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The formation of postcolonial theory a.

The campaign seek on


justice and righteousness
(Lazare S Rukundwa & Andries G van
against slavery and
Aarde, 2007)
colonialism.
b. The emergence of
liberation (America, Asia &
Introduction and definition of terms. Africa) contributes to the
a) Optimistic – rebelliousness by struggle against
which any exploitative and oppression, slavery,
discrimination practices, colonialism and dictatorial
regardless of time space, can be regimes.
challenged. c. Self-determination enabling
b) Pessimistic – ambiguous, ironic people to take control and
and superstitious. participate in their own
c) “Post(-)colonial” – inadequate, destiny.
naïve and utopian d. Liberation theology and
d) “Postcolonial” – less suggestive of Black theology – struggle
chronological or ideological against class domination,
supersession. oppression and apartheid.
e) Postcolonial criticism – unequal 5. Feminism and Anti-colonial
and universal forces of cultural movements
representation (political/economic) a. Feminism never been anti-
f) Emerged from experiences of imperialist – able to fight
oppression and struggle for masculinity at home.
freedom. b. Their fight never been look
up as equal as men.
Formation of postcolonial theory. c. Jayawardena – women in
1. Humanitarian justification Vietnam leading local and
a. Moral (Bishop Las Casas) national revolutionary
b. Anti-colonial and anti- movements against foreign
slavery occupations.
2. Economic Justification d. Women acted as local
a. Karl Marx saw colonisation activist (supple food and
as economic (he was not medicine, spying)
anti-colonialist but when it e. The colonial and patriarchal
comes to economic he systems were both
was) oppressive to feminist.
b. Economic effects of A Tricontinental Approach
capitalism.
3. Political Justification (Third world continent – undeveloped and
a. Edmund Burke – campaign underdeveloped continents)
on equal rights seen as - Putting together the thoughts,
reformist of liberty. strategies and writings that formed
b. Abuses of power, norms, a political and cultural unity
social practices and (OSPAAAL)
institution of other cultures.
4. Religious Justification
- Brought up anti-colonial and (stimulate consciousness
postcolonial writing (Havana and send clear message)
Conference)
Hybrid Indentities
1. A Latin American Perspective
a. Guevara – the world must - New identity (mixing of before and
not only be interpreted, it after colonisation)
must be transformed. - Reconstruction of the old/original
2. An Asian Perspective culture
a. India – non-violence - Subaltern – underclass people,
(Gandhi developed the voice out in silence
concept of “self-reliance”) - Colonialism is seen as not only
3. An African Perspective military and economic domination
a. Anglophone – the objective but also discourse domination.
realm (history, economic - Nationalism problems
history, sociality and o Geographic bounderies,
materiality.) legal and political
b. Francophone – subjective structures of the
realm (history of postcolonial nations.
oppression and exploitation o Lacks of charismatic
with concern of human leadership.
attitudes towards them)
c. Equal rights for African Conclusion
(education, treatment, - Postcolonial built from colonial
political participation) experiences of people who lived
d. Mandela – stress on non- within the time frame.
violence but use limited - Reclaim their negotiating space for
violence) equity.
e. Fanon – decolonisation
itself always violence
phenomenon.

A Psychoanalytic Approach and


Liberation struggle.

1. Self-consciousness
a. War against colonialism
must not only materials but
also mental
b. Resistance to gain
freedom.
2. Self-determination
a. Non-violence (passive
resistance)
b. Violence (active resistance)
c. Non-violence looks
“romantic” but revolution is
not made by fasting.
d. Songs and poetry were
important weapons