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World History Pre-AP – Duez NAME________________________________ PD:

Chapter 2 – Chapter 2: Western Asia and Egypt, 3500–500 B.C. Time: 2 Weeks
1. Can you compare and contrast two early civilizations or empires?
OVERVIEW: Chapter 2 describes the rise of civilization in a region stretching from the Persian Gulf to Egypt. The early
civilizations of this region emerged in the river valleys of the Tigris, Euphrates, and Nile Rivers. Farming was the
economic base for the growth of civilization. Egyptian civilization was remarkably stable and ruling dynasties lasted for
many centuries. Civilizations between the Tigris and Euphrates were often toppled by invasions. The invaders
established their own dynasties and brought new ideas and practices with them.
Section 1 • Mesopotamia—the region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers—was the birthplace of several
Civilization of the earliest known civilizations. Rainfall was sparse and unpredictable, but occasional floods
Begins in had deposited layers of fertile silt. Irrigation and drainage techniques made regular farming
Mesopotamia possible; food supplies prompted social and economic changes that led to the emergence of
civilization.
• As early as 3000 B.C., Sumerians engaged in wide-spread trade and built walled cities that had
economic and political control over the surrounding countryside. Like other Mesopotamians,
Sumerians believed gods and goddesses controlled the universe and owned the cities, which were
administered by priests and priestesses. Eventually power passed to kings. The Sumerians also
created the cuneiform of writing and invented tools and devices such as the wagon wheel.
• The Akkadians eventually overran the Sumerian city-states and created the first empire in world
history. A return to city-states and other rulers followed. One of these rulers, Hammurabi, is
remembered for his strict code of law.
• Ziggurat • Nebuchadnezzar • Patriarchal • Hammurabi’s Code
Section 2 • Egyptian civilization shared many features with early Mesopotamian civilization. It grew out of
Egyptian the farming economy along a major river, the Nile. Historians describe three major periods in
Civilization: early Egyptian civilization: the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom.
"The Gift of
the Nile" • Religion was important for the Egyptians, who lived in a structured society dominated by priests
and nobles. Egyptians believed that their kings, often called pharaohs, ruled by divine right.
They created an extensive government bureaucracy and built the pyramids as tombs for
mummified pharaohs.
• Art, science, and a form of writing called hieroglyphics also flourished in Egypt.
• Pharaoh • Hatshepsut • Vizier • Hieratic Script
• Akhenaton • Tutankhamen • Cleopatra VII • Polytheistic
Section 3 • Around 1200 B.C., several smaller groups, including the Phoenicians and the Israelites,
New Centers established small kingdoms and city-states.
of
Civilization • The Phoenicians improved their ships and built an extensive trading empire and colonies. They
invented an alphabet that was passed on to the Greeks.
• The Israelites were a minor political force, but they created a world religion known today as
Judaism. The kingdom of Israel divided into two separate kingdoms, but successive defeats by
invaders ended political independence, and Judaism became a stateless religion.
• The Jews were monotheistic and believed that a covenant required obedience to the law of God.
This law had been revealed to them during the exodus from Egypt.
• King Solomon • Isaiah • Pastoral nomad • Indo-Europeans
Section 4 • With the help of a large army with iron weapons, the Assyrians established a new empire by 700
The Rise of B.C. They built an effective system of communication and one of the world's first libraries.
New Empires
• After the collapse of the Assyrian Empire, the Persian Empire became the leading power in
western Asia. Under Cyrus, the Persians created a state that stretched from Asia Minor to
western India. Cyrus ruled with remarkable wisdom and compassion for his subjects and the
peoples of the lands he conquered.
• A major cultural contribution of the Persians was their religion, Zoroastrianism. The Persian
Empire eventually collapsed and was conquered by Alexander the Great.
• Satrapy • Monarchy • Darius • Immortals
Homework Questions – Due:
Monday, Sept. 13th Civilization Posters: TEST:
*Remember, Complete Sentences! In class we will work in groups to We will not have a quiz on this chapter. Only a test.
1. Reading Check Question p. 38 create posters representing early Study the vocabulary, read the chapter, and know
2. RCQ p. 40 civilizations. This will help us the homework questions to prepare.
3. RCQ p. 43 prepare and study them.
4. Page 43, Question #6 The test will be on:
5. RCQ p. 46 We will work on them in class on Friday Sept. 17th
6. RCQ #1 on pg 51 Wed/Thu, Sept. 8 & 9. We will
7. Page 60 #6 present them to the class on
8. Page 60 #7 Monday, Sept. 13th.
9. RCQ p. 62
10. Page 64 #6