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2004

"HANDS - ON" DEMONSTRATION


OF
‘MiCOM P342 & MiCOM343’
NUMERICAL GENERATOR PROTECTION RELAY

P342 = No differential protection


P343 = With differential protection

Objective :- To gain familiarisation of the menu structure, setting procedures and operation of
MiCOM P342 and P343 relays.

Introduction to P342 and P343 Relays

Each relay includes an extensive range of control and data gathering functions to provide a
completely integrated system of protection, control, instrumentation, data logging, fault, event and
disturbance recording. The relays have a user – friendly display with 7 push buttons, which allow
menu navigation and setting changes. Also, by utilising the either the front or rear serial ports of the
relay, functions can be read, reset and changed on demand from a local or remote personal computer
loaded with the MiCOM S1 software.
The P342 and P343 relays provide extensive protection for generators from a few hundred kilo-
watts to several hundred mega-watts.

1
Introduction.

This demonstration is meant to reinforce the overview that has been given previously.
The intention is that candidates have the opportunity to program and make setting
changes in the MiCOM relays using the keypads and MiCOM S1 software.
Familiarisation with the relay protection functions will also be gained by following the
test procedures illustrated in this document.

Preparation
1) Check that the power supply is set at the appropriate auxiliary voltage, see under top
flap for auxiliary voltage range.

(Note that the relay will accept a larger range of voltages)

2) Plug in the serial connection leads between the computer and the 9 pin port on the
front of the MiCOM relay as shown in the diagram below.

M iC O M r e l a y

L a p to p

2 5 p in
d o w n l o a d / m o n i to r p o r t

9 p in
B a tte r y fr o n t c o m m s p o rt S e r i a l c o m m u n ic a ti o n p o r t
(C O M 1 o r C O M 2 )
S e r i a l d a ta c o n n e c t o r
( u p to 1 5 m )

P0 10 7 ena

3) Switch on the auxiliary power supply

The relay will now run through a self – check and perform an SRAM check. After the
relay has finished its internal checks it will have the following message:

Description
MiCOM P343

Note that the relay used for this exercise may be a different model to the one shown
above. If this is the case the number may be different.

2
Front plate familiarisation.
The front plate of the relay includes the following, as indicated in Figure 1:
 16-character by 2-line alphanumeric liquid crystal display (LCD)
 7-key keypad comprising 4 arrow keys ( , , and ),an enter key ( ),
a clear key ( ), and a read key ( ).
 12 LEDs; 4 fixed function LEDs on the left hand side of the front panel and 8
programmable function LEDs on the right hand side.
 Battery compartment to hold the ½ AA size battery which is used for memory back-
up for the real time clock, event, fault and disturbance records.
 A 9-pin female D-type front port for communicating with a PC locally to the relay
(up to 15m distance) via an EIA(RS)232 serial data connection.
 A 25-pin female D-type port providing internal signal monitoring and high speed
local downloading of software and language text via a parallel data connection.

Trip LED (red) - This indicates that the relay has issued a trip signal. It is reset when
the associated fault record is cleared from the front display. (Alternatively the trip LED
can be configured to be self –resetting)*. The trip LED is initiated from relay 3, the
protection trip contact.

Alarm LED (yellow) - Flashes to indicate that the relay has registered an alarm. This
may be triggered by a fault, event or maintenance record. The LED will flash until the
alarms have been accepted (read), after which the LED will change to constant
illumination, and will extinguish when the alarms have been cleared.

Out of service (Yellow) - indicates the relay protection is unavailable.

Healthy (Green) - indicates that the relay is in correct working order, and should be on
at all times. It will be extinguished if the relay’s self-test facilities indicate that there is an
error with the relay’s hardware or software. The state of the healthy LED is reflected by
the watchdog contact at the back of the relay.

S e r ia l N o a n d I * , V R a tin g s To p c o ve r

I
V V
V V

LC D
TRIP

F ix e d A LA RM
f u n c tio n
LED s O UT O F SERVICE

HEA LTHY
U s e r p r o g ra m a b le
= CLEAR f u n c tio n L E D s
= READ

= EN TER

K e yp a d

B o tto m
co ve r
B a tte r y c o m p a r tm e n t Fro n t co m m s p o rt D o w n lo a d / m o n i to r p o r t
P0103EN a
Figure 1 – Relay front view
Menu navigation.

3
The menu is divided into columns and rows to form cells, rather like a spreadsheet. Each
cell may contain text, values, limits and functions. The first cell in each column contains
a heading, which describes the date stored in that column.

Figure 2 shows the structure of menu and indicates which keys need to be pressed to
traverse it.
Figure 2 – Menu structure and navigation
S y s te m O th e r d e f a u l t d i s p l a y s
fre q u e n c y 3 - p h a s e v o lta g e

A la r m m e s s a g e s

D a te a n d ti m e
C
C

C o lu m n 1 C o lu m n 2 C o lu m n n
G ro u p 4
S y te m d a ta V ie w r e co r d s O th e r c o l u m n h e a d in g s O v e rcu rre n t

D a ta 1 . 1 D a ta 2 . 1 D a ta n . 1
La n g u a g e L a st re c o rd
C | > 1 f u n c tio n

N o te : T h e C k e y w i ll r e tu r n
to c o l u m n h e a d e r
D a ta 1 . 2 D a ta 2 . 2 fr o m a n y m e n u c e ll D a ta n . 2
Pa s sw o rd T im e a n d d a te | > 1 d i r e c ti o n a l

O th e r s e tti n g O th e r s e tti n g O th e r s e tti n g


c e lls i n c e ll s i n c e l ls i n
c o lu m n 1 c o lu m n 2 c o lu m n n

D a ta 1 . n D a ta 2 . n D a ta n . n
Pa ssw o rd C – A v o lta g e | > c h a r a n g le
le v e l 2

P0 1 0 5 EN a

1.0 Entering the PASSWORD (from default display)

The relay has 3 levels of password access. The level of access determines which
operations can be performed and is controlled by entry of 2 different passwords. The
levels of access are described below:

Access level Operations enabled


Level 0 No password required Read access to all settings, alarms, event
records and fault records
Level 1 Password 1 or 2 required As level 0 plus:
Control commands, e.g. circuit breaker open /
close. Reset of fault and alarm conditions.
Reset LED's. Clearing of event and fault
records.
Level 2 Password 2 required As level 1 plus:
All other settings.
Each of the two passwords are 4 characters of upper case text. The factory default for
both passwords is AAAA. Each password is user-changeable once it has been correctly
entered. Entry of the password is achieved either by a prompt when a setting change is
attempted, or by moving to the password cell in the “SYSTEM DATA” column of the
menu.
4
The relay is set with a default access level of 0, such that the access level 2 password is
required to change any of the relay settings. It is also possible to set the default menu
access level to either level 1 or level 2. The default menu access level is set in the
“Password Control” cell, which is also found in the “SYSTEM DATA” column of the
menu (note that this setting can only be changed when level 2 access is enabled). The
current level of access can be determined by examining the “Access Level” cell or as one
of the default display options.

Entering the password and changing the access level :-

a) From the default display press to display SYSTEM DATA


b) Keep pressing until Password is displayed.
c) Press followed by to enter the password
(AAAA)
d) With the password entered press until the Password Control cell is displayed.
e) Press , followed by to give a default access level of 2.

The relay is now at access level 2 allowing any setting to be changed. The password no
longer needs to be entered until the relay is returned to access level 0 or 1 by using the
Password Control cell.

2.0 Testing the biased differential element.

Failure of stator windings, or connection insulation, can result in severe damage to the
windings and the stator core. For primary generating plant, where fault levels can be
large in magnitude, high speed disconnection of the plant from the power system may
also be necessary to maintain system stability. For generators above 1MVA, it is
common to apply generator differential protection. This form a protection provides fast
detection of internal faults whilst giving high stability for external faults.

The P343 provides 3 forms of generator differential protection:

 Biased
 High impedance
 Interturn

We will be testing the biased differential element as it is the most complex of the three.
For more information on differential protection, including high impedance and interturn
protection, consult the application guide of the P343 technical manual.

The following headings will be used to perform this task :-

CONFIGURATION (Enabling “GEN DIFF” function)


GROUP 1 GEN DIFF (Protection settings for differential element)
MEASUREMENTS 3 (Observation of bias and differential currents)

a) Locate the CONFIGURATION column and then enable “Gen Differential”. Ensure
that all other protection functions are disabled in this column.
b) Locate the GROUP 1 GEN DIFF column and then apply the following settings:

GenDiff Function
Percentage Bias

Gen Diff Is1


5
100 mA

GenDiff k1
0%

Gen Diff Is2


1.200 A

Gen Diff k2
150 %

The operation of differential trip signals can be shown in the Test Port Status cell in the
Commission Test menu. The 8 Test Port bits can be set to the appropriate DDB number
using the Monitor Port 1-8 menu cells (Diff Trip A - DDB419, Diff Trip B - DDB420, Diff
Trip C - DDB421, Diff Trip - DDB418).

c) Connect the circuit as shown in the Figure 3 below.

I1
C3
AI
C2
P 343
I2
E3
AI 2
E2

Figure 3 – Connection diagram for biased differential test

d) Slowly increase the current I1 until the relay operates whilst leaving I2 at 0 Amps.
Record the operating current I1 in the table provided.

We have now assessed the minimum sensitivity of the relay. This gives an indication of
the current required to cause operating for a genuine internal fault. Notice that the relay
does not operate at exactly the Is1 setting but at a value slightly higher. This is due to a
small amount of bias being generated by the I1 current, which inevitably raises the relay
setting. The actual minimum sensitivity is given by the following equation :-

k1  Is1
Minimum Pick-up current =  Is1
2  k1

The next phase of testing a bias differential relay is to establish that the bias characteristic
matches the relay settings. This is done by adjusting the magnitude of the two anti-phase
currents (I1 and I2) until the relay operates. At the point of operation the differential and
bias currents can be calculated and plotted to see if they correlate with the relay settings.
This test is explained below.

e) Apply the initial currents stated in the table and then slowly increase current I1 until
the relay operates. Note the current at which the relay operates (in “I1 Trip” column),
calculate the bias and differential currents and then plot them on the graph provided.

6
Note that the per phase bias and differential current can be observed in the
MEASUREMENTS 3 column.

Initial I1 I2 I1 Trip Bias Current Differential Current


= (I1 Trip + I2)/2 = I1 Trip – I2
0 0
0.3 0° 0.3 0° 0.4 0.35 0.1
0.6 0° 0.6 0° 0.7 0.65 0.1
1.2 0° 1.2 0° 1.6 1.4 0.4
1.4 0° 1.4 0° 3 2.2 1.6
1.5 0° 1.5 0° 3.7 2.6 2.2

For the lower bias slope the formula below can be used to determine the differential
operate current (enter k1 slope in pu form, i.e. percentage/100):
phase operate current is (Is1 + IBias x k1) pu +/- 10%
For the upper bias slope the formula below can be used to determine the differential
operate current (enter k1 and k2 slopes in pu form, i.e. percentage/100):
Operate current is [(IBias x k2) + {(k1 – k2) x Is2 } + Is1] pu +/- 20%

3.5

2.5
Differential Current (Amps)

1.5

1
Expected Characteristic
0.5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

Bias Current (Amps)

If the test has been performed correctly the recorded results should closely match those
shown above. The plot clearly shows that the relay increases it setting as the through
fault current increases, thus minimising the chances of mal-operation due to CT
saturation. Had we tested the high impedance or interturn differential then we would see
that the setting does not increase with through fault current. This is because high
impedance protection relies upon an external resistor for stability rather than bias. The
interturn differential is normally connected via core balance CT’s which are not
susceptible to saturation affects which cause problems with the high impedance or
percentage bias schemes.

3.0 Testing the 3 phase power protection.

The P342 and P343 have three forms of 3 phase power protection, these are :-
7
 Reverse
 Low forward
 Over power

We will be testing the reverse power and low forward power protection features. The
over power protection is tested in similar way to the reverse power which is why it has
been omitted from these test instructions.

The following headings will be used to perform this task :-

CONFIGURATION (Enabling “Power” function)


GROUP 1 POWER (Protection settings for power protection)
MEASUREMENTS 2 (Observation of the three phase power)

Reverse Power Protection

a) Locate the CONFIGURATION column and then enable “Power”. Ensure that all
other protection functions are disabled in this column.
b) Locate the GROUP 1 POWER column and then apply the following settings:

Operating Mode
Generating

Power1 Function
Reverse

-P>1 Setting
30.0 W

Power1 Time Delay


0s

8
Power1 DO Timer
0s

P1 Poledead Inh
Enabled

Power2 Function
Disabled
f) The operation of power start/trip signals can be shown in the Test Port Status cell in
the Commission Test menu. The 8 Test Port bits can be set to the appropriate DDB
number using the Monitor Port 1-8 menu cells (Power 1 Trip - DDB475, Power 2 Trip
- DDB476, Power 1 Start – DDB595, Power 2 Start – DDB596).

c) Connect the circuit as shown in the Figure 4.

C3 P 343
AI
AI
BI C2
C6
CI
BI
N C5
C9

Tes tS e t CI
C8
C 19
VA
VB VA
C 20
VC
VB
N C 21

VC
C 22

H5
Tmi e r
S ot p R e al y 3
H6

NO TE :C onnec toi n sm ay va ry bewt eenm ode sl

Figure 4 – Connection diagram for 3 phase power tests

d) Apply the following voltages: Va = 50V0°, Vb = 50V-120°, Vc = 50V120°


e) Apply the following currents: Ia = 0.1A180°, Ib = 0.1A60°, Ic = 0.1A-60°. This
represents a reverse power of 15W (0.1 x 50 x 3).
g) Increase all three currents until the relay operates. Operation should occur at
approximately 0.2A, which is equivalent to the 30W setting (0.2 x 50 x 3). Note that
the setting is a 3 phase power quantity. Note the 3 Phase power measurement can be
observed in the MEASUREMENTS 2 column.
f) This test has proved the reverse power threshold is correct. The next step is to
establish that the characteristic is a symmetrical.
9
g) Disconnect the timer stop leads from the relay then apply the same voltages, with the
following currents: Ia = 1A180°, Ib = 1A60°, Ic = 1A-60°. Note that the relay
operates strongly as the power (150W) is well within the operating region of the
characteristic.
h) Rotate the phase angle of the three currents clockwise, maintaining their 120° phase
relationship, until the relay stops operating. This is indicated by the “Any Start” LED
switching off (LED 8). Reset the trip indications and then rotate back in to the
characteristic until the relay operates once again. Note this angle down.
i) Repeat section “h” except rotate anti-clockwise this time. Once again note the angle.

The measured angle should be equal indicating the characteristic is symmetrical, as


shown in the Figure 5.
+VA r

150VA

TR PI RESTR A NI

   
 
W- +W
 

TR PI RESTR A NI

P ow e r
S e t ni g 15W

V- A r
Figure 5 – Reverse power characteristic

Selecting “Motoring” in the “Operating mode” cell inverts the active power
measurement. This effectively reverses the power characteristic so that it would appear
on the “+W” side.

The next step is test the “Power1 DO timer”. This stops the “Power1 Time Delay”
timer from resetting if the power momentarily exits the characteristic. Fluctuating
power is common with diesel engines prime mover failures. By setting a time delay on
reset the relay may still operate even if the power fluctuations are severe.

j) Modify the following settings:

Power1 Time Delay


10 s

Power1 DO Timer
10 s

k) Re-connect the timer stop leads to the relay then apply the following voltages: Va =
50V0°, Vb = 50V-120°, Vc = 50V120°
l) Apply the following currents and check that the relay operates in 10 seconds: Ia =
0.5A180°, Ib = 0.5A60°, Ic = 0.5A-60°.
m) Switch off the current for at least 12 seconds and then re-apply the fault. Note that the
relay will once again operate in 10 seconds. This proves that the “Power1 Time Delay”
10
is correct and that the relay is fully resetting following the “Power1 DO Timer”. Figure
6a shows the operation of the relay under this condition.

The next stage is to prove that the relays operating level is held for the “Power1 DO
Time”. This is done by applying a reverse power condition for, say, 5 seconds followed
by a forward power condition for 2 seconds and then a reverse power condition once
again. If the relay operate level is held correctly, when the fault is re-applied the
operating time will be shorter. In theory the operating time should be equal to the
“Power1 Time Delay” setting minus the duration of the first fault application.
However, in practice the operating time may be even shorter as most test sets take a
finite length of time to move from a forward power condition to reverse power
condition and back again. This means that the relay may be in the reverse power
condition longer than expected. Figure 6b illustrates the relay behaviour for these fault
conditions.

T rpi T rpi
T resho dl
Fau lton

Steady reverse power


condition

a)

O p Tmi e = 10s

T rpi T rpi
T resho dl
F au lton Fau lton
Fluctuating reverse power
condition

b)

5s 5s
2s
Figure 6 – Application of fluctuating reverse power

n) Apply the following currents for approximately 5 seconds: 0.5A180°, Ib =


0.5A60°, Ic = 0.5A-60°. Then rotate the currents by 180° for roughly 2 seconds
and then return them. The relay operating time should be less than 5 seconds once the
fault is re-applied, indicating the relay has paused the operation timer instead of
resetting it.

Low Forward Power Protection

When a machine is generating and the CB connecting the generator to the system is
tripped, the electrical load is cut. This could lead to the generator over-speed if the
mechanical power is not reduced quickly. When non-urgent faults occur, such as a stator
earth fault on a high impedance earthed machine, it may be prudent to disconnect the
prime mover before opening this CB. Tripping of the circuit breaker occurs when the
output power has fallen to sufficient levels so as to minimise the possibility of overspeed.
This process is know as low forward power interlocking. The following section is a
simple demonstration of this feature.

11
o) Modify the following settings:

Power1 Function
Low Forward

P<1 Setting
12 W

Power1 Time Delay


0s

Power1 DO Timer
0s

p) Apply the following voltages: Va = 50V0°, Vb = 50V-120°, Vc = 50V120°


q) Apply the following current: Ia = 0.2A0°, Ib = 0.2A-120°, Ic = 0.2A120°. This
represents a forward power of 30W.
r) Slowly decrease the current until the relay operates. Operation should occur at
approximately at 0.08A. This corresponds to a 3 phase forward power of 12W.

4.0 Field failure protection.

Complete loss of excitation may arise as a result of accidental tripping of the excitation
system or even open circuit or short circuit faults occurring the DC system. Loss of the
excitation causes the internal emf to collapse and the reduction of active power output.
Under this condition the generator can over-speed and draw reactive power from the
system. The difference in speed between the rotor and the system causes low frequency
currents to flow in the rotor circuit, which may result in damage to the machine
depending upon its construction. The P342 and P343 utilises a mho characteristic to
detect this condition and disconnect the machine if appropriate.

We will be testing the field failure alarm and the first stage of the field failure
characteristic. This is shown in Figure 7 below :-

XL

R- +R
X a1 A al mr A ng el

X a1 = 20 ohm s
X b1 = 220 ohm s
A al mr A ng el = 15 °
X b1

Xc

Figure 7 – Field failure characteristic

The following headings will be used to perform this task :-


12
CONFIGURATION (Enabling “Field Failure” function)
GROUP 1 FIELD FAILURE (Protection settings for field failure)
a) Locate the CONFIGURATION column and then enable “Field Failure”. Ensure that
all other protection functions are disabled in this column.
b) Locate the GROUP 1 FIELD FAIL column and then apply the following settings:

FFail Alm Status


Enabled

FFail Alm Angle


15.0 deg

FFail Alm Delay


0s

FFail1 Status
Enabled

FFail1 –Xa1
20 Ohm

FFail1 Xb1
220 Ohm

FFail Time Delay


0s

FFail DO Timer
0s

FFail2 Status
Disabled

The operation of Field Failure alarm/start/trip signals can be shown in the Test Port Status
cell in the Commission Test menu. The 8 Test Port bits can be set to the appropriate DDB
number using the Monitor Port 1-8 menu cells (FFail 1 Trip - DDB422, FFail 2 Trip -
DDB423, FFail 1 Start – DDB637, FFail 2 Start – DDB638, Field Fail Alarm – DDB309).

The first part of the test is prove the operating boundary of the field failure alarm:

c) Apply the following voltage and current: Va = 100V0°, Ia = 1.0A0°.


d) Rotate the current (current leads volts) until the relay display the “FFail Alarm” on the
LCD accompanied by the yellow alarm LED. This should occur at roughly +15°.
e) Rotate the current in the opposite direction (noting that alarm resets), until the alarm
operates once again. Operation should occur at roughly 165°.

We will now prove the field failure characteristic:

f) Disable the field failure alarm by modifying the following setting as follows :-

FFail Alm Status


Disabled

13
g) Apply the following voltage and current: Va = 100V0°, Ia = 0.25A+90°. The
applied impedance is at position “A” of the polar diagram in Figure 8.
h) Increase the current until the relay operates. This should occur at roughly 0.42A
(100V/(220+20)) and indicates that we are now at the outer edge of the circle – point
“B” (Xa1+Xb1).
i) Increase the current to 0.5A. The relay should be operating strongly as the relay
impedance is now at point C.
j) Rotate the phase angle of the current anti-clockwise until the relay drops off and it is
possible to reset it. Slowly rotate the current phase angle clockwise until the relay just
operates again. Record the phase angle between the current and voltage (1 on the
polar diagram).
k) Without changing the magnitude of the current and voltage, rotate the current phase
angle clockwise, passing through the operating area, until once again it is possible to
reset the relay. Slowly rotate the current phase angle anti-clockwise until the relay
again just operates. Measure the new angle, 2 on the polar diagram.
The relay characteristic angle is the mean of the two measured angles and should be
roughly 0°.

l) Apply the following voltage and current: Va = 10V0°, Ia = 1.0A+90°. The applied
impedance is at position “D” of the polar diagram.
m) Slowly increase the voltage until the relay again just operates. This should occur at
20V (20ohm/1Amp). The relay impedance is now at point “E”, thus proving that the
characteristic has the correct dimensions and position.

XL

R- +R
D
E

 

C1 C C2

A
Xc
Figure 8 – Polar diagram of field failure characteristic

14
5.0 Thermal overload protection.

Overloads can result in stator temperature rises that exceed the thermal limit of the
winding insulation. Empirical results have shown that the life of the insulation is halved
for each 10°C rise in temperature above the rated value. However, the life of the
insulation is not wholly dependent upon the rise in temperature but on the time the
insulation maintained at this elevated temperature. This means that short overloads may
cause little damage to the machine whereas sustained overloads may cause extensive
damage to the windings and insulation. Unbalanced load will also give rise to rotor
heating due to the negative sequence created.

The P343 relay models the time-current thermal characteristic of a generator by


internally generating a thermal replica of the machine. Both the positive and negative
sequence currents are combined together to form an equivalent current (Ieq).

We will be testing the thermal characteristic with both positive and negative sequence
currents.

The following headings will be used to perform this task :-

CONFIGURATION (Enabling “Thermal Overload” function)


GROUP 1 THERMAL OVERLOAD (Protection settings for thermal)
MEASURMENTS 3 (Observation of thermal state)

a) Locate the CONFIGURATION column and then enable “Thermal Overload”.


Ensure that all other protection functions are disabled in this column.
b) Locate the GROUP1 THERMAL OVERLOAD column and then apply the
following settings:

Thermal
Enabled

Thermal I>
1.0A

Thermal Alarm
90%

T-heating
1.0 min

T-cooling
1.0 min

M Factor
3

15
The operation of Thermal alarm/trip signals can be shown in the Test Port Status cell in
the Commission Test menu. The 8 Test Port bits can be set to the appropriate DDB
number using the Monitor Port 1-8 menu cells (Thermal O/L Trip – DDB499, Thermal
Alarm – DDB307).

c) Connect the circuit as shown in the Figure 9.

C3 P 343
AI
AI
BI C2
Tes tS e t C6
CI
BI
N C5
C9

CI
C8

Figure 9 – Connection diagram for thermal tests

d) Locate the MEASUREMENTS 3 column and then scroll down to display the
“Thermal Overload” measurement.
e) Apply the following currents to the relay: Ia = 1.0A0°, Ib = 1.0A-120°, Ic =
1.0A120°. Notice that the relay thermal measurement reaches roughly 63.2% after 1
minute (1 time constant) and 86.5% after 2 (2 time constants) minutes this time. This
proves that the relay is correctly modelling the exponential temperature rise of the
protected plant (cable, transformer etc.). Switch the current off after 2 minutes. Had
we injected current for 5 minutes the relay thermal level would have reached 100% and
eventually tripped.

f) Locate the “Reset ThermalO/L” cell in the MEASUREMENTS 3 column and then
select yes to reset. Notice that the thermal level has reset to 0%.

The next step is to establish the relay operating time for an overload condition.

g) Apply the following currents and wait for the relay to trip: Ia = 2.0A0°, Ib = 2.0A-
120°, Ic = 2.0A120°. The relay should trip and display a thermal trip in
approximately 17.3 seconds.

The relay operating time is given by the following equation :-

 Ieq 2  Ip 
top  τ  Log e  
 Ieq  1 
2

Where:

Ieq =
I12  MI22
Thermal I 

16
Prefault load
Ip =
Thermal I 
I1 = Positive sequence current
I2 = Negative sequence current
M = Negative sequence multiplier
Thermal I> = Thermal Setting
 = heating time constant in seconds

Therefore with no negative sequence:

= 2  3  0 = 2A
2 2
Ieq
1.0

With no pre fault current the operating time (top) is calculated as follows :-

 22  0 
top  60  Loge  2  = 17.26 seconds
 2 1 

Now that we have proved the relay operating time, the next step is to prove the
cooling time constant. This is done as follows:-

h) Locate the “Reset ThermalO/L” cell in the MEASUREMENTS 3 column and then
select yes to reset.
i) Apply the following currents and wait for the relay to trip: Ia = 2.0A0°, Ib = 2.0A-
120°, Ic = 2.0A120°. Once again the relay should trip in approximately 17.3
seconds. Ensure that the current is switched off as soon as the relay trips.
j) Wait for one “cooling” time constant, also 60 seconds, and then re-apply the same
current to the relay. Notice that the relay operating time is roughly 11 seconds (63.2%
of 17.26 seconds). The reduced operating time is due to the thermal level not reaching
zero before the fault is re-applied. Figure 10 illustrates this behaviour.

120
Fault re-applied.
Trip time = 10.9s
100

Relay thermal state

80
Thermal State (%)

60

40

Initial fault
20 application
17.26s
No fault applied. 60second cooling period.

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Time (seconds)

17
Figure 10 – Relay thermal state for intermittent faults

k) Locate the “Reset ThermalO/L” cell in the MEASUREMENTS 3 column and then
select yes to reset.

We will now test the relays behaviour when negative sequence is applied instead of
positive sequence :-

l) Apply the following currents and wait for the relay to trip: Ia = 2.0A0°, Ib =
2.0A120°, Ic = 2.0A-120°. The injected currents represent 2A of pure negative
sequence. The relay should trip and display a thermal trip in approximately 5.22
seconds.

The relay operating time is given by the following equation :-

Therefore with no negative sequence:

= 0  3  2 = 3.46A
2 2
Ieq
1.0

With no pre fault current the operating time (top) is calculated as follows :-

 3.46 2  0 
top  60  Log e   = 5.22 seconds
 3.46  1 
2

Notice that the relay operating time is significantly reduced when negative sequence is
applied. This is due to the “M Factor” which increases the effect of negative sequence.

6.0 Overfluxing protection.

Overfluxing or overexcitation of a generator, or transformer connected to the terminals


of a generator, can occur if the ratio of voltage to frequency exceeds certain limits. High
voltage or low frequency, causing a rise in the V/Hz ratio, will produce high flux
densities in the core of the machine or transformer. This could cause the core of the
generator or transformer to saturate and stray flux to be induced in components that
have not been designed to carry flux. The resulting eddy currents may cause overheating
and damage.

The P342/P343 provides a two stage overfluxing element. The element measures the
ratio of VAB voltage, to frequency. The relay will operate when the V/Hz ratio exceeds
the setting. One stage can be set to operate with a definite time or inverse time delay, this
stage can be used to provide a protection trip. The other stage can be used as a definite
time alarm.

We will be testing the V/Hz protection element with a definite time delay and an inverse
time delay.

The following headings will be used to perform this task :-

CONFIGURATION (Enabling “V/Hz” function)


GROUP 1 VOLTS/HZ (Protection settings for V/Hz protection)

18
a) Locate the CONFIGURATION column and then enable “V/HZ”. Ensure that all
other protection functions are disabled in this column.
b) Locate the GROUP1 VOLTS/HZ column and then apply the following settings:

Alm Status
Disabled

Trip Func
DT

Trip Set
2.2 V/Hz

Trip Delay
0s

c) Apply the following voltages: Va = 50V0°, Vb = 50V-120°, Vc = 50V120°.


These voltages must be applied at 50Hz. Ensure that the timer stop leads are
disconnected.
d) Increase all three voltages until the relay operates and displays V/Hz trip. Operation
should occur at approximately 63.5V (110V/3) as the relay is measuring a phase to
phase voltage.
e) Return all three voltages to 50V and then reset the relay.
f) Slowly reduce the frequency until the relay operates once again. Operation should
occur at approximately 39Hz (110V/(/3 x 2.2)).
g) Return the frequency to 50Hz and then reset the relay.

We have so far tested that the V/Hz threshold responds to changes in both voltage and
frequency. The next step is to prove that the IDMT characteristic is correct.

h) Modify the following settings:

Trip Func
IDMT

Trip Set
2.2 V/Hz

Trip TMS
1.000

The operation of Overfluxing alarm/start/trip signals can be shown in the Test Port Status cell
in the Commission Test menu. The 8 Test Port bits can be set to the appropriate DDB number
using the Monitor Port 1-8 menu cells (V/Hz Trip - DDB429, V/Hz Start – DDB636, V/Hz
Alarm – DDB308).

i) Reconnect the timer stop leads then apply the following voltage (at 50Hz): Va =
70V0°, Vb = 70V-120°, Vc = 70V120°. This corresponds to a value of
2.42V/Hz, which equates to 1.1 (M) times the setting. Therefore the operating time
should be:

0.18  TMS 0.18  1


Operating time = 0.8   0.8   18.8 seconds
 M  1 2
1.1  1 2

19
To ensure the characteristic is correct it is prudent to check at least one more point on
the curve:

j) Reset the relay then apply Va = 76V0°, Vb = 76V-120°, Vc = 76V120°. This


equates to roughly 1.2 times the setting, thus giving an operating time of 5.3 seconds.

7.0 100% Stator earth fault protection.

Standard residual current or voltage protection elements can only protect 95% of the
stator winding. Earth faults in the final 5% of the winding will result in such low fault
current and voltage imbalance that conventional protection cannot be relied upon to
detect the fault.

The P343 provides employs a technique whereby the relay looks for changes in the
amount of third harmonic being produced by the generator. Under normal conditions the
third harmonic voltage is distributed evenly along the stator winding. During an earth
fault the in the final 5% of the winding the third harmonic voltage will rise significantly at
the generator terminals. If the VT were connected at the generator terminals the third
harmonic voltage rise could be detected. However, if the voltage from a neutral earthing
VT were applied to the relay then this would see the third harmonic voltage collapse.
Therefore the relay has two settings, these are overvoltage mode for a terminal VT and
undervoltage mode for a neutral earthing VT.

For more information on 100% stator earth fault protection refer to that application
guide of the P342/P343 manual.

We will be testing the 100% stator earth fault protection in both overvoltage and
undervoltage modes:

The following headings will be used to perform this task :-

CONFIGURATION (Enabling “100% Stator EF” function)


GROUP 1 100% STATOR EF (Protection settings for 100% stator EF)

a) Locate the CONFIGURATION column and then enable “100% Stator EF”. Ensure
that all other protection functions are disabled in this column.
b) Locate the GROUP1 100% STATOR EF column and then apply the following
settings:

100% St EF Status
VN3H> Enabled

100% St EF VN3H>
20V

VN3H> Delay
0s

The operation of 100% Stator EF start/trip signals can be shown in the Test Port Status cell in
the Commission Test menu. The 8 Test Port bits can be set to the appropriate DDB number
using the Monitor Port 1-8 menu cells (100% ST EF Trip - DDB416, 100% ST EF Start –
DDB621).
c) Connect the circuit as shown in the Figure 11.

20
Va rai c
C 19

240V
(50H z ) V1 VA
C 20

VB
C 21 P 343
F

C 22
VC
C 23
VA
Tes tS e t
(150H z )
C 24
VN
VN
Figure 11 – Connection diagram for 100% stator EF tests

d) Using the tests set apply 15V at 150Hz. Slowly increase the voltage until the relay
operates and indicates a 100% stator EF trip. Operation should occur at 20V.
e) Reduce the voltage to 15V the reset the relay.

This proves that the relay will operate if the VT is connected on the generator
terminals. The next stage is to check operation if a neutral earthing VT was used. This
is done by selecting the element to be undervoltage instead of overvoltage. It is also
necessary to apply a voltage to the normal voltage inputs so that the relay assumes the
generator is energised. Remember that a reduction in 3rd harmonic may be due to the
generator being de-energised instead of an actual earth fault.

k) Modify the following settings:

100% St EF Status
VN3H< Enabled

100% St EF VN3H>
1.000V

V< Inhibit Set


80 V

P< Inhibit
Disabled

Q< Inhibit
Disabled

S< Inhibit
Disabled

f) Using the tests set apply 5V at 150Hz.


g) Using the variac apply 110V to the phase voltage terminals.

21
h) Slowly decrease the voltage on the test set (150Hz) until the relay operates. This
should occur a roughly 1 volt and proves the 3rd harmonic undervoltage is working
correctly.
i) Switch off the variac and check that it is possible to reset the relay. This ensures that
the under voltage inhibit feature is correctly functioning.

Unfortunately due to limitations in the test equipment it is impossible for us to test the
under power inhibits on the 100% stator earth fault protection. The under power
inhibits wok in exactly the same way as the under voltage inhibit except that there
needs to be a certain amount of Watts, VA and VAr’s flowing before the protection is
enabled.

8.0 Pole slipping protection.

Sudden changes or shocks in the electrical power system such as line switching
operations, large jumps in load or faults may lead to system oscillations which appear as
regular variations of the currents, voltages and angular separation between systems. This
phenomenon is referred to as a power swing.

In a recoverable situation, the power swing will decay and finally disappear in a few
seconds. Synchronism will be regained and the power system will recover to stable
operation. In a non-recoverable situation, the power swing becomes so severe that
synchronism is lost between the generator and the system. If such a loss of synchronism
does occur it is imperative to separate the generator from the rest of the system before
damage occurs.

The P343 provides a lenticular impedance characteristic which is used to detect pole
slips. If relay detects the system impedance passing through the characteristic at a certain
speed and direction then a trip will be given. The full criteria for operation is as follows:-

Generating mode (machine acting as a generator):


Pole slip mode must be set to “generating”. Impedance starting from point R1 enters
characteristic and stays roughly at R2 for at time greater than the “PSlip Timer T1” and
then enters R3. The impedance must stay around R3 for at least the “PSlip Timer T2”
before exiting in to R4. If this sequence is not followed or each region is exited before
the timers expire then relay will not trip.

Motoring mode (machine acting as a motor):


Pole slip mode must be set to “motoring”. Impedance starting from point R4 enters
characteristic and stays roughly at R3 for at time greater than the “PSlip Timer T1” and
then enters R2. The impedance must stay around R2 for at least the “PSlip Timer T2”
before exiting in to R1. If this sequence is not followed or if the impedance exits each
region before the timers expire then relay will not trip.

Both generating and motoring (machines can operate as generator or motor)


Pole slip mode must be set to “motoring”. Operation can occur in either the generating
or motoring sequences are followed.

22
The regions R1 to R4 are shown in figure 12 together with an illustration of the relay
settings.

We will be proving the characteristic shape as well as the relay ability to detect a genuine
pole slip condition.

The following headings will be used to perform this task :-

CONFIGURATION (Enabling “Pole Slipping” function)


GROUP 1 POLE SLIPPING (Protection settings for pole slipping)

23
XL
Zone 2

ZA = 100 ohm s

R ea c tan ce Zone 2
lni e

ZC =
50 o
hm s

75 °
R- R

R4 120 °

R3

B lni de r
R2
R1

Zone 1 &
Zone 2
Zone 1 &
Zone 2
ZB = 150 ohm s

Xc

Figure 11 – Pole slip characteristic

a) Locate the CONFIGURATION column and then enable “Pole Slipping”. Ensure that
all other protection functions are disabled in this column.
b) Locate the GROUP1 POLE SLIPPING column and then apply the following
settings:

PSlip Function
Enabled

Pole Slip Mode


Generator

PSlip Za Forward
100 Ohms

PSlip Za Forward
150 Ohms

Lens Angle
120 deg

PSlip Timer T1
15.00 ms

PSlip Timer T2
15.00 ms

Blinder Angle
75 deg

24
PSlip Zc
50 Ohms

Zone 1 Slip Count


1

Zone 2 Slip Count


2

PSlip Reset Time


30.00 s

We will now prove the shape of the characteristic before we test its ability to detect
pole slips.

c) Connect the circuit as shown in the Figure 4.


d) Modify the PSL so that the LED mappings are as shown in Figure 12. Each LED
represents a certain location on the pole slipping characteristic. E.g.

LED 1 = Pole slip detected in Zone 1 (Zone 1 start)


LED 2 = Pole slip detected in Zone 2 (Zone 2 start)
LED 3 = Lens start (impedance has entered the lens characteristic)
LED 4 = Blinder start (impedance is to left of the blinder)
LED 5 = Reactance start (impedance is below the reactance line)

Figure 12 – PSL for LED mappings

The operation of pole slipping start/trip signals can be shown in the Test Port Status cell in the
Commission Test menu. The 8 Test Port bits can be set to the appropriate DDB number using
the Monitor Port 1-8 menu cells (Pslipz Z1 Trip – DDB497, Pslipz Z2 Trip – DDB498, Pslipz
Z1 Start – DDB645, Pslipz Z2 Start – DDB646, Pslipz LensStart – DDB647, Pslipz BlindStrt
– DDB648, Pslipz ReactStrt – DDB649).

e) Apply the following voltages: Va = 50V0°, Vb = 50V-120°, Vc = 50V120°


f) Apply the following currents: Ia = 0.6A0°, Ib = 0.6A-120°, Ic = 0.6A120°. This
represents an impedance of 80 0°. The impedance is now at point “A” on the polar
diagram (Figure 13). Notice that LED 5 is ON, indicating that the impedance is below
the reactance line.

25
g) Rotate the angle of the current (I lead V) until LED 3 illuminates (in addition to LED
5) indicating that the impedance has entered the lens. This should occur at roughly 42°.
The impedance is now at point “B”.
h) Continue to rotate the current until the impedance crosses the blinder at 105° indicated
by LED 4 illuminating. The impedance is now at point “C”. Switch off the current and
voltage and notice that the LED’s turn off.
i) Without modifying the voltage, apply the following currents: Ia = 0.6A180°, Ib =
0.6A60°, Ic = 0.6A-60°. This represents an impedance of 80 180°. The
impedance is now at point “E” on the polar plot. Notice that LED’s 4 and 5 illuminate.
j) Decrease the angle of the current (towards point “D”) until the relay LED 3
illuminates. This should occur at approximately 168° and indicates that the impedance
is at position “D”. Once again switch off the current and voltage noting the LED’s turn
off.
k) Reapply the current and voltage indicated in “i”. Notice that LED’s 4 and 5 are turned
on. The impedance is now back at point “E”. Rotate the current towards “F” until
LED 5 switches off, which should occur at roughly 234°. The impedance is now at
point “F” (i.e. above the reactance line, but to the left of the blinder).
l) Continue to rotate the current in the same direction until LED 3 illuminates once again
indicating that we have re-entered the lens at point “G”. The LED should illuminate at
approximately 259°. Switch off the current and voltage noting that LED’s turn off.
m) Leaving the voltage at the same values apply the following currents: Ia = 0.6A0°, Ib
= 0.6A-120°, Ic = 0.6A120°. Once again the impedance is back at “A” on the
polar diagram. Note that only LED 5 will be illuminated as we are once again below
the reactance line.
n) Rotate the current (I lag V) towards point “J”. Note that LED 5 turns off indicating
that the impedance is at point “J”. This should occur at roughly –24°.
o) Continue to rotate the current in the same direction until LED 3 illuminates indicating
that the impedance is at point “I” and within the lens. The LED should illuminate at
approximately -49°.
p) Once again continue to rotate the current in the same direction until LED 4 also
illuminates and the impedance is at point “H”. For correct operation the LED should
illuminate at approximately –75°.

XL
Z on e 2
259 °
R eac at nce -75 °
lni e 234 °
G H
Z on e 2
F
-49°

J -24 °

E A
R- R
168 ° D

B
42°
B lni de r

C
105°

Zo n e 1 &
Zo n e 2
Z o ne 1 &
Z o ne 2
ZB = 150 ohm s

Xc

26
Pole Slipping Test

The previous test was used to prove the lenticular impedance characteristic that the relay uses
to detect pole slips. The next test will simulate a genuine pole slip condition, which will prove
the pole slip counters and timers. The pole slip will be simulated using the omicron control
centre, which incorporates a program script that tells the omicron to inject a sequence of pre-
defined impedances. The program script will have several variables, which we can change, and
this allows us to inject any pole slip that we require. The pole slip locus we will inject is shown
in figure 14.

XL
Z on e 2

R eac tance ZA = 100 ohm s


lni e
Z on e 2

ZC =
50 ohm
s

B
A Z on e 1 &
Z on e 1 & C Z on e 2
Z on e 2

ZB = 150 ohm s
25 ° 31 °

P o el S lpi
Lo cu s

Xc

Figure 14. Pole Slip Locus

The relay should already have the correct settings, as in step b.) of the previous test.

a.) Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 4.


b.) Open the omicron control centre program provided by double clicking on following icon
on the desktop:

c.) From the “view” menu in the window select “script view” and ensure the following
parameters are set as shown below.

27
d.) Compile the script. Do this using the “test” menu and selecting “user command”. Close the
script window.
e.) Pushing the “play” button on the toolbar will initiate the test sequence. The LED sequence
should be as follows. As the test starts LED 5 should come ON, indicating that the
impedance is below the reactance line. As the impedance hits Point “A” LED3 should also
come ON, indicating that the impedance has entered the lens. LED 4 will come ON as the
impedance hits point “B”, indicating that the impedance has crossed the blinder. Finally as
the impedance goes through point “C”, LED 1 and 2 will come ON, indicating a pole slip
in Zones 1 and 2, LED 3 will turn OFF, indicating that the impedance has left the lens and
also the relay will TRIP.

The pole slip applied to the relay rotates anti-clockwise at 50° per second. The impedance
presented to the relay will take approximately 0.62 seconds to traverse from point A to
point B and then 0.5 seconds from point B to C. Since both of these times are in excess of
the PSlip Timer T1 and PSlip Timer T2 the relay will operate.

f.) Clear the sequence on the control center by pushing the “X” button next to the “play”
button on the toolbar.
g.) In the script, change the “angle_direction” variable to –1. This indicates that the pole slip
characteristic will now rotate clockwise. Start the sequence as before and it should be
noticed that the relay does not recognise this condition as a pole slip and does NOT TRIP.
h.) Locate the GROUP1 POLE SLIPPING column and then apply the following settings:

Pole Slip Mode


Motoring

i.) Re-start the test again and it should be noticed that the relay now trips. This is because a
generator in motoring mode will see a pole slip in the reverse direction.
j.) Change the parameters in the script to that shown below. This sets the parameters to
perform 2 pole slips.

28
k.) Locate the GROUP1 POLE SLIPPING column and then apply the following settings:

Pole Slip Mode


Generating

Zone 1 Slip Count


2

The relay is now set to operate after 2 pole slips instead of 1.

l.) Compile the script again and push the “play” button. It should be noticed that the relay
repeats the LED sequence in step “e.)” twice and after the second rotation the relay will
TRIP

m.) We will now prove the timer operation of the relay. Set the script back to the values as in
step “c.)”. From the script it can be seen that the step time is 0.1secs and the step count
degree is 5. This means that the impedance travels 5 degrees every 100mS. Therefore,
from figure 14 it can be seen that R2(point A to point B) is 31degrees and R3(point B to
point C) is 21degrees.

So the time it takes for the impedance to travel through R2 is ((31/5)*0.1) = 620mS
Likewise for R3 its ((25/5)*0.1) = 500mS

If the impedance does not pass through the region in a time slower than the Pslip timers T1
and T2 are set to then the relay does not recognise this as pole slip.

n.) Locate the GROUP1 POLE SLIPPING column and then apply the following settings:

PSlip Timer T1
700 ms

PSlip Timer T2
600 ms

Note that the impedance will pass through the two regions before each of the timers time
out.

o.) Running the test will now result in a NO TRIP condition.

29