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VIDEOTEL MARINE INTERNATIONAL - FIGHTING POLLUTION

FIGHTING
POLLUTION
PREVENTING POLLUTION AT SEA

Supported by the
Commission of European Communities
International Maritime Organization
V. Ships

Consultanis
Updated Version
Douglas Cormack

Original version
Captain C.J. Ghiazza - V. Ships Monaco
Richard Hart - Warsash Marine Centre
Jon Wonham - International Maritime Organization

Writer/Director
George Bekes

Warning

Any unauthorised copying, hiring, lending, exhibition diffusion, sale, public


performance or other
exploitation of this video is strictly prohibited and may result in prosecution.

Copyright Videotel 1997


This video is intended to reflect the best available techniques and practices at
the time of production,
it is intended purely as comment. No responsibility is accepted by Videotel, or
by any firm,
corporation or Organisation who or which has been in any way concerned
with the production or authorised translation, supply or sale of this video for
accuracy
of any information given hereon or for any omission herefrom.
CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

Aims, Objectives and Coverage of the Book and Video


An Environmental Policy For Your Company and Ship

SECTION 1. EXISTING REGULATION

MARPOL 73/78 And Its Annexes


Oil, Sewage and Garbage Discharge Conditions For All Ships
Designated Special Areas For Minimisation Of Oil Pollution
Definition of Nearest Land
Control Of Oil Discharges From Ships While Operating In
Special Areas: Regulation 10
Control of Discharge of Oil Outside Special Areas: Regulation 9
Segregated Ballast, Clean Ballast and the Load-on-Top System
Disposal of Garbage Within Special Areas: Regulation 5
Disposal of Garbage Outside Special Areas: Regulation 3
Special Requirements: Regulation 4
Guidelines for Implementation of Annex V
Disposal of Sewage
Reception Facilities

SECTION 2. TRAINING TO PREVENT POLLUTION

Oil-Water and Oil Discharges Contrasted


General Requirements For Onboard Training
Special Training For Compliance With MARPOL Regulations
Special Training For Avoidance of Accidental Oil Release From
Safe Containment
Special Training For Onboard Response to Accidental Oil Release
From Safe Containment
Special Training For Action To Be Taken If Oil Escapes
From The Ship
Some Additional Points

SECTION 3. THE FUTURE

SECTION 4. PROCEDURE FORMS AND OPERATIONAL CHECKLISTS

APPENDICES
Appendix I Typical Bunker Oil Transfer Procedures Form
Appendix 11 Bunkering Operations Check Lists
Appendix III Tanker Cargo Operations Check Lists
Appendix IV Crude Oil Washing Check Lists
Appendix V Further Reading
*

INTRODUCTION.

Aims, Objectives and Coverage of the Video and Book

This book and the video film in this package deal with the ways in which
professional seamen can limit the pollution of the seas. They are designed for ships'
officers who are probably well aware of the problems of ensuring compliance with the
regulations, with company policy and with industry best practice guidelines.

The intention here is to provide a focus for the officers themselves and a clear
explanation of the need for improved performance and thus a basis for training and
motivation for other crew members. The strategy is to view compliance with the
regulations as an essential minimum, and to encourage all those involved to take
every step within the range of their responsibilities and capabilities to minimise the
impact of their operations on the marine environment.

The video is intended to attract and hold the attention of the trainee by the
use of purposely prepared film and commentary. It consists of four sections for
convenience in presentation and ease of assimilation. The first section presents the
significance of ship-source pollution; and the need for the individual crew member to
take it seriously and act accordingly. The second deals with bunker loading and cargo
handling. The third covers the operations of oil-water separation and monitoring, and
the fourth with garbage handling and final disposal.

The book is intended to be used in conjunction with the video. It is divided


into four sections. The first deals with existing regulations of the Marine Pollution
Convention, MARPOL 73/78. The second with methods of training to prevent illegal
pollution from operational discharges (MARPOL) and from accidental events. The
current activities of IMO which will produce future regulation are briefly summarised in
a third section. The fourth section provides a number of check-lists, for example, on
bunkering procedures, which can be used as models for the development of good
practice onboard.

In the training section, the topic of prevention of oil release from safe
containment is treated separately from procedures and arrangements for dealing with
operationally produced oily water mixtures. Here are listed causes of oil release, ways
of avoidance, and means of response should release occur.

These, together with the checklists in the fourth section can be brought into a
training session by photocopying the relevant pages. Crew members could then read
through the suggested points, discuss if and how they apply to your particular ship
and decide how best to implement any measures not already part of regular practice.

There are many basic precautions against pollution which every ship and
every crew member can take.
An Environmental Policy For Your Company and Ship

Every shipping company and every ship must have an environmental policy in
place. This book and the video have been designed to assist in the training of those
on board ship to be more aware of that environmental policy. Any such policy must
take account of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from
Ships, MARPOL 73/78, and its Annexes, and of industry standards and port authority
regulations.

The five MARPOL Annexes have had a marked effect in reducing the amount
of pollution at sea. Pollution through oil and chemical discharges; the handling of
packaged goods, and disposal of garbage and sewage are all covered by these
regulations. However, in some cases, individual nations may have regulations that are
more demanding than MARPOL and local port requirements should be ascertained.

In addition the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is now actively


introducing the International Safety Management Code (ISM Code), to come into force
in January 1998 and which will progressively formalise and tighten up on safety
management at sea. The realisation that this is happening should influence the
environmental policies of all shipping companies as the Code comes into force.

Furthermore, companies will be aware of the work currently underway in IMO


on air pollution abatement, on ballast water and on areas of special environmental
sensitivity. Noise pollution (chipping hammers on deck, loud machinery, etc), air
pollution (funnel smoke, the release of CFC into the atmosphere), and other kinds of
harmftil emissions have not yet been covered by MARPOL legislation. But these could
still be usefully included in an anti-pollution training programme.

Company environmental policy should thus take account of the ongoing


tendency for regulation to become more strict where it already applies and to extend
to cover areas not yet regulated. In order to get ahead of the game and to reach the
more comfortable state of self regulation, company environmental policy might
arguably seek to promote a proper understanding of the perceived need for
regulation, and the objectives of existing and projected regulations, codes of practice
and guidelines, and thus to encourage not only compliance, but also the search for
means to further improve performance beyond current best practice.

The training section in this book suggests what could be included in such a
programme. A possible starting point is to make an officer responsible for training.
He could set aside times for small groups of crew members to meet and view the
video. The group could then discuss the various ways of reducing pollution onboard
ship. There is no need to make such sessions overly formal - no one needs to stand
up and make speeches! The emphasis should be on practical ways of making
sure,that pollution incidents do not happen.
In addition, the avoidance of even legal discharges should be encouraged
wherever practical. The identification of such opportunities could be made the basis
of feedback from ships to company head offices for policy changes, if appropriate.
Such feedback should also cover operational procedures, codes of practice, etc.

SECTION 1: EXISTING REGULATION

MARPOL 73/78 Annexes And Its Annexes

After making great efforts for a number of years, the IMO managed to get
international agreement for the MARPOL 73/78 Convention. Its five Annexes deal with
discharges from ships of oil; noxious liquids carried in bulk; harmful substances in
packaged form; sewage; and garbage. These Annexes contain many regulations and
are often amended and updated. There should be a current copy aboard your ship.

Annex I deals with oil discharges from all ships and with the special
requirements of oil tankers. Annexes 11 and III respectively deal with the special
requirements of bulk chemical tankers, and with the carriage of packaged goods.
Annex IV, sewage, and Annex V, garbage, again deal with discharge and disposal
from all ships.

This book is concerned with the Annexes which relate to all ships, viz Annex
1, Annex IV and Annex V. The associated video deals with Annex I and Annex V,
Annex IV not yet being in force. In addition, both book and video include the
specialised oil tanker-related aspects of Annex I in respect of tank cleaning and ballast
water related

Oil, Sewage And Garbage Discharge Conditions For All Ships

Ideally there should be no discharge. This is thought to be impractical and so


permitted discharges are set with regard to what is 'reasonable and practical' as
judged by international consensus through IMO, in respect of whether they are to
occur inside or outside Special Areas and depending on the distance from land at
which they are to occur.

This in turn is based on the judgement that some sea areas are more
sensitive to pollutants than are others and that impact on shores and inshore waters
has to be specially avoided. These two judgements taken together have the result
that shores and inshore waters are themselves special areas, whatever the designation
of the sea area itself may be.
In the case of oil, we also have regard to the judgement that oil discharged in
large quantities will form slicks which will affect birds at sea and may strand on
beaches if these slicks do not disperse into the water column as small droplets before
reaching shore. For these reasons, total amount of permitted discharge and oil
concentration in discharges are restricted and distance from shore is set in such a way
as to permit reasonable time for dispersion.

In the case of garbage however, it should be noted that although discharge


may be banned entirely in some cases, generally distance from shore is the only
consideration, even although floating non-degradable garbage will ultimately come
ashore whatever the distance.

Returning to oil again, consideration of the regulations shows that oil as such
should not be allowed to enter the sea. Only oily water mixtures may be permitted
from clearly designated sources which can be monitored as to oil content, and which
may have to be processed in order to reduce oil content below the limit levels. This
may be achieved either by separation of oil from water by gravity in tanks or by
passage through oil-water separators, coalescers and filters.

If the regulation limits cannot be met, the oily waters must be retained
onboard and discharged to shore reception facilities.

With regard to garbage however, processing is only called for by grinding and
comminution in the case of food wastes and that only in certain circumstances and
while discharge of plastics quantity limits, provided stipulated distances from shore are
met.
In the case of sewage, discharge is banned and must be transferred to a
holding tank pending discharge to a shore reception facility or at stipulated distance
from shore. Ships may, however, be fitted with a system to comminute and disinfect
the sewage, or with a sewage treatment plant, in which case discharge from such
systems and plant is permitted, again with regard to stipulated, though shorter,
distances from shore.

Designated Special Areas for Minimisation of Oil Pollution

The Special Areas designated under Annex I of MARPOL 73/78 are the
Mediterranean Sea area, the Baltic Sea area, the Black Sea area, the Red Sea area,
the 'Gulfs' area, the Gulf of Aden area and the Antarctic area. These areas are defined
-under Regulation 10 of Annex 1. The definition of 'Special Area' is provided at sub-
paragraph 10 of Regulation I (definitions). The term means a sea area where for
recognised technical reasons in relation to its oceanographic and ecological condition
and to the particular character of its traffic, the adoption of special mandatory
methods for the prevention of sea pollution by oil is required.

Definition of Nearest Land


This is defined under Regulation I of Annex I and indeed is repeated in all of
the Annexes.
The term 'distance from nearest land' means from the baseline from which
the territorial sea of the territory in question is est ablished in international law, except
that for the purposes of the MARPOL 73/78 Convention, 'from nearest land' on the
north-eastern coast of Australia (the Great Barrier Reef) shall mean from a line drawn
between a series of points,the positions of which, are set out in sub-paragraph 9 of
Regulation 1.

Control Of Oil Discharges From Ships While Operating In Special Areas:


Regulation 10.

Any discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture from any oil tanker or any
ship of 400 tons gross tonnage and above, other than an oil tanker., is prohibited. In
respect of the Antarctic area, any discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture from any
ship is prohibited.

Any discharge into. the sea of oil or oily mixture from a ship of less than 400
tons gross tonnage, other than an oil tanker, shall be prohibited while in a special
area, except when the oil content of the effluent, without dilution, does not exceed 15
parts per million.

However, the above provisions do not apply to the discharge of clean or


segregated ballast (see later).

The above provisions do not apply to the discharge of processed bilge water
from machinery spaces provided that all of the following conditions are satisfied:

(a) the bilge water does not originate from cargo pumproom bilges;

(b) the bilge water is not mixed with oil cargo residues;

(c) the ship is proceeding en route;

(d) the oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15ppm;

(e) the ship has in operation oil filtering equipment complying with the
Convention (Regulation 16 [51); and

(e) the filtering system is equipped with a stopping device which will ensure
that the discharge is automatically stopped when the oil content of the
effluent exceeds 15ppm.

Control Of Discharge Of Oil Outside Special Areas:


Regulation 9

Any discharge of oil or oily mixtures from ships is prohibited except when all
of the following conditions are satisfied.
(a) for an oil tanker except as provided for in sub-paragraph (b) of this
paragraph:

(i) the tanker is not within a special area;

(ii) the tanker is more than 50 nautical miles from the nearest land;

(iii) the tanker is proceeding en route;

(iv) the instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30
litres per nautical mile;

(v) the total quantity of oil discharged does not exceed, for existing
tankers, 1/15,000 of the total quantity of the particular cargo of which
the residue formed a part and for new tankers, 1/30,000 of the total
quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a part;
and

(vi) the tanker has in operation an oil discharge monitoring and control
system and a slop tank arrangement as required by Regulation 15 of
Annex I.

(b) from a ship of 400 tons gross tonnage and above, other than an oil tanker,
and from machinery space bilges excluding cargo pumproom bilges of an
oil tanker, .unless mixed with oil cargo residue:

(i) the ship is not within a Special Area;

(ii) the ship is proceeding en route;

(iii) the oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed
15ppm;

(iv) the ship has in operation equipment as required by Regulation 16 of


this Annex.

In the case of a ship of less than 400 tons gross tonnage, other than an oil
tanker, whilst outside special areas, the administration shall ensure that it is equipped
as far as is practicable and reasonable with installations to ensure the storage of oil
residues onboard and their discharge to reception facilities or into the sea in
compliance with the requirements of sub-paragraph (b) of this regulation.

The above provisions shall not apply to the discharge of clean or segregated
ballast or unprocessed oily mixtures which without dilution have an oil content not
exceeding 15 parts per million and which do not originate from cargo pumproom
bilges and are not mixed with cargo oil residues.
In the case of a ship, referred to in Regulation 16 [6] of this annex, not fitted
with equipment as required by Regulation 16 [1] or 16 [2] of this Annex, the
provisions of paragraph (b) above will not apply until 6 July 1998 or the date on which
the ship is fitted with such equipment, whichever is the earlier. Until this date any
discharges from machinery space bilges into the sea of oil or oily mixtures from such a
ship shall be prohibited except where all the following conditions are satisfied.

(a) the oily mixture does not originate from the cargo pumproom bilges.

(b) the oily mixture is not mixed with oil cargo residues.

(c) the ship is not within a Special Area.

(d) the ship is more than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land.

(e) the ship is proceeding en route.

(f) the oil content of the effluent is less than 100 parts per'million.

(g) the ship has in, operation oily-wqter separating equipment of a design
approved by the Administration, taking into account the specification
recommended by the Organisation.

Segregated Ballast, Clean Ballast And The Load- On- Top System

Newer tankers are built with protectively located Segregated Ballast Tanks
(SBT) which have their own piping and pumping systems. Such tanks never carry oil
or have any contact with oil.

Older product tankers may continue to use the Clean Ballast (CBT) system in
which tanks formerly used for cargo are now designated as ballast tanks for the
carriage of clean ballast, though they still share the cargo piping and pumping system.
Such tanks should only be used for ballast.

The discharge operations which are the subject of sub-paragraph (a) of the
previous section relate to cargo tank cleaning for the purpose of preparing clean
ballast tank capacity during the ballast voyage. Such ships retain oil residues removed
from tanks during the cleaning process and operate the 'Load-on-Top' system (LoT),
ie the next cargo is loaded on top of the retained residues held in the tank designed
as the slop tank for the cleaning process.

'Clean Ballast' as defined in Regulation 1 [lb] means the ballast in a tank


which since oil was last carried therein has been so cleaned, that effluent therefrom, if
it were discharged from a ship which is stationary, into clean calm water on a clear
day, would not produce visible traces of oil on the surface of the water or on adjacent
shorelines or cause a sludge or emulsion to be deposited beneath the surface of the
water or upon adjoining shorelines. If the ballast is discharged through an oil
discharge and monitoring and control system approved by the administration,
evidence based on such a system to the effect that the oil content of the effluent did
not exceed 15ppm, shall be determinative that the ballast was clean, notwithstanding
the
presence of visible traces.

Any tanker is allowed under MARPOL 73/78 to discharge clean ballast


anywhere, ports and special areas included, under the following conditions:

(a) before discharging from SBTS, the surface of the ballast water should be
inspected for possible signs of oil;

(b) while discharging other clean ballast the oil discharge monitoring or
control system should be used to make sure that the oil content is not
greater than 15ppm. Monitoring is compulsory in ships using CBT and
LoT; and

(c) while discharging clean ballast, the sea surface should be inspected for
possible signs of oil.

Disposal Of Garbage Within Special Areas: Regulation 5

The Special Areas designated under Annex V of MARPOL 73/78 are the
Mediterranean Sea area, the Baltic Sea area, the Black Sea area, the Red Sea area,
the Gulfs area, the North Sea area, the Antarctic area, and the Wider Caribbean
Region. These are defined under Regulation 5 of Annex V. As for Annex I, Regulation
I of Annex V defines '.nearest land' in general and includes the specification relating to
the Great Barridr Reef region of north-eastern Australia.

(a) Disposal into the sea of the following is prohibited:

(i) all plastics including, but not limited to, synthetic ropes, synthetic fishing
nets and plastic garbage bags; and

(ii) all other garbage including paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles,
crockery, dunnage lining or packing materials.

(b) disposal into the sea of food wastes shall be made, as far as is practicable
from land, but in any case not less than 12 nautical miles from the nearest
land.

(c) disposal into the Wider Caribbean Region of food wastes which have been
passed through a comminuter or grinder shall be made as far as is
practicable from land but in any case, not less than 3 nautical miles from
nearest land. Such contaminated or ground food wastes shall be capable
of passing through a screen with openings no greater than 25mm.

Disposal Of Garbage Outside Special Areas: Regulation 3


(a) disposal into the sea of all plastics, including but not limited to synthetic
ropes, synthetic fishing nets, and plastic garbage bags is prohibited.

(b) disposal into the sea of the following garbage shall be made as far as
practicable from the nearest land, but in any case is prohibited if the
distance from land is less than:

(i) 25 nautical miles for dunnage, lining or packing materials which


float;

(ii) 12 nautical miles for food wastes and all other garbage including
paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery, and similar
refuse.

(c) disposal into the sea of garbage specified in b (ii) above may be permitted
when it

has passed through a comminuter or grinder and made as far as practical


from nearest land, but in any case is prohibited, if the distance from the
nearest land is
less than 3 nautical miles. Such comminuted or ground waste shall be
capable of passing through a screen with openings no greater than 25mm.

When garbage is mixed with other discharges having different disposal or


discharge requirements, the more stringent requirements shall apply.

Special Requirements, Regulation 4

(a) Disposal of any materials regulated by Annex V is prohibited for fixed or


floating platforms engaged in exploration and associated offshore
processing of seabed mineral resources and from all other ships when
alongside or within 500 metres of such platforms.

(b) Disposal into the sea of food wastes may be permitted when they have
been passed through a comminuter or grinder from such fixed or floating
platforms located more than 12 nautical miles from land and all other ships
when alongside or within 500m of such platforms. Such comminuted or
ground food wastes shall be capable of passing through a screen with
openings no greater than 25mm.
Guidelines for Implementation of Annex V

In addition to the seven regulations of Annex V, IMO has published guidelines


for the implementation of the Annex. The main objectives of these guidelines are to:

1 . Assist governments in developing and enacting domestic laws which give


force to and implement Annex V;

2. Assist vessel operators in complying with the requirements set forth in Annex
V and domestic laws; and

3. Assist port and terminal operators in assessing the need for, and providing
adequate reception facilities for, garbage generated on different types of
ships.

Part IV (Garbage) of the organisation's guidelines on the Provision of


Adequate Reception Facilities in Ports, June 1978 has been modified and incorporated
in the published guidelines referred to here, in order to consolidate all Annex V related
guidelines.

In addition., a form for reporting alleged inadequacy of port reception


facilities for garbage is provided as an appendix to the guidelines.

Again, in 1992, IMO published as Appendix 2, a standard specification for


shipboard incinerators covering, inter alia, materials of manufacture, operating
controls, documentation, tests certification, marking and quality assurance, and
including annexes on emission standards, fire protection, heat recovery, flue gas
temperatures and a form of IMO type approval certificate for incinerator with
capacities up to I 1 60 KW.

Disposal Of Seawage

Annex IV of MARPOL 73/78 dealing with sewage is not yet in force but a
number of countries, eg the USA, have stringent regulations governing the discharge
of sewage into their territorial waters.

Ships which would be required to comply are new ships of 200 tons gross
tonnage and above, or which are certified to carry more than 10 persons, if less than
200 grt, or do not have a measured gross tonnage; and existing ships in these
categories, 10 years after entry into force of this Annex.

Every ship which is required to comply shall be subject to surveys, as


specified below, to ensure:
(a) when the ship is fitted with a sewage treatment plant, it shall meet
operational requirements based on standards and test methods developed
by the Organisation;

(b) when the ship is fitted with a system to comminute and disinfect the
sewage, it shall be of a type approved by the Administration;

(c) when the ship is equipped with a holding tank, it shall have a capacity to
the satisfaction of the Administration for retention of all sewage having
regard to the operation of the ship, the number of persons onboard, and
other relevant factors. The holding tank shall have a means to indicate
visually the amount of its contents; and

(d) that the ship is equipped with a pipeline leading to the exterior for the
discharge of sewage to a reception facility and that such a pipeline is fitted
with a standard shore connection in compliance with regulation I 1 of this
Annex.

The discharge of sewage is prohibited, except when

(a) the ship is discharging comminuted and disinfected sewage using a system
in accordance with the above at a distance of more than 4 nautical miles
from the nearest land, or sewage which is not comminuted or disinfected at
a distance of more than 12 nautical miles from nearest land, provided that
in any case the sewage which has been stored shall not be discharged
instantaneously but at a moderate rate when the ship is en route and
proceeding at not less than 4 knots. The rate of discharge shall be
approved by the Administration based upon standards developed by the
Organisation; or

(b) the ship has in operation an approved sewage treatment plant to meet the
requirements referred to above, and

(i) the test results are laid down in the ship's International Sewage
Pollution Prevention Certificate (1973);

(ii) additionally, the effluent shall not produce visible floating solids in, nor
cause discoloration of, the surrounding water; or

(c) the ship is situated in the waters under the jurisdiction of a State and is
discharging sewage in accordance with such less stringent requirements as
may be imposed by such State.

When the sewage is mixed with water or with waste water having different
discharge requirements, the more stringent requirements shall apply.
Reception Facilities

In addition to their own obligation to meet the regulations, ship's captains


should also be aware of the obligations placed on others with respect to the provision
of adequate waste reception facilities in ports, as specified in the annexes to MARPOL
73/78. With regard to Special Areas, it should be noted that adequate provision is
integral with Special Area Status. It should also be noted that alleged inadequacy
should be reported.

SECTION 2. TRAINING TO PREVENT POLLUTION


Oil- Water and Oil Discharges Contrasted

The MARPOL 73/78 Regulations of Annex I are designed to minimise the


discharge of oil from clearly identified sources, viz from tank cleaning operations and
from deballasting; or from the discharge of bilge water. Here, we are dealing with
situations where it is normal practice to mix oil and water, as in tank washing, or to
find oil mixed with water as in machinery space bilges. Here again, the amount of
unwanted oil likely to be encountered is predictable and manageable by prior
procedures, arrangements, and installed equipment. Procedures and arrangements,
and appropriate equipment have been developed accordingly with the intention of
ensuring that the discharge limits set for all these processes can be met so that it is
possible to discharge the water in all cases while minimising the oil that goes with it.

More generally, of course, we know that oil can escape from its normal
containment by accident rather than be mixed with water by intent or through low
grade leakage of the type thought acceptable for operating machinery. Such
accidental releases of oil from safe containment are, in contrast, open-ended,
comparatively unpredictable and difficult to handle. They can best be quantified in
terms of likely magnitude and frequency of occurrence. Here, every effort must be
made to ensure that such releases are as small as possible and as infrequent as
possible.

Discharge of oil above regulation limits can potentially occur in the case of
inadequate separation of oil and water, as may happen in tank cleaning and bilge
emptying operations. It is, however, in respect of cargo loading and unloading and in
bunker loading that the most dramatic consequences of accidental release of oil from
safe containment can occur, and where the range of size and of possible locations-
and the frequency, and consequent environmental impacts of such releases, can be
greatest.
The approach to training, therefore, needs to be two-fold. In the first place,
we need to ensure that the procedures and arrangements and the equipment for
compliance with MARPOL 73/78 Regulations are fully understood and efficiently
operated. In the second, we need to ensure that all sources and locations for possible
accidents, sudden malfunctions, and the scope for human error are identified; that the
magnitude and frequencies of associated releases of oil from safe containment are
quantified as far as possible; that methods of avoidance and of reaction and response
are developed. All of these factors must be built into the training scheme.

The contents of such a scheme are now dealt with under the following
headings:
I . General requirements:

2. Training for Compliance with MARPOL Regulations;

3. Training for avoidance of accidental oil release from safe containment;

4. Training for response to accidental oil release from safe containment:

· onboard ship;

· external to ship.

Many ships are recognised by IMO to operate with comprehensive and


effective emergency plans such as the Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan
(SOPEP). Nonetheless, in 1996, IMO produced Guidelines For a Structure of an
Integrated System of Contingency Planning for Shipboard Emergencies for the
attention of maritime administrators and relevant industry organisations. Reference
should also be made to such documentation in preparing operational and training
materials for shipboard use.

General Requirements For Onboard Training.

Every ship has her own individual characteristics, nature of trade, range of
equipment and degree of crew experience. A realistic training programme will cover
all aspects of the ship and her operations in regard to oil and garbage, and have
regard to the trainees' personal duties and responsibilities.

General training requirements should include:

An awareness of :
· the importance of pollution prevention;

· the ways in which pollution can arise;

. the means of pollution avoidance.


A familiarisation with:
· operations likely to cause pollution;

· the relevant discharge requirements;

· the ancillary equipment associated with regulation compliance;

· operations which can give rise to loss of safe oil containment;

· the means of response to loss of safe containment both onboard the


ship and external to the ship.

The provision of-

* instruction on the above;

* demonstration of all aspects under operational conditions;

· supervision and monitoring of all aspects of crew performance.


Relevant training materials for such a programme would include:
· the accompanying video;
· this booklet-

· special briefing documentation;


· operation manuals;

· permanently posted instructions;

· check lists for all equipment operations and for all procedures and

arrangements.

Special Training For Compliance With MARPOL Regulations

The evidence does suggest that operational oil pollution from ships has been
reduced through compliance with MARPOL 73/78 Annex I Regulations, covering tank
cleaning and ballasting operations including LoT and COW, SBT and CBT; the use of
oil water separation for oily bilge water; and oil content monitoring and control
systems in general.

Annex V Regulations are expected to have similar and increasing beneficial


effects, though most of the text of Annex V relates to guidelines rather than to
regulations as such. The guidelines for implementation of the Annex state:
"Although Annex Vpermits the discharge of a range of garbage into the
sea, it is recommended that wherever practicable, ships use as a
primary means, port reception facilities. "

We see, therefore, that the preferred position would be one of zero discharge
to the sea.

Clearly the reduction of marine pollution through compliance with these


Annexes, requires the knowledge and cooperation of seamen. These requirements in
turn impart a training and motivation obligation on ship owners, managers and crews..

Training under this heading will, as may be required, depending on ship type
and mode of operation, include:

Uptake of ballast water into uncleaned tanks in port:

· avoidance of backflow of oil to the sea;

· drainage of pipelines to remove static head;

. correct sequence for opening sea valves and pump start-up.

Tank cleaning procedures:


· cleaning by use of sea water;

· preliminary tank cleaning by Crude Oil Washing (COW). Subsequent


final tank cleaning by water washing at sea;

· maintenance of inert atmospheres during COW operations;

. maintenance of SBT and operations for maintenance of the CBT option.

Discharge of settled/gravity separated, tank cleaning water at sea:


· care to be exercised in approach of oil/water interface to the discharge
pumps inlet in final stages of water discharge;

· observation of sea surface/ use of interface detectors;

. transfer of separated oil and interface water to the slop tank.

Discharge of "clean" ballast water:


· inspection of surface of ballast prior to discharge;
· observation of sea surface;

· attention to oil content and control equipment.


Specialised equipment associated with the above:

- tank washing machines;

- monitoring and control equipment;

- pumps, pipelines, etc.

Operation of oil/water separators for bilge waters:

- care and maintenance of gravity separator.-


- care, maintenance and use of associated oil content monitoring
equipment,
- replacement schedule for coalescers and filter units.
Garbage procedures and arrangements:

-· consideration of purchasing options to minimise garbage arising;

-· segregation of garbage;

-· storage of garbage;

-· disposal of garbage, preferably to shore receptions

- use of a garbage record book.


Operation of garbage related equipment:

· maintenance of grinders, comminuters and incinerators;

· avoidance of damage to comminuters and grinders by introduction of


extraneous materials with which they are not designed to deal.

Special Trainingfor Avoidance Of Accidental Oil Release From Safe


Containment

MARRPOL 73/78 Annex I deals with the minimisationof oil discharge to the
sea in situations when it becomes mixed with water during normal ship operations.
Thus oil may be mixed with ballast water through use of cargo tanks for the carriage
of such ballast, or through discharge or leakage from machinery into bilge waters.
The annex also deals with SBT and CBT operations as an alternative means of
avoiding the deliberate contacting of oil and water in the first place; and with COW as
an intermediate stage in tank cleaning whereby most of the residue is re-dissolved in
the cargo and unloaded with it to shore. In addition, it deals with ship construction
aspects of tank size, double hulls and double bottoms to minimise oil release in
conditions of hull damage.

The Annex however, does not specifically deal with the avoidance of
operational accidental release of oil from safe containment, during cargo loading and
unloading, or during bunker loading. Here, recourse is to industry standards, port
regulations, and the need for ships to comply with these additional requirements.

Again, training and motivation are essential.

Training under this heading should include:

Compliance with all industry standards and port regulations for:

· safe mooring;

· loading/unloading procedures;

· tank loading sequence and delivery rates;

· tank topping-off procedures;

· final tank topping-off procedure;

. emergency stop arrangements.,

Establishment of ship/shore operational agreements for all of the above.

Onboard equipment checks to ensure full operational state and availability of.
· the cargo handling system;

· the bunker handling system


· loading arms;
· manifold.

associated pumps, valves, pipelines, couplings, and blanks;

· vents and overflow systems

Onboard procedure checks to ensure that all equipment will be properly used:

· ensuring pressure testing of delivery lines;

· availability of cargo handling check lists;

· availability of bunker handling check lists;


· ensuring all couplings are properly made up;

. ensuring blank flanges are completely secure - no missing nuts and


bolts;
. ensuring that ullages can, and will be, checked.

Special Training for Onboard Response to Aiccidental Oil Release


From Safe Containment
Having dealt in the previous sections with the minimisation of the oil content
of water discharges through compliance with MARPOL regulations, and the avoidance
of oil release from safe containment.through good operational practice according to
industry standards, we now turn to actions to be taken when oil does escape from
safe containment. This section deals also with action onboard and, if pollution arises
external to the ship, with the necessary reporting procedures.

Training here should include:

The need to arrange for back-up provisions to be in place in case of

unwanted release of oil:

. positioning of drip trays;

· checking for holes/cracks in gutter bars;

. plugging of scuppers.

The need to ensure that such first line defences are not overwhelmed:

· maintain an efficient deck watch during all cargo and bunker

operations-

· ensure that dump valves, from drip trays, into slop tanks (if fitted)
canbe easily opened;

· if dump valves are not fitted, ensure that Butterworth covers are
easilopened

The need to ensure that on-deck spillage can be cleaned up by:

· emergency pumping capacity;

· adequate supplies of absorbent materials;

· storage for oil soaked absorbents.

Special Training For Action To Be Taken If Oil Escapes From The


Ship

Provided escape of oil can be retained and dealt with onboard by the means
discussed in the previous section, there will be no effect external to the ship. lf,
however, oil escapes to the sea either directly from the transfer area or as overspill
from the deck, because onboard back-up is overwhelmed, or from inappropriate use
of sea valves in ballasting, the incident should be reported to the relevant authorities.
Oil releases of course, may also occur from-collision damage to tanks but that
aspect is outside the scope of this booklet. '

Training in the reporting of spills should emphasise the need to have the
following contact details readily available, viz that of the:

· terminal representative-

· ship's agent;

· port authorities;

· US National Response Centre (NRC) and the US Coastguard Marine


Safety Office when trading in the USA.-

· reporting requirements specific to other national administrations, as


appropriate.

Some Additional Points

The training topics outlined above, together with the accompanying video and
the check list reproduced in the appendices to the booklet, provide a good basis for
the creation and delivery of an onboard training scheme for ships' crews. In this
section, a number of the points touched on earlier will be expanded upon because of
their prominence as sources of unwanted oil release.

Experience has shown that pollution incidents have often been caused by
leaking cargo line dresser couplings, valve flanges, faulty pressure gauge connections,
and other parts of the main cargo piping system on deck. External or internal pipe
corrosion, in particular at the bottom of the cargo pipes, often proceeds without being
detected.

It is therefore necessary that regular and frequent hydrostatic pressure tests


be carried out at maximum working pressure. The test pressure used and the results
obtained should be logged. COW lines should be tested prior to arrival in port if COW
operations are to be carried out there.

The test pressure to be used is the pressure to which the pump relief valve is
set. If there is no relief valve, then the highest pressure attainable by the pump,@in
service should be used. It should be applied for 15 to 30 minutes and thrust stoppers
in the way of expansion joints and dresser couplings should be checked after the test.

Another way in which pollution incidents can occur is simply by continuing to


deliver oil to a tank after it is full.Careful topping-off procedures, to avoid tank
overflows, are essential.
The draining of pipelines, secure blanking off at the end of oil deliveries and
pump start-up before opening a sea valve to the sea in ballasting, are all essential to
avoid unwanted release of oil to the external environment.

Finally, it is essential to ensure a clear chain of command for all operations,


clear instruction and a fully trained crew at all times. A ftilly trained crew is one which
understands the need for, and the function of, all steps and actions taken. While it is
necessary to work to check lists, it is essential to avoid simply ticking-off the entries
without actually carrying out each identified action on the list. This can only be
achieved through concentration and understanding and both require leadership and
motivation for success.

SECTION 3: THE FUTURE

Existing Annexes

The current position (1997) and likely future outcomes regarding the activities
of IMO in the field of environmental protection can be summarised as follows:

Annexes I and 11 are to be simplified, made more user-friendly and


harmonised as far as possible as between oil and chemical tankers.

As to Annex 111, hazard evaluations continue to be made as new substances


enter the market and are added to the Annex and the International Maritime
Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code).

Annex IV, at the time of writing (I 9 9 7), still requires an additional small
percentage of relevant tonnage to ratify, but this remains difficult for some States
given their even greater problems with municipal sewage. In the meantime, local
regulations are in force of which ships' owners need to keep abreast.

Annex V is supplemented with general IMO guidance on garbage disposal.


Buoyant garbage is seen as a particular problem and the whole question of port
reception facility arrangements continues to be under review.

Air Pollution From Ships.

A new Annex VI is likely to be adopted at a Diplomatic Conference in late


1997 to reduce air pollution from ships. Draft guidelines already exist for the
reduction of emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A wide range of engine
operational factors affect NOx emissions and these have been identified. In addition,
the intention is to reduce NOx emissions by developments in engine design and a
step-by-step approach in five year intervals is envisaged.

It is also intended that the new Annex will provide a reduction of sulphur
dioxide emissions by limiting the sulphur content of ftiel oil.

Ballast Water, Ecological Control

Draft regulations have been written and guidelines are under development for
the control of ballast water operations in order to reduce the potential for the transfer
of marine species from one ecological environment to another in the light of
experience already gained of serious negative consequences attributed to ballast water
sources.

Anti-fouling Paint Control

Again, certain changes in oysters and whelks attributed to the use of tributyltin (TBT)
anti-fouling paints have caused the banning of TBT in small craft and the question of
anti-
fouling paints for use in large commercial craft is being given serious attention.

Special, and Particularly, Sensitive Sea, Area Control

The concept of conferring Special Area status on certain sea areas is well
established and may be expected to be developed further in future. In addition,
Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSAs), currently exemplified by the Great Barrier
Reef, are likely to be. identified in increasing numbers.

The need for IMO to take more action in this field is seen to result from UNCLOSI
1982, which relates to special areas within EEZs 2; from IMO obligations under UNCED 3,
in respect of biodiversity maintenance; from the further development of SOLAS 2
provisions on ship reporting; and in respect of COLREG5, in relation to mandatory ship
routing, traffic separation schemes, and inshore traffic zones.

.Waste Reception Facilities

Although the provision of port waste reception facilities are called for by
MARPOL 73/78, provision remains patchy. All aspects of reception facility.provision
and operation continue to attract the attention of IMO and activities are directed
to.the improvement in provision and operation of such facilities, but the dedication of
port states to the solution I of problems in this field is very variable.
In an overview publication of 1993 entitled "MARPOL, How To Do It", all of
the annexes were covered, including port reception aspects under Annex V.

To further assist with the provision by others of adequate facilities, IMO in


1995, published the comprehensive Manual on Port Reception Facilities which covers,
inter alia, the legal background; waste management., strategy development- national
implementation; the planning of facilities; choice of location; types and quantities of-
ship generated wastes; recycling; options for final disposal; financing and cost
recovery, coordination of port and ship requirements; and options for enforcement
and control.

As to the future, it may be expected that IMO will continue in its endeavours
to protect the marine environment through the development of greater care and
safety in ship operations and through more adequate provision of waste reception
facilities in ports.

1. United Nations Conference of Law of the Sea

2. Economic Exclusl'on Zones

3. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

4. Safety of Life at Sea

5. Collision Regulations

SECTION 4. PROCEDURE FORMS, OPERATIONAL CHECKLISTS

Procedure Forms provide a convenient means of focusing in an operational


manner on the points already covered in the earlier sections of this book. They
summarise information on the provision of dn'p trays-, spillage response techniques;
and equipment for on-deck spillage response; identification of responsible and
operational personnel; and provide details on topping-off; and emergency shut-down
procedures. This also refers to, and provide details on, the pipeline systems to which
they refer.

Checklists are a very convenient means of ensuring that all relevant points are
noted in preparing for, and in conducting any particular operation involving oil in bulk
in order to avoid its escape from safe containment. It is important to emphasise
however, that the use of checklists is only an aid to safe working. They do not do
the job for the operator. It is all too easy simply to check-off items on the list in a
semi-conscious way. This can result in the checklist itself becoming the cause of
accidents. The operator must fully understand the function of each item on the list
and its interaction with other items; and he must remain vigilant and active in
carrying out the operation according. to the aide memoire which the list provides.

With this warning in mind, the checklists included in this section are
commended to ship's crews as examples of such lists. It is recommended that these
be used as a guide in the development of operational procedures onboard your ship.

In addition, it is recommended that operators ftilly appreciate and understand


the design and function of the bunker transfer pipeline system which they are
operating. This is best achieved by reference to diagrams which must of course be
freely and readily available to operators. Some examples of such diagrams are also
provided in this section.

Typical Bunker Oil Transfer Procedure Form

Appendix I, shows a typical Bunker Oil Transfer Procedure Form, together


with two examples of bunker pipeline systems.

Bunkering Operation Checklists

Reference to Appendix II shows the detail necessary for the creation of


adequate checklists for ensuring the avoidance of onboard and overboard spillage in
terms of provisions for:
Preparing to load bunkers;

· The loading operation;

· Completion of loading of bunkers; and for

. The transfer of bunkers onboard.

Tanker Cargo Operation Checklist

Appendix III deals with cargo operations in terms of-.

· Procedures before loading cargo;

· The loading operation itself;

· Procedures on completion of loading;

· Procedures before the unloading of cargo;


· The unloading operation itself;
· Procedures on completion of unloading;

. Ballasting through the cargo system.

Appendix IV deals with:

· Crude oil washing-

· pre-arrival at discharge port

· before crude oil wash operation;

during crude oil wash.

Appendix V provides a list of further reading material.


Checklists for Oil- Water Separation and Monitoring

In the above, we are dealing with the avoidance of oil escape from safe
containment, and in addition in respect of COW, we have regard to the avoidance of
explosion and fire.

It is however recommended that similar checklists be created for oil water


separator and oil and oilin-water monitor use in respect of the management of oily
water mixtures and the need to ensure that regulated limits for oil content are not
exceeded in bunker tank ballasting or bilgefreeing operations.

Adequacy of Provision of Waste Reception Facilities in Ports

Attention is again drawn here to the reporting form for alleged inadequacy of
such provision as set out in the appendix to Annex V of MARPOL 73/78.
APPENDIX I TYPICAL BUNKER OIL TRANSFER PROCEDURES FORM

Ship's Name: MV
1. List of Each Product to be Loaded

A Fuel Oil (API/S/G/Density @ 15'C temperatures)


B. Marine Diesel (API/S/G/Density @ 15'C temperatures)
C. Lubricating Oil

2. Emergency Information Contacts

A. Agents

B Terminal/Barge

C Fire Brigade

D Pollution Marine Response Office (1) USCG Headquarters Washington DC (Emergency


Toll-Free No 800-424 8802)
(ii) Local Number

E Oil Spill Clean-up'Company

3. Attached line diagram shows the vessel's oil transfer piping system, including the location of
reach pump, control device, vent and overflow, location of each shut-off valve.

4. Vessel has fixed containment of sufficient capacity. The containment system is emptied by:
Scoop, buckets, rags, absorbent oil pollution pads?

5. A Oil discharge into water has to be immediately reported to coastguard, terminal, agents.

B Oil spill is to be minimised and clean-up of the decks to be carried out without delay.

C The following oil spill equipment is readily available and location known by all crew:

Position I (location, refer to pipe system diagram)

- 6 bags sawdust - 2 rubber buckets

- 2 shovels - 2 empty drums

Position 2 (location, refer to pipe system diagram)

- 6 bags sawdust 2 rubber buckets

- 2 shovels 2 empty drums

- Oil pollution absorbent pads


- 600 litres of oil spill dispersant (to clean deck of oil spilled)

- 1 portable air driven pump (already connected to the driving source)

Note. On tankers, pump must be air driuen.

On cargo vessels, pump could be air or electric driven.


6. Total number of Personnel Required to be on Duty During Transfer Operations. At

least four:
- Chief Engineer (Overall in charge of operations. In contact with
terminal/barge).

- 2nd Engineer or 3rd Engineer (In charge of soundings).

- Fitter/Wiper (Opening and closure of valves under Chief Engineer/2nd


Engineer/ 3rd Engineer direction).

7. Procedures for Operating Emergency Shutdown.

8. Procedures for Effective Communication


- In English

- By voice

-0 By walkie-talkies
-1
-2 VHF

9. Check Lists to be completed by personnel in charge of operations


before/during/after the loading of bunkers.

10. Topping-off Procedures

A. When the oil reaches a level of...... from the top of the tank, this is to be
reported to the person in charge who will request a reduction in the loading rate.
Ullages are then to be checked every 2 or 3 minutes
.

B. When the tank is........ % ftill, all pumping must be stopped.

11. All valves must be checked for closure at completion of transfer.

12. Deck Department is to ensure that a proper watch is maintained at the manifold
and the vessel remains securely moored.

13. The Master/Chief Officer (Pollution Control Officer) is to be kept advised about
commencement, progress and completion of the bunkers operations, and of any
emergency which might arise.

Chief Engineer

2nd Engineer/3rd Engineer


Master

Captain

APPENDIX II

BUNKERING OPERATIONS CHECK LISTS

A. BEFORE LOADING BUNKERS Items numbered in italics are also covered by

the shiplshore safety check listfor tana!ers.

1 .Has the bunker loading plan been agreed, drawn-up and posted? YES/NO

2.Is the ship securely moored? YES/NO

3. Is there safe access between ship and shore? YES/NO

4. Is there an effective deck watch in attendance on board and adequate


supervision from the suppliers and on the ship? YES/NO
5. Is fire-fighting equipment ready for use? YES/NO
6. Are bunker hoses/arms in good condition and properly rigged? YES/NO
7. Are scuppers effectively plugged and drip trays in position, both on ship and
supplier ? YES/NO
8. Are drip trays below the bunker connection (;lean and free from clogging
material? YES/NO
9. Are unused cargo and bunker connections blanked? YES/NO
10. Are all cargo and bunker tank lids closed?YES/NO
11. Are all doors and ports facing the loaded manifold, bunker tanks and vents closed
YES/NO
12. Is absorbent material available (eg sawdust)?
YES/NO
13. .Are oilbooms (if carried) ready?
YES/NO
14. Are there any oil slicks already present in the water near the ship?
RecordIReport
15. Is there an adequate system of communications ready within the ship to
control changeover of tanks, etc? YES/NO
16. Are the gauging arrangements ready? YES/NO
17.Are the air vents open on tanks to be filled? YES/NO
18.Does the bunkering plan designate an overflow tank? YES/NO
19.If so, which? YES/NO
20. If so, is the overflow tank empty? YES/NO
21. Are the tank vent pipe save-alls empty and drain plugs in? YES/NO
22. Have ship and shore agreed on quantities for loading bunkers? YES/NO
23.Have ship and shore agreed on EMERGENCY PROCEDURES? YES/NO
24.Is there capacity available in tanks intended to receive bunkers?
Metric tonnes
25 Bunkers required? metric
tonnes
26.Pumping rate not to exceed: m3 l hour
27.Maximum pressure allowed at manifold:
28 First tanks open and line up checked?
YES/NO

B. DURING LOADING OF BUNKERS

In addition to the checks required before loading bunkers, the following


matters should be checked, as appropriate.

This list does not attempt to cover all duties of the ship's personnel

I . Have levels of all bunker tanks been checked, including those not being filled?
YES/NO
2. Have all hoses, loading arms and manifolds been checked for pressure, safe
support and absence of leaks ? YES/NO
3. Have unused manifold blanks been checked for leaks? YES/NO
4. Is venting system working, ie no build-up of pressure in bunker tanks? YES/NO
5. Do those now on watch know the bunkering plan, including the agreed signals for
slowing, stopping and emergency stop? YES/NO
6. Are there enough crew available to control the changeover of tanks safely YES/NO
7 Has enough space been left after completion to allow for draining or blowing
the hoses or loading arms? YES/NO

C. COMPLETION OF LOADING BUNKERS

1. Has the hose/loading arm been properly blown or drained? YES/NO


2. Are the manifold valves closed ? YES/NO
3 Is there space available in the drip trays? YES/NO
4. Was the hose/loading arm blanked or sealed before lifting overside? YES/NO
5. Is the ship's manifold blanked? YES/NO
6. Are the ship's deck lines drained, so far as practicable? YES/NO
7. Are the drip trays and tank vent save-alls drained? YES/NO
8. Are the bunker tank valves, venting systems, gauging systems, hatches and
sighting ports secured? YES/NO
9. Are the scupper plugs, absorbent material, firefighting equipment, etc stowed
away?
YES/NO
10Is the Oil Record Book entry completed? YES/NO

D. TRANSFER OF BUNKERS (ON BOARD)

1.Have the Master and Chief Officer been consulted regarding trim and stability?

YES/NO

2. Has the bunker transfer plan been agreed, drawn up and posted? YES/NO

3.Is there an effective deck watch in attendance and adequate supervision for the

operation? YES/NO
4.Is there an adequate system of communication ready to controlchangeover oftanks?
YES/NO
5.Are all bunker manifold valves checked, closed and connections blanked? YES/NO
6. Are the venting and gauging arrangements ready? YES/NO
7. Does the bunker transfer plan designate an overflow tank? YES/NO
8. If so, which?
9.If so, is the overflow tank empty? YES/NO
10.Are the tank vent pipe save-alls empty and drain plugs in? YES/NO
11.Are the first tanks open and line-up checked? YES/NO
12.Was the Bridge and Engine Room informed at the start? YES/NO
13.Is the transfer pump's remote stop checked? YES/NO
14.Was the Bridge and Engine Room informed at completion? YES/NO
15.Is the system closed down and secured? YES/NO
16.Is the Oil Record Book entry completed? YES/NO

APPENDIX III

TANKER CARGO OPERATIONS CHECK LISTS

A. BEFORE LOADING CARGO

The ship/shore safety check list for tankers must also be completed

1. Has the cargo loading plan been drawn up, agreed and posted ? YES/NO
2. Is absorbent material available (eg sawdust)? YES/NO

3. Are oil booms (if carried) ready? YES/NO

4. Are there any oil slicks already present in the water near the ship?

RecordIReport
5. Are the sea valves checked and lashed? YES/NO

6. Are the cargo pumproom bulkhead and other valves closed,where practicable?

YES/NO

7. Is the crude oil washing system isolated? YES/NO

8. Has the line up been checked? YES/NO

9 Will there be adequate crew available to control changeover,.of tanks, etc?


YES/NO

10. Are the gauging arrangements ready? YES/NO

11. Have ship and shore'agreed on maximum loading rate? YES/NO

12. Have ship and shore agreed on maximum working pressure? YES/NO

13. Have ship and shore agreed on quantities for loading tanks? YES/NO

14. Have ship and shore agreed on warning time required before stop? YES/NO

15. Have ship and shore agreed on EMERGENCY STOP PROCEDURES? YES/NO

16. Warning time required before stop: YES/NO

B. DURING LOADING OF CARGO

In addition to the checks required before commencement of loading, the


following matters should be checked, as appropriate.

This list does not attempt to cover all duties of the ship's personnel

Procedure Guidance

Start loading slowly into one or few tanks.

Check cargo coming into these tanks.


Check cargo not coming into other tanks.

Check for leaks.

Check List Items

I . Are levels of all tanks being, or been checked, including those not being filled and
those completed? YES/NO
2. Have hoses, loading arms and manifolds been checked for pressure,safe support
and absence of leaks? YES/NO

3. Have unused manifold blanks been checked for leaks? YES/NO

4. Have checks overside been carried out for signs of leakage? YES/NO

5. Has Pumproom been checked for signs of leakage? (Entry precautions must be

observed). YES/NO

6. Have checks been carried out for absence of build-up of pressure in tanks?

(Venting system working?) YES/NO

7. Do those now on watch know the loading plan, including the arrangements
for finishing and emergency stop? YES/NO

8. Are there enough crew available to control the changeover of tanks? YES/NO

9. Do they understand the procedure for changeover of tanks? YES/NO

10.Has enough space been left after completion to allow for draining or blowing the
hoses or loading arms? YES/NO

C. COMPLETION OF LOADING OF CARGO

Before disconnection

1.Have the hoses/loading arms been properly blown or drained? YES/NO

2.Have the manifold valves been closed? YES/NO

3.Is there space available in the drip trays? YES/NO

4.Have scupper plugs been checked, particularly at aft end of Main Deck. YES/NO

After disconnection

1.Were hoses/loading arms blanked or sealed before lifting overside? YES/NO


2.Were the ship's manifolds blanked? YES/NO

3.Were the ship's deck lines drained so far as practicable? YES/NO

4.Were drip trays drained? YES/NO

5.Were tank valves, including the last tank, closed? YES/NO

6.Were venting systems, gauging systems, hatches and sighting ports secured?

YES/NO
7.Were scupper plugs, absorbent material, firefighting equipment,etc stowed away?
YES/NO
8.Were the Oil Record Book entries completed? YES/NO

D. BEFORE UNLOADING OF CARGO

The shiplshore safety check listfor tankers must also be completed


1.If appropriate, is the ship's Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment
Manual readily available? YES/NO

2.If appropriate, has the COW Pre-arrival Check List been satisfactorily
completed? YES/NO
3. Has the cargo unloading plan been drawn up, agreed and posted? YES/NO
4.Is absorbent material available (eg, sawdust)? YES/NO
5.Are oil booms (if carried) ready? YES/NO
6.Are there any oil slicks already present in the water near the ship ? Record/Report
7.Are the sea valves checked and lashed? YES/NO
8.Has the line-up been checked? YES/NO
9.Are cargo system valves closed except where the operations requirethem to be
open? YES/NO
10.Will there be adequate crew available to control changeover of tanks,etc? YES/NO
11.Are the gauging arrangements ready? YES/NO
12.If part discharge, will the ship or the shore stop? Ship/Shore
13.If shore stop, what is the warning time required before stop:
14 WHAT IS THE EMERGENCY STOP SIGNAL

E. DURING UNLOADING OF CARGO

In addition to the checks required before commencement of


unloading, the following matters should be checked, as appropriate.

This list does not attempt to cover all duties of the ship's personnel
Procedure Guidance

Make sure that centrifugal cargo pumps are started and showing pressure on

discharge side before opening manifold valves.

Check cargo going from open tanks and not from other tanks.

Check for leaks

Check List Items

1.Have levels of all tanks, especially receiving stripping and COW washings,been
checked? YES/NO
2.Have levels in tanks connected to independent ballasting systems been checked?
YES/NO
3.Have hoses, loading arms and manifolds been checked for pressure and safe
support? YES/NO
4.Have unused manifold blanks been checked for leaks?
YES/NO
5.Have checks for signs of overside leakage been made?
YES/NO
6.Has Pumproom been checked for signs of leakage? (Entry precautions must
be observed) YES/NO
7. Have all tanks been checked for vacuum or build-up of pressure
(venting and IG system working)? YES/NO
8.Do those now on watch know the unloading plan including, if appropriate the COW
Plan?
YES/NO
9. Are there enough crew available to control the unloading, ballasting and CO
operations safely? YES/NO

F. COMPLETION OF UNLOADING OF CARGO

Before disconnection

1.Are manifold valves closed? YES/NO


2.If appropriate, have all cargo lines been stripped to shore using the small bore
discharge line? YES/NO
3. Have the hoses/loading arms been properly blown or drained? YES/NO
4. Is there space available in the drip trays? YES/NO
5. Check scupper plugs, particularly at aft end of Main Deck YES/NO

After disconnection

1.Were hoses/loading arms blanked or sealed before lifting overside? YES/NO

2.Were ship's manifolds blanked? YES/NO


3.Have drip trays been drained? YES/NO

After conclusion of all cargo/ballasting operations

1 Were tank valves closed (including last tank)? YES/NO

2. Were venting systems, gauging systems, hatches and sighting ports secured?

YES/NO
3. Were scupper plugs, absorbent material, firefighting equipment, etc stowed away?
YES/NO
4. Were Pumproom valves closed? YES/NO

5. Were Oil Record Book entries completed? YES/NO

G. BALLASTING THROUGH CARGO SYSTEM

The ShipIShore Safety Check List for Tankers and


the Unloading Check List also apply.

Before commencement

1. Is the Crude Oil Washing System isolated? YES/NO

2. Has the line up been checked? YES/NO

3. Will there be adequate crew available to control changeover of tanks, etc?

YES/NO
4. Are the gauging arrangements ready? YES/NO

5. Check cargo manifold valves are closed and blanked.

6. Is the vacuum on sea suction crossover line? YES/NO

7. Have the risers above cargo pumps been drained of oil? YES/NO

8. Are the valves into tank(s) opened? YES/NO

9. Was the pump start procedure discussed and agreed with Engine Room? YES/NO

10 Has the sea valve been checked it is closed until pump is started? YES/NO

During ballasting

1. Slow down pumps in good time before completion.


2. Leave ample ullage space on completion, to reduce risk of overflowing
contaminated ballast (top-up if necessary, after departure).

After ballasting

1. Were the sea chest valves closed immediately pump was stopped -

* first, the outboard YES/NO

* secondly, the inboard YES/NO

2. Were the tank valves closed? YES/NO

3. Has the security of venting system, gauging systems, hatches and

sighting ports been checked? YES/NO

APPENDIX IV

CRUDE OIL WASHING CHECK LISTS

Check Lists contained in the ship's Crude Oil Washing Manual should be used.

The following lists are examples.

A. PRE-ARRIVAL AT DISCHARGE PORT

1. Has terminal been notified of intent to COW? YES/NO


2. Is oxygen analysing equipment tested and working satisfactorily? YES/NO
3. Is tank washing pipeline system isolated from water heater and
Engine Room? YES/NO
4. Are all hydrant valves on tank washing line blanked? YES/NO
5. Are all valves to fixed tank washing machines shut? YES/NO
6. Have tank cleaning lines been pressurised and leakages made good? YES/NO
7. Have portable drive units for fixed tank washing machines been tested? YES/NO
8. Have pressure gauges on top discharge line, manifold and tank cleaning
main been checked? YES/NO
9. Has the stripping system monitoring equipment been checked? YES/NO
10.Has the communication system been checked and tested? YES/NO
11.Has the Organisation Plan been drawn up and posted with duties and
responsibilities defined? YES/NO
12.Have the discharge/crude oil wash operation plans been drawn up
and posted? YES/NO
13.In cases where the terminal has a standard radio checklist, has this
been completed and transmitted? YES/NO
B. BEFORE CRUDE OIL WASH OPERATION

1 Are all pre-arrival checks and conditions in order? YES/NO


2. Has discharge/crude oil wash operation been discussed with both ship
and shore staff, and is agreed plan readily available for easy reference YES/NO
3. Has communication link between deck/control station and control
station/shore been set up? YES/NO
4. If so, is it working properly? YES/NO
5. Have crude oil wash abort condition and procedures been discussed
and agreed by both ship and shore stafp YES/NO
6. Have fixed and portable oxygen analysers been checked and are they
working properly? YES/NO
7. Is inert gas system working properly? Is the oxygen content of inert gas
being delivered below 5% by volume? YES/NO
8. Is oxygen content of tank(s) to be crude oil washed below 8% by
volume YES/NO
9. Have all cargo tanks positive inert gas pressure? YES/NO
10. Has a responsible person been assigned to check all deck lines for leaks
as soon as washing,starts? YES/NO
11. Are the fixed machines set for the required washing method and are
portable drive units, if fitted, mounted and set? YES/NO
12. Have valves and lines, both in Pumproom and on deck, been checked? YES/NO

C. DURING CRUDE OIL WASH OPERATION


1. Is the quality of inert gas delivered being frequently checked and recorded ?

YES/NO

2. Are all deck lines and machines being frequently checked for leaks? YES/NO

3. Is crude oil washing in progress in designated cargo tanks only? YES/NO

4. Is the pressure in the tank wash line as specified in your COW Manual? YES/NO

5. A Are the washing machines in operation frequently checked? YES/NO

B Are their drive units (if applicable) frequently checked? YES/NO

C Are they working properly? YES/NO

6. Is a responsible person stationed continuously on deck? YES/NO

7. Will trim be satisfactory when bottom washing is in progress? YES/NO

8. Is level in holding tank for tank washings frequently checked to prevent


any possibility of overflow? YES/NO

9. Are all valves between discharge line and tank wash line closed? YES/NO

10. Has tank wash line been drained of crude oil? YES/NO

11. Are all valves to washing machines closed? YES/NO

12. Are cargo pumps, tanks and pipelines properly drained as specified in
your COW manual? YES/NO

APPENDIX V
FURTHER READING

MARPOL 73/78, Consolidated Edition, 1991; IMO 1992


MARPOL 73/78, 1992 Amendments; IMO 1994
MARPOL, How To Do It; IMO 1993
Port Reception Facilities, Comprehensive Manual on; IMO 1995
Guidelines for a Structure of an Integrated System of Contingency
Planning for Shipboard
Emergencies; IMO 1996
Manual on Oil Spill Prevention, Vol I- IMO
Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention, 1978; IMO
Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil; IMO
Guidelines for the Implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78; IMO
Clean Seas Guide for Oil Tankers (Retention of Oil Residues on Board);
ICS.& OCIMF
International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals; ICS, OCIMF and,
IAPH
Prevention of Oil Spillages Through Cargo Pumproom Sea Valves.- ICS and
OCIMF
Key to Abbreviations
imo International Maritime Organization
ics International Chamber of Shipping
OCIMF Oil Companies International Marine Forum
IAPH International Association of Ports and Harbours