabricationcost ------ ----- 1000

TOTAL =6350
CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION

The project “DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF

MULTI PURPOSE ABRASIVE BELT GRINDER” is

that designed and erected.

The design and erection of this machine involved a

great deal of effort to make the project successful and

useful.

We conclude the project report on “DESIGN AND

FABRICATION OF MULTI PURPOSE ABRASIVE

BELT GRINDER” that it will be very useful machine

shop.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Reference Book:-

1. PSG Design Data Book.

2. Raghuvanshi, Workshop Technology.

3. Gerling, All About machines.

4. Electrical Machines, By B.L. Theresa

Reference websites:-

1.www.google.com

2.www.grinding machines.com

3.www.wikipedia.com

4.www.youtube.com
PHOTOGRAPHY