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ECOLOGY AND SUSTAINABLE

DEVELOPMENT - IV
SUBMITTED TO: ER. V.K. JAIN
ECOLOGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Ecosystem is about the systems of transformation, energy flow and interchangeability of living
species, on the basis of natural resource cycles.

Environment is about what it means for us, human beings. Ecology is a inclusive word where you
recognise and connect with non-human living species as well.

1. ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN AIR-CONDITIONED OFFICE BUILDINGS


Energy consumption in the building sector is a function the type of construction, usage pattern, the
climatic region and the energy consuming devices installed in the buildings. Different types of energy
end-use in buildings such as lighting, space heating, space cooling, plug-in loads and appliances all
together account for the overall energy consumption pattern of the building as shown in figure.

Energy consumption, not only depends on the type of the end use appliances but also on the
operational efficiency and maintenance of these end use appliances. Building design and material
can have a significant impact on the energy consumption levels of a particular end-use application.
For instance, the overall energy consumption pattern of a typical home depends heavily on
appliance efficiency.

In a commercial building, the overall energy consumption of the building gets significantly affected by
the design and selection of the building material and glazing along with the choice of appliances and
HVAC systems.
Role of HVAC in Energy Efficiency

According to the Indian Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ISHRAE),
most commercial buildings have an Energy Performance Index (EPI) of 200 to 400 kWh/sq. m per
year. Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) equipment take a major share of electricity
bills for residential, commercial and industrial applications, leading to tremendous pressure on
energy sources, and ultimately impact the climate. This can be eliminated by deploying energy-
efficient measures that are energy saving as well as help in cost cutting. HVAC systems comprise 40
percent of the energy consumed by buildings in India; hence, HVAC remains the primary focus area
for energy savings through system upgrades and optimisation.

Energy Conservation Building Code

For mainstreaming the energy efficiency in the building sector, the BEE has introduced ECBC in May
2007. This is applicable to both new buildings and those undergoing renovation. The ECBC is
applicable to buildings or building complexes with the connected load of 100 kW or greater or
contract demand of 120 kVA or greater.
Currently, the ECBC is in voluntary implementation phase and the compliance rate is forecasted to
increase gradually from 10% until 2013 to 35% in 2015 and 65% by 2017. The ECBC provides both
requisite and prescriptive requirements for five building components, namely (a) Building Envelope,
(b) Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC), (c) Service Water Heating and Pumping (d)
Lighting, and (e) Electrical Power. For compliance with ECBC, the project can adopt either the
‘prescriptive method’ or ‘whole building performance method’. The trade-off method is available only
for building envelope category. Online conformance tools ‘ECOnirman Prescriptive’ and
‘ECOnirman Whole Building Performance’ can be used to show compliance with ECBC
requirements.

BEE Star Rating for Buildings


The BEE has introduced the star labelling programme for existing commercial buildings, which
provides label to the buildings based on their actual energy performance. The BEE star labeling is
applicable to buildings with the connected load of 100 kW or greater or contract demand of 120 kVA
or greater. One to five stars are awarded to the buildings based on their specific energy use with five
star label recognized as the most efficient building. A standardized format of data collection of actual
energy consumption of the building was developed to collect information pertaining to building built-
up area, conditioned and non-conditioned areas, type of building, hours of operation of building in a
day, climatic zone, and other information related to facility.
For office buildings and shopping malls, the EPI in kWh/m2/year is considered for the building energy
performance, while for BPO buildings the average annual hourly EPI (AAhEPI) in Wh/h/m2 will be
used to report the building energy performance. Both grid and captive electricity will be considered
for the calculation of EPI and AAhEPI but this will exclude on-site renewable energy production such
as photovoltaic. The rated project has to submit the details of the energy consumption annually to
show its conformance to the awarded rating.

Building Rating Systems


There are three voluntary rating systems applicable for building design. These are
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)/Indian Green Building Council (IGBC)
Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA)
Ecohousing
LEED India or GRIHA pre-certified projects will get opportunity for out-of-turn environmental
clearance. This fast-track clearance would be applicable for building projects with the total built-up
area ≥20,000 m2to <1,50,000 m2.
Energy Efficiency Policies, Regulation, and Rating Systems

Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) was established in year 1962 with the
aim of imparting training in the multi-disciplinary field of built environment, offering various
undergraduate, post graduate and doctoral programs. CEPT has also been accorded the status of
Scientific & Industrial Research Organization by Ministry of Science and Technology, Department of
Scientific & Industrial Research, Govt. of India. In 2005 Centre for Environmental Planning &
Technology became University by act of law.
Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric
progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period.
2. BUILDING ENERGY SIMULATION TOOLS
Energy simulation software tools are an important support used for building designers to reduce the
cost of energy in buildings. The energy simulation software allow to determinate with accuracy some
variables that can support designers to take decisions about the best measures to apply for any
building to built or already existent. There are several energy simulation software tools in the market.
The present study aims to identify some of the most important due to their capacity of calculating a
significant number of variables and to compare them in order to establish their differences.
The energy simulation software tools can be important for reducing the cost of energy in buildings.
About one third of the energy consumption in buildings is used to increase thermal conditions of the
dwellings and for lighting. Thermal simulation software tools for buildings allow to:
• Determine the appropriate size of HVAC systems;
• Analyze the energy consumption;
• Calculate the cost of the energy used.

Advantages
Nowadays, designers need tools that answer to very specific questions even during the initial design
phase. Through the use of energy simulation software designers can consider specific choices, (e.g.,
heating and cooling). Designers can also predict the thermal behavior of buildings prior to their
construction and simulate the costs of energy in existent buildings in their current conditions,
establishing the best thermal retrofitting measures to adopt in the buildings under analysis. Besides
the energy consumption, simulation software tools can also be used calculate to the following
variables:
• Indoor temperatures;
• Needs for heating and cooling;
• Consumption needs of HVAC systems;
• Natural lighting needs of the occupants;
• Interior comfort of the inhabitants;
• Levels of ventilation.
The calculation of energy consumptions spent in dwellings still to build or to retrofit allow a more
accurate determination of design charges and help to decide with highest accuracy the possible
devices to be used in a room (limited zone) or dwelling. Energy simulation software tools can also
allow considering all the regulations in force and simultaneously provide a sense of comfort to its
inhabitants through a correct design of heating and cooling systems. Such software have also
available tools to improve constructive solutions through simulating the incorporation of passive solar
systems in buildings, such as horizontally and vertically shading systems and a more accurate study
of the HVAC system loads to use.
COMPARISION TABLE BETWEEN ENERGY SIMULATION TOOLS
Along with materials and construction techniques also energy simulation software tools of buildings
have had developments over the years. Currently there are several energy simulation software tools
with different levels of complexity and response to different variables. Among the most complete
simulation software tools are the Energy Plus, the ESP-r (Energy Simulation Software tool), the IDA
ICE (Indoor Climate Energy), IES-VE (Integrated Environmental Solutions - Virtual Environment) and
TRNSYS. Being the most complete software tools, these are also the most complex and therefore
require greater expertise. From the analyzed energy simulation software tools, TRNSYS is the most
complete, but depending on the user perspective and final purpose the other software tools could be
more appropriated. The major limitation of TRNSYS is to not being able to connect with AutoCad
Software tool for importation and exportation of files. In this aspect Energy Plus, ESP-r and IDA ICE
are more appropriate.

Popular Energy Simulation Software Tools


There are many building energy simulation software available now a days. Some are simplified
energy analysis tools that only provide a quick analysis of annual energy use of buildings, but some
use more detailed models and run on hourly basis that provide detailed hour-by-hour energy
analysis of buildings.
Examples of the programs include:
1) Simplified programs for overall energy consumption assessment, peak temperature
prediction, heating/cooling loads calculations.
2) Sophisticated programs for hourly simulation of heat, light and air movement.
3) Complex specialist packages for delighting and artificial lighting, computational fluid
dynamics (CFD), two- and three dimensional conduction calculations, and moisture migration
within the building components

1. Energy Plus

Energy Plus is one of the most known energy simulation software tools. Its development began in
1996, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) from United States of America (USA) . Initially,
the U.S. government was developing two different software tools, BLAST and DOE-2, which were
abandoned after many discussions and represented a first step and the working basis of the Energy
Plus.

The Energy Plus has the features and capabilities of BLAST and DOE-2, however is an entirely new
software tool that combines the heat balance of BLAST with a generic HVAC system. The Energy
Plus aims to develop and organize software tools in modules that can easily work together or
separately. It is important to outline that in Energy Plus does not exist a visual interface that allow
users to see and concept the building. In this case third-party software tools, i.e., Design Builder
need to be used. Energy Plus is a thermal simulation software tool that allows the analysis of energy
throughout the building and the thermal load and it is used by engineers, architects and researchers
to model the energy use and water use in buildings. The software tool simulates models for heating,
cooling, lighting, ventilation, other flows of energy and water use.

The simulation of a building is divided into two stages :


• Construction of the building;
• Introduction of data, such as environmental aspects, effects of shading, cooling system, internal
gains, etc.
Structure of EnergyPlus

2. DesignBuilder

The DesignBuilder is the most popular interface developed for EnergyPlus that includes a simplified
CAD interface, templates, wizards, and most compact air system configurations of EnergyPlus.

Work flow of DesignBuilder

The workflow of DesignBuilder starts with the selection of a location and the corresponding weather
through a weather file followed by the creation of specific thermal building model geometry with the
integrated CAD interface. This building geometry represents the definition of geometry needed for
the simulation of 20 the building’s thermal performance. Additionally, one can import DXF files as
footprints for the creation of the geometric model. DesignBuilder provides a variety of country or
region specific templates for selection of parameters (such as materials and constructions). Lists of
other definable parameters include internal loads (with occupancy patterns/activities), construction
types, openings (windows and doors), lighting, and HVAC systems. Once the definition of all input
parameters is complete, one can perform design day and/or annual simulations. In addition, one can
validate most parts of the thermal model of the building against the energy code that applies to the
location of the building.

3. eQUEST
eQUEST is an easy to use building energy analysis tool which provides high quality results by
combining a building creation wizard, an energy efficiency measure wizard and a graphical results
display module with an enhanced DOE-2.2 derived building energy simulation program. The building
creation wizard walks a user through the process of creating a building model. Within eQUEST,
DOE-2.2 performs an hourly simulation of the building based on walls, windows, glass, people, plug
loads, and ventilation. DOE-2.2 also simulates the performance of fans, pumps, chillers, boilers, and
other energy-consuming devices. eQUEST allows users to create multiple simulations and view the
alternative results in side-by side graphics. It offers energy cost estimating, daylighting and lighting
system control, and automatic implementation of energy efficiency measures (eQUEST, 2008).

Overview of the Process


eQUEST calculates hour-by-hour building energy consumption over an entire year (8760 hours)
using hourly weather data for the location under consideration. Input to the program consists of a
detailed description of the building being analyzed, including hourly scheduling of occupants,
lighting, equipment, and thermostat settings. eQUEST provides very accurate simulation of such
building features as shading, fenestration, interior building mass, envelope building mass, and the
dynamic response of differing heating and air conditioning system types and controls. eQUEST also
contains a dynamic daylighting model to assess the effect of natural lighting on thermal and lighting
demands.

The simulation process begins by developing a "model" of the building based on building plans and
specifications. A base line building model that assumes a minimum level of efficiency (e.g., ASHRAE
90.1) is then developed to provide the base from which energy savings are estimated. Alternative
analyses are made by making changes to the model that correspond to efficiency measures that
could be implemented in the building. These alternative analyses result in annual utility consumption
and cost savings for the efficiency measure that can then be used to determine simple payback, life-
cycle cost, etc. for the measure and, ultimately, to determine the best combination of alternatives.

4. ESP-r (Energy Simulation Software tool)

The software tool ESP-r (Energy Simulation Software tool) is intended to support the construction
project with regard to energy and environmental performance, in a realistic and accurate way. The
software tool is a mathematical software for a project manager that coordinates the data, simulation,
CAD applications, different tools for evaluating performance, display and report generators, etc.. The
ESP-r uses several complex equations to deal with all aspects at the same time (geometry,
construction, operation, distribution, heat dissipation, etc.). These equations are integrated in
successive time steps in response to the influences of the occupants, and climate control systems.

The geometry of the building can be set in CAD software tools or other similar tools to allow the
specification of the geometry of buildings. The models created in this software can be exported to
Energy Plus. The operating conditions are determined through database support. Shading,
insulation, HVAC systems, areas of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), electricity, re- newable
energy embedded systems, lighting, natural ventilation, combined heat and power generation,
facades photovoltaic systems for control of indoor air quality can also be included in the models pre-
determined. The time simulation of the building with ESP-r simulation tool can vary in a range from
one minute to one hour. The outputs of the simulations can be viewed by the interactions between
the domains of assessment or exported to other graphics software.

5. IDA ICE

The thermal simulation software tool IDA Indoor Climate Energy is based on a general system
simulation platform with a modular system. The multi-domain physical systems are described in the
IDA using symbolic equations starting with a simulation language Neutral Model Format (NMF -
Neutral Model Format). The user defines the tolerances which control the accuracy of the solution,
thus allowing the isolation of numerical modeling approaches.

End-user has the following advantages:


• Extensions can be added to the initial model;
• The mathematical model can be inspected to investigate the variables, parameters and equations;
• The research models are easily performed.

6. IES VE (Integrated Environmental Solutions - Virtual Environment)

The simulation software tool IES provides the design professionals with a variety of variables in
simulation analysis of buildings. The model works on the geometric representation that represents
the building. The software tool allows interaction with other energy simulation software tools. The
simulation software tool incorporates a tool for dynamic thermal simulation of heat transfer
processes of buildings, which is the ApacheSim.

The simulation software tool was tested using the IES ASHRAE 140 and is qualified as a dynamic
model in CIBSE system of classification. The software tool provides an environment for the detailing
of the building systems, allowing their optimization taking into account criteria such as comfort and
energy. The dynamic tool ApacheSim can be dynamically linked to the Macro FLO dynamic tool for
natural ventilation and HVAC Apache dynamic tool to perform analysis of air leaks and for analysis
of natural lighting and shading.

The results should be automatically exported.

7. TRNSYS

TRNSYS is a transient system simulation software tool with a modular structure that has been
specially designed to develop complex systems related to energy, outlining the problem in a number
of smaller components . The components ("Types") may range from simple heat pump to a multi-
zone of a building complex. The components are configured through the graphical user interface
known as TRNSYS Simulation Studio. In the simulation software tool energy TRNSYS the
construction of the building can be achieved by the introduction of data on dedicated visual interface,
known for TRNBuild .

The software tool sets the time intervals which may vary from 15 minutes to an hour, but may be
able to perform simulations in the time interval of 0.1 seconds. The library software tool in addition to
a multi zone, allows the use of many commonly used components, including: solar panels,
photovoltaic systems, HVAC systems, cogeneration systems, hydrogen, among others. It also allows
the creation of routines to manipulate weather data and other data by changing the simulation
results.

The modular nature of this software tool facilitates the addition of mathematical models to the
software tool. The components can be shared among multiple users without having to recompile the
software tool due to the use of DLL technology. In addition, this energy simulation software tool
allows the user to incorporate other components developed in software tools such as Matlab, Excel,
VBA, etc.. Moreover, the software tool includes the possibility of adding HTML views through a
software tool called TRNSED, which enable non-users to view and do parametric studies of
TRNSYS files, in a simplified representation of a web page.

Simulation General Requirements

1. Energy Simulation Program

The simulation program shall be a computer-based program for the analysis of energy consumption
in buildings and be approved by the authority having jurisdiction. The simulation program shall, at a
minimum, have the ability to explicitly model the following:

(a) Energy flows on an hourly basis for all 8,760 hours in the year,
(b) Hourly variations in occupancy, lighting power, miscellaneous equipment power, thermostat
setpoints, and HVAC system operation, defined separately for each day of the week and holidays,
(c) Thermal mass effects,
(d) Ten or more thermal zones,
(e) Part-load and temperature dependent performance of heating and cooling equipment,
(f) Air-side and water-side economizers with integrated control, and
(g) All of the baseline design characteristics specified in this chapter.
In addition to the above, the simulation tool shall be able to produce hourly reports of energy use by
energy source and shall be capable of performing design load calculations to determine required
HVAC equipment capacities, air and water flow rates in accordance with § 5 for both the proposed
and baseline building designs.

The simulation program shall be tested according to Standard 140 and the results shall be furnished
by the software provider.

2. Climatic Data
The simulation program shall use hourly values of climatic data, such as temperature and humidity
from representative climatic data, for the city in which the proposed design is to be located. For cities
or urban regions with several climatic data entries, and for locations where weather data are not
available, the designer shall select available weather data that best represent the climate at the
construction site.

3. Compliance Calculations
The proposed design and baseline design shall be calculated using the following:
(a) Same simulation program,
(b) Same weather data, and
(c) Same building operation assumptions (thermostat setpoints, schedules, internal gains, occupant
loads, etc.) unless an exception is allowed by this code/ authority having jurisdiction for the
respective category.
3. ENERGY MODELING
The case building is located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is a West facing two storied office
building with a total floor area of 17,000 sft. Albuquerque is in Climate Zone 5 and it is in a Dry (B)
location.

Screenshot of the eQUEST model of the Office building

Screenshot of the DesignBuilder model of the Office building `

Materials and Construction The walls are R-19 batt 2 x 6 metal frame spaced on 24-inch centers 1
½” polystyrene 1” stucco construction and roof is R-30 3/8” built up roof and 5/8” plywood. The floor
height is 12’ with a floor to ceiling clear space of 9’, 3’ for the plenum that comprises air conditioning
ducts and false ceiling. (See Appendix-B) Zoning and HVAC This office building basically has
conference rooms, staff offices, management offices, electrical and mechanical rooms. The building
has 60 small zones including the Plenum spaces. The building is conditioned with a rooftop
packaged VAV system. (See Appendix A)
List of zones with areas, occupancy and internal loads

Building schedules and operations


The schedules and operating hours for the models are very comprehensive. The building has
different schedules for Monday to Thursday and one for Friday and different schedule for weekends
and holidays Energy modeling in eQUEST The eQUEST model of the office building used in this
study was previously developed by a group for studying the performance of the building. It was
calibrated against the utility data for a period of one year i.e. August 1st 2004 to July 31st 2005. A
custom weather file was created by collecting the onsite weather data for that period of time.
4. PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

5. AIR CONDITIONING
An air conditioning system is an assembly of different part of the system used produce a specified
condition of air within a requirespace or building.
The basic elements of air conditioning system:--
• Fans : For circulation of air
• Filters : For cleaning air
• Heating Elements : Heating of air(It may be electric heater , steam ,hot water.
• Control System : It regulates automatically the amount of cooling or heating.
• Grill : It adjust the direction of the conditioned air to the room.
• Tray : It collects condensed water.
• Refrigerating Plant : provide cooling . It consist of compressor/generator and
absorber,eveporator,condensor,expansion device(capallary tube).

An HVAC designer will recommend different types of air conditioning systems for different
applications. The most commonly used are described in this article.

The choice of which air conditioner system to use depends upon a number of factors including how
large the area is to be cooled, the total heat generated inside the enclosed area, etc. An HVAC
designer would consider all the related parameters and suggest the system most suitable for your
space.

Window Air Conditioner

Window air conditioner is the most commonly used air conditioner for
single rooms. In this air conditioner all the components, namely the
compressor, condenser, expansion valve or coil, evaporator and cooling
coil are enclosed in a single box. This unit is fitted in a slot made in the
wall of the room, or more commonly a window sill.

Split Air Conditioner

The split air conditioner comprises of two parts: the outdoor unit and the
indoor unit. The outdoor unit, fitted outside the room, houses
components like the compressor, condenser and expansion valve. The
indoor unit comprises the evaporator or cooling coil and the cooling fan.
For this unit you don’t have to make any slot in the wall of the room.
Further, present day split units have aesthetic appeal and do not take
up as much space as a window unit. A split air conditioner can be used
to cool one or two rooms.
Packaged Air Conditioner

An HVAC designer will suggest this type of air conditioner if you want to
cool more than two rooms or a larger space at your home or office.
There are two possible arrangements with the package unit. In the first
one, all the components, namely the compressor, condenser (which can
be air cooled or water cooled), expansion valve and evaporator are
housed in a single box. The cooled air is thrown by the high capacity
blower, and it flows through the ducts laid through various rooms. In the
second arrangement, the compressor and condenser are housed in one
casing. The compressed gas passes through individual units, comprised
of the expansion valve and cooling coil, located in various rooms.

Central Air Conditioning System

Central air conditioning is used for cooling big buildings, houses,


offices, entire hotels, gyms, movie theatres, factories etc. If the whole
building is to be air conditioned, HVAC engineers find that putting
individual units in each of the rooms is very expensive making this a
better option. A central air conditioning system is comprised of a huge
compressor that has the capacity to produce hundreds of tons of air
conditioning. Cooling big halls, malls, huge spaces, galleries etc is
usually only feasible with central conditioning units.

a) Direct expansion or DX central air conditioning plant: In this system the huge compressor,
and the condenser are housed in the plant room, while the expansion valve and the
evaporator or the cooling coil and the air handling unit are housed in separate room. The
cooling coil is fixed in the air handling unit, which also has large blower housed in it. The
blower sucks the hot return air from the room via ducts and blows it over the cooling coil. The
cooled air is then supplied through various ducts and into the spaces which are to be cooled.
This type of system is useful for small buildings.
b) Chilled water central air conditioning
plant: This type of system is more
useful for large buildings comprising
of a number of floors. It has the plant
room where all the important units
like the compressor, condenser,
throttling valve and the evaporator
are housed. The evaporator is a
shell and tube. On the tube side the
Freon fluid passes at extremely low
temperature, while on the shell side
the brine solution is passed. After
passing through the evaporator, the
brine solution gets chilled and is
pumped to the various air handling
units installed at different floors of
the building. The air handling units
comprise the cooling coil through
which the chilled brine flows, and the
blower. The blower sucks hot return
air from the room via ducts and
blows it over the cooling coil. The
cool air is then supplied to the space
to be cooled through the ducts. The
brine solution which has absorbed
the room heat comes back to the
evaporator, gets chilled and is again
pumped back to the air handling unit.

To operate and maintain central air conditioning


systems you need to have good operators,
technicians and engineers. Proper preventative
and breakdown maintenance of these plants is vital
5. STRUCTURE OF BUILDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Electric Energy Production and Consumption (India)
The utility electricity sector in India has one National Grid with an installed capacity of 329.23 GW as
on 31 August 2017.
Renewable power plants constituted 30.8% of total installed capacity. During the fiscal year 2016-17,
the gross electricity generated by utilities in India was 1,236.39 TWh and the total electricity
generation (utilities and non utilities) in the country was 1,433.4 TWh.
The gross electricity consumption was 1,122 kWh per capita in the year 2016-17.India is the world's
third largest producer and fourth largest consumer of electricity.

Utilities and independent power producers (IPPs) around the world develop, own, and operate
power plants to generate the electricity to meet this demand from their consumers. An electric
utility is a company in the electric power industry (often a public utility) that engages in electricity
generation and distribution of electricity for sale generally in a regulated market. The electrical utility
industry is a major provider of energy in most countries.
Captive Power Plants are the plants made by Individual owners for their own purpose as stand by
purpose. A captive power plant is a facility that is dedicated to providing a localised source
of power to an energy user. These are typically industrial facilities or large offices. The plants may
operate in grid parallel mode with the ability to export surplus power to local elect. distribution
network.

By the end of calendar year 2015, despite poor hydro electricity generation, India had become a
power surplus nation with huge electric power generation capacity idling for want of power demand.

Building Energy Consumption in India

The Energy Statistics 2015, released by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, of
Government of India, shows the estimated electricity consumption in India during 2013-14 was
282,595 GW. This has grown at the Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 8.84 percent
between 2005 and 2006 and 2013 and 2014. Out of the total consumption of electricity in 2013-14,
domestic households accounted for the 22.5 percent and the commercial sector accounted for 8.72
percent. Electricity consumption in the commercial sector has increased at a much faster pace
compared to other sectors during 2005-06 to 2013-14 at a CAGR of 8.82 percent. A large quantity of
incremental electricity demand will come from the residential and the commercial sectors in India.
CAGR =Compound Annual Growth Rate
Types of Energy used in commercial buildings

Electricity and natural gas are the most common energy sources used in commercial buildings. Most
individual commercial buildings have their own heating and cooling systems. However, some
commercial buildings are supplied by district energy systems. When many buildings are close
together, such as on a college campus or in a big city, it is sometimes more efficient to have a
central heating and cooling plant that distributes steam, hot water, or chilled water to all the
buildings. District energy systems may also produce electricity along with heating and cooling
energy. District energy systems generally use fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, or fuel oil), although
some use renewable sources of energy (biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind energy).

Energy use by type of building

Of all the commercial building types, mercantile and service buildings use the most total energy.
Other commercial users of energy include offices, schools, health care and lodging facilities, food
establishments, and many others.
Amount of energy used by commercial buildings in 2012. (USA)
1. Electricity is 61%,
2. natural gas is 32%,
3. district iheating/cooling 5%, and
4. fuel oil is 2%.
The top five energy-consuming building categories used about half of the energy consumed by all
commercial buildings in 2012, and they include the following types of buildings:

1. Mercantile and service (15% of total energy consumed by commercial buildings)


Malls and stores

 Car dealerships
 Dry cleaners
 Gas stations
2. Office (14% of consumption)

 Professional and government offices


 Banks

3. Education (10% of consumption)

 Elementary, middle, and high school


 Colleges

4. Health care (8% of consumption)

 Hospitals
 Medical offices

5. Lodging (6% of consumption)

 Hotels
 Dormitories

Electricity Consumption in Residential Sector India

Domestic energy consumption has increased from 80 TWh in 2000 to 186 TWh in 2012, and
constitutes 22% of total current electrical consumption (Central Electricity Authority , 2013). An
increase of 400% in the aggregate floor area of buildings and 20 billion m2 of new building floor area
is expected by 2030 (Dr Satish Kumar, USAID ECO - III Project, 2011).
Furthermore, due to the constant increase of Indian GDP, consumer purchasing power is predicted
to grow leading to greater use of domestic appliances. Consequently, household electrical demand
is expected to rise sharply in the coming decade.
As energy consumption from residential buildings is predicted to rise by more than eight times by
2050 under the business as usual scenario, it is of vital importance for India to develop energy-
efficiency strategies focused on the residential sector to limit the current trend of unsustainable
escalating energy demand.

The Bureau of Energy Efficiency, predicts that India’s constructed floor area will increase by around
five times from 2005 to 2030 (Dr Satish Kumar, USAID ECO - III Project, 2011). This parallels other
projections, such as the McKinsey study, which estimates an increase of more than 400% by 2030.
These studies predict that India's total residential floor area will be much larger than its total
commercial floor area in 2030. CEU data suggests that, by 2050, 85% of floor space will be in
residential use, while 15% will be used for commercial purposes.
5. Compliance Criiteria, Methodology and IMPLEMENTATION

Code Compliance Process


Typical compliance approach followed for mature codes is a multistep process that begins with the
design phase and ends with an occupancy certificate to the code compliant building. Code
enforcement agencies integrate necessary approvals during building design and construction phases
in the process to ensure stringent code compliance.
In a project team, the responsibility of designing buildings as per the code and then constructing
accordingly rests on the architect, engineer, contractor and of course, the owner. Project teams
committed to constructing energy efficient buildings and, also knowledgeable about code compliance
procedural and technical requirements are imperative.
Architects and engineers with experience in designing and constructing code compliant buildings
prepare the documents required by code enforcement agency, attest them as accurate and, submit
them for checks. Design phase compliance documents include drawings with specifications of
materials and technologies, compliance forms/ checklists, preliminary building performance analysis
reports and worksheets to verify any manual calculations.

Once the design has been approved by enforcement agencies based on the submitted
documentation, implementation of promised code compliance measures is checked through
scheduled field inspections at the construction site. At this stage, the project contractor has to take
the responsibility of demonstrating compliance along with the owner and design team.
A building owner can apply for completion/ occupancy certificate only after the completed and
operational building is approved by enforcement body as code compliant.

Model Building
In the model building method, values are set for each building part and / or for the parts of the
technical installations. Based on the values and the characteristics of the actual building a model
building is calculated with all the set values for losses and efficiency. This calculation follows a
clearly defined method.
The actual building is then calculated by the same method using the actual values for the individual
building parts, heating, cooling, and ventilation systems. The total result of the calculation is
compared with the model building and the actual building must perform as well as or better than the
model building.
The most complicated models include all parts of the technical systems in these calculations,
including all parts of heating systems, ventilation, cooling, lighting, built in equipment etc.

Methodology
Energy efficiency improvement often have an initial cost – seen as an investment – which is carried
by the owner or constructor of the buildings. This increases the total investment and this will lead to
a need for larger loans for the construction of the building. In new buildings investments costs can
either be additional costs if building parts are improved or technical equipment replaced with more
efficient equipment or it can be full costs for new systems. Many decisions are taken mostly based
on the initial costs. Instead of looking only at incremental costs, the total costs should be addressed
including the energy use. For new buildings should be valued over 30 years seems rational. Interest
rates should be estimated and the annual payment for the improvement should be calculated. In
some cases, this timeframe is longer than a first occupier or owner might stay in or use a building,
but in the event the property is sold the improved efficiency should lead to a higher resale price,
which will enable the first owner to recover the investment.
At the same time investment in energy efficiency will lead to reduced energy consumption in the
building and maybe changed costs for maintenance. Based on estimated savings, energy prices and
prognoses for development over the next 30 years, the savings for the first year and in the following
30 years can be calculate. If savings over 30 years are larger than investment costs and costs for
financing the improvement is said to be feasible, since it reduces the total cost for the use of in the
building over 30 years. This should in general reduce costs for owners and users of these buildings.
Costs for investments, maintenance and savings can either be calculated summarised over 30 years
or it can be calculated as a yearly average value for the costs and savings per year.

Compliance Documents
Plans and specifications shall show all pertinent data and features of the building, equipment, and
systems in sufficient detail to permit the authority having jurisdiction to verify that the building
complies with the requirements of this code. Details shall include, but are not limited to:
(a) Building Envelope: insulation materials and their R-values; fenestration U-factors, solar heat
gain coefficients (SHGC), visible light transmittance (if the trade-off procedure is used), and air
leakage; overhangs and sidefins, building envelope sealing details;
(b) Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning: system and equipment types, sizes, efficiencies,
and controls; economizers; variable speed drives; piping insulation; duct sealing, insulation and
location; requirement for balance report;
(c) Service Hot Water and Pumping: solar water heating system
(d) Lighting: lighting schedule showing type, number, and wattage of lamps and ballasts; automatic
lighting shutoff, occupancy sensors, and other lighting controls; lamp efficacy for exterior lamps;
(e) Electrical Power: electric schedule showing transformer losses, motor efficiencies, and power
Factor correction devices; electric check metering and monitoring system.
(f) Renewable energy systems: system generation capacity, technical specifications, solar zone
area

Energy Performance Index


The Energy Performance Index (EPI) of a building is its annual energy consumption in kilowatt-hours
per square meter of the building. While calculating the EPI of a building, the area of unconditioned
basements shall not be included. EPI can be determined by:
To comply with the Code, EPI shall be calculated based on one of the following:
(a) Prescriptive Method including Building Envelope Trade-off Method
(b) Whole Building Performance Method
Implementation
It is also important to note that compliance evaluation is different from regular compliance checks
that are used to enforce energy codes. Compliance checks are part of the code enforcement
procedures; code officials or third-party inspectors check and verify if a single building complies with
the requirements of the codes at the design and construction stages and then issue building permits.
In contrast, compliance evaluation assesses the overall compliance rate of all buildings and may
involve using statistical methods instead of checking every single building. Compliance evaluation
can identify major issues in code compliance based on large building stocks and survey results and
help policy makers prioritize areas for improvements.
Another difference is that compliance checks are usually conducted during the building’s design and
construction, and compliance evaluation is often used in a retrospective way to assess if buildings
are code compliant

The cycle of energy code development and implementation